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Sample records for fresh green odor

  1. Composition of key offensive odorants released from fresh food materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    A refrigerator loaded with a variety of foods without sealed packaging can create quite an olfactory nuisance, and it may come as a surprise that fresh foods emit unpleasant odorants just as those that are decaying. To learn more about nuisance sources in our daily lives, we measured a list of 22 compounds designated as the key offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur, nitrogenous, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and carbonyls) from nine types of common food items consumed in S. Korea: raw beef, raw fish, spam, yolks and albumin of boiled eggs (analyzed separately), milk, cheese, onions, and strawberries. The odor intensity (OI) of each food item was computed initially with the aid of previously used empirical equations. This indicates that the malodor properties of target foods tend to be governed by a few key odorants such as VFA, S, and N compounds. The extent of odorant mixing of a given food was then evaluated by exploring the correlation between the human olfaction (e.g., dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio) and the odor potential determined indirectly (instrumentally) such as odor activity value (OAV) or sum of odor intensity (SOI). The overall results of our study confirm the existence of malodorant compounds released from common food items and their contribution to their odor characteristics to a certain degree.

  2. Evaluation of Food Freshness and Locality by Odor Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Takayuki; Shimada, Koji; Kamimura, Hironobu; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food freshness and locality can be classified using a food evaluation system consisting four SnO2-semiconductor gas sensors and a solid phase column, into which collecting aroma materials. The temperature of sensors was periodically changed to be in unsteady state and thus, the sensor information was increased. The parameters (in quefrency band) were extracted from sensor information using cepstrum analysis that enable to separate superimposed information on sinusoidal wave. The quefrency was used as parameters for principal component and discriminant analyses (PCA and DCA) to detect food freshness and food localities. We used three kinds of strawberries, people can perceive its odors, passed from one to three days after harvest, and kelps and Ceylon tea, people are hardly to perceive its odor, corrected from five areas as sample. Then, the deterioration of strawberries and localities of kelps and Ceylon teas were visually evaluated using the numerical analyses. While the deteriorations were classified using PCA or DCA, the localities were classified only by DCA. The findings indicate that, although odorant intensity influenced the method detecting food quality, the quefrency obtained from odorant information using cepstrum analysis were available to detect the difference in the freshness and the localities of foods.

  3. Analysis of Key Odorants in Roasted Green Tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Sawai, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in roasted green tea. The aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 25 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of ≥ 16. We identified 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine as the most important odorant in roasted green tea with the highest flavor dilution factor of 4096. In addition, tetramethylpyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5- methylpyrazine were also detected as potent odorants with the high flavor dilution factors. These three alkylpyrazines would be key contributors to aroma of roasted green tea.

  4. Evaluation of γ-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanaro, G. B.; Duarte, R. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  5. Odor-active constituents in fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) by quantitative and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tokitomo, Yukiko; Steinhaus, Martin; Büttner, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-01

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate prepared from fresh pineapple using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), 29 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2 to 4,096. Quantitative measurements performed by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) and a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) of 12 selected odorants revealed the following compounds as key odorants in fresh pineapple flavor: 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDF; sweet, pineapple-like, caramel-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity) followed by methyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity, apple-like) and 1-(E,Z)-3,5-undecatriene (fresh, pineapple-like). A mixture of these 12 odorants in concentrations equal to those in the fresh pineapple resulted in an odor profile similar to that of the fresh juice. Furthermore, the results of omission tests using the model mixture showed that HDF and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate are character impact odorants in fresh pineapple.

  6. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

  7. Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of≥4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of≥16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, β-damascenone, geraniol, β-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

  8. Identification of potent odorants in Japanese green tea (Sen-cha).

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, K; Masuda, H

    1999-12-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of a Japanese green tea (Sen-cha) sample resulted in the detection of 36 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 10 and 5000. Thirty-six potent odorants were identified from 36 odor-active peaks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and/or the multidimensional GC/MS (MDGC/MS) system. Among these components, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-2-butanethiol (meaty), (Z)-1, 5-octadien-3-one (metallic), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (meaty), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (fatty), beta-damascone (honey-like), beta-damascenone (honey-like), (Z)-methyl jasmonate (floral), and indole (animal-like) showed the highest FD factors. Therefore, these odorants were the most important components of the Japanese green tea odor. In addition, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-2-butanethiol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, methional, 2-ethyl-3, 5-dimethylpyrazine, (Z)-4-decenal, beta-damascone, maltol, 5-octanolide, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, and 2-aminoacetophenone were newly identified compounds in the green tea.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Fragrance and Odorants Released from Fresh and Decaying Strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E.; Parker, David

    2013-01-01

    The classes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) released from fresh and decaying strawberries were investigated and compared. In this study, a total of 147 strawberry volatiles were quantified before and after nine days of storage to explore differences in the aroma profile between fresh strawberries (storage days (SRD) of 0, 1, and 3) and those that had started to decay (SRD = 6 and 9). In terms of concentration, seven compounds dominated the aroma profile of fresh strawberries (relative composition (RC) up to 97.4% by mass, sum concentration): (1) ethyl acetate = 518 mg·m−3, (2) methyl acetate = 239 mg·m−3, (3) ethyl butyrate = 13.5 mg·m−3, (4) methyl butyrate = 11.1 mg·m−3, (5) acetaldehyde = 24.9 mg·m−3, (6) acetic acid = 15.2 mg·m−3, and (7) acetone = 13.9 mg·m−3. In contrast, two alcohols dominated the aroma profile of decayed samples (RC up to 98.6%): (1) ethyl alcohol = 94.2 mg·m−3 and (2) isobutyl alcohol = 289 mg·m−3. Alternatively; if the aroma profiles are re-evaluated by summing odor activity values (ΣOAV); four ester compounds ((1) ethyl butyrate (6,160); (2) ethyl hexanoate (3,608); (3) ethyl isovalerate (1,592); and (4) ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (942)) were identified as the key constituents of fresh strawberry aroma (SRD-0). As the strawberries began to decay; isobutyl alcohol recorded the maximum OAV of 114 (relative proportion (RP) (SRD = 6) = 58.3%). However, as the decay process continued, the total OAV dropped further by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude—decreasing to 196 on SRD = 6 to 7.37 on SRD = 9. The overall results of this study confirm dramatic changes in the aroma profile of strawberries over time, especially with the onset of decay. PMID:23787728

  10. Identification of potent odorants in Chinese jasmine green tea scented with flowers of Jasminum sambac.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuriko; Sugimoto, Akio; Kakuda, Takami; Kubota, Kikue

    2002-08-14

    The odorants in Chinese jasmine green tea scented with jasmine flowers (Jasminum sambac) were separated from the infusion by adsorption to Porapak Q resin. Among the 66 compounds identified by GC and GC/MS, linalool (floral), methyl anthranilate (grape-like), 4-hexanolide (sweet), 4-nonanolide (sweet), (E)-2-hexenyl hexanoate (green), and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (sweet) were extracted as potent odorants by an aroma extract dilution analysis and sensory analysis. The enantiomeric ratios of linalool in jasmine tea and Jasminum sambac were determined by a chiral analysis for the first time in this study: 81.6% ee and 100% ee for the (R)-(-)-configuration, respectively. The jasmine tea flavor could be closely duplicated by a model mixture containing these six compounds on the basis of a sensory analysis. The omission of methyl anthranilate and the replacement of (R)-(-)-linalool by (S)-(+)-linalool led to great changes in the odor of the model. These two compounds were determined to be the key odorants of the jasmine tea flavor.

  11. Transcriptome Profile of the Green Odorous Frog (Odorrana margaretae)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liang; Yang, Weizhao; Fu, Jinzhong; Song, Zhaobin

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptome profiles provide a practical and inexpensive alternative to explore genomic data in non-model organisms, particularly in amphibians where the genomes are very large and complex. The odorous frog Odorranamargaretae (Anura: Ranidae) is a dominant species in the mountain stream ecosystem of western China. Limited knowledge of its genetic background has hindered research on this species, despite its importance in the ecosystem and as biological resources. Here we report the transcriptome of O. margaretae in order to establish the foundation for genetic research. Using an Illumina sequencing platform, 62,321,166 raw reads were acquired. After a de novo assembly, 37,906 transcripts were obtained, and 18,933 transcripts were annotated to 14,628 genes. We functionally classified these transcripts by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). A total of 11,457 unique transcripts were assigned to 52 GO terms, and 1,438 transcripts were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, we identified 27 potential antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), 50,351 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites, and 2,574 microsatellite DNA loci. The transcriptome profile of this species will shed more light on its genetic background and provide useful tools for future studies of this species, as well as other species in the genus Odorrana. It will also contribute to the accumulation of amphibian genomic data. PMID:24073255

  12. Release of drinking water contaminants and odor impacts caused by green building cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plumbing systems.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2014-12-15

    Green buildings are increasingly being plumbed with crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) potable water pipe. Tap water quality was investigated at a six month old plumbing system and chemical and odor quality impacts of six PEX pipe brands were examined. Eleven PEX related contaminants were found in the plumbing system; one regulated (toluene) and several unregulated: Antioxidant degradation products, resin solvents, initiator degradation products, or manufacturing aides. Water chemical and odor quality was monitored for new PEX-a, -b and -c pipes with (2 mg/L free chlorine) and without disinfectant over 30 days. Odor and total organic carbon (TOC) levels decreased for all pipes, but odor remained greater than the USA's Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level. Odors were not attributed to known odorants ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Free chlorine caused odor levels for PEX-a1 pipe to increase from 26 to 75 threshold odor number (TON) on day 3 and affected the rate at which TOC changed for each brand over 30 days. As TOC decreased, the ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm increased. Pipes consumed as much as 0.5 mg/L as Cl2 during each 3 day stagnation period. Sixteen organic chemicals were identified, including toluene, pyridine, methylene trichloroacetate and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Some were also detected during the plumbing system field investigation. Six brands of PEX pipes sold in the USA and a PEX-a green building plumbing system impacted chemical and drinking water odor quality.

  13. "Green odor" inhalation by stressed rat dams reduces behavioral and neuroendocrine signs of prenatal stress in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Sayaka; Ueki, Shiori; Miyoshi, Michio; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2010-07-01

    Chronic maternal stress during pregnancy results in the "prenatally stressed" offspring displaying behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations that persist into adulthood. We investigated how inhalation of green odor (a mixture of equal amounts of trans-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexenol) by stressed dams might alter certain indices of prenatal stress in their offspring. These indices were depression-like behavior (increased immobility time in the forced-swim test) and acute restraint stress-induced changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity [plasma corticosterone (CORT) and ACTH levels and the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (an index of neuronal activity)]. Pregnant rats were exposed to restraint stress for 60 min/day for 10 days (gestational days 10-19). The prenatally stressed offspring exhibited significant increases in depression-like behavior and in restraint stress-induced ACTH, CORT, and Fos responses, unless their dam had been exposed to green odor. The behavioral effect of the odor was also seen in offspring that were fostered by unstressed dams. The results obtained in the dams themselves were as follows. In vehicle-exposed stressed dams, but not in green odor-exposed ones, total body and adrenal weights were significantly decreased or increased, respectively. Depression-like behavior was not observed in the vehicle-exposed stressed dams themselves. Green odor inhalation prevented the impairment of maternal behavior induced by restraint stress. Thus, exposure of dams to stress may affect both the fetal brain and fetal HPA axis, and also maternal behavior, leading to altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses in the offspring. Such effects may be prevented by the stressed dams inhaling green odor.

  14. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae) has been studied. The 17,903 bp circular genome contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The AT content of the overall base compositon of H-strand is 56% and the length of control region is 2501 bp with 63.8% AT content. The arrangement of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes was the same as that found in other anurans. The cluster of rearranged LTPF tRNA genes and the translocation of tRNA(His) gene into the D-loop region are observed.

  16. Serotonergic mediation of the antidepressant-like effect of the green leaves odor in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Yokoyama, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Seijiro; Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Onoe, Hirotaka; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Fukui, Kenji

    2008-05-09

    The green odor (GO) that emanates from green leaves has been observed to have many physiological actions in mammals and may be associated with a healing effect in humans. This study examined the effect of GO (we used a mixture of cis-3-hexenol and trans-2-hexenal) on behavior in the forced swim test (FST) of depression in mice. Exposure of GO showed the antidepressant-like effect in the FST, i.e., a significant decrease in immobility time and increase in swimming time, but no change in climbing time. The behavioral responses of GO-exposed animals to FST were similar to those observed for animals given citalopram, which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. In contrast, desipramine, which is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, decreased immobility time and increased climbing time without affecting swimming time. To examine the involvement of the serotonergic system in mediating the antidepressant-like action of GO, we performed further FST examinations in which GO-exposed mice were treated with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). Prior PCPA administration induced depletion of central 5-HT in the brain and completely diminished the GO effect on the behavioral responses seen during the FST. No changes in locomotor activity after GO inhalation were observed. These results indicate that acute exposure to GO has an antidepressant-like effect that may involve the serotonergic system.

  17. Screening for key odorants in Moroccan green olives by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Iraqi, Rafika; Vermeulen, Catherine; Benzekri, Amale; Bouseta, Amina; Collin, Sonia

    2005-02-23

    "Spanish style" Moroccan green table olives were screened for potent odorants by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extraction dilution analysis of a representative Likens-Nickerson extract. (Z)-3-Hexenal [flavor dilution factor (FD) = 256], (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (FD = 128), and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal (FD = 64) were revealed to confer green and coriander/paraffin oil odors to both fruit and oil extracts, whereas guaiacol (FD = 128) imparted a bad olive, phenolic note. Methional (3-methylthiopropionaldehyde, FD = 128) and several terpenes (FD

  18. Handling Practices of Fresh Leafy Greens in Restaurants: Receiving and Training†

    PubMed Central

    COLEMAN, ERIK; DELEA, KRISTIN; EVERSTINE, KAREN; REIMANN, DAVID; RIPLEY, DANNY

    2015-01-01

    Multiple foodborne illness outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Investigations have indicated that microbial contamination throughout the farm-to-fork continuum often contributed to these outbreaks. Researchers have hypothesized that handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants may support contamination by and proliferation and amplification of pathogens that cause foodborne illness outbreaks. However, limited data are available on how workers handle leafy greens in restaurants. The purpose of this study was to collect descriptive data on handling practices of leafy greens in restaurants, including restaurant characteristics, types of leafy greens used, produce receipt, and food safety training and certification. As a federal collaborative partner with the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that EHS-Net participants survey handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants. The recommendations in the FDA’s Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Leafy Greens are significant to this study for comparison of the results. The survey revealed that appropriate handling procedures assist in the mitigation of other unsafe handling practices for leafy greens. These results are significant because the FDA guidance for the safe handling of leafy greens was not available until 2009, after the survey had been completed. The information provided from this study can be used to promote additional efforts that will assist in developing interventions to prevent future foodborne illness outbreaks associated with leafy greens. PMID:24290691

  19. Glycoalkaloid development during greening of fresh market potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Grunenfelder, Laura A; Knowles, Lisa O; Hiller, Larry K; Knowles, N Richard

    2006-08-09

    Chlorophyll and glycoalkaloid synthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers occur in direct response to light. The two processes are concurrent, but independent. Color photographic indices to subjectively grade fresh market potatoes for the extent of greening were developed under lighting conditions consistent with those of retail markets. Total glycoalkaloid (TGA) and chlorophyll accumulation for four cultivars were determined over the respective greening scales, thus calibrating the scales for TGA content. On average, TGA concentrations in complete longitudinal sections of tubers (flesh samples) were highest in Dark Red Norland followed by Russet Norkotah, Yukon Gold, and White Rose. TGA concentrations of flesh samples of White Rose and Yukon Gold tubers were somewhat variable and did not increase in direct proportion to greening level and chlorophyll content, particularly at higher levels of greening. TGA concentrations in Dark Red Norland and Russet Norkotah tubers were highly correlated (P < or = 0.001) with greening level and chlorophyll concentrations. When averaged over greening levels, skin samples contained 3.4- to 6.8-fold higher concentrations of TGAs than flesh samples, depending on the cultivar. The TGA concentration in periderm samples ranged from 37 to 160 mg/100 g of dry wt. Regardless of greening level, concentrations of TGAs in the flesh samples (including attached periderm) remained within limits presumed safe for human consumption. Discrimination of greened tubers on the basis of perceived glycoalkaloid toxicity is likely unfounded for the cultivars and greening levels studied.

  20. Handling practices of fresh leafy greens in restaurants: receiving and training.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Erik; Delea, Kristin; Everstine, Karen; Reimann, David; Ripley, Danny

    2013-12-01

    Multiple foodborne illness outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Investigations have indicated that microbial contamination throughout the farm-to-fork continuum often contributed to these outbreaks. Researchers have hypothesized that handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants may support contamination by and proliferation and amplification of pathogens that cause foodborne illness outbreaks. However, limited data are available on how workers handle leafy greens in restaurants. The purpose of this study was to collect descriptive data on handling practices of leafy greens in restaurants, including restaurant characteristics, types of leafy greens used, produce receipt, and food safety training and certification. As a federal collaborative partner with the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that EHS-Net participants survey handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants. The recommendations in the FDA's Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Leafy Greens are significant to this study for comparison of the results. The survey revealed that appropriate handling procedures assist in the mitigation of other unsafe handling practices for leafy greens. These results are significant because the FDA guidance for the safe handling of leafy greens was not available until 2009, after the survey had been completed. The information provided from this study can be used to promote additional efforts that will assist in developing interventions to prevent future foodborne illness outbreaks associated with leafy greens.

  1. Sensory evaluation of the synergism among odorants present in concentrations below their odor threshold in a Chinese jasmine green tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuriko; Kubota, Kikue

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism for the contribution of subthreshold aroma constituents to the overall jasmine tea odor impression was studied on the basis of a sensory evaluation. Binary model aqueous solutions containing the authentic odorants of a jasmine tea infusion, (E)-2-hexenyl hexanoate (I), (Z)-3-hexenol (II), and indole (III), were each prepared in a concentration below the odor threshold. Each solution had no aroma, but when 4-hexanolide replaced only 5% of each odorant, the odor intensity of each model solution was significantly strengthened. An astringent note and heavy note were recognized for each solution as the commonly perceived characteristics from the sensory evaluation. The concentration of 4-hexanolide added was also at the subthreshold level. The results suggest mutual interaction between odorants I, II, or III and 4-hexanolide. The effect on the overall odor sensation of a jasmine tea infusion by adding 4-hexanolide at a concentration below its odor threshold was also studied. In this case, the intensity of both the sweet and astringent notes was significantly strengthened in comparison with the odor impression of the original jasmine tea infusion. This phenomenon is considered to have been a synergistic effect between subthreshold odor compounds in the jasmine tea infusion. The results of this study clarify for the first time that the subthreshold aroma constituents play an important role in the characteristic flavor of a jasmine tea infusion.

  2. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    PubMed

    Walter, Eduardo H M; Kabuki, Dirce Y; Esper, Luciana M R; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Kuaye, Arnaldo Y

    2009-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in the fresh coconut water stored at 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C was studied. The coconut water was aseptically extracted from green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) and samples were inoculated in triplicate with a mixture of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes with a mean population of approximately 3 log(10) CFU/mL. The kinetic parameters of the bacteria were estimated from the Baranyi model, and compared with predictions of the Pathogen Modelling Program so as to predict its behaviour in the beverage. The results demonstrated that fresh green coconut water was a beverage propitious for the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes and that refrigeration at 10 degrees C or 4 degrees C retarded, but did not inhibit, growth of this bacterium. Temperature abuse at 35 degrees C considerably reduced the lagtimes. The study shows that L. monocytogenes growth in fresh green coconut water is controlled for several days by storage at low temperature, mainly at 4 degrees C. Thus, for risk population this product should only be drunk directly from the coconut or despite the sensorial alterations should be consumed pasteurized.

  3. Characterisation of odorant compounds and their biochemical formation in green tea with a low temperature storage process.

    PubMed

    Katsuno, Tsuyoshi; Kasuga, Hisae; Kusano, Yumi; Yaguchi, Yoshihiro; Tomomura, Miho; Cui, Jilai; Yang, Ziyin; Baldermann, Susanne; Nakamura, Yoriyuki; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-04-01

    We produced low temperature (15 °C) processed green tea (LTPGT) with higher aroma contents than normal green tea (Sencha). Normal temperature processed green tea (NTPGT), involved storing at 25 °C, and Sencha had no storing process. Sensory evaluation showed LTPGT had higher levels of floral and sweet odorants than NTPGT and Sencha. Aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry indicated LTPGT had 12 aroma compounds with high factor dilution values (FD). Amongst LTPGT's 12 compounds, indole, jasmine lactone, cis-jasmone, coumarin, and methyl epijasmonate contributed to floral, fruity and sweet characters. In particular, indole increased initially, peaking at 16 h, then gradually decreased. Feeding experiments suggested [(15)N]indole and [(15)N]oxygenated indoles (OX-indoles) were produced from [(15)N]anthranilic acid. We proposed the increase in indole was due to transformation of anthranilic acid during the 16 h storage and the subsequent decline in indole level was due to its conversion to OX-indoles.

  4. Synthesis and odor description of both enantiomers of methyl 4,5-didehydrojasmonate, a component of jasmin absolute.

    PubMed

    Asamitsu, Yuko; Nakamura, Yoko; Ueda, Minoru; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2006-06-01

    Synthesis of both enantiomers of methyl 4,5-didehydrojasmonate (1, Delta(4,5)-MJA; >99.8% ee), a constituent of jasmin absolute, established the absolute configuration of the natural product, and their odor quality was evaluated. The fragrance of the natural (3S,7R)-enantiomer (a fresh natural, sweet floral fruity odor, reminiscent of Jasmin and Ylang Ylang flower, more intensive and tenacious) was superior to that of the unnatural (3R,7S)-enantiomer (a floral green odor with slight metallic green aspect, less intensive than the natural form) and the racemate (green-floral note, having weak and less volume than methyl jasmonate). Odor difference between natural and unnatural enantiomers of methyl jasmonate (2) is also reported.

  5. Effect of fresh green waste and green waste compost on mineral nitrogen, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from a Vertisol

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, Sarah M.; Dalal, Ram C.; Harper, Stephen M.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2011-08-15

    Incorporation of organic waste amendments to a horticultural soil, prior to expected risk periods, could immobilise mineral N, ultimately reducing nitrogen (N) losses as nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and leaching. Two organic waste amendments were selected, a fresh green waste (FGW) and green waste compost (GWC) as they had suitable biochemical attributes to initiate N immobilisation into the microbial biomass and organic N forms. These characteristics include a high C:N ratio (FGW 44:1, GWC 35:1), low total N (<1%), and high lignin content (>14%). Both products were applied at 3 t C/ha to a high N (plus N fertiliser) or low N (no fertiliser addition) Vertisol soil in PVC columns. Cumulative N{sub 2}O production over the 28 day incubation from the control soil was 1.5 mg/N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}, and 11 mg/N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2} from the control + N. The N{sub 2}O emission decreased with GWC addition (P < 0.05) for the high N soil, reducing cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions by 38% by the conclusion of the incubation. Analysis of mineral N concentrations at 7, 14 and 28 days identified that both FGW and GWC induced microbial immobilisation of N in the first 7 days of incubation regardless of whether the soil environment was initially high or low in N; with the FGW immobilising up to 30% of available N. It is likely that the reduced mineral N due to N immobilisation led to a reduced substrate for N{sub 2}O production during the first week of the trial, when soil N{sub 2}O emissions peaked. An additional finding was that FGW + N did not decrease cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions compared to the control + N, potentially due to the fact that it stimulated microbial respiration resulting in anaerobic micro sites in the soil and ultimately N{sub 2}O production via denitrification. Therefore, both materials could be used as post harvest amendments in horticulture to minimise N loss through nitrate-N leaching in the risk periods between crop rotations. The mature GWC has potential to reduce N

  6. Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: A potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mandotra, S K; Kumar, Pankaj; Suseela, M R; Ramteke, P W

    2014-03-01

    Present investigation studied the potential of fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans as a feedstock for biodiesel production. To study the biomass and lipid yield, the culture was grown in BBM, Modified CHU-13 and BG-11 medium. Among the tested nitrogen concentration using Modified CHU-13 medium, the highest biomass and lipid yield of 1.113±0.05g/L and 489±23mg/L respectively was found in the culture medium with 0.32g/L of nitrogen (KNO3). Different lipid extraction as well as transesterification methods were also tested. Fatty acid profile of alga grown in large scale indigenous made photobioreactor has shown abundance of fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Various biodiesel properties such as cetane number, iodine value and saponification value were found to be in accordance with Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and European biodiesel standard EN14214 which makes S. abundans as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

  7. Release of reduced inorganic selenium species into waters by the green fresh water algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Denina Bobbie Dawn; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2011-03-15

    The common green fresh water algae Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to starting concentrations of 10 μg/L selenium in the form of selenate, selenite, or selenocyanate (SeCN(-)) for nine days in 10% Bold's basal medium. Uptake of selenate was more pronounced than that of selenite, and there was very little uptake of selenocyanate. Upon uptake of selenate, significant quantities of selenite and selenocyanate were produced by the algae and released back into the growth medium; no selenocyanate was released after selenite uptake. Release of the reduced metabolites after selenate exposure appeared to coincide with increasing esterase activity in solution, indicating that cell death (lysis) was the primary emission pathway. This is the first observation of biotic formation of selenocyanate and its release into waters from a nonindustrial source. The potential environmental implications of this laboratory observation are discussed with respect to the fate of selenium in impacted aquatic systems, the ecotoxicology of selenium bioaccumulation, and the interpretation of environmental selenium speciation data generated, using methods incapable of positively identifying reduced inorganic selenium species, such as selenocyanate.

  8. Odor Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshiharu

    It has been said that the measurement of odor is very difficult. Because almost odor samples have a large number of chemicals, and these olfactory thresholds are very low levels. For these reasons, the instrumental measurement method is not good, and the olfactory sensory methods are adopted in the world. Odor concentration scale had been widely used in the world. But, the measurement methods of odor concentration scale differ depend on the country. For example, in Japan, Triangle Odor Bag Method has been used from 30 years ago. Dynamic olfactometer is used in European countries. Triangle Odor Bag Method is introduced at the end of this paper.

  9. Effect of pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life and quality of fresh- cut green bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Ranjitha, K; Sudhakar Rao, D V; Shivashankara, K S; Roy, Tapas Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Present study was aimed at understanding the effect of pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of fresh-cut green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during low temperature storage. Dip treatment of freshly cut green bell pepper pieces in 2 % calcium propionate followed by surface drying and subsequent packing in cryovac PD961 film which maintained an equilibrium modified atmosphere of 13-14 % O2 and 7 % CO2 helped to extend the marketability till 9 days storage at 8 °C. The microbiological quality was at the best level up to 6 days of storage, as evidenced by a surge in aerobic plate count, pectinolysers and pseudomonads on subsequent days. Head space volatile analysis of the produce at regular intervals showed a reduction in monoterpenoids and simultaneous increase of aldehydes and ketones, sesquiterpenoids, esters, furans and pyrazines during storage. Principal component analysis of the head space volatiles identified, cis - ocimene, 1,3,8-paramenthatriene, trans 3- caren 2-ol, bergamotene, 2-hexenal, ethyl 1- decanol, (E)-3- hexenol and heptane thiol as the markers of freshness in minimally processed green bell pepper.

  10. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... drain their stomach. The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or " ... Is there a specific odor (such as fish, ammonia, fruit, feces, or alcohol)? Have you recently eaten ...

  11. Vaginal Odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually don't cause vaginal odors. Neither do yeast infections. Generally, if you have vaginal odor without ... Avoid douching. All healthy vaginas contain bacteria and yeast. The normal acidity of your vagina keeps bacteria ...

  12. Urine Odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine odor. Urine that contains a lot of water and few waste products has little to no odor. If urine becomes highly concentrated — a high level of waste products with little water — your urine may have a strong ammonia odor. ...

  13. Assessing the Culture of Fresh Produce Safety within a Leafy Green Producing Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolte, Kurt D.; Sanchez, Charles A.; Fonseca, Jorge M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2006 "Escherichia coli" outbreak in spinach prompted the implementation of unprecedented production strategies (Arizona Leafy Green Products Shipper Marketing Agreement) to minimize microbial risk in leafy greens. As the new procedures require assessments of physical intrusion and excrement in fields, outreach was initiated to…

  14. Quantitation of odor-active compounds in rye flour and rye sourdough using stable isotope dilution assays.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Eva; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-09-11

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a flavor distillate prepared from freshly ground rye flour (type 1150) revealed 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like), methional (cooked potato), and (E)-2-nonenal (fatty, green) with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 26 odor-active volatiles identified. Quantitative measurements performed by stable isotope dilution assays and a comparison to the odor thresholds of selected odorants in starch suggested methional, (E)-2-nonenal, and hexanal as contributors to the flour aroma, because their concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds by factors >100. Application of the same approach on a rye sourdough prepared from the same batch of flour revealed 3-methylbutanal, vanillin, 3-methylbutanoic acid, methional, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2,3-butanedione, and acetic acid as important odorants; their concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds in water and starch by factors >100. A comparison of the concentrations of 20 odorants in rye flour and the sourdough made therefrom indicated that flour, besides the fermentation process, is an important source of aroma compounds in dough. However, 3-methylbutanol, acetic acid, and 2,3-butanedione were much increased during fermentation, whereas (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 2-methylbutanal were decreased. Similar results were obtained for five different flours and sourdoughs, respectively, although the amounts of some odorants in the flour and the sourdough differed significantly within batches.

  15. Behavioural salinity preferences of juvenile green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris acclimated to fresh water and full-strength salt water.

    PubMed

    Poletto, J B; Cocherell, D E; Klimley, A P; Cech, J J; Fangue, N A

    2013-02-01

    To quantify the salinity preference of juvenile green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris, two groups of A. medirostris [140 days post hatch (dph); total length (L(T) ) 38.0-52.5 cm] were acclimated to either near fresh water (mean ± s.e. salinity = 3.2 ± 0.6) or full-strength salt water (34.1 ± 1.2) over 8 weeks. Following acclimation, the two groups were divided into experimental and control groups, where experimental A. medirostris from both freshwater and saltwater acclimations were individually introduced (200-220 dph) into a rectangular salinity-preference flume (maximum salinity gradient: 5-33). Control A. medirostris were presented with only their acclimation water (fresh water or salt water) on both sides of the flume. It was demonstrated that A. medirostris acclimated to both salt water and fresh water spent a significantly greater amount of time on the side of the testing area with the highest salinity concentration (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) while control A. medirostris spent an equal amount of time on each side of the flume. These findings indicate that juvenile A. medirostris are not only capable of detecting salt water within the first year of their lives but perhaps are actively seeking out saline environments as they move through a watershed. Establishing A. medirostris salinity preferences provides a better understanding of the early life history of this threatened species, shedding light on possible outmigration timing.

  16. Fresh and preserved green fodder modify effects of urinary acidifiers on urine pH of horses.

    PubMed

    Goren, G; Fritz, J; Dillitzer, N; Hipp, B; Kienzle, E

    2014-04-01

    Hay stabilises urine pH in horses. It is unknown whether this is an effect of structure or of chemical composition. In this study, four ponies (230-384 kg body weight [BW]) were fed six different diets with either a structure or a composition similar to hay with and without acidifiers in a cross-over experimental design in amounts to maintain body weight with the following main compounds: Fresh grass (GRASS), alfalfa hay (ALF), grass cobs (COBS), grass silage (SIL), straw (STR) or extruded straw (STRe) for 2 to 10 days. Urine pH was measured in all trials, blood pH, blood base excess and bicarbonate as well as mineral balance were determined in GRASS, ALF, STR and STRe. In the trials with straw and extruded straw, urine pH decreased significantly (STR control: 7.8 ± 0.23, acidifier: 5.2 ± 0.38) when acidifiers were added, whereas in all other diets that were based on fresh or preserved green fodder, pH did not decrease below 7. Blood pH was similarly affected by diet and acidifiers. Acidifiers had little effect on the pre-prandial blood pH, only in diet STR there was a significant reduction in relation to control. Post-prandial blood pH was significantly reduced by acidifiers in all diets. Blood bicarbonate and base excess showed corresponding effects. Faecal and renal mineral excretion and apparent mineral digestibility were not systematically affected by diet or acidifiers except for chloride. Chloride added as inorganic chloride salt had an even better apparent digestibility than chloride originating from feed. Because only green plant material stabilised acid base balance, chlorophyll and its metabolites are discussed as potential mediators of the effect of green fodder on acid base balance.

  17. "Solvent-free" ultrasound-assisted extraction of lipids from fresh microalgae cells: a green, clean and scalable process.

    PubMed

    Adam, Fanny; Abert-Vian, Maryline; Peltier, Gilles; Chemat, Farid

    2012-06-01

    In order to comply with criteria of green chemistry concepts and sustainability, a new procedure has been performed for solvent-free ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to extract lipids from fresh Nannochloropsis oculata biomass. Through response surface methodology (RSM) parameters affecting the oil recovery were optimized. Optimum conditions for oil extraction were estimated as follows: (i) 1000 W ultrasonic power, (ii) 30 min extraction time and (iii) biomass dry weight content at 5%. Yields were calculated by the total fatty acids methyl esters amounts analyzed by GC-FID-MS. The maximum oil recovery was around 0.21%. This value was compared with the one obtained with the conventional extraction method (Bligh and Dyer). Furthermore, effect of temperature on the yield was also investigated. The overall results show an innovative and effective extraction method adapted for microalgae oil recovery, without using solvent and with an enable scaling up.

  18. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Fresh Leaf Extract of Centella asiatica and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuong, Le Dai; Luan, Nguyen Dinh Tung; Ngoc, Dao Duy Hong; Anh, Phan Tuan; Bao, Vo-Van Quoc

    The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology. In the present study, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from fresh leaf extract of Centella asiatica (LEC). UV-Vis spectrum for silver colloids contains a strong plasmon band near 425nm, which confirms the formation of nanoparticles. The experimental results show that the silver nanoparticles are formed easily in the extract at ambient temperature. The resulting silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were in the spherical form and the average size of the nanoparticles was in the range from 3nm to 30nm. From the above silver nanoparticles, we were taken up to investigate the effects of various concentrations of AgNPs on growth, development and yield of peanut plants. The results of the present experiment showed that the optimized concentration of AgNPs of the good germination, growth and pod yield of peanut plant is 5ppm.

  19. Preparation and Observation of Fresh-frozen Sections of the Green Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Mouse Head

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Masahito; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Kato, Ichiro; Hiraga, Koichi; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Demura, Makoto; Mori, Yoshihiro; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Kawano, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    Hard tissue decalcification can cause variation in the constituent protein characteristics. This paper describes a method of preparating of frozen mouse head sections so as to clearly observe the nature of the constituent proteins. Frozen sections of various green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mouse heads were prepared using the film method developed by Kawamoto and Shimizu. This method made specimen dissection without decalcification possible, wherein GFP was clearly observed in an undamaged state. Conversely, using the same method with decalcification made GFP observation in the transgenic mouse head difficult. This new method is suitable for observing GFP marked cells, enabling us to follow the transplanted GFP marked cells within frozen head sections. PMID:17375207

  20. Volatile constituents and key odorants in leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits of Laurus nobilis L.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ayben; Hafizoglu, Harzemsah; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Nitz, Siegfried

    2004-03-24

    The volatiles of fresh leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits from bay (Laurus nolilis L.) were isolated by solvent extraction and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their odor quality was characterized by gas chomatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (HRGC-O-MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In fresh bay leaves 1,8-cineole was the major component, together with alpha-terpinyl acetate, sabinene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-elemene, alpha-terpineol, linalool, and eugenol. Besides 1,8-cineole and the pinenes, the main components in flowers were alpha-eudesmol, beta-elemene, and beta-caryophyllene, in fruits (E)-beta-ocimene and biclyclogermacrene, and in buds (E)-beta-ocimene and germacrene D. The aliphatic ocimenes and farnesenes were absent in leaves. By using HRGC-O-MS 21 odor compounds were identified in fresh leaves. Application of AEDA revealed (Z)-3-hexenal (fresh green), 1,8-cineole (eucalyptus), linalool (flowery), eugenol (clove), (E)-isoeugenol (flowery), and an unidentified compound (black pepper) with the highest flavor dilution factors. Differences between buds, flowers, fruits, and leaves with regard to the identified odor compounds are presented.

  1. Enantioselective ecotoxicity of the herbicide dichlorprop and complexes formed with chitosan in two fresh water green algae.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yuezhong; Chen, Hui; Yuan, Yuli; Xu, Dongmei; Kang, Xiaodong

    2011-04-01

    To reduce the leaching potential, to prevent groundwater contamination and to maintain the efficacy of a pesticide, natural polysaccharides have received increasing attention due to their biocompatibility and useful biological reactivity for controlled release formulations (CRFs) of pesticides. In this paper, the toxicities of the chiral herbicide dichlorprop (DCPP) and its complexes with chitosan molecules (DCPP-CS) and chitosan nanoparticles (DCPP-NP) to two different green algae were determined and compared. The inhibition rates of DCPP, DCPP-CS and DCPP-NP were determined at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 h, and the results show that (S)-DCPP was more toxic to Chlorella vulgaris than (R)-DCPP, while the (R)-DCPP was more toxic to Scenedesmus obliquus than (S)-DCPP. The study also found that the chiral selectivity of DCPP to Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus could be changed when DCPP was complexed with chitosan molecules (CS) or chitosan nanoparticles (NP). For Chlorella vulgaris, the order of inhibition was (R)-DCPP-CS > (S)-DCPP-CS and (R)-DCPP-NP > (S)-DCPP-NP; for Scenedesmus obliquus, the order was (S)-DCPP-CS > (R)-DCPP-CS and (S)-DCPP-NP > (R)-DCPP-NP. This phenomenon suggests that the enantioselective behaviors of chiral compounds might shift when interactions with other chiral receptors coexist in different biological environments. Additionally, chitosan molecules and chitosan nanoparticles also showed different toxicities, which could be ascribed to the difference in the physicochemical properties between CS and NP or the differences in the cell walls of the two fresh water green algae.

  2. Survival and distribution of Escherichia coli on diverse fresh-cut baby leafy greens under preharvest through postharvest conditions.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Callejas, Alejandro; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Camacho, Alex B; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Suslow, Trevor V

    2011-12-02

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been associated in multiple outbreaks linked to the consumption of whole produce and fresh-cut leafy vegetables. However, plant-based foods had not been traditionally recognized as a host for enteric pathogens until the elevated incidence of produce-related outbreaks became apparent. The survival dynamics of two cocktails of generic E. coli (environmental water, plant and soil isolates) and E. coli O157:H7 within the phyllosphere of Mizuna, Red Chard and Tatsoi during their production, harvest, minimal processing, packaging and storage over two greenhouse production cycles were studied. Genotyping of applied generic E. coli strains to evaluate their comparative survival and relative abundance in the phyllosphere by REP-PCR is also reported. The Mizuna, Red Chard and Tatsoi shoots were grown under standard greenhouse conditions and fertility management. Both E. coli cocktails were spray-inoculated separately and determined to result in an initial mean population density of log 4.2 CFU/cm². Leaves were harvested as mini-greens approximating commercial maturity, minimally processed in a model washing system treated with 3 mg/L of ClO₂ and stored for 7 days at 5 °C. Rapid decline of generic E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 populations was observed for all plant types regardless of the leaf age at the time of inoculation and the irrigation type across both seasonal growth cycle trials. The decline rate of the surviving populations for the fall season was slower than for the summer season. The minimal processing with 3 mg/L of ClO₂ was not sufficient to fully disinfect the inoculated leaves prior to packaging and refrigerated storage. Viable populations of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 were confirmed throughout storage, including the final time point at the end of acceptable visual leaf quality. In this study, the ability of low populations of E. coli to survive during production and postharvest operations in selected mini-greens has been

  3. Odor Mortis

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study, the third of a series on the odor signature of human decomposition, reports on the intermittent nature of chemical evolution from decomposing human remains, and focuses primarily on headspace analysis from soil associated with older human remains (10-60+ years) from different environments around the globe. Fifty grams of soil were collected in 40mL glass vials with polypropylene sealed lids from soil above known or suspected graves and from subsurface chemical plumes associated with human decompositional events. One hundred eighty six separate samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After comparison to relevant soil controls, approximately fifty volatile chemical compounds were identified as being associated with human remains. This manuscript reports these findings and identifies when and where they are most likely to be detected showing an overall decrease in cyclic and halogenated compounds and an increase in aldehydes and alkanes as time progresses. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of human remains with projected ramifications on cadaver dog training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  4. An environmental nuisance: odor concentrated and transported by dust.

    PubMed

    Bottcher, R W

    2001-03-01

    Intensive swine production generates odorous emissions which flow from the buildings housing the animals. High ventilation rates bring in fresh air, remove heat and moisture and enhance pork productivity. Numerous compounds contribute to the uniquely offensive odors from swine facilities, including fatty acids, amines, aromatics and sulfur compounds. Dust particles, which originate predominantly from feces and feed, can adsorb and concentrate odorants in swine facilities. In addition, organic particles can decay and generate odorous compounds. Odorants can exist in much higher concentrations in the dust particles than in equivalent volumes of air. Thus, inhalation of odorous dust and deposition of the dust particles in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa are likely responsible for some odor-related complaints by swine farm neighbors. Accurate prediction of odor transport and dispersion downwind from swine farms may require models of dust dispersion and correlation between dust and odorant levels. Unfortunately, many approaches to estimating odor impact currently incorporate filtering of air to remove particulate matter before sensing by humans or electronic sensors. Accelerated progress in understanding this and other 'real world' odor control problems will require methodological innovations that allow quantification of odor in response to air streams containing vapor and particulate phases.

  5. Non-food odorants reduce chocolate cravings.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Bettany, Sarah

    2012-06-01

    The present study compared the relative effectiveness of simple, commercially available food and non-food olfactory tasks on chocolate craving reduction. Chocolate cravings were induced by a series of coloured photographs and 67 undergraduate women were asked to smell one of three odours (green apple, jasmine, or water). The non-food odorant (jasmine) significantly reduced chocolate cravings relative to both the food and control odorants. Thus simple non-food odorants offer potential scope as a technique for curbing unwanted food cravings.

  6. Characterization of odor released during handling of swine slurry: Part I. Relationship between odorants and perceived odor concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanes-Vidal, V.; Hansen, M. N.; Adamsen, A. P. S.; Feilberg, A.; Petersen, S. O.; Jensen, B. B.

    Odor emission from livestock production systems is a major nuisance in many rural areas. This study aimed at determining the major airborne chemical compounds responsible for the unpleasant odor perceived in swine facilities during slurry handling, and at proposing predictive models of odor concentration (OC) based on the concentrations of specific odorants in the air. A multivariate data analysis strategy involving principal components analysis and multiple linear regressions was implemented to analyze the relationships between concentration of 35 gases (measured by GC/MS or gas detection tubes), and the overall OC perceived by sensory analysis. The study compiled data on the concentration of odor and odorants, measured in the headspace of 24 unstored and stored slurry samples collected from three different types of production units on 8 commercial swine farms. Among all the measured constituents, OC was found to have the highest correlation with the sulfur containing compounds (i.e. hydrogen sulfide, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide, dimethyltrisulfide). The concentration of hydrogen sulfide accounted for 68% of the variation in OC above the stirred slurry samples. The highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds were observed for phenols and indoles, which made a significant contribution to the overall OC when the slurry was fresh. The contribution of ammonia to the OC was only significant in the absence of hydrogen sulfide. The precision of predictive models of OC based on the concentration of specific odorants in the air was satisfactory ( R2 between 0.66 and 0.89). Hence, this study suggests that monitoring of specific odor compounds released from agitated swine slurry can be used to predict the concentration of odor perceived close to the source (e.g. at storage units), allowing the assessment of odor nuisance potentials.

  7. Antiproliferative effects of fresh and thermal processed green and red cultivars of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica).

    PubMed

    Olsen, Helle; Grimmer, Stine; Aaby, Kjersti; Saha, Shikha; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2012-08-01

    Brassica vegetables contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant and anticancer activity. However, knowledge about how biological activities are affected by processing is lacking. A green cultivar and a red cultivar of curly kale were evaluated for water/methanol-soluble phytochemicals before and after processing involving blanching, freeze storage, and boil-in-bag heat treatment. In both kale cultivars, processing resulted in a significant decrease of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and content and distribution of flavonols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, glucosinolates, and vitamin C. Interestingly, the red curly kale cultivar had a higher capacity to withstand thermal loss of phytochemicals. The extracts of both green and red curly kale inhibited the cell proliferation of three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and HCT 116). However, extracts from fresh plant material had a significantly stronger antiproliferative effect than extracts from processed plant material.

  8. Odor control in lagoons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2013-07-30

    Lagoons are widely used in rural area for wastewater treatment; however, the odor problem has hampered its application. The root of odor emission from lagoons varies from one to another. The key of controlling the odor is to find out the cause and accordingly provide strategies. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been reported and applied for odor control. Physical technologies such as masking, capturing and sorption are often employed to mitigate the pressure from compliant while not to cut off the problem. Chemical technologies which act rapidly and efficiently in odor control, utilize chemicals to damage the odorant production root or convert odorant to odorless substances. Biological methods such as aeration, biocover and biofiltration control the odor by enhancing aerobic condition or developing methanogens in lagoon, and biologically decomposing the odorants. Comparing to physical and chemical methods, biological methods are more feasible.

  9. Sweating and Body Odor

    MedlinePlus

    Sweating and body odor Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Sweating and body odor are facts of life for ... stress. Your body has two main types of sweat glands, and they produce two very different types ...

  10. Unsaturated hydrocarbons with fruity and floral odors.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Fedeli, P; Paoli, M L; Sega, A; Scesa, C; Pelosi, P

    2000-04-01

    Hydrocarbons usually do not exhibit odors of interest or well-defined character. However, certain cyclic alkenes have been associated with typical and pleasant notes, such as fruity, green, and floral. One of the best known examples is represented by the isomeric megastigmatrienes, endowed with a pleasant smell of tropical fruits. From the structures of these odorants, 24 analogues and homologues, most of them cyclic alkenes, but including also some open-chain alkenes, have been synthesized to define structural parameters related to the characteristic odors of these compounds. The number and position of double bonds, the substitution on the ring, and the size of the ring are the variables taken into account. Most of the new compounds present a mainly fruity character, associated in several cases with floral and green notes, producing an overall sensation described as "tropical fruit".

  11. Odor Emotional Quality Predicts Odor Identification.

    PubMed

    Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Schulze, Patrick; Kuchinke, Lars

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly agreed upon a strong link between emotion and olfaction. Odor-evoked memories are experienced as more emotional compared with verbal, visual, and tactile stimuli. Moreover, the emotional quality of odor cues increases memory performance, but contrary to this, odors are poor retrieval cues for verbal labels. To examine the relation between the emotional quality of an odor and its likelihood of identification, this study evaluates how normative emotion ratings based on the 3-dimensional affective space model (that includes valence, arousal, and dominance), using the Self-Assessment Manikin by Bradley and Lang (Bradley MM, Lang PJ. 1994. Measuring emotion: the Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 25(1):49-59.) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. 1988. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol. 54(6):1063-1070.) predict the identification of odors in a multiple choice condition. The best fitting logistic regression model includes squared valence and dominance and thus, points to a significant role of specific emotional features of odors as a main clue for odor identification.

  12. Influence of Vacuum Cooling on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infiltration in Fresh Leafy Greens via a Multiphoton-Imaging Approach.

    PubMed

    Vonasek, Erica; Nitin, Nitin

    2015-10-16

    Microbial pathogen infiltration in fresh leafy greens is a significant food safety risk factor. In various postharvest operations, vacuum cooling is a critical process for maintaining the quality of fresh produce. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of vacuum cooling-induced infiltration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce using multiphoton microscopy. Multiphoton imaging was chosen as the method to locate E. coli O157:H7 within an intact lettuce leaf due to its high spatial resolution, low background fluorescence, and near-infrared (NIR) excitation source compared to those of conventional confocal microscopy. The variables vacuum cooling, surface moisture, and leaf side were evaluated in a three-way factorial study with E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce. A total of 188 image stacks were collected. The images were analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 association with stomata and E. coli O157:H7 infiltration. The quantitative imaging data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicate that the low-moisture condition led to an increased risk of microbial association with stomata (P < 0.05). Additionally, the interaction between vacuum cooling levels and moisture levels led to an increased risk of infiltration (P < 0.05). This study also demonstrates the potential of multiphoton imaging for improving sensitivity and resolution of imaging-based measurements of microbial interactions with intact leaf structures, including infiltration.

  13. Characterizing odors from cattle feedlots with different odor techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from cattle feedlots negatively affect local communities. The purpose of this study was to characterize odors and odorants using different odor sampling techniques. Odors were characterized with field olfactometers (Nasal Ranger®), sensory techniques (GC-O) and analytical techniques (sorbent t...

