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Sample records for fresh green odor

  1. Composition of key offensive odorants released from fresh food materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    A refrigerator loaded with a variety of foods without sealed packaging can create quite an olfactory nuisance, and it may come as a surprise that fresh foods emit unpleasant odorants just as those that are decaying. To learn more about nuisance sources in our daily lives, we measured a list of 22 compounds designated as the key offensive odorants (e.g., reduced sulfur, nitrogenous, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and carbonyls) from nine types of common food items consumed in S. Korea: raw beef, raw fish, spam, yolks and albumin of boiled eggs (analyzed separately), milk, cheese, onions, and strawberries. The odor intensity (OI) of each food item was computed initially with the aid of previously used empirical equations. This indicates that the malodor properties of target foods tend to be governed by a few key odorants such as VFA, S, and N compounds. The extent of odorant mixing of a given food was then evaluated by exploring the correlation between the human olfaction (e.g., dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio) and the odor potential determined indirectly (instrumentally) such as odor activity value (OAV) or sum of odor intensity (SOI). The overall results of our study confirm the existence of malodorant compounds released from common food items and their contribution to their odor characteristics to a certain degree.

  2. Evaluation of Food Freshness and Locality by Odor Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Takayuki; Shimada, Koji; Kamimura, Hironobu; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food freshness and locality can be classified using a food evaluation system consisting four SnO2-semiconductor gas sensors and a solid phase column, into which collecting aroma materials. The temperature of sensors was periodically changed to be in unsteady state and thus, the sensor information was increased. The parameters (in quefrency band) were extracted from sensor information using cepstrum analysis that enable to separate superimposed information on sinusoidal wave. The quefrency was used as parameters for principal component and discriminant analyses (PCA and DCA) to detect food freshness and food localities. We used three kinds of strawberries, people can perceive its odors, passed from one to three days after harvest, and kelps and Ceylon tea, people are hardly to perceive its odor, corrected from five areas as sample. Then, the deterioration of strawberries and localities of kelps and Ceylon teas were visually evaluated using the numerical analyses. While the deteriorations were classified using PCA or DCA, the localities were classified only by DCA. The findings indicate that, although odorant intensity influenced the method detecting food quality, the quefrency obtained from odorant information using cepstrum analysis were available to detect the difference in the freshness and the localities of foods.

  3. Analysis of Key Odorants in Roasted Green Tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Sawai, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in roasted green tea. The aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 25 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of ≥ 16. We identified 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine as the most important odorant in roasted green tea with the highest flavor dilution factor of 4096. In addition, tetramethylpyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5- methylpyrazine were also detected as potent odorants with the high flavor dilution factors. These three alkylpyrazines would be key contributors to aroma of roasted green tea.

  4. Evaluation of γ-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanaro, G. B.; Duarte, R. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  5. Odor-active constituents in fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) by quantitative and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tokitomo, Yukiko; Steinhaus, Martin; Büttner, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-01

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate prepared from fresh pineapple using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), 29 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2 to 4,096. Quantitative measurements performed by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) and a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) of 12 selected odorants revealed the following compounds as key odorants in fresh pineapple flavor: 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDF; sweet, pineapple-like, caramel-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity) followed by methyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity, apple-like) and 1-(E,Z)-3,5-undecatriene (fresh, pineapple-like). A mixture of these 12 odorants in concentrations equal to those in the fresh pineapple resulted in an odor profile similar to that of the fresh juice. Furthermore, the results of omission tests using the model mixture showed that HDF and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate are character impact odorants in fresh pineapple.

  6. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

  7. Identification of Key Odorants in Withering-Flavored Green Tea by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in withering-flavored green tea. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of green tea and withering-flavored green tea revealed 25 and 35 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of≥4, respectively. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione were key odorants in green tea with the flavor dilution factor of≥16. As well as these 5 odorants, 1-octen-3-one, β-damascenone, geraniol, β-ionone, (Z)-methyljasmonate, indole and coumarine contributed to the withering flavor of green tea.

  8. Chemical and sensorial aroma characterization of freshly distilled Calvados. 1. Evaluation of quality and defects on the basis of key odorants by olfactometry and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Hugues; Lemesle, Stéphane; Ledauphin, Jérôme; Barillier, Daniel; Picoche, Bernard

    2003-01-15

    Eight freshly distilled samples of Calvados, a fermented and distilled apple juice, were analyzed by sensory evaluation and direct injection GC to determine the composition of higher alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. The composition determined by direct injection was tentatively related to sensory descriptors. Esters have a probable maximum level around 500 g/hl of pure alcohol (PA). This level also corresponds to the threshold of the main ester constituent, ethyl acetate. A high ratio of esters to ethyl acetate seems to be of prime importance for good quality. Total aldehydes, with a maximum level between 8 and 11 g/hl of PA and mainly comprising acetal (maximum between 5 and 9 g/hl of PA), were related to a "green" descriptor. Higher alcohols do not have a direct impact on quality, but other volatile compounds with a positive impact on flavor should probably be present at a high level. As overall quality was not well related to sensory quality, it was necessary to perform more a precise analysis to determine the key odorants. The Calvados samples were thus extracted using pentane. Gas chromatography, employing both a flame ionization detector and an olfactometry port, was used to analyze the obtained extracts. Seventy-one odors were detected and distributed according to Calvados quality determined by sensory evaluation. Nineteen odors common to all Calvados samples constituted the "skeleton" of the aroma. Twenty-eight odors were specific to a quality class: 6 for good quality, 4 for neutral, and 18 for defective. Twenty-four other odors had either too low an odor impact or no evident specificity.

  9. Identification of potent odorants in Japanese green tea (Sen-cha).

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, K; Masuda, H

    1999-12-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction of a Japanese green tea (Sen-cha) sample resulted in the detection of 36 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 10 and 5000. Thirty-six potent odorants were identified from 36 odor-active peaks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and/or the multidimensional GC/MS (MDGC/MS) system. Among these components, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-2-butanethiol (meaty), (Z)-1, 5-octadien-3-one (metallic), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (meaty), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (fatty), beta-damascone (honey-like), beta-damascenone (honey-like), (Z)-methyl jasmonate (floral), and indole (animal-like) showed the highest FD factors. Therefore, these odorants were the most important components of the Japanese green tea odor. In addition, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-2-butanethiol, 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone, methional, 2-ethyl-3, 5-dimethylpyrazine, (Z)-4-decenal, beta-damascone, maltol, 5-octanolide, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, and 2-aminoacetophenone were newly identified compounds in the green tea.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Fragrance and Odorants Released from Fresh and Decaying Strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E.; Parker, David

    2013-01-01

    The classes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) released from fresh and decaying strawberries were investigated and compared. In this study, a total of 147 strawberry volatiles were quantified before and after nine days of storage to explore differences in the aroma profile between fresh strawberries (storage days (SRD) of 0, 1, and 3) and those that had started to decay (SRD = 6 and 9). In terms of concentration, seven compounds dominated the aroma profile of fresh strawberries (relative composition (RC) up to 97.4% by mass, sum concentration): (1) ethyl acetate = 518 mg·m−3, (2) methyl acetate = 239 mg·m−3, (3) ethyl butyrate = 13.5 mg·m−3, (4) methyl butyrate = 11.1 mg·m−3, (5) acetaldehyde = 24.9 mg·m−3, (6) acetic acid = 15.2 mg·m−3, and (7) acetone = 13.9 mg·m−3. In contrast, two alcohols dominated the aroma profile of decayed samples (RC up to 98.6%): (1) ethyl alcohol = 94.2 mg·m−3 and (2) isobutyl alcohol = 289 mg·m−3. Alternatively; if the aroma profiles are re-evaluated by summing odor activity values (ΣOAV); four ester compounds ((1) ethyl butyrate (6,160); (2) ethyl hexanoate (3,608); (3) ethyl isovalerate (1,592); and (4) ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (942)) were identified as the key constituents of fresh strawberry aroma (SRD-0). As the strawberries began to decay; isobutyl alcohol recorded the maximum OAV of 114 (relative proportion (RP) (SRD = 6) = 58.3%). However, as the decay process continued, the total OAV dropped further by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude—decreasing to 196 on SRD = 6 to 7.37 on SRD = 9. The overall results of this study confirm dramatic changes in the aroma profile of strawberries over time, especially with the onset of decay. PMID:23787728

  11. Identification of potent odorants in different green tea varieties using flavor dilution technique.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Kenji; Masuda, Hideki

    2002-09-25

    Two kinds of pan-fired green teas (Japanese Kamairi-cha and Chinese Longing tea) were compared with the common Japanese green tea (Sen-cha). Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) using the volatile fraction of the Sen-cha, Kamairi-cha and Longing tea infusions revealed 32, 51, and 52 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution factors between 16 and 1024, respectively. (Z)-1,5-Octadien-3-one (metallic, geranium-like), 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (meaty, black currant-like), methional (potato-like), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber-like), and 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione (green, fruity, hay-like) showed high flavor dilution factors in all varieties. In addition, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (nutty), 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (nutty), and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline (popcorn-like) belonged to the most potent odorants only in the pan-fired green teas. Among these odorants, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline were identified for the first time among the tea volatiles.

  12. Identification of potent odorants in Chinese jasmine green tea scented with flowers of Jasminum sambac.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuriko; Sugimoto, Akio; Kakuda, Takami; Kubota, Kikue

    2002-08-14

    The odorants in Chinese jasmine green tea scented with jasmine flowers (Jasminum sambac) were separated from the infusion by adsorption to Porapak Q resin. Among the 66 compounds identified by GC and GC/MS, linalool (floral), methyl anthranilate (grape-like), 4-hexanolide (sweet), 4-nonanolide (sweet), (E)-2-hexenyl hexanoate (green), and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (sweet) were extracted as potent odorants by an aroma extract dilution analysis and sensory analysis. The enantiomeric ratios of linalool in jasmine tea and Jasminum sambac were determined by a chiral analysis for the first time in this study: 81.6% ee and 100% ee for the (R)-(-)-configuration, respectively. The jasmine tea flavor could be closely duplicated by a model mixture containing these six compounds on the basis of a sensory analysis. The omission of methyl anthranilate and the replacement of (R)-(-)-linalool by (S)-(+)-linalool led to great changes in the odor of the model. These two compounds were determined to be the key odorants of the jasmine tea flavor.

  13. Radical scavenging conserves from unused fresh green tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Borse, B B; Kumar, H Vijay; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2007-03-01

    Green teas were made by inactivating the enzymes present in fresh leaves of coarse/pruned (unused) and normal (used for tea) grades using different sources of thermal energies. Green teas were extracted in a Soxhlet using different solvents. The obtained miscella was subjected to concentration to give the extract. The extract was subjected to solvent-solvent extraction. Solvent extract was concentrated to obtain conserve. The yields of conserves are 17 +/- 0.8 and 15 +/- 0.8% from green teas of normal and coarse tea leaves, respectively. The radical scavenging activity of these extracts was evaluated using a DPPH in vitro model system. The total polyphenol content was also determined and found to be higher in conserves from normal tea leaves. However, radical scavenging activity of conserves from coarse and normal green tea leaves was found to be >90% at 15 ppm concentration. The HPLC profiles of these conserves were used to quantify the total catechin content with the help of calibration curves prepared using authentic samples at known concentrations. The total catechin content is found to be in the range of 55-85%. Results indicated that the extracts from coarse leaves also possess potential biological activity and could be used as nutraceuticals as well as for preservation purposes in food formulations.

  14. Changes in the concentrations of acrylamide, selected odorants, and catechins caused by roasting of green tea.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Sawai, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    2008-03-26

    This research aims to optimize roasted green tea (Houjicha) processing by using roasting treatments to achieve acrylamide mitigation without compromising the quality. 2-Ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine were identified as potent odorants by aroma extract dilution analysis. In preliminary sensory experiments, the desirable Houjicha flavor was produced in products roasted at 160 degrees C for 30 min and at 180 degrees C for 15 min. Under these conditions, potent odorants were formed at levels adequate for contributing to the Houjicha flavor. Acrylamide amounts in tea infusions were 2.0 and 4.0 microg/L by roasting at 160 degrees C for 30 min and at 180 degrees C for 15 min, respectively. Compared to roasting at 180 degrees C, the degradation of tea catechins was suppressed by roasting at 160 degrees C. Hence, roasting at 160 degrees C for is recommended for Houjicha processing for acrylamide mitigation, formation of potent odorants, and suppression of degradation of tea catechins.