  14. ELIME assay vs Real-Time PCR and conventional culture method for an effective detection of Salmonella in fresh leafy green vegetables.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, L; Pucci, E; Delibato, E; Volpe, G; Piermarini, S; De Medici, D; Capuano, F; Palleschi, G

    2017-05-01

    The detection of Salmonella according to EC regulation is still primarily based on traditional microbiological culture methods that may take several days to be completed. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of an Enzyme-Linked-Immuno-Magnetic-Electrochemical (ELIME) assay, recently developed by our research group for the detection of salmonella in irrigation water, in fresh (raw and ready-to-eat) leafy green vegetables by comparison with Real-Time PCR (RTi-PCR) and ISO culture methods. Since vegetables represent a more complex matrix than irrigation water, preliminary experiments were carried out on two leafy green vegetables that resulted negative for salmonella by the ISO method. 25g of these samples were experimentally inoculated with 1-10 CFU of S. Napoli or S. Thompson and pre-enriched for 20h in two different broths. At this time aliquots were taken, concentrated at different levels by centrifugation, and analyzed by ELIME and RTi-PCR. Once selected the best culture medium for salmonella growth, and the optimal concentration factor suitable to reduce the sample matrix effect, enhancing the out-put signal, several raw and ready-to-eat leafy green vegetables were artificially inoculated and pre-enriched. Aliquots were then taken at different incubation times and analyzed with both techniques. Results obtained showed that 20 and 8h of pre-enrichment were required to allow the target salmonella (1-10 CFU/25g) to multiply until reaching a detectable concentration by ELIME and RTi-PCR assays, respectively. A confirmation with the ISO culture method was carried out. Based on the available literature, this is the first report of the application of an ELISA based method for the detection of Salmonella in vegetables.

  15. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  16. Prediction of odor from pig production based on chemical odorants.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael J; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Pedersen, Poul; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The present work was performed to investigate the use of odorant measurements for prediction of odor concentration in facilities with growing-finishing pigs and to analyze the odorant composition in facilities with different floor and ventilation systems. Air was sampled in Nalophan bags, odor concentrations were measured by dilution-to-threshold olfactometry, and concentrations of odorants were measured by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Olfactometry and chemical analyses were synchronized to take place at identical time intervals after sampling. A principal component analysis revealed that different facilities for growing-finishing pigs can be distinguished based on the odorants. Pit ventilation comprising a small amount of the total ventilation air (10-20%) in facilities with both room and pit ventilation can be used to concentrate odorants, whereas the room ventilation contains lower concentrations of most odorants. A partial least squares regression model demonstrated that prediction of the odor concentration based on odorants measured by PTR-MS is feasible. Hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, trimethylamine, and 4-methylphenol were identified as the compounds having the largest influence on the prediction of odor concentration, whereas carboxylic acids had no significant influence. In conclusion, chemical measurement of odorants by PTR-MS is an alternative for expressing the odor concentration in facilities with growing-finishing pigs that can be used to increase the understanding of odor from different types of facilities and improve the development of odor reduction technologies.

  17. Tracking an Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated batch of leafy greens through a pilot-scale fresh-cut processing line.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-09-01

    Cross-contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens with residual Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated product during commercial processing was likely a contributing factor in several recent multistate outbreaks. Consequently, radicchio was used as a visual marker to track the spread of the contaminated product to iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale processing line that included a commercial shredder, step conveyor, flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer. Uninoculated iceberg lettuce (45 kg) was processed, followed by 9.1 kg of radicchio (dip inoculated to contain a four-strain, green fluorescent protein-labeled nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 cocktail at 10(6) CFU/g) and 907 kg (2,000 lb) of uninoculated iceberg lettuce. After collecting the lettuce and radicchio in about 40 bags (∼22.7 kg per bag) along with water and equipment surface samples, all visible shreds of radicchio were retrieved from the bags of shredded product, the equipment, and the floor. E. coli O157:H7 populations were quantified in the lettuce, water, and equipment samples by direct plating with or without prior membrane filtration on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Based on triplicate experiments, the weight of radicchio in the shredded lettuce averaged 614.9 g (93.6%), 6.9 g (1.3%), 5.0 g (0.8%), and 2.8 g (0.5%) for bags 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, and 31 to 40, respectively, with mean E. coli O157:H7 populations of 1.7, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.1 log CFU/g in radicchio-free lettuce. After processing, more radicchio remained on the conveyor (9.8 g; P < 0.05), compared with the shredder (8.3 g), flume tank (3.5 g), and shaker table (0.1 g), with similar E. coli O157:H7 populations (P > 0.05) recovered from all equipment surfaces after processing. These findings clearly demonstrate both the potential for the continuous spread of contaminated lettuce to multiple batches of product during processing and the need for improved equipment designs that minimize

  18. Autonomic nervous responses according to preference for the odor of jasmine tea.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naohiko; Kuroda, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Akio; Kakuda, Takami; Fushiki, Tohru

    2003-06-01

    The effect of jasmine tea odor on the autonomic nervous system was investigated by a power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability. We assigned eight volunteers to two groups with either a predilection for or antipathy toward the jasmine tea odor. We tested both high- and low-intensity jasmine tea odors. The low-intensity odor was produced by diluting 20-fold the jasmine tea used for the high-intensity odor test. The low-intensity odor produced an increase in parasympathetic nervous activity in both the predilection and antipathy groups. The high-intensity odor produced an increase in parasympathetic nervous activity in the predilection group, but an increase in sympathetic nervous activity in the antipathy group. The odor of Chinese green tea, a basic ingredient of jasmine tea, produced no effects similar to those of the jasmine tea odor. These results suggest that the jasmine tea odor activated the parasympathetic nerve, whereas the higher-intensity odor activated the sympathetic nerve in those subjects who disliked the odor.

  19. Odor Control Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Amos; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Dispersion, chemical oxidation, and masking are reviewed as techniques primarily employed for odor control. Devices and systems, costs, and problems of measurement are considered in light of environmental agencies' efforts to curb smelly emissions. (BL)

  20. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  1. Odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the Asian citrus psyllid.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; McInally, Shane; Forster, Lisa; Luck, Robert; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-07-01

    Olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits Candidatus Liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the ACP antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. We identify neurons that respond strongly to odorants found in the host citrus plants. Comparisons with the generalist yeast-feeding Drosophila melanogaster and specialist anthropophilic Anopheles gambiae reveal differences in odor-coding strategies for the citrus-seeking ACP. These findings provide a foundation for understanding host-odor coding in herbivorous insects.

  2. Compost odor control using high carbon wood ash.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, P E; Grey, M A; Suffet, I H

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study on the feasibility of using high carbon wood ash to control composting odor emissions was conducted at a green material composting facility. The study's treatments consisted of adding 0%, 12.5%, and 25% high carbon wood ash by volume to green-material compost feedstock in three separate windrows. The wood ash has properties similar to activated carbon with an active surface area of 105 square metres per gram on a dry weight basis. The odorant emission data suggest that the higher percentage wood ash treatment results in the most effective control of most compost odors and that wood ash provides effective treatment of volatile fatty acids and some aldehydes and ketones. The 25% wood ash treatment resulted in more effective treatment of odors for a longer time period than the 12.5% treatment. Acetaldehyde had the highest concentration in the control (14,000 times its odor threshold concentration), was reduced by high carbon ash by over 97% but remained 386 times its reported odor threshold concentration after 14 days. Ethyl mecaptan and ammonia were produced in the process and were also over their reported human detection limits.

  3. Effect of dynamic temperature storage in retail display case on the quality and microbiota of packaged fresh-cut leafy greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial refrigeration equipment is projected to rise 5.2% annually to meet the consumer demand for fresh-cut produce items. The highly variable temperature conditions associated with storage of fresh-cuts in commercial open-refrigerated display cases dramatically affects the shelf-life and qualit...

  4. Retronasal perception of odors.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Odors often produce different sensations when presented in front of the nose or intraorally, when eaten. It is a long-standing question whether these differences in sensations are due, for example, to the additional mechanical sensations elicited by the food in the mouth or additional odor release during mastication. To study this phenomenon in detail, a stimulation technique has been developed that allows controlled ortho- or retronasal presentation of odorous stimuli. Results from psychophysical, electrophysiological, and imaging studies suggest that there are clear differences in the perception of ortho- and retronasal stimuli. This 'duality of the sense of smell' is also observed in a clinical context where some patients exhibit good retronasal olfactory function with little or no orthonasal function left, and vice versa. The differences between ortho- and retronasal perception of odors are thought to be, at least partly, due to absorption of odors to the olfactory epithelium, which appears to differ in relation to the direction of the airflow across the olfactory epithelium.

  5. Discrimination of Body Odor Using Odor Sieving Sensor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamizawa, Tadashi; Miyagi, Kazuki; Miyauchi, Hitoshi; Imahashi, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2011-09-01

    We have been focusing on sebum for discriminating human body odor. In this study, we examined body odor sampled from 12 male examinees. Through the experiment, we detected statistically-significant differences between 56 pairs of examinees out of 66 pairs (approximately 85%). This result shows that our system and principle enabled discrimination of body odor between examinees to a certain extent.

  6. Suppression of Odorant Responses by Odorants in Olfactory Receptor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurahashi, Takashi; Lowe, Graeme; Gold, Geoffrey H.

    1994-07-01

    Odorants activate an inward current in vertebrate olfactory receptor cells. Here it is shown, in receptor cells from the newt, that odorants can also suppress this current, by a mechanism that is distinct from inhibition and adaptation. Suppression provides a simple explanation for two seemingly unrelated phenomena: the anomalously long latency of olfactory transduction and the existence of an "off response" at the end of a prolonged stimulus. Suppression may influence the perception of odorants by masking odorant responses and by sharpening the odorant specificities of single cells.

  7. Coding odor identity and odor value in awake rodents

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez-Parra, Alexia; Li, Anan; Restrepo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, drastic changes in the understanding of the role of the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex in odor detection have taken place through awake behaving recording in rodents. It is clear that odor responses in mitral and granule cells are strikingly different in the olfactory bulb of anesthetized vs. awake animals. In addition, sniff recording has evidenced that mitral cell responses to odors during the sniff can convey information on the odor identity and sniff phase. Moreover, we review studies that show that the mitral cell conveys not only information on odor identity but also on whether the odor is rewarded or not (odor value). Finally, we discuss how the substantial increase in awake behaving recording raises questions for future studies. PMID:24767484

  8. GREEN BEAST™ OIL SPILL & ODOR REMEDIATOR

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this surface washing agent used in oil spill cleanups works best applied at high pressure, for treating hydrocarbons on beaches, rocks, and hard surfaces. Preferably applied over 3 consecutive days on heavy spills.

  9. Cell-Based Odorant Sensor Array for Odor Discrimination Based on Insect Odorant Receptors.

    PubMed

    Termtanasombat, Maneerat; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Misawa, Nobuo; Yamahira, Shinya; Sakurai, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-07-01

    The olfactory system of living organisms can accurately discriminate numerous odors by recognizing the pattern of activation of several odorant receptors (ORs). Thus, development of an odorant sensor array based on multiple ORs presents the possibility of mimicking biological odor discrimination mechanisms. Recently, we developed novel odorant sensor elements with high sensitivity and selectivity based on insect OR-expressing Sf21 cells that respond to target odorants by displaying increased fluorescence intensity. Here we introduce the development of an odorant sensor array composed of several Sf21 cell lines expressing different ORs. In this study, an array pattern of four cell lines expressing Or13a, Or56a, BmOR1, and BmOR3 was successfully created using a patterned polydimethylsiloxane film template and cell-immobilizing reagents, termed biocompatible anchor for membrane (BAM). We demonstrated that BAM could create a clear pattern of Sf21 sensor cells without impacting their odorant-sensing performance. Our sensor array showed odorant-specific response patterns toward both odorant mixtures and single odorant stimuli, allowing us to visualize the presence of 1-octen-3-ol, geosmin, bombykol, and bombykal as an increased fluorescence intensity in the region of Or13a, Or56a, BmOR1, and BmOR3 cell lines, respectively. Therefore, we successfully developed a new methodology for creating a cell-based odorant sensor array that enables us to discriminate multiple target odorants. Our method might be expanded into the development of an odorant sensor capable of detecting a large range of environmental odorants that might become a promising tool used in various applications including the study of insect semiochemicals and food contamination.

  10. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-01-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure. PMID:1821378

  11. QCM Odor Sensor Noticed by Boilling Point of Odor Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Yasuaki; Arai, Takayuki; Akiya, Masashiro

    In this paper, a improved method for detecting odor samples using mono-channel QCM LB film sensor is described. The sensing film deposited on the QCM was DOABr combined by PVSK as an under layer. The odor sensor was able to detect the usual frequency shift, the resistance shift and more the response time related to the boiling point and volatile rate of odor substances. The gradient of the curve for frequency vs. resistance shift decreased as coefficient of viscosity rate. Single odor samples, such as benzene, hexane and chloroform can be detected by these parameters. Mixed odor samples such as three kind of odor substances could be also detected by adding the response time measurement.

  12. Recognition on Maternal Axillary Odors by Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernoch, Jennifer M.; Porter, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Displaying no evidence of recognizing the axillary odors of their fathers, breastfed infants discriminated between their mother's axillary odor and odors produced by nonparturient or unfamiliar lactating females. Bottle-fed infants appeared unable to recognize the odor of their mother when presented along with odors from a nonparturient female or…

  13. Functional Characterization of Odorant Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-07

    94 IFINAL REPORT 9/1/92-11/30/93 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Functional Characterization of Odorant Receptors DAAL03-92-G-0390 6. AUTHOR(S...characterization of odorant receptors have developed in two directions. One direction is concerned with the characterization of the ligand specificity of... receptor have been replaced by the equivalent regions of odorant receptor 1-15 (Buck and Axel, 1991), thus forming a chimaeric seven transmembrane domain

  14. Distant Odors: Identifying Key Odors Associated With Cattle Feedlots Downwind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Research Council identified odors as the most significant animal emission at the local level and has highlighted the need for the development of standardized protocols for sampling and analysis of odors. To date, however, little progress has been made on identifying sampling and analys...

  15. Odor from a chemical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1995-06-01

    Early odor-detection measurements categorized chemicals according to odor quality. Recent methods focus on the odor threshold, or the quantitative amount of a chemical in air that can be detected by the human sense of smell. Researchers characterize and quantify odor using an array of sensory and analytical procedures. Humans possess one of the dullest mammalian senses of smell; however, they can recognize about 10,000 distinct odors at concentrations ranging from less than 1 part per billion to several hundred thousand parts per million. Each time humans inhale, they chemically analyze microscopic pieces of the environment that make physical contact with the nerves in their noses. Individual molecules travel up the nose to a sheet of moist, mucus-bathed tissue that consists of about 5 million smell-sensing, olfactory neurons. After dissolving in the mucus, odor molecules ``float`` into appropriately shaped receptor pockets. A series of cellular reactions then transmit impulses to the limbic system, hippocampus and, finally, the neocortex. Odor detection is an important defense mechanism. The author presents the odor thresholds for selected organic compounds, and other hazardous chemicals.

  16. The effect of appropriate and inappropriate stimulus color on odor discrimination.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Oaten, Megan

    2008-05-01

    Color can strongly affect participants' self-report of an odor's qualities. In Experiment 1, we examined whether color influences a more objective measure of odor quality, discrimination. Odor pairs, presented in their appropriate color (e.g., strawberry and cherry in red water), an inappropriate color (e.g., strawberry and cherry in green water), or uncolored water were presented for discrimination. Participants made significantly more errors when odors were discriminated in an inappropriate color. In Experiment 2, the same design was utilized, but with an articulatory suppression task (AST), to examine whether the effect of color was mediated by identification or by a more direct effect on the percept. Here, the AST significantly improved discrimination for the inappropriate color condition, relative to Experiment 1. Although color does affect a more objective measure of odor quality, this is mediated by conceptual, rather than perceptual, means.

  17. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, , and nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Jaderborg, Jeffrey P; DiCostanzo, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three types of wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, and green cedar chips) and corn stover on the concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total in bedded pack material. Four bedded packs of each bedding material were maintained for two 42-d periods ( = 32; eight replicates/bedding material). Straight- and branched-chained fatty acids, aromatic compounds, and sulfide compounds were measured from the headspace above each bedded pack. Green cedar bedding had the highest concentration of odorous VOCs, and pine chip bedding had the lowest ( < 0.01). Calculated odor activity values were highest for green cedar bedding, followed by dry cedar, corn stover, and pine chip bedding. As the bedded packs aged, the concentration of odorous VOCs increased, particularly in the bedded packs containing green cedar chips and dry cedar chips. Total concentrations increased from Days 0 to 21 and then began to decline and were similar among all bedding materials ( < 0.10). Results of this study indicate that producers using a long-term bedded pack management in their facility may benefit from using pine chips because they do not appear to increase odor over time. Cedar-based bedding materials may be better suited for a scrape-and-haul system, where the bedded pack is removed after 1 or 2 wk. Total concentrations did not differ between any of the four bedding materials over time.

  18. A Green Preconcentration Method for Determination of Cobalt and Lead in Fresh Surface and Waste Water Samples Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Faheem; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Arian, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2012-01-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) has been used for the preconcentration and simultaneous determination of cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb) in fresh and wastewater samples. The extraction of analytes from aqueous samples was performed in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) as a chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a nonionic surfactant. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of different chemical variables such as pH, amounts of reagents (oxine and Triton X-114), temperature, incubation time, and sample volume. After phase separation, based on the cloud point, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to its analysis by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The enhancement factors 70 and 50 with detection limits of 0.26 μg L−1 and 0.44 μg L−1 were obtained for Co and Pb, respectively. In order to validate the developed method, a certified reference material (SRM 1643e) was analyzed and the determined values obtained were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of Co and Pb in a fresh surface and waste water sample. PMID:23227429

  19. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 2. Odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on project to the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) and focused on comprehensive measurement of odor emissions considering variations in seasons, animal types and olfactometry laboratories. Odor emissions from four of 14 NEAMS sites with nine barns/rooms (two dair...

  20. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 2 - odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on project to the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) and focused on comprehensive measurement of odor emissions. Odor emissions from two animal species (dairy and swine) from four sites with nine barns/rooms (two dairy barns in Wisconsin, two dairy barns and two sw...

  1. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 6.Odor activity value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing concern with air and odor emissions from agricultural facilities. A supplementary research project was conducted to complement the U.S. National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS). The overall goal of the project was to establish odor and chemical emission factors for animal...

  2. Potent odorants characterize the aroma quality of leaves and stalks in raw and boiled celery.

    PubMed

    Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Kouno, Emi; Fujita, Akira; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Kubota, Kikue

    2006-04-01

    The raw and boiled odors of celery leaves and stalks were investigated. Among 12 compounds identified as potent odorants, 3-n-butylphthalide 1, sedanenolide 2, and trans- and cis-sedanolides 3, 4 were assessed to be most contributive to the overall odor of celery. These three phthalides, (3E,5Z)-1,3,5-undecatriene, myrcene, and (E)-2-nonenal were common to both raw and boiled materials. Two compounds, ((Z)-3-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexenol), were dominant in raw materials and four compounds, (2-methylbutanoic acid, sotolon, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone), were dominant in boiled materials. Sensory evaluations were performed on natural celery odor and a series of reconstructed model aromas by assigning each intensity ratings for a set of seven odor qualities which aptly describe the odors of raw and boiled celery. According to the evaluation results, six common components contributed to the moderate odor of raw celery, two components dominant in raw materials enhanced the raw celery character, and four components dominant in boiled materials reduced the raw celery character and enhanced the boiled celery character. It was clarified that boiling-induced changes in celery odor were not affected by the amounts of phthalides, but by thermally generated compounds such as sotolon, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone, which reduce the "green spicy" note.

  3. Transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from equipment surfaces to fresh-cut leafy greens during processing in a model pilot-plant production line with sanitizer-free water.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2012-11-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens has become a public health concern as a result of several large outbreaks. The goal of this study was to generate baseline data for E. coli O157:H7 transfer from product-inoculated equipment surfaces to uninoculated lettuce during pilot-scale processing without a sanitizer. Uninoculated cored heads of iceberg and romaine lettuce (22.7 kg) were processed using a commercial shredder, step conveyor, 3.3-m flume tank with sanitizer-free tap water, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer, followed by 22.7 kg of product that had been dip inoculated to contain ∼10(6), 10(4), or 10(2) CFU/g of a four-strain avirulent, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 cocktail. After draining the flume tank and refilling the holding tank with tap water, 90.8 kg of uninoculated product was similarly processed and collected in ∼5-kg aliquots. After processing, 42 equipment surface samples and 46 iceberg or 36 romaine lettuce samples (25 g each) from the collection baskets were quantitatively examined for E. coli O157:H7 by direct plating or membrane filtration using tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Initially, the greatest E. coli O157:H7 transfer was seen from inoculated lettuce to the shredder and conveyor belt, with all equipment surface populations decreasing 90 to 99% after processing 90.8 kg of uncontaminated product. After processing lettuce containing 10(6) or 10(4) E. coli O157:H7 CFU/g followed by uninoculated lettuce, E. coli O157:H7 was quantifiable throughout the entire 90.8 kg of product. At an inoculation level of 10(2) CFU/g, E. coli O157:H7 was consistently detected in the first 21.2 kg of previously uninoculated lettuce at 2 to 3 log CFU/100 g and transferred to 78 kg of product. These baseline E. coli O157:H7 transfer results will help determine the degree of sanitizer efficacy required to better ensure the safety of fresh-cut leafy

  4. Combinatorial effects of odorants on mouse behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Kondoh, Kunio; Ye, Xiaolan; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Hernandez, Marcus; Buck, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which odors induce instinctive behaviors are largely unknown. Odor detection in the mouse nose is mediated by >1, 000 different odorant receptors (ORs) and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Odor perceptions are encoded combinatorially by ORs and can be altered by slight changes in the combination of activated receptors. However, the stereotyped nature of instinctive odor responses suggests the involvement of specific receptors and genetically programmed neural circuits relatively immune to extraneous odor stimuli and receptor inputs. Here, we report that, contrary to expectation, innate odor-induced behaviors can be context-dependent. First, different ligands for a given TAAR can vary in behavioral effect. Second, when combined, some attractive and aversive odorants neutralize one another’s behavioral effects. Both a TAAR ligand and a common odorant block aversion to a predator odor, indicating that this ability is not unique to TAARs and can extend to an aversive response of potential importance to survival. In vitro testing of single receptors with binary odorant mixtures indicates that behavioral blocking can occur without receptor antagonism in the nose. Moreover, genetic ablation of a single receptor prevents its cognate ligand from blocking predator odor aversion, indicating that the blocking requires sensory input from the receptor. Together, these findings indicate that innate odor-induced behaviors can depend on context, that signals from a single receptor can block innate odor aversion, and that instinctive behavioral responses to odors can be modulated by interactions in the brain among signals derived from different receptors. PMID:27208093

  5. Congruent sound can modulate odor pleasantness.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Lohse, Franziska; Luckett, Curtis R; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to determine 1) whether certain background sounds can be matched with specific odors and 2) whether the background sounds can increase pleasantness for their congruent odors. In Experiment 1, congruent sounds increased odor pleasantness, but not odor intensity, significantly more than incongruent sounds. Experiment 2 demonstrated that certain background sounds can be paired with specific odors. For example, cinnamon, clove, and orange odors were rated significantly more congruent with a Christmas carol compared with the sound of brushing teeth and/or the beach sound. The congruent sounds increased odor pleasantness significantly more than incongruent sounds. Similarly, the congruent sound-induced odor pleasantness was observed in Experiment 3. As participants judged the pair of odor and sound to be more congruent, they rated the odor significantly more pleasant. Congruent sound assisted participants in identifying and in being familiar with the odor, thereby leading to an increase in odor pleasantness. However, the congruent sound-induced odor pleasantness was not obtained in all odors. In conclusion, this study provides new empirical evidence that pleasantness ratings for odors can increase in the presence of their congruent sounds.

  6. Odorization in a small town

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This application for Low Volume Odorization leads to the proactive town of Berwick, LA, located in the bayous 120 miles southeast of New Orleans. Like many municipal systems, Berwick provides distribution for electric, water and gas for its 4,800 residents. As with many small distribution systems, Berwick was operating a wick odorizor at its city gate station, which received its supply gas from a river crossing. After experiencing several barge accidents that interrupted the gas supply to the city gate, Berwick decided to build a new city gate station with a gas supply delivery from a new direction, thus improving its reliability. With that decision, the next question they asked was whether to continue with a wick method odorization system or integrate state-of-the-art methods in the odorization program. The company investigated electronic odorization as an alternative. The paper discusses system changes and system performance.

  7. C-terminus Methionene Specifically Involved in Binding Corn Odorants to Odorant Binding Protein4 in Macrocentrus cingulum

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tofael; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2017-01-01

    The soluble carrier proteins, OBPs carry odor components through sensilium lymph to specific receptors within the antennal sensilla to trigger behavioral responses. Herein, McinOBP4 was characterized from the Macrocentrus cingulum, which is the specialist parasitic insect of Ostrinia furnacalis for better understanding of olfactory recognition mechanism of this wasp. The classical odorant binding protein McinOBP4 showed good binding affinity to corn green leaf volatiles. RT-qPCR results showed that the McinOBP4 was primarily expressed in male and female wasp antennae, with transcripts levels differing by sex. Fluorescence assays indicate that, McinOBP4 binds corn green leaf volatiles including terpenoides and aliphatic alcohols as well as aldehydes with good affinity. We have also conducted series of binding assay with first mutant (M1), which lacked the last 8 residues and a second mutant (M2), with Met119 replaced by Leucine (Leu119). In the acidic conditions, affinity N-phenylnaphthylamine (1-NPN) to McinOBP4 and M1 were substantially decreased, but increase in basic condition with no significant differences. The lack of C-terminus showed reduced affinity to terpenoides and aliphatic alcohols as well as aldehydes compounds of corn odorants. The mutant M2 with Met119 showed significant reduction in binding affinity to tested odorants, it indicating that Met119 forming hydrophobic chain with the odorants functional group to binding. This finding provides detailed insight of chemosensory function of McinOBP4 in M. cingulum and help to develop low release agents that attract of this wasp to improve ecologically-friendly pest management strategy. PMID:28228732

  8. C-terminus Methionene Specifically Involved in Binding Corn Odorants to Odorant Binding Protein4 in Macrocentrus cingulum.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tofael; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2017-01-01

    The soluble carrier proteins, OBPs carry odor components through sensilium lymph to specific receptors within the antennal sensilla to trigger behavioral responses. Herein, McinOBP4 was characterized from the Macrocentrus cingulum, which is the specialist parasitic insect of Ostrinia furnacalis for better understanding of olfactory recognition mechanism of this wasp. The classical odorant binding protein McinOBP4 showed good binding affinity to corn green leaf volatiles. RT-qPCR results showed that the McinOBP4 was primarily expressed in male and female wasp antennae, with transcripts levels differing by sex. Fluorescence assays indicate that, McinOBP4 binds corn green leaf volatiles including terpenoides and aliphatic alcohols as well as aldehydes with good affinity. We have also conducted series of binding assay with first mutant (M1), which lacked the last 8 residues and a second mutant (M2), with Met119 replaced by Leucine (Leu119). In the acidic conditions, affinity N-phenylnaphthylamine (1-NPN) to McinOBP4 and M1 were substantially decreased, but increase in basic condition with no significant differences. The lack of C-terminus showed reduced affinity to terpenoides and aliphatic alcohols as well as aldehydes compounds of corn odorants. The mutant M2 with Met119 showed significant reduction in binding affinity to tested odorants, it indicating that Met119 forming hydrophobic chain with the odorants functional group to binding. This finding provides detailed insight of chemosensory function of McinOBP4 in M. cingulum and help to develop low release agents that attract of this wasp to improve ecologically-friendly pest management strategy.

  9. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of “immediate ex vivo” (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Methods Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson’s correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. Results IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r = 0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the

  10. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces and microbial safety of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fresh produce is a central component of a healthy diet. However, contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables such as leafy greens, tomatoes, cantaloupes is a source of ongoing concern for consumers. Growers, packers, processors and retailers work to control the incidenc...

  11. Odorous and pungent attributes of mixed and unmixed odorants.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Hernández, S M

    1990-04-01

    In order to explore functional properties of the olfactory and common chemical senses as well as their relation to the total nasal sensation experienced, various concentrations of two pungent odorants were presented alone and in the presence of different backgrounds of the other irritant. Stimuli comprised formaldehyde (at 1.0, 3.5, 6.9, and 16.7 ppm), ammonia (at 210, 776, 1,172, and 1,716 ppm), and their 16 possible binary mixtures. Subjects were asked to estimate the total nasal perceived intensity, and then to assess the olfactory (odor) and common chemical (pungency) attributes of the evoked sensations. The results showed that stimulus-response functions for pungency are steeper than those for odor. Furthermore, odor was always hypoadditive in mixtures (i.e., mixtures were perceived as less intense than the sum of their components), whereas pungency was, mainly, additive, and even suggested hyperadditivity. Total perceived intensity of the stimuli, alone and in mixtures, followed the stimulus-response patterns for pungency, which, therefore, emerged as the dominating attribute used by subjects in scaling the explored range of concentrations. The relationship between total nasal perceived intensity of the mixtures and that of their components reflected hypoaddition, resembling the outcome for the odor attribute.

  12. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, Escherichia coli, and nutrient concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three types of wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, and green cedar chips) and corn stover on concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and total Escherichia coli in bedded pack materi...

  13. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 3 - chemical emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on study to the National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS). The objective of this study was to measure odor emissions and corresponding concentrations and emissions of target odorous gases. Odor and odorous gas measurements at four NAEMS sites (dairy barns in Wisconsin-WI5B...

  14. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 3. Chemical emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to measure the long-term odor emissions and corresponding concentrations and emissions of 20 odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study was an add-on study to the National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Odor and odorous gas measurements at four NAEM...

  15. Odors enhance visual attention to congruent objects.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Roidl, Ernst; Müller, Friedrich; Negoias, Simona

    2010-06-01

    Although it is well known that visual stimuli affect olfactory performance, little is known about the reverse case: the influence of odor on visual performance. This study aimed to determine whether odors can enhance attention towards visually presented objects congruent with the odors. Sixty healthy participants were presented with four odors (orange, lavender, coffee, and liquorice) before and during the presentation of photographic slides containing one congruent and three incongruent objects with the presented odors. The participants' visual attention was assessed as the total number and time of eye fixations by using an eye tracking system. When the participants smelled an odor, they looked more frequently and longer at a corresponding object as compared to the odorless condition. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate for the first time an olfactory priming effect on visual selective attention: odor can increase attention towards a congruent visual object as compared to a non-odor condition.

  16. 78 FR 69285 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... importation of commercial shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from... commercial shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from Jordan into.... Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), may...

  17. Carbohydrate-conditioned odor preferences in rats.

    PubMed

    Lucas, F; Sclafani, A

    1995-06-01

    The effectiveness of odor cues to support nutrient-conditioned flavor preferences in rats was studied. When the rats drank fluid, the CS+ odor was paired with intragastric (IG) infusions of Polycose, and the CS- odor with IG water. In Experiment 1, rats trained with almond and anise odors presented with plain drinking water failed to acquire a CS+ odor preference. In contrast, rats in Experiment 2 formed a strong aversion to anise (or almond) paired with lithium chloride, which indicated that the odors were distinguishable to the rats. Experiment 3 showed that providing unique tastes (bitter or sour) in combination with the odors during training potentiated odor conditioning. The rats displayed a strong preference for the odor+taste CS+ and for the odor component alone. Experiment 4 showed that with another pair of odor (peppermint and vanilla), CS+ preferences could be conditioned in the absence of taste cues during training. These results demonstrate that rats can acquire strong nutrient-conditioned odor preferences.

  18. CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

  19. Multivariate prediction of odor from pig production based on in-situ measurement of odorants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.; Løkke, Mette Marie; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Feilberg, Anders

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate a prediction model for odor from pig production facilities based on measurements of odorants by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Odor measurements were performed at four different pig production facilities with and without odor abatement technologies using a newly developed mobile odor laboratory equipped with a PTR-MS for measuring odorants and an olfactometer for measuring the odor concentration by human panelists. A total of 115 odor measurements were carried out in the mobile laboratory and simultaneously air samples were collected in Nalophan bags and analyzed at accredited laboratories after 24 h. The dataset was divided into a calibration dataset containing 94 samples and a validation dataset containing 21 samples. The prediction model based on the measurements in the mobile laboratory was able to explain 74% of the variation in the odor concentration based on odorants, whereas the prediction models based on odor measurements with bag samples explained only 46-57%. This study is the first application of direct field olfactometry to livestock odor and emphasizes the importance of avoiding any bias from sample storage in studies of odor-odorant relationships. Application of the model on the validation dataset gave a high correlation between predicted and measured odor concentration (R2 = 0.77). Significant odorants in the prediction models include phenols and indoles. In conclusion, measurements of odorants on-site in pig production facilities is an alternative to dynamic olfactometry that can be applied for measuring odor from pig houses and the effects of odor abatement technologies.

  20. Odor processing in multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hillert, Lena; Musabasic, Vildana; Berglund, Hans; Ciumas, Carolina; Savic, Ivanka

    2007-03-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the mechanisms behind the reported hypersensitivity are unknown. Using the advantage of the well-defined trigger (odor), we investigated whether subjects with MCS could have an increased odor-signal response in the odor-processing neuronal circuits. Positron emission tomography (PET) activation studies with several different odorants were carried out in 12 MCS females and 12 female controls. Activation was defined as a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during smelling of the respective odorant compared to smelling of odorless air. The study also included online measurements of respiratory frequency and amplitude and heart rate variations by recording of R wave intervals (RR) on the surface electrocardiogram. The MCS subjects activated odor-processing brain regions less than controls, despite the reported, and physiologically indicated (decreased RR interval) distress. In parallel, they showed an odorant-related increase in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and cuneus-precuneus. Notably, the baseline rCBF was normal. Thus, the abnormal patterns were observed only in response to odor signals. Subjects with MCS process odors differently from controls, however, without signs of neuronal sensitization. One possible explanation for the observed pattern of activation in MCS is a top-down regulation of odor-response via cingulate cortex.

  1. Molecularly Imprinted Filtering Adsorbents for Odor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Sho; Chiyomaru, You; Sassa, Fumihiro; Liu, Chuanjun; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2016-01-01

    Versatile odor sensors that can discriminate among huge numbers of environmental odorants are desired in many fields, including robotics, environmental monitoring, and food production. However, odor sensors comparable to an animal’s nose have not yet been developed. An animal’s olfactory system recognizes odor clusters with specific molecular properties and uses this combinatorial information in odor discrimination. This suggests that measurement and clustering of odor molecular properties (e.g., polarity, size) using an artificial sensor is a promising approach to odor sensing. Here, adsorbents composed of composite materials with molecular recognition properties were developed for odor sensing. The selectivity of the sensor depends on the adsorbent materials, so specific polymeric materials with particular solubility parameters were chosen to adsorb odorants with various properties. The adsorption properties of the adsorbents could be modified by mixing adsorbent materials. Moreover, a novel molecularly imprinted filtering adsorbent (MIFA), composed of an adsorbent substrate covered with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layer, was developed to improve the odor molecular recognition ability. The combination of the adsorbent and MIP layer provided a higher specificity toward target molecules. The MIFA thus provides a useful technique for the design and control of adsorbents with adsorption properties specific to particular odor molecules. PMID:27886070

  2. Hydrogen photoproduction in green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii sustainable over 2 weeks with the original cell culture without supply of fresh cells nor exchange of the whole culture medium.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Takafumi; Yamashita, Kyohei; Okada, Norihide; Isono, Takumi; Momose, Daisuke; Mineki, Shigeru; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    Unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are known to make hydrogen photoproduction under the anaerobic condition with water molecules as the hydrogen source. Since the hydrogen photoproduction occurs for a cell to circumvent crisis of its survival, it is only temporary. It is a challenge to realize persistent hydrogen production because the cells must withstand stressful conditions to survive with alternation of generations in the cell culture. In this paper, we have found a simple and cost-effective method to sustain the hydrogen production over 14 days in the original culture, without supply of fresh cells nor exchange of the culture medium. This is achieved for the cells under hydrogen production in a sulfur-deprived culture solution on the {anaerobic, intense light} condition in a desiccator, by periodically providing a short period of the recovery time (2 h) with a small amount of TAP(+S) supplied outside of the desiccator. As this operation is repeated, the response time of transition into hydrogen production (preparation time) is shortened and the rate of hydrogen production (build up time) is increased. The optimum states of these properties favorable to the hydrogen production are attained in a few days and stably sustained for more than 10 days. Since generations are alternated during this consecutive hydrogen production experiment, it is suggested that the improved hydrogen production properties are inherited to next generations without genetic mutation. The properties are reset only when the cells are placed on the {sulfur-sufficient, aerobic, moderate light} conditions for a long time (more than 1 day at least).

  3. Molecular profiling of activated olfactory neurons identifies odorant receptors for odors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue; Gong, Naihua Natalie; Hu, Xiaoyang Serene; Ni, Mengjue Jessica; Pasi, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system uses a large family of odorant receptors to detect and discriminate amongst a myriad of volatile odor molecules. Understanding odor coding requires comprehensive mapping between odorant receptors and corresponding odors. Here we present high–throughput in vivo identification of odorant receptor repertoires responding to odorants, using phosphorylated ribosome immunoprecipitation of mRNA from olfactory epithelium of odor–stimulated mice followed by RNA–Seq. This approach screens the endogenously expressed odorant receptors against an odor in one set of experiments, using awake and freely behaving mice. In combination with validations in a heterologous system, we identify sets of odorant receptors for two odorants, acetophenone and 2,5–dihydro–2,4,5–trimethylthiazoline (TMT), encompassing 69 odorant receptor–odorant pairs. We also identified shared amino acid residues specific to the acetophenone or TMT receptors, and developed models to predict receptor activation by acetophenone. This study provides a means to understand the combinatorial coding of odors in vivo. PMID:26322927

  4. Aroma constituents and alkylamides of red and green huajiao (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaogen

    2008-03-12

    Huajiao denotes the fruits of various species of Zanthoxylum in the plant family Rutaceare used for cooking. The two most commercially popular species are bungeanum (red huajiao) and schinifolium (green huajiao). Fresh huajiao has a very high content of essential oil, up to 11%, which is described as having fresh, spicy, floral, cooling, and green aroma notes. A comprehensive analysis of the essential oils by GC-MS using advanced peak deconvolution and data processing software, revealed many overlapping components. A total of 120 aroma compounds for each species has been found. In the essential oils, linalyl acetate (15%), linalool (13%), and limonene (12%) are the major components of red huajiao, whereas linalool (29%), limonene (14%), and sabinene (13%) are the major components of green huajiao. For estimation of the aroma contribution of individual components, a new concept, "aroma character impact value" (ACI), is introduced as the percentage of the ratio of the concentration of an aroma component to its odor threshold value. Despite the differences in major components, both species have six common compounds of top aroma character impact: linalool, alpha-terpineol, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, and geraniol. The tingling sensation of huajiao is caused mainly by the alkylamide hydroxy-alpha-sanshool. The tingling compound decomposes easily under hydrolytic conditions or under UV light.

  5. Characterization of epoxydecenal isomers as potent odorants in black tea (Dimbula) infusion.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Kenji; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2006-06-28

    In a black tea (Dimbula) infusion, the potent "sweet and/or juicy" odorants were identified as the cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenals by comparison of their gas chromatography retention indices, mass spectra, and odor quality to those of the actual synthetic compounds. Of the two odorants, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal has been identified for the first time in the black tea. On the basis of the aroma extract dilution analysis on the flavor distillate obtained using the solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique from the black tea infusion, these isomers showed higher flavor dilution (FD) factors. The FD factors and concentrations of these odorants in the black tea infusion were observed to be much higher than those from Japanese green tea. In addition, the model studies showed that these odorants were generated from linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides by heating, but the generated amounts of these odorants from linoleic acid were much less than those of its hydroperoxides. It can be assumed from these results that the withering and fermentation, which are characteristic processes during the manufacturing of the black tea, which includes the enzymatic reaction such as lipoxygenase, is one of the most important factors for the formation of the epoxydecenal isomers.

  6. Odor-induced changes in taste perception.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, J; Zatorre, R J; Jones-Gotman, M

    2004-12-01

    We investigated odor-induced changes in taste perception (OICTP), by examining the influence of strawberry and soy sauce odors on perceived sweetness (Experiment 1) and saltiness (Experiment 2). We explored whether taste-smell interactions occur at the central level, by delivering odorants (strawberry, soy sauce, odorless water) and tastants (sucrose, sodium chloride) separately, and whether effects of imagined odors are comparable to those of physically presented odors. We found specific taste-smell interactions: sweetness enhancement induced by strawberry odor and saltiness enhancement induced by soy sauce odor. These interactions were elicited with separate delivery of olfactory and gustatory stimuli. Secondly, we found a similar but rather limited effect with the imagined odors: imagined strawberry enhanced perceived sweetness of water solutions, and imagined soy sauce enhanced perceived saltiness of weak sodium chloride solutions. We concluded that OICTP is a centrally mediated phenomenon, and that imagined odors can to some extent induce changes in perceived taste intensity comparable to those elicited by perceived odors.

  7. Elaborated Odor Test for Extended Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Henry, Emily J.; Mast, Dion J.; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Tapia, Alma S.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns were raised when incidental exposure to a proprietary bonding material revealed the material had an irritating odor. The NASA-STD-6001B document describes a supplemental test method option for programs to evaluate materials with odor concerns (Test 6, Odor Assessment). In addition to the supplemental standard odor assessment with less than 10 seconds of exposure, the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Materials Flight Acceptance Testing section was requested to perform an odor test with an extended duration to evaluate effects of an extended exposure and to more closely simulate realistic exposure scenarios. With approval from the NASA Johnson Space Center Industrial Hygienist, WSTF developed a 15-minute odor test method. WSTF performed this extended-duration odor test to evaluate the odor and physical effects of the bonding material configured between two aluminum plates, after the safety of the gas was verified via toxicity analysis per NASA-STD-6001B Test 7, Determination of Offgassed Products. During extended-duration testing, odor panel members were arranged near the test material in a small room with the air handlers and doors closed to minimize dilution. The odor panel members wafted gas toward themselves and recorded their individual assessments of odor and physical effects at various intervals during the 15-minute exposure and posttest. A posttest interview was conducted to obtain further information. Testing was effective in providing data for comparison and selection of an optimal offgassing and odor containment configuration. The developed test method for extended exposure is proposed as a useful tool for further evaluating materials with identified odors of concern if continued use of the material is anticipated.

  8. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Sandra T.; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics. PMID:24860522

  9. A comparative study of odor identification and odor discrimination deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Boesveldt, Sanne; Verbaan, Dagmar; Knol, Dirk L; Visser, Martine; van Rooden, Stephanie M; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Berendse, Henk W

    2008-10-30

    The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of odor discrimination and odor identification deficits in a large population of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to determine which of these olfactory tests best distinguishes between patients with PD and control subjects. Olfactory performance was assessed in 404 patients with PD and 150 controls, using the odor identification and discrimination parts of the Sniffin' Sticks battery. Mean identification and discrimination scores in patients with PD were significantly lower than in controls. Linear regression analysis using a 95% confidence interval revealed that, relative to the performance of controls, 65.0% of patients with PD had an impairment in odor identification, whereas 42.1% of patients were impaired on the odor discrimination task. ROC curves revealed a higher sensitivity and specificity for odor identification than for odor discrimination in separating patients from controls. In patients with PD, odor discrimination performance decreased with increasing disease duration, whereas odor identification was not correlated with disease stage or duration. In PD, odor identification is more frequently impaired than odor discrimination and allows a better discrimination between patients and controls. Although an odor identification deficit is generally believed to be independent of disease progression, the impairment in odor discrimination appears to increase with disease duration.

  10. Androstadienone odor thresholds in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Thomas; Krone, Franziska; Lundström, Johan N; Bartsch, Oliver

    2005-03-01

    A sex-related difference in olfactory sensitivity to androstenone has been reported to occur during adolescence. More males than females exhibited anosmia to androstenone, or an increase in androstenone threshold with age. The current study addressed the question whether similar, sexually dimorphic effects of aging over puberty can also be found for androstadienone. A total of 102 subjects participated (36 females, 66 males). Similar to previous investigations, subjects were divided into a group of 47 individuals with a mean age of 13.3 years, defined as pre/peri-pubertal, and a group of 55 subjects with a mean age of 17.1 years, defined as post-pubertal. All subjects underwent tests for verbal abilities, general olfactory function, and measurements of androstadienone thresholds. The study provided the following major results: (1) Male subjects exhibited higher androstadienone sensitivity in the pre/peri-pubertal group as compared to the post-pubertal group. This difference was not observed in female subjects. Correspondingly, a negative correlation between age and androstadienone sensitivity was found for male subjects, but not for female subjects. (2) In contrast to this sex-specific change of the androstadienone odor threshold, verbal skills and odor identification abilities increased with age in all subjects regardless of their sex. In conclusion, the present observations confirm previous research on sex-differentiated effects of aging during puberty on sensitivity towards odorous steroids. While the underlying causes are unknown, it may be hypothesized that the decreased sensitivity could result from the increased endogenous levels of androstadienone in male subjects. Future studies should include both steroid and non-steroid odorants to further explore these age-related changes.

  11. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged cattle manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P < 0.001). In fresh manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) over no addition treatments when carbohydrate (starch or cellulose) was added, whereas starch and protein treatments to aged manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P < 0.001). Branched-chain VFA and aromatic compounds accumulated only in the aged manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would

  12. Odor Landscapes in Turbulent Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celani, Antonio; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Vergassola, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    The olfactory system of male moths is exquisitely sensitive to pheromones emitted by females and transported in the environment by atmospheric turbulence. Moths respond to minute amounts of pheromones, and their behavior is sensitive to the fine-scale structure of turbulent plumes where pheromone concentration is detectible. The signal of pheromone whiffs is qualitatively known to be intermittent, yet quantitative characterization of its statistical properties is lacking. This challenging fluid dynamics problem is also relevant for entomology, neurobiology, and the technological design of olfactory stimulators aimed at reproducing physiological odor signals in well-controlled laboratory conditions. Here, we develop a Lagrangian approach to the transport of pheromones by turbulent flows and exploit it to predict the statistics of odor detection during olfactory searches. The theory yields explicit probability distributions for the intensity and the duration of pheromone detections, as well as their spacing in time. Predictions are favorably tested by using numerical simulations, laboratory experiments, and field data for the atmospheric surface layer. The resulting signal of odor detections lends itself to implementation with state-of-the-art technologies and quantifies the amount and the type of information that male moths can exploit during olfactory searches.

  13. Odor Sampling: Techniques and Strategies for the Estimation of Odor Emission Rates from Different Source Types

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Rosso, Renato Del

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is one of the main issues pertaining to odor characterization and measurement. The aim of sampling is to obtain representative information on the typical characteristics of an odor source by means of the collection of a suitable volume fraction of the effluent. The most important information about an emission source for odor impact assessment is the so-called Odor Emission Rate (OER), which represents the quantity of odor emitted per unit of time, and is expressed in odor units per second (ou·s−1). This paper reviews the different odor sampling strategies adopted depending on source type. The review includes an overview of odor sampling regulations and a detailed discussion of the equipment to be used as well as the mathematical considerations to be applied to obtain the OER in relation to the sampled source typology. PMID:23322098

  14. Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, David; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) Each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction, and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor arrays. PMID:27102871

  15. Normalized Neural Representations of Complex Odors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory system removes correlations in natural odors using a network of inhibitory neurons in the olfactory bulb. It has been proposed that this network integrates the response from all olfactory receptors and inhibits them equally. However, how such global inhibition influences the neural representations of odors is unclear. Here, we study a simple statistical model of the processing in the olfactory bulb, which leads to concentration-invariant, sparse representations of the odor composition. We show that the inhibition strength can be tuned to obtain sparse representations that are still useful to discriminate odors that vary in relative concentration, size, and composition. The model reveals two generic consequences of global inhibition: (i) odors with many molecular species are more difficult to discriminate and (ii) receptor arrays with heterogeneous sensitivities perform badly. Comparing these predictions to experiments will help us to understand the role of global inhibition in shaping normalized odor representations in the olfactory bulb. PMID:27835696

  16. An odor flux model for cattle feedlots

    SciTech Connect

    Ormerod, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Odor nuisance associated with cattle feedlots has been an issue of major interest and concern to regulators, rural communities and the beef industry in Australia over the past decade. Methods of assessing the likely impacts of new feedlots on community odor exposure are still being developed, but in the past few years much has been learnt about the processes of odor generation, flux and dispersion as well as the acceptability of feedlot odor to exposed communities. This paper outlines a model which simulates the complex physical and chemical processes leading to odor emissions in a simple and practical framework. The model, named BULSMEL, has been developed as a response to regulatory requirements for quantitative assessments of odor impact. It will continue to be refined as more data are gathered.

  17. Odors Discrimination by Olfactory Epithelium Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Ye, Weiwei; Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Humans are exploring the bionic biological olfaction to sense the various trace components of gas or liquid in many fields. For achieving the goal, we endeavor to establish a bioelectronic nose system for odor detection by combining intact bioactive function units with sensors. The bioelectronic nose is based on the olfactory epithelium of rat and microelectrode array (MEA). The olfactory epithelium biosensor generates extracellular potentials in presence of odor, and presents obvious specificity under different odors condition. The odor response signals can be distinguished with each other effectively by signal sorting. On basis of bioactive MEA hybrid system and the improved signal processing analysis, the bioelectronic nose will realize odor discrimination by the specific feature of signals response to various odors.

  18. Radial localization of odors by human newborns.

    PubMed

    Rieser, J; Yonas, A; Wikner, K

    1976-09-01

    To study sensitivity to radial location of an odor source, 20 human newborns, ranging from 16 to 130 hours of age, were presented with a small amount of ammonium hydroxide. The odor source was placed near the nose slightly to the left or right of midline, with its position randomized over repeated trails. Direction of headturn with respect to the odor location and diffuse motor activity were scored from the videotape recordings of the newborns' behavior. It was found that as a group, the newborns turned away from the odor source more frequently than they turned toward it. The tendency to turn away from the odor was stronger in infants who displayed less motor activity after the response. Newborns also exhibited a right bias in the direction of the head movements. It is concluded that a spatially appropriate avoidance response is present in the neonate and that the newborn is innately sensitive to the radial location of an odor.

  19. Kraft Board Odor Evaluation by Gas Chromatography and Odor Judging Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenot, J. L.

    This is an experimental study which was undertaken to determine if a gas chromatographic technique could be used to measure paperboard odor levels. Because there are many variations to odor testing using a panel of judges - which is the generally accepted method - the author states that, obviously, an objective method for ascertaining odor levels…

  20. Characterization of odor emission on the working face of landfill and establishing of odorous compounds index.

    PubMed

    Wenjing, Lu; Zhenhan, Duan; Dong, Li; Jimenez, Luis Miguel Caicedo; Yanjun, Liu; Hanwen, Guo; Hongtao, Wang

    2015-08-01

    Temporal variation (seasonal and daily) of odor emission on the working face of a large sanitary landfill in China was characterized through a 2 yearlong case study. Odor pollution was most serious in spring and autumn, while lower odor concentrations were detected in summer and winter. The daily fluctuation of odor concentration on the working face showed that 2:00am, 6:00am, 2:00pm and 10:00pm were the "most probable times" for odor pollution occurrence, which deserves focused attention in odor control projects. Correlations analysis found that 41% of the variance in odor concentrations can be explained by the chemical concentrations of odorous compounds. Moreover, the selection criteria for the index of odorous compounds were also established by evaluating the odor concentration, contribution to odor strength and the frequency of each compound present in all the samples. Ethyl alcohol, α-piene, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, limonene, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, and diethyl sulfide comprise the index of odorous compounds on the working face of typical municipal solid waste landfill in China.

  1. Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

  2. Unpleasant odors increase aversion to monetary losses.

    PubMed

    Stancak, Andrej; Xie, Yuxin; Fallon, Nicholas; Bulsing, Patricia; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Pantelous, Athanasios A

    2015-04-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of equal nominal values. Unpleasant odors not only influence affective state but have also been shown to activate brain regions similar to those mediating loss aversion. Therefore, we hypothesized a stronger loss aversion in a monetary gamble task if gambles were associated with an unpleasant as opposed to pleasant odor. In thirty human subjects, unpleasant (methylmercaptan), pleasant (jasmine), and neutral (clean air) odors were presented for 4 s. At the same time, uncertain gambles offering an equal chance of gain or loss of a variable amount of money, or a prospect of an assured win were displayed. One hundred different gambles were presented three times, each time paired with a different odor. Loss aversion, risk aversion, and logit sensitivity were evaluated using non-linear fitting of individual gamble decisions. Loss aversion was larger when prospects were displayed in the presence of methylmercaptan compared to jasmine or clean air. Moreover, individual differences in changes in loss aversion to the unpleasant as compared to pleasant odor correlated with odor pleasantness but not with odor intensity. Skin conductance responses to losses during the outcome period were larger when gambles were associated with methylmercaptan compared to jasmine. Increased loss aversion while perceiving an unpleasant odor suggests a dynamic adjustment of loss aversion toward greater sensitivity to losses. Given that odors are biological signals of hazards, such adjustment of loss aversion may have adaptive value in situations entailing threat or danger.

  3. The value of an odor-quality-wheel classification scheme for wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Suffet, I H Mel; Burlingame, G A; Rosenfeld, P E; Bruchet, A

    2004-01-01

    Each odorant possesses a unique odor signature (i.e. odor character or quality, odor threshold and chemical concentration). This paper develops an initial understanding of how the volatile odorous chemicals and their relative concentrations produced are related to the total odor quality from the process by their odor threshold concentrations and odor signatures.

  4. Deodorant Characteristics of Breath Odor Occurred from Favorite Foods Using Metal Oxide Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Shuichi; Oyabu, Takashi; Cai, Kuiqian; Katsube, Teruaki

    Three types of metal oxide gas sensors were adopted to detect the degree of breath odor. Various sorts of information are included in the odor. Each sensor has different sensitivities to gaseous chemical substances and the sensitivities also differ according to human behaviors, for example taking a meal, teeth-brushing and drinking something. There is also a possibility that the sensor can detect degrees of daily fatigue. Sensor sensitivities were low for the expiration of the elderly when the subject drank green tea. In this study, it is thought that the odor system can be incorporated into a healing robot. The robot can communicate with the elderly using several words and also connect to Internet. As for the results, the robot can identify basic human behaviors and recognize the living conditions of the resident. Moreover, it can also execute a kind of information retrieval through the Internet. Therefore, it has healing capability for the aged, and can also receive and transmit information.

  5. Perceptual blending in odor mixtures depends on the nature of odorants and human olfactory expertise.

    PubMed

    Barkat, S; Le Berre, E; Coureaud, G; Sicard, G; Thomas-Danguin, T

    2012-02-01

    Our olfactory system is confronted with complex mixtures of odorants, often recognized as single entities due to odor blending (e.g., coffee). In contrast, we are also able to discriminate odors from complex mixtures (e.g., off-odors). Therefore, the olfactory system is able to engage either configural or elemental processes when confronted with mixtures. However, the rules that govern the involvement of these processes during odor perception remain poorly understood. In our first experiment, we examined whether simple odorant mixtures (binary/ternary) could elicit configural perception. Twenty untrained subjects were asked to evaluate the odor typicality of mixtures and their constituents. The results revealed a significant increase in odor typicality in some but not all mixtures as compared with the single components, which suggest that perceptual odor blending can occur only in specific mixtures (configural processing). In our second experiment, we tested the hypothesis that general olfactory expertise can improve elemental perception of mixtures. Thirty-two trained subjects evaluated the odor typicality of the stimuli presented during the first experiment, and their responses were compared with those obtained from the untrained panelists. The results support the idea that general training with odors increases the elemental perception of binary and ternary blending mixtures.

  6. The Odor Awareness Scale: a new scale for measuring positive and negative odor awareness.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Monique A M; Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Boelema, Sarai R; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty

    2008-10-01

    The Odor Awareness Scale (OAS) is a questionnaire designed to assess individual differences in awareness of odors in the environment. The theory that odor awareness can be distinguished in awareness of negative (to be avoided) odors and positive (to be approached) odors was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the 34-item questionnaire after completion by 525 respondents. CFA (after deletion of 2 items) showed good fit of the 2-factor theory, resulting in a positive awareness subscale (11 items, Cronbach's alpha = .77) and a negative awareness subscale (21 items, Cronbach's alpha = .80). Furthermore, reports of sickness from environmental odors were correlated with the negative odor awareness factor, not the positive odor awareness factor. Respondents scoring high on the overall sum score of the OAS showed significantly better olfactory performance on an odor perception test battery than respondents with a low score. These results suggest a causal relation between awareness of potentially negative odors, olfactory performance and experiencing health effects from environmental odor exposure, that warrants further investigation.

  7. Sparse, Decorrelated Odor Coding in the Mushroom Body Enhances Learned Odor Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Andrew C.; Bygrave, Alexei; de Calignon, Alix; Lee, Tzumin; Miesenböck, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sparse coding may be a general strategy of neural systems to augment memory capacity. In Drosophila, sparse odor coding by the Kenyon cells of the mushroom body is thought to generate a large number of precisely addressable locations for the storage of odor-specific memories. However, it remains untested how sparse coding relates to behavioral performance. Here we demonstrate that sparseness is controlled by a negative feedback circuit between Kenyon cells and the GABAergic anterior paired lateral (APL) neuron. Systematic activation and blockade of each leg of this feedback circuit show that Kenyon cells activate APL and APL inhibits Kenyon cells. Disrupting the Kenyon cell-APL feedback loop decreases the sparseness of Kenyon cell odor responses, increases inter-odor correlations, and prevents flies from learning to discriminate similar, but not dissimilar, odors. These results suggest that feedback inhibition suppresses Kenyon cell activity to maintain sparse, decorrelated odor coding and thus the odor-specificity of memories. PMID:24561998

  8. Changes in key odorants of raw coffee beans during storage under defined conditions.

    PubMed

    Scheidig, Claudia; Czerny, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-07-11

    During storage of raw coffee beans (green coffee) atypical odors may develop, which are suggested to influence the aroma of particularly the coffee beverage. To gain insight into the aroma compounds responsible for such odor changes, a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis was applied on unstored, raw Arabica coffee beans from Colombia (water content=11.75%) and on the same beans with a water content of 13.5%, which were stored for 9 months at 40 degrees C. In combination with the flavor dilution (FD) factors, the results of the identification experiments showed strong increases in (E)-beta-damascenone (cooked apple-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and methyl 2-methyl- and methyl 3-methylbutanoate (fruity), whereas others, such as the earthy smelling 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine as well as 2-phenylethanol and 3-methoxyphenol, remained unchanged during storage. In addition, the previously unknown coffee odorant 2-methoxy-5-vinylphenol (intense smoky odor) increased significantly during storage. Quantitative measurements performed on raw coffee samples stored at various temperatures, water contents, and oxygen availabilities indicated that the significant increase of, in particular, the methyl esters of 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid were responsible for the pronounced and fruity odor quality perceived in the stored green coffee, whereas the higher concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 2-methoxy-5-vinylphenol led to the more pronounced smoky, clove-like odor quality. On the basis of the results obtained, in particular the reduction of the water content in combination with lower temperatures can be suggested to avoid aroma changes in raw coffee beans caused by storage.

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  10. Predicting odor pleasantness with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Rafi; Medhanie, Abebe; Roth, Yehudah; Harel, David; Sobel, Noam

    2010-04-15

    A primary goal for artificial nose (eNose) technology is to report perceptual qualities of novel odors. Currently, however, eNoses primarily detect and discriminate between odorants they previously "learned". We tuned an eNose to human odor pleasantness estimates. We then used the eNose to predict the pleasantness of novel odorants, and tested these predictions in naïve subjects who had not participated in the tuning procedure. We found that our apparatus generated odorant pleasantness ratings with above 80% similarity to average human ratings, and with above 90% accuracy at discriminating between categorically pleasant or unpleasant odorants. Similar results were obtained in two cultures, native Israeli and native Ethiopian, without retuning of the apparatus. These findings suggest that unlike in vision and audition, in olfaction there is a systematic predictable link between stimulus structure and stimulus pleasantness. This goes in contrast to the popular notion that odorant pleasantness is completely subjective, and may provide a new method for odor screening and environmental monitoring, as well as a critical building block for digital transmission of smell.

  11. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  16. Age-Related Changes in Odor Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Mahmut, Mehmet; Sundqvist, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Odor naming and recognition memory are poorer in children than in adults. This study explored whether such differences might result from poorer discriminative ability. Experiment 1 used an oddity test of discrimination with familiar odors on 6-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults. Six-year-olds were significantly poorer at discrimination relative…

  17. Predicting Odor Pleasantness with an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Rafi; Medhanie, Abebe; Roth, Yehudah; Harel, David; Sobel, Noam

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal for artificial nose (eNose) technology is to report perceptual qualities of novel odors. Currently, however, eNoses primarily detect and discriminate between odorants they previously “learned”. We tuned an eNose to human odor pleasantness estimates. We then used the eNose to predict the pleasantness of novel odorants, and tested these predictions in naïve subjects who had not participated in the tuning procedure. We found that our apparatus generated odorant pleasantness ratings with above 80% similarity to average human ratings, and with above 90% accuracy at discriminating between categorically pleasant or unpleasant odorants. Similar results were obtained in two cultures, native Israeli and native Ethiopian, without retuning of the apparatus. These findings suggest that unlike in vision and audition, in olfaction there is a systematic predictable link between stimulus structure and stimulus pleasantness. This goes in contrast to the popular notion that odorant pleasantness is completely subjective, and may provide a new method for odor screening and environmental monitoring, as well as a critical building block for digital transmission of smell. PMID:20418961

  18. Functional Neuronal Processing of Human Body Odors

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Johan N.; Olsson, Mats J.

    2013-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life. PMID:20831940

  19. Characterization of odor released during handling of swine slurry: Part II. Effect of production type, storage and physicochemical characteristics of the slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanes-Vidal, V.; Hansen, M. N.; Adamsen, A. P. S.; Feilberg, A.; Petersen, S. O.; Jensen, B. B.

    The quality of rural life can be affected by offensive odors released from animal buildings and storage units. The objectives of this study were to compare the concentrations of odor and odorants above different types of stirred swine slurry to analyze the relationships between concentrations of odor (and odorants) and physicochemical characteristics of the slurry (i.e. pH, temperature, dry matter, volatile solids, and concentration of 22 chemical compounds); and to propose predictive models for the odor concentration (OC) based on these physicochemical characteristics (solely and in combination with concentrations of specific odorants in the air above the slurries). The study comprised data on concentrations of odor and odorants in the air above slurry samples (fresh and/or stored) collected from production units with farrowing sows, finishing swines, or weaning pigs at eight swine operations ( N = 48). OC measured in the air above stirred swine slurry samples were not significantly different among production types or storage times. The physicochemical characteristics of the slurries were not useful for predicting OC or concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (or organic sulfides) above the slurry, but were related to concentrations of other emitted gases such as phenols and indoles ( r2 = 0.65-0.79, p <0.05), ammonia ( r2 = 0.86, p < 0.05) and carboxylic acids ( r2 = 0.23-0.59, p <0.05). There was good precision of predictive models of OC based on selected slurry characteristics (i.e. pH, dry matter, nitrogen content, sulfur content or concentrations of individual aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids) together with concentrations of specific odorants in the air (e.g. hydrogen sulfide) ( r2 between 0.70 and 0.92). This study suggests that predictive models could be useful for evaluating odor nuisance potentials of swine slurry during handling.

  20. Cortical Odor Processing in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Donald A.; Xu, Wenjin; Sadrian, Benjamin; Courtiol, Emmanuelle; Cohen, Yaniv; Barnes, Dylan C.

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system has a rich cortical representation, including a large archicortical component present in most vertebrates, and in mammals neocortical components including the entorhinal and orbitofrontal cortices. Together, these cortical components contribute to normal odor perception and memory. They help transform the physicochemical features of volatile molecules inhaled or exhaled through the nose into the perception of odor objects with rich associative and hedonic aspects. This chapter focuses on how olfactory cortical areas contribute to odor perception and begins to explore why odor perception is so sensitive to disease and pathology. Odor perception is disrupted by a wide range of disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, depression, autism, and early life exposure to toxins. This olfactory deficit often occurs despite maintained functioning in other sensory systems. Does the unusual network of olfactory cortical structures contribute to this sensitivity? PMID:24767487

  1. Study of odor recorder using Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Tomohiro; Nakamoto, Takamichi; Moriizumi, Toyosaka

    It is necessary to determine the recipe of a target odor with sufficient accuracy to realize an odor recorder for recording and reproducing it. We studied the recipe measurement method of a target odor using a mass spectrometry. It was confirmed that the linear superposition was valid when the binary mixture of the apple-flavor components such as isobutyric acid and ethyl valerate was measured. The superposition of a mass spectrum pattern may enable the recipe determination of a multi-component odor easily. In this research, we succeeded in the recipe determinations of orange flavor made up of 14 component odors when its typical recipe, the equalized, the citral-enhanced and the citronellol-enhanced ones were measured.

  2. Odor identification in frontotemporal lobar degeneration subtypes.

    PubMed

    Magerova, Hana; Vyhnalek, Martin; Laczo, Jan; Andel, Ross; Rektorova, Irena; Kadlecova, Alexandra; Bojar, Martin; Hort, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    Odor identification impairment is a feature of several neurodegenerative disorders. Although neurodegenerative changes in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) subtypes involve areas important for olfactory processing, data on olfactory function in these patients are limited. An 18-item, multiple-choice odor identification test developed at our memory clinic, the Motol Hospital smell test, was administered to 9 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, 13 patients with the language variants, primary nonfluent aphasia (n = 7) and semantic dementia (n = 6), and 8 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. Compared to the control group (n = 15), all FTLD subgroups showed significant impairment of odor identification (P < .05). The differences between the FTLD subgroups were not significant. No correlation between odor identification and neuropsychological tests results was found. Our data suggest that odor identification impairment is a symptom common to FTLD syndromes, and it seems to be based on olfactory structure damage rather than cognitive decline.

  3. Sensing odorants and pheromones with chemosensory receptors.

    PubMed

    Touhara, Kazushige; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2009-01-01

    Olfaction is a critical sensory modality that allows living things to acquire chemical information from the external world. The olfactory system processes two major classes of stimuli: (a) general odorants, small molecules derived from food or the environment that signal the presence of food, fire, or predators, and (b) pheromones, molecules released from individuals of the same species that convey social or sexual cues. Chemosensory receptors are broadly classified, by the ligands that activate them, into odorant or pheromone receptors. Peripheral sensory neurons expressing either odorant or pheromone receptors send signals to separate odor- and pheromone-processing centers in the brain to elicit distinct behavioral and neuroendocrinological outputs. General odorants activate receptors in a combinatorial fashion, whereas pheromones activate narrowly tuned receptors that activate sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the brain. We review recent progress on chemosensory receptor structure, function, and circuitry in vertebrates and invertebrates from the point of view of the molecular biology and physiology of these sensory systems.

  4. A statistical property of fly odor responses is conserved across odors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    I have reanalyzed the data presented by Hallem and Carlson [Hallem EA, Carlson JR (2006) Cell 125(1):143–160] and shown that the combinatorial odor code supplied by the fruit fly antenna is a very simple one in which nearly all odors produce, statistically, the same neuronal response; i.e., the probability distribution of sensory neuron firing rates across the population of odorant sensory neurons is an exponential for nearly all odors and odor mixtures, with the mean rate dependent on the odor concentration. Between odors, then, the response differs according to which sensory neurons are firing at what individual rates and with what mean population rate, but not in the probability distribution of firing rates. This conclusion is independent of adjustable parameters, and holds both for monomolecular odors and complex mixtures. Because the circuitry in the antennal lobe constrains the mean firing rate to be the same for all odors and concentrations, the odor code is what is known as maximum entropy. PMID:27247407

  5. An odor interaction model of binary odorant mixtures by a partial differential equation method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Wang, Guihua; Wu, Chuandong

    2014-07-09

    A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE) method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method) of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture's odor intensity to the individual odorant's relative odor activity value (OAV). Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors) also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.

  6. Natural Variation in Odorant Recognition Among Odorant-Binding Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Lyman, Richard F.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.; Anholt, Robert R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical recognition is essential for survival and reproduction. Adaptive evolution has resulted in diverse chemoreceptor families, in which polymorphisms contribute to individual variation in chemosensation. To gain insights into the genetic determinants of individual variation in odorant recognition, we measured olfactory responses to two structurally similar odorants in a population of wild-derived inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are the first components of the insect olfactory system to encounter odorants. Previously four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Obp99 group were associated with variation in olfactory responses to benzaldehyde. Here, we identify six different SNPs that are associated with variation in responses to a structurally similar odorant, acetophenone, in the same Obp genes. Five SNPs are in coding regions of Obp99b and Obp99d and one SNP is in the 3′-untranslated region of Obp99a (A610G). We found that the 610G allele is associated with higher response scores to acetophenone than the 610A allele, but with lower expression of Obp99a, suggesting that binding of acetophenone to Opb99a might limit rather than facilitate access to odorant receptors. Our results show that overlapping sets of OBPs contribute to odorant recognition for structurally similar odorants, but that different SNPs are associated with odorant-specific individual variation. Thus, dual olfactory recognition where OBPs regulate odorant access to receptors may enhance olfactory discrimination. PMID:20026676

  7. Characterization of odor-active compounds in extracts obtained by simultaneous extraction/distillation from moroccan black olives.

    PubMed

    Collin, Sonia; Nizet, Sabrina; Muls, Sophie; Iraqi, Rafika; Bouseta, Amina

    2008-05-14

    "Greek-style" Moroccan black table olives were screened for potent odorants by GC/olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis of representative Likens-Nickerson extracts and compared with "Spanish-style" green fruits. ( Z)-3-Hexenal, ( E, E)-2,4-decadienal, ( E, Z)-2,4-decadienal, guaiacol, and methional were found in both green and black olives, but with significant differences in concentration according to the fruit ripening degree (the first was lower and the last two were higher in black fruits). Specific compounds not previously detected in green olives (gamma-deca- and dodecalactones, delta-decalactone, and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol) proved to be, with methional, the strongest odors in black olive extracts. These extracts were also distinguishable from green olive extracts by the presence of new sulfur compounds and fewer terpenes.

  8. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  9. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  10. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  11. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  12. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  13. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from cattle feedlots negatively affect air quality in local communities. The purpose of this study was to identifying key odorants using both analytical (odor activity values, OAV) and gas chromatrography GC-O (olfactometry) techniques, compare odor threshold databases, and track the movement ...

  14. Volatile organic compounds of six French Dryopteris species: natural odorous and bioactive resources.

    PubMed

    Froissard, Didier; Rapior, Sylvie; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Fruchier, Alain; Buatois, Bruno; Fons, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Aerial parts of six Dryopteris species collected in France were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the first time. Fifty-three biosynthesized VOC from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Many bioactive polyketide compounds as filicinic derivatives (from 8.5 to 23.5%) and phloroglucinol derivatives (from 8.2 to 53.8%) with various pharmacological activities were detected in high amount from five analysed Dryopteris species, in particular D. oreades and D. borreri, i.e., propionylfilicinic acid (> 10% in D. affinis and D. ardechensis) and 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methylbutyrophenone (aspidinol) (19.1% and 14.6% in D. oreades and D. borreri, respectively). Several terpenic derivatives with a low odor threshold were identified, i.e., carota-5,8-diene (from 2.5 to 18.4%: floral, woody or fresh bark note), (E)-nerolidol (> 10% for D. borreri and D. cambrensis; floral or woody odor), alpha-selinene (> 7% for D. ardechensis; woody-spicy odor), and aristolene (12.8% in D. affinis; flower, sweet odor). The main isoprenoid derivatives were 4-hydroxy-5,6-epoxyionol, 3-oxo-alpha-ionol and 4-oxo-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionone (essentially in D. remota), whereas the main aromatic compound was 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone (20.6% and 12.6% in D. cambrensis and D. borreri, respectively) and the main lipid derivative was 1-octen-3-ol with a mushroom-like odor (from 0.4 to 8.3%). Dryopteris species resources are of great interest as a reservoir of odorous and bioactive compounds.

  15. Effects of odor on emotion, with implications

    PubMed Central

    Kadohisa, Mikiko

    2013-01-01

    The sense of smell is found widely in the animal kingdom. Human and animal studies show that odor perception is modulated by experience and/or physiological state (such as hunger), and that some odors can arouse emotion, and can lead to the recall of emotional memories. Further, odors can influence psychological and physiological states. Individual odorants are mapped via gene-specified receptors to corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, which directly projects to the piriform cortex and the amygdala without a thalamic relay. The odors to which a glomerulus responds reflect the chemical structure of the odorant. The piriform cortex and the amygdala both project to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) which with the amygdala is involved in emotion and associative learning, and to the entorhinal/hippocampal system which is involved in long-term memory including episodic memory. Evidence that some odors can modulate emotion and cognition is described, and the possible implications for the treatment of psychological problems, for example in reducing the effects of stress, are considered. PMID:24124415

  16. Bleaching process preferred to decontaminate odorants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The problem of decontaminating and disposing of out-of-service gas odorizers has long faced both gas transmission and distribution companies since the early 1980s. Finding a methodology to safely and effectively decontaminate odorant-contaminated equipment has caused many companies to simply cap the equipment and put it in storage. The recommended process of decontamination by odorant manufacturers is currently a bleaching-type process. A sodium hypochlorite solution is added to water and either circulated or left standing in the contaminated equipment. The sodium hypochlorite effectively neutralizes the smell of the odorant and slightly corrodes the inside of the equipment to neutralize any odorant which has permeated the metal. The waste sodium hypochlorite and water is then shipped as hazardous waste (pH of 12.5) or non-hazardous waste after the pH has been adjusted. The bleaching process has proven cost-effective and less time-consuming than most other methods including bioremediation. To effectively use it, there are several problems to overcome--most importantly the removal of residual product and the release of vapors into the atmosphere. River Valley Technologies, a contractor located in Cincinnati, OH, specializing in odorant-equipment decontamination, has developed several methods and engineering controls to eliminate most of the problems associated with decontaminating odorant equipment. The paper describes these methods.

  17. Odor and pheromone detection in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean P

    2007-08-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful model system to probe the mechanisms underlying the detection, discrimination, and perception of volatile odorants. The relatively small receptor repertoire of 62 odorant receptors makes the goal of understanding odor responses from the total receptor repertoire approachable in this system, and recent work has been directed toward this goal. In addition, new work not only sheds light but also raises more questions about the initial steps in odor perception in this system. Odorant receptor genes in Drosophila are predicted to encode seven transmembrane receptors, but surprising data suggest that these receptors may be inverted in the plasma membrane compared to classical G-protein coupled receptors. Finally, although some Drosophila odorant receptors are activated directly by odorant molecules, detection of a volatile pheromone, 11-cis vaccenyl acetate requires an extracellular adapter protein called LUSH for activation of pheromone sensitive neurons. Because pheromones are used by insects to trigger mating and other behaviors, these insights may herald new approaches to control behavior in pathogenic and agricultural pest insects.

  18. Odor sensing for robot guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveza, Reimundo; Thiel, David; Russell, Andrew; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    1994-06-01

    There is no generally applicable technique for finding the position of an autonomous mobile robot operating in an unstructured or varying environment. This article describes a project to investigate the use of short-lived navigational markers consisting of olfactory chemicals to guide mobile robots and to help them search and explore efficiently. Such a method of laying a trail to mark the path of a robot provides differential navigational information relative to the starting point and starting direction. Many insects employ olfactory cues as navigation aids and to improve their efficiency when searching for food. Three scenarios are proposed in which navigational markers can be of assistance to a mobile robot. The design and characteristics of an adsorbed mass olfactory sensor are described. This sensor was designed to be mounted on a mobile robot and is suitable for detecting and tracking olfactory chemicals. The performance of this sensor is described together with preliminary results of using it to track an odor trail.

  19. Mapping odor valence in the brain of flies and mice.

    PubMed

    Knaden, Markus; Hansson, Bill S

    2014-02-01

    Why are some odors perceived as pleasant while others are not? We review current research on how pleasant and unpleasant odors, that is, odors with positive or negative valence, are processed in the brain of flies and mice. We conclude that in mice pleasant and unpleasant odors are detected via three olfactory subsystems with only one being fully dedicated to unpleasant odors, while the others detect both good and bad odors. Correspondingly, so far no clear segmentation into regions processing exclusively pleasant or unpleasant odors has been identified in the mouse brain. The situation is different in flies, where most odors are sensed via the antenna. Already at the antennal lobe level, that is, the first processing center for olfactory input, odorants seem to be categorized as pleasant or unpleasant. We furthermore discuss why animals at all should make a decision based on olfaction, and why a straightforward and fast processing of odorant valence might be important for survival and reproduction.

  20. Mammalian odorant receptors: functional evolution and variation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the perception of smell starts with the activation of odorant receptors (ORs) by volatile molecules in the environment. The mammalian OR repertoire has been subject to rapid evolution, and is highly diverse within the human population. Recent advances in the functional expression and ligand identification of ORs allow for functional analysis of OR evolution, and reveal that changes in OR protein sequences translate into high degrees of functional variations. Moreover, in several cases the functional variation of a single OR affects the perception of its cognate odor ligand, providing clues as to how an odor is coded at the receptor level. PMID:25660959

  1. Fabrication of Odor Sensor Using Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokebuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kenshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ronggang; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    We report fabrication of an odor sensor using peptides. Peptides were designed to acquire the specific reception for a target odor molecule. Au surface of the sensor electrode was coated by the designed peptide using the method of self assembled monolayers (SAMs). Functionalized Au surfaces by the peptides were confirmed by ellipsometry and cyclic voltammetry. The odorants of vanillin, phenethyl alcohol and hexanol were discriminated by QCM sensor with the peptide surface. Moreover, we verified specific interaction between amino acid (Trp) and vanillin by fluorescence assay.

  2. Molecular basis of odor detection in insects.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Olfactory systems are evolutionarily ancient, underlying the common requirement for all animals to sense and respond to diverse volatile chemical signals in their environment. Odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) that, in most olfactory systems, comprise large families of divergent G protein-coupled receptors. Here, I discuss our and others' recent investigations of ORs in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which have revealed insights into the distinct evolutionary origin and molecular function of insect ORs. I also describe a bioinformatics strategy that we developed to identify molecules that function with these insect-specific receptors in odor detection.

  3. Predicting the response of olfactory sensory neurons to odor mixtures from single odor response

    PubMed Central

    Marasco, Addolorata; De Paris, Alessandro; Migliore, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The response of olfactory receptor neurons to odor mixtures is not well understood. Here, using experimental constraints, we investigate the mathematical structure of the odor response space and its consequences. The analysis suggests that the odor response space is 3-dimensional, and predicts that the dose-response curve of an odor receptor can be obtained, in most cases, from three primary components with specific properties. This opens the way to an objective procedure to obtain specific olfactory receptor responses by manipulating mixtures in a mathematically predictable manner. This result is general and applies, independently of the number of odor components, to any olfactory sensory neuron type with a response curve that can be represented as a sigmoidal function of the odor concentration. PMID:27053070

  4. Predicting the response of olfactory sensory neurons to odor mixtures from single odor response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Addolorata; de Paris, Alessandro; Migliore, Michele

    2016-04-01

    The response of olfactory receptor neurons to odor mixtures is not well understood. Here, using experimental constraints, we investigate the mathematical structure of the odor response space and its consequences. The analysis suggests that the odor response space is 3-dimensional, and predicts that the dose-response curve of an odor receptor can be obtained, in most cases, from three primary components with specific properties. This opens the way to an objective procedure to obtain specific olfactory receptor responses by manipulating mixtures in a mathematically predictable manner. This result is general and applies, independently of the number of odor components, to any olfactory sensory neuron type with a response curve that can be represented as a sigmoidal function of the odor concentration.

  5. Different time course of emotion regulation towards odors and pictures: are odors more potent than pictures?

    PubMed

    Adolph, Dirk; Pause, Bettina M

    2012-09-01

    The present study assessed emotion regulation in response to chemosensory and visual stimuli. Using cognitive reappraisal, 40 female participants regulated their emotions in response to disgusting pictures and odors, while the startle reflex was elicited and emotion ratings were assessed. Participants reported feeling less negative, and less aroused, while down-regulating their emotions towards both odors and pictures. Although being rated as equally negative and arousing, odor presentations were accompanied by larger startle responses than picture presentations. Furthermore, as compared to pictures emotion regulation towards odors followed a strikingly different time course suggesting less effective emotion regulation in response to disgusting odors. Questionnaire data show that differences between emotion regulation outcome towards odors was not attributable to different regulation strategies used. Thus, the current data suggest a unique role of olfaction in emotion perception, and show that cognitive emotion regulation - although being generally effective - may also be limited.

  6. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: part 1 - project overview, collection methods, and quality control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock facilities have historically generated public concerns due to their emissions of odorous air and various chemical pollutants. Odor emission factors and identification of principal odorous chemicals are needed to better understand the problem. Applications of odor emission factors include i...

  7. Odor composition analysis and odor indicator selection during sewage sludge composting

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan-li; Zheng, Guo-di; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-bin; Wu, Fang-kun; Niu, Ming-jie; Zou, Ke-hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On the basis of total temperature increase, normal dehydration, and maturity, the odor compositions of surface and internal piles in a well-run sewage sludge compost plant were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with a liquid nitrogen cooling system and a portable odor detector. Approximately 80 types of substances were detected, including 2 volatile inorganic compounds, 4 sulfur organic compounds, 16 benzenes, 27 alkanes, 15 alkenes, and 19 halogenated compounds. Most pollutants were mainly produced in the mesophilic and pre-thermophilic periods. The sulfur volatile organic compounds contributed significantly to odor and should be controlled primarily. Treatment strategies should be based on the properties of sulfur organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, and carbon disulfide were selected as core indicators. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and isopentane were designated as concentration indicators. Benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, dimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylbenzene were selected as health indicators. According to the principle of odor pollution indicator selection, dimethyl disulfide was selected as an odor pollution indicator of sewage sludge composting. Monitoring dimethyl disulfide provides a highly scientific method for modeling and evaluating odor pollution from sewage sludge composting facilities. Implications: Composting is one of the most important methods for sewage sludge treatment and improving the low organic matter content of many agricultural soils. However, odors are inevitably produced during the composting process. Understanding the production and emission patterns of odors is important for odor control and treatment. Core indicators, concentration indicators, and health indicators provide an index

  8. Odor-induced mood state modulates language comprehension by affecting processing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Zhou, Bin; Zhou, Wen; Yang, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    It is controversial whether mood affects cognition by triggering specific processing strategies or by limiting processing resources. The current event-related potential (ERP) study pursued this issue by examining how mood modulates the processing of task relevant/irrelevant information. In question-answer pairs, a question context marked a critical word in the answer sentence as focus (and thus relevant) or non-focus (thereby irrelevant). At the same time, participants were exposed to either a pleasant or unpleasant odor to elicit different mood states. Overall, we observed larger N400s when the critical words in the answer sentences were semantically incongruent (rather than congruent) with the question context. However, such N400 effect was only found for focused words accompanied by a pleasant odor and for both focused and non-focused words accompanied by an unpleasant odor, but not for non-focused words accompanied by a pleasant odor. These results indicate top-down attentional shift to the focused information in a positive mood state and non-selective attention allocated to the focused and non-focused information in a less positive mood state, lending support to the “processing strategy” hypothesis. By using a novel approach to induce mood states, our study provides fresh insights into the mechanisms underlying mood modulation of language comprehension. PMID:27796356

  9. Odor Generation in the Kraft Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnofski, Michael A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the chemical compounds responsible for the odor generated in the Kraft process of pulping wood chips; this subject can be used as a relevant topic in introductory chemistry, especially environmental chemistry. (MLH)

  10. Ontogeny of Odor-LiCl vs. Odor-Shock Learning: Similar Behaviors but Divergent Ages of Functional Amygdala Emergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raineki, Charlis; Shionoya, Kiseko; Sander, Kristin; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Both odor-preference and odor-aversion learning occur in perinatal pups before the maturation of brain structures that support this learning in adults. To characterize the development of odor learning, we compared three learning paradigms: (1) odor-LiCl (0.3M; 1% body weight, ip) and (2) odor-1.2-mA shock (hindlimb, 1sec)--both of which…

  11. Selectivity of Odorant Receptors in Insects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-13

    characterization of the Aedes aegypti odorant receptor gene family. Insect Mol. Biol. 16, 525–537. Bohbot, J. D., and Dickens, J. C. (2009). Characterization of an...enantioselective odorant receptor in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti . PLoS ONE 4, e7032. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007032 Bohbot, J. D., and...Dickens, J. C. (2011). Functional characteri- zation of the octenol receptor neuron on the maxillary palps of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

  12. Composting public health aspects: Odors and bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.

    1995-09-01

    The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.

  13. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  14. Odor investigation of a Portland cement plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pleus, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    The main concern expressed by Smithville residents is whether the odors they were smelling during odor events were due to chemicals that could cause adverse health effects. Odors were allegedly emanating from the town`s Portland cement plant. The purpose of the study was to measure the ambient air for 20 reduced sulfur, 50 volatile organic compounds, and air samples for olfactometric analysis. Carbonyl sulfide was found to be at a concentration that could create a sense of odor and irritation. This sense of irritation may be due to a physiological response by the central nervous system, and is not associated with any known adverse effects. This physiological response could account for some or all of the irritation experienced by residents during odor events. Comparing chemical concentrations that were detected in air samples to standard and recognized guidelines for acceptable exposure, all measured concentrations were found to be well below the acceptable criteria. From these data the authors conclude that no acute or chronic adverse health effects are expected at the concentrations of the chemicals detected downwind of the cement plant, either routinely or during odor events.

  15. Odorant and pheromone receptors in insects.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tal Soo; Smith, Dean P

    2009-01-01

    Since the emergence of the first living cells, survival has hinged on the ability to detect and localize chemicals in the environment. Modern animal species ranging from insects to mammals express large odorant receptor repertoires to detect the structurally diverse array of volatile molecules important for survival. Despite the essential nature of chemical detection, there is surprising diversity in the signaling mechanisms that different species use for odorant detection. In vertebrates, odorant receptors are classical G-protein coupled, seven transmembrane receptors that activate downstream effector enzymes that, in turn, produce second messengers that open ion channels. However, recent work reveals that insects have adopted different strategies to detect volatile chemicals. In Drosophila, the odorant receptors, predicted to have seven transmembrane domains, have reversed membrane topology compared to classical G-protein coupled receptors. Furthermore, insect odorant receptors appear to form odorant-gated ion channels. Pheromone detection in insects is even more unusual, utilizing soluble, extracellular receptors that undergo conformational activation. These alternate olfactory signaling strategies are discussed in terms of receptor design principles.

  16. Comparative Study of the Volatile Components of Fresh and Fermented Flowers of Alnus sieboldiana (Betulaceae).

    PubMed

    Ab Ghani, Nurunajah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the volatile components present in the fresh male and female flowers and young leaves shows that 2-phenylethanol is the major component in all these three organs, which play a significant role in the strong resinous aromatic odor. The male flowers contained styrene as a second major compound. The level of styrene does not affect the male flowers odor concentration. The level of β-phenylethyl cinnamate and trans-methyl cinnamate in the fermented male flowers decreased as the fermentation time increased. This was due to the Penicillium enzymatic action on the fermented male flowers.

  17. Treatment of taste and odor material by oxidation and adsorption.

    PubMed

    Jung, S W; Baek, K H; Yu, M J

    2004-01-01

    Massive blooms of blue-green algae in reservoirs produce the musty-earthy taste and odor, which are caused by compounds such as 2-MIB and geosmin. 2-MIB and geosmin are rarely removed by conventional water treatment. Their presence in the drinking water, even at low levels (ng/L), can be detected and it creates consumer complaints. So those concentrations have to be controlled as low as possible in the drinking water. The removals by oxidation (O3, Cl2, ClO2) and adsorption (PAC, filter/adsorber) were studied at laboratory and pilot plant (50 m3/d) to select suitable 2-MIB and geosmin treatment processes. The following conclusions were derived from the study. Both of the threshold odor levels for 2-MIB and geosmin appeared to be 30 ng/L as a consequence of a lab test. For any given PAC dosage in a jar-test, removal efficiencies of 2-MIB and geosmin were increased in proportion to PAC dosage and were independent of their initial concentration in raw water for the tested PAC dosages. In comparison of geosmin with 2-MIB, the adsorption efficiency of geosmin by PAC was superior to that of 2-MIB. The required PAC dosages to control below the threshold odor level were 30 mg/L for geosmin and 50 mg/L for 2-MIB at 100 ng/L of initial concentration. Removal efficiencies of odor materials by Cl2, ClO2, and O3 were very weak under the limited dosage (1.5 mg/L), however increased ozone dosage (3.8 mg O3/L) showed high removal efficiency (84.8% for 2-MIB) at contact time 6.4 minutes. According to the initial concentrations of 2-MIB and geosmin, their removal efficiencies by filter/adsorber differed from 25.7% to 88.4%. For all those, however, remaining concentrations of target materials in finished waters were maintained below 30 ng/L. The longer run-time given for the filter/adsorber, the higher the effluent concentration generated. So it is necessary that the run-time of the filter/adsorber be decreased, when 2-MIB or geosmin occurs in raw water.

  18. Neonatal Odor-Shock Conditioning Alters the Neural Network Involved in Odor Fear Learning at Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevelinges, Yannick; Sullivan, Regina M.; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Adult learning and memory functions are strongly dependent on neonatal experiences. We recently showed that neonatal odor-shock learning attenuates later life odor fear conditioning and amygdala activity. In the present work we investigated whether changes observed in adults can also be observed in other structures normally involved, namely…

  19. Effects of aromatic cedar mulch on the Argentine ant and the odorous house ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Meissner, H E; Silverman, J

    2001-12-01

    In laboratory studies, the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say), avoided aromatic cedar mulch as a nesting substrate. Both ant species were killed when confined with fresh aromatic cedar mulch in sealed containers. However, when confined with cedar mulch that had been aged outdoors for up to 140 d, mortality of L. humile was complete regardless of mulch age, whereas T. sessile mortality declined significantly over the mulch-aging period. Argentine ant susceptibility to aromatic cedar mulch was also greater than that of the odorous house ant when colonies were restricted to mulch in open trays. In addition, commercial aromatic cedar oil was lethal to both ant species. Our results suggest that aromatic cedar mulch may serve as an effective component of a comprehensive urban ant management program.

  20. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  1. Difference in the odor concentrations measured by the triangle odor bag method and dynamic olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Amano, S; Merecka, B; Kośmider, J

    2009-01-01

    'The triangle odor bag method', which has been adopted for the offensive odor control law in Japan, and the dynamic olfactometry defined by EN 13725 have been compared. The odor concentration measured by the triangle odor bag method tends to be higher than that of the dynamic olfactometry in the forced choice mode, while well agreed in the Yes/No mode olfactometry when the panel is the same. The difference can be minimized by applying the panel selection criterion of EN13725 to the triangle odor bag method. The European panel selection test is useful to negate the difference in the measurement equipments although the criteria seem to be strict considering the individual threshold data of n-butanol.

  2. Feasibility Study of Odor Biosensor Using Dissociate Neuronal Culture with Gene Expression of Ionotropic Odorant Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanada, Norio; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Bakkum, Douglas; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    We propose a highly sensitive and real-time odor biosensor by expressing ionotropic odorant receptors of insects into dissociated cultures of neurons of rats. The odorant-gated ion channel structure of insect odorant receptor is expected to allow easy functional expression into cells. The neuronal dissociated cultures of rats have two significant advantages: a long lifetime comparable to rats, i.e., a few years; and amplification ability from weak ionic currents of odorant receptors into easily detectable action potentials of neurons. In the present work, in order to show the feasibility of the proposed sensor, we attempt to express the pheromone receptors of silkmoth, Bombyx mori, into cultured neurons of rats. We demonstrate that 10% of neuronal cells transfected using Lipofectamine successfully expressed pheromone receptors, and that these cells showed significant increase of calcium signals by 50% at the presentation of pheromone.

  3. Natural gas odor level testing: Instruments and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, E.H.

    1995-12-01

    An odor in natural and LP gases is necessary. The statistics are overwhelming; when gas customers can smell a leak before the percentage of gas in air reaches a combustible mixture, the chances of an accident are greatly reduced. How do gas companies determine if there is sufficient odor reaching every gas customers home? Injection equipment is important. The rate and quality of odorant is important. Nevertheless, precision odorization alone does not guarantee that customers` homes always have gas with a readily detectable odor. To secure that goal, odor monitoring instruments are necessary.

  4. [Odor pollution from landfill sites and its control: a review].

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Ding, Ying; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Hu, Bei-Gang; Chen, Ying-Xu

    2010-03-01

    Landfill sites are the major sources of offensive odor in urban public facilities. With the progress of urbanization and the residents' demands for a higher living environment quality, the odor emission from landfill sites has become a severe pollution problem, and the odor control at landfill sites has been one of the research hotspots. This paper summarized the main components and their concentrations of the odor from landfill sites, and expatiated on the research progress in the in-situ control of the odor. The further research directions in in-situ control of the odor from landfill sites were prospected.

  5. Food odors trigger Drosophila males to deposit a pheromone that guides aggregation and female oviposition decisions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Preti, George; Potter, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Animals use olfactory cues for navigating complex environments. Food odors in particular provide crucial information regarding potential foraging sites. Many behaviors occur at food sites, yet how food odors regulate such behaviors at these sites is unclear. Using Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model, we found that males deposit the pheromone 9-tricosene upon stimulation with the food-odor apple cider vinegar. This pheromone acts as a potent aggregation pheromone and as an oviposition guidance cue for females. We use genetic, molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches to show that 9-tricosene activates antennal basiconic Or7a receptors, a receptor activated by many alcohols and aldehydes such as the green leaf volatile E2-hexenal. We demonstrate that loss of Or7a positive neurons or the Or7a receptor abolishes aggregation behavior and oviposition site-selection towards 9-tricosene and E2-hexenal. 9-Tricosene thus functions via Or7a to link food-odor perception with aggregation and egg-laying decisions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08688.001 PMID:26422512

  6. Food odors trigger Drosophila males to deposit a pheromone that guides aggregation and female oviposition decisions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Preti, George; Potter, Christopher J

    2015-09-30

    Animals use olfactory cues for navigating complex environments. Food odors in particular provide crucial information regarding potential foraging sites. Many behaviors occur at food sites, yet how food odors regulate such behaviors at these sites is unclear. Using Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model, we found that males deposit the pheromone 9-tricosene upon stimulation with the food-odor apple cider vinegar. This pheromone acts as a potent aggregation pheromone and as an oviposition guidance cue for females. We use genetic, molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches to show that 9-tricosene activates antennal basiconic Or7a receptors, a receptor activated by many alcohols and aldehydes such as the green leaf volatile E2-hexenal. We demonstrate that loss of Or7a positive neurons or the Or7a receptor abolishes aggregation behavior and oviposition site-selection towards 9-tricosene and E2-hexenal. 9-Tricosene thus functions via Or7a to link food-odor perception with aggregation and egg-laying decisions.

  7. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; McConnell, Laura; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Razote, Edna; Hatfield, Jerry

    2011-08-01

    Odors from cattle feedlots can negatively affect air quality in local communities. Our objectives were the following: 1) identify key odor-causing compounds using odor activity values (OAVs) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques; 2) compare odor threshold values from published databases; and 3) track the movement of odors from a cattle feedlot to receptor community. Odorous compounds emitted from a cattle feedlot were sampled on-site, 250 m downwind and 3.2 km downwind using both sorbent tubes and denuders. Sorbent tubes were analyzed by both GC-MS and GC-MS-O and key odorants determined using both OAV and GC-Surface Nasal Impact Frequency (SNIF) analysis, while denuders were analyzed by ion chromatography. Odorant concentrations had a diurnal pattern with peak concentrations during early morning and late evening periods. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were the most abundant of the major odorants. Odorants with concentrations above their odor threshold values at the feedlot included amines, VFAs, phenol compounds, and indole compounds. Key odorants at the feedlot were VFAs and phenol compounds, but their relative importance diminished with downwind distance. Indole compounds, while not the key odorants at the feedlot, increased in relative importance downwind of the feedlot. In general, the odorous compounds identified by GC-SNIF and OAV as having fecal/manure nature were similar. GC-SNIF was the more sensitive analytical technique; it identified several compounds that may have contributed to the unpleasantness of the cattle feedlot odor, but its throughput was extremely low thereby limiting its usefulness. There is a need to improve field sampling devices and odor threshold databases to enhance understanding and confidence in evaluating odors.