  15. What is a fresh scent in perfumery? Perceptual freshness is correlated with substantivity.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Perfumes are manufactured by mixing odorous materials with different volatilities. The parameter that measures the lasting property of a material when applied on the skin is called substantivity or tenacity. It is well known by perfumers that citrus and green notes are perceived as fresh and they tend to evaporate quickly, while odors most dissimilar to 'fresh' (e.g., oriental, powdery, erogenic and animalic scents) are tenacious. However, studies aimed at quantifying the relationship between fresh odor quality and substantivity have not received much attention. In this work, perceptual olfactory ratings on a fresh scale, estimated in a previous study, were compared with substantivity parameters and antierogenic ratings from the literature. It was found that the correlation between fresh odor character and odorant substantivity is quite strong (r = -0.85). 'Fresh' is sometimes interpreted in perfumery as 'cool' and the opposite of 'warm'. This association suggests that odor freshness might be somehow related to temperature. Assuming that odor perception space was shaped throughout evolution in temperate climates, results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis that 'fresh' evokes scents typically encountered in the cool season, while 'warm' would be evoked by odors found in nature during summer. This hypothesis is rather simplistic but it may provide a new insight to better understand the perceptual space of scents.

  16. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves. PMID:25088347

  17. Characterization of the potent odorants contributing to the characteristic aroma of Chinese green tea infusions by aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Baba, Ryoko; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2014-08-20

    The volatile fractions of three famous Chinese green tea cultivar infusions (Longjing, Maofeng, and Biluochun) were prepared by a combination of the adsorptive column method and the SAFE techniques. The aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) applied to the volatile fractions revealed 58 odor-active peaks with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 4(1) and 4(7). Forty-six of the odorants, which included six odorants that have not been reported in the literature in Chinese green tea (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2-ethenyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 3-phenylpropionic acid), were identified or tentatively identified by GC-MS and GC-O. Among the perceived odorants, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, coumarin, vanillin, geraniol, (E)-isoeugenol, and 2-methoxyphenol showed high FD factors in all of the cultivars, irrespective of the cultivar or harvesting season, suggesting that these seven odorants are essential for the aroma of Chinese green tea. On the other hand, the contents of the odorants, FD factors of which were uneven between the cultivars, were suggested to influence the characteristic aroma of each cultivar. In addition, the formation mechanism of (E)-isoeugenol, one of the odorants which have not been reported in the literature with a high FD factor common to all the cultivars, was investigated, and it was suggested that the (E)-isoeugenol content of the tea products has a close correlation with the manufacturing process of the tea leaves.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae) has been studied. The 17,903 bp circular genome contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The AT content of the overall base compositon of H-strand is 56% and the length of control region is 2501 bp with 63.8% AT content. The arrangement of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes was the same as that found in other anurans. The cluster of rearranged LTPF tRNA genes and the translocation of tRNA(His) gene into the D-loop region are observed.

  19. Serotonergic mediation of the antidepressant-like effect of the green leaves odor in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Yokoyama, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Seijiro; Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Onoe, Hirotaka; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Fukui, Kenji

    2008-05-01

    The green odor (GO) that emanates from green leaves has been observed to have many physiological actions in mammals and may be associated with a healing effect in humans. This study examined the effect of GO (we used a mixture of cis-3-hexenol and trans-2-hexenal) on behavior in the forced swim test (FST) of depression in mice. Exposure of GO showed the antidepressant-like effect in the FST, i.e., a significant decrease in immobility time and increase in swimming time, but no change in climbing time. The behavioral responses of GO-exposed animals to FST were similar to those observed for animals given citalopram, which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. In contrast, desipramine, which is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, decreased immobility time and increased climbing time without affecting swimming time. To examine the involvement of the serotonergic system in mediating the antidepressant-like action of GO, we performed further FST examinations in which GO-exposed mice were treated with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). Prior PCPA administration induced depletion of central 5-HT in the brain and completely diminished the GO effect on the behavioral responses seen during the FST. No changes in locomotor activity after GO inhalation were observed. These results indicate that acute exposure to GO has an antidepressant-like effect that may involve the serotonergic system.

  20. What is a Fresh Scent in Perfumery? Perceptual Freshness is Correlated with Substantivity

    PubMed Central

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Perfumes are manufactured by mixing odorous materials with different volatilities. The parameter that measures the lasting property of a material when applied on the skin is called substantivity or tenacity. It is well known by perfumers that citrus and green notes are perceived as fresh and they tend to evaporate quickly, while odors most dissimilar to ‘fresh’ (e.g., oriental, powdery, erogenic and animalic scents) are tenacious. However, studies aimed at quantifying the relationship between fresh odor quality and substantivity have not received much attention. In this work, perceptual olfactory ratings on a fresh scale, estimated in a previous study, were compared with substantivity parameters and antierogenic ratings from the literature. It was found that the correlation between fresh odor character and odorant substantivity is quite strong (r = −0.85). ‘Fresh’ is sometimes interpreted in perfumery as ‘cool’ and the opposite of ‘warm’. This association suggests that odor freshness might be somehow related to temperature. Assuming that odor perception space was shaped throughout evolution in temperate climates, results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis that ‘fresh’ evokes scents typically encountered in the cool season, while ‘warm’ would be evoked by odors found in nature during summer. This hypothesis is rather simplistic but it may provide a new insight to better understand the perceptual space of scents. PMID:23275083

  1. Green tea catechins: a fresh flavor to anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Deng, Yuan; Lu, Bang-Min; Liu, Yong-Xi; Li, Jian; Bao, Jin-Ku

    2014-01-01

    Green tea catechins have been extensively studied for their cancer preventive effects. Accumulating evidence has shown that green tea catechins, like (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, have strong anti-oxidant activity and affect several signal transduction pathways relevant to cancer development. Here, we review the biological properties of green tea catechins and the molecular mechanisms of their anticancer effects, including the suppression of cancer cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. We summarize the efficacy of a single catechin and the synergetic effects of multiple catechins. We also discuss the enhanced anticancer effects of green tea catechins when they are combined with anticancer drugs. The information present in this review might promote the development of strategy for the co-administration of green tea catechins with other anticancer drugs to increase the potency of currently available anticancer medicine. This new strategy should in turn lower the cytotoxicity and cost of anticancer treatment.

  2. Clinical efficacy of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh and a commercially available breath-freshening dentifrice in reducing mouth-odor-causing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Joe; Pilch, Shira; Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this double-blind clinical study was to compare the long-lasting overnight (10- to 12-hour) and 4-hour effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh toothpaste to a commercial fluoridated breath-freshening dentifrice in controlling the level of mouth-odor-causing bacteria. Thirty-two adult men and women from New Jersey participated in the randomized, crossover design clinical study. After a 1-week "washout" period of brushing with a regular fluoride dentifrice, subjects refrained from dental hygiene, eating, and drinking in preparation for the morning visit. After providing a baseline salivary sample, subjects were issued a soft-bristled toothbrush and instructed to brush their teeth twice a day (once in the morning and once before bed) for 1 minute with the assigned test dentifrice. After a 7-day product use cycle, the subjects returned to the test site, having refrained from dental hygiene, eating, and drinking. Subjects provided an overnight salivary sample (10 to 12 hours postbrushing). Subjects then ate, brushed for 1 minute with the assigned dentifrice, and returned for 2- and 4-hour postbrushing evaluations. Subjects refrained from dental hygiene, eating, or drinking during the 4-hour evaluation period. To collect the oral microflora samples, subjects rinsed with 10 mL of sterile water for 10 seconds and deposited their samples into sterile tubes. Each collected sample was serially diluted in sterile phosphate-buffered saline and duplicate-plated onto lead acetate agar. When plated onto this medium, mouth-odor-causing bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfide appear as dark pigmented colonies. After 96 hours of incubation, hydrogen-sulfide-producing bacteria were counted, expressed as log colony-forming units per milliliter, and reduction from baseline was calculated. The results of this clinical study support the conclusion that Colgate Total Advanced Fresh provides a significantly greater reduction in mouth-odor-causing bacteria than a commercial

  3. Sensory evaluation of the synergism among odorants present in concentrations below their odor threshold in a Chinese jasmine green tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuriko; Kubota, Kikue

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism for the contribution of subthreshold aroma constituents to the overall jasmine tea odor impression was studied on the basis of a sensory evaluation. Binary model aqueous solutions containing the authentic odorants of a jasmine tea infusion, (E)-2-hexenyl hexanoate (I), (Z)-3-hexenol (II), and indole (III), were each prepared in a concentration below the odor threshold. Each solution had no aroma, but when 4-hexanolide replaced only 5% of each odorant, the odor intensity of each model solution was significantly strengthened. An astringent note and heavy note were recognized for each solution as the commonly perceived characteristics from the sensory evaluation. The concentration of 4-hexanolide added was also at the subthreshold level. The results suggest mutual interaction between odorants I, II, or III and 4-hexanolide. The effect on the overall odor sensation of a jasmine tea infusion by adding 4-hexanolide at a concentration below its odor threshold was also studied. In this case, the intensity of both the sweet and astringent notes was significantly strengthened in comparison with the odor impression of the original jasmine tea infusion. This phenomenon is considered to have been a synergistic effect between subthreshold odor compounds in the jasmine tea infusion. The results of this study clarify for the first time that the subthreshold aroma constituents play an important role in the characteristic flavor of a jasmine tea infusion.

  4. Handling Practices of Fresh Leafy Greens in Restaurants: Receiving and Training†

    PubMed Central

    COLEMAN, ERIK; DELEA, KRISTIN; EVERSTINE, KAREN; REIMANN, DAVID; RIPLEY, DANNY

    2015-01-01

    Multiple foodborne illness outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Investigations have indicated that microbial contamination throughout the farm-to-fork continuum often contributed to these outbreaks. Researchers have hypothesized that handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants may support contamination by and proliferation and amplification of pathogens that cause foodborne illness outbreaks. However, limited data are available on how workers handle leafy greens in restaurants. The purpose of this study was to collect descriptive data on handling practices of leafy greens in restaurants, including restaurant characteristics, types of leafy greens used, produce receipt, and food safety training and certification. As a federal collaborative partner with the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that EHS-Net participants survey handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants. The recommendations in the FDA’s Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Leafy Greens are significant to this study for comparison of the results. The survey revealed that appropriate handling procedures assist in the mitigation of other unsafe handling practices for leafy greens. These results are significant because the FDA guidance for the safe handling of leafy greens was not available until 2009, after the survey had been completed. The information provided from this study can be used to promote additional efforts that will assist in developing interventions to prevent future foodborne illness outbreaks associated with leafy greens. PMID:24290691

  5. Glycoalkaloid development during greening of fresh market potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Grunenfelder, Laura A; Knowles, Lisa O; Hiller, Larry K; Knowles, N Richard

    2006-08-01

    Chlorophyll and glycoalkaloid synthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers occur in direct response to light. The two processes are concurrent, but independent. Color photographic indices to subjectively grade fresh market potatoes for the extent of greening were developed under lighting conditions consistent with those of retail markets. Total glycoalkaloid (TGA) and chlorophyll accumulation for four cultivars were determined over the respective greening scales, thus calibrating the scales for TGA content. On average, TGA concentrations in complete longitudinal sections of tubers (flesh samples) were highest in Dark Red Norland followed by Russet Norkotah, Yukon Gold, and White Rose. TGA concentrations of flesh samples of White Rose and Yukon Gold tubers were somewhat variable and did not increase in direct proportion to greening level and chlorophyll content, particularly at higher levels of greening. TGA concentrations in Dark Red Norland and Russet Norkotah tubers were highly correlated (P < or = 0.001) with greening level and chlorophyll concentrations. When averaged over greening levels, skin samples contained 3.4- to 6.8-fold higher concentrations of TGAs than flesh samples, depending on the cultivar. The TGA concentration in periderm samples ranged from 37 to 160 mg/100 g of dry wt. Regardless of greening level, concentrations of TGAs in the flesh samples (including attached periderm) remained within limits presumed safe for human consumption. Discrimination of greened tubers on the basis of perceived glycoalkaloid toxicity is likely unfounded for the cultivars and greening levels studied. PMID:16881686

  6. Handling practices of fresh leafy greens in restaurants: receiving and training.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Erik; Delea, Kristin; Everstine, Karen; Reimann, David; Ripley, Danny

    2013-12-01

    Multiple foodborne illness outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Investigations have indicated that microbial contamination throughout the farm-to-fork continuum often contributed to these outbreaks. Researchers have hypothesized that handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants may support contamination by and proliferation and amplification of pathogens that cause foodborne illness outbreaks. However, limited data are available on how workers handle leafy greens in restaurants. The purpose of this study was to collect descriptive data on handling practices of leafy greens in restaurants, including restaurant characteristics, types of leafy greens used, produce receipt, and food safety training and certification. As a federal collaborative partner with the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that EHS-Net participants survey handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants. The recommendations in the FDA's Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Leafy Greens are significant to this study for comparison of the results. The survey revealed that appropriate handling procedures assist in the mitigation of other unsafe handling practices for leafy greens. These results are significant because the FDA guidance for the safe handling of leafy greens was not available until 2009, after the survey had been completed. The information provided from this study can be used to promote additional efforts that will assist in developing interventions to prevent future foodborne illness outbreaks associated with leafy greens.