  8. Recent findings on biosolids cake odor reduction--results of WERF phase 3 biosolids odor research.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Zeynep K; Forbes, Robert H; Witherspoon, Jay; Adams, Greg; Hargreaves, Ron; Morton, Rob; Novak, John; Higgins, Matthew

    2008-11-01

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) has sponsored three phases of a long-term project entitled "Identifying and Controlling Odors in the Municipal Wastewater Environment." The current (third) phase focuses on reduction of odors from dewatered biosolids cakes, and is entitled "Biosolids Processing Modifications for Cake Odor Reduction." This phase encompasses nine research agenda items developed from the results of the prior phase of research (Phase 2), which was completed in December 2003 as WERF Report No. 00-HHE-5T and was entitled "Impacts of In-Plant Parameters on Biosolids Odor Quality." The current phase (Phase 3) was a 2.5-year project, the first half of which was dedicated to testing several of the more promising hypotheses from Phase 2 in the laboratory to help determine the cause-effect relationships of odor generation from biosolids, and to develop odor reduction techniques. It is important to note that this research project covers the reduction or prevention of odorous emissions from dewatered biosolids cake, not odor control by means of containment or adsorption or absorption of malodorous emissions. In the remainder of the Phase 3 project, promising laboratory findings are being applied to biosolids handling processes at one or more wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with the goal of achieving significant cake odor reduction in a realistic, full-scale setting. The Phase 3 laboratory results were used to identify the relative effectiveness of methods for reducing biosolids cake odors, using techniques and measurements of biosolids cake odor production potential that have been developed by the WERF Project Team. Plans to demonstrate the most promising research findings at full-scale biosolids digestion and dewatering facilities constitute the final, fourth phase of the project. Contacts have been made with wastewater treatment facilities that have an interest or need to reduce their biosolids cake odors. The main goal of the next phase of

  9. The Influence of Odors on Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Millot, Jean-Louis; Laurent, Lucie; Casini, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The effect of an olfactory stimulation on the perception of time was investigated through two different experiments based on temporal bisection tasks. In experiment 1, the durations to be classified as either short or long were centered on 400 ms while in Experiment 2 there were centered on 2000 ms. The participants were different in the two experiments (36 subjects in each one). In each experiment, half of the subjects learnt the anchor durations when smelling an unpleasant odor (decanoic acid) and the other half when smelling no odor. After the learning phase, both groups were tested with and without odor. The results showed opposite effects depending on the duration range. The subjects underestimated the time in the presence of the unpleasant odor in the short duration range while they overestimated it in the long duration range. The results have been discussed in the framework of the pacemaker-counter clock model and a potential emotional effect induced by the odor on the subjective time perception has also been considered. PMID:26925008

  10. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  11. Relationship between 3-Methyl-2,4-nonanedione Concentration and Intensity of Light-induced Off-odor in Soy Bean Oil.

    PubMed

    Sano, Takashi; Iwahashi, Maiko; Imagi, Jun; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    A beany and green off-odor is developed in soy bean oil (SBO) under light-induced oxidative conditions. 3-Methyl-2,4-nonanedione (3-MND) was inferred as the compound responsible for the off-odor. In this study, we designed a simple quantification method for 3-MND in SBO, and evaluated the relationship between the 3-MND concentration and the intensity of the off-odor. 3-MND was analyzed by GC/MS with a thermal desorption unit system. By our method, the 3-MND concentration was found to increase with storage days and the SBO content under light exposure, and there was a high correlation between the measured 3-MND concentration and the intensity of the light-induced off-odor in SBO (R = 0.9586).

  12. The typical MSW odorants identification and the spatial odorants distribution in a large-scale transfer station.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongtao; Cheng, Zhaowen; Wang, Luochun; Lou, Ziyang; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhou, Xuejun; Feng, Lili

    2017-01-26

    Odorants from municipal solid waste (MSW) were complex variable, and the screening of key offensive odorants was the prerequisite for odor control process. In this study, spatial odor emissions and environmental impacts were investigated based on a large-scale working waste transfer station (LSWTS) using waste container system, and a comprehensive odor characterization method was developed and applied in terms of the odor concentration (OC), theory odor concentration (TOC), total chemical concentration (TCC), and electric nose (EN). The detected odor concentration ranged from 14 to 28 (dimensionless), and MSW container showed the highest OC value of 28, EN of 78, and TCC of 35 (ppm) due to the accumulation of leachate and residual MSW. Ninety-two species odorants were identified, and H2S, NH3, benzene, styrene, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane were the main contributors in the container, while benzene, m,p,x-xylene, butanone, acetone, isopropanol, and ethyl acetate were predominant in the compression surface (CS) and compression plant (CP). Side of roads (SR) and unload hall (UH) showed low odorous impact. Based on this odor list, 20 species of odor substances were screened for the priority control through the synthetic evaluation method, considering the odorants concentrations, toxicity, threshold values, detection frequency, saturated vapor pressure, and appeared frequency. Graphical abstract.

  13. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... that is in the LPG in the tank due to a chemical reaction between the odorant and the oxidized (rusted... causes a chemical reaction resulting in a color change of the tube material. The quantity of odorant...

  14. A Critical Review of Regulations for the Control of Odors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardos, Gregory

    1974-01-01

    Surveys the odor regulations that exist at the federal, state, and local governmental levels, discusses the rationale that has formed the basis for existing regulations, and examines some recent developments in the measurement of odorous pollutants. (JR)

  15. Chemical complexity of odors increases reliability of olfactory threshold testing.

    PubMed

    Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Pellegrino, Robert; Pusch, Katharina; Margot, Celine; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-01-10

    Assessment of odor thresholds is a widely recognized method of measuring olfactory abilities in humans. To date no attempts have been made to assess whether chemical complexity of odors used can produce more reliable results. To this end, we performed two studies of repeated measures design with 121 healthy volunteers (age 19-62 years). In Study 1, we compared thresholds obtained from tests based on one odor presented in a pen-like odor dispensing device with three odors and six odors mixtures presented in glass containers. In study 2 we compared stimuli of one and three odors, both presented in glass containers. In both studies measurements were performed twice, separated by at least three days. Results indicate that the multiple odor mixtures produced more reliable threshold scores, as compared to thresholds based on a single substance.

  16. Chemical complexity of odors increases reliability of olfactory threshold testing

    PubMed Central

    Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Pellegrino, Robert; Pusch, Katharina; Margot, Celine; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of odor thresholds is a widely recognized method of measuring olfactory abilities in humans. To date no attempts have been made to assess whether chemical complexity of odors used can produce more reliable results. To this end, we performed two studies of repeated measures design with 121 healthy volunteers (age 19–62 years). In Study 1, we compared thresholds obtained from tests based on one odor presented in a pen-like odor dispensing device with three odors and six odors mixtures presented in glass containers. In study 2 we compared stimuli of one and three odors, both presented in glass containers. In both studies measurements were performed twice, separated by at least three days. Results indicate that the multiple odor mixtures produced more reliable threshold scores, as compared to thresholds based on a single substance. PMID:28071665

  17. Maternal prefrontal cortex activation by newborn infant odors.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Shota; Kuwamoto, Saori; Takahira, Asuka; Miyamura, Tsunetake; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Mothers are attracted by infant cues of a variety of different modalities. To clarify the possible neural mechanisms underlying maternal attraction to infant odor cues, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during odor detection tasks in which 19 mothers and 19 nulliparous females (nonmothers) were presented with infant or adult male odors. They were instructed to make a judgment about whether they smelled an odor during each task. We estimated the PFC activity by measuring the relative oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) concentrations. The results showed that while detecting the infant odors, bilateral PFC activities were increased in mothers but not in nonmothers. In contrast, adult male odors activated the PFC similarly in mothers and nonmothers. These findings suggest that maternal activation of the PFC in response to infant odors explains a part of the neural mechanisms for maternal attraction to infant odors.

  18. Odor-identity dependent motor programs underlie behavioral responses to odors

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Hye; Hueston, Catherine; Bhandawat, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    All animals use olfactory information to perform tasks essential to their survival. Odors typically activate multiple olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes and are therefore represented by the patterns of active ORNs. How the patterns of active ORN classes are decoded to drive behavior is under intense investigation. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we investigate the logic by which odors modulate locomotion. We designed a novel behavioral arena in which we could examine a fly’s locomotion under precisely controlled stimulus condition. In this arena, in response to similarly attractive odors, flies modulate their locomotion differently implying that odors have a more diverse effect on locomotion than was anticipated. Three features underlie odor-guided locomotion: First, in response to odors, flies modulate a surprisingly large number of motor parameters. Second, similarly attractive odors elicit changes in different motor programs. Third, different ORN classes modulate different subset of motor parameters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11092.001 PMID:26439011

  19. Odors Pulsed at Wing Beat Frequencies are Tracked by Primary Olfactory Networks and Enhance Odor Detection

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Shreejoy J.; Peters, Oakland J.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Kalwar, Faizan R.; Hatfield, Mandy N.; Daly, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    Each down stroke of an insect's wings accelerates axial airflow over the antennae. Modeling studies suggest that this can greatly enhance penetration of air and air-born odorants through the antennal sensilla thereby periodically increasing odorant-receptor interactions. Do these periodic changes result in entrainment of neural responses in the antenna and antennal lobe (AL)? Does this entrainment affect olfactory acuity? To address these questions, we monitored antennal and AL responses in the moth Manduca sexta while odorants were pulsed at frequencies from 10–72 Hz, encompassing the natural wingbeat frequency. Power spectral density (PSD) analysis was used to identify entrainment of neural activity. Statistical analysis of PSDs indicates that the antennal nerve tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz. Furthermore, at least 50% of AL local field potentials (LFPs) and between 7–25% of unitary spiking responses also tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz in a frequency-locked manner. Application of bicuculline (200 μM) abolished pulse tracking in both LFP and unitary responses suggesting that GABAA receptor activation is necessary for pulse tracking within the AL. Finally, psychophysical measures of odor detection establish that detection thresholds are lowered when odor is pulsed at 20 Hz. These results suggest that AL networks can respond to the oscillatory dynamics of stimuli such as those imposed by the wing beat in a manner analogous to mammalian sniffing. PMID:20407584

  20. Evolutionary grass roots for odor recognition.

    PubMed

    Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron

    2012-09-01

    Considerable evidence supports the idea that odorant recognition depends on specific sequence variations in olfactory receptor (OR) proteins. Much of this emerges from in vitro screens in heterogenous expression systems. However, the ultimate proof should arise from measurements of odorant thresholds in human individuals harboring different OR genetic variants, a research vein that has so far been only scantly explored. The study of McRae et al., published in this issue of Chemical Senses, shows how the recognition of a grassy odorant depends on specific OR interindividual sequence changes. It provides a clear relevant example for the impact of genetics on olfaction and is an excellent portrayal of the power of human genomics to decipher olfactory perception.

  1. Guidance by odors in honeybee navigation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Randolf; Greggers, Uwe

    2013-10-01

    Animal navigation is guided by multiple sensory cues. Here, we ask whether and how olfactory stimuli emanating from places other than the trained feeding site redirect the flight paths of honeybees. The flight trajectories of individual bees were registered using harmonic radar tracking. Sensory cues (compass direction, distance, visual cues en route and close to the feeding site) associated with the trained flight route dominated wayfinding, but a learned odorant carried by air flow induced excursions into the wind. These redirections were largely restricted to rather small deviations from the trained route (<60°, <200 m) and occurred only if the animal did not receive the trained odorant stimulus at the trained feeding site. Under certain conditions, larger excursions were observed. These findings are discussed in the context of odor guidance of honeybees over longer distances (>300 m from the hive).

  2. Ventilation requirements for control of occupancy odor and tobacco smoke odor: laboratory studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.S.; Isseroff, R.; Leaderer, B.P.; Lipsitt, E.D.; Huey, R.J.; Perlman, D.; Bergland, L.G.; Dunn, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    Experiments on occupancy odor addressed the question of why required ventilation rate per occupant increased progressively with increases in the number of persons in a space. In order to investigate ventilation requirements under approximately ideal conditions, we constructed an aluminum-lined environmental chamber with excellent control over environmental conditions and a ventilation system that provided rapid and uniform mixing of air. Psychophysical experiments on occupancy odor explored 47 different combinations of occupancy density, temperature and humidity, and ventilation rate. The experiments collected judgements both from visitors, who smelled air from the chamber only once every few minutes, and from occupants, who remained in the chamber for an hour at a time. The judgements of visitors revealed that occupancy odor increased only gradually over time and rarely reached very high or objectionable levels. Judgements of occupants also revealed rather minor dissatisfaction. Only during combinations of high temperature and humidity did objectionability become more than a minor issue to either group. Experiments on cigarette smoking explored rates of 4, 8, and 16 cigarettes per hour under various environmental conditions and with ventilation rates as high as 68 cfm (34 L.s/sup -1/) per occupant. As soon as occupants lit cigarettes in the chamber, the odor level increased dramatically. At ventilation rates far greater than necessary to control occupancy odor, the odor from cigarette smoking remained quite intense. In general, the odor proved impossible to control adequately even with a ventilation rate of 68 cfm (34 L.s/sup -1/) per occupant (4 occupants) and even when only one occupant smoked at a time. As in the case of occupancy odor, a combination of high temperature and humidity exacerbated the odor problem.

  3. Testing for odor discrimination and habituation in mice.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Erin P; Smith, Gregory D; Gomez, Maribel C; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2015-05-05

    This video demonstrates a technique to establish the presence of a normally functioning olfactory system in a mouse. The test helps determine whether the mouse can discriminate between non-social odors and social odors, whether the mouse habituates to a repeatedly presented odor, and whether the mouse demonstrates dishabituation when presented with a novel odor. Since many social behavior tests measure the experimental animal's response to a familiar or novel mouse, false positives can be avoided by establishing that the animals can detect and discriminate between social odors. There are similar considerations in learning tests such as fear conditioning that use odor to create a novel environment or olfactory cues as an associative stimulus. Deficits in the olfactory system would impair the ability to distinguish between contexts and to form an association with an olfactory cue during fear conditioning. In the odor habitation/dishabituation test, the mouse is repeatedly presented with several odors. Each odor is presented three times for two minutes. The investigator records the sniffing time directed towards the odor as the measurement of olfactory responsiveness. A typical mouse shows a decrease in response to the odor over repeated presentations (habituation). The experimenter then presents a novel odor that elicits increased sniffing towards the new odor (dishabituation). After repeated presentation of the novel odor the animal again shows habituation. This protocol involves the presentation of water, two or more non-social odors, and two social odors. In addition to reducing experimental confounds, this test can provide information on the function of the olfactory systems of new knockout, knock-in, and conditional knockout mouse lines.

  4. Odor-taste interactions: effects of attentional strategies during exposure.

    PubMed

    Prescott, John; Johnstone, Victoria; Francis, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    Through repeated pairings with a tastant such as sucrose, odors are able to take on the tastant's qualities, e.g. by becoming more sweet smelling. When such odors are subsequently experienced with a sweet tastant in solution, the mixture is often given a higher sweetness rating than the tastant alone. Odor-induced taste enhancement appears to be sensitive to whether an odor-taste combination is viewed analytically as a set of discrete qualities, or synthetically as a flavor. The present research attempted to determine if adoption of these different perceptual approaches during co-exposure with sucrose would influence the extent to which an odor would become sweet smelling and subsequently enhance sweetness intensity. In Experiment 1, subjects received multiple exposures to mixtures of sucrose with low sweetness, low familiarity odors or, as a control, the odors and sucrose solutions separately. Two groups that received mixtures made intensity ratings that promoted either synthesis or analysis of the individual elements in the mixtures. The odors became sweeter smelling irrespective of group. Only adopting a synthetic strategy produced odors that enhanced sweetness in solution. However, these effects were also shown with a 'non-exposed' control odor. This could be accounted for if the single co-exposure with sucrose that all odors received in the pre-test was able to produce sweeter odors. A second experiment confirmed this prediction. Thus, while even a single co-exposure with sucrose is sufficient to produce a sweeter odor, the adoption of a synthetic perceptual strategy during the co-exposure is necessary to produce an odor that will enhance sweetness. These data are consistent with associative leaning accounts of how odors take on taste qualities and also support the interpretation that these effects reflect the central integration of odors and tastes into flavors.

  5. Graded Encoding of Food Odor Value in the Drosophila Brain

    PubMed Central

    Beshel, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Odors are highly evocative, yet how and where in the brain odors derive meaning remains unknown. Our analysis of the Drosophila brain extends the role of a small number of hunger-sensing neurons to include food-odor value representation. In vivo two-photon calcium imaging shows the amplitude of food odor-evoked activity in neurons expressing Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF), the neuropeptide Y homolog, strongly correlates with food-odor attractiveness. Hunger elevates neural and behavioral responses to food odors only, although food odors that elicit attraction in the fed state also evoke heightened dNPF activity in fed flies. Inactivation of a subset of dNPF-expressing neurons or silencing dNPF receptors abolishes food-odor attractiveness, whereas genetically enhanced dNPF activity not only increases food-odor attractiveness but promotes attraction to aversive odors. Varying the amount of presented odor produces matching graded neural and behavioral curves, which can function to predict preference between odors. We thus demonstrate a possible motivationally scaled neural “value signal” accessible from uniquely identifiable cells. PMID:24089477

  6. [A case of a child with bad odor].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo; Busso, Raúl; Barcudi, Silvina; Tapia, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    The odor emitted by a patient may be one of the first major clues leading to an early diagnosis. Certain conditions produce a characteristic smell and several diseases are associated with a specific odor. We report an illustrative case and review olfactory physiology, the value of smell in physical examination, and finally discuss several illnesses associated with unusual odors.

  7. Multimodal integration: Visual cues helps odor-seeking fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that integration of sensory modalities is critical to the process of odor-source location. Attractive food odors initiate flies’ response to visual cues to maintain narrow angle turns with respect to the wind line; loss of odor contact due to idiothetic motion or experimen...

  8. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  9. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  10. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  11. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  12. 9 CFR 311.37 - Odors, foreign and urine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Odors, foreign and urine. 311.37..., foreign and urine. (a) Carcasses which give off a pronounced odor of medicinal, chemical, or other foreign substance shall be condemned. (b) Carcasses which give off a pronounced urine odor shall be condemned....

  13. Representation of odor habituation and timing in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sachin S; Bhalla, Upinder S

    2003-03-01

    We performed simultaneous single-neuron recordings from the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb of anesthetized, freely breathing rats. Odor response properties of neurons in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus were characterized as firing rate changes or respiration-coupled changes. A panel of five odors was used. The rats had not been exposed to the odors on the panel before the experiment. The olfactory bulb and hippocampal neurons responded to repeated odor presentations in two ways: first, by changes in firing rate, and second, by respiratory tuning changes. Approximately 60% of bulbar neurons, 48% of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and 12% of hippocampal CA3 neurons showed statistically significant responses. None of the odor-responsive neurons in either the bulb or hippocampus responded to all of the odors on the panel. Repeated 10 sec odor stimuli presented at the intervals of 20, 30, 60, 110, and 160 sec were used to analyze the effect of the interval on odor response properties of the recorded neurons. Bulbar neurons were relatively nonselective for odor interval. Hippocampal neurons showed unexpected selectivity for the interval between repeated odor presentations. CA1 and CA3 neurons responded to only one to three of the intervals in the range. On the basis of these findings, we postulate that the hippocampus has the ability to keep track of the time elapsed between consecutive odor stimuli. This may act as a neuronal substrate for habituation and for complex tasks such as odor-guided navigation.

  14. Behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and a blood odor component in four species of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical "metallic, blood-like" odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a "character impact compound" of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental enrichment

  15. Behavioral Responses to Mammalian Blood Odor and a Blood Odor Component in Four Species of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical “metallic, blood-like” odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a “character impact compound” of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental

  16. 76 FR 13983 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Court Decision Not in... duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period of review (``POR'') of November 1, 2006, through October 31, 2007 with respect to Greening. See Fresh Garlic...

  17. Fresh Frozen Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    therapeutic means). FFP can be prepared either by separation from whole blood or collection via plasmapheresis . Fresh frozen plasma contains the...FFP can be further separated into cryoprecipitate and what is known as “cryo-poor plasma,” a product rarely used for therapeutic means. Plasma is the

  18. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags.

    PubMed

    Parker, David B; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L; Cole, N Andy; Koziel, Jacek A

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m(-3)) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m(-3)), propionic (15,800 μg m(-3)), isobutyric (1,686 μg m(-3)), butyric (1,049 μg m(-3)), isovaleric (1,236 μg m(-3)), valeric (643 μg m(-3)), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m(-3)) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry.

  19. Effect of odor preexposure on acquisition of an odor discrimination in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Smith, David W; Wynne, Clive D L

    2014-06-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the impact of odor preexposure treatments on the acquisition of an olfactory discrimination in dogs. In the first experiment, four groups of dogs were each given five days' odor-exposure treatment prior to discrimination training. Dogs in the exposure group were exposed to anise extract (S+) for 30 min daily. Dogs in the Pavlovian-relevant pairing group received six daily delayed-conditioning trials to the same S+. The Pavlovian-irrelevant pairing group received conditioning trials to almond extract (S'). Dogs in the control group received no pretreatment. All of the dogs were then trained to detect S+ from a background pine odor (an AX-vs.-X discrimination). The Pavlovian-relevant pairing group acquired the odor discrimination significantly faster than all of the other exposure and control groups, and the remaining groups acquired the discrimination at the same rate as the no-exposure control group. In a second experiment, we extended these results to a within-subjects design using an AX-versus-BX discrimination. Six dogs were simultaneously trained on two different odor discriminations, one discrimination in which the S+ was previously Pavlovian conditioned, and one discrimination in which the S+ was novel. All of the dogs learned the odor discrimination with the previously conditioned S+ faster than they learned the novel odor discrimination, replicating the results of Experiment 1, and demonstrating that familiarity in the form of Pavlovian conditioning enhances odor-discrimination training. The potential mechanisms of the facilitated transfer of a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus to discrimination training are discussed.

  20. Odor detection threshold, but not odor identification, is impaired in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Dudova, Iva; Vodicka, Jan; Havlovicova, Marketa; Sedlacek, Zdenek; Urbanek, Tomas; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2011-07-01

    The aim of our study was to examine odor detection thresholds and odor identification in autistic subjects. Thirty-five patients with Asperger's syndrome and high functioning autism (mean age 10.8 ± 3.6 years; 31 boys) were compared with 35 healthy control subjects (mean age 10.4 ± 2.4 years; 28 boys). There were no significant differences between groups with regard to mean age (p = 0.598) and gender proportion (p = 0.324). Olfactory testing used the Sniffin' Sticks test (threshold and identification parts only). Participants with Asperger's syndrome and high functioning autism, in comparison with healthy controls, were significantly impaired relative to odor detection thresholds (6.3 ± 3.1 vs. 7.9 ± 2.0; p = 0.025). Autistic participants were significantly better in correctly identifying the odor of an orange (94 vs. 63%; p < 0.05) and significantly worse at correctly identifying the odor of cloves (40 vs. 74%; p < 0.05). With regard to identification of fourteen other substances, there were no significant differences. There was no significant difference between autistic and control subjects on the total score of olfactory identification (p = 0.799). Odor identification ability (as expressed by this total score) correlated significantly with age in the control group (p = 0.049), but not in the autism group (p = 0.103). We found impaired odor detection and almost normal odor identification in children with autism. Implications for further research are discussed.

  1. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  2. Genetic variation in the odorant receptor OR2J3 is associated with the ability to detect the "grassy" smelling odor, cis-3-hexen-1-ol.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jeremy F; Mainland, Joel D; Jaeger, Sara R; Adipietro, Kaylin A; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Newcomb, Richard D

    2012-09-01

    The ability to detect many odors varies among individuals; however, the contribution of genotype to this variation has been assessed for relatively few compounds. We have identified a genetic basis for the ability to detect the flavor compound cis-3-hexen-1-ol. This compound is typically described as "green grassy" or the smell of "cut grass," with variation in the ability to detect it linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a region on human chromosome 6 containing 25 odorant receptor genes. We have sequenced the coding regions of all 25 receptors across an ethnically mixed population of 52 individuals and identified 147 sequence variants. We tested these for association with cis-3-hexen-1-ol detection thresholds and found 3 strongly associated SNPs, including one found in a functional odorant receptor (rs28757581 in OR2J3). In vitro assays of 13 odorant receptors from the region identified 3 receptors that could respond to cis-3-hexen-1-ol, including OR2J3. This gene contained 5 predicted haplotypes across the 52 individuals. We tested all 5 haplotypes in vitro and several amino acid substitutions on their own, such as rs28757581 (T113A). Two amino acid substitutions, T113A and R226Q, impaired the ability of OR2J3 to respond to cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and together these two substitutions effectively abolished the response to the compound. The haplotype of OR2J3 containing both T113A and R226Q explains 26.4% of the variation in cis-3-hexen-1-ol detection in our study cohort. Further research is required to examine whether OR2J3 haplotypes explain variation in perceived flavor experience and the consumption of foods containing cis-3-hexen-1-ol.

  3. Conserved Odorant-Binding Proteins from Aphids and Eavesdropping Predators

    PubMed Central

    Vandermoten, Sophie; Francis, Frédéric; Haubruge, Eric; Leal, Walter S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The sesquiterpene (E)-ß-farnesene is the main component of the alarm pheromone system of various aphid species studied to date, including the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae. Aphid natural enemies, such as the marmalade hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus and the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis, eavesdrop on aphid chemical communication and utilize (E)-ß-farnesene as a kairomone to localize their immediate or offspring preys. These aphid-predator systems are important models to study how the olfactory systems of distant insect taxa process the same chemical signal. We postulated that odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), which are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception, have conserved regions involved in binding (E)-ß-farnesene. Methodology We cloned OBP genes from the English grain aphid and two major predators of this aphid species. We then expressed these proteins and compare their binding affinities to the alarm pheromone/kairomone. By using a fluorescence reporter, we tested binding of (E)-ß-farnesene and other electrophysiologically and behaviorally active compounds, including a green leaf volatile attractant. Conclusion We found that OBPs from disparate taxa of aphids and their predators are highly conserved proteins, with apparently no orthologue genes in other insect species. Properly folded, recombinant proteins from the English grain aphid, SaveOBP3, and the marmalade hoverfly, EbalOBP3, specifically bind (E)-ß-farnesene with apparent high affinity. For the first time we have demonstrated that insect species belonging to distinct Orders have conserved OBPs, which specifically bind a common semiochemical and has no binding affinity for related compounds. PMID:21912599

  4. Proposal of Odor Nuisance Index as Urban Planning Tool.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, Marzio; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2017-02-01

    This article analyzes the state of the art of the methods and models used for the characterization of odor annoyance and it preliminary advances some proposals for the evaluation of the olfactory nuisance. The use of a sensorial technique, such as dynamic olfactometry, is proposed for the analysis of odor concentrations, odor emission rates, and odor dispersions. A simple model for the quantification of environmental odor nuisance, based on the use of FIDOL factors, that are, frequency, intensity, duration, hedonic tone, and location, is proposed.

  5. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Yuji; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61).

  6. Turning tryptophanase into odor-generating biosensors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaqin; Zhang, Zhuyuan; Ali, M Monsur; Sauder, Joanna; Deng, Xudong; Giang, Karen; Aguirre, Sergio D; Pelton, Robert; Li, Yingfu; Filipe, Carlos D M

    2014-03-03

    An odor-based sensor system that exploits the metabolic enzyme tryptophanase (TPase) as the key component is reported. This enzyme is able to convert an odorless substrate like S-methyl-L-cysteine or L-tryptophan into the odorous products methyl mercaptan or indole. To make a biosensor, TPase was biotinylated so that it could be coupled with a molecular recognition element, such as an antibody, to develop an ELISA-like assay. This method was used for the detection of an antibody present in nM concentrations by the human nose. TPase can also be combined with the enzyme pyridoxal kinase (PKase) for use in a coupled assay to detect adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). When ATP is present in the low μM concentration range, the coupled enzymatic system generates an odor that is easily detectable by the human nose. Biotinylated TPase can be combined with various biotin-labeled molecular recognition elements, thereby enabling a broad range of applications for this odor-based reporting system.

  7. Airborne Human Odorants: Detection, Dispersion and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    density of eccrine glands , the axillae contain large numbers of sebaceous and apocrine glands . The interactions between the cutaneous microflora and skin...odorants we have chosen for study are emitted from the body in axillary sweat which is a complex mixture of water, protein, lipids and other small

  8. Odor compound detection in male euglossine bees.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, F P; Roubik, D W

    2003-01-01

    Male euglossine bees collect fragrances from various sources, which they store and use for as yet unknown purposes. They are attracted, often specifically, to single odor compounds and blends thereof. We used gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and electroantennography (EAG) to investigate the response to 8 odor compounds by males of two euglossine species, Euglossa cybelia Moure and Eulaema polychroma (Mocsàry). In E. cybelia, we recorded EAD reactions in response to 1,8-cineole, methyl benzoate, benzyl actetate, methyl salicylate, eugenol, and methyl cinnamate. E. polychroma responded to the same compounds in EAG experiments, while (1s)(-)alpha-pinene and beta-pinene failed to trigger EAD or EAG responses in the bees. Blends of two compounds triggered larger responses than single compounds in EAG experiments with E. polychroma, however, when alpha-pinene was added, reactions decreased. In the light of existing data on the bees' behavior towards these odor compounds, our work indicates that both peripheral and central nervous processes influence the attraction of euglossine bees to odors.

  9. On the dimensionality of odor space

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Markus

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in understanding human olfactory experience from a principled and quantitative standpoint. The comparison is often made to color vision, where a solid framework with a three-dimensional perceptual space enabled a rigorous search for the underlying neural pathways, and the technological development of lifelike color display devices. A recent, highly publicized report claims that humans can discriminate at least 1 trillion odors, which exceeds by many orders of magnitude the known capabilities of color discrimination. This claim is wrong. I show that the failure lies in the mathematical method used to infer the size of odor space from a limited experimental sample. Further analysis focuses on establishing how many dimensions the perceptual odor space has. I explore the dimensionality of physical, neural, and perceptual spaces, drawing on results from bacteria to humans, and propose some experimental approaches to better estimate the number of discriminable odors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07865.001 PMID:26151672

  10. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61). PMID:27326765

  11. Amino acid odorants stimulate microvillar sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, David L; Michel, William C

    2002-03-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) of zebrafish is populated with ciliated and microvillar olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Whether distinct classes of odorants specifically activate either of these unique populations of OSNs is unknown. Previously we demonstrated that zebrafish OSNs could be labeled in an activity-dependent fashion by amino acid but not bile acid odorants. To determine which sensory neuron type was stimulated by amino acid odorants, we labeled OSNs using the ion channel permeant probe agmatine (AGB) and analyzed its distribution with conventional light- and electron-microscope immunocytochemical techniques. Approximately 7% of the sensory epithelium was labeled by AGB exposure alone. Following stimulation with one of the eight amino acids tested, the proportion of labeled epithelium increased from 9% for histidine to 19% for alanine; amino acid stimulated increases in labeling of 2-12% over control labeling. Only histidine failed to stimulate a significant increase in the proportion of labeled OSNs compared to control preparations. Most amino acid sensitive OSNs were located superficially in the epithelium and immuno-electron microscopy demonstrated that the labeled OSNs were predominantly microvillar. Large numbers of nanogold particles (20-60 per 1.5 microm(2)) were associated with microvillar olfactory sensory neurons (MSNs), while few such particles (<15 per 1.5 microm(2)) were observed over ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (CSNs), supporting cells (SCs) and areas without tissue, such as the lumen above the OE. Collectively, these findings indicate that microvillar sensory neurons are capable of detecting amino acid odorants.

  12. The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the steam-distilled volatile oil of fresh and air-dried, indoor-grown marijuana was studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. In all, 68 components were detected of which 57 were fully identified. Drying of the plant material had no effect on the qualitative composition of the oil and did not affect the ability of individuals familiar with marijuana smell to recognize the odor.

  13. The influence of odorants on respiratory patterns in sleep.

    PubMed

    Arzi, Anat; Sela, Lee; Green, Amit; Givaty, Gili; Dagan, Yaron; Sobel, Noam

    2010-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of using odors as a potential mechanism for treating sleep apnea, we set out to test the hypothesis that odorants delivered during sleep would modify respiratory patterns without inducing arousal or wake in healthy sleepers. We used 2 mildly trigeminal odorants: the pleasant lavender and unpleasant vetiver oil and 2 pure olfactory odorants: the pleasant vanillin and unpleasant ammonium sulfide. During sleep, an olfactometer delivered a transient odorant every 9, 12, or 15 min (randomized), providing 21-37 odorant presentations per night. Each of 36 participants was studied for 1 night and with 1 of the 4 different odorants tested. In addition to standard overnight polysomnography, we employed highly accurate measurements of nasal and oral respiration. Odorants did not increase the frequency of arousals or wake but did influence respiration. Specifically, all 4 odorants transiently decreased inhalation and increased exhalation for up to 6 breaths following odor onset. This effect persisted regardless of odorant valence or stage of sleep. These results suggest that the olfactory system may provide a path to manipulate respiration in sleep.

  14. Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of white pepper powder showing an intense fecal, cowshed-like off-flavor revealed 3-methylindole (fecal, swine-manure) and 4-methylphenol (fecal, horse-like) with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 22 odor-active compounds detected. In addition, high FD factors and/or undesirable odor qualities suggested 3-methylphenol (phenolic), butanoic acid (cheese-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (cheese-like) as well as pentanoic acid and hexanoic acid (cheese-like odors) as contributors to the malodor. Although the intensities of the off-note were clearly different in 50 commercial samples of white pepper, quantitation of 3-methylindole and 3- and 4-methylphenol as well as of the five short-chain acids by means of stable isotope dilution assays showed similar concentrations in most of the samples. Storage of a freshly ground white pepper powder for up to 7 months revealed a significant decrease in the typical odor qualities of white pepper and an increase in the fecal odor note with storage time. Because the concentrations of the odorants mentioned above were not much changed during storage, possibly very volatile odorants, such as alpha-pinene, which are able to mask the malodor, are lost during storage of, in particular, pepper powders. On the basis of odor activity values, which were calculated using breakthrough thresholds, in particular, 3-methylindole, 4-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and butanoic acid could be suggested as the main sources of the fecal off-flavor.

  15. Relationship between intensity, concentration, and temperature for drinking water odorants.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Andrew J; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2004-03-01

    Odor analyses experiments indicated that, for the concentrations and temperatures tested, odor intensity was a function of both aqueous concentration and water temperature for water containing 1-butanol, free available chlorine, geosmin, n-hexanal, 2-methylisoborneol, and trans-2, cis-6 nonadienal. At weak odorant concentrations (approximately 4 on the flavor profile rating scale) the perceived odor intensity of these six chemicals was greater when the temperature was 45 degrees C than was 25 degrees C. Both of these temperatures are commonly encountered by consumers when they use tap water. Odor response to water containing isobutanal was affected by concentration but not water temperature. Experiments also revealed that reduction in aqueous concentration did not consistently reduce odor intensity; for some aqueous concentrations and chemicals an increase in odor intensity occurred at lower concentrations.

  16. A Central Neural Pathway Controlling Odor Tracking in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Gemma; Levy, Peter; Chan, K.L. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis is important for the survival of most animals. How the brain translates sensory input into motor output beyond higher olfactory processing centers is largely unknown. We describe a group of excitatory neurons, termed Odd neurons, which are important for Drosophila larval chemotaxis. Odd neurons receive synaptic input from projection neurons in the calyx of the mushroom body and project axons to the central brain. Functional imaging shows that some of the Odd neurons respond to odor. Larvae in which Odd neurons are silenced are less efficient at odor tracking than controls and sample the odor space more frequently. Larvae in which the excitability of Odd neurons is increased are better at odor intensity discrimination and odor tracking. Thus, the Odd neurons represent a distinct pathway that regulates the sensitivity of the olfactory system to odor concentrations, demonstrating that efficient chemotaxis depends on processing of odor strength downstream of higher olfactory centers. PMID:25653345

  17. A central neural pathway controlling odor tracking in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Slater, Gemma; Levy, Peter; Chan, K L Andrew; Larsen, Camilla

    2015-02-04

    Chemotaxis is important for the survival of most animals. How the brain translates sensory input into motor output beyond higher olfactory processing centers is largely unknown. We describe a group of excitatory neurons, termed Odd neurons, which are important for Drosophila larval chemotaxis. Odd neurons receive synaptic input from projection neurons in the calyx of the mushroom body and project axons to the central brain. Functional imaging shows that some of the Odd neurons respond to odor. Larvae in which Odd neurons are silenced are less efficient at odor tracking than controls and sample the odor space more frequently. Larvae in which the excitability of Odd neurons is increased are better at odor intensity discrimination and odor tracking. Thus, the Odd neurons represent a distinct pathway that regulates the sensitivity of the olfactory system to odor concentrations, demonstrating that efficient chemotaxis depends on processing of odor strength downstream of higher olfactory centers.

  18. Preharvest measures for postharvest improvement in marketable fresh citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri supsp. citri, (Xcc), was once the scourge of the Florida citrus industry from the early 1900’s on and off until the early 1990’s. It has been replaced, for the most part, by citrus greening but still continues to be a problem for Florida fresh ...

  19. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Caroline; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance). In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex). We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odor conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks) positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the “no fragrance” condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the “own fragrance” condition than the “assigned fragrance” condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an individual’s own body odor

  20. Effect of Furan Fatty Acids and 3-Methyl-2,4-nonanedione on Light-Induced Off-Odor in Soybean Oil.

    PubMed

    Sano, Takashi; Okabe, Ryo; Iwahashi, Maiko; Imagi, Jun; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2017-03-15

    Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed vegetable oils. However, under photooxidative conditions, this oil develops a beany and green off-odor through a mechanism that has not yet been elucidated. Upon photooxidation, 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (3-MND) produces a strong aroma. In this study, the effect of furan fatty acids and 3-MND on odor reversion in soybean oil was investigated. Our findings suggest that the observed light-induced off-odor was likely attributable to the furan fatty acids present in the oil through the generation of 3-MND. While 3-MND may not be directly responsible for the development of light-induced off-odor, this compound appears to be involved because off-odor was detected in canola oil samples containing added 3-MND. In addition, in the present work, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, which is derived from 3-MND, was identified for the first time in light-exposed soybean oil and shown to be one of the compounds responsible for odor reversion.

  1. Development of Odor Hedonics: Experience-Dependent Ontogeny of Circuits Supporting Maternal and Predator Odor Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Raineki, Charlis; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    A major component of perception is hedonic valence: perceiving stimuli as pleasant or unpleasant. Here, we used early olfactory experiences that shape odor preferences and aversions to explore developmental plasticity in circuits mediating odor hedonics. We used 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic mapping of neural activity to identify circuits differentially activated by biologically relevant preferred and avoided odors across rat development. We then further probed this system by increasing or decreasing hedonic value. Using both region of interest and functional connectivity analyses, we identified regions within primary olfactory, amygdala/hippocampal, and prefrontal cortical networks that were activated differentially by maternal and male odors. Although some activated regions remained stable across development (postnatal days 7–23), there was a developmental emergence of others that resulted in an age-dependent elaboration of hedonic-response-specific circuitry despite stable behavioral responses (approach/avoidance) to the odors across age. Hedonic responses to these biologically important odors were modified through diet suppression of the maternal odor and co-rearing with a male. This allowed assessment of hedonic circuits in isolation of the specific odor quality and/or intensity. Early experience significantly modified odor-evoked circuitry in an age-dependent manner. For example, co-rearing with a male, which induced pup attraction to male odor, reduced activity in amygdala regions normally activated by the unfamiliar avoided male odor, making this region more consistent with maternal odor. Understanding the development of odor hedonics, particularly within the context of altered early life experience, provides insight into the development of sensory processes, food preferences, and the formation of social affiliations, among other behaviors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Odor hedonic valence controls approach–avoidance behaviors, but also modulates ongoing

  2. 76 FR 71271 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... defined. The definition specifies they are field grown mature green or ripe fresh market tomatoes that meet the Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Tomatoes; and the applicable Florida Federal Marketing Order and Florida Tomato Committee Regulations, or their successors....

  3. Livestock odors: implications for human health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential effects of livestock odors on the health and well-being of neighbors. Complaints of odor nuisance have become more frequent in communities surrounding areas with high concentrations of livestock. This increase in complaints from livestock odors parallels increased complaints of odor in general, including ammonia, diesel exhaust, beauty products, cleaners, and paints. Persons who report symptoms from odors generally find problems with many different types of odorous compounds. A review of recent studies suggests that the main complaints of health symptoms from odors are eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, and drowsiness. Sensory irritation (pungency) can be produced by a broad range of odorous volatile organic compounds from trees, flowers, foods (pepper and ginger) as well as emissions from livestock operations. Odors can also potentially affect mood and memory. Further research is required to assess fully the health impact of odors in order to establish recommendations for air quality guidelines based on scientific data.

  4. Recognition of Bread Key Odorants by Using Polymer Coated QCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Takashi; Kouno, Shinji; Hiruma, Naoya; Shuzo, Masaki; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Polyisobutylene (PIB) polymer and methylphenylsiloxane (25%) diphenylsiloxane (75%) copolymer (OV25) were coated on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors and used in recognition of bread key odorants. Representative compounds of key roasty odorants of bread were taken as 3-acetylpyridine and benzaldehyde, and representative key fatty odorants were hexanal and (E)-2-nonenal. Both OV25- and PIB-coated QCM fabricated sensors could detect concentration as low as 0.9 ppm of 3-acetylpyridine and 1.2 ppm of (E)-2-nonenal. The sensitivity to 3-acetylpyridine of the OV25-coated QCM was about 1000 times higher than that of ethanol, the major interference compound in bread key odorant analysis. Further, the OV25-coated QCM response was 5-6 times and 2-3 times larger than that of the PIB-coated QCM when exposed to roasty odorants and to fatty odorants, respectively. The difference in sensitivity of the OV25- and PIB-coated QCMs we fabricated made possible to discriminate roasty from fatty odorants as was evidenced by the odor recognition map representing the frequency shifts of the OV25-coated QCM against the frequency shift of the PIB-coated QCM. In conclusion, we found that the combination of an OV25-coated QCM and a PIB-coated QCM was successful in discriminating roasty odorants from fatty odorants at the ppm level.

  5. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control. PMID:26522967

  6. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-11-02

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control.

  7. Body Odor Based Personality Judgments: The Effect of Fragranced Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor (BO) alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples – one with and one without cosmetic use); the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers’ ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; rs = 0.20) than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; rs = 0.15). Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (rs = 0.34 for natural BO and rs = 0.21 for BO+cosmetics), whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors’ body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor. PMID:27148138

  8. Ventilation Requirements for Control of Occupancy Odor and Tobacco Smoke Odor: Laboratory Studies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W. S.; Isseroff, R.; Leaderere, B. P.; Lipsitt, E. D.; Huey, R. J.; Perlman, D.; Bergland, L. G.; Dunn, J. D.

    1981-04-01

    A sensitive chemical analysis of the air in a building will characteristically reveal a large number of organic substances, many at concentrations too low to have discernible biological impact. If the concentrations of the chemicals increase, the first sign of their presence may occur via the sense of smell. The air may become odorous. In the general absence of any better or faster indicator, smell will serve as the principal means to decide whether the air in a room is acceptable. Accordingly, this modality has long figured directly or indirectly in the choice of ventilation rates. The cost of ventilation, on the average more than 25% of the operating cost of a building, increases proportionally with the cost of energy and therefore provides a strong incentive to search for energy efficiency. A previous report reviewed the literature relevant to odor perception, odor control, and ventilation (1). The report highlighted prospects for research that might point to ways to achieve both acceptable air quality and energy efficiency in ventilation. The present report provides an account of laboratory research stimulated by that review. The report focuses on ventilation requirements for occupancy odor (Part l) and tobacco smoke odor (Part 2), and offers some preliminary observations on how filtration may aid ventilation (Part 3).

  9. Reception of odors and repellents in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anandasankar

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to find hosts, nectar, and oviposition sites, and to avoid repellents. A small number of mosquito species are adapted to feed on humans and have a major impact on public health by transmitting malaria, dengue, filariasis, etc. The application of odorants for behavioral control has not been fully realized yet due to complexity of the mosquito olfactory system. Recent progress in molecular and computational tools has enabled rigorous investigations of the mosquito olfactory system function and has started to reveal how specific receptors contribute to attractive and aversive behaviors. Here we discuss recent advances in linking odors to receptors and in exploiting this knowledge in finding attractants and repellents for mosquitoes. PMID:26202080

  10. Odor and chemical emissions from dairy and swine facilities: Part 1 - project overview and collection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock facilities have received numerous criticisms due to their emissions of odorous air and chemicals. Hence, there is a significant need for odor emission factors and identification of principle odorous chemicals. Odor emission factors are used as inputs to odor setback models, while chemica...

  11. Investigation of Mechanisms Underlying Odor Recognition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    olfactory epithelium of the rat using a procedure similar to that used in .amphibian forms (e.g., Kubie & Moulton, 1979). The detailed description of most...distinct differences in responsiveness of the underlying receptor sheet depending upon the region stimulated (e.g., Kauer & Moulton, 1979; Kubie M...patterns of olfactory bulb neurons using odor stimulation of small nasal areas in the salamander. J. Physiol. (London), 1974, 243, 717-737. Kubie , J.S

  12. Odor and pheromone sensing via chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghong

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionally, chemosensation is an ancient but yet enigmatic sense. All organisms ranging from the simplest unicellular form to the most advanced multicellular creature possess the capability to detect chemicals in the surroundings. Conversely, all living things emit some forms of smells, either as communicating signals or as by-products of metabolism. Many species (from worms, insects to mammals) rely on the olfactory systems which express a large number of chemoreceptors to locate food and mates and to avoid danger. Most chemoreceptors expressed in olfactory organs are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and can be classified into two major categories: odorant receptors (ORs) and pheromone receptors, which principally detect general odors and pheromones, respectively. In vertebrates, these two types of receptors are often expressed in two distinct apparatuses: The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), respectively. Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) in the MOE typically expresses one type of OR from a large repertoire. General odors activate ORs and their host OSNs (ranging from narrowly- to broadly-tuned) in a combinatorial manner and the information is sent to the brain via the main olfactory system leading to perception of smells. In contrast, pheromones stimulate relatively narrowly-tuned receptors and their host VNO neurons and the information is sent to the brain via the accessory olfactory system leading to behavioral and endocrinological changes. Recent studies indicate that the functional separation between these two systems is blurred in some cases and there are more subsystems serving chemosensory roles. This chapter focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying odor and pheromone sensing in rodents, the best characterized vertebrate models.

  13. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 5 - Correlations between odor intensities and chemical concentrations (GC-MS/O)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) of air samples from livestock operations is a very useful approach for quantification of target odorous gases and also for ranking of odorous compounds. This information can help link spec...

  14. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  15. Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Adriana; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Borowski, Sebastian; Bakuła, Tadeusz; Opaliński, Sebastian; Kołacz, Roman; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure and inhalation of odorous compounds from poultry manure can be harmful to farm workers and the surrounding residents as well as animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and IC50 values of common odorous compounds such as ammonium, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, butyric acid, phenol, and indole in the chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH (Leghorn Male Hepatoma), in vitro, using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and PrestoBlue cytotoxicity assays. The cells were microscopically examined for any morphological changes post treatment. Dimethylamine exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect on LMH cells with an IC50 value of 0.06% and 0.04% after an exposure of 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Both ammonium and trimethylamine had comparable cytotoxicity and their IC50 values were 0.08% and 0.04% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Of note, indole had the lowest cytotoxicity as the majority of cells were viable even after 72 h exposure. Thus, the IC50 for indole was not calculated. Results achieved from both MTT and PrestoBlue assays were comparable. Moreover, the morphological changes induced by the tested odours in LMH cells resulted in monolayer destruction, cytoplasm vacuolisation, chromatin condensation, and changes in nucleus and cell shape. Our study showed harmful effects of odorous compounds in chick tissues. PMID:27792203

  16. Thresholds for odor and nasal pungency.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

    1990-11-01

    Detection thresholds were measured repeatedly for 11 chemicals in normosmic and anosmic subjects. The stimuli comprised the first eight members of the series of n-aliphatic alcohols, phenyl ethyl alcohol, pyridine, and menthol. Results showed that anosmics could detect, via pungency, all but phenyl ethyl alcohol reliably. In the aliphatic series, both odor and pungency thresholds declined with chain length in a way that implied dependence of both in part on phase distribution in the mucosa. Odor thresholds, however, declined more rapidly than pungency thresholds: the ratio of anosmics threshold/normosmics threshold increased from 23 for methanol to 10,000 for 1-octanol. The outcome of a scaling experiment employing normosmic subjects indicated that, with the exception of methanol and ethanol, pungency arose when perceived intensity reached a narrowly tuned criterion level. When thresholds were expressed as percentages of saturated vapor, an index of thermodynamic activity, thereby accounting for differences in solubility and in phase distribution in the mucosa among the various stimuli, both odor and pungency thresholds depicted a striking constancy across stimuli.

  17. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains.

    PubMed

    Vass, Arpad A; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-03-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the "odor signatures" unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  18. Neural Coding of Perceived Odor Intensity1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Shusterman, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stimulus intensity is a fundamental perceptual feature in all sensory systems. In olfaction, perceived odor intensity depends on at least two variables: odor concentration; and duration of the odor exposure or adaptation. To examine how neural activity at early stages of the olfactory system represents features relevant to intensity perception, we studied the responses of mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) while manipulating odor concentration and exposure duration. Temporal profiles of MTC responses to odors changed both as a function of concentration and with adaptation. However, despite the complexity of these responses, adaptation and concentration dependencies behaved similarly. These similarities were visualized by principal component analysis of average population responses and were quantified by discriminant analysis in a trial-by-trial manner. The qualitative functional dependencies of neuronal responses paralleled psychophysics results in humans. We suggest that temporal patterns of MTC responses in the olfactory bulb contribute to an internal perceptual variable: odor intensity. PMID:26665162

  19. Odor identification in old age: demographic, sensory and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maria; Öberg, Christina; Bäckman, Lars

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine correlates of odor identification in old age. One hundred and thirty-two men and women (60-91 years) were assessed in a number of tasks tapping sensory acuity (i.e., odor sensitivity, intensity discrimination, quality discrimination) and different cognitive abilities (i.e., perceptual speed, executive functioning, verbal fluency). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that age, female sex, olfactory sensitivity, quality discrimination, cognitive speed, and verbal fluency were the most potent correlates of odor identification in general. In addition, the age-related variance in odor identification was eliminated when age-related deficits in odor sensitivity, quality discrimination, and perceptual speed were taken into account. This pattern of outcome suggests that age-related differences in these abilities underlie the well-established age impairment in odor identification.

  20. Preserving Fresh Fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

  1. Good odorant practices ensure safer operations. [Natural gas odorant detection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Oudman, P. )

    1993-12-01

    Regulations in Canada and the US require that combustible gas used as a fuel be odorized at such a level that a concentration in air of one-fifth the lower explosive limit the gas can be readily detected and recognized by a person with a normal sense of smell. These regulations do not specify how the odorant level should be determined. However, since the requirement is related to smell, the level should be determined by an olfactory method. There are two odorant monitoring methods commonly used by gas companies, the olfactory (odorometer) and the instrumentation (gas chromatograph) methods. The instrument method provides only quantitative results, which somehow must be related to an olfactory response. This paper discusses these methods.

  2. AN ODORANT-BINDING PROTEIN INVOLVED IN PERCEPTION OF HOST PLANT ODORANTS IN LOCUST Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Long; Wang, Xiaoqi

    2016-04-01

    Locusts, Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae), are extremely destructive agricultural pests, but very little is known of their molecular aspects of perception to host plant odorants including related odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), though several OBPs have been identified in locust. To elucidate the function of LmigOBP1, the first OBP identified from locust, RNA interference was employed in this study to silence LmigOBP1, which was achieved by injection of dsRNA targeting LmigOBP1 into the hemolymph of male nymphs. Compared with LmigOBP1 normal nymphs, LmigOBP1 knockdown nymphs significantly decreased food (maize leaf, Zea mays) consumption and electro-antennography responses to five maize leaf volatiles, ((Z)-3-hexenol, linalool, nonanal, decanal, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate). These suggest that LmigOBP1 is involved in perception of host plant odorants.

  3. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  4. Child Odors and Parenting: A Survey Examination of the Role of Odor in Child-Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Masako; Shirasu, Mika; Fujita, Rei; Hirasawa, Yukei; Touhara, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child’s body (n = 507). The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384). Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs) was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888). We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child’s bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child’s development. PMID:27138751

  5. Odor Signals of Immune Activation and CNS Inflammation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    injury. Using an animal model, we first trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from lipopolysaccharide-treated and control mice...Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a general elicitor of inflammation. Trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated and control...injury (LFPI) or surgery without brain injury were employed as urine donors. Biosensors trained to discriminate LPS-treated mouse odors from

  6. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Lorey K.

    2014-01-01

    When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala (MeA) appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress hormone secretion. The MeA also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus (VHC) appear prominently involved in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator

  7. Studies on the Aroma of Five Fresh Tomato Cultivars and the Precursors of the cis- and trans-4,5-Epoxy-(E)-2-Decenals and Methional

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three tasty (BR-139, FA-624 and FA-612) and two less tasty (R 144 and R 175) fresh greenhouse tomato cultivars, which significantly differ in their flavor profiles, were screened for potent odorants using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Based on AEDA results, 19 volatiles were selected for ...

  8. Full evaporation dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for uniform enrichment of odor compounds in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    A method for analysis of a wide range of odor compounds in aqueous samples at sub-ng mL⁻¹ to μg mL⁻¹ levels was developed by full evaporation dynamic headspace (FEDHS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compared to conventional DHS and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), FEDHS provides more uniform enrichment over the entire polarity range for odor compounds in aqueous samples. FEDHS at 80°C using 3 L of purge gas allows complete vaporization of 100 μL of an aqueous sample, and trapping and drying it in an adsorbent packed tube, while providing high recoveries (85-103%) of the 18 model odor compounds (water solubility at 25°C: log0.54-5.65 mg L⁻¹, vapor pressure at 25°C: 0.011-3.2 mm Hg) and leaving most of the low volatile matrix behind. The FEDHS-GC-MS method showed good linearity (r²>0.9909) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.21-5.2 ng mL⁻¹) for the model compounds even with the scan mode in the conventional MS. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analyses of key odor compounds including hydrophilic and less volatile characteristics in beverages (whiskey and green tea). In a single malt whiskey sample, phenolic compounds including vanillin could be determined in the range of 0.92-5.1 μg mL⁻¹ (RSD<7.4%, n=6). For a Japanese green tea sample, 48 compounds including 19 potent odorants were positively identified from only 100 μL of sample. Heat-induced artifact formation for potent odorants was also examined and the proposed method does not affect the additional formation of thermally generated compounds. Eighteen compounds including 12 potent odorants (e.g. coumarin, furaneol, indole, maltol, and pyrazine congeners) were determined in the range of 0.21-110 ng mL⁻¹ (RSD<10%, n=6).

  9. Human chemosensory perception of methyl isothiocyanate: chemesthesis and odor.

    PubMed

    Cain, William S; Dourson, Michael L; Kohrman-Vincent, Melissa J; Allen, Bruce C

    2010-11-01

    An unpublished laboratory study by Russell and Rush (1996) showed that human subjects sense the presence of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) via the eyes at concentrations as low as hundreds of ppb in air, with dependence upon duration of exposure. The longer the stimulation, the lower the concentrations sensed. Application of benchmark concentration (BMC10) modeling indicated a best estimate of 330 ppb by the end of 4h. With a confidence limit (BMCL) applied, the level dropped to 220 ppb, when employing a probit model. Receptors known as TRPA1 ion channels present in trigeminal and associated peripheral afferent nerves have shown particular sensitivity to isothiocyanates. Sensitivity to these electrophiles, which occur naturally in plants (e.g., capers and mustard greens), most likely derives from a mechanism of reversible covalent bonding. Such sensing can provide warning of potential damage rather than actual damage itself. Based upon its reputation as a lachrymator, Russell and Rush assumed that the eyes would sense MITC, before the upper airways, so gathered no data from the airways, except for odor. Field results from spills and results of acute exposures to animals covered in Dourson et al. (2010) add pertinent information on the matter.

  10. Color and odor of artificial fruit used to signal potential dispersers in the Atlantic forest in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Aliny Oliveira; Perônico, Clayton; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob

    2012-06-01

    Fruit color and odor are the main features regulating the rate of fruit predation and dispersal. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of odor and color on fruit predators and dispersers. The present study was conducted in a 30ha area of secondary forest in Southeastern Atlantic Brazil. This area was divided into two transects, in which four points were marked with a 30m distance from each other. Each sampling point contained a total of 30 artificial fruit which belong to six different treatment groups, with five artificial fruit per group. Each group was randomly placed on the ground and that artificial fruit was checked every seven days. For each group of five fruit, 5mL of essence (vanilla or pineapple) were placed, and no essence was used in the control group. Artificial fruit was made with green and red nontoxic modeling clay, as well as artificial essences (vanilla and pineapple). A total of 960 fruits were used. Predated fruit equaled 26.9% (258 units), from which the red/pineapple had the highest predation rate (81.9%), followed by red/vanilla (46.3%), while green/control fruits were not predated. Throughout the experiment, bitten fruit and pecked fruit equaled 58.3% and 41.7%, respectively. No significant differences were recorded (x2=7.57, df=5, p=0.182) between bitten and pecked fruit. Fruit color and odor are important in attracting predators and dispersers, which explains the high rate of predation of red/ vanilla and red/pineapple, and the absence of predated fruits in the green/control group. Regarding the potential disperser, there was no statistically significant difference between pecked fruit and bitten fruit. As a result, it should be taken into consideration that zoochory (mammalochory and ornithochory) is the most important dispersal; therefore, it should be concluded that birds are more attracted by color and mammals by odor.

  11. In vitro study of the biochemical origin and production limits of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2001-12-01

    Livestock odors are closely correlated to airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are a complex mixture of carbon-, sulfur-, and nitrogen-containing compounds produced primarily during the incomplete anaerobic fermentation of animal manure by microorganisms. Volatile fatty acids, alcohols, and aromatic ring compounds comprise a substantial fraction of VOC, yet very little is known about their biochemical origin and environmental factors controlling their production. The anaerobic production of fermentation products and consumption of substrates (CP, starch, and nonstarch carbohydrate) were analyzed in slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged (> 1 d) cattle manure over several weeks. Ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, and H2 were the major products of fermentation. Aged cattle manure produced twice the concentration of VFA during incubation produced by the fresh manure (P < 0.001). Aromatic compounds (phenols, indoles, and benzoates) remained unchanged in both manures. Production of VFA from fresh manure was inhibited when the pH fell below 4.5. It is likely that the presence of calcareous soil, which has a high buffering capacity, and lactate-consuming microorganisms minimized acidification in the aged manure slurries. Low starch content limited VFA production in the aged manure. Starch was the likely biochemical source for fermentation products in both manures based on the strong negative correlations between fermentation product and starch content (r = -0.944 and -0.773) and ratio of fermentation products produced to starch consumed (r = 0.64 and 0.72) for fresh and aged manure, respectively. Nonstarch carbohydrate served an indeterminate role in the production of fermentation products. Nonstarch carbohydrate decreased by 4.7 and 23.4 g/L in the fresh and aged manure, respectively, whereas the starch content decreased by 18.6 and 22.4 g/L in the fresh and aged manure, respectively. The concentration of CP did not change, which

  12. Coding of odor stimulus features among secondary olfactory structures

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Christina Z.; Adjei, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems must represent stimuli in manners dependent upon a wealth of factors, including stimulus intensity and duration. One way the brain might handle these complex functions is to assign the tasks throughout distributed nodes, each contributing to information processing. We sought to explore this important aspect of sensory network function in the mammalian olfactory system, wherein the intensity and duration of odor exposure are critical contributors to odor perception. This is a quintessential model for exploring processing schemes given the distribution of odor information by olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells into several anatomically distinct secondary processing stages, including the piriform cortex (PCX) and olfactory tubercle (OT), whose unique contributions to odor coding are unresolved. We explored the coding of PCX and OT neuron responses to odor intensity and duration. We found that both structures similarly partake in representing descending intensities of odors by reduced recruitment and modulation of neurons. Additionally, while neurons in the OT adapt to odor exposure, they display reduced capacity to adapt to either repeated presentations of odor or a single prolonged odor presentation compared with neurons in the PCX. These results provide insights into manners whereby secondary olfactory structures may, at least in some cases, uniquely represent stimulus features. PMID:26041832

  13. Odor measurements for manure spreading using a subsurface deposition applicator.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anthony; Bittman, Shabtai; Lemus, Gladis

    2003-03-01

    Odor emissions during manure spreading events have become a source of concern, particularly where farms are located nearby urban areas. The objective of the present study was to compare odor concentrations and odor emission rates due to pig manure application using two different types of applicators, a sub-surface deposition system and a conventional splash-plate applicator. Air samples were collected using a Surface Isolation Flux Chamber and the "bag-in-vacuum chamber" techniques, at 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 hours after manure application. A three-station forced-choice dynamic dilution olfactometer was used by an odor panel for determining odor concentration. Preliminary results indicated that with the sub-surface deposition system applicator odor emission rate was reduced by 8% to 38% compared to that of the conventional splash-plate applicator. The highest reduction in odor strength and odor emission rate was observed in the most offensive period after manure application. The sub-surface deposition system may be a solution for hog producers who wish to reduce odor complaints from applying manure without the cost and problems associated with deep injection systems.

  14. A field study on downwind odor transport from swine facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents field data to illustrate the characteristics of downwind odor dispersion. A total of eight swine facilities were studied in this project and power functions were found to be an appropriate description of the pattern of downwind odor transport for both swine buildings and manure storage lagoons and tanks. The coefficients of correlation for the power regressions ranged from 0.75-0.87. It was found that swine buildings have the potential of generating more odor than manure storage facilities such as lagoons and tanks and thus could be the major odor sources causing downwind odor nuisance. Therefore, to maintain the building clean should be highly recommended as swine producers' best management practice. For earthen basins, the odor strength was reduced by 80% at about 250-meter distance from the source. While for the swine building, a 50% of reduction in odor strength was observed at the same distance. The study did not show any advantages of using lagoons over concrete (or steel) manure tanks in terms of reducing downwind odor concentrations. Land application of manure did not cause persistent downwind odor problems.

  15. Molecular determinants of odorant receptor function in insects.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anandasankar; van Naters, Wynand Goes; Carlson, John R

    2014-09-01

    The olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful model to study molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying function of a sensory system. In the 1970s Siddiqi and colleagues pioneered the application of genetics to olfactory research and isolated several mutant Drosophila with odorant-specific defects in olfactory behaviour, suggesting that odorants are detected differentially by the olfactory system. Since then basic principles of olfactory system function and development have emerged using Drosophila as a model. Nearly four decades later we can add computational methods to further our understanding of how specific odorants are detected by receptors. Using a comparative approach we identify two categories of short amino acid sequence motifs: ones that are conserved family-wide predominantly in the C-terminal half of most receptors, and ones that are present in receptors that detect a specific odorant, 4-methylphenol, found predominantly in the N-terminal half. The odorant-specific sequence motifs are predictors of phenol detection in Anopheles gambiae and other insects, suggesting they are likely to participate in odorant binding. Conversely, the family-wide motifs are expected to participate in shared functions across all receptors and a mutation in the most conserved motif leads to a reduction in odor response. These findings lay a foundation for investigating functional domains within odorant receptors that can lead to a molecular understanding of odor detection.

  16. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma.

  17. Understanding odorants associated with compost, biomass facilities, and the land application of biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, P E; Suffet, I H

    2004-01-01

    Odorous water and air can result from compost, biomass facilities and land application of biosolids. Common odorous compounds from these biodegradation systems include alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, solvents and various sulfur and nitrogen compounds. Each odorant possesses a unique individual odor signature i.e. odor character or quality, odor threshold concentration and chemical concentration. This paper develops an initial understanding of how the volatile odorous chemicals and their relative concentrations produced are related to the total odor quality from the process by their odor threshold concentrations. The compost process is used as an example. It was estimated, that on day 1 and 7, the primary fatty acids controlling the fermented and rotten odors were butyric acid and valeric acids, individually, unpleasant and rancid odors, respectively, although acetic acid had the highest fatty acid concentration on both days. In the same way, aldehydes and ketones controlled the disappearance of the sweet odor from day 1 to 7.

  18. Working memory performance and exposure to pleasant and unpleasant ambient odor: is spatial span special?

    PubMed

    Martin, G N; Chaudry, A

    2014-11-01

    Sensory influences on working memory (WM) performance were investigated in 86 healthy adults. Participants were exposed to an ambient pleasant odor (lemon), unpleasant odor (machine oil) or no odor during completion of three WM tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-III: the letter-number sequencing, spatial span and digit span tests. A significant main effect of odor was found for spatial span but no other task: scores were significantly lower in the unpleasant odor condition than the pleasant odor condition. Significant odor × sex interactions were found for the spatial span, digit span and letter-number sequencing tasks: men's spatial span scores were lower in the unpleasant odor condition than in the control condition, and women's scores were significantly better in the pleasant odor condition than in the unpleasant odor condition. The results suggest that ambient odor may impair or facilitate specific types of WM depending on the task, sex of the participant and affective characteristics of the odor.

  19. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from dairy and swine facilities: Part 5-Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis with Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry - Olfactometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) for air samples collected at barn exhaust fans were used for quantification and ranking of odor impact of target odorous gases. Fifteen target odorous VOCs (odorants) were selected. Air sampl...

  20. A CO2-Free Synthetic Host-Odor Mixture That Attracts and Captures Triatomines: Effect of Emitted Odorant Ratios.

    PubMed

    Guidobaldi, F; Guerenstein, P G

    2016-07-01

    Triatomines, vectors of Chagas Disease, are hematophagous insects. Efforts have been made to develop synthetic attractants based on vertebrate odor-to lure them into traps. However, because those lures are not practical or have low capture efficiency, they are not in use in control programs. Therefore, more work is needed to reach a practical and efficient odor lure. Recently, a three-component, CO2-free, synthetic blend of vertebrate odor (consisting of ammonia, l-(+)-lactic acid, and hexanoic acid), known as Sweetscent (Biogents AG, Regensburg, Germany), was shown to attract and capture triatomines in the laboratory. In this study, using a trap olfactometer and an odor blend with constituents similar to those of Sweetscent (delivered from low-density polyethylene sachets) we found that the odorant ratios of the mixtures have a strong effect in the capture of triatomines. The blend with the most efficient combination of odorant ratios evoked ca. 81% capture in two relevant triatomine species. In the case of the most effective odor mixtures, we measured the odor mass emission for the three components of the mixture and therefore were able to estimate the odorant ratios emitted that were responsible for such a high capture performance. Thus, in those mixtures, pentanoic acid was the main component (ca. 65 %) followed by ammonia (ca. 28%) and, l(+)-lactic acid (ca. 7 %). Our results are encouraging as efficient, practical, and cheap odor baits to trap triatomines in the field would be within reach. The odor-delivery system used should be improved to increase stability of odor emission.

  1. A Female-Biased Odorant Receptor from Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) Tuned to Some Plant Odors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhixiang; Zhang, Meiping; Yan, Shuwei; Wang, Guirong; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a serious pest of cotton, jujube, grape and many other crops around the world. Understanding how olfactory information directs this insect to its host plants may provide environment-friendly approaches to the control of its population in agriculture. In our study, we cloned an odorant receptor gene, AlucOR46, that was specifically expressed in antennae and female-biased. Functional expression of AlucOR46 in Xenopus oocytes showed that it is tuned to six plant volatiles (S)-(−)-Limonene, (R)-(+)-Limonene, (E)-2-Hexenal, (E)-3-Hexenol, 1-Heptanol and (1R)-(−)-Myrtenol. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings revealed that all six compounds could elicit electrophysiological responses from the antennae of A. lucorum, higher in females. Our results are in agreement with previous reports showing that (E)-2-Hexenal could attract female A. lucorum in behavior experiments. These results suggest that AlucOR46 might play an important role in locating the host plants of A. lucorum and therefore represents a suitable target for green pest control. PMID:27483241

  2. Investigation of the volatile organic substances that cause the characteristic odor of pentachlorophenol treated wood utility poles.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Myriam; Gilbert, Roland; Besner, André; Labrecque, Jean-François; Hubert, Joseph

    2002-12-01

    The nature of the volatile organic compounds that could be at the origin of the characteristic odor of treated wood utility poles was investigated by the study of compositional changes in the chromatographic profiles of fresh-pentachlorophenol (PCP) solvent samples and weathered samples collected from an in-service red pine pole. Over 99 peaks were identified in the chromatogram of the fresh solvent from which a large portion of the C3-, C4-, C5-, C6-alkylbenzene isomers and early eluting n-alkanes was missing from the analysis of weathered samples. Three domains in the chromatographic profile (volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile components) were confirmed by assessing the headspace of fresh-PCP solvent samples using direct syringe sampling and solid-phase microextraction. A first level of field validation was achieved using an emission cell for measuring substances emanating from sapwood specimens at different temperatures. The average latent heat of vaporization (deltaHvap) of the PCP-solvent components was estimated at 99.9 kJ/mol from these results. Finally, the analysis of airborne substances at a treating plant and a utility pole storage site confirmed that the C4-, C5-, and C6-alkylbenzene isomers could contribute to the characteristic odor perceived by humans.

  3. Animal-to-Animal Variation in Odor Preference and Neural Representation of Odors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honegger, Kyle; Smith, Matthew; Turner, Glenn; de Bivort, Benjamin

    Across any population of animals, individuals exhibit diverse behaviors and reactions to sensory stimuli like tastes and odors. While idiosyncratic behavior is ubiquitous, its biological basis is poorly understood. In this talk, I will present evidence that individual fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) display idiosyncratic olfactory behaviors and discuss our ongoing efforts to map these behavioral differences to variation in neural circuits. Using a high-throughput, single-fly assay for odor preference, we have demonstrated that highly inbred flies display substantial animal-to-animal variability, beyond that expected from experimental error, and that these preferences persist over days. Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, we are beginning to examine the idiosyncrasy of neural coding in the fly olfactory pathway and find that the odor responses of individual processing channels in the antennal lobe can vary substantially from fly to fly. These results imply that individual differences in neural coding may be used to predict the idiosyncratic behavior of an individual - a hypothesis we are currently testing by imaging neural activity from flies after measuring their odor preferences.

  4. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 4 - correlations between sensory and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study supplemented the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) by making comprehensive measurements, over a full calendar year, of odor emissions from five swine and four dairy rooms/buildings (subset of the total number of buildings monitored for the NAEMS project). The measurements ma...

  5. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: part 4-correlations between sensory and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study supplemented the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) with one year of comprehensive measurements of odor emission at five swine and four dairy buildings. The measurements included both standard human sensory measurements using dynamic forced-choice olfactometry and chemical an...

  6. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    DOEpatents

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  7. Factors Influencing Odor Sensitivity in the Dog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    and Discussion 22 PART iI: RELATION BETWEEN PROGESTERONE LEVELS AND FZRFL.PRANCE OF F• MALE RATS 01. AN ODOR DETECTION TASK 25 Method 26 Results ard...curves for c-ionone in three male human subjects(4.5. x 10 9 moles/cm3 refers to the mean detection threshold).Eac’t point on the curve is the mean (+ SE...Subjects. Two female and one male German Shepherd were used. One female was about three years old at the start of the experiments while the other dogs were

  8. OR2M3: A Highly Specific and Narrowly Tuned Human Odorant Receptor for the Sensitive Detection of Onion Key Food Odorant 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol.

    PubMed

    Noe, Franziska; Polster, Johannes; Geithe, Christiane; Kotthoff, Matthias; Schieberle, Peter; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2016-12-04

    The detection of key food odorants appears to be an important capability of odorant receptors. Here, thiols occupy an outstanding position among the 230 known key food odorants because of their very low odor thresholds. Members of the homologous series of 3-mercapto-2-methylalkan-1-ols have been described as onion key food odorants or food constituents and are detected at logarithmically different thresholds. 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol being the only key food odorant within this series also has the lowest odor threshold. Most odorants typically activate combinations of odorant receptors, which may be narrowly or broadly tuned. Consequently, a specific receptor activation pattern will define an odor quality. In contrast, here we show that just 1 of the 391 human odorant receptors, OR2M3, responded exclusively to 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol of the 190 key food odorants tested, with a half maximal effective concentration at submicromolar concentration. Moreover, neither the Denisovan OR2M3 nor the closest OR2M3 homologs from five species did respond to this compound. This outstanding specificity of extremely narrowly tuned human OR2M3 can explain both odor qualities and odor threshold trend within a homologous series of 3-mercapto-2-methylalkan-1-ols and suggests a modern human-specific, food-related function of OR2M3 in detecting a single onion key food odorant.

  9. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  10. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  11. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  12. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  13. Odorous VOC emissions following land application of swine manure slurry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine manure is often applied to crop land as a fertilizer source. Odor emissions from land-applied swine manure may pose a possible nuisance to downwind populations if not applied with sufficient forethought. A research project was conducted to assess the time decay of odorous volatile organic co...

  14. Habitat odor can alleviate innate stress responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Mutsumi; Imada, Masato; Aizawa, Shin; Sato, Takaaki

    2016-01-15

    Predatory odors, which can induce innate fear and stress responses in prey species, are frequently used in the development of animal models for several psychiatric diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a life-threatening event. We have previously shown that odors can be divided into at least three types; odors that act as (1) innate stressors, (2) as innate relaxants, or (3) have no innate effects on stress responses. Here, we attempted to verify whether an artificial odor, which had no innate effect on predatory odor-induced stress, could alleviate stress if experienced in early life as a habitat odor. In the current study, we demonstrated that the innate responses were changed to counteract stress following a postnatal experience. Moreover, we suggest that inhibitory circuits involved in stress-related neuronal networks and the concentrations of norepinephrine in the hippocampus may be crucial in alleviating stress induced by the predatory odor. Overall, these findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms involved in differential odor responses and also for the development of pharmacotherapeutic interventions that can alleviate stress in illnesses like PTSD.

  15. [Analysis of odor pollutants in kitchen waste composting].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-yu; Zou, Ke-hua; Yang, Jin-bing; Li, Guo-xue; Yang, Qing-yuan; Zhang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    Odor pollution has become a major environmental problem in municipal solid waste composting. The odor samples at different composting phases of kitchen waste were collected and analyzed by olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The correlation between the odor concentration and the emission of odor compounds was also analyzed. The results showed that there were 43 kinds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the composting process of kitchen waste, including 5 kinds of sulfur odor compounds, 22 kinds of hydrocarbon compounds, 11 kinds of aromatic compounds and 5 kinds of other odor compounds. The correlation analysis indicated that the odor concentration was very significantly correlated with the emission of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, 1,3-xylene and o-xylene (P < 0.01), and significantly correlated with the emission of dimethyl disulfide and p-xylene (P < 0.05). Therefore, those 6 kinds of odor compounds should be intensively monitored and controlled during the composting process of kitchen waste.

  16. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Eliane; Hoeksma, Marco R; Smeets, Monique A M; Semin, Gün R

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental task was performed while participants were exposed to an odor and either sitting upright (arousing condition) or lying down in a relaxing chair (relaxing condition). They were allocated to one of three experimental odor conditions: rosemary (arousing condition), peppermint (relaxing condition), and no odor (control condition). The predicted effects of the odors were not borne out by the results. Self-reported arousal (SRA) and pleasure (PL) states were measured before, during (after each body posture condition) and postexperimentally. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance were measured before and during the experiment. As expected, odor had an effect on perceived duration. When participants were exposed to rosemary odor, they produced significantly shorter time intervals than in the no odor condition. This effect, however, could not be explained by increased arousal. There was no effect of body posture on perceived duration, even though body posture did induce arousal. The results do not support the proposed arousal mechanism of the internal clock model.

  17. The Influence of Trigeminal Stimulation on Children's Judgements of Odor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engen, Trygg; Moskowitz, Linda

    Children's preference for odors, some of which presumably had marked trigeminal (noxious) effects, was assessed with the use of the method of pair comparison. Although the children, from 4 to 7 years old, were able to discriminate between the intensities of the odors, they were neither attracted nor repelled by them as much as the adults. In other…

  18. Multiple activities of insect repellents on odorant receptors in mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several lines of evidence suggest that insect repellent molecules reduce mosquito-host contacts by interacting with odorants and odorant receptors (ORs) ultimately affecting olfactory-driven behaviors. We describe the molecular effects of ten insect repellents and a pyrethroid insecticide with known...

  19. Origins and identities of key manure odor components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odor is just one of many environmental issues associated with animal manures. Odor arises from a number of different locations in animal production systems, but the chemistry and biochemical origin is similar across sites. A complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and inorganic compoun...

  20. Odor control in swine buildings: recycle flush vs. automated scraper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A research project was conducted to compare odor concentrations in exhaust of traditional flush barns and barns equipped with automated scrapers. The study was conducted at commercial tunnel-ventilated swine barns in northwest Missouri. Odor samples were collected from the barn exhaust in polyvinyl ...

  1. The study of multiphase flow control during odor reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dehan; Yu, Hao; Fan, Danjun; He, Meiqiu

    2014-04-01

    Odor reproduction, is the use of the chemical composition of the basic components of odor recipe, according to a certain proportion, to control the flow of the various components, which make them sufficiently blended to achieve reproduction. In this paper, reproducing method is to find the corresponding liquid flavor, and then based on chemical flavor recipes, using flowmeters to control the chemical composition of the liquid flavor ratio. In the proportional control, the liquid chemical composition is very likely to be volatile, so that the proportional control is multiphase flow control. Measurement of the flow control will directly affect the odor reproducible results. Using electronic nose to obtain reproducible odor data, and then use pattern recognition algorithm to determine reproducible results. The experimental results can be achieved on the process of odor components multiphase flow proportional control parameter adjustment.

  2. Urban air pollution by odor sources: Short time prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettarin, Nicola; Campolo, Marina; Soldati, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    A numerical approach is proposed to predict the short time dispersion of odors in the urban environment. The model is based on (i) a three dimensional computational domain describing the urban topography at fine spatial scale (1 m) and on (ii) highly time resolved (1 min frequency) meteorological data used as inflow conditions. The time dependent, three dimensional wind velocity field is reconstructed in the Eulerian framework using a fast response finite volume solver of Navier-Stokes equations. Odor dispersion is calculated using a Lagrangian approach. An application of the model to the historic city of Verona (Italy) is presented. Results confirm that this type of odor dispersion simulations can be used (i) to assess the impact of odor emissions in urban areas and (ii) to evaluate the potential mitigation produced by odor abatement systems.

  3. Fresh Veggies from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Professor Marc Anderson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed a technology for use in plant-growth experiments aboard the Space Shuttle. Anderson's research and WCSAR's technology were funded by NASA and resulted in a joint technology licensed to KES Science and Technology, Inc. This transfer of space-age technology resulted in the creation of a new plant-saving product, an ethylene scrubber for plant growth chambers. This innovation presents commercial benefits for the food industry in the form of a new device, named Bio-KES. Bio-KES removes ethylene and helps to prevent spoilage. Ethylene accounts for up to 10 percent of produce losses and 5 percent of flower losses. Using Bio-KES in storage rooms and displays will increase the shelf life of perishable foods by more than one week, drastically reducing the costs associated with discarded rotten foods and flowers. The savings could potentially be passed on to consumers. For NASA, the device means that astronauts can conduct commercial agricultural research in space. Eventually, it may also help to grow food in space and keep it fresh longer. This could lead to less packaged food being taken aboard missions since it could be cultivated in an ethylene-free environment.

  4. Characterisation of odorants in roasted stem tea using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Koshi, Erina; Take, Harumi; Michihata, Toshihide; Maruya, Masachika; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2017-04-01

    Roasted stem tea has a characteristic flavour, which is obtained by roasting tea stems, by-product of green tea production. This research aims to understand the characteristic odorants in roasted stem tea by comparing it to roasted leaf tea. We revealed potent odorants in commercial roasted stem tea using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The difference between roasted stem and leaf tea derived from the same tea plants were investigated using GC-MS. Pyrazine compounds exhibited a roasted odour and high flavour dilution (FD) factors, as determined via AEDA. Roasted stem tea was richer in these pyrazines than roasted leaf tea. Geraniol and linalool exhibited high FD factors and a floral odour, and roasted stem tea was richer in these compounds than roasted leaf tea. These results may have a positive impact on the development of tea products.

  5. Nuisance Odors: Is there a Concern - 12340

    SciTech Connect

    Brounstein, Robert A.

    2012-07-01

    Nuisance odors are generally thought of as just being annoying or unpleasant and not causing any physiological harm to our internal organs or other biologic systems. Yet during an excavation of buried animal remains, field workers experienced a multitude of symptoms that are associated with exposures to toxic materials. An examination of the decomposition process revealed that there is a potential off-gassing of a number of common, yet harmful chemicals including ammonia, mercaptans, hydrogen sulfide, butyric acid and phenol. In addition, other compounds, that have limited information such as established health data and occupational exposure limits, were also potential contaminants-of-concern. While a variety of monitoring and sampling techniques were used to assess worker exposures, all results indicated non-detectable airborne concentrations. Nevertheless, workers were experiencing such symptoms as nausea and headaches. As such, protective measures were necessary for field personnel to continue work while having confidence that the project was instituting sincere steps to ensure their health and safety. Researching the possible reasons for the causes of workers exhibiting adverse health effects from nuisance odors revealed that such exposures initiate electrochemical pathways, starting from the olfactory bulb to the brain, followed by a transfer of information to such biologic systems as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. These systems, in turn, secrete hormones that cause a number of involuntary reactions; many of which are observed as typical adverse health effects, when in fact, they are merely reactions caused by the brain's memory; most likely created from previous experiences to unpleasant odors. The concern then focuses of how the Occupational Safety and Health community shall respond to such workplace exposures. Future work in this area may need to focus on the viability of current occupational exposure limits and the possibility of revising these

  6. Acute Atrazine Exposure has Lasting Effects on Chemosensory Responses to Food Odors in Crayfish (Orconectes virilis).

    PubMed

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Mooney, Lauren N; Nguyen, Hung M; Abraham, Noor K; Peters, Tyler J; Kana, Maria A; May, Lauren A

    2016-02-01

    The herbicide atrazine is known to impact negatively olfactory-mediated behaviors in aquatic animals. We have shown that atrazine exposure has deleterious effects on olfactory-mediated behavioral responses to food odors in crayfish; however, recovery of chemosensory abilities post-atrazine exposure has not been investigated. We examined whether crayfish (Orconectes virilis) recovered chemosensory abilities after a 96-h exposure to sublethal, environmentally relevant concentrations of 80 ppb (µg/L) atrazine. Following treatment, we analyzed the ability of the crayfish to locate a food source using a Y-maze with one arm containing fish-flavored gelatin and the other containing unflavored gelatin. We compared the time spent in the food arm of the Y-maze, near the food source, as well as moving and walking speed of control and atrazine-treated crayfish. We also compared the number of crayfish that handled the food source and the amount of food consumed. Following 24-, 48-, and 72-h recovery periods in fresh water, behavioral trials were repeated to determine if there was any observable recovery of chemosensory-mediated behaviors. Atrazine-treated crayfish spent less time in the food arm, at the odor source, and were less successful at finding the food odor source than control crayfish for all times tested. Additionally, atrazine-treated crayfish consumed less fish-flavored than control crayfish; however, treatment did not affect locomotion. Overall, we found that crayfish are not able to recover chemosensory abilities 72 h post-atrazine exposure. Because crayfish rely heavily on their chemosensory abilities to acquire food, the negative impacts of atrazine exposure could affect population size in areas where atrazine is heavily applied.

  7. Concentrations of aroma compounds and odor activity values of odorant series in different olive cultivars and their oils.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-06-05

    Olives from Picual, Arbequina, Manzanilla de Sevilla, and Local cultivars together with their corresponding oils were analyzed in terms of odor activity values (OAVs) to establish the relationship between the aromatic profile of both olives and oils. The OAVs for the different compounds were classified in nine odorant series: grass, leaf, wood, bitter, sweet, pungent, olive fruit, apple, and banana. The total intensities for every aromatic series were calculated as the sum of the OAVs of each compound associated with this series. As a result, olives had characteristic profiles. Picual cultivar had not a clear sensory characterization from the volatile compounds. Arbequina cultivar was mainly characterized by apple and bitter odorant series; Manzanilla de Sevilla by apple, bitter, and grass odorant series; and Local variety by banana and olive fruit. However, in the oils obtained from those olives, these differences disappeared, and all oils showed the same profile with pungent, bitter, and wood odorant series most strongly contributing.

  8. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  9. Empirical model of odor emission from deep-pit swine finishing barns to derive a standardized odor emission factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauberger, Günther; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Ni, Ji-Qin; Bundy, Dwaine S.; Haymore, Barry L.; Diehl, Claude A.; Duggirala, Ravi K.; Heber, Albert J.

    2013-02-01

    Odor emission from swine housing is influenced by the herd characteristics and building environment. The following three specific factors were identified as inputs to a swine house odor emission model: indoor temperature, barn ventilation rate, and pig activity. Model input parameters were determined based on tests of four, identical, 1000-head, mechanically-ventilated swine finishing houses. Each building had two sidewall curtains, a curtain on the west end wall, five exhaust fans on the east end wall, four pit ventilation fans, and long-term manure storage beneath a fully slatted floor. Odor concentrations of 112 odor samples were determined using dynamic forced-choice olfactometry with four to six trained panelists. The emission model showed that the standard live mass specific odor emission factor was 48 OU s-1 per 500 kg live mass or animal unit (AU), and it corresponded to an indoor temperature of T0 = 20 °C, a ventilation rate of V0 = 200 m3 h-1 (55.6 × 10-3 m3 s-1) per pig (maximum capacity for summer time), and the daily mean animal activity. The rate of odor emission from a swine finishing house can be calculated based on these parameters coupled with the number of animals, the mean live mass, and the standard live mass specific odor emission factor. Using this process-based odor emission model, the odor emission estimation and therefore the input for odor dispersion models can be improved to obtain more reliable estimates of separation distance for siting future pig farms.

  10. Identification of a stale-beer-like odorant in extracts of naturally aged beer.

    PubMed

    Callemien, Delphine; Dasnoy, Sébastien; Collin, Sonia

    2006-02-22

    For a long time, beer staling has been a prime concern in brewery research. Yet, to improve flavor stability, better knowledge of all chemicals involved is still needed. From our aroma extract dilu-tion analyses (AEDA) applied to naturally aged lager beers emerged an old-beer-like odorant at RICP-SIL 5 CB = 1532 and RIFFAP = 2809, with a FD value close to that of trans-2-nonenal (the well-known cardboard off-flavor found in aged beers). Specific phenol extraction, GC cold trapping, and mass spectrometry (electron impact and chemical ionization) enabled us to identify it as 4-vinylsyringol. Although already mentioned in some fresh beers, this compound had never been highlighted as involved in the aging process of lager beers.

  11. How does a newly born mouse get to the nipple? Odor substrates eliciting first nipple grasping and sucking responses.

    PubMed

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Belin, Laurine; Schaal, Benoist; Patris, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    It is a mammalian female strategy to emit odor cues and signals that direct their inexperienced newborns to the nipple, and optimize their initial sucking success and, hence, viability. Here, natural odorous substrates that contribute to nipple grasping were investigated in mice, a species that has not been much scrutinized on this topic. The response of pups toward the nipples of lactating females (LF) versus nonlactating females (NLF) were first assessed right after watched birth, before and after the first suckling experience, and at 1 day old, after more extended suckling experience. It appeared that only nipples of LF induced grasping at these early ages, leading to take NLF as the baseline setting to present various odor substrates sampled from LF, viz. amniotic fluid, murine milk, LF saliva, pup saliva, LF urine, and an odorless control stimulus (water). Results indicate that: (1) only amniotic fluid and fresh milk induced nipple grasping before the first suckling experience; (2) LF saliva started inducing grasping after the first suckling experience; (3) pup saliva released grasping after 24-36 hr of suckling experience; finally (4) neither LF urine, nor water induced any nipple grasping. In conclusion, the activity of amniotic fluid and murine milk on neonatal pup behavior before any postnatal suckling experience suggests that either prenatal learning and/or predisposed olfactory mechanisms do operate, while the behavioral activation due to maternal and infantile salivas clearly depends on postnatal exposure.

  12. Age-Related Changes in Children's Hedonic Response to Male Body Odor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Repacholi, Betty M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined children's and adolescents' ability to identify male sweat and other odors and their rating of odors for liking. Found that only female adolescents could identify and disliked male sweat. When cued about odor identity, both male and female adolescents disliked male sweat more than children. Concluded that dislike for male sweat odor may…

  13. Research on odor interaction between aldehyde compounds via a partial differential equation (PDE) model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Qu, Chen; Gu, Xingye; Zhao, Xia

    2015-01-28

    In order to explore the odor interaction of binary odor mixtures, a series of odor intensity evaluation tests were performed using both individual components and binary mixtures of aldehydes. Based on the linear relation between the logarithm of odor activity value and odor intensity of individual substances, the relationship between concentrations of individual constituents and their joint odor intensity was investigated by employing a partial differential equation (PDE) model. The obtained results showed that the binary odor interaction was mainly influenced by the mixing ratio of two constituents, but not the concentration level of an odor sample. Besides, an extended PDE model was also proposed on the basis of the above experiments. Through a series of odor intensity matching tests for several different binary odor mixtures, the extended PDE model was proved effective at odor intensity prediction. Furthermore, odorants of the same chemical group and similar odor type exhibited similar characteristics in the binary odor interaction. The overall results suggested that the PDE model is a more interpretable way of demonstrating the odor interactions of binary odor mixtures.

  14. Behavioral reactions to novel food odors by intertidal hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Tran, Mark V

    2015-04-01

    Novel food items represent important food resources for generalist scavengers, such as intertidal hermit crabs. For animals that rely heavily on olfaction to mediate foraging, their first encounters with novel food items come from the detection of novel food odors. Although crustaceans have been shown to possess sensory mechanisms for processing novel odors, little is known about the level of stimulus reinforcement needed to maintain behavioral responses to novel food odors upon subsequent exposures. In the context of foraging, reinforcement of a novel food odor comes from feeding on the novel food item after sensory detection of the food item. This study tested the behavioral responses of hermit crabs to a novel food odor over repeated exposures both with and without stimulus reinforcement. The results show that stimulus reinforcement is needed for the animals to maintain their baseline level of behavioral responses to the novel food odors. Animals that were allowed to feed on the novel food item after first exposure (reinforced treatment) maintained strong behavioral reactions to the novel food odor during subsequent exposures. The behavioral reactions of animals that were not allowed to feed on the novel food item after first exposure (unreinforced treatment) rapidly declined.

  15. Metabolic and Sensory Influences on Odor Sensitivity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, Marielle G; Verhoef, Alard; Gort, Gerrit; Luning, Pieternel A; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-02-01

    Our olfactory sense plays an important role in eating behavior by modulating our food preferences and intake. However, hunger or satiety may also influence how we perceive odors. Albeit speculative, contradictory results found in the past may have resulted from confounding by type of meal that participants ate to induce satiety. We aimed to investigate the influence of hunger state on olfactory sensitivity, comparing hunger to satiety using 2 different types of lunch to control for sensory-specific satiety. Odor detection thresholds were measured in 2 groups of participants (39 per group, 18-40 years), under 3 conditions: when hungry (twice), after a sweet lunch, and after a savory lunch. One group had their detection thresholds tested for a sweet odor, whereas in the other group, sensitivity to a savory odor was measured. Differences in olfactory sensitivity conditions were analyzed using linear mixed models. Participants had higher scores on the odor sensitivity task in a hungry versus satiated state (P = 0.001). Within the satiated condition, there was no effect of type of lunch on odor sensitivity. In conclusion, hunger slightly enhances sensitivity to food odors, but did not significantly depend on the type of food participants ate, suggesting no clear influence of sensory-specific satiety.

  16. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Degl’Innocenti, Andrea; D’Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron–one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus. Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes. PMID:28270833

  17. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; D'Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron-one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus. Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes.

  18. TRANSITIVITY OF ODOR PREFERENCES: CONSTANT AND PARTICULARITIES IN HEDONIC PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Gérard; Haaz, Virginie; Jacquot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences has been investigated for a long time in decision-making. In the field of perception, the pleasantness of odors raises several questions related to individual versus cultural or universal preferences and the existence of a classification in a delimited hedonic space. The aim of this study was to test transitivity in olfactory hedonicity using a first panel of 10 mixed odors and a second panel of 10 odors from a delimited floral category. Data were collected by paired comparisons in a two-alternative forced choice. Results in both panels showed a strong transitivity for each participant leading to a linear range of 10 odors classified by preference. However, ranges varied from one participant to another and the mean preferences of the group did not allow one to infer individual's hedonic classification of odors. Moreover, the individual classification appeared stable over time and undisturbed by odorant distractors. These findings suggest that humans have considerable ability to classify odors hedonically as a model of individual preferences in a sensory space usually considered to be more involved in affective/emotional states than in cognitive performances. PMID:23008522

  19. Functional dissection of Odorant binding protein genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, S; Williams, T I; Anholt, R R H

    2011-01-01

    Most organisms rely on olfaction for survival and reproduction. The olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster is one of the best characterized chemosensory systems and serves as a prototype for understanding insect olfaction. Olfaction in Drosophila is mediated by multigene families of odorant receptors and odorant binding proteins (OBPs). Although molecular response profiles of odorant receptors have been well documented, the contributions of OBPs to olfactory behavior remain largely unknown. Here, we used RNAi-mediated suppression of Obp gene expression and measurements of behavioral responses to 16 ecologically relevant odorants to systematically dissect the functions of 17 OBPs. We quantified the effectiveness of RNAi-mediated suppression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and used a proteomic liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry procedure to show target-specific suppression of OBPs expressed in the antennae. Flies in which expression of a specific OBP is suppressed often show altered behavioral responses to more than one, but not all, odorants, in a sex-dependent manner. Similarly, responses to a specific odorant are frequently affected by suppression of expression of multiple, but not all, OBPs. These results show that OBPs are essential for mediating olfactory behavioral responses and suggest that OBP-dependent odorant recognition is combinatorial. PMID:21605338

  20. Smelling shapes: crossmodal correspondences between odors and shapes.

    PubMed

    Hanson-Vaux, Grant; Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Crossmodal correspondences between odors and visual stimuli-particularly colors-are well-established in the literature, but there is a paucity of research involving visual shape correspondences. Crossmodal associations between 20 odors (a selection of those commonly found in wine) and visual shape stimuli ("kiki"/"bouba" forms-Köhler W. 1929. Gestalt psychology. New York: Liveright.) were investigated in a sample of 25 participants (mean age of 21 years). The odors were rated along a form scale anchored by 2 shapes, as well as several descriptive adjective scales. Two of the odors were found to be significantly associated with an angular shape (lemon and pepper) and two others with a rounded shape (raspberry and vanilla). Principal component analysis indicated that the hedonic value and intensity of odors are important in this crossmodal association, with more unpleasant and intense smells associated with more angular forms. These results are discussed in terms of their practical applications, such as in the use of bottle, logo, or label shape by marketers of perfume and wine to convey the prominent notes through congruent odor-shape pairing. In conclusion, these results support the existence of widespread crossmodal associations (or correspondences) between odors and visual shape stimuli.

  1. Rapid odor perception in rat olfactory bulb by microelectrode array*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Dong, Qi; Zhuang, Liu-jing; Li, Rong; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Responses of 302 mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb were recorded from 42 anesthetized freely breathing rats using a 16-channel microwire electrode array. Saturated vapors of four pure chemicals, anisole, carvone, citral and isoamyl acetate were applied. After aligning spike trains to the initial phase of the inhalation after odor onset, the responses of M/T cells showed transient temporal features including excitatory and inhibitory patterns. Both odor-evoked patterns indicated that mammals recognize odors within a short respiration cycle after odor stimulus. Due to the small amount of information received from a single cell, we pooled results from all responsive M/T cells to study the ensemble activity. The firing rates of the cell ensembles were computed over 100 ms bins and population vectors were constructed. The high dimension vectors were condensed into three dimensions for visualization using principal component analysis. The trajectories of both excitatory and inhibitory cell ensembles displayed strong dynamics during odor stimulation. The distances among cluster centers were enlarged compared to those of the resting state. Thus, we presumed that pictures of odor information sent to higher brain regions were depicted and odor discrimination was completed within the first breathing cycle. PMID:23225857

  2. Odors eliciting fear: a conditioning approach to Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances.

    PubMed

    Leer, Arne; Smeets, Monique A M; Bulsing, Patricia J; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2011-06-01

    Patients suffering from Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances (IEI) report health symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, which are triggered by harmless odors and therefore medically unexplainable. In line with previous research that predominantly points towards psychological explanations, the present study tests the hypothesis that IEI symptoms result from learning via classical conditioning of odors to fear. A differential conditioning paradigm was employed. Hedonically different odors were compared on ease of fear acquisition. Conditioned stimuli (CSs) were Dimethyl Sulfide (unpleasant) and peach (pleasant). The unconditioned stimulus (US) was an electrical shock. During acquisition one odor (CS+) was followed by shock, while the other odor (CS-) was not. Next, fear extinction was tested by presenting both CS+ and CS- without US. Electrodermal response, odor evaluation, and sniffing behavior were monitored. Results showed successful fear conditioning irrespective of hedonic character as evidenced by electrodermal response. Acquired fear did not extinguish. There was no evidence of evaluative conditioning taking place, as CS evaluation did not change during fear acquisition. Early avoidance of the CS+, as deduced from odor inhalation measures, was demonstrated, but did not sustain during the entire acquisition phase. This study suggests that a fear conditioning account of IEI is only partially satisfactory.