  7. Clinical comparison of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh vs a commercially available fluoride breath-freshening toothpaste in reducing breath odor overnight: a multiple-use study.

    PubMed

    Niles, Hollandra P; Hunter, Catherine M; Vazquez, Joe; Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this randomized, crossover study was to compare the effectiveness of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh toothpaste to a commercially available breath-freshening dentifrice containing fluoride for its ability to reduce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) responsible for breath odor overnight. The study followed a two-treatment, two-period crossover design. Subjects were given a test product, along with a soft-bristled toothbrush, and instructed to brush their teeth for 1 minute, twice daily (once in the morning and the evening) using the assigned dentifrice for 7 consecutive days. After their evening brushing on the seventh day, subjects reported to the testing facility without oral hygiene, eating, or drinking for the overnight evaluation. After a washout period, subjects repeated the same regimen, now using the other test product. The levels of breath VSC were evaluated instrumentally using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector.

  8. Characterisation of odorant compounds and their biochemical formation in green tea with a low temperature storage process.

    PubMed

    Katsuno, Tsuyoshi; Kasuga, Hisae; Kusano, Yumi; Yaguchi, Yoshihiro; Tomomura, Miho; Cui, Jilai; Yang, Ziyin; Baldermann, Susanne; Nakamura, Yoriyuki; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-04-01

    We produced low temperature (15 °C) processed green tea (LTPGT) with higher aroma contents than normal green tea (Sencha). Normal temperature processed green tea (NTPGT), involved storing at 25 °C, and Sencha had no storing process. Sensory evaluation showed LTPGT had higher levels of floral and sweet odorants than NTPGT and Sencha. Aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry indicated LTPGT had 12 aroma compounds with high factor dilution values (FD). Amongst LTPGT's 12 compounds, indole, jasmine lactone, cis-jasmone, coumarin, and methyl epijasmonate contributed to floral, fruity and sweet characters. In particular, indole increased initially, peaking at 16 h, then gradually decreased. Feeding experiments suggested [(15)N]indole and [(15)N]oxygenated indoles (OX-indoles) were produced from [(15)N]anthranilic acid. We proposed the increase in indole was due to transformation of anthranilic acid during the 16 h storage and the subsequent decline in indole level was due to its conversion to OX-indoles.

  9. Green biorefinery of fresh cattail for microalgal culture and ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Quazi Mahzabin; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Bo; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2015-06-01

    Green biorefinery represents an appropriate approach to utilize the fresh aquatic biomass, eliminating the drying process of conventional bioenergy-converting system. In this study, fresh cattails were homogenized and then filtered, whereby cattails were separated into a fiber-rich cake and a nutrient-rich juice. The juice was used to cultivate microalgae Chlorella spp. in different media. In addition, the solid cake was pretreated with the sonication, and used as the feedstock for ethanol production. The results showed that the cattail juice could be a highly nutritious source for microalgae that are a promising feedstock for biofuels. Sugars released from the cattail cake were efficiently fermented to ethanol using Escherichia coli KO11, with 8.6-12.3% of the theoretical yield. The ultrasonic pretreatment was not sufficient for pretreating cattails. If a dilute acid pretreatment was applied, the conversion ratio of sugars from cattails has the potential to be over 85% of the theoretical value.

  10. Texture and quality properties of Chinese fresh egg noodles formulated with green seaweed (Monostroma nitidum) powder.

    PubMed

    Chang, H C; Wu, L-C

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fresh Chinese noodles made with different levels of green seaweed. Green seaweed powder was incorporated in proportions of 4%, 6%, and 8% in noodles, which were made with or without additional eggs. Proximate compositions, cooking properties, textural intensities, and sensory qualities of noodles were assessed. The addition of seaweed powder increased the crude fiber contents of raw fresh noodles; the fiber contents were 0.100%+/- 0.015 to 0.449%+/- 0.013 for noodles made with eggs from 0% to 8% additional seaweed and 0.247%+/- 0.018 to 0.344%+/- 0.021 for those without eggs. Higher cooking yields were found in the noodles, due to water absorption during cooking by the fibers and polysaccharides in the seaweed. Significantly higher cooking yields (P < 0.05) were found in the noodles with 8% additional seaweed powder; water uptake readings measured 2.39 +/- 0.38 and 2.43 +/- 0.25 g H(2)O/g noodle for samples made without and with eggs, respectively. Higher water absorption by the seaweed led to softer and spongier textural intensities in the noodles. Breaking energy of cooked fresh egg noodles were 28.94 +/- 3.42 to 6.43 +/- 1.01 N x mm for 8% to 0% additional seaweed, and the intensities decreased as the amount of seaweed increased; the same pattern was observed in noodles without eggs, where readings were 8.66 +/- 1.02 to 3.49 +/- 0.25 N x mm. Capacities of extensibility measured 61.81 +/- 2.04 to 30.74 +/- 0.90 mm for fresh egg noodles with additional seaweed powder from 0% to 8%, and 47.46 +/- 2.41 to 28.36 +/- 2.25 mm for cooked fresh noodles without eggs. The results from Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that textural parameters were influenced not only by additional eggs and seaweed powder, but also by cooking properties.

  11. Effect of fresh green waste and green waste compost on mineral nitrogen, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from a Vertisol

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, Sarah M.; Dalal, Ram C.; Harper, Stephen M.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2011-08-15

    Incorporation of organic waste amendments to a horticultural soil, prior to expected risk periods, could immobilise mineral N, ultimately reducing nitrogen (N) losses as nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and leaching. Two organic waste amendments were selected, a fresh green waste (FGW) and green waste compost (GWC) as they had suitable biochemical attributes to initiate N immobilisation into the microbial biomass and organic N forms. These characteristics include a high C:N ratio (FGW 44:1, GWC 35:1), low total N (<1%), and high lignin content (>14%). Both products were applied at 3 t C/ha to a high N (plus N fertiliser) or low N (no fertiliser addition) Vertisol soil in PVC columns. Cumulative N{sub 2}O production over the 28 day incubation from the control soil was 1.5 mg/N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}, and 11 mg/N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2} from the control + N. The N{sub 2}O emission decreased with GWC addition (P < 0.05) for the high N soil, reducing cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions by 38% by the conclusion of the incubation. Analysis of mineral N concentrations at 7, 14 and 28 days identified that both FGW and GWC induced microbial immobilisation of N in the first 7 days of incubation regardless of whether the soil environment was initially high or low in N; with the FGW immobilising up to 30% of available N. It is likely that the reduced mineral N due to N immobilisation led to a reduced substrate for N{sub 2}O production during the first week of the trial, when soil N{sub 2}O emissions peaked. An additional finding was that FGW + N did not decrease cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions compared to the control + N, potentially due to the fact that it stimulated microbial respiration resulting in anaerobic micro sites in the soil and ultimately N{sub 2}O production via denitrification. Therefore, both materials could be used as post harvest amendments in horticulture to minimise N loss through nitrate-N leaching in the risk periods between crop rotations. The mature GWC has potential to reduce N

  12. Effect of fresh green waste and green waste compost on mineral nitrogen, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from a Vertisol.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Sarah M; Dalal, Ram C; Harper, Stephen M; Menzies, Neal W

    2011-08-01

    Incorporation of organic waste amendments to a horticultural soil, prior to expected risk periods, could immobilise mineral N, ultimately reducing nitrogen (N) losses as nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and leaching. Two organic waste amendments were selected, a fresh green waste (FGW) and green waste compost (GWC) as they had suitable biochemical attributes to initiate N immobilisation into the microbial biomass and organic N forms. These characteristics include a high C:N ratio (FGW 44:1, GWC 35:1), low total N (<1%), and high lignin content (>14%). Both products were applied at 3t C/ha to a high N (plus N fertiliser) or low N (no fertiliser addition) Vertisol soil in PVC columns. Cumulative N(2)O production over the 28 day incubation from the control soil was 1.5mg/N(2)O/m(2), and 11mg/N(2)O/m(2) from the control+N. The N(2)O emission decreased with GWC addition (P<0.05) for the high N soil, reducing cumulative N(2)O emissions by 38% by the conclusion of the incubation. Analysis of mineral N concentrations at 7, 14 and 28 days identified that both FGW and GWC induced microbial immobilisation of N in the first 7 days of incubation regardless of whether the soil environment was initially high or low in N; with the FGW immobilising up to 30% of available N. It is likely that the reduced mineral N due to N immobilisation led to a reduced substrate for N(2)O production during the first week of the trial, when soil N(2)O emissions peaked. An additional finding was that FGW+N did not decrease cumulative N(2)O emissions compared to the control+N, potentially due to the fact that it stimulated microbial respiration resulting in anaerobic micro sites in the soil and ultimately N(2)O production via denitrification. Therefore, both materials could be used as post harvest amendments in horticulture to minimise N loss through nitrate-N leaching in the risk periods between crop rotations. The mature GWC has potential to reduce N(2)O, an important greenhouse gas.

  13. Response to trisodium phosphate treatment of Salmonella Chester attached to fresh-cut green pepper slices.

    PubMed

    Liao, C H; Cooke, P H

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory model using green pepper disks was developed to investigate the attachment of Salmonella Chester on plant tissue and to evaluate the effectiveness of sanitizer agents in inactivating attached bacteria on fruits. Pepper disks (14 mm in diam, and 3-4 mm in thickness) were immersed in a bacterial suspension containing 1.5 x 107 cfu x mL(-1) of S. Chester for 30 s and subsequently air-dried at room temperature for 10 min. Approximately 30% of the bacteria retained on the disk after immersion were firmly attached and could not be removed by two washes and agitation. A positive correlation was observed between the number of bacteria attached and the concentration of bacteria in the suspension. Population studies and scanning electron microscopic examinations revealed that attachment of S. Chester on pepper disks occurred mainly on the surfaces of injured (cut) tissue but rarely on the unbroken skin. When inoculated disks were treated with 3% to 12% (w/v) of trisodium phosphate (TSP) at pH 12.3 for 5 min, the population of bacteria on the disk was reduced by 10- to 100-fold. A small portion (0.7% to 7.1%) of bacteria attached to the disk were either resistant to or protected from the TSP treatment. When the pH of TSP solution was reduced from 12.3 to 4.5, the effectiveness of TSP in inactivating S. Chester on pepper disks was reduced by 26%. This study shows that surfaces of injured fruit tissue are the principal sites for bacterial attachment, and a small portion of the bacteria attached to the tissue are resistant to the sanitizer treatment. Avoiding mechanical injuries to fresh fruits during and after harvest would reduce the chance of pathogen attachment and contamination on green pepper and fruits of similar nature.