  3. Characterization and Coding of Behaviorally Significant Odor Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Lei, Hong; Christensen, Thomas A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary For animals to execute odor-driven behaviors, the olfactory system must process complex odor signals and maintain stimulus identity in the face of constantly changing odor intensities [1–5]. Surprisingly, how the olfactory system maintains identity of complex odors is unclear [6–10]. We took advantage of the plant-pollinator relationship between the Sacred Datura (Datura wrightii) and the moth Manduca sexta [11, 12] to determine how olfactory networks in this insect’s brain represent odor mixtures. We combined gas chromatography and neural-ensemble recording in the moth’s antennal lobe to examine population codes for the floral mixture and its fractionated components. Although the floral scent of D. wrightii comprises at least 60 compounds, only nine of those elicited robust neural responses. Behavioral experiments confirmed that these nine odorants mediate flower-foraging behaviors, but only as a mixture. Moreover, the mixture evoked equivalent foraging behaviors over a 1000-fold range in dilution, suggesting a singular percept across this concentration range. Furthermore, neural-ensemble recordings in the moth’s antennal lobe revealed that reliable encoding of the floral mixture is organized through synchronized activity distributed across a population of glomerular coding units, and this timing mechanism may bind the features of a complex stimulus into a coherent odor percept. PMID:19230669

  4. Static headspace analysis of odorants in commercial rice proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Boatright, William L

    2017-04-15

    Accurate identification of the odor-contributing compounds in aqueous slurries of rice proteins is necessary to improve their overall flavor characteristics. The objective of this study was to identify the primary odorants in rice protein slurries using static headspace analysis. Five commercial rice protein (RP) products, RP-G, RP-O, RP-RM, RP-RS1, and RP-RS2, were analyzed. RP-G contained the lowest levels of most of the odorants. Acetaldehyde was present in the highest amount in RP-O (0.434mg/m(3)). RP-RM had the highest levels of hexanal (5.907mg/m(3)), methanethiol (0.138mg/m(3)), pentanal (1.575mg/m(3)), and 2-pentylfuran (5.702mg/m(3)). Corresponding odor values were, 111, 86, 22 and 21, respectively. In RP-RS1 and RP-RS2, the predominant odorants were dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and hexanal. The results showed the importance of the volatile compounds produced from amino acids, including the sulfur-containing compounds and acetaldehyde, as well as lipid oxidation derived odorants to the overall odor of rice proteins.

  5. Crossmodal correspondences between odors and contingent features: odors, musical notes, and geometrical shapes.

    PubMed

    Deroy, Ophelia; Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2013-10-01

    Olfactory experiences represent a domain that is particularly rich in crossmodal associations. Whereas associations between odors and tastes, or other properties of their typical sources such as color or temperature, can be straightforwardly explained by associative learning, other matchings are much harder to explain in these terms, yet surprisingly are shared across individuals: The majority of people, for instance, associate certain odors and auditory features, such as pitch (Belkin, Martin, Kemp, & Gilbert, Psychological Science 8:340-342, 1997; Crisinel & Spence, Chemical Senses 37:151-158, 2012b) or geometrical shapes (Hanson-Vaux, Crisinel, & Spence, Chemical Senses 38:161-166, 2013; Seo, Arshamian, et al., Neuroscience Letters 478:175-178, 2010). If certain odors might indeed have been encountered while listening to certain pieces of music or seeing certain geometrical shapes, these encounters are very unlikely to have been statistically more relevant than others; for this reason, associative learning from regular exposure is ruled out, and thus alternative explanations in terms of metaphorical mappings are usually defended. Here we argue that these associations are not primarily conceptual or linguistic, but are grounded in structural perceptual or neurological determinants. These cases of crossmodal correspondences established between contingent environmental features can be explained as amodal, indirect, and transitive mappings across modalities. Surprising associations between odors and contingent sensory features can be investigated as genuine cases of crossmodal correspondences, akin to other widespread cases of functional correspondences that hold, for instance, between auditory and visual features, and can help reveal the structural determinants weighing on the acquisition of these crossmodal associations.

  6. Enhancement of Odor Sensitivity Following Repeated Odor and Visual Fear Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Parma, Valentina; Ferraro, Stefania; Miller, Stacie S; Åhs, Fredrik; Lundström, Johan N

    2015-09-01

    Odor detection sensitivity can be rapidly altered by fear conditioning; whether this effect is augmented over time is not known. The present study aimed to test whether repeated conditioning sessions induce changes in odor detection threshold as well as in conditioned responses and whether olfactory stimuli evoke stronger conditioned responses than visual stimuli. The repeated conditioning group participated in repeated sessions over 2 weeks whereas the single conditioning group participated in 1 conditioning session; both groups were presented with visual and olfactory stimuli, were paired with an electric shock (CS+) and 2 matched control stimuli not paired with shock (CS-) while olfactory detection threshold and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured before and after the last session. We found increased sensitivity for the CS+ odor in the repeated but not in the single conditioning group, consistent with changes in olfactory sensitivity following repeated aversive learning and of a similar magnitude to what has previously been demonstrated in the periphery. SCR to the visual and olfactory CS+ were similar between groups, indicating that sensory thresholds can change without corresponding change in conditioned responses. In conclusion, repeated conditioning increases detection sensitivity and reduces conditioned responses, suggesting that segregated processes influence perception and conditioned responses.

  7. Principles of odor coding and a neural network for odor discrimination.

    PubMed Central

    Schild, D

    1988-01-01

    A concept of olfactory coding is proposed. It describes the stimulus responses of all receptor cells by the use of vector spaces. The morphological convergence pattern between receptor cells and glomeruli is given in the same vector space as the receptor cell activities. The overall input of a glomerulus follows as the scalar product of the receptor cell activity vector and the vector of the glomerulus' convergence pattern. The proposed coding concept shows how the network of the olfactory bulb succeeds in discriminating odors with high selectivity. It is concluded that sets of mitral cells coding similar odors work very much in the way of mutually inhibited matched filters. This solves one main problem both in olfaction as well as real-time odor detection by an artificial nose, i.e., how the fairly low degree of selectivity of receptor cells or sensors is overcome by the neural network following the receptor stage. The formal description of olfactory coding suggests that quality perception which is invariant under concentration shifts is accomplished by an associative memory in the olfactory bulb. PMID:3233263

  8. Ventilation requirements in buildings—I. Control of occupancy odor and tobacco smoke odor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.; Isseroff, Ruth; Berglund, Larry G.; Huey, Raymond J.; Lipsitt, Eric D.; Perlman, Dan

    Psychophysical measurements of odor, supplemented with certain physical measurements, were taken to examine ventilation requirements during smoking and nonsmoking occupancy in an environmental chamber. The facility provided the means to compare impressions of visitors (persons who inhaled air from the chamber only briefly) with impressions of occupants. For nonsmoking occupancy, 47 combinations of temperature, humidity, ventilation rate and occupancy density were examined. Odor level depended entirely on ventilation rate per person irrespective of the number of persons in the chamber. The ventilation necessary to satisfy 75 % of visitors equalled only about 4 ℓ s -1 per person. Occupants, however, were satisfied with far less. In an array of 38 conditions of smoking occupancy, the ventilation deemed necessary to satisfy 75 % of visitors under customary conditions of occupancy equalled 17.5 ℓ s -1 per person. For both smoking and nonsmoking conditions, a combination of high temperature (25.5°C) and humidity (r.h. > 70 %) exacerbated the odor problem. During smoking, carbon monoxide rarely reached dangerous levels, but suspended particulate matter often reached levels considered unacceptable outdoors. The results highlight the energy penalty incurred in ventilation for smoking occupancy.

  9. Fast Odor Learning Improves Reliability of Odor Responses in the Locust Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Bazhenov, Maxim; Stopfer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Laurent, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recordings in the locust antennal lobe (AL) reveal activity-dependent, stimulus-specific changes in projection neuron (PN) and local neuron response patterns over repeated odor trials. During the first few trials, PN response intensity decreases, while spike time precision increases, and coherent oscillations, absent at first, quickly emerge. We examined this “fast odor learning” with a realistic computational model of the AL. Activity-dependent facilitation of AL inhibitory synapses was sufficient to simulate physiological recordings of fast learning. In addition, in experiments with noisy inputs, a network including synaptic facilitation of both inhibition and excitation responded with reliable spatiotemporal patterns from trial to trial despite the noise. A network lacking fast plasticity, however, responded with patterns that varied across trials, reflecting the input variability. Thus, our study suggests that fast olfactory learning results from stimulus-specific, activity-dependent synaptic facilitation and may improve the signal-to-noise ratio for repeatedly encountered odor stimuli. PMID:15882647

  10. The Conformational Behaviour of the Odorant Dihydrocarveol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loru, Donatella; Jarman, Natasha; Sanz, M. Eugenia

    2016-06-01

    The odorant dihydrocarveol (C10H18O) has been investigated in the gas phase using a 2-8 GHz chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Dihydrocarveol was purchased as a mixture of n-, iso-, neo-, and neoiso- isomers. The sample was placed in a bespoke heating nozzle at about 85°C and seeded in Ne at 5 bar. Three conformers were observed and their rotational constants were determined. By comparing the experimental rotational constants with those calculated ab initio the three conformers were identified as belonging to n-dihydrocarveol. In all three conformers the isopropenyl group is in equatorial position with respect to the six-membered ring, and the OH group maintains the same configuration. The conformers differ in the orientation of the isopropenyl group.

  11. Neurons and circuits for odor processing in the piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Bekkers, John M; Suzuki, Norimitsu

    2013-07-01

    Increased understanding of the early stages of olfaction has lead to a renewed interest in the higher brain regions responsible for forming unified 'odor images' from the chemical components detected by the nose. The piriform cortex, which is one of the first cortical destinations of olfactory information in mammals, is a primitive paleocortex that is critical for the synthetic perception of odors. Here we review recent work that examines the cellular neurophysiology of the piriform cortex. Exciting new findings have revealed how the neurons and circuits of the piriform cortex process odor information, demonstrating that, despite its superficial simplicity, the piriform cortex is a remarkably subtle and intricate neural circuit.

  12. Study of Odor Approximation by Using Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Masashi; Nihei, Yasunori; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2011-09-01

    Since a set of odor components to cover wide range of smells has not been revealed yet, we studied the selection of odor components using essential-oil mass spectrum database. Basis vectors were extracted using non-negative matrix factorization method1 and then non-negative least squares method was used to determine the recipe. The odor approximations of three typical essential oils were confirmed by the sensory test. It was found that the mass spectrum data were correlated with the sensory test result. Moreover, this correlation was remarkable in the high m/z region.

  13. Pheophorbide a Content and Chlorophyllase Activity in Green Tea.

    PubMed

    Kohata, K; Hanada, K; Yamauchi, Y; Horie, H

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the total content of pheophorbide a (PB a), which is sum of the contents of newly produced PB a, including PB a initially present and that converted from chlorophyllide a (Chd a) by the chlorophyllase reaction during incubation, in green tea samples, and found that the total content of PB a markedly increased in both Sencha and Matcha, compared with the initially present PB a content in each. This result demonstrates that chlorophyllase activity still remains in green tea, even after processing fresh green leaves. A comparison of the total contents of PB a produced during the incubation of chlorophyll a (Chl a) with Sencha and fresh green leaf acetone powder indicates that the ratio of chlorophyllase activity in Sencha and in fresh green leaves was about 1:20.

  14. The Swipe Card Model of Odorant Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Jennifer C.; Horsfield, Andrew P.; Stoneham, A. Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Just how we discriminate between the different odours we encounter is not completely understood yet. While obviously a matter involving biology, the core issue is a matter for physics: what microscopic interactions enable the receptors in our noses-small protein switches—to distinguish scent molecules? We survey what is and is not known about the physical processes that take place when we smell things, highlighting the difficulties in developing a full understanding of the mechanics of odorant recognition. The main current theories, discussed here, fall into two major groups. One class emphasises the scent molecule's shape, and is described informally as a “lock and key” mechanism. But there is another category, which we focus on and which we call “swipe card” theories: the molecular shape must be good enough, but the information that identifies the smell involves other factors. One clearly-defined “swipe card” mechanism that we discuss here is Turin's theory, in which inelastic electron tunnelling is used to discern olfactant vibration frequencies. This theory is explicitly quantal, since it requires the molecular vibrations to take in or give out energy only in discrete quanta. These ideas lead to obvious experimental tests and challenges. We describe the current theory in a form that takes into account molecular shape as well as olfactant vibrations. It emerges that this theory can explain many observations hard to reconcile in other ways. There are still some important gaps in a comprehensive physics-based description of the central steps in odorant recognition. We also discuss how far these ideas carry over to analogous processes involving other small biomolecules, like hormones, steroids and neurotransmitters. We conclude with a discussion of possible quantum behaviours in biology more generally, the case of olfaction being just one example. This paper is presented in honour of Prof. Marshall Stoneham who passed away unexpectedly during its

  15. Functional Evolution of Mammalian Odorant Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Adipietro, Kaylin A.; Mainland, Joel D.; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian odorant receptor (OR) repertoire is an attractive model to study evolution, because ORs have been subjected to rapid evolution between species, presumably caused by changes of the olfactory system to adapt to the environment. However, functional assessment of ORs in related species remains largely untested. Here we investigated the functional properties of primate and rodent ORs to determine how well evolutionary distance predicts functional characteristics. Using human and mouse ORs with previously identified ligands, we cloned 18 OR orthologs from chimpanzee and rhesus macaque and 17 mouse-rat orthologous pairs that are broadly representative of the OR repertoire. We functionally characterized the in vitro responses of ORs to a wide panel of odors and found similar ligand selectivity but dramatic differences in response magnitude. 87% of human-primate orthologs and 94% of mouse-rat orthologs showed differences in receptor potency (EC50) and/or efficacy (dynamic range) to an individual ligand. Notably dN/dS ratio, an indication of selective pressure during evolution, does not predict functional similarities between orthologs. Additionally, we found that orthologs responded to a common ligand 82% of the time, while human OR paralogs of the same subfamily responded to the common ligand only 33% of the time. Our results suggest that, while OR orthologs tend to show conserved ligand selectivity, their potency and/or efficacy dynamically change during evolution, even in closely related species. These functional changes in orthologs provide a platform for examining how the evolution of ORs can meet species-specific demands. PMID:22807691

  16. Molecular cloning, expression profile, odorant affinity, and stability of two odorant-binding proteins in Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tofael; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2017-02-01

    The polyembryonic endoparasitoid wasp Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is deployed successfully as a biocontrol agent for corn pest insects from the Lepidopteran genus Ostrinia in Europe and throughout Asia, including Japan, Korea, and China. The odorants are recognized, bound, and solubilized by odorant-binding protein (OBP) in the initial biochemical recognition steps in olfaction that transport them across the sensillum lymph to initiate behavioral response. In the present study, we examine the odorant-binding effects on thermal stability of McinOBP2, McinOBP3, and their mutant form that lacks the third disulfide bonds. Real-time PCR experiments indicate that these two are expressed mainly in adult antennae, with expression levels differing by sex. Odorant-binding affinities of aldehydes, terpenoids, and aliphatic alcohols were measured with circular dichroism spectroscopy based on changes in the thermal stability of the proteins upon their affinities to odorants. The obtained results reveal higher affinity of trans-caryophelle, farnesene, and cis-3-Hexen-1-ol exhibits to both wild and mutant McinOBP2 and McinOBP3. Although conformational flexibility of the mutants and shape of binding cavity make differences in odorant affinity between the wild-type and mutant, it suggested that lacking the third disulfide bond in mutant proteins may have chance to incorrect folded structures that reduced the affinity to these odorants. In addition, CD spectra clearly indicate proteins enriched with α-helical content.

  17. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  18. Spared piriform cortical single-unit odor processing and odor discrimination in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjin; Lopez-Guzman, Mirielle; Schoen, Chelsea; Fitzgerald, Shane; Lauer, Stephanie L; Nixon, Ralph A; Levy, Efrat; Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly today. One of the earliest reported signs of Alzheimer's disease is olfactory dysfunction, which may manifest in a variety of ways. The present study sought to address this issue by investigating odor coding in the anterior piriform cortex, the primary cortical region involved in higher order olfactory function, and how it relates to performance on olfactory behavioral tasks. An olfactory habituation task was performed on cohorts of transgenic and age-matched wild-type mice at 3, 6 and 12 months of age. These animals were then anesthetized and acute, single-unit electrophysiology was performed in the anterior piriform cortex. In addition, in a separate group of animals, a longitudinal odor discrimination task was conducted from 3-12 months of age. Results showed that while odor habituation was impaired at all ages, Tg2576 performed comparably to age-matched wild-type mice on the olfactory discrimination task. The behavioral data mirrored intact anterior piriform cortex single-unit odor responses and receptive fields in Tg2576, which were comparable to wild-type at all age groups. The present results suggest that odor processing in the olfactory cortex and basic odor discrimination is especially robust in the face of amyloid β precursor protein (AβPP) over-expression and advancing amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. Odor identification deficits known to emerge early in Alzheimer's disease progression, therefore, may reflect impairments in linking the odor percept to associated labels in cortical regions upstream of the primary olfactory pathway, rather than in the basic odor processing itself.

  19. Individual odor differences and their social functions in insects.

    PubMed Central

    Barrows, E M; Bell, W J; Michener, C D

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of individual or subgroup differences in odors of halictine bees is suggested from possible widespread intraspecific variation in pheromones. An important result of such variation may be maintenance of genetic polymorphisms; in nesting Hymenoptera odor differences may also facilitate individual nest recognition. In Lasioglosum zephyrum males habituate to odors of different females and perhaps thus save time by not trying to copulate with nonreceptive individuals. Guards (females) at nest entrances distinguish their few nestmates (other females) from other conspecific individuals by odors, seemingly pheromones. Duration of the habituation in L. zephyrum is at least an hour (perhaps much more) for males in relation to females and 6 or 7 days for guards in relation to nestmates. Studies of pheromones should take into consideration the possibility of pheromonal polymorphism in any species and the likelihood that it may be significant from biological and practical viewpoints. PMID:1058498

  20. Evaluation Of Odors Associated With Land Application Of Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    An odor study was performed at a biosolids application demonstration site using several different gas collection devices and analytical methods to determine changes in air concentration of several organic and inorganic compounds associated with biosolids application over various ...

  1. Synaptic clusters function as odor operators in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Michele; Cavarretta, Francesco; Marasco, Addolorata; Tulumello, Eleonora; Hines, Michael L.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    How the olfactory bulb organizes and processes odor inputs through fundamental operations of its microcircuits is largely unknown. To gain new insight we focus on odor-activated synaptic clusters related to individual glomeruli, which we call glomerular units. Using a 3D model of mitral and granule cell interactions supported by experimental findings, combined with a matrix-based representation of glomerular operations, we identify the mechanisms for forming one or more glomerular units in response to a given odor, how and to what extent the glomerular units interfere or interact with each other during learning, their computational role within the olfactory bulb microcircuit, and how their actions can be formalized into a theoretical framework in which the olfactory bulb can be considered to contain “odor operators” unique to each individual. The results provide new and specific theoretical and experimentally testable predictions. PMID:26100895

  2. Hazardous Odor Recognition by CMAC Based Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Bucak, Ihsan Ömür; Karlık, Bekir

    2009-01-01

    Electronic noses are being developed as systems for the automated detection and classification of odors, vapors, and gases. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used to analyze complex data and to recognize patterns, and have shown promising results in recognition of volatile compounds and odors in electronic nose applications. When an ANN is combined with a sensor array, the number of detectable chemicals is generally greater than the number of unique sensor types. The odor sensing system should be extended to new areas since its standard style where the output pattern from multiple sensors with partially overlapped specificity is recognized by a neural network or multivariate analysis. This paper describes the design, implementation and performance evaluations of the application developed for hazardous odor recognition using Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC) based neural networks.

  3. Pattern Recognition for Selective Odor Detection with Gas Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Chulki; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Taikjin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new pattern recognition approach for enhancing the selectivity of gas sensor arrays for clustering intelligent odor detection. The aim of this approach was to accurately classify an odor using pattern recognition in order to enhance the selectivity of gas sensor arrays. This was achieved using an odor monitoring system with a newly developed neural-genetic classification algorithm (NGCA). The system shows the enhancement in the sensitivity of the detected gas. Experiments showed that the proposed NGCA delivered better performance than the previous genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) methods. We also used PCA for data visualization. Our proposed system can enhance the reproducibility, reliability, and selectivity of odor sensor output, so it is expected to be applicable to diverse environmental problems including air pollution, and monitor the air quality of clean-air required buildings such as a kindergartens and hospitals. PMID:23443378

  4. Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Carey, Allison F; Wang, Guirong; Su, Chih-Ying; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Carlson, John R

    2010-03-04

    The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the major vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. It locates its human hosts primarily through olfaction, but little is known about the molecular basis of this process. Here we functionally characterize the Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor (AgOr) repertoire. We identify receptors that respond strongly to components of human odour and that may act in the process of human recognition. Some of these receptors are narrowly tuned, and some salient odorants elicit strong responses from only one or a few receptors, suggesting a central role for specific transmission channels in human host-seeking behaviour. This analysis of the Anopheles gambiae receptors permits a comparison with the corresponding Drosophila melanogaster odorant receptor repertoire. We find that odorants are differentially encoded by the two species in ways consistent with their ecological needs. Our analysis of the Anopheles gambiae repertoire identifies receptors that may be useful targets for controlling the transmission of malaria.

  5. Origin, Analytical Characterization, and Use of Human Odor in Forensics.

    PubMed

    Cuzuel, Vincent; Cognon, Guillaume; Rivals, Isabelle; Sauleau, Charles; Heulard, François; Thiébaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    Developing a strategy to characterize the odor prints of individuals should be relevant to support identification obtained using dogs in courts of justice. This article proposes an overview of the techniques used for the forensic profiling of human odor. After reviewing the origin of human odor-both genetic and physiological-the different analytical steps from sample collection to statistical data processing are presented. The first challenge is the collection of odor, whether by direct sampling with polymer patches, cotton gauze, etc., or indirect sampling with devices like Scent Transfer Unit. Then, analytical techniques are presented. Analyses are commonly performed with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. As they yield large amounts of data, advanced statistical tools are needed to provide efficient and reliable data processing, which is essential to give more probative value to information.

  6. 49 CFR 192.625 - Odorization of gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... odorant from that line before May 5, 1975; (i) An underground storage field; (ii) A gas processing plant; (iii) A gas dehydration plant; or (iv) An industrial plant using gas in a process where the presence...

  7. Avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, John A.; Zhang, Qing-He; Birgersson, Göran

    The bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern Europe for suitable branches of its host, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia; oak, Quercus robur; alder buckthorn, Frangula alnus; blueberry, Vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, Rubus idaeus; and grass, Deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction of the bark beetle to traps releasing its aggregation pheromone components in the field. Volatiles from the leaves or bark of each of these plants significantly reduced the attraction of the beetles to their pheromone. Odors collected from these nonhosts and analyzed by GC/MS contained monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and ``green-leaf'' alcohols, several of which (e.g., 1-octene-3-ol and β-caryophyllene) reduced the attraction to pheromone in the field and elicited electroantennographic responses. In the laboratory, reproduction by the beetle was marginal in nonhost Norway spruce, Picea abies, and was absent in the other nonhost trees. Olfactory avoidance of unsuitable nonhosts may have evolved due to advantages in avoiding mistakes during host selection.

  8. Supernumerary Formation of Olfactory Glomeruli Induced by Chronic Odorant Exposure: A Constructivist Expression of Neural Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Valle-Leija, Pablo; Blanco-Hernández, Eduardo; Drucker-Colín, Rene; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Vidaltamayo, Roman

    2012-01-01

    It is accepted that sensory experience instructs the remodelling of neuronal circuits during postnatal development, after their specification has occurred. The story is less clear with regard to the role of experience during the initial formation of neuronal circuits, whether prenatal or postnatal, since this process is now supposed to be primarily influenced by genetic determinants and spontaneous neuronal firing. Here we evaluated this last issue by examining the effect that postnatal chronic exposure to cognate odorants has on the formation of I7 and M72 glomeruli, iterated olfactory circuits that are formed before and after birth, respectively. We took advantage of double knock-in mice whose I7 and M72 primary afferents express green fluorescent protein and β-galactosidase, correspondingly. Our results revealed that postnatal odorant chronic exposure led to the formation of permanent supernumerary I7 and M72 glomeruli in a dose and time dependent manner. Glomeruli in exposed mice were formed within the same regions of olfactory bulb and occupy small space volumes compared to the corresponding single circuits in non-exposed mice. We suggest that local reorganization of the primary afferents could participate in the process of formation of supernumerary glomeruli. Overall, our results support that sensory experience indeed instructs the permanent formation of specific glomeruli in the mouse olfactory bulb by means of constructivist processes. PMID:22511987

  9. Influence of different pig housing systems on odor emissions.

    PubMed

    Gallmann, E; Brose, G; Hartung, E; Jungbluth, T

    2001-01-01

    The odor emissions from two different housing systems were determined during three fattening periods from October 1999 to November 2000 by analyzing weekly samples by means of dynamic olfactometry. The objects of the investigations were a standard housing system with fully slatted floor and forced ventilation (FF) compared with a kennel housing system with natural shaft ventilation (KN) in parallel operation. Only little data but with a wide range of odor emission values are available from the literature and these are difficult to compare and interpret, because of missing standards in presenting the results and experimental conditions. Therefore minimum requirements for measuring odor emissions from livestock buildings have been derived. In the scope of the measurements during the first two fattening periods (October 1999 to June 2000), no differences in odor emissions could be determined with mean values related to the livestock units (1 LU = 500 kg life weight) of 85 (FF) /87 (KN) in period A and 60 (FF) / 61 (KN) (OU/s)LU(-1) in period B. The overall range of the results of all measurements in periods A and B was 4 to 355 (OU/s)LU(-1). In period C (August-November 2000), the system FF showed higher odor emissions with 193 (28-550) compared to system KN with 105 (25-218) (OU/s)LU(-1). The air flow rates and odor concentrations at the three different naturally ventilated exhaust shafts of system KN differed considerably from each other. Odor measurement techniques with a higher temporal resolution than olfactometry are necessary to give evidence for the main factors influencing the odor formation and release.

  10. Wild Western Lowland Gorillas Signal Selectively Using Odor

    PubMed Central

    Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses. PMID:25006973

  11. Wild western lowland gorillas signal selectively using odor.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C

    2014-01-01

    Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses.

  12. Brain–Immune Interaction Accompanying Odor-Evoked Autobiographic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions. PMID:23977312

  13. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms). In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  14. Differential Electrophysiological Responses to Odorant Isotopologues in Drosophilid Antennae123

    PubMed Central

    Drimyli, Efstathia; Gaitanidis, Alexandros; Maniati, Klio; Turin, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Olfaction presents the ultimate challenge to molecular recognition as thousands of molecules have to be recognized by far fewer olfactory receptors. We have presented evidence that Drosophila readily distinguish odorants based on their molecular vibrations using a battery of behavioral assays suggesting engagement of a molecular vibration-sensing component. Here we interrogate electrophysiologically the antennae of four Drosophilids and demonstrate conserved differential response amplitudes to aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, nitriles, and their deuterated isotopologues. Certain deuterated odorants evoked larger electroantennogram (EAG) amplitudes, while the response to the normal odorant was elevated in others. Significantly, benzonitrile isotopologues were not distinguishable as predicted. This suggests that isotopologue-specific EAG amplitudes result from differential activation of specific olfactory receptors. In support of this, odorants with as few as two deuteria evoke distinct EAG amplitudes from their normal isotopologues, and this is independent of the size of the deuterated molecule. Importantly, we find no evidence that these isotopologue-specific amplitudes depend on perireceptor mechanisms or other pertinent physical property of the deuterated odorants. Rather, our results strongly suggest that Drosophilid olfactory receptors are activated by molecular vibrations differentiating similarly sized and shaped odorants in vivo, yielding sufficient differential information to drive behavioral choices. PMID:27351023

  15. Identification and Quantitation of Potent Odorants in Spearmint Oils.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Lauren E; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-01-17

    Potent odorants in Native spearmint, Scotch spearmint, and Macho mint oils were determined by the combined use of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Of the 85 odorants detected, (R)-(-)-carvone was the most potent odorant in all three spearmint oils. Additional predominant odorants in all spearmint oils included eugenol, ethyl (S)-(+)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-β-damascenone, and (3E,5Z)-1,3,5-undecatriene. Forty-six compounds were quantitated using various methods, including 19 by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), 20 by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), and 14 by GCO dilution analysis. Concentrations were used to calculate the odor activity values (OAVs) for predominant odorants in the oils. Among the compounds quantitated, those with the highest OAVs were (R)-(-)-carvone, 1,8-cineole, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-β-damascenone, and (3E,5Z)-1,3,5-undecatriene.

  16. Detection and avoidance of a carnivore odor by prey

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, David M.; Lemon, Jamie K.; Fluegge, Daniela; Pashkovski, Stan L.; Korzan, Wayne J.; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Spehr, Marc; Fendt, Markus; Liberles, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships provide a classic paradigm for the study of innate animal behavior. Odors from carnivores elicit stereotyped fear and avoidance responses in rodents, although sensory mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we identified a chemical produced by predators that activates a mouse olfactory receptor and produces an innate behavioral response. We purified this predator cue from bobcat urine and identified it to be a biogenic amine, 2-phenylethylamine. Quantitative HPLC analysis across 38 mammalian species indicates enriched 2-phenylethylamine production by numerous carnivores, with some producing >3,000-fold more than herbivores examined. Calcium imaging of neuronal responses in mouse olfactory tissue slices identified dispersed carnivore odor-selective sensory neurons that also responded to 2-phenylethylamine. Two prey species, rat and mouse, avoid a 2-phenylethylamine odor source, and loss-of-function studies involving enzymatic depletion of 2-phenylethylamine from a carnivore odor indicate it to be required for full avoidance behavior. Thus, rodent olfactory sensory neurons and chemosensory receptors have the capacity for recognizing interspecies odors. One such cue, carnivore-derived 2-phenylethylamine, is a key component of a predator odor blend that triggers hard-wired aversion circuits in the rodent brain. These data show how a single, volatile chemical detected in the environment can drive an elaborate danger-associated behavioral response in mammals. PMID:21690383

  17. Biochemical Studies of Olfaction: Role of Cilia in Odorant Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Chemoreception in vertebrates is beginning to be understood. Numerous anatomical, behavioral, and physiological studies are now available. Current research efforts are examining the molecular basis of chemoreception. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) have a functional olfactory system and are a suitable vertebrate model for studying odorant interactions with receptors. Using a biochemical approach, initial events of olfactory recognition were examined; the aim was to determine the location and specificity of odor receptors. Cilia occupy the distal region of the receptor neuron on the trout olfactory epithelium, and their membranes are the postulated locus of odorant receptor sites. A cilia preparation was isolated from the olfactory rosette. The preparation was characterized by quantifying biochemical markers for cilia, along with electron microscopy, all of which substantiated enrichment of cilia. Functional activity was assessed by quantifying binding of several radioactively labeled odorant amino acids. The odorants bound to the cilia in a manner similar to the sedimentable preparation previously isolated from t h e olfactory rosette of the same animal, thus verifying the presence of odor receptors in the cilia preparation. Evidence also confirmed a site TSA which binds L-threonine, L-serine, and L-alanine and a site L which binds L-lysine (and L-arginine). Binding of L-serine and D-alanine showed evidence for a single affinity site while the others showed two affinity sites. Separation of membrane fractions from the cilia preparation revealed that binding activity is associated with a very low density membrane fraction B. PMID:19295786

  18. Effects of appropriate and inappropriate odors on product evaluations.

    PubMed

    Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Miciiaut, Anne M K

    2002-12-01

    In accounting for an odorant's effect on the evaluation of a product, both the odor's intrinsic pleasantness and its appropriateness for that particular product are relevant. When comparing the effects of pleasant smells, consumers are likely to prefer products with appropriate smells to those with an inappropriate smell. We investigated the effect of adding congruent and incongruent odorants on product evaluations for each of three product categories: food (tea, instant whip, cake mix), personal care (shampoo, deodorant, lip balm), and household products (cream cleaner, air freshener, furniture wax). In a between-subjects design, 96 respondents judged scented and unscented products presented in commercial packages of major national brands. The respondents assessed the overall evaluation, 14 to 19 beliefs about the product, buying intention, and the frequency of use for each product. Respondents were instructed to evaluate each product as they would in a store. Although congruency ratings between odor and product show that the manipulation of congruency was successful, no main effect was found for the congruency on overall evaluations of the products. To account for this unexpected finding, we speculate that congruency between odor and product may be more important during product consumption or product use than during its selection. In addition, the odor's effects may have been attenuated in our experiment because we asked our respondents to rate each product on the attribute 'has a nice smell'.

  19. Quality assured measurements of animal building emissions: odor concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Larry D; Hetchler, Brian P; Schmidt, David R; Nicolai, Richard E; Heber, Albert J; Ni, Ji-Qin; Hoff, Steven J; Koziel, Jacek A; Zhang, Yuanhui; Beasley, David B; Parker, David B

    2008-06-01

    Standard protocols for sampling and measuring odor emissions from livestock buildings are needed to guide scientists, consultants, regulators, and policy-makers. A federally funded, multistate project has conducted field studies in six states to measure emissions of odor, coarse particulate matter (PM(10)), total suspended particulates, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and carbon dioxide from swine and poultry production buildings. The focus of this paper is on the intermittent measurement of odor concentrations at nearly identical pairs of buildings in each state and on protocols to minimize variations in these measurements. Air was collected from pig and poultry barns in small (10 L) Tedlar bags through a gas sampling system located in an instrument trailer housing gas and dust analyzers. The samples were analyzed within 30 hr by a dynamic dilution forced-choice olfactometer (a dilution apparatus). The olfactometers (AC'SCENT International Olfactometer, St. Croix Sensory, Inc.) used by all participating laboratories meet the olfactometry standards (American Society for Testing and Materials and European Committee for Standardization [CEN]) in the United States and Europe. Trained panelists (four to eight) at each laboratory measured odor concentrations (dilution to thresholds [DT]) from the bag samples. Odor emissions were calculated by multiplying odor concentration differences between inlet and outlet air by standardized (20 degrees C and 1 atm) building airflow rates.

  20. Variable selection based cotton bollworm odor spectroscopic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Chengxu; Gai, Shasha; Luo, Min; Zhao, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at rapid automatic pest detection based efficient and targeting pesticide application and shooting the trouble of reflectance spectral signal covered and attenuated by the solid plant, the possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) detection on cotton bollworm odor is studied. Three cotton bollworm odor samples and 3 blank air gas samples were prepared. Different concentrations of cotton bollworm odor were prepared by mixing the above gas samples, resulting a calibration group of 62 samples and a validation group of 31 samples. Spectral collection system includes light source, optical fiber, sample chamber, spectrometer. Spectra were pretreated by baseline correction, modeled with partial least squares (PLS), and optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS). Minor counts differences are found among spectra of different cotton bollworm odor concentrations. PLS model of all the variables was built presenting RMSEV of 14 and RV2 of 0.89, its theory basis is insect volatilizes specific odor, including pheromone and allelochemics, which are used for intra-specific and inter-specific communication and could be detected by NIR spectroscopy. 28 sensitive variables are selected by GA, presenting the model performance of RMSEV of 14 and RV2 of 0.90. Comparably, 8 sensitive variables are selected by CARS, presenting the model performance of RMSEV of 13 and RV2 of 0.92. CARS model employs only 1.5% variables presenting smaller error than that of all variable. Odor gas based NIR technique shows the potential for cotton bollworm detection.

  1. Stable Odor Recognition by a neuro-adaptive Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Magna, Gabriele; Polese, Davide; Vergara, Alexander; Schild, Detlev; di Natale, Corrado

    2015-06-01

    Sensitivity, selectivity and stability are decisive properties of sensors. In chemical gas sensors odor recognition can be severely compromised by poor signal stability, particularly in real life applications where the sensors are exposed to unpredictable sequences of odors under changing external conditions. Although olfactory receptor neurons in the nose face similar stimulus sequences under likewise changing conditions, odor recognition is very stable and odorants can be reliably identified independently from past odor perception. We postulate that appropriate pre-processing of the output signals of chemical sensors substantially contributes to the stability of odor recognition, in spite of marked sensor instabilities. To investigate this hypothesis, we use an adaptive, unsupervised neural network inspired by the glomerular input circuitry of the olfactory bulb. Essentially the model reduces the effect of the sensors’ instabilities by utilizing them via an adaptive multicompartment feed-forward inhibition. We collected and analyzed responses of a 4 × 4 gas sensor array to a number of volatile compounds applied over a period of 18 months, whereby every sensor was sampled episodically. The network conferred excellent stability to the compounds’ identification and was clearly superior over standard classifiers, even when one of the sensors exhibited random fluctuations or stopped working at all.

  2. Determination of roasted pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) key odorants by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Aceña, Laura; Vera, Luciano; Guasch, Josep; Busto, Olga; Mestres, Montserrat

    2011-03-23

    Key odorants in roasted pistachio nuts have been determined for the first time. Two different pistachio varieties (Fandooghi and Kerman) have been analyzed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). The aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA) applied have revealed 46 and 41 odor-active regions with a flavor dilution (FD) factor≥64 for the Fandooghi and the Kerman varieties, respectively, and 39 of them were related to precisely identified compounds. These included esters, pyrazines, aldehydes, acids, furans, and phenols. The results show that the Fandooghi variety presents, not only more odor-active regions but also higher FD factors than the Kerman variety that can lead to the conclusion that the first variety has a richer aromatic profile than the second one. The descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that the roasted, chocolate/coffee, and nutty attributes were rated significantly higher in the Fandooghi variety, whereas the green attribute was significantly higher in the Kerman one.

  3. Apolipoprotein e4 Is Associated with More Rapid Decline in Odor Identification than in Odor Threshold or Dementia Rating Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun-Haney, R.; Murphy, C.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with the apolipoprotein E e4 genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) show deficits in olfactory function. The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinally odor identification (odor ID), odor threshold, picture identification, and global cognitive status in allele positive (e4+) and negative (e4-) persons.…

  4. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Singh, Z.; Watkins, C. B.; Geyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  5. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, P V; Caleb, O J; Singh, Z; Watkins, C B; Geyer, M

    2014-06-13

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments.

  6. Preservation of Essential Odor-Guided Behaviors and Odor-Based Reversal Learning after Targeting Adult Brain Serotonin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kaitlin S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions. To address this question, we established a conditional genetic approach to specifically target adult brain tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2), encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in brain 5-HT synthesis, and nearly eliminate 5-HT from the mouse forebrain. Using this novel model, we investigated the behavior of 5-HT–depleted mice during performance in an olfactory go/no-go task. Surprisingly, the near elimination of 5-HT from the forebrain, including the olfactory bulbs, had no detectable effect on the ability of mice to perform the odor-based task. Tph2-targeted mice not only were able to learn the task, but also had levels of odor acuity similar to those of control mice when performing coarse odor discrimination. Both groups of mice spent similar amounts of time sampling odors during decision-making. Furthermore, odor reversal learning was identical between 5-HT–depleted and control mice. These results suggest that 5-HT neurotransmission is not necessary for the most essential aspects of olfaction, including odor learning, discrimination, and certain forms of cognitive flexibility. PMID:27896310

  7. Glycosidically bound aroma compounds and impact odorants of four strawberry varieties.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Cristina; San-Juan, Felipe; Concejero, Belén; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Vicente; Hernández-Orte, Purificación

    2012-06-20

    This paper reports the determination of glycosidically bound aroma compounds and the olfactometric analysis in four strawberry varieties (Fuentepina, Camarosa, Candonga and Sabrina). Different hydrolytic strategies were also studied. The results showed significant differences between acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. In general terms, the greater the duration of acid hydrolysis, the higher was the content of norisoprenoids, volatile phenols, benzenes, lactones, Furaneol, and mesifurane. A total of 51 aglycones were identified, 38 of them unreported in strawberry. Olfactometric analyses revealed that the odorants with higher modified frequencies were Furaneol, γ-decalactone, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, diacetyl, hexanoic acid, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one. This last compound, described as geranium/green/pepper/lettuce (linear retention index = 1378), was identified for the first time. Differences with regard to fruity, sweet, floral, and green aroma characters were observed among varieties. In Candonga and Fuentepina, the green character overpowered the sweet. In the other two strawberry varieties sweet attributes were stronger than the rest.

  8. Robust and Rapid Air-Borne Odor Tracking without Casting1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Urvashi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Casting behavior (zigzagging across an odor stream) is common in air/liquid-borne odor tracking in open fields; however, terrestrial odor localization often involves path selection in a familiar environment. To study this, we trained rats to run toward an odor source in a multi-choice olfactory arena with near-laminar airflow. We find that rather than casting, rats run directly toward an odor port, and if this is incorrect, they serially sample other sources. This behavior is consistent and accurate in the presence of perturbations, such as novel odors, background odor, unilateral nostril stitching, and turbulence. We developed a model that predicts that this run-and-scan tracking of air-borne odors is faster than casting, provided there are a small number of targets at known locations. Thus, the combination of best-guess target selection with fallback serial sampling provides a rapid and robust strategy for finding odor sources in familiar surroundings. PMID:26665165

  9. Preventive control of odor emissions through manipulation of operational parameters during the active phase of composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxiu; Lau, Anthony K; Wen, Zhiping S

    2009-06-01

    Better understanding of the effects of key operational parameters or environmental factors on odor emission is of critical importance for minimizing the generation of composting odors. A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to examine the effects of various operating conditions on odor emissions. The results revealed that airflow rates that were too high or too low could result in higher total odor emissions. An optimal flowrate for odor control would be approximately 0.6 L/min.kg dry matter with intermittent aeration and a duty cycle of 33%. Temperature setpoint at 60 degrees C appeared to be a turning point for odor emission. Below this point, odor emissions increased with increasing temperature setpoint; conversely, odor emissions decreased with increasing temperature setpoint above this point. With regard to the composting material properties, odor emissions were greatly affected by the initial moisture content of feedstock. Both peak odor concentration and emission rate generally increased with higher initial moisture content. Odor emission was significant only at moisture levels higher than 65%. An initial moisture level below 45% is not recommended due to concern with the resulting lower degree of biodegradation. Biodegradable volatile solids content (BVS) of feedstock had pronounced effect on odor emissions. Peak odor concentration and emission rate increased dramatically as BVS increased from 45% to 65%, thus, total odor emission increased exponentially with BVS.

  10. Odor characterization from barns and slurry treatment facilities at a commercial swine facility in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, emission characteristics of major odorants in pig confinement facilities were investigated through comparative analysis between odorant composition and odor intensity. Odorant samples in ambient air were collected from five different paired sampling sites: (1) in- and outside of windowless pig barn, (2) in- and outside of open pig barn, (3) before/after slurry treatment (via liquid fertilization), (4) before/after composting, and (5) two reference background sites on a pig confinement facility. A total of 47 compounds consisting of key offensive odorants (such as reduced sulfur and volatile organic compounds) were measured from each selected site. When the results are compared in terms of odor intensity, a list of odorants (sulfur compounds, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles) were generally seen at enhanced levels on most sites. In two types of pig barn facilities (windowless ('W') and open ('O')), butyric and valeric acid were the predominant species. The removal efficiency of odorants was quite different between the two slurry treatment approaches of composting and liquid fertilization. Although the efficiencies of odor removal in the former were not sufficient, that of the latter was fairly significant in terms of odor intensity. However, some odorants like hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, p-cresol, and butyric acid were still retained above the odor threshold level. Accordingly, odorant emissions from animal housing facilities can be characterized most effectively by key odorants such as volatile fatty acids and reduced sulfur species.

  11. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety.

  12. Odor Recognition vs. Classification in Artificial Olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Baranidharan; Hertz, Joshua; Benkstein, Kurt; Semancik, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Most studies in chemical sensing have focused on the problem of precise identification of chemical species that were exposed during the training phase (the recognition problem). However, generalization of training to predict the chemical composition of untrained gases based on their similarity with analytes in the training set (the classification problem) has received very limited attention. These two analytical tasks pose conflicting constraints on the system. While correct recognition requires detection of molecular features that are unique to an analyte, generalization to untrained chemicals requires detection of features that are common across a desired class of analytes. A simple solution that addresses both issues simultaneously can be obtained from biological olfaction, where the odor class and identity information are decoupled and extracted individually over time. Mimicking this approach, we proposed a hierarchical scheme that allowed initial discrimination between broad chemical classes (e.g. contains oxygen) followed by finer refinements using additional data into sub-classes (e.g. ketones vs. alcohols) and, eventually, specific compositions (e.g. ethanol vs. methanol) [1]. We validated this approach using an array of temperature-controlled chemiresistors. We demonstrated that a small set of training analytes is sufficient to allow generalization to novel chemicals and that the scheme provides robust categorization despite aging. Here, we provide further characterization of this approach.

  13. Complex and non-redundant signals from individual odor receptors that underlie chemotaxis behavior in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Jeewanjot S.; Nguyen, Christine; Robles, Raquel; Cho, Christina; Kir, Karolina; Fledderman, Nicole; Gacharna, George; Wesolowski, Michael; Klinger, Christie; Vallejo, Pedro; Menhennett, Lorien; Nagaraj, Abhiram; Ebo, Chineze; Peacy, Garrett; Davelis, Eftihia; Kucher, David; Giers, Sarah; Kreher, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rules by which odor receptors encode odors and allow behavior are still largely unexplored. Although large data sets of electrophysiological responses of receptors to odors have been generated, few hypotheses have been tested with behavioral assays. We use a data set on odor responses of Drosophila larval odor receptors coupled with chemotaxis behavioral assays to examine rules of odor coding. Using mutants of odor receptors, we have found that odor receptors with similar electrophysiological responses to odors across concentrations play non-redundant roles in odor coding at specific odor concentrations. We have also found that high affinity receptors for odors determine behavioral response thresholds, but the rules for determining peak behavioral responses are more complex. While receptor mutants typically show loss of attraction to odors, some receptor mutants result in increased attraction at specific odor concentrations. The odor receptor mutants were rescued using transgenic expression of odor receptors, validating assignment of phenotypes to the alleles. Vapor pressures alone cannot fully explain behavior in our assay. Finally, some odors that did not elicit strong electrophysiological responses are associated with behavioral phenotypes upon examination of odor receptor mutants. This result is consistent with the role of sensory neurons in lateral inhibition via local interneurons in the antennal lobe. Taken together, our results suggest a complexity of odor coding rules even in a simple olfactory sensory system. PMID:25238759

  14. Complex and non-redundant signals from individual odor receptors that underlie chemotaxis behavior in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Jeewanjot S; Nguyen, Christine; Robles, Raquel; Cho, Christina; Kir, Karolina; Fledderman, Nicole; Gacharna, George; Wesolowski, Michael; Klinger, Christie; Vallejo, Pedro; Menhennett, Lorien; Nagaraj, Abhiram; Ebo, Chineze; Peacy, Garrett; Davelis, Eftihia; Kucher, David; Giers, Sarah; Kreher, Scott A

    2014-09-19

    The rules by which odor receptors encode odors and allow behavior are still largely unexplored. Although large data sets of electrophysiological responses of receptors to odors have been generated, few hypotheses have been tested with behavioral assays. We use a data set on odor responses of Drosophila larval odor receptors coupled with chemotaxis behavioral assays to examine rules of odor coding. Using mutants of odor receptors, we have found that odor receptors with similar electrophysiological responses to odors across concentrations play non-redundant roles in odor coding at specific odor concentrations. We have also found that high affinity receptors for odors determine behavioral response thresholds, but the rules for determining peak behavioral responses are more complex. While receptor mutants typically show loss of attraction to odors, some receptor mutants result in increased attraction at specific odor concentrations. The odor receptor mutants were rescued using transgenic expression of odor receptors, validating assignment of phenotypes to the alleles. Vapor pressures alone cannot fully explain behavior in our assay. Finally, some odors that did not elicit strong electrophysiological responses are associated with behavioral phenotypes upon examination of odor receptor mutants. This result is consistent with the role of sensory neurons in lateral inhibition via local interneurons in the antennal lobe. Taken together, our results suggest a complexity of odor coding rules even in a simple olfactory sensory system.

  15. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  16. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  17. Evaluation of the role of g protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 in desensitization of mouse odorant receptors in a Mammalian cell line and in olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kato, Aya; Reisert, Johannes; Ihara, Sayoko; Yoshikawa, Keiichi; Touhara, Kazushige

    2014-11-01

    Thousands of odors are sensed and discriminated by G protein-coupled odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) may have a role in desensitization of ORs. However, whether ORs are susceptible to agonist-dependent desensitization and whether GRKs affect odorant responsiveness of OSNs are currently unknown. Here we show that GRK3 attenuated the agonist responsiveness of a specific mouse odorant receptor for eugenol (mOR-EG) upon agonist pretreatment in HEK293 cells, but GRK3 did not affect the response amplitude or the recovery kinetics upon repeated agonist stimulation. We performed electrophysiological recordings of single OSNs which expressed mOR-EG and green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence or absence of GRK3. The kinetics and amplitude of agonist responsiveness of individual GFP-labeled mOR-EG neurons were not significantly affected by the absence of GRK3. These results indicate that the role of GRK3 in attenuating ORs responsiveness in OSNs may have been overestimated.

  18. Evaluation of the Role of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 in Desensitization of Mouse Odorant Receptors in a Mammalian Cell Line and in Olfactory Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Aya; Reisert, Johannes; Ihara, Sayoko; Yoshikawa, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of odors are sensed and discriminated by G protein-coupled odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) may have a role in desensitization of ORs. However, whether ORs are susceptible to agonist-dependent desensitization and whether GRKs affect odorant responsiveness of OSNs are currently unknown. Here we show that GRK3 attenuated the agonist responsiveness of a specific mouse odorant receptor for eugenol (mOR-EG) upon agonist pretreatment in HEK293 cells, but GRK3 did not affect the response amplitude or the recovery kinetics upon repeated agonist stimulation. We performed electrophysiological recordings of single OSNs which expressed mOR-EG and green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence or absence of GRK3. The kinetics and amplitude of agonist responsiveness of individual GFP-labeled mOR-EG neurons were not significantly affected by the absence of GRK3. These results indicate that the role of GRK3 in attenuating ORs responsiveness in OSNs may have been overestimated. PMID:25313015

  19. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  20. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  1. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  2. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  3. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  4. Performance of green waste biocovers for enhancing methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mei, Changgen; Yazdani, Ramin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M Erfan; Chanton, Jeff; VanderGheynst, Jean; Imhoff, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Green waste aged 2 and 24months, labeled "fresh" and "aged" green waste, respectively, were placed in biocover test cells and evaluated for their ability to oxidize methane (CH4) under high landfill gas loading over a 15-month testing period. These materials are less costly to produce than green waste compost, yet satisfied recommended respiration requirements for landfill compost covers. In field tests employing a novel gas tracer to correct for leakage, both green wastes oxidized CH4 at high rates during the first few months of operation - 140 and 200g/m(2)/day for aged and fresh green waste, respectively. Biocover performance degraded during the winter and spring, with significant CH4 generated from anaerobic regions in the 60-80cm thick biocovers. Concurrently, CH4 oxidation rates decreased. Two previously developed empirical models for moisture and temperature dependency of CH4 oxidation in soils were used to test their applicability to green waste. Models accounted for 68% and 79% of the observed seasonal variations in CH4 oxidation rates for aged green waste. Neither model could describe similar seasonal changes for the less stable fresh green waste. This is the first field application and evaluation of these empirical models using media with high organic matter. Given the difficulty of preventing undesired CH4 generation, green waste may not be a viable biocover material for many climates and landfill conditions.

  5. Organization and function of Drosophila odorant binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Larter, Nikki K; Sun, Jennifer S; Carlson, John R

    2016-01-01

    Odorant binding proteins (Obps) are remarkable in their number, diversity, and abundance, yet their role in olfactory coding remains unclear. They are widely believed to be required for transporting hydrophobic odorants through an aqueous lymph to odorant receptors. We construct a map of the Drosophila antenna, in which the abundant Obps are mapped to olfactory sensilla with defined functions. The results lay a foundation for an incisive analysis of Obp function. The map identifies a sensillum type that contains a single abundant Obp, Obp28a. Surprisingly, deletion of the sole abundant Obp in these sensilla does not reduce the magnitude of their olfactory responses. The results suggest that this Obp is not required for odorant transport and that this sensillum does not require an abundant Obp. The results further suggest a novel role for this Obp in buffering changes in the odor environment, perhaps providing a molecular form of gain control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20242.001 PMID:27845621

  6. Proposed Objective Odor Control Test Methodology for Waste Containment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Cockpit Working Group has requested that an odor control testing methodology be proposed to evaluate the odor containment effectiveness of waste disposal bags to be flown on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. As a standardized "odor containment" test does not appear to be a matter of record for the project, a new test method is being proposed. This method is based on existing test methods used in industrial hygiene for the evaluation of respirator fit in occupational settings, and takes into consideration peer reviewed documentation of human odor thresholds for standardized contaminates, industry stardnard atmostpheric testing methodologies, and established criteria for laboratory analysis. The proposed methodology is quantitative, though it can readily be complimented with a qualitative subjective assessment. Isoamyl acetate (IAA - also known at isopentyl acetate) is commonly used in respirator fit testing, and there are documented methodologies for both measuring its quantitative airborne concentrations. IAA is a clear, colorless liquid with a banana-like odor, documented detectable smell threshold for humans of 0.025 PPM, and a 15 PPB level of quantation limit.

  7. Peripheral adaptation codes for high odor concentration in glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Jérôme; Tiret, Pascale; Charpak, Serge

    2009-03-11

    Adaptation is a general property of sensory receptor neurons and has been extensively studied in isolated cell preparation of olfactory receptor neurons. In contrast, little is known about the conditions under which peripheral adaptation occurs in the CNS during odorant stimulation. Here, we used two-photon laser-scanning microscopy and targeted extracellular recording in freely breathing anesthetized rats to investigate the correlate of peripheral adaptation at the first synapse of the olfactory pathway in olfactory bulb glomeruli. We find that during sustained stimulation at high concentration, odorants can evoke local field potential (LFP) postsynaptic responses that rapidly adapt with time, some within two inhalations. Simultaneous measurements of LFP and calcium influx at olfactory receptor neuron terminals reveal that postsynaptic adaptation is associated with a decrease in odorant-evoked calcium response, suggesting that it results from a decrease in glutamate release. This glomerular adaptation was concentration-dependent and did not change the glomerular input-output curve. In addition, in situ application of antagonists of either ionotropic glutamate receptors or metabotropic GABA(B) receptors did not affect this adaptation, thus discarding the involvement of local presynaptic inhibition. Glomerular adaptation, therefore, reflects the response decline of olfactory receptor neurons to sustained odorant. We postulate that peripheral fast adaptation is a means by which glomerular output codes for high concentration of odor.

  8. The role of piriform associative connections in odor categorization.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaojun; Raguet, Louise Lg; Cole, Sydni M; Howard, James D; Gottfried, Jay

    2016-04-28

    Distributed neural activity patterns are widely proposed to underlie object identification and categorization in the brain. In the olfactory domain, pattern-based representations of odor objects are encoded in piriform cortex. This region receives both afferent and associative inputs, though their relative contributions to odor perception are poorly understood. Here, we combined a placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI paradigm with multivariate pattern analyses to test the role of associative connections in sustaining olfactory categorical representations. Administration of baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist known to attenuate piriform associative inputs, interfered with within-category pattern separation in piriform cortex, and the magnitude of this drug-induced change predicted perceptual alterations in fine-odor discrimination performance. Comparatively, baclofen reduced pattern separation between odor categories in orbitofrontal cortex, and impeded within-category generalization in hippocampus. Our findings suggest that odor categorization is a dynamic process concurrently engaging stimulus discrimination and generalization at different stages of olfactory information processing, and highlight the importance of associative networks in maintaining categorical boundaries.

  9. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-08

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 μm thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit.

  10. Macroglomeruli for fruit odors change blend preference in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibba, Irene; Angioy, Anna Maria; Hansson, Bill S.; Dekker, Teun

    2010-12-01

    The olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster is becoming increasingly clear. However, how olfactory processing translates into appropriate behavioral responses is still poorly understood. Using a sibling species approach, we tested how a perturbation in the olfactory circuitry affects odor preference. In a previous study, we found that the sibling species of D. melanogaster, the specialist D. sechellia, overrepresents a sensillum, ab3, the A neuron of which is sensitive to hexanoate esters, characteristic of the species' sole host, the Morinda citrifolia fruit. Concordantly, the corresponding glomerulus, DM2, is enlarged. In this study, we found that the ab3B neuron, the expansion of which was previously assumed to be pleiotropic and of no ecological significance, is in fact tuned to another morinda fruit volatile, 2-heptanone (HP). Axons of this neuron type arborize in a second enlarged glomerulus. In behavioral experiments we tested how this has affected the fly's odor preference. We demonstrate that D. sechellia has a reversed preference for the key ligands of these macroglomeruli, especially at high concentrations. Whereas D. melanogaster was repelled by high concentrations of these odors, D. sechellia was highly attracted. This was the case for odors presented singly, but more notably for blends thereof. Our study indicates that relatively simple changes, such as a shift in sensillar abundance, and concordant shifts in glomerular size, can distort the resulting olfactory code, and can lead to saltatory shifts in odor preference. D. sechellia has exploited this to align its olfactory preference with its ecological niche.

  11. The role of piriform associative connections in odor categorization

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiaojun; Raguet, Louise LG; Cole, Sydni M; Howard, James D; Gottfried, Jay A

    2016-01-01

    Distributed neural activity patterns are widely proposed to underlie object identification and categorization in the brain. In the olfactory domain, pattern-based representations of odor objects are encoded in piriform cortex. This region receives both afferent and associative inputs, though their relative contributions to odor perception are poorly understood. Here, we combined a placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI paradigm with multivariate pattern analyses to test the role of associative connections in sustaining olfactory categorical representations. Administration of baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist known to attenuate piriform associative inputs, interfered with within-category pattern separation in piriform cortex, and the magnitude of this drug-induced change predicted perceptual alterations in fine-odor discrimination performance. Comparatively, baclofen reduced pattern separation between odor categories in orbitofrontal cortex, and impeded within-category generalization in hippocampus. Our findings suggest that odor categorization is a dynamic process concurrently engaging stimulus discrimination and generalization at different stages of olfactory information processing, and highlight the importance of associative networks in maintaining categorical boundaries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13732.001 PMID:27130519

  12. Investigating a persistent odor at an aircraft seat manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; de Perio, Marie A; Roberts, Jennifer; Burton, Nancy C; Lemons, Angela R; Green, Brett J; Brueck, Scott E

    2016-10-01

    An aircraft seat manufacturing company requested a NIOSH health hazard evaluation to help identify a strong odor that had persisted throughout the facility for over a year. Employees reported experiencing health effects thought to be related to the odor. We collected and analyzed area air samples for volatile organic compounds, endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and metalworking fluid aerosol. Bulk metalworking fluid samples were analyzed for endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and viable bacteria and fungus. We also evaluated the building ventilation systems and water diversion systems. Employees underwent confidential medical interviews about work practices, medical history, and health concerns. Based on our analyses, the odor was likely 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine. This pyrazine was found in air samples across the facility and originated from bacteria in the metalworking fluid. We did not identify bacteria known to produce the compound but bacteria from the same Proteobacteria order were found as well as bacteria from orders known to produce other pyrazines. Chemical and biological contaminants and odors could have contributed to health symptoms reported by employees, but it is likely that the symptoms were caused by several factors. We provided several recommendations to eliminate the odor including washing and disinfecting the metalworking machines and metalworking fluid recycling equipment, discarding all used metalworking fluid, instituting a metalworking fluid maintenance program at the site, and physically isolating the metalworking department from other departments.

  13. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  14. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Guclu, Gamze; Sevindik, Onur; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA. PMID:28231141

  15. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil.

    PubMed

    Guclu, Gamze; Sevindik, Onur; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2016-06-24

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA.

  16. Comparison of CALPUFF and ISCST3 models for predicting downwind odor and source emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingjuan; Parker, David B.; Parnell, Calvin B.; Lacey, Ronald E.; Shaw, Bryan W.

    CALPUFF model and ISCST3 Gaussian dispersion models were evaluated for predicting downwind odor concentrations and back-calculating area source odor emission rates. The comparison between the predicted and field-sampled downwind concentrations indicates that the CALPUFF model could fairly well predict average downwind odor concentrations. However, ISCST3 tended to under predict downwind odor concentrations as compared to the measured concentrations. Both the CALPUFF and ISCST3 models failed to predict peak odor concentrations using the constant average emission rate. Odor emission rates obtained by back-calculating fluxes using CALPUFF and ISC models with the same field measurements of downwind odor concentrations are significantly different. It indicates that back-calculated emission rates are model specific. The modeled emission rates tended to be higher than flux chamber source sampling results. The flux chamber protocol may under-estimate odor emission rates.

  17. A Review of Cyanobacterial Odorous and Bioactive Metabolites: Impacts and Management Alternatives in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increased demand has pushed extensive aquaculture towards intensively operated production systems, commonly resulting in eutrophic conditions and cyanobacterial blooms. This review summarizes cyanobacterial secondary metabolites that can cause undesirable tastes and odors (odorous metabolites) o...

  18. Odor impact of volatiles emitted from marijuana, cocaine, heroin and their surrogate scents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile compounds emitted into headspace from illicit street drugs have been identified, but until now odor impact of these compounds have not been reported. Data in support of identification of these compounds and their odor impact to human nose are presented. In addition, data is reported on odor detection thresholds for canines highlighting differences with human ODTs and needs to address gaps in knowledge. New data presented here include: (1) compound identification, (2) gas chromatography (GC) column retention times, (3) mass spectral data, (4) odor descriptors from 2 databases, (5) human odor detection thresholds from 2 databases, (6) calculated odor activity values, and (7) subsequent ranking of compounds by concentration and ranking of compounds by odor impact (reported as calculated odor activity values). For further interpretation and discussion, see Rice and Koziel [1] and Rice [2]. PMID:26958621

  19. Taste-potentiated odor aversion learning in rats with lesions of the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-You; Roman, Christopher; Reilly, Steve

    2009-11-10

    The current study assessed the influence of excitotoxic lesions of the insular cortex (IC) on taste-potentiated odor aversion (TPOA) learning. Water-deprived rats initially received a single odor-toxicosis or odor/taste-toxicosis pairing and were subsequently tested, in separate trials, with the odor and the taste stimulus. Indicating TPOA, neurologically intact rats conditioned with the odor/taste compound stimulus acquired significantly stronger odor aversions than normal rats conditioned with the odor stimulus. IC lesions disrupted TPOA, conditioned taste aversion and taste neophobia. The finding that taste did not potentiate odor aversion learning in the IC-lesioned rats provides support for the "within-compound association" analysis but is inconsistent with the "sensory-and-gate" account of TPOA learning.

  20. Evaluation of the active odorants in Amontillado sherry wines during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Lourdes; Zea, Luis; Moreno, Jose A; Medina, Manuel

    2010-06-09

    Odor compounds in Amontillado sherry white wine obtained by means of biological aging first and oxidative aging second in American oak casks were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Sniffing revealed fruity, fatty, chemical, spicy, vegetable, floral and empyreumatic odors, the first being the most common. Olfactometric intensity was assessed on a four-point scale. Most changes were detected during the first years of the oxidative aging step. Ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, and eugenol were the strongest odor compounds detected by sniffing in wines. The odor spectrum values for all active odorants were calculated in relation to ethyl octanoate, this compound being the most potent odorant. On the basis of olfactometric intensities and odor spectrum values, ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, eugenol, ethyl isobutanoate, and sotolon can be deemed the main group of potent odorants in Amontillado wines. These compounds maintained similar relative contributions to the aroma profile during the oxidative aging step.

  1. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Acar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors’ data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented. PMID:27384568

  2. VFA and ammonia from residential food waste as indicators of odor potential.

    PubMed

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Milke, M W

    2012-12-01

    Research was conducted to determine suitable chemical parameters as indicators of odor from decomposing food wastes. Prepared food scraps were stored in 18 l plastic buckets (2 kg wet weight each) at 20 °C and 8 °C to reproduce high and low temperature conditions. After 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of storage, the odor from the buckets were marked to an intensity scale of 0 (no odor) to 5 (intense) and the corresponding leachate analyzed for volatile fatty acids, ammonia and total organic carbon. A linear relationship between odor intensity and the measured parameter indicates a suitable odor indicator. Odor intensified with longer storage period and warmer surroundings. The study found ammonia and isovaleric acid to be promising odor indicators. For this food waste mixture, offensive odors were emitted if the ammonia and isovaleric acid contents exceeded 360 mg/l and 940 mg/l, respectively.

  3. From Molecule to Mind: an Integrative Perspective on Odor Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Mainland, Joel D.; Lundström, Johan N.; Reisert, Johannes; Lowe, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in systems neuroscience is mapping the physical properties of a stimulus to perceptual characteristics. In vision, wavelength translates into color; in audition, frequency translates into pitch. Although odorant concentration is a key feature of olfactory stimuli, we do not know how concentration is translated into perceived intensity by the olfactory system. A variety of neural responses at several levels of processing have been reported to vary with odorant concentration, suggesting specific coding models. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these phenomena underlie the perception of odor intensity. Here we provide an overview of current models at different stages of olfactory processing, and identify promising avenues for future research. PMID:24950600

  4. Mammalian Odor Information Recognition by Implanted Microsensor Array in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Dong, Qi; Zhuang, Liujing; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    The mammalian olfactory system has an exquisite capacity to rapidly recognize and discriminate thousands of distinct odors in our environment. Our research group focus on reading information from olfactory bulb circuit of anethetized Sprague-Dawley rat and utilize artificial recognition system for odor discrimination. After being stimulated by three odors with concentration of 10 μM to rat nose, the response of mitral cells in olfactory bulb is recorded by eight channel microwire sensor array. In 20 sessions with 3 animals, we obtained 30 discriminated individual cells recordings. The average firing rates of the cells are Isoamyl acetate 26 Hz, Methoxybenzene 16 Hz, and Rose essential oil 11 Hz. By spike sorting, we detect peaks and analyze the interspike interval distribution. Further more, principal component analysis is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the data sets and classify the response.

  5. Topical Metronidazole for Odor Control in Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lyvers, Elizabeth; Elliott, David P

    2015-09-01

    There are many remedies that have been recommended for the treatment of foul odor associated with pressure ulcers. This article seeks to review the literature surrounding the use of metronidazole as a safe and effective solution to an oftentimes stubborn and frustrating problem. Other tools used to control odor include bleach-based solutions and charcoal dressings. Metronidazole, with its antianaerobic properties, appears to have a useful role in therapy when applied topically to a pressure ulcer. Commercially available products include 0.75% and 1% creams, gels, lotions, and intravenous solutions. Of the 59 cases viewed throughout several publications, 56 reported nearly complete odor resolution in two to seven days when metronidazole was applied to the wound two or three times daily. Virtually no systemic adverse events have been reported in the literature, despite the risk for systemic absorption. A need remains to monitor for toxicities such as nausea, gastrointestinal distress, and neural toxicities from long-term use.

  6. Sniffing patterns uncover implicit memory for undetected odors.

    PubMed

    Arzi, Anat; Rozenkrantz, Liron; Holtzman, Yael; Secundo, Lavi; Sobel, Noam

    2014-03-31

    Consciously undetected events are represented at the sensory-motor level and in the neurons of sensory-motor control, for example, consciously undetected visual targets drive eye movements [1] and neural activity [2]. Olfaction offers an opportunity to investigate processing of undetected stimuli through measurements of the sniff-response: odorant-specific modulations of nasal airflow [3-6]. Here, we report evidence that consciously undetected odorants modulate sniffing in a predicted manner. Moreover, in our study we observed that sniff-modulations recurred at least 10 seconds after the onset of an undetected odor, implying that information which was not consciously perceived was nevertheless maintained in memory, available for future decision making.

  7. Estimating dry matter content of fresh leaves from residuals between leaf and water reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At 1722 nm wavelength, there is an absorption feature of leaf dry matter based on a C—H stretch overtone, which is difficult to detect in fresh green leaves due to the absorption spectrum of liquid water. We applied a method originally proposed by B. -C. Gao and A. F. H. Goetz (1994, Remote Sensing ...

  8. Epac Activation Initiates Associative Odor Preference Memories in the Rat Pup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Powell, Maria; Gutierrez, Sandra Mohammed; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we examine the role of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in ß-adrenergic-dependent associative odor preference learning in rat pups. Bulbar Epac agonist (8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP, or 8-pCPT) infusions, paired with odor, initiated preference learning, which was selective for the paired odor. Interestingly, pairing odor with Epac…

  9. Intensity invariant dynamics and odor-specific latencies in olfactory receptor neuron response.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Carlotta; Carlson, John R; Emonet, Thierry

    2013-04-10

    Odors elicit spatiotemporal patterns of activity in the brain. Spatial patterns arise from the specificity of the interaction between odorants and odorant receptors expressed in different olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), but the origin of temporal patterns of activity and their role in odor coding remain unclear. We investigate how physiological aspects of ORN response and physical aspects of odor stimuli give rise to diverse responses in Drosophila ORNs. We show that odor stimuli have intrinsic dynamics that depend on odor type and strongly affect ORN response. Using linear-nonlinear modeling to remove the contribution of the stimulus dynamics from the ORN dynamics, we study the physiological properties of the response to different odorants and concentrations. For several odorants and receptor types, the ORN response dynamics normalized by the peak response are independent of stimulus intensity for a large portion of the dynamic range of the neuron. Adaptation to a background odor changes the gain and dynamic range of the response but does not affect normalized response dynamics. Stimulating ORNs with various odorants reveals significant odor-dependent delays in the ORN response functions. However, these differences can be dominated by differences in stimulus dynamics. In one case the response of one ORN to two odorants is predicted solely from measurements of the odor signals. Within a large portion of their dynamic range, ORNs can capture information about stimulus dynamics independently from intensity while introducing odor-dependent delays. How insects might use odor-specific stimulus dynamics and ORN dynamics in discrimination and navigation tasks remains an open question.

  10. Annual variations of odor concentrations and emissions from swine gestation, farrowing, and nursery buildings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiqing; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Yuming

    2011-12-01

    To obtain annual odor emission profiles from intensive swine operations, odor concentrations and emission rates were measured monthly from swine nursery, farrowing, and gestation rooms for a year. Large annual variations in odor concentrations and emissions were found in all the rooms and the impact of the seasonal factor (month) was significant (P < 0.05). Odor concentration was low in summer when ventilation rate was high but high in winter when ventilation rate was low, ranging from 362 (farrowing room in July) to 8934 (nursery room in December) olfactory unit (OU) m(-3). This indicates that the air quality regarding odor was significantly better in summer than that in winter. Odor emission rate did not show obvious seasonal pattern as odor concentration did, ranging from 2 (gestation room in November) to 90 (nursery room in April) OU m(-2) sec(-1); this explains why the odor complaints for swine barns have occurred all year round. The annual geometric mean odor concentration and emission rate of the nursery room was significantly higher than the other rooms (P < 0.05). In order to obtain the representative annual emission rate, measurements have to be taken at least monthly, and then the geometric mean of the monthly values will represent the annual emission rate. Incorporating odor control technologies in the nursery area will be the most efficient in reducing odor emission from the farm considering its emission rate was 2 to 3 times of the other areas. The swine grower-finisher area was the major odor source contributing 53% of odor emission of the farm and should also be targeted for odor control. Relatively positive correlations between odor concentration and both H2S and CO2 concentrations (R(2) = 0.58) means that high level of these two gases might likely indicate high odor concentration in swine barns.

  11. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  12. Structure-Odor Activity Studies on Monoterpenoid Mercaptans Synthesized by Changing the Structural Motifs of the Key Food Odorant 1-p-Menthene-8-thiol.

    PubMed

    Schoenauer, Sebastian; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-05-18

    1-p-Menthene-8-thiol (1) has been discovered as the key odorant in grapefruit juice several decades ago and contributes to the overall odor of the fruit with an extremely low odor threshold of 0.000034 ng/L in air. This value is among the lowest odor thresholds ever reported for a food odorant. To check whether modifications in the structure of 1 would lead to changes in odor threshold and odor quality, 34 mercapto-containing p-menthane and 1-p-menthene derivatives as well as several aromatic and open-chain mercapto monoterpenoids were synthesized. Eighteen of them are reported for the first time in the literature, and their odor thresholds and odor qualities as well as analytical data are supplied. A comparison of the sensory data with those of 1 showed that hydrogenation of the double bond led to a clear increase in the odor threshold. Furthermore, moving the mercapto group into the ring always resulted in higher odor thresholds compared to thiols with a mercapto group in the side chains. Although all tertiary thiols always exhibited low odor thresholds, none of the 31 compounds reached the extremely low threshold of 1. Also, none of the synthesized mercapto monoterpenoids showed a similar odor quality resembling grapefruit. Although the saturated and aromatic analogues exhibited similar scents as 1, the aromas of the majority of the other compounds were described as sulfury, rubber-like, burned, soapy, or even mushroom-like. NMR and MS data as well as retention indices of the 23 newly reported sulfur-containing compounds might aid in future research to identify terpene-derived mercaptans possibly present in trace levels in foods.

  13. Carrion odor and cattle grazing: Evidence for plant defense by carrion odor.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gutman, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Recently, it has been proposed on theoretical grounds that carrion odor from flowers may not only attract pollinators, but also repel mammalian herbivores. Two grazing experiments involving 16 to 26 cattle heads per year, one for eight years (1982-1989) and the other for seven (1994-2000), in a region with no large carnivores that could influence cattle behavior, show that cattle avoid areas where dead cattle have recently been dumped. They grazed much less in these unfenced plots that were used to dump dead cattle each year. In the first experiment, with an area of ca. 20,000 m(2) per head, the average grass biomass at the end of the season was 124.6 gr/m(2) for the regular grazing area, whereas it was 236.5 gr/m(2) for the carcass dumping area. In the second experiment, with a higher stocking level, with ca. 9,000 m(2) per head, the average grass biomass at the end of the season was 61.7 gr/m(2) for the regular grazing area, and 153.7 gr/m(2) for the carcass dumping area. These significant differences existed throughout the 15 y of the experiments. We propose that these results are clear evidence of necrophobia in cattle, a character that might defend them from both pathogenic microbes and predators. This in turn demonstrates that carrion odor, primarily used by plants to attract pollinators, can simultaneously defend plants from herbivory by mammals as proposed.

  14. A rare case of fish odor syndrome presenting as depression

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Shagufta, K.

    2014-01-01

    A young lady presents to the psychiatry out-patient department with depressive symptoms. Evaluation revealed long standing stressor in the form of a foul odor emanating from her body and over a period of time resulting in social withdrawal and depression with significant impairment of day-to-day functioning. A diagnosis of trimethylaminurea (fish odor syndrome) and adjustment disorder was arrived at. Careful empathetic handling with psychoeducation, behavioral and cognitive counseling and a short course of antidepressants helped her improve significantly with return to almost normal functioning. PMID:24891709

  15. Spatial arrangement of odor sources modifies the temporal aspects of crayfish search strategies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Mary C; Voigt, Rainer; Moore, Paul A

    2004-03-01

    In natural habitats, animals encounter cues from multiple odor sources that may impact foraging decisions. Previous work has focused on orientation behavior to one food odor source, and does not distinguish between mechanosensory and chemosensory guidance of orientation. The present study investigated how the spatial distribution of two food cues affects crayfish orientation behavior. Crayfish, Orconectes virilis, were presented with odor sources that were separated in an artificial stream. Orientation behavior was filmed from above and digitized at a rate of 1 frame per sec. Electrochemical recordings were taken to characterize the odor plume, and an acoustic doppler velocimeter was used to characterize the hydrodynamic structure of the artificial stream. Temporal changes in odor plume structure were seen as a result of the positioning of the odor sources. Changes in the intermittency of the odor pulses as well as concentration, rise time, and slope of the pulse were observed. Time series analysis showed that the lower frequency signals of the dual odor source were higher in energy than the single 1X or single 2X sources. Crayfish altered orientation strategies when presented with different spatial arrangements of food cues. In particular, the temporal aspects of the orientation pattern were most altered by the differences in odor presentations. Crayfish responded with faster walking speeds as a function of distance to the odor source and exhibited more consistent turning angles. This correlates with temporal changes in odor structure, and indicates that the temporal pattern of odor stimulation may be driving the temporal pattern of behavior.

  16. Noradrenergic Control of Odor Recognition in a Nonassociative Olfactory Learning Task in the Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veyrac, Alexandra; Nguyen, Veronique; Marien, Marc; Didier, Anne; Jourdan, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of pharmacological modulations of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system on odor recognition in the mouse. Mice exposed to a nonrewarded olfactory stimulation (training) were able to memorize this odor and to discriminate it from a new odor in a recall test performed 15 min later. At longer delays (30 or…

  17. Dummies versus air puffs: efficient stimulus delivery for low-volatile odors.

    PubMed

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Aiming to unravel how animals perceive odors, a variety of neurophysiological techniques are used today. For olfactory stimulation, odors are commonly incorporated into a constant airstream that carries odor molecules to the receptor organ (air-delivered stimulation). Such odor delivery works well for odors of high volatility (naturally effective over long distances) but less or not at all for low-volatile odors (usually only received at short range). We developed a new odor stimulation technique especially suited for low-volatile odors and compared it with conventional air-delivered stimulation using 2 neurophysiological approaches. Odor-loaded dummies were moved into close vicinity of the receptor organs on the antenna of the Florida carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus (dummy-delivered stimulation). Neuronal activity was monitored either at receptor neuron level using electroantennography or in the first olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobes, using calcium imaging. We tested 3 odors of different volatility: C. floridanus' highly volatile alarm pheromone undecane, its low-volatile trail pheromone nerolic acid, and an even less volatile, behaviorally active C23 alkene, cis-9-tricosene. For low-volatile odors, dummy-delivered stimulation was particularly efficient. We conclude that dummy-delivered stimulation is advantageous compared to the commonly used air-delivered stimulation when studying an animal's detection and processing of low-volatile odors.

  18. The Enantioselectivity of Odor Sensation: Some Examples for Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Philip; Mannschreck, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses seven chiral odorants that demonstrate the enantioselectivity of odor sensation: carvone, Celery Ketone, camphor, Florhydral, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, muscone, and methyl jasmonate. After a general introduction of the odorant-receptor interaction and the combinatorial code of olfaction, the olfactory properties of the…

  19. Effectiveness of a manure scraper system for odor control in tunnel-ventilated swine finisher barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Options for odor control from tunnel-ventilated swine barns are limited. Automated scrapers have been successful for reducing odor emissions in free-stall dairies, and for reducing H2S emissions in research-scale swine finisher rooms, but their effectiveness for reducing odor in commercial tunnel-v...

  20. Sensory Preconditioning in Newborn Rabbits: From Common to Distinct Odor Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coureaud, Gerard; Tourat, Audrey; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether olfactory preconditioning is functional in newborn rabbits and based on joined or independent memory of odorants. First, after exposure to odorants A+B, the conditioning of A led to high responsiveness to odorant B. Second, responsiveness to B persisted after amnesia of A. Third, preconditioning was also functional…

  1. Computational modeling and experimental validation of odor detection behaviours of classically conditioned parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To further improve the sensitivity of odor¬ and odor concentration detection of the Wasp Hound, searching behaviors of a food-conditioned wasp in a confined area with the conditioning odor were recorded. The experiments were recorded using a video camera. First, the wasps are individually hand condi...

  2. DESIGN MANUAL: ODOR AND CORROSION CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater is known to the public for its potential to create odor nuisance. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the odor source is a wastewater treatment facility. Yet there are wastewater treatment facilities that are fr...

  3. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses of Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris and their lepidopteran hosts to a wide array of odor stimuli: correlation between EAG response and degree of host specificity?

    PubMed

    Ngumbi, Esther; Chen, Li; Fadamiro, Henry

    2010-09-01

    In order to test whether the electroantennogram (EAG) response spectrum of an insect correlates to its degree of host specificity, we recorded EAG responses of two parasitoid species with different degrees of host specificity, Microplitis croceipes (specialist) and Cotesia marginiventris (generalist), to a wide array of odor stimuli including compounds representing green leaf volatiles (GLVs), herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), ecologically irrelevant (not used by the parasitoid species and their hosts for host location) plant volatiles, and host-specific odor stimuli (host sex pheromones, and extracts of host caterpillar body and frass). We also tested the EAG responses of female moths of the caterpillar hosts of the parasitoids, Heliothis virescens and Spodoptera exigua, to some of the odor stimuli. We hypothesized that the specialist parasitoid will have a narrower EAG response spectrum than the generalist, and that the two lepidopteran species, which are similar in their host plant use, will show similar EAG response spectra to plant volatiles. As predicted, the specialist parasitoid showed greater EAG responses than the generalist to host-specific odor and one HIPV (cis-3-hexenyl butyrate), whereas the generalist showed relatively greater EAG responses to the GLVs and unrelated plant volatiles. We detected no differences in the EAG responses of H. virescens and S. exigua to any of the tested odor.

  4. Bench and full-scale studies for odor control from lime stabilized biosolids: the effect of mixing on odor generation.

    PubMed

    Krach, Kenneth R; Li, Baikun; Burns, Benjamin R; Mangus, Jessica; Butler, Howard G; Cole, Charles

    2008-09-01

    Lime stabilization is a means to raise the pH of biosolids to meet specific pathogen requirements. Along with controlling the microbial growth, lime stabilization reduces the potential for offensive odors. Lime stabilized biosolids can be beneficially used as a soil amendment and also for land reclamation. However, if biosolids are not properly incorporated with the lime, there is a potential for microbial growth, which consequently leads to the emanation of offensive odors and growth of pathogens. Proper mixing was found to be an important factor for the reduction of offensive odors in biosolids treatment. To better understand the effects of mixing on odorous products, bench-scale and full-scale tests were conducted to assess the lime stabilization process and investigate mixing quality at a wastewater treatment plant to help reduce odors associated with known odorants. The results of 4-week laboratory bench-scale tests showed that mixing had the largest effect on odor. The hedonic tone test of the control samples with poor mixing showed a hedonic tone of -2.9 initially and then dropped to -7.3 on Day 29. The hedonic tone of the 3.5%, 7%, and 10% lime mixed biosolids had similar hedonic tones (-2.8 to -2.5) on Day 1 and slightly fluctuated over time and ended at -1.6 to -2.7 on Day 29, which was less odorous than the controls. The control sample with poor mixing showed a rapid pH drop from 12.1 on Day 1 to 8.4 on Day 7. The pH of the control sample was considerably lower than the mixed samples and ended up on Day 28 with a pH of 8.0. The pH of the 7% and 10% samples were relatively stable throughout the 4-week period with a pH still higher than 12 on Day 28. The biosolids with better mixing had a less offensive odor and weaker odor strength than the controls collected at the plant with poor mixing. The lime stabilization process in the wastewater treatment plant was modified in a full-scale study by prolonging the mixing time. The samples collected from the

  5. Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and Odor Activity Value (OAV).

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2016-06-22

    The volatile compounds of cranberries obtained from four cultivars (Early Black, Y1; Howes, Y2; Searles, Y3; and McFarlin, Y4) were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). The result presented that a total of thirty-three, thirty-four, thirty-four, and thirty-six odor-active compounds were identified by GC-O in the Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In addition, twenty-two, twenty-two, thirty, and twenty-seven quantified compounds were demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs > 1). Among these compounds, hexanal (OAV: 27-60), pentanal (OAV: 31-51), (E)-2-heptenal (OAV: 17-66), (E)-2-hexenal (OAV: 18-63), (E)-2-octenal (OAV: 10-28), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 8-77), ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (OAV: 10-33), β-ionone (OAV: 8-73), 2-methylbutyric acid (OAV: 18-37), and octanal (OAV: 4-24) contributed greatly to the aroma of cranberry. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean data accumulated from sensory evaluation by the panelists, odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), and samples. Sample Y3 was highly correlated with the sensory descriptors "floral" and "fruity". Sample Y4 was greatly related to the sensory descriptors "mellow" and "green and grass". Finally, an aroma reconstitution (Model A) was prepared by mixing the odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) based on their measured concentrations in the Y1 sample, indicating that the aroma profile of the reconstitution was pretty similar to that of the original sample.

  6. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  7. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements...

  8. Attachment and localization of human norovirus and animal caliciviruses in fresh produce.

    PubMed

    DiCaprio, Erin; Purgianto, Anastasia; Ma, Yuanmei; Hughes, John; Dai, Xiangjun; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-15

    Fresh produce is a high risk food for human norovirus (NoV) contamination. To help control this pathogen in fresh produce, a better understanding of the interaction of human NoV and fresh produce needs to be established. In this study the attachment of human NoV and animal caliciviruses (murine norovirus, MNV-1; Tulane virus, TV) to fresh produce was evaluated, using both visualization and viral enumeration techniques. It was found that a human NoV GII.4 strain attached efficiently to the Romaine lettuce leaves and roots and green onion shoots, and that washing with PBS or 200 ppm of chlorine removed less than 0.4 log of viral RNA copies from the tissues. In contrast, TV and MNV-1 bound more efficiently to Romaine lettuce leaves than to the roots, and simple washing removed less than 1 log of viruses from the lettuce leaves and 1-4 log PFU of viruses from roots. Subsequently, the location of virus particles in fresh produce was visualized using a fluorescence-based Quantum Dots (Q-Dots) assay and confocal microscopy. It was found that human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs), TV, and MNV-1 associated with the surface of Romaine lettuce and were found aggregating in and around the stomata. In green onions, human NoV VLPs were found between the cells of the epidermis and cell walls of both the shoots and roots. However, TV and MNV-1 were found to be covering the surface of the epidermal cells in both the shoots and roots of green onions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that (i) washing with 200 ppm chlorine is ineffective in removing human NoV from fresh produce; and (ii) different viruses vary in their localization patterns to different varieties of fresh produce.

  9. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  10. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  11. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  12. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  13. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  14. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  15. Calcium imaging of odor-evoked responses in the Drosophila antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Silbering, Ana F; Bell, Rati; Galizia, C Giovanni; Benton, Richard

    2012-03-14

    The antennal lobe is the primary olfactory center in the insect brain and represents the anatomical and functional equivalent of the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Olfactory information in the external world is transmitted to the antennal lobe by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which segregate to distinct regions of neuropil called glomeruli according to the specific olfactory receptor they express. Here, OSN axons synapse with both local interneurons (LNs), whose processes can innervate many different glomeruli, and projection neurons (PNs), which convey olfactory information to higher olfactory brain regions. Optical imaging of the activity of OSNs, LNs and PNs in the antennal lobe - traditionally using synthetic calcium indicators (e.g. calcium green, FURA-2) or voltage-sensitive dyes (e.g. RH414) - has long been an important technique to understand how olfactory stimuli are represented as spatial and temporal patterns of glomerular activity in many species of insects. Development of genetically-encoded neural activity reporters, such as the fluorescent calcium indicators G-CaMP and Cameleon, the bioluminescent calcium indicator GFP-aequorin, or a reporter of synaptic transmission, synapto-pHluorin has made the olfactory system of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, particularly accessible to neurophysiological imaging, complementing its comprehensively-described molecular, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical properties. These reporters can be selectively expressed via binary transcriptional control systems (e.g. GAL4/UAS, LexA/LexAop, Q system) in defined populations of neurons within the olfactory circuitry to dissect with high spatial and temporal resolution how odor-evoked neural activity is represented, modulated and transformed. Here we describe the preparation and analysis methods to measure odor-evoked responses in the Drosophila antennal lobe using G-CaMP. The animal preparation is minimally invasive and can be adapted to imaging using wide

  16. Limitations on representation-mediated potentiation of flavor or odor aversions

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    Odor aversion learning is often potentiated in the presence of flavor stimuli. Establishment of an aversion to an odor is greater when an odor + flavor compound is paired with illness than when the odor alone is paired with illness. Holland (1983) showed that under some circumstances auditory or olfactory stimuli previously paired with flavors may also potentiate odor aversion learning. The present experiments examined limitations on this representation-mediated potentiation of aversion learning. The results indicated that CSs that activate representations of potentiating cues are themselves immune to potentiation by other CS-activated representations, but remain susceptible to potentiation by their real stimulus associates. PMID:16618632

  17. Additional Navigational Strategies Can Augment Odor-Gated Rheotaxis for Navigation under Conditions of Variable Flow.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Gabrielle; Lukeman, Ryan; Wyeth, Russell C

    2015-09-01

    The navigation strategies animals use to find sources of odor depend on the olfactory stimuli, the properties of flowing fluids, and the locomotory capabilities of the animal. In high Reynolds number environments, animals typically use odor-gated rheotaxis to find the source of turbulent odor plumes. This strategy succeeds because, although turbulence creates an intermittent chemical cue, the animal follows the (continuous) directional cue created by the flow that is transporting the chemical. However, in nature, animals may lose all contact with an odor plume as variations in the direction of bulk flow cause the plume to be rotated away before the animal reaches the source of the odor. Our goal was to use a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that strategies that augment odor-gated rheotaxis would be beneficial for finding the source of an odor plume in such variable flow. The model links a stochastic variable-direction odor plume with a turbulence-based intermittent chemical signal and four different movement strategies, including: odor-gated rheotaxis alone (as a control), odor-gated rheotaxis augmented by further rheotaxis in the absence of odor, odor-gated rheotaxis augmented by a random walk, and odor-gated rheotaxis augmented by movement actively guided by the heading of the flow when the odor was still present. We found that any of the three augmented strategies could improve on strict odor-gated rheotaxis. Moreover, variations in performance caused the best strategy to depend on the speed of movement of the animal and the magnitude of the variation in flow, and more subtly on the duration over which the augmented strategy was performed. For most combinations of parameters in the model, either augmenting with a random walk or following the last-known heading were the best-performing strategies. Overall, our results suggest that marine animals that rely on odor cues to navigate in turbulent environments may augment odor-gated rheotaxis with additional

  18. Odors and Air Pollution: A Bibliography with Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The annotated bibliography presents a compilation of abstracts which deal with odors as they relate to air pollution. The abstracts are arranged within the following categories: Emission sources; Control methods; Measurement methods; Air quality measurements; Atmospheric interaction; Basic science and technology; Effects-human health;…

  19. Physicochemical vs. Vibrational Descriptors for Prediction of Odor Receptor Responses.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Stephan; Soelter, Jan; Hussain, Taufia; Sachse, Silke; Schmuker, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Responses of olfactory receptors (ORs) can be predicted by applying machine learning methods on a multivariate encoding of an odorant's chemical structure. Physicochemical descriptors that encode features of the molecular graph are a popular choice for such an encoding. Here, we explore the EVA descriptor set, which encodes features derived from the vibrational spectrum of a molecule. We assessed the performance of Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Random Forest Regression (RFR) to predict the gradual response of Drosophila ORs. We compared a 27-dimensional variant of the EVA descriptor against a set of 1467 descriptors provided by the eDragon software package, and against a 32-dimensional subset thereof that has been proposed as the basis for an odor metric consisting of 32 descriptors (HADDAD). The best prediction performance was reproducibly achieved using SVR on the highest-dimensional feature set. The low-dimensional EVA and HADDAD feature sets predicted odor-OR interactions with similar accuracy. Adding charge and polarizability information to the EVA descriptor did not improve the results but rather decreased predictive power. Post-hoc in vivo measurements confirmed these results. Our findings indicate that EVA provides a meaningful low-dimensional representation of odor space, although EVA hardly outperformed "classical" descriptor sets.

  20. The pharmacogenetics of body odor: as easy as ABCC?

    PubMed

    Brown, Sara

    2013-07-01

    ABCC11 genotype affects apocrine secretory cell function and determines individual body odor phenotype. Rodriguez et al. have applied genetic epidemiology using predetermined phenotype data to demonstrate an association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs17822931) and the human behavior of deodorant application. Individuals with the ABCC11 genotype predicting a nonodorous phenotype report a significantly lower frequency of deodorant use.

  1. THE EFFECT OF ETHNICITY ON HUMAN AXILLARY ODORANT PRODUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A.; Greene, Kathryn; Varallo, Lauren; Wysocki, Charles J.; Preti, George

    2015-01-01

    Previous findings from our laboratory highlighted marked ethnic differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cerumen among individuals of Caucasian, East Asian, and African-American descent, based, in part, on genetic differences in a gene that codes for a transport protein, which is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter, sub-family C, member 11 (ABCC11). In the current work, we hypothesized that axillary odorants produced by East Asians would differ markedly from those obtained from individuals of European or African descent based on the pattern of ethnic diversity that exists in ABCC11. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we examined differences in axillary odorant VOCs among 30 individuals of African-American, Caucasian, and East Asian descent with respect to their ABCC11 genotype. While no qualitative differences in the type of axillary odorants were observed across ethnic groups, we found that characteristic axillary odorants varied quantitatively with respect to ethnic origin. We propose that ABCC11 is not solely responsible for predicting the relative amounts of volatiles found in axillary secretions and that other biochemical pathways must be involved. PMID:26634572

  2. Chemical Identification of "Maternal Signature Odors" in Rat.

    PubMed

    Sreng, Leam; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Wortham, Henri; Mourre, Christiane

    2016-12-22

    Newborn altricial mammals need just after birth to locate their mother's nipples for suckling. In this precocious behavior, including for the human baby, maternal odor via the olfactory process plays a major role. Maternal odor emitted by lactating females or by amniotic fluid (AF) attracts pups, but the chemical identity of this attractant has not yet been elucidated. Here, using behavioral tests and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques, we show that AF extracts from rat pregnant female, nipples, ventral skin, milk, and nest extracts of mother contained 3-6 active substances. AF extracts contained 3 active compounds: ethylbenzene, benzaldehyde, and benzyl alcohol, and their mixture in similar proportions to those found in AF extracts, in a ratio, respectively, of 1:1:12 (700 ng), attracts pups as putative maternal attractant substances (MAS). These 3 AF substances have already been identified in milk, nipples, ventral wash, and nest extracts of mother, but not in feces. Moreover, anethole flavor incorporated in pregnant rat and mother's diet is also detected in AF, nipples, milk, and nest extracts and the pups are attracted to anethole odor, but not in the case of the no-anethole pups. MAS, combined with diet flavors present in the AF bath, represent olfactory signals as "maternal signature odors" (MSO) that are learned by fetus and pups. These findings open the way to improved understanding of the neurobiology of early olfactory learning and of the importance of evolutionarily conserved survival behavior in many mammal species.

  3. 49 CFR 192.625 - Odorization of gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... activity of a catalyst; or (C) Reduces the percentage completion of a chemical reaction; (3) In the case of... persons, materials, or pipe. (2) The products of combustion from the odorant may not be toxic when breathed nor may they be corrosive or harmful to those materials to which the products of combustion...

  4. 49 CFR 192.625 - Odorization of gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... activity of a catalyst; or (C) Reduces the percentage completion of a chemical reaction; (3) In the case of... persons, materials, or pipe. (2) The products of combustion from the odorant may not be toxic when breathed nor may they be corrosive or harmful to those materials to which the products of combustion...

  5. 49 CFR 192.625 - Odorization of gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... activity of a catalyst; or (C) Reduces the percentage completion of a chemical reaction; (3) In the case of... persons, materials, or pipe. (2) The products of combustion from the odorant may not be toxic when breathed nor may they be corrosive or harmful to those materials to which the products of combustion...

  6. 49 CFR 192.625 - Odorization of gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... activity of a catalyst; or (C) Reduces the percentage completion of a chemical reaction; (3) In the case of... persons, materials, or pipe. (2) The products of combustion from the odorant may not be toxic when breathed nor may they be corrosive or harmful to those materials to which the products of combustion...

  7. Revisiting the limits of language: the odor lexicon of Maniq.

    PubMed

    Wnuk, Ewelina; Majid, Asifa

    2014-04-01

    It is widely believed that human languages cannot encode odors. While this is true for English, and other related languages, data from some non-Western languages challenge this view. Maniq, a language spoken by a small population of nomadic hunter-gatherers in southern Thailand, is such a language. It has a lexicon of over a dozen terms dedicated to smell. We examined the semantics of these smell terms in 3 experiments (exemplar listing, similarity judgment and off-line rating). The exemplar listing task confirmed that Maniq smell terms have complex meanings encoding smell qualities. Analyses of the similarity data revealed that the odor lexicon is coherently structured by two dimensions. The underlying dimensions are pleasantness and dangerousness, as verified by the off-line rating study. Ethnographic data illustrate that smell terms have detailed semantics tapping into broader cultural constructs. Contrary to the widespread view that languages cannot encode odors, the Maniq data show odor can be a coherent semantic domain, thus shedding new light on the limits of language.

  8. Cross-Cultural Administration of an Odor Discrimination Test.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory sensitivity can be evaluated by various tests, with "Sniffin' Sticks" test (SST) being one of the most popular. SST consists of tests for odor threshold, discrimination, and identification. It seems relatively straightforward to administer threshold tests in different groups and societies and it has been shown that odor identification tests requires special adaptation before they can be administered to various populations. However, few studies have investigated the application of an odor discrimination task in various regions/cultures. In the present study, we compared the discrimination scores of 169 Polish people with the scores of 99 Tsimane', Bolivian Amerindians. The Tsimane' participants scored very low in the discrimination task, despite their general high olfactory sensitivity. This result suggests that when a discrimination task is chosen as the form of olfactory testing, some additional variables need to be controlled. We suggest three sources of low scores of our participants-their cognitive profile, the cultural background, i.e., little knowledge of the odors used in the discrimination test and problems associated with testing environment.

  9. Odor mitigation with vegetative buffers: Swine production case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative environmental buffers (VEB) are a potentially low cost sustainable odor mitigation strategy, but there is little to no data supporting their effectiveness. Wind tunnel experiments and field monitoring were used to determine the effect VEB had on wind flow patterns within a swine facility....

  10. 46 CFR 76.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  11. 46 CFR 76.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  12. 46 CFR 76.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  13. 46 CFR 193.15-17 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-17 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide extinguishing system installed or altered after July 9, 2013, must have an approved... carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide...

  14. 46 CFR 193.15-17 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-17 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide extinguishing system installed or altered after July 9, 2013, must have an approved... carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide...