  14. Effects of fatty acid oxidation products (green odor) on rumen bacterial populations and lipid metabolism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R F; Huws, S A; Scollan, N D; Dewhurst, R J

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of green odor fatty acid oxidation products (FAOP) from cut grass on lipid metabolism and microbial ecology using in vitro incubations of rumen microorganisms. These compounds have antimicrobial roles in plant defense, and we hypothesized that they may influence rumen lipid metabolism. Further, they may partially explain the higher levels of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11 in milk from cows grazing pasture. The first of 2 batch culture experiments screened 6 FAOP (1 hydroperoxide, 3 aldehydes, 1 ketone, and 1 alcohol) for effects on lipid profile, and in particular C(18) polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation. Experiment 2 used the most potent FAOP to determine effects of varying concentrations and identify relationships with effects on microbial ecology. Batch cultures contained anaerobic buffer, rumen liquor, and FAOP to a final concentration of 100 microM for experiment 1. Triplicates for each compound and controls (water addition) were incubated at 39 degrees C for 6 h. The hydroperoxide (1,2-dimethylethyl hydroperoxide, 1,2-DMEH) and the long chain aldehyde (trans-2 decenal) had the largest effects on lipid metabolism with significant increases in C(18:0) and C(18:1) trans and reductions in C(12:0), C(14:0), C(16:0), C(18:1) cis, C(18:2n-6), C(18:3n-3), C(20:0) and total branch and odd chain fatty acids compared with the control. This was associated with significantly higher biohydrogenation of C(18) polyunsaturated fatty acid. In experiment 2, 1,2-DMEH was incubated at 50, 100, and 200 microM for 2, 6, and 24 h. Increasing 1,2-DMEH concentration resulted in a significant linear increase in C(18:1) trans-10, trans-11, conjugated linoleic acid, and C(18:0) and a linear decrease in C(18:2n-6) and C(18:3n-3), although the scale of this response declined with time. Microbial profiling techniques showed that 1,2-DMEH at concentrations of 100 and 200 microM changed the microbial community from as early as 2 h after

  15. Effect of pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life and quality of fresh- cut green bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Ranjitha, K; Sudhakar Rao, D V; Shivashankara, K S; Roy, Tapas Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Present study was aimed at understanding the effect of pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of fresh-cut green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during low temperature storage. Dip treatment of freshly cut green bell pepper pieces in 2 % calcium propionate followed by surface drying and subsequent packing in cryovac PD961 film which maintained an equilibrium modified atmosphere of 13-14 % O2 and 7 % CO2 helped to extend the marketability till 9 days storage at 8 °C. The microbiological quality was at the best level up to 6 days of storage, as evidenced by a surge in aerobic plate count, pectinolysers and pseudomonads on subsequent days. Head space volatile analysis of the produce at regular intervals showed a reduction in monoterpenoids and simultaneous increase of aldehydes and ketones, sesquiterpenoids, esters, furans and pyrazines during storage. Principal component analysis of the head space volatiles identified, cis - ocimene, 1,3,8-paramenthatriene, trans 3- caren 2-ol, bergamotene, 2-hexenal, ethyl 1- decanol, (E)-3- hexenol and heptane thiol as the markers of freshness in minimally processed green bell pepper.

  16. Effect of pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life and quality of fresh- cut green bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Ranjitha, K; Sudhakar Rao, D V; Shivashankara, K S; Roy, Tapas Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Present study was aimed at understanding the effect of pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of fresh-cut green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during low temperature storage. Dip treatment of freshly cut green bell pepper pieces in 2 % calcium propionate followed by surface drying and subsequent packing in cryovac PD961 film which maintained an equilibrium modified atmosphere of 13-14 % O2 and 7 % CO2 helped to extend the marketability till 9 days storage at 8 °C. The microbiological quality was at the best level up to 6 days of storage, as evidenced by a surge in aerobic plate count, pectinolysers and pseudomonads on subsequent days. Head space volatile analysis of the produce at regular intervals showed a reduction in monoterpenoids and simultaneous increase of aldehydes and ketones, sesquiterpenoids, esters, furans and pyrazines during storage. Principal component analysis of the head space volatiles identified, cis - ocimene, 1,3,8-paramenthatriene, trans 3- caren 2-ol, bergamotene, 2-hexenal, ethyl 1- decanol, (E)-3- hexenol and heptane thiol as the markers of freshness in minimally processed green bell pepper. PMID:26604359

  17. Assessing the Culture of Fresh Produce Safety within a Leafy Green Producing Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolte, Kurt D.; Sanchez, Charles A.; Fonseca, Jorge M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2006 "Escherichia coli" outbreak in spinach prompted the implementation of unprecedented production strategies (Arizona Leafy Green Products Shipper Marketing Agreement) to minimize microbial risk in leafy greens. As the new procedures require assessments of physical intrusion and excrement in fields, outreach was initiated to educate adult…

  18. K and Ca content of fresh green tea, black tea, and tea residue determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Nas, S; Gokalp, H Y; Sahin, Y

    1993-01-01

    X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) can be successfully used for the qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of various agricultural products. Its simplicity, high throughput and the possibility of automation make it useful for screening large numbers of samples. The K and Ca content of 138 samples of fresh green tea, black tea and black tea residues were determined by applying the XRF system. Such a method of mineral analysis of food products is not very common. Tea from different tea-growing areas of Turkey, green tea of different shooting periods, black tea processed at different tea plants and tea residues from these black tea were analysed. The K content of green tea, processed black tea and tea residues after brewing were found to have ranges of 19,049-26,254 mg/kg, 21,904-26,883 mg/kg and 9,468-13,778 mg/kg, respectively. In the same samples the Ca content was determined as 3,580-4,799 mg/kg, 3,370-4,823 mg/kg, and 3,743-5,733 mg/kg, respectively. These findings were compared with the results of atomic emission techniques and it was concluded that the XRF system could be effectively used for quantitative analysis of the K and Ca content of tea samples.

  19. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcoholism Cavities Dentures Eating certain foods, such as cabbage, garlic, or raw onions Coffee and poorly pH- ... Have you recently eaten a spicy meal, garlic, cabbage, or other "odorous" food? Do you take vitamin ...

  20. Modeling indoor odor-odorant concentrations and the relative humidity effect on odor perception at a water reclamation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Sattayatewa, Chakkrid; Venkatesan, Dhesikan; Noll, Kenneth E.; Pagilla, Krishna R.; Moschandreas, Demetrios J.

    2011-12-01

    Models formulated to associate odors and odorants in many industrial and agricultural fields ignore the potential effect of relative humidity on odor perception, and are not validated. This study addresses literature limitations by formulating a model that includes relative humidity and by validating the model. The model employs measured paired values, n = 102, of indoor odors and odorants from freshly dewatered biosolids in a post-digestion dewatering building of a Water Reclamation Plant (WRP). A random sub-sample of n = 32 is used to validate the model by associating predicted vs. measured values ( R2 = 0.90). The model is validated again with a smaller independent database from a second WRP ( R2 = 0.85). Moreover this study asserts that reduction of hydrogen sulfide concentrations, conventionally used as a surrogate of sewage odors, to acceptable levels does not assure acceptable odor levels. It is concluded that: (1) The addition of relative humidity results in a stronger association between odors and odorants than the use of H 2S alone; (2) the two step model validation indicates that the model is not simply site-specific but can be applied to similar facilities; and (3) the model is a promising tool for designing odor and odorant control strategies, the ultimate goal of engineering studies.

  1. Structure-Odor Relationships of (E)-3-Alkenoic Acids, (E)-3-Alken-1-ols, and (E)-3-Alkenals.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Katja; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    (E)-3-Unsaturated volatile acids, alcohols, and aldehydes are commonly found as odorants or pheromones in foods and other natural sources, playing a vital role in not only the attractiveness of foods but also chemo-communication in the animal kingdom. However, a systematic elucidation of their aroma properties, especially for humans, has not been carried out until today. To close this gap, the odor thresholds in air and odor qualities of homologous series of (E)-3-alkenoic acids, (E)-3-alken-1-ols, and (E)-3-alkenals were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. In the series of (E)-3-alkenoic acids the odor quality changed successively from sweaty via plastic-like to sweaty and waxy. On the other hand, the odor qualities in the series of (E)-3-alken-1-ols and (E)-3-alkenals changed from grassy, green to an overall citrus-like, fresh, soapy, and coriander-like odor with increasing chain length. With regard to their odor potencies, the lowest thresholds in air were found for (E)-3-heptenoic acid, (E)-3-hexenoic acid, and (E)-3-hexenal. PMID:26165743

  2. Fluorescence competition assay for the assessment of green leaf volatiles and trans-β-farnesene bound to three odorant-binding proteins in the wheat aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Yin, Jiao; Deng, Sisi; Li, Kebin; Cao, Yazhong

    2012-06-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are important parts of insect olfactory systems, and sensitive olfaction is vital for phytophagous insects in host foraging. Electrophysiological studies are helpful in understanding olfactory sensing in Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), but the functions of odorant-binding proteins in this insect are poorly understood. In this study, we used fluorescence competition assays to measure the binding specificities of SaveOBPs. The results showed that both SaveOBP2 and SaveOBP3 were superior to SaveOBP7 in binding green leaf volatiles. It was unexpected that SaveOBP7 bound trans-β-farnesene strongly, which was known as alarm pheromone of this species. Host volatiles were recognized much more easily by SaveOBP2, and the observed binding activity of SaveOBP2 equaled for tested green leaf volatiles. Our results imply that SaveOBP7 might play a more important role in aphid alarm pheromone discrimination.

  3. Fresh water blue green algae from three agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India: distribution pattern with seasonal variation.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, S; Misra, P K; Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Suseela, M R; Sinha, S; Baghel, V S; Pal, Amit; Dwivedi, C P

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with 45 species of 21 genera of fresh water blue green algae (BGA) from three different agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh. Samples were collected from different habitats varying in physico-chemical properties. Out of 45 species, 13 species belonged to order Chroococcales, 31 to order Nostocales, while only 1 species belonged to order Stigonimatales i.e. Fischerella mucicola. The physico-chemical parameters like pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, nitrate, nitrite and rainfall play an important role in the periodicity of BGA. A positive correlation was found between dissolved oxygen (DO) of different ponds and species diversity, except in the case of western region of Uttar Pradesh (Farukhabad and Mahoba districts) where a positive correlation was found in electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids.

  4. Volatile constituents and key odorants in leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits of Laurus nobilis L.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ayben; Hafizoglu, Harzemsah; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Nitz, Siegfried

    2004-03-24

    The volatiles of fresh leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits from bay (Laurus nolilis L.) were isolated by solvent extraction and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their odor quality was characterized by gas chomatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (HRGC-O-MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In fresh bay leaves 1,8-cineole was the major component, together with alpha-terpinyl acetate, sabinene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-elemene, alpha-terpineol, linalool, and eugenol. Besides 1,8-cineole and the pinenes, the main components in flowers were alpha-eudesmol, beta-elemene, and beta-caryophyllene, in fruits (E)-beta-ocimene and biclyclogermacrene, and in buds (E)-beta-ocimene and germacrene D. The aliphatic ocimenes and farnesenes were absent in leaves. By using HRGC-O-MS 21 odor compounds were identified in fresh leaves. Application of AEDA revealed (Z)-3-hexenal (fresh green), 1,8-cineole (eucalyptus), linalool (flowery), eugenol (clove), (E)-isoeugenol (flowery), and an unidentified compound (black pepper) with the highest flavor dilution factors. Differences between buds, flowers, fruits, and leaves with regard to the identified odor compounds are presented.

  5. Enantioselective ecotoxicity of the herbicide dichlorprop and complexes formed with chitosan in two fresh water green algae.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yuezhong; Chen, Hui; Yuan, Yuli; Xu, Dongmei; Kang, Xiaodong

    2011-04-01

    To reduce the leaching potential, to prevent groundwater contamination and to maintain the efficacy of a pesticide, natural polysaccharides have received increasing attention due to their biocompatibility and useful biological reactivity for controlled release formulations (CRFs) of pesticides. In this paper, the toxicities of the chiral herbicide dichlorprop (DCPP) and its complexes with chitosan molecules (DCPP-CS) and chitosan nanoparticles (DCPP-NP) to two different green algae were determined and compared. The inhibition rates of DCPP, DCPP-CS and DCPP-NP were determined at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 h, and the results show that (S)-DCPP was more toxic to Chlorella vulgaris than (R)-DCPP, while the (R)-DCPP was more toxic to Scenedesmus obliquus than (S)-DCPP. The study also found that the chiral selectivity of DCPP to Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus could be changed when DCPP was complexed with chitosan molecules (CS) or chitosan nanoparticles (NP). For Chlorella vulgaris, the order of inhibition was (R)-DCPP-CS > (S)-DCPP-CS and (R)-DCPP-NP > (S)-DCPP-NP; for Scenedesmus obliquus, the order was (S)-DCPP-CS > (R)-DCPP-CS and (S)-DCPP-NP > (R)-DCPP-NP. This phenomenon suggests that the enantioselective behaviors of chiral compounds might shift when interactions with other chiral receptors coexist in different biological environments. Additionally, chitosan molecules and chitosan nanoparticles also showed different toxicities, which could be ascribed to the difference in the physicochemical properties between CS and NP or the differences in the cell walls of the two fresh water green algae.

  6. Hedonics of odors and odor descriptors

    SciTech Connect

    Dravnieks, A.; Masurat, T.; Lamm, R.A.

    1984-07-01

    The hedonic tone (pleasantness-unpleasantness) of an air pollution odor depends on its character and influences how annoying the odor may be. In the context of air pollution, both unpleasant and pleasant odors may become objectionable, while this is less likely for hedonically neutral odors. A profile of an odor consists of a list of odor descriptors and ratings of the applicabilities of each of the descriptors to the odor being characterized. The working hypothesis was that each of the descriptors can be assigned its own hedonic connotation (tone) from very pleasant, through neutral, to the very unpleasant. The hedonic tones of the descriptors could then be combined with the descriptor applicability percentages over the entire profile, producing a profile-derived hedonic index. The data that were used were profiles of odors and the hedonic ratings of the same odors made directly upon smelling these odors, obtained independently of the study.

  7. Odor Coding Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kenshi

    Odor is a one of important sensing parameters for human life. However, odor has not been quantified by a measuring instrument because of its vagueness. In this paper, a measuring of odor with odor coding, which are vector quantities of plural odor molecular information, and its applications are described.

  8. Odor Mortis

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study, the third of a series on the odor signature of human decomposition, reports on the intermittent nature of chemical evolution from decomposing human remains, and focuses primarily on headspace analysis from soil associated with older human remains (10-60+ years) from different environments around the globe. Fifty grams of soil were collected in 40mL glass vials with polypropylene sealed lids from soil above known or suspected graves and from subsurface chemical plumes associated with human decompositional events. One hundred eighty six separate samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After comparison to relevant soil controls, approximately fifty volatile chemical compounds were identified as being associated with human remains. This manuscript reports these findings and identifies when and where they are most likely to be detected showing an overall decrease in cyclic and halogenated compounds and an increase in aldehydes and alkanes as time progresses. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of human remains with projected ramifications on cadaver dog training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  9. Effect of predator odors on heart rate and metabolic rate of wapiti (Cervus elaphus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Chabot, D; Gagnon, P; Dixon, E A

    1996-04-01

    We measured the heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) of wapiti (Cervus elaphus canadensis) before, during, and after presentation of biologically irrelevant odors (pentane, thiophene, and a perfume), artificial predator odors (an ether extract of cougar feces, and PDT, a compound found in mustelid anal gland secretion), stale predator odors (dog feces and urine and fox urine, kept at ambient temperature for a few weeks), and fresh predator odors (wolf, coyote, and cougar feces and the odor of a dead coyote, kept frozen between collection and test). Overall, responses to odors were small compared to other stressful stimuli. Individual variability was high among scents and among wapiti, but two of the fresh predator odors (cougar and wolf feces) produced larger HR and[Formula: see text] responses than the other scents and were more often successful at producing responses. As a group, fresh predator odors produced larger tachycardias and elicited a larger number of significant HR responses than biologically irrelevant novel odors. although the two classes of odors did not differ in their effect on[Formula: see text]. Although several other studies have shown that ungulates have reduced feeding levels when their food is scented with predator odors, it is not clear if this is due to reduced palatability or antipredator behavior. This study is the first demonstration that a wild ungulate species reacted more strongly to predator odors than to other odors in a nonfeeding situation.

  10. The effect of meat consumption on body odor attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Havlicek, Jan; Lenochova, Pavlina

    2006-10-01

    Axillary body odor is individually specific and potentially a rich source of information about its producer. Odor individuality partly results from genetic individuality, but the influence of ecological factors such as eating habits are another main source of odor variability. However, we know very little about how particular dietary components shape our body odor. Here we tested the effect of red meat consumption on body odor attractiveness. We used a balanced within-subject experimental design. Seventeen male odor donors were on "meat" or "nonmeat" diet for 2 weeks wearing axillary pads to collect body odor during the final 24 h of the diet. Fresh odor samples were assessed for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity, and intensity by 30 women not using hormonal contraceptives. We repeated the same procedure a month later with the same odor donors, each on the opposite diet than before. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the odor of donors when on the nonmeat diet was judged as significantly more attractive, more pleasant, and less intense. This suggests that red meat consumption has a negative impact on perceived body odor hedonicity. PMID:16891352

  11. Odor control in lagoons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2013-07-30

    Lagoons are widely used in rural area for wastewater treatment; however, the odor problem has hampered its application. The root of odor emission from lagoons varies from one to another. The key of controlling the odor is to find out the cause and accordingly provide strategies. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been reported and applied for odor control. Physical technologies such as masking, capturing and sorption are often employed to mitigate the pressure from compliant while not to cut off the problem. Chemical technologies which act rapidly and efficiently in odor control, utilize chemicals to damage the odorant production root or convert odorant to odorless substances. Biological methods such as aeration, biocover and biofiltration control the odor by enhancing aerobic condition or developing methanogens in lagoon, and biologically decomposing the odorants. Comparing to physical and chemical methods, biological methods are more feasible.

  12. Antiproliferative effects of fresh and thermal processed green and red cultivars of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica).

    PubMed

    Olsen, Helle; Grimmer, Stine; Aaby, Kjersti; Saha, Shikha; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2012-08-01

    Brassica vegetables contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant and anticancer activity. However, knowledge about how biological activities are affected by processing is lacking. A green cultivar and a red cultivar of curly kale were evaluated for water/methanol-soluble phytochemicals before and after processing involving blanching, freeze storage, and boil-in-bag heat treatment. In both kale cultivars, processing resulted in a significant decrease of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and content and distribution of flavonols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, glucosinolates, and vitamin C. Interestingly, the red curly kale cultivar had a higher capacity to withstand thermal loss of phytochemicals. The extracts of both green and red curly kale inhibited the cell proliferation of three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and HCT 116). However, extracts from fresh plant material had a significantly stronger antiproliferative effect than extracts from processed plant material.

  13. Use of freshly prepared rat hepatocytes to study toxicity of blooms of the blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa and Oscillatoria agardhii.

    PubMed

    Aune, T; Berg, K

    1986-01-01

    Extracts from blue-green algal blooms (Microcystis aeruginosa and Oscillatoria agardhii) from different lakes in southeastern Norway were tested for toxicity toward freshly prepared rat hepatocytes. The toxicity effects were scored by means of morphological studies of the cells and by measuring leakage of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the cells. The results with the hepatocytes correspond well with results from the traditional mouse bioassay, concerning both ability to distinguish between toxic and nontoxic samples and estimation of relative toxicity. Morphological changes due to toxic effects on the plasma membrane appeared earlier than leakage of enzyme from damaged cells. The results indicate that the hepatocyte-toxicity assay system might be well suited for screening purposes concerning water contamination by blue-green algae. PMID:3095554

  14. Diagnostic odor recognition

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt; Phan; Desandre; Lobon; Hsu

    2000-10-01

    Many diseases, toxic ingestions, and intoxications have characteristic odors. These odors may provide diagnostic clues that affect rapid treatment long before laboratory confirmation or clinical deterioration. Odor recognition skills, similar to auscultation and palpation skills, require teaching and practical exposure. Dr. Goldfrank and colleagues recognized the importance of teaching odor recognition to emergency service providers. They proposed the "sniffing bar" method for odor recognition training. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the recognition rates of medically important odors among emergency care providers. (2) To investigate the effectiveness of teaching odor recognition. Hypothesis: The recognition rates of medically important odors will increase after teaching exposure. METHODS: The study exposed emergency care providers to 11 tubes of odors. Identifications of each substance were recorded. After corrective feedback, subjects were re-tested on their ability to identify the odors. Analysis of odor recognition improvement after teaching was done via chi-square test. RESULTS: Improvement in identification after teaching was seen in all odors. However, the improvement was significant only in the lesscommon substances because their initial recognition was especially low. Significant changes may improve with a larger sample size. Subjects often confuse the odors of alcohol with acetone, and wintergreen with camphor. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition rates are higher for the more-common odors, and lower for the less-common odors. Teaching exposures to the less well-known odors are effective and can significantly improve the recognition rate of these substances. Because odor recognition may affect rapid diagnosis and treatment of certain medical emergencies such as toxic ingestion, future studies should investigate the correlation between odor recognition and the ability to identify corresponding medical emergencies.

  15. Immunization alters body odor.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. PMID:24524972

  16. Characterizing odors from cattle feedlots with different odor techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from cattle feedlots negatively affect local communities. The purpose of this study was to characterize odors and odorants using different odor sampling techniques. Odors were characterized with field olfactometers (Nasal Ranger®), sensory techniques (GC-O) and analytical techniques (sorbent t...

  17. Influence of Vacuum Cooling on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infiltration in Fresh Leafy Greens via a Multiphoton-Imaging Approach.

    PubMed

    Vonasek, Erica; Nitin, Nitin

    2015-10-16

    Microbial pathogen infiltration in fresh leafy greens is a significant food safety risk factor. In various postharvest operations, vacuum cooling is a critical process for maintaining the quality of fresh produce. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of vacuum cooling-induced infiltration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce using multiphoton microscopy. Multiphoton imaging was chosen as the method to locate E. coli O157:H7 within an intact lettuce leaf due to its high spatial resolution, low background fluorescence, and near-infrared (NIR) excitation source compared to those of conventional confocal microscopy. The variables vacuum cooling, surface moisture, and leaf side were evaluated in a three-way factorial study with E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce. A total of 188 image stacks were collected. The images were analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 association with stomata and E. coli O157:H7 infiltration. The quantitative imaging data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicate that the low-moisture condition led to an increased risk of microbial association with stomata (P < 0.05). Additionally, the interaction between vacuum cooling levels and moisture levels led to an increased risk of infiltration (P < 0.05). This study also demonstrates the potential of multiphoton imaging for improving sensitivity and resolution of imaging-based measurements of microbial interactions with intact leaf structures, including infiltration.

  18. Lowered Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Intake of Plant Vitamin, Fresh Fish, Green Tea and Coffee: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wan-Lun; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chien, Yin-Chu; Yu, Kelly J.; Cheng, Yu-Juen; Chen, Jen-Yang; Liu, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Mow-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Chen, I-How; Yang, Czau-Siung; Hildesheim, Allan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Background A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of adult diet on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Taiwan. Methods A total of 375 incident NPC cases and 327 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and residence were recruited between July 1991 and December 1994. A structured questionnaire inquiring complete dietary history, socio-demographic characteristics, and other potential confounding factors was used in the personal interview. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) with 95% confidence interval (CI) after accounting for known risk factors. Results Fresh fish (ORadj, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38–0.83 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake), green tea (ORadj, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.91 for drinking ≥1 times/week vs. never) and coffee (ORadj, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37–0.85 for drinking ≥0.5 times/week vs. never) were inversely associated with the NPC risk. No association with NPC risk was observed for the intake of meats, salted fish, fresh vegetables, fruits and milk. Intake of vitamin A from plant sources was associated with a decreased NPC risk (ORadj, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41–0.94 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Conclusion The study findings suggest that certain adult dietary patterns might protect against the development of NPC. PMID:22848600

  19. Influence of Vacuum Cooling on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infiltration in Fresh Leafy Greens via a Multiphoton-Imaging Approach.