  15. 46 CFR 95.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  16. Transitivity of Odor Preferences: Constant and Particularities in Hedonic Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Gerard; Haaz, Virginie; Jacquot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences has been investigated for a long time in decision-making. In the field of perception, the pleasantness of odors raises several questions related to individual versus cultural or universal preferences and the existence of a classification in a delimited hedonic space. The aim of this study was to test transitivity in…

  17. Body odor quality predicts behavioral attractiveness in humans.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Craig; Kralevich, Alexandra; Ferdenzi, Camille; Saxton, Tamsin K; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Havlicek, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Growing effort is being made to understand how different attractive physical traits co-vary within individuals, partly because this might indicate an underlying index of genetic quality. In humans, attention has focused on potential markers of quality such as facial attractiveness, axillary odor quality, the second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio and body mass index (BMI). Here we extend this approach to include visually-assessed kinesic cues (nonverbal behavior linked to movement) which are statistically independent of structural physical traits. The utility of such kinesic cues in mate assessment is controversial, particularly during everyday conversational contexts, as they could be unreliable and susceptible to deception. However, we show here that the attractiveness of nonverbal behavior, in 20 male participants, is predicted by perceived quality of their axillary body odor. This finding indicates covariation between two desirable traits in different sensory modalities. Depending on two different rating contexts (either a simple attractiveness rating or a rating for long-term partners by 10 female raters not using hormonal contraception), we also found significant relationships between perceived attractiveness of nonverbal behavior and BMI, and between axillary odor ratings and 2D:4D ratio. Axillary odor pleasantness was the single attribute that consistently predicted attractiveness of nonverbal behavior. Our results demonstrate that nonverbal kinesic cues could reliably reveal mate quality, at least in males, and could corroborate and contribute to mate assessment based on other physical traits.

  18. Characteristic component odors emerge from mixtures after selective adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Goyert, Holly F.; Frank, Marion E.; Gent, Janneane F.; Hettinger, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Humans cannot reliably identify the distinctive characteristic odors of components in mixtures containing more than three compounds. In the present study we demonstrate that selective adaptation can improve component identification. Characteristic component odors, lost in mixtures, were identifiable after presenting other mixture constituents for a few seconds. In mixtures of vanillin, isopropyl alcohol, l-menthol and phenethyl alcohol, this rapid selective adaptation unmasked each component. We suggest that these findings relate directly to how olfactory qualities are coded: olfactory receptors do not act as detectors of isolated molecular features, but likely recognize entire molecules closely associated with perceived olfactory qualities or “notes.” Rapid and focused activation of a few distinct receptor types may dominate most odor percepts, emphasizing the importance of many dynamic and specific neural signals. An interaction between two fundamental coding strategies, mixture suppression and selective adaptation, with hundreds of potential olfactory notes, explains humans experiencing the appearance and disappearance of identifiable odors against ambient mixture backgrounds. PMID:17303501

  19. Functional transformations of odor inputs in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Yoav; Livneh, Yoav; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Groysman, Maya; Luo, Liqun; Mizrahi, Adi

    2014-01-01

    Sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium to the olfactory bulb (OB) are organized as a discrete map in the glomerular layer (GL). This map is then modulated by distinct types of local neurons and transmitted to higher brain areas via mitral and tufted cells. Little is known about the functional organization of the circuits downstream of glomeruli. We used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging for large scale functional mapping of distinct neuronal populations in the mouse OB, at single cell resolution. Specifically, we imaged odor responses of mitral cells (MCs), tufted cells (TCs) and glomerular interneurons (GL-INs). Mitral cells population activity was heterogeneous and only mildly correlated with the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) inputs, supporting the view that discrete input maps undergo significant transformations at the output level of the OB. In contrast, population activity profiles of TCs were dense, and highly correlated with the odor inputs in both space and time. Glomerular interneurons were also highly correlated with the ORN inputs, but showed higher activation thresholds suggesting that these neurons are driven by strongly activated glomeruli. Temporally, upon persistent odor exposure, TCs quickly adapted. In contrast, both MCs and GL-INs showed diverse temporal response patterns, suggesting that GL-INs could contribute to the transformations MCs undergo at slow time scales. Our data suggest that sensory odor maps are transformed by TCs and MCs in different ways forming two distinct and parallel information streams. PMID:25408637

  20. Nasal pungency and odor of homologous aldehydes and carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S; Abraham, M H

    1998-01-01

    Airborne substances can stimulate both the olfactory and the trigeminal nerve in the nose, giving rise to odor and pungent (irritant) sensations, respectively. Nose, eye, and throat irritation constitute common adverse effects in indoor environments. We measured odor and nasal pungency thresholds for homologous aliphatic aldehydes (butanal through octanal) and carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, butanoic, hexanoic, and octanoic). Nasal pungency was measured in subjects lacking olfaction (i.e., anosmics) to avoid odor biases. Similar to other homologous series, odor and pungency thresholds declined (i.e., sensory potency increased) with increasing carbon chain length. A previously derived quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) based on solvation energies predicted all nasal pungency thresholds, except for acetic acid, implying that a key step in the mechanism for threshold pungency involves transfer of the inhaled substance from the vapor phase to the receptive biological phase. In contrast, acetic acid - with a pungency threshold lower than predicted - is likely to produce threshold pungency through direct chemical reaction with the mucosa. Both in the series studied here and in those studied previously, we reach a member at longer chain-lengths beyond which pungency fades. The evidence suggests a biological cut-off, presumably based upon molecular size, across the various series.

  1. Key Odorants of Lazur, a Polish Mold-Ripened Cheese.

    PubMed

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Myszka, Kamila; Gracka, Anna; Grygier, Anna; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2017-02-15

    Application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) carried out on the volatile fraction isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and solid phase microextraction (SPME) from Lazur mold-ripened cheese revealed 17 odor-active compounds. The highest flavor dilution factor (FD) has been obtained for methanethiol (2048) with a burnt odor note and for 2(3)-methylbutanoic acid (2048) with a cheesy, pungent odor. Further quantitation of the 15 most aroma-active compounds allowed for calculation of their odor activity values (OAV). The highest OAVs were obtained for methanethiol (500), 3(2)-methylbutanoic acid (321), 3-(methylthio)propanal (210), 2,3-butanedione (65), dimethyl trisulfide (22), butanoic acid (20), 1-octen-3-ol (18), (Z)-4-heptenal (14), dimethyl disulfide (14), dimethyl sulfide (13), phenylacetaldehyde (6), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (5), and acetic acid (4). An aroma recombination experiment showed slight differences in the perception of cheesy/sweaty and moldy/musty notes. To verify the influence of methyl ketones on the aroma profile of mold-ripened cheese, recombinant has been additionally supplemented with 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-nonanone in concentrations determined in Lazur cheese. The aroma profile remained unchanged, which would suggest that methyl ketones, in this particular cheese, do not play a significant role in the formation of aroma.

  2. Field sampling method for quantifying odorants in humid environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most air quality studies in agricultural environments typically use thermal desorption analysis for quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOC) associated with odor. Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) are popular sorbent materials used in these studies. However, there is little information on the effe...

  3. Developing livestock odor reduction system using biochar/hydrochar characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malodorous emissions from livestock operations disrupt quality of life in rural and urban communities. The objective of this study is to characterize various biochars, both made from wet and dry pyrolysis of biomass, in terms of their potential capacity to be used as a sorbent for removing odorous c...

  4. Glomerular Activity Patterns Evoked by Natural Odor Objects in the Rat Olfactory Bulb Are Related to Patterns Evoked by Major Odorant Components

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brett A.; Ong, Joan; Leon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To determine how responses evoked by natural odorant mixtures compare to responses evoked by individual odorant chemicals, we mapped 2-deoxyglucose uptake during exposures to vapors arising from a variety of odor objects that may be important to rodents in the wild. We studied 21 distinct natural odor stimuli ranging from possible food sources such as fruits, vegetables, and meats to environmental odor objects such as grass, herbs, and tree leaves. The natural odor objects evoked robust and surprisingly focal patterns of 2-deoxyglucose uptake involving clusters of neighboring glomeruli, thereby resembling patterns evoked by pure chemicals. Overall, the patterns were significantly related to patterns evoked by monomolecular odorant components that had been studied previously. Object patterns also were significantly related to the molecular features present in the mixture components. Despite these overall relationships, there were individual examples of object patterns that were simpler than might have been predicted given the multiplicity of components present in the vapors. In these cases, the object patterns lacked certain responses evoked by their major odorant mixture components. These data suggest the possibility of mixture response interactions and provide a foundation for understanding the neural coding of natural odor stimuli. PMID:20187145

  5. Rapid Testing of Fresh Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    Cementforenlng, Oslo, 1952). 1.1 Orchard, 0. F., "The Effect of the Vacum Process on Concrete Mix Design ," Symposiwn on Mix Design and Qualify Control...ASTM, Vol 33, Part I (1933), pp 297-307. Orchard, D. F., "The Effect of the Vacuum Process on Concrete Mix Design ," Symposium on Mix Design and... Designed for Use in Determining Constituents of Fresh Concrete," Public floads, Vol 13, No. 9 (1932), p 151. 9 Cook, G. C, "Effect of Time of Haul

  6. Recruits of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis learn food odors from the nest atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, Christian; Jarau, Stefan; Aguilar, Ingrid; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The ability to learn food odors inside the nest and to associate them with food sources in the field is of essential importance for the recruitment of nestmates in social bees. We investigated odor learning by workers within the hive and the influence of these odors on their food choice in the field in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis. During the experiments, recruited bees had to choose between two feeders, one with an odor that was present inside the nest during the recruitment process, and one with an unknown odor. In all experiments with different odor combinations (linalool/phenylacetaldehyde, geraniol/eugenol) a significant majority of bees visited the feeder with the odor they had experienced in their nest ( χ 2-tests; p < 0.05). By contrast, the bees showed no preference for one of two feeders when they were either baited with the same odor (linalool) or contained no odor. Our results clearly show that naïve workers of S. pectoralis can learn the odor of a food source during the recruitment process from the nest atmosphere and that their subsequent food search in the field is influenced by the learned odor.

  7. Hazardous and odorous pollutants released from sewer manholes and stormwater catch basins in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    To learn more about the emission characteristics of odorants released from sewer manholes and stormwater catch basins (SCBs) in an urban environment, we measured the emission concentrations of major odorants including 22 target compounds designated as offensive odorants by the Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE). All of our measurements were made from urban sewer manholes and SCBs in a highly commercialized location in Seoul, Korea. The results of our study were analyzed to identify the major odorants from such sources and to assess their contribution to odor intensity. The malodor strengths at both types of underground sources were considerably higher in the afternoon than in the morning. The assessment of odor intensity (OI) and odor activity value (OAV) confirmed the dominance of key odorants like H2S, CH3SH, and ammonia along with various volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and phenol. The concentration of these major odorants (H2S, CH3SH, and NH3) exceeded the maximum permissible limit given as the odor prevention law in Korea. As such, significantly high levels of odorants released from these underground sources were greatly distinguished from those seen at above ground locations.

  8. Micro-scale fluid and odorant transport to antennules of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Pravin, Swapnil; Mellon, DeForest; Reidenbach, Matthew A

    2012-09-01

    A numerical model was developed to determine advective-diffusive transport of odorant molecules to olfactory appendages of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. We tested the extent of molecule transport to the surfaces of aesthetasc sensilla during an antennule flick and the degree of odorant exchange during subsequent flicks. During the rapid downstroke of a flick, odorant molecules are advected between adjacent aesthetascs, while during the slower return stroke, these odorants are trapped between the sensilla and molecular diffusion occurs over a sufficient time period to transport odorants to aesthetasc surfaces. During subsequent flicks, up to 97.6% of these odorants are replaced with new odorant molecules. The concentration of molecules captured along aesthetasc surfaces was found to increase with increased gap spacing between aesthetascs, flick speed, and distance from the proximal end of the aesthetasc, but these changes in morphology and flicking kinematics reduce the animal's ability to take discrete samples of the odorant-laden fluid environment with each flick. Results suggest that antennule flicking allows discrete sampling of the time- and space-varying odorant signal, and high concentration odorant filaments can be distinguished from more diffuse, low concentration filaments through changes in both the timing and the encounter rate of odorant molecules to aesthetasc surfaces.

  9. Aroma profile of star anise and the structure-odor relationship of anethole.

    PubMed

    Hasegaw, Toshio; Seimiya, Haruna; Fujihara, Takashi; Fujiwara, Noriko; Yamada, Hideo

    2014-02-01

    Star anise is an important fragrance material that has a characteristic anise-like odor. Although the main component of star anise is (E)-anethole, which accounts for over 90% of the constituents, the odor of (E)-anethole is different from that of the material itself. Here, we examined the aroma profile of star anise. GC-MS analysis of star anise extracts showed that it contains many compounds with structures similar to (E)-anethole. Our results indicate that (E)-anethole is the key compound in the odor of star anise, but structurally similar compounds play an important role in creating its odor. We examined the structure-odor relationship of (E)-anethole, focusing on the methoxy and 1-propenyl substituents. Altering the 1-propenyl group changed the odors of all the anethole derivatives. Replacing the methoxy group with a hydrogen atom created compounds with similar fatty odors. This shows that the methoxy group is important for the characteristic odor of anethole. We synthesized anethole derivatives where the methoxy group was replaced with a methyl group. In both methoxy- and methyl-substituted anethole derivatives, altering the 1-propenyl group changed the odors of the derivatives. Therefore, the methoxy and methyl benzene moieties are important structural features for the odor of star anise. The structural characteristics of anethole are closely related to its odor expression.

  10. Odorant reception in insects: roles of receptors, binding proteins, and degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Leal, Walter S

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of the molecular basis of odorant reception in insects has grown exponentially over the past decade. Odorant receptors (ORs) from moths, fruit flies, mosquitoes, and the honey bees have been deorphanized, odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) have been isolated, and the functions of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been unveiled. OBPs contribute to the sensitivity of the olfactory system by transporting odorants through the sensillar lymph, but there are competing hypotheses on how they act at the end of the journey. A few ODEs that have been demonstrated to degrade odorants rapidly may act in signal inactivation alone or in combination with other molecular traps. Although ORs in Drosophila melanogaster respond to multiple odorants and seem to work in combinatorial code involving both periphery and antennal lobes, reception of sex pheromones by moth ORs suggests that their labeled lines rely heavily on selectivity at the periphery.

  11. Odors as cues for orientation to mothers by weanling Virginia opossums

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, D.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate whether whole-body and pouch odors facilitate social cohesion between young Virginia opossums and their mothers just prior to weaning. In experiment 1, young oriented toward plastic buckets containing their mothers, directing significantly higher levels of investigative behavior and more distress vocalizations toward them than toward buckets containing unrelated lactating females. In experiment 2, young oriented toward and investigated empty buckets containing whole-body odors of their mothers more than empty buckets containing odors of other females. Similarly, more investigative behavior was directed toward plastic bucket lids containing pouch odors from subjects mothers than toward pouch odors from unrelated females in experiment 3. These results suggest that social odors help young didelphid marsupials maintain contact with their mothers, as in other mammals, and that whole-body and pouch gland odors are important chemical signals in this nongregarious species.

  12. An olfactory cocktail party: figure-ground segregation of odorants in rodents.

    PubMed

    Rokni, Dan; Hemmelder, Vivian; Kapoor, Vikrant; Murthy, Venkatesh N

    2014-09-01

    In odorant-rich environments, animals must be able to detect specific odorants of interest against variable backgrounds. However, studies have found that both humans and rodents are poor at analyzing the components of odorant mixtures, suggesting that olfaction is a synthetic sense in which mixtures are perceived holistically. We found that mice could be easily trained to detect target odorants embedded in unpredictable and variable mixtures. To relate the behavioral performance to neural representation, we imaged the responses of olfactory bulb glomeruli to individual odors in mice expressing the Ca(2+) indicator GCaMP3 in olfactory receptor neurons. The difficulty of segregating the target from the background depended strongly on the extent of overlap between the glomerular responses to target and background odors. Our study indicates that the olfactory system has powerful analytic abilities that are constrained by the limits of combinatorial neural representation of odorants at the level of the olfactory receptors.

  13. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed.

  14. Insights into the Key Compounds of Durian (Durio zibethinus L. 'Monthong') Pulp Odor by Odorant Quantitation and Aroma Simulation Experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Xiao; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2017-01-25

    Sixteen compounds, previously identified as potent odorants by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis and the gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of static headspace samples, were quantitated in the pulp of durians, variety Monthong, and odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated by dividing the concentrations obtained by the odor thresholds of the compounds in water. In combination with data recently reported for hydrogen sulfide and short-chain alkanethiols, OAVs > 1 were obtained for 19 compounds, among which ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1700000), ethanethiol (rotten onion; OAV 480000), and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol (roasted onion; OAV 250000) were the most potent, followed by methanethiol (rotten, cabbage; OAV 45000), ethane-1,1-dithiol (sulfury, durian; OAV 23000), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity; OAV 22000). Aroma simulation and omission experiments revealed that the overall odor of durian pulp could be mimicked by only two compounds, namely, ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol, when combined in their natural concentrations.

  15. Psychology of Fragrance Use: Perception of Individual Odor and Perfume Blends Reveals a Mechanism for Idiosyncratic Effects on Fragrance Choice

    PubMed Central

    Lenochová, Pavlína; Vohnoutová, Pavla; Roberts, S. Craig; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl; Havlíček, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cross-culturally, fragrances are used to modulate body odor, but the psychology of fragrance choice has been largely overlooked. The prevalent view is that fragrances mask an individual's body odor and improve its pleasantness. In two experiments, we found positive effects of perfume on body odor perception. Importantly, however, this was modulated by significant interactions with individual odor donors. Fragrances thus appear to interact with body odor, creating an individually-specific odor mixture. In a third experiment, the odor mixture of an individual's body odor and their preferred perfume was perceived as more pleasant than a blend of the same body odor with a randomly-allocated perfume, even when there was no difference in pleasantness between the perfumes. This indicates that fragrance use extends beyond simple masking effects and that people choose perfumes that interact well with their own odor. Our results provide an explanation for the highly individual nature of perfume choice. PMID:22470479

  16. Psychology of fragrance use: perception of individual odor and perfume blends reveals a mechanism for idiosyncratic effects on fragrance choice.

    PubMed

    Lenochová, Pavlína; Vohnoutová, Pavla; Roberts, S Craig; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl; Havlíček, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cross-culturally, fragrances are used to modulate body odor, but the psychology of fragrance choice has been largely overlooked. The prevalent view is that fragrances mask an individual's body odor and improve its pleasantness. In two experiments, we found positive effects of perfume on body odor perception. Importantly, however, this was modulated by significant interactions with individual odor donors. Fragrances thus appear to interact with body odor, creating an individually-specific odor mixture. In a third experiment, the odor mixture of an individual's body odor and their preferred perfume was perceived as more pleasant than a blend of the same body odor with a randomly-allocated perfume, even when there was no difference in pleasantness between the perfumes. This indicates that fragrance use extends beyond simple masking effects and that people choose perfumes that interact well with their own odor. Our results provide an explanation for the highly individual nature of perfume choice.

  17. Children's hedonic responses to the odors of alcoholic beverages: a window to emotions.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Forestell, Catherine A

    2008-06-01

    The present study of 145 children and their mothers aimed to determine whether children's responses to the odors of alcoholic beverages were related to their mothers' reasons for drinking. Mothers completed a series of questionnaires to describe the emotional context in which they drink and whether they use alcohol to "escape" by changing their state of mind and reducing feelings of dysphoria. Children participated in two age-appropriate tasks that focused on the most salient psychological attribute of an odor, its perceived hedonic valence. To this aim, we determined children's liking, reaction times, and identification of individual odors including beer and whiskey in Task 1, and their preference for beer relative to odors that differed in hedonic valence in Task 2. The type of task and behavioral measure revealed different aspects of children's responses, to alcohol odors. In Task 1, verbally identifying an odor was a more difficult task than deciding whether they liked the odor. Although there were few group differences in liking for individual odors, children of Escape drinkers took significantly longer to determine whether they liked the odors. In Task 2, children of Escape drinkers preferred beer less often, particularly when it was compared with less pleasant odors. They preferred coffee to beer odors and, if their mothers did not smoke cigarettes, preferred the odors of cigarette smoke and pyridine to beer. These children experienced the odor of alcohol more frequently and in the context of mood disturbed mothers who felt guilty and worried about their drinking. Whether children who associate the odor of alcohol with such emotional contexts display a trajectory toward or against using alcohol to escape remains unknown.

  18. An antennal carboxylesterase from Drosophila melanogaster, esterase 6, is a candidate odorant-degrading enzyme toward food odorants

    PubMed Central

    Chertemps, Thomas; Younus, Faisal; Steiner, Claudia; Durand, Nicolas; Coppin, Chris W.; Pandey, Gunjan; Oakeshott, John G.; Maïbèche, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Reception of odorant molecules within insect olfactory organs involves several sequential steps, including their transport through the sensillar lymph, interaction with the respective sensory receptors, and subsequent inactivation. Odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) putatively play a role in signal dynamics by rapid degradation of odorants in the vicinity of the receptors, but this hypothesis is mainly supported by in vitro results. We have recently shown that an extracellular carboxylesterase, esterase-6 (EST-6), is involved in the physiological and behavioral dynamics of the response of Drosophila melanogaster to its volatile pheromone ester, cis-vaccenyl acetate. However, as the expression pattern of the Est-6 gene in the antennae is not restricted to the pheromone responding sensilla, we tested here if EST-6 could play a broader function in the antennae. We found that recombinant EST-6 is able to efficiently hydrolyse several volatile esters that would be emitted by its natural food in vitro. Electrophysiological comparisons of mutant Est-6 null flies and a control strain (on the same genetic background) showed that the dynamics of the antennal response to these compounds is influenced by EST-6, with the antennae of the null mutants showing prolonged activity in response to them. Antennal responses to the strongest odorant, pentyl acetate, were then studied in more detail, showing that the repolarization dynamics were modified even at low doses but without modification of the detection threshold. Behavioral choice experiments with pentyl acetate also showed differences between genotypes; attraction to this compound was observed at a lower dose among the null than control flies. As EST-6 is able to degrade various bioactive odorants emitted by food and plays a role in the response to these compounds, we hypothesize a role as an ODE for this enzyme toward food volatiles. PMID:26594178

  19. Enhancing safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables using the antimicrobial and aromatic power of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; del-Toro-Sánchez, L

    2009-09-01

    Microbial and aroma attributes are within the most decisive factors limiting safety and sensory appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Alternatively, several plant essential oils (EOs) are constituted of several volatile active compounds and most of them present antimicrobial potential and had different aroma profile. Considering these premises, this hypothesis article states that safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut produce could be improved with EO treatment. EOs could prevent fresh-cut fruit decay; however, their volatile constituents could be sorbed by the produce, and according to the aroma notes of the antimicrobial oil, sensorial appealing of odor, and flavor of the treated produce might be affected positively or negatively. Specifically, garlic oil is a natural antimicrobial constituted by sulfur compounds, which are responsible for its odor and antimicrobial properties. Besides, fresh-cut tomato is a highly perishable product that needs antimicrobial agents to preserve its quality and safety for a longer period of time. From the sensorial point of view, aroma combination of garlic and tomato is a common seasoning practice in Europe and America and well accepted by consumers. Once the right combination of flavors between the EOs and the fresh-cut produce has been selected, safety and quality of the treated fruit could be improved by adding antimicrobial protection and extra aroma. Therefore, other combinations between EOs and fresh-cut produce are discussed. This approximation could reinforce the trends of natural food preservation, accomplishing the demands of the increasing sector of consumers demanding tasty and convenient fresh-cut produce, containing only natural ingredients.

  20. Odor Detection in Manduca sexta Is Optimized when Odor Stimuli Are Pulsed at a Frequency Matching the Wing Beat during Flight

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Kalwar, Faizan; Hatfield, Mandy; Staudacher, Erich; Bradley, Samual P.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems sample the external world actively, within the context of self-motion induced disturbances. Mammals sample olfactory cues within the context of respiratory cycles and have adapted to process olfactory information within the time frame of a single sniff cycle. In plume tracking insects, it remains unknown whether olfactory processing is adapted to wing beating, which causes similar physical effects as sniffing. To explore this we first characterized the physical properties of our odor delivery system using hotwire anemometry and photo ionization detection, which confirmed that odor stimuli were temporally structured. Electroantennograms confirmed that pulse trains were tracked physiologically. Next, we quantified odor detection in moths in a series of psychophysical experiments to determine whether pulsing odor affected acuity. Moths were first conditioned to respond to a target odorant using Pavlovian olfactory conditioning. At 24 and 48 h after conditioning, moths were tested with a dilution series of the conditioned odor. On separate days odor was presented either continuously or as 20 Hz pulse trains to simulate wing beating effects. We varied pulse train duty cycle, olfactometer outflow velocity, pulsing method, and odor. Results of these studies, established that detection was enhanced when odors were pulsed. Higher velocity and briefer pulses also enhanced detection. Post hoc analysis indicated enhanced detection was the result of a significantly lower behavioral response to blank stimuli when presented as pulse trains. Since blank responses are a measure of false positive responses, this suggests that the olfactory system makes fewer errors (i.e. is more reliable) when odors are experienced as pulse trains. We therefore postulate that the olfactory system of Manduca sexta may have evolved mechanisms to enhance odor detection during flight, where the effects of wing beating represent the norm. This system may even exploit temporal structure in

  1. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  2. Evolution of herbivory in Drosophilidae linked to loss of behaviors, antennal responses, odorant receptors, and ancestral diet.

    PubMed

    Goldman-Huertas, Benjamin; Mitchell, Robert F; Lapoint, Richard T; Faucher, Cécile P; Hildebrand, John G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-03-10

    Herbivory is a key innovation in insects, yet has only evolved in one-third of living orders. The evolution of herbivory likely involves major behavioral changes mediated by remodeling of canonical chemosensory modules. Herbivorous flies in the genus Scaptomyza (Drosophilidae) are compelling species in which to study the genomic architecture linked to the transition to herbivory because they recently evolved from microbe-feeding ancestors and are closely related to Drosophila melanogaster. We found that Scaptomyza flava, a leaf-mining specialist on plants in the family (Brassicaceae), was not attracted to yeast volatiles in a four-field olfactometer assay, whereas D. melanogaster was strongly attracted to these volatiles. Yeast-associated volatiles, especially short-chain aliphatic esters, elicited strong antennal responses in D. melanogaster, but weak antennal responses in electroantennographic recordings from S. flava. We sequenced the genome of S. flava and characterized this species' odorant receptor repertoire. Orthologs of odorant receptors, which detect yeast volatiles in D. melanogaster and mediate critical host-choice behavior, were deleted or pseudogenized in the genome of S. flava. These genes were lost step-wise during the evolution of Scaptomyza. Additionally, Scaptomyza has experienced gene duplication and likely positive selection in paralogs of Or67b in D. melanogaster. Olfactory sensory neurons expressing Or67b are sensitive to green-leaf volatiles. Major trophic shifts in insects are associated with chemoreceptor gene loss as recently evolved ecologies shape sensory repertoires.

  3. Microbial quality and safety of fresh-cut broccoli with different sanitizers and contact times.

    PubMed

    Das, Basanta; Kim, Ji Gang

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different sanitizers and contact times on storage quality and microbial growth in fresh-cut broccoli. Fresh broccoli samples were cut into small pieces, washed each for 90 seconds and 180 seconds in normal tap water (TW), 100 microl/l chlorinated water (CL, pH 7), electrolyzed water (EW, pH 7.2) containing 100 microl/l free chlorine or 2 microl/l ozonated water (O(3)) separately and respectively. Then, samples were packaged in 30 microm polyethylene bags and stored at 5 degrees Celsius for 9 days. No significant differences were observed in gas composition and color parameters (L*, a*, b* and hue angle) among different sanitizers with contact times. No off-odor was detected during the storage. Longer contact time was not effective in reducing microbial population except O(3) washing. O(3) with 90 seconds was not much effective in reducing microbial population compared to Cl or EW. However, samples washed with O(3) for 180 seconds observed the lowest numbers of total aerobic and coliform plate counts. The result suggested that, longer contact time of ozone can be used as a potential sanitizer to maintain the microbial quality and safety of fresh-cut broccoli.

  4. Organic compounds in office environments - sensory irritation, odor, measurements and the role of reactive chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, P; Wilkins, C K; Clausen, P A; Nielsen, G D

    2006-02-01

    Abstract Sensory irritation and odor effects of organic compounds in indoor environments are reviewed. It is proposed to subdivide volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into four categories: (i) chemically non-reactive, (ii) chemically 'reactive', (iii) biologically reactive (i.e. form chemical bonds to receptor sites in mucous membranes) and (iv) toxic compounds. Chemically non-reactive VOCs are considered non-irritants at typical indoor air levels. However, compounds with low odor thresholds contribute to the overall perception of the indoor air quality. Reported sensory irritation may be the result of odor annoyance. It appears that odor thresholds for many VOCs probably are considerably lower than previously reported. This explains why many building materials persistently are perceived as odorous, although the concentrations of the detected organic compounds are close to or below their reported odor thresholds. Ozone reacts with certain alkenes to form a gas and aerosol phase of oxidation products, some of which are sensory irritants. However, all of the sensory irritating species have not yet been identified and whether the secondary aerosols (ultrafine and fine particles) contribute to sensory irritation requires investigation. Low relative humidity may exacerbate the sensory irritation impact. Practical Implications Certain odors, in addition to odor annoyance, may result in psychological effects and distraction from work. Some building materials continually cause perceivable odors, because the odor thresholds of the emitted compounds are low. Some oxidation products of alkenes (e.g. terpenes) may contribute to eye and airway symptoms under certain conditions and low relative humidity.

  5. The Odor Context Facilitates the Perception of Low-Intensity Facial Expressions of Emotion.

    PubMed

    Leleu, Arnaud; Demily, Caroline; Franck, Nicolas; Durand, Karine; Schaal, Benoist; Baudouin, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that the recognition of facial expressions integrates contextual information. In this study, we aimed to clarify the influence of contextual odors. The participants were asked to match a target face varying in expression intensity with non-ambiguous expressive faces. Intensity variations in the target faces were designed by morphing expressive faces with neutral faces. In addition, the influence of verbal information was assessed by providing half the participants with the emotion names. Odor cues were manipulated by placing participants in a pleasant (strawberry), aversive (butyric acid), or no-odor control context. The results showed two main effects of the odor context. First, the minimum amount of visual information required to perceive an expression was lowered when the odor context was emotionally congruent: happiness was correctly perceived at lower intensities in the faces displayed in the pleasant odor context, and the same phenomenon occurred for disgust and anger in the aversive odor context. Second, the odor context influenced the false perception of expressions that were not used in target faces, with distinct patterns according to the presence of emotion names. When emotion names were provided, the aversive odor context decreased intrusions for disgust ambiguous faces but increased them for anger. When the emotion names were not provided, this effect did not occur and the pleasant odor context elicited an overall increase in intrusions for negative expressions. We conclude that olfaction plays a role in the way facial expressions are perceived in interaction with other contextual influences such as verbal information.

  6. Structure-odor relationships of linalool, linalyl acetate and their corresponding oxygenated derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsharif, Shaimaa; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Linalool 1 is an odorant that is commonly perceived as having a pleasant odor, but is also known to elicit physiological effects such as inducing calmness and enhancing sleep. However, no comprehensive studies are at hand to show which structural features are responsible for these prominent effects. Therefore, a total of six oxygenated derivatives were synthesized from both 1 and linalyl acetate 2, and were tested for their odor qualities and relative odor thresholds (OTs) in air. Linalool was found to be the most potent odorant among the investigated compounds, with an average OT of 3.2 ng/L, while the 8-hydroxylinalool derivative was the least odorous compound with an OT of 160 ng/L; 8-carboxylinalool was found to be odorless. The odorant 8-oxolinalyl acetate, which has very similar odor properties to linalool, was the most potent odorant besides linalool, exhibiting an OT of 5.9 ng/L. By comparison, 8-carboxylinalyl acetate had a similar OT (6.1 ng/L) as its corresponding 8-oxo derivative but exhibited divergent odor properties (fatty, greasy, musty). Overall, oxygenation on carbon 8 had a substantial effect on the aroma profiles of structural derivatives of linalool and linalyl acetate.

  7. Distributed representation of social odors indicates parallel processing in the antennal lobe of ants.

    PubMed

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2011-11-01

    In colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera cooperation is organized through social odors, and particularly ants rely on a sophisticated odor communication system. Neuronal information about odors is represented in spatial activity patterns in the primary olfactory neuropile of the insect brain, the antennal lobe (AL), which is analog to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. The olfactory system is characterized by neuroanatomical compartmentalization, yet the functional significance of this organization is unclear. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we investigated the neuronal representation of multicomponent colony odors, which the ants assess to discriminate friends (nestmates) from foes (nonnestmates). In the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, colony odors elicited spatial activity patterns distributed across different AL compartments. Activity patterns in response to nestmate and nonnestmate colony odors were overlapping. This was expected since both consist of the same components at differing ratios. Colony odors change over time and the nervous system has to constantly adjust for this (template reformation). Measured activity patterns were variable, and variability was higher in response to repeated nestmate than to repeated nonnestmate colony odor stimulation. Variable activity patterns may indicate neuronal plasticity within the olfactory system, which is necessary for template reformation. Our results indicate that information about colony odors is processed in parallel in different neuroanatomical compartments, using the computational power of the whole AL network. Parallel processing might be advantageous, allowing reliable discrimination of highly complex social odors.

  8. Pavlovian conditioning enhances resistance to disruption of dogs performing an odor discrimination.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Smith, David W; Wynne, Clive D L

    2015-05-01

    Domestic dogs are used to aid in the detection of a variety of substances such as narcotics and explosives. Under real-world detection situations there are many variables that may disrupt the dog's performance. Prior research on behavioral momentum theory suggests that higher rates of reinforcement produce greater resistance to disruption, and that this is heavily influenced by the stimulus-reinforcer relationship. The present study tests the Pavlovian interpretation of resistance to change using dogs engaged in an odor discrimination task. Dogs were trained on two odor discriminations that alternated every six trials akin to a multiple schedule in which the reinforcement probability for a correct response was always 1. Dogs then received several sessions of either odor Pavlovian conditioning to the S+ of one odor discrimination (Pavlovian group) or explicitly unpaired exposure to the S+ of one odor discrimination (Unpaired group). The remaining odor discrimination pair for each dog always remained an unexposed control. Resistance to disruption was assessed under presession feeding, a food-odor disruptor condition, and extinction, with baseline sessions intervening between disruption conditions. Equivalent baseline detection rates were observed across experimental groups and odorant pairs. Under disruption conditions, Pavlovian conditioning led to enhanced resistance to disruption of detection performance compared to the unexposed control odor discrimination. Unpaired odor conditioning did not influence resistance to disruption. These results suggest that changes in Pavlovian contingencies are sufficient to influence resistance to change.

  9. Structure-odor relationships of linalool, linalyl acetate and their corresponding oxygenated derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Elsharif, Shaimaa A.; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Linalool 1 is an odorant that is commonly perceived as having a pleasant odor, but is also known to elicit physiological effects such as inducing calmness and enhancing sleep. However, no comprehensive studies are at hand to show which structural features are responsible for these prominent effects. Therefore, a total of six oxygenated derivatives were synthesized from both 1 and linalyl acetate 2, and were tested for their odor qualities and relative odor thresholds (OTs) in air. Linalool was found to be the most potent odorant among the investigated compounds, with an average OT of 3.2 ng/L, while the 8-hydroxylinalool derivative was the least odorous compound with an OT of 160 ng/L; 8-carboxylinalool was found to be odorless. The odorant 8-oxolinalyl acetate, which has very similar odor properties to linalool, was the most potent odorant besides linalool, exhibiting an OT of 5.9 ng/L. By comparison, 8-carboxylinalyl acetate had a similar OT (6.1 ng/L) as its corresponding 8-oxo derivative but exhibited divergent odor properties (fatty, greasy, musty). Overall, oxygenation on carbon 8 had a substantial effect on the aroma profiles of structural derivatives of linalool and linalyl acetate. PMID:26501053

  10. Dense encoding of natural odorants by ensembles of sparsely activated neurons in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Gschwend, Olivier; Beroud, Jonathan; Vincis, Roberto; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Sensory information undergoes substantial transformation along sensory pathways, usually encompassing sparsening of activity. In the olfactory bulb, though natural odorants evoke dense glomerular input maps, mitral and tufted (M/T) cells tuning is considered to be sparse because of highly odor-specific firing rate change. However, experiments used to draw this conclusion were either based on recordings performed in anesthetized preparations or used monomolecular odorants presented at arbitrary concentrations. In this study, we evaluated the lifetime and population sparseness evoked by natural odorants by capturing spike temporal patterning of neuronal assemblies instead of individual M/T tonic activity. Using functional imaging and tetrode recordings in awake mice, we show that natural odorants at their native concentrations are encoded by broad assemblies of M/T cells. While reducing odorant concentrations, we observed a reduced number of activated glomeruli representations and consequently a narrowing of M/T tuning curves. We conclude that natural odorants at their native concentrations recruit M/T cells with phasic rather than tonic activity. When encoding odorants in assemblies, M/T cells carry information about a vast number of odorants (lifetime sparseness). In addition, each natural odorant activates a broad M/T cell assembly (population sparseness). PMID:27824096

  11. Imaging evolutionarily conserved neural networks: preferential activation of the olfactory system by food-related odor.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Praveen; Stolberg, Tara; Sullivanjr, J M; Ferris, Craig F

    2012-04-21

    Rodents routinely forge and rely on hippocampal-dependent spatial memory to guide them to sources of caloric rich food in their environment. Has evolution affected the olfactory system and its connections to the hippocampus and limbic cortex, so rodents have an innate sensitivity to energy rich food and their location? To test this notion, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake rats to observe changes in brain activity in response to four odors: benzaldehyde (almond odor), isoamyl acetate (banana odor), methyl benzoate (rosy odor), and limonene (citrus odor). We chose the almond odor because nuts are high in calories and would be expected to convey greater valance as compared to the other odors. Moreover, the standard food chow is devoid of nuts, so laboratory bred rats would not have any previous exposure to this food. Activation maps derived from computational analysis using a 3D segmented rat MRI atlas were dramatically different between odors. Animals exposed to banana, rosy and citrus odors showed modest activation of the primary olfactory system, hippocampus and limbic cortex. However, animals exposed to almond showed a robust increase in brain activity in the primary olfactory system particularly the main olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus and tenia tecta. The most significant difference in brain activation between odors was observed in the hippocampus and limbic cortex. These findings show that fMRI can be used to identify neural circuits that have an innate sensitivity to environmental stimuli that may help in an animal's survival.

  12. Fancy Citrus, Feel Good: Positive Judgment of Citrus Odor, but Not the Odor Itself, Is Associated with Elevated Mood during Experienced Helplessness

    PubMed Central

    Hoenen, Matthias; Müller, Katharina; Pause, Bettina M.; Lübke, Katrin T.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatherapy claims that citrus essential oils exert mood lifting effects. Controlled studies, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Notably, studies so far did not control for odor pleasantness, although pleasantness is a critical determinant of emotional responses to odors. This study investigates mood lifting effects of d-(+)-limonene, the most prominent substance in citrus essential oils, with respect to odor quality judgments. Negative mood was induced within 78 participants using a helplessness paradigm (unsolvable social discrimination task). During this task, participants were continuously (mean duration: 19.5 min) exposed to d-(+)-limonene (n = 25), vanillin (n = 26), or diethyl phthalate (n = 27). Participants described their mood (Self-Assessment-Manikin, basic emotion ratings) and judged the odors’ quality (intensity, pleasantness, unpleasantness, familiarity) prior to and following the helplessness induction. The participants were in a less positive mood after the helplessness induction (p < 0.001), irrespective of the odor condition. Still, the more pleasant the participants judged the odors, the less effective the helplessness induction was in reducing happiness (p = 0.019). The results show no odor specific mood lifting effect of d-(+)-limonene, but indicate a positive effect of odor pleasantness on mood. The study highlights the necessity to evaluate odor judgments in aromatherapy research. PMID:26869973

  13. A Determinant of Odorant Specificity Is Located at the Extracellular Loop 2-Transmembrane Domain 4 Interface of an Anopheles gambiae Odorant Receptor Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, David T.; Wang, Guirong; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the structural basis for odorant specificity in odorant receptors of the human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, odorant-binding subunits (Agam\\Ors) expressed in Xenopus oocytes in combination with Agam\\Orco (coreceptor subunit) were assayed by 2-electrode voltage clamp against 25 structurally related odorants. Agam\\Or13 and Agam\\Or15 display 82% amino acid identity and had similar, but somewhat distinct odorant response profiles. The ratio of acetophenone to 4-methylphenol responses was used in a mutation-based analysis of Agam\\Or15, interchanging 37 disparate residues between Agam\\Or15 and Agam\\Or13. Eleven mutations caused significant changes in odorant responsiveness. Mutation of alanine 195 resulted in the largest shift in response ratio from Agam\\Or15 toward Agam\\Or13. Concentration–response analysis for a series of mutations of residue 195 revealed a large effect on acetophenone sensitivity, with EC50 values varying by >1800-fold and correlating with residue side chain length. Similar results were obtained for propiophenone and benzaldehyde. But, for other odorants, such as 4-methylphenol, 4-methylbenzaldehyde, and 4-methylpropiophenone, the effect of mutation was much smaller (EC50 values varied by ≤16-fold). These results show that alanine 195, putatively located at the second extracellular loop/fourth transmembrane domain interface, plays a critical role in determining the odorant response specificity of Agam\\Or15. PMID:25270378

  14. A determinant of odorant specificity is located at the extracellular loop 2-transmembrane domain 4 interface of an Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor subunit.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David T; Wang, Guirong; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Luetje, Charles W

    2014-11-01

    To explore the structural basis for odorant specificity in odorant receptors of the human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, odorant-binding subunits (Agam\\Ors) expressed in Xenopus oocytes in combination with Agam\\Orco (coreceptor subunit) were assayed by 2-electrode voltage clamp against 25 structurally related odorants. Agam\\Or13 and Agam\\Or15 display 82% amino acid identity and had similar, but somewhat distinct odorant response profiles. The ratio of acetophenone to 4-methylphenol responses was used in a mutation-based analysis of Agam\\Or15, interchanging 37 disparate residues between Agam\\Or15 and Agam\\Or13. Eleven mutations caused significant changes in odorant responsiveness. Mutation of alanine 195 resulted in the largest shift in response ratio from Agam\\Or15 toward Agam\\Or13. Concentration-response analysis for a series of mutations of residue 195 revealed a large effect on acetophenone sensitivity, with EC50 values varying by >1800-fold and correlating with residue side chain length. Similar results were obtained for propiophenone and benzaldehyde. But, for other odorants, such as 4-methylphenol, 4-methylbenzaldehyde, and 4-methylpropiophenone, the effect of mutation was much smaller (EC50 values varied by ≤16-fold). These results show that alanine 195, putatively located at the second extracellular loop/fourth transmembrane domain interface, plays a critical role in determining the odorant response specificity of Agam\\Or15.

  15. Newborn Rabbit Perception of 6-Odorant Mixtures Depends on Configural Processing and Number of Familiar Elements

    PubMed Central

    Romagny, Sébastien; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Perception of odors, i.e. usually of mixtures of odorants, is elemental (the odorants' odor qualities are perceived in the mixture) or configural (the odor quality of the mixture differs from the one of each odorant). In human adults, the Red Cordial (RC) mixture is a configurally-processed, 6-odorant mixture. It evokes a red cordial odor quality while none of the elements carries that odor. Interestingly, in newborn rabbits, the same RC mixture is weak configurally perceived: the newborns behaviorally respond to all the elements after conditioning to the whole mixture, but not to the mixture after conditioning to a single element. Thus, they perceive in the RC mixture both the odor quality of the RC configuration and the quality of each element. Here, we aimed to determine whether this perception is modulated by quantitative (number of elements) and/or qualitative bits of information (nature of elements) previously learned by the animals. Newborns were conditioned to RC sub-mixtures of different complexity and composition before behavioral testing to RC. Pups generalized their sucking-related response to RC after learning at least 4 odorants. In contrast, after conditioning to sub-mixtures of another 6-odorant mixture, the elementally perceived MV mixture, pups responded to MV after learning one or two odorants. The different generalization to RC and MV mixtures after learning some of their elements is discussed according to three hypotheses: i) the configural perception of RC sub-mixtures, ii) the ratio of familiar/unfamiliar individual information elementally and configurally perceived, iii) the perception of RC becoming purely elemental. The results allow the first hypothesis to be dismissed, while further experiments are required to distinguish between the remaining two. PMID:25248149

  16. Effects of green manures on growth, yield and quality of green okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Kaewsit, S

    2007-04-01

    This green manure experiment with the use of okra crop as indicator plant was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand during May to September 2005 to investigate four types of green manure legume crops on growth, yield and quality of edible fresh pods of okra crop when grown on Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The four types of green manure plants include Jack bean, Cowpea, Green gram, and Giant sensitive plant. The experiment consisted of five treatments, i.e., T1 (Control), T2 (Jack bean), T3 (Cowpea), T4 (Green gram) and T5 (Giant sensitive plant). The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults) contained some considerable mean values of organic matter (1.64-1.66%) but soil available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were relatively low, particularly potassium. Green manures of the four legume plants slightly improved soil property of the Roi-Et soil series (tested at the end of the experimental period). The most effective green manure on stem diameter, bushy diameter, leaf numbers plant(-1) and leaf area of the fifth leaf of the okra plants, in most cases, was found with Jack bean and Cowpea ranked the second. However, in most cases, Cowpea gave a similar effect as that of Green gram and Giant sensitive plant. Pod length and weight pod(-1), pod diameter and edible fresh pod yields (5941.86 kg ha(-1)) were highest with Jack bean green manure treatment (T2), whilst the rest, in most cases, were similar. Green manure treatments gave highly significant effect on total soluble solids of pods over the control treatment, whilst total acidity, fibre and pectin contents were unaffected by green manure treatments. Green manure of Jack bean was the best legume crop for green manure to be used in improving soil fertility, particularly for Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults).

  17. Imaging Odor-Evoked Activities in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb using Optical Reflectance and Autofluorescence Signals

    PubMed Central

    Chery, Romain; L'Heureux, Barbara; Bendahmane, Mounir; Renaud, Rémi; Martin, Claire; Pain, Frédéric; Gurden, Hirac

    2011-01-01

    In the brain, sensory stimulation activates distributed populations of neurons among functional modules which participate to the coding of the stimulus. Functional optical imaging techniques are advantageous to visualize the activation of these modules in sensory cortices with high spatial resolution. In this context, endogenous optical signals that arise from molecular mechanisms linked to neuroenergetics are valuable sources of contrast to record spatial maps of sensory stimuli over wide fields in the rodent brain. Here, we present two techniques based on changes of endogenous optical properties of the brain tissue during activation. First the intrinsic optical signals (IOS) are produced by a local alteration in red light reflectance due to: (i) absorption by changes in blood oxygenation level and blood volume (ii) photon scattering. The use of in vivo IOS to record spatial maps started in the mid 1980's with the observation of optical maps of whisker barrels in the rat and the orientation columns in the cat visual cortex1. IOS imaging of the surface of the rodent main olfactory bulb (OB) in response to odorants was later demonstrated by Larry Katz's group2. The second approach relies on flavoprotein autofluorescence signals (FAS) due to changes in the redox state of these mitochondrial metabolic intermediates. More precisely, the technique is based on the green fluorescence due to oxidized state of flavoproteins when the tissue is excited with blue light. Although such signals were probably among the first fluorescent molecules recorded for the study of brain activity by the pioneer studies of Britton Chances and colleagues3, it was not until recently that they have been used for mapping of brain activation in vivo. FAS imaging was first applied to the somatosensory cortex in rodents in response to hindpaw stimulation by Katsuei Shibuki's group4. The olfactory system is of central importance for the survival of the vast majority of living species because it

  18. Three Fresh Exposures, Stretched Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been processed using a technique known as a decorrelation stretch to exaggerate the colors. The area in the image includes three holes created inside 'Endurance Crater' by Opportunity's rock abrasion tool between sols 143 and 148 (June 18 and June 23, 2004). Because color variations are so subtle in the pictured area, stretched images are useful for discriminating color differences that can alert scientists to compositional and textural variations. For example, without the exaggeration, no color difference would be discernable among the tailings left behind after the grinding of these holes, but in this stretched image, the tailings around 'London' (top) appear more red than those of the other holes ('Virginia,' middle, and 'Cobble Hill,' bottom). Scientists believe that is because the rock abrasion tool sliced through two 'blueberries,' or spherules (visible on the upper left and upper right sides of the circle). When the blades break up these spherules, composed of mostly gray hematite, the result is a bright red powder. In this image, you can see the rock layers that made the team want to grind holes in each identified layer. The top layer is yellowish red, the middle is yellowish green and the lower layer is green. Another advantage to viewing this stretched image is the clear detail of the distribution of the rock abrasion tool tailings (heading down-slope) and the differences in rock texture. This image was created using the 753-, 535- and 432-nanometer filters.

  19. Evaluation of γ-radiation on oolong tea odor volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanaro, G. B.; Duarte, R. C.; Santillo, A. G.; Pinto e Silva, M. E. M.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on odor volatiles in oolong tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The irradiation has a large influence on oolong tea odor profile, once it was identified 40% of new compounds after this process, the 5 kGy and 20 kGy were the doses that degraded more volatiles found naturally in this kind of tea and the dose of 10 kGy was the dose that formed more new compounds. Statistical difference was found between the 5 kGy and 15 kGy volatile profiles, however the sensorial analysis showed that the irradiation at dose up 20 kGy did not interfere on consumer perception.

  20. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398