    PubMed

    Vonasek, Erica; Nitin, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogen infiltration in fresh leafy greens is a significant food safety risk factor. In various postharvest operations, vacuum cooling is a critical process for maintaining the quality of fresh produce. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of vacuum cooling-induced infiltration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce using multiphoton microscopy. Multiphoton imaging was chosen as the method to locate E. coli O157:H7 within an intact lettuce leaf due to its high spatial resolution, low background fluorescence, and near-infrared (NIR) excitation source compared to those of conventional confocal microscopy. The variables vacuum cooling, surface moisture, and leaf side were evaluated in a three-way factorial study with E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce. A total of 188 image stacks were collected. The images were analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 association with stomata and E. coli O157:H7 infiltration. The quantitative imaging data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicate that the low-moisture condition led to an increased risk of microbial association with stomata (P < 0.05). Additionally, the interaction between vacuum cooling levels and moisture levels led to an increased risk of infiltration (P < 0.05). This study also demonstrates the potential of multiphoton imaging for improving sensitivity and resolution of imaging-based measurements of microbial interactions with intact leaf structures, including infiltration. PMID:26475109

  20. Quantitative transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to equipment during small-scale production of fresh-cut leafy greens.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2012-07-01

    Postharvest contamination and subsequent spread of Escherichia coli O157:H7 can occur during shredding, conveying, fluming, and dewatering of fresh-cut leafy greens. This study quantified E. coli O157:H7 transfer from leafy greens to equipment surfaces during simulated small-scale commercial processing. Three to five batches (22.7 kg) of baby spinach, iceberg lettuce, and romaine lettuce were dip inoculated with a four-strain cocktail of avirulent, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillinresistant E. coli O157:H7 to contain ∼10(6), 10(4), and 10(2) CFU/g, and then were processed after 1 h of draining at ∼23°C or 24 h of storage at 4°C. Lettuce was shredded using an Urschel TransSlicer at two different blade and belt speeds to obtain normal (5 by 5 cm) and more finely shredded (0.5 by 5 cm) lettuce. Thereafter, the lettuce was step conveyed to a flume tank and was washed and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Product (25-g) and water (40-ml) samples were collected at various points during processing. After processing, product contact surfaces (100 cm(2)) on the shredder (n = 14), conveyer (n = 8), flume tank (n = 11), shaker table (n = 9), and centrifugal dryer (n = 8) were sampled using one-ply composite tissues. Sample homogenates diluted in phosphate or neutralizing buffer were plated, with or without prior 0.45- m m membrane filtration, on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract supplemented with 100 ppm of ampicillin to quantify green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 under UV light. During leafy green processing, ∼90% of the E. coli O157:H7 inoculum transferred to the wash water. After processing, E. coli O157:H7 populations were highest on the conveyor and shredder (P<0.05), followed by the centrifugal dryer, flume tank, and shaker table, with ∼29% of the remaining product inoculum lost during centrifugal drying. Overall, less (P<0.05) of the inoculum remained on the product after centrifugally drying

  1. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector. PMID:26038896

  2. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  3. Simple circular odor chart for characterization of trace amounts of odorants discharged from thirteen odor sources.

    PubMed

    Hoshika, Y; Nihei, Y; Muto, G

    1981-04-01

    A simple circular odor chart is proposed for the explanation of the relationship between sensory responses (to odor quality and intensity) to odors and chemical analysis data of the odorants responsible for each odor discharged from thirteen odor sources. The odorants were classified into eight odorant groups and were analyzed by a systematic gas chromatographic (GC) technique. The characterization of the trace amounts of the odorants was carried out by using the values of a new proposed unit (pOU) based on the ratio of detected concentration to recognition threshold value. The calculated pOU values of the eight groups were plotted in circular charts. It was found that the shape and size of each circular odor chart represent the quality and the intensity of each odor.

  4. Odor Control Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Amos; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Dispersion, chemical oxidation, and masking are reviewed as techniques primarily employed for odor control. Devices and systems, costs, and problems of measurement are considered in light of environmental agencies' efforts to curb smelly emissions. (BL)

  5. Odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the Asian citrus psyllid.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; McInally, Shane; Forster, Lisa; Luck, Robert; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-07-01

    Olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits Candidatus Liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the ACP antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. We identify neurons that respond strongly to odorants found in the host citrus plants. Comparisons with the generalist yeast-feeding Drosophila melanogaster and specialist anthropophilic Anopheles gambiae reveal differences in odor-coding strategies for the citrus-seeking ACP. These findings provide a foundation for understanding host-odor coding in herbivorous insects. PMID:24904081

  6. Odor coding in a disease-transmitting herbivorous insect, the Asian citrus psyllid.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; McInally, Shane; Forster, Lisa; Luck, Robert; Ray, Anandasankar

    2014-07-01

    Olfactory systems discriminate odorants very efficiently and herbivorous insects use them to find hosts in confounding and complex odor landscapes. The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, feeds on citrus flush and transmits Candidatus Liberibacter that causes citrus greening disease globally. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of odor detection in the ACP antenna using single-unit electrophysiology of rhinarial plate sensilla to a large panel of odorants from plants. We identify neurons that respond strongly to odorants found in the host citrus plants. Comparisons with the generalist yeast-feeding Drosophila melanogaster and specialist anthropophilic Anopheles gambiae reveal differences in odor-coding strategies for the citrus-seeking ACP. These findings provide a foundation for understanding host-odor coding in herbivorous insects.

  7. Tracking an Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated batch of leafy greens through a pilot-scale fresh-cut processing line.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-09-01

    Cross-contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens with residual Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated product during commercial processing was likely a contributing factor in several recent multistate outbreaks. Consequently, radicchio was used as a visual marker to track the spread of the contaminated product to iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale processing line that included a commercial shredder, step conveyor, flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer. Uninoculated iceberg lettuce (45 kg) was processed, followed by 9.1 kg of radicchio (dip inoculated to contain a four-strain, green fluorescent protein-labeled nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 cocktail at 10(6) CFU/g) and 907 kg (2,000 lb) of uninoculated iceberg lettuce. After collecting the lettuce and radicchio in about 40 bags (∼22.7 kg per bag) along with water and equipment surface samples, all visible shreds of radicchio were retrieved from the bags of shredded product, the equipment, and the floor. E. coli O157:H7 populations were quantified in the lettuce, water, and equipment samples by direct plating with or without prior membrane filtration on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Based on triplicate experiments, the weight of radicchio in the shredded lettuce averaged 614.9 g (93.6%), 6.9 g (1.3%), 5.0 g (0.8%), and 2.8 g (0.5%) for bags 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, and 31 to 40, respectively, with mean E. coli O157:H7 populations of 1.7, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.1 log CFU/g in radicchio-free lettuce. After processing, more radicchio remained on the conveyor (9.8 g; P < 0.05), compared with the shredder (8.3 g), flume tank (3.5 g), and shaker table (0.1 g), with similar E. coli O157:H7 populations (P > 0.05) recovered from all equipment surfaces after processing. These findings clearly demonstrate both the potential for the continuous spread of contaminated lettuce to multiple batches of product during processing and the need for improved equipment designs that minimize

  8. Tracking an Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated batch of leafy greens through a pilot-scale fresh-cut processing line.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-09-01

    Cross-contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens with residual Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated product during commercial processing was likely a contributing factor in several recent multistate outbreaks. Consequently, radicchio was used as a visual marker to track the spread of the contaminated product to iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale processing line that included a commercial shredder, step conveyor, flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer. Uninoculated iceberg lettuce (45 kg) was processed, followed by 9.1 kg of radicchio (dip inoculated to contain a four-strain, green fluorescent protein-labeled nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 cocktail at 10(6) CFU/g) and 907 kg (2,000 lb) of uninoculated iceberg lettuce. After collecting the lettuce and radicchio in about 40 bags (∼22.7 kg per bag) along with water and equipment surface samples, all visible shreds of radicchio were retrieved from the bags of shredded product, the equipment, and the floor. E. coli O157:H7 populations were quantified in the lettuce, water, and equipment samples by direct plating with or without prior membrane filtration on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Based on triplicate experiments, the weight of radicchio in the shredded lettuce averaged 614.9 g (93.6%), 6.9 g (1.3%), 5.0 g (0.8%), and 2.8 g (0.5%) for bags 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, and 31 to 40, respectively, with mean E. coli O157:H7 populations of 1.7, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.1 log CFU/g in radicchio-free lettuce. After processing, more radicchio remained on the conveyor (9.8 g; P < 0.05), compared with the shredder (8.3 g), flume tank (3.5 g), and shaker table (0.1 g), with similar E. coli O157:H7 populations (P > 0.05) recovered from all equipment surfaces after processing. These findings clearly demonstrate both the potential for the continuous spread of contaminated lettuce to multiple batches of product during processing and the need for improved equipment designs that minimize

  9. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  10. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water. PMID:26613904

  11. Methods of human body odor sampling: the effect of freezing.

    PubMed

    Lenochova, Pavlina; Roberts, S Craig; Havlicek, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Body odor sampling is an essential tool in human chemical ecology research. However, methodologies of individual studies vary widely in terms of sampling material, length of sampling, and sample processing. Although these differences might have a critical impact on results obtained, almost no studies test validity of current methods. Here, we focused on the effect of freezing samples between collection and use in experiments involving body odor perception. In 2 experiments, we tested whether axillary odors were perceived differently by raters when presented fresh or having been frozen and whether several freeze-thaw cycles affected sample quality. In the first experiment, samples were frozen for 2 weeks, 1 month, or 4 months. We found no differences in ratings of pleasantness, attractiveness, or masculinity between fresh and frozen samples. Similarly, almost no differences between repeatedly thawed and fresh samples were found. We found some variations in intensity; however, this was unrelated to length of storage. The second experiment tested differences between fresh samples and those frozen for 6 months. Again no differences in subjective ratings were observed. These results suggest that freezing has no significant effect on perceived odor hedonicity and that samples can be reliably used after storage for relatively long periods.

  12. Discrimination of Body Odor Using Odor Sieving Sensor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamizawa, Tadashi; Miyagi, Kazuki; Miyauchi, Hitoshi; Imahashi, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2011-09-01

    We have been focusing on sebum for discriminating human body odor. In this study, we examined body odor sampled from 12 male examinees. Through the experiment, we detected statistically-significant differences between 56 pairs of examinees out of 66 pairs (approximately 85%). This result shows that our system and principle enabled discrimination of body odor between examinees to a certain extent.

  13. Effect of dynamic temperature storage in retail display case on the quality and microbiota of packaged fresh-cut leafy greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial refrigeration equipment is projected to rise 5.2% annually to meet the consumer demand for fresh-cut produce items. The highly variable temperature conditions associated with storage of fresh-cuts in commercial open-refrigerated display cases dramatically affects the shelf-life and qualit...

  14. Suppression of Odorant Responses by Odorants in Olfactory Receptor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurahashi, Takashi; Lowe, Graeme; Gold, Geoffrey H.

    1994-07-01

    Odorants activate an inward current in vertebrate olfactory receptor cells. Here it is shown, in receptor cells from the newt, that odorants can also suppress this current, by a mechanism that is distinct from inhibition and adaptation. Suppression provides a simple explanation for two seemingly unrelated phenomena: the anomalously long latency of olfactory transduction and the existence of an "off response" at the end of a prolonged stimulus. Suppression may influence the perception of odorants by masking odorant responses and by sharpening the odorant specificities of single cells.

  15. Coding odor identity and odor value in awake rodents.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Li, Anan; Restrepo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, drastic changes in the understanding of the role of the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex in odor detection have taken place through awake behaving recording in rodents. It is clear that odor responses in mitral and granule cells are strikingly different in the olfactory bulb of anesthetized versus awake animals. In addition, sniff recording has evidenced that mitral cell responses to odors during the sniff can convey information on the odor identity and sniff phase. Moreover, we review studies that show that the mitral cell conveys information on not only odor identity but also whether the odor is rewarded or not (odor value). Finally, we discuss how the substantial increase in awake behaving recording raises questions for future studies.

  16. Cell-Based Odorant Sensor Array for Odor Discrimination Based on Insect Odorant Receptors.

    PubMed

    Termtanasombat, Maneerat; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Misawa, Nobuo; Yamahira, Shinya; Sakurai, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-07-01

    The olfactory system of living organisms can accurately discriminate numerous odors by recognizing the pattern of activation of several odorant receptors (ORs). Thus, development of an odorant sensor array based on multiple ORs presents the possibility of mimicking biological odor discrimination mechanisms. Recently, we developed novel odorant sensor elements with high sensitivity and selectivity based on insect OR-expressing Sf21 cells that respond to target odorants by displaying increased fluorescence intensity. Here we introduce the development of an odorant sensor array composed of several Sf21 cell lines expressing different ORs. In this study, an array pattern of four cell lines expressing Or13a, Or56a, BmOR1, and BmOR3 was successfully created using a patterned polydimethylsiloxane film template and cell-immobilizing reagents, termed biocompatible anchor for membrane (BAM). We demonstrated that BAM could create a clear pattern of Sf21 sensor cells without impacting their odorant-sensing performance. Our sensor array showed odorant-specific response patterns toward both odorant mixtures and single odorant stimuli, allowing us to visualize the presence of 1-octen-3-ol, geosmin, bombykol, and bombykal as an increased fluorescence intensity in the region of Or13a, Or56a, BmOR1, and BmOR3 cell lines, respectively. Therefore, we successfully developed a new methodology for creating a cell-based odorant sensor array that enables us to discriminate multiple target odorants. Our method might be expanded into the development of an odorant sensor capable of detecting a large range of environmental odorants that might become a promising tool used in various applications including the study of insect semiochemicals and food contamination.

  17. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    “Blue-green algae” describes a large and diverse group of simple, plant-like organisms found in salt water and some large fresh water lakes. Blue-green algae products are used for many conditions, but so ...

  18. Odorant-receptor interactions and odor percept: a chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Triller, Annika; Boulden, Elizabeth A; Churchill, Anne; Hatt, Hanns; Englund, Joakim; Spehr, Marc; Sell, Charles S

    2008-06-01

    Receptor-ligand interaction models are generally based on a 'lock and key' concept. How far this holds true for olfactory receptors and odor molecules is currently uncertain. Here, we have investigated the response of a human olfactory receptor, OR1D2, to a broad array of odorants and found that there is no simple, direct correlation between a molecule's ability to activate this receptor and the odor impression elicited in the brain. In a parallel study on specific anosmia, we have found no evidence for odor-specific anosmia to either musk or amber, but rather to specific molecules within these categories. Cluster analysis confirmed that there is no simple correlation between molecular structure and impaired perception in either odor type. There are some differences in patterns of impairment between the two odor types and some evidence to suggest that subjects with specific anosmia to a given substance can identify its presence in a mixture. Taken together, our results show that simplistic 'lock and key' models of olfaction based on a concept of odor-quality-tuned receptors are inadequate, irrespective of the nature of the lock-key interaction. Receptor activation is only one step in a long chain of events leading from inhalation of odorants to perception of odor in the higher brain, and, therefore, although structure-odor correlations are useful tools for the design of novel odorants, caution should be exercised when extrapolating them to models of olfactory perception. Those seeking to understand the odorant-receptor interaction should use receptor activation rather than odor as input data.

  19. Microwave drying of selected greens and their sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fathima, A; Begum, K; Rajalakshmi, D

    2001-01-01

    Green leafy vegetables which supply minerals and vitamins to the diet, are highly perishable. Therefore, post harvest losses are extremely high. Limited studies are available in the literature with regard to preservation of greens. The effect of microwave drying and storage on physical and sensory properties of selected greens (coriander, mint, fenugreek, amaranth and shepu) were therefore studied. Microwave drying was carried out at 100% power and a frequency of 2450 mHz. The drying time varied from 10 to 16 min for different greens. Microwave drying affected color, appearance and odor of all the greens. The relative reconstitution capacity (RRC) for different greens was coriander-10.3, mint-10.3, amaranth-38.3, fenugreek-31.7 and shepu-32.8. The RRC appeared to influence acceptability. Coriander and mint, which exhibited the lowest RRC (10.3%), had the lowest scores for flavor and color while amaranth, with the highest RRC (38.3%), had scores similar to those of fresh amaranth. Scores for the products prepared with dried fenugreek and shepu, although low, were not statistically significant. Microwave drying was highly suitable for greens such as amaranth; moderately suitable for shepu and fenugreek and less suitable for coriander and mint.

  20. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-01-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure. PMID:1821378

  1. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-11-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure.

  2. Suppression of Background Odor Effect in Odor Sensing System Using Olfactory Adaptation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, Tsuneaki; Yamanaka, Takao

    In this study, a new method for suppressing the background odor effect is proposed. Since odor sensors response to background odors in addition to a target odor, it is difficult to detect the target odor information. In the conventional odor sensing systems, the effect of the background odors are compensated by subtracting the response to the background odors (the baseline response). Although this simple subtraction method is effective for constant background odors, it fails in the compensation for time-varying background odors. The proposed method for the background suppression is effective even for the time-varying background odors.

  3. Recognition on Maternal Axillary Odors by Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernoch, Jennifer M.; Porter, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Displaying no evidence of recognizing the axillary odors of their fathers, breastfed infants discriminated between their mother's axillary odor and odors produced by nonparturient or unfamiliar lactating females. Bottle-fed infants appeared unable to recognize the odor of their mother when presented along with odors from a nonparturient female or…

  4. Odor and marijuana intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pihl, R O; Shea, D; Costa, L

    1978-07-01

    Assigned 48 volunteer adult males to four groups: a marijuana high dose, a marijuana low dose, a placebo, and a coltsfoot group. Each S participated in two 80-minute sessions; one involved listening to music, socializing, and smoking the drug, and the second was identical to the first with the addition of two extra placebo cigarettes which contained finely cut amounts of human hair. The odor of burning hair was rated previously as quite aversive by non-intoxicated Ss. Contrary to expectation, Ss in the odor condition indicated on self-ratings that they became significantly more intoxicated after the smoking of the hair cigarette. The opposite effect was found with a pulse rate measure. An additional 24 Ss were divided into high and low dose marijuana groups and run in an odor session, in which they were informed prior to smoking of the hair content. Heart rate for these Ss decreased significantly more than for the comparable uninformed Ss, although self-ratings continued to reflect increased intoxication.

  5. Odor from a chemical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1995-06-01

    Early odor-detection measurements categorized chemicals according to odor quality. Recent methods focus on the odor threshold, or the quantitative amount of a chemical in air that can be detected by the human sense of smell. Researchers characterize and quantify odor using an array of sensory and analytical procedures. Humans possess one of the dullest mammalian senses of smell; however, they can recognize about 10,000 distinct odors at concentrations ranging from less than 1 part per billion to several hundred thousand parts per million. Each time humans inhale, they chemically analyze microscopic pieces of the environment that make physical contact with the nerves in their noses. Individual molecules travel up the nose to a sheet of moist, mucus-bathed tissue that consists of about 5 million smell-sensing, olfactory neurons. After dissolving in the mucus, odor molecules ``float`` into appropriately shaped receptor pockets. A series of cellular reactions then transmit impulses to the limbic system, hippocampus and, finally, the neocortex. Odor detection is an important defense mechanism. The author presents the odor thresholds for selected organic compounds, and other hazardous chemicals.

  6. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, , and nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Jaderborg, Jeffrey P; DiCostanzo, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three types of wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, and green cedar chips) and corn stover on the concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total in bedded pack material. Four bedded packs of each bedding material were maintained for two 42-d periods ( = 32; eight replicates/bedding material). Straight- and branched-chained fatty acids, aromatic compounds, and sulfide compounds were measured from the headspace above each bedded pack. Green cedar bedding had the highest concentration of odorous VOCs, and pine chip bedding had the lowest ( < 0.01). Calculated odor activity values were highest for green cedar bedding, followed by dry cedar, corn stover, and pine chip bedding. As the bedded packs aged, the concentration of odorous VOCs increased, particularly in the bedded packs containing green cedar chips and dry cedar chips. Total concentrations increased from Days 0 to 21 and then began to decline and were similar among all bedding materials ( < 0.10). Results of this study indicate that producers using a long-term bedded pack management in their facility may benefit from using pine chips because they do not appear to increase odor over time. Cedar-based bedding materials may be better suited for a scrape-and-haul system, where the bedded pack is removed after 1 or 2 wk. Total concentrations did not differ between any of the four bedding materials over time. PMID:25603068

  7. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 2. Odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on project to the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) and focused on comprehensive measurement of odor emissions considering variations in seasons, animal types and olfactometry laboratories. Odor emissions from four of 14 NEAMS sites with nine barns/rooms (two dair...

  8. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 6.Odor activity value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing concern with air and odor emissions from agricultural facilities. A supplementary research project was conducted to complement the U.S. National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS). The overall goal of the project was to establish odor and chemical emission factors for animal...

  9. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 2 - odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on project to the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) and focused on comprehensive measurement of odor emissions. Odor emissions from two animal species (dairy and swine) from four sites with nine barns/rooms (two dairy barns in Wisconsin, two dairy barns and two sw...

  10. A Green Preconcentration Method for Determination of Cobalt and Lead in Fresh Surface and Waste Water Samples Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Faheem; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Arian, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2012-01-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) has been used for the preconcentration and simultaneous determination of cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb) in fresh and wastewater samples. The extraction of analytes from aqueous samples was performed in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) as a chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a nonionic surfactant. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of different chemical variables such as pH, amounts of reagents (oxine and Triton X-114), temperature, incubation time, and sample volume. After phase separation, based on the cloud point, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to its analysis by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The enhancement factors 70 and 50 with detection limits of 0.26 μg L−1 and 0.44 μg L−1 were obtained for Co and Pb, respectively. In order to validate the developed method, a certified reference material (SRM 1643e) was analyzed and the determined values obtained were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of Co and Pb in a fresh surface and waste water sample. PMID:23227429

  11. A green preconcentration method for determination of cobalt and lead in fresh surface and waste water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Faheem; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Arian, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2012-01-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) has been used for the preconcentration and simultaneous determination of cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb) in fresh and wastewater samples. The extraction of analytes from aqueous samples was performed in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) as a chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a nonionic surfactant. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of different chemical variables such as pH, amounts of reagents (oxine and Triton X-114), temperature, incubation time, and sample volume. After phase separation, based on the cloud point, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to its analysis by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The enhancement factors 70 and 50 with detection limits of 0.26 μg L(-1) and 0.44 μg L(-1) were obtained for Co and Pb, respectively. In order to validate the developed method, a certified reference material (SRM 1643e) was analyzed and the determined values obtained were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of Co and Pb in a fresh surface and waste water sample. PMID:23227429

  12. Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaofen; Song, Mei; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

    2015-03-15

    Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars ('Tasti-Lee' and 'FL 47') harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from authentic sulphur standards and GC-MS characteristic masses. Seven were quantified using an internal standard combined with external calibration curves. Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide 2-propylthiazole and 2-s-butylthiazole were newly identified in fresh tomatoes. Principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles indicated that there were appreciable maturity stage differences clustered in separate quadrants. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) identified 50 aroma-active compounds in 'Tasti-Lee', with 10 reported as odorants in fresh tomatoes for the first time. Four sulphur volatiles exhibited aroma activity, including two of the newly-reported fresh tomato sulphur volatiles, 2-s-butylthiazole and dimethyl sulphide. GC-O aroma profiling indicated that the most intense aroma category was earthy-musty, followed by fruity-floral, green-grassy, sweet-candy and sweaty-stale-sulphurous.

  13. Identification of sulphur volatiles and GC-olfactometry aroma profiling in two fresh tomato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaofen; Song, Mei; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Rouseff, Russell

    2015-03-15

    Ten sulphur volatiles were observed in two Florida tomato cultivars ('Tasti-Lee' and 'FL 47') harvested at three maturity stages (breaker, turning, and pink) using gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Eight PFPD peaks were identified using retention values from authentic sulphur standards and GC-MS characteristic masses. Seven were quantified using an internal standard combined with external calibration curves. Dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide 2-propylthiazole and 2-s-butylthiazole were newly identified in fresh tomatoes. Principal component analysis of sulphur volatiles indicated that there were appreciable maturity stage differences clustered in separate quadrants. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) identified 50 aroma-active compounds in 'Tasti-Lee', with 10 reported as odorants in fresh tomatoes for the first time. Four sulphur volatiles exhibited aroma activity, including two of the newly-reported fresh tomato sulphur volatiles, 2-s-butylthiazole and dimethyl sulphide. GC-O aroma profiling indicated that the most intense aroma category was earthy-musty, followed by fruity-floral, green-grassy, sweet-candy and sweaty-stale-sulphurous. PMID:25308674

  14. Combinatorial effects of odorants on mouse behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Luis R.; Kondoh, Kunio; Ye, Xiaolan; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Hernandez, Marcus; Buck, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which odors induce instinctive behaviors are largely unknown. Odor detection in the mouse nose is mediated by >1, 000 different odorant receptors (ORs) and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs). Odor perceptions are encoded combinatorially by ORs and can be altered by slight changes in the combination of activated receptors. However, the stereotyped nature of instinctive odor responses suggests the involvement of specific receptors and genetically programmed neural circuits relatively immune to extraneous odor stimuli and receptor inputs. Here, we report that, contrary to expectation, innate odor-induced behaviors can be context-dependent. First, different ligands for a given TAAR can vary in behavioral effect. Second, when combined, some attractive and aversive odorants neutralize one another’s behavioral effects. Both a TAAR ligand and a common odorant block aversion to a predator odor, indicating that this ability is not unique to TAARs and can extend to an aversive response of potential importance to survival. In vitro testing of single receptors with binary odorant mixtures indicates that behavioral blocking can occur without receptor antagonism in the nose. Moreover, genetic ablation of a single receptor prevents its cognate ligand from blocking predator odor aversion, indicating that the blocking requires sensory input from the receptor. Together, these findings indicate that innate odor-induced behaviors can depend on context, that signals from a single receptor can block innate odor aversion, and that instinctive behavioral responses to odors can be modulated by interactions in the brain among signals derived from different receptors. PMID:27208093

  15. Congruent sound can modulate odor pleasantness.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Lohse, Franziska; Luckett, Curtis R; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to determine 1) whether certain background sounds can be matched with specific odors and 2) whether the background sounds can increase pleasantness for their congruent odors. In Experiment 1, congruent sounds increased odor pleasantness, but not odor intensity, significantly more than incongruent sounds. Experiment 2 demonstrated that certain background sounds can be paired with specific odors. For example, cinnamon, clove, and orange odors were rated significantly more congruent with a Christmas carol compared with the sound of brushing teeth and/or the beach sound. The congruent sounds increased odor pleasantness significantly more than incongruent sounds. Similarly, the congruent sound-induced odor pleasantness was observed in Experiment 3. As participants judged the pair of odor and sound to be more congruent, they rated the odor significantly more pleasant. Congruent sound assisted participants in identifying and in being familiar with the odor, thereby leading to an increase in odor pleasantness. However, the congruent sound-induced odor pleasantness was not obtained in all odors. In conclusion, this study provides new empirical evidence that pleasantness ratings for odors can increase in the presence of their congruent sounds.

  16. Transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from equipment surfaces to fresh-cut leafy greens during processing in a model pilot-plant production line with sanitizer-free water.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2012-11-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens has become a public health concern as a result of several large outbreaks. The goal of this study was to generate baseline data for E. coli O157:H7 transfer from product-inoculated equipment surfaces to uninoculated lettuce during pilot-scale processing without a sanitizer. Uninoculated cored heads of iceberg and romaine lettuce (22.7 kg) were processed using a commercial shredder, step conveyor, 3.3-m flume tank with sanitizer-free tap water, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer, followed by 22.7 kg of product that had been dip inoculated to contain ∼10(6), 10(4), or 10(2) CFU/g of a four-strain avirulent, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 cocktail. After draining the flume tank and refilling the holding tank with tap water, 90.8 kg of uninoculated product was similarly processed and collected in ∼5-kg aliquots. After processing, 42 equipment surface samples and 46 iceberg or 36 romaine lettuce samples (25 g each) from the collection baskets were quantitatively examined for E. coli O157:H7 by direct plating or membrane filtration using tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Initially, the greatest E. coli O157:H7 transfer was seen from inoculated lettuce to the shredder and conveyor belt, with all equipment surface populations decreasing 90 to 99% after processing 90.8 kg of uncontaminated product. After processing lettuce containing 10(6) or 10(4) E. coli O157:H7 CFU/g followed by uninoculated lettuce, E. coli O157:H7 was quantifiable throughout the entire 90.8 kg of product. At an inoculation level of 10(2) CFU/g, E. coli O157:H7 was consistently detected in the first 21.2 kg of previously uninoculated lettuce at 2 to 3 log CFU/100 g and transferred to 78 kg of product. These baseline E. coli O157:H7 transfer results will help determine the degree of sanitizer efficacy required to better ensure the safety of fresh-cut leafy

  17. Analysis of interaction in binary odorant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Smith, B H

    1998-12-01

    An understanding of the olfactory system of any animal must account for how odor mixtures are perceived and processed. The present experiments apply associationist models to the study of how elements are processed in binary odorant mixtures. Using experimental designs for Proboscis Extension Conditioning of honey bees, I show that learning about a pure odorant element is frequently affected by its occurrence in a mixture with a second odorant. Presence of a background odor when an odorant is associated with sucrose reinforcement decreases the rate and/or asymptotic level of associative strength that accumulates to that odorant. This interaction is in part due to synthetic qualities that arise in sensory transduction and initial processing. In addition, it involves an attention-like processing system like that involved in overshadowing. Therefore, a model that includes representations of the component and configural qualities of odorants in mixtures is needed to provide a more complete account of learning about odor mixtures. PMID:9877404

  18. Verbal memory elicited by ambient odor.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Standing, L; de Man, A

    1992-04-01

    This study examined whether an ambient odor can act as a contextual cue for retrieval of verbal stimuli. Subjects (N = 47) learned a list of 24 words while exposed to one of two odors (either jasmine incense or Lauren perfume) and subsequently relearned the list with either the same or the alternative odor present. Superior memory for the word list was found when the odor present during the relearning session was the same one that had been present at the time of initial learning, thereby demonstrating context-dependent memory. There were no differences in initial learning between the two odor conditions. No differences in pleasantness or intensity were found between the odors.

  19. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of “immediate ex vivo” (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Methods Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson’s correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. Results IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r = 0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the

  20. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, Escherichia coli, and nutrient concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three types of wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, and green cedar chips) and corn stover on concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and total Escherichia coli in bedded pack materi...

  1. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces and microbial safety of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fresh produce is a central component of a healthy diet. However, contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables such as leafy greens, tomatoes, cantaloupes is a source of ongoing concern for consumers. Growers, packers, processors and retailers work to control the incidenc...

  2. Color of scents: chromatic stimuli modulate odor responses in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Osterbauer, Robert A; Matthews, Paul M; Jenkinson, Mark; Beckmann, Christian F; Hansen, Peter C; Calvert, Gemma A

    2005-06-01

    Color has a profound effect on the perception of odors. For example, strawberry-flavored drinks smell more pleasant when colored red than green and descriptions of the "nose" of a wine are dramatically influenced by its color. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate a neurophysiological correlate of these cross-modal visual influences on olfactory perception. Subjects were scanned while exposed either to odors or colors in isolation or to color-odor combinations that were rated on the basis of how well they were perceived to match. Activity in caudal regions of the orbitofrontal cortex and in the insular cortex increased progressively with the perceived congruency of the odor-color pairs. These findings demonstrate the neuronal correlates of olfactory response modulation by color cues in brain areas previously identified as encoding the hedonic value of smells. PMID:15689393

  3. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 3 - chemical emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on study to the National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS). The objective of this study was to measure odor emissions and corresponding concentrations and emissions of target odorous gases. Odor and odorous gas measurements at four NAEMS sites (dairy barns in Wisconsin-WI5B...

  4. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 3. Chemical emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to measure the long-term odor emissions and corresponding concentrations and emissions of 20 odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study was an add-on study to the National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Odor and odorous gas measurements at four NAEM...

  5. Reduction of mental stress with lavender odorant.

    PubMed

    Motomura, N; Sakurai, A; Yotsuya, Y

    2001-12-01

    The effect of the lavender odorant on a Japanese version of Cox and Mackay's stress/arousal adjective checklist for three groups was studied. One group of 14 was placed into a (2 x 2- x 3 m) sound protected room for 20 min without the presentation of an odor, an analogous group of 15 received the odor oil, and one group of 13 received a nonstressful condition. Analysis suggested that lavender odorants were associated with reduced mental stress and increased arousal rate.

  6. An odor stimulator controlling odor temporal pattern applicable in insect olfaction study.

    PubMed

    Okada, Koutaroh; Sakuma, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    The olfactory system of an insect brain codes for information about odorant quality and quantity using the temporal pattern of neural activity as well as neurons' firing. Although an accurate odor temporal pattern is indispensable for investigations of olfactory systems, it is difficult to control in conventional odor stimulators. To overcome this problem, we fabricated an odor stimulator that can control the odor temporal pattern. The stimulator has 3 major parts: an "odor conditioner," with odor-laden air prepared with known concentrations of odorants; a Pitot tube; and a small wind tunnel of laminar flow. Using this stimulator, we realized not only timing control of the odor stimulation with millisecond order but also constant odor concentrations or intensity of stimulation, with error of 2.4% in replicated trials. PMID:19363088

  7. Masera's organ responds to odorants.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D A; Maruniak, J A

    1986-02-26

    Electroolfactogram (EOG) recordings from the rat septal olfactory organ (SO) provide the first demonstration of its broad-range chemosensitivity, and clearly establish this structure as a functioning component of the mammalian intranasal chemosensory system. SO sensitivity to lower concentrations of at least one common test odorant (pentyl acetate) exceeds that at sites located on the septal portion of the main olfactory neuroepithelium. Signals from the SO, as first proposed, thus could have an alerting function and provide information relevant to odor stimulus assessment. PMID:3697687

  8. CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

  9. Effects of vomeronasal organ removal on olfactory sex discrimination and odor preferences of female ferrets.

    PubMed

    Woodley, S K; Cloe, A L; Waters, P; Baum, M J

    2004-10-01

    Previous research suggests that body odorants, including anal scents and urinary odors, contribute to sex discrimination and mate identification in European ferrets of both sexes. We assessed the possible role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in these functions by surgically removing the organ bilaterally in sexually experienced female ferrets. Lesioned (VNOx) and sham-operated control (VNOi) females reliably discriminated between male- and female-derived anal scent gland as well as fresh urinary odors in habituation/dishabituation tests. However, VNOi females spent significantly more time than VNOx subjects investigating male urinary odors in these tests. Also, VNOi females, but not VNOx subjects, preferred to investigate day-old male versus female urine spots as well as wooden blocks that had previously been soiled by male versus female ferrets. Both groups of female ferrets preferred to approach volatile odors from a breeding male instead of an estrous female in Y-maze tests and both groups showed similar levels of receptive sexual behavior in response to a male's neck grip. The VNO is apparently not required for olfactory sex discrimination or mate recognition in this carnivore, but instead may play a role in promoting continued contact with nonvolatile body odors previously deposited by opposite-sex conspecifics during territorial scent marking. PMID:15466811

  10. Odor Coding by a Mammalian Receptor Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Harumi; Chi, Qiuyi; Zhuang, Hanyi; Matsunami, Hiro; Mainland, Joel D.

    2009-01-01

    Deciphering olfactory encoding requires a thorough description of the ligands that activate each odorant receptor (OR). In mammalian systems, however, ligands are known for fewer than 50 of over 1400 human and mouse ORs, greatly limiting our understanding of olfactory coding. We performed high-throughput screening of 93 odorants against 464 ORs expressed in heterologous cells and identified agonists for 52 mouse and 10 human ORs. We used the resulting interaction profiles to develop a predictive model relating physicochemical odorant properties, OR sequences, and their interactions. Our results provide a basis for translating odorants into receptor neuron responses and unraveling mammalian odor coding. PMID:19261596

  11. Multivariate prediction of odor from pig production based on in-situ measurement of odorants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.; Løkke, Mette Marie; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Feilberg, Anders

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate a prediction model for odor from pig production facilities based on measurements of odorants by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Odor measurements were performed at four different pig production facilities with and without odor abatement technologies using a newly developed mobile odor laboratory equipped with a PTR-MS for measuring odorants and an olfactometer for measuring the odor concentration by human panelists. A total of 115 odor measurements were carried out in the mobile laboratory and simultaneously air samples were collected in Nalophan bags and analyzed at accredited laboratories after 24 h. The dataset was divided into a calibration dataset containing 94 samples and a validation dataset containing 21 samples. The prediction model based on the measurements in the mobile laboratory was able to explain 74% of the variation in the odor concentration based on odorants, whereas the prediction models based on odor measurements with bag samples explained only 46-57%. This study is the first application of direct field olfactometry to livestock odor and emphasizes the importance of avoiding any bias from sample storage in studies of odor-odorant relationships. Application of the model on the validation dataset gave a high correlation between predicted and measured odor concentration (R2 = 0.77). Significant odorants in the prediction models include phenols and indoles. In conclusion, measurements of odorants on-site in pig production facilities is an alternative to dynamic olfactometry that can be applied for measuring odor from pig houses and the effects of odor abatement technologies.

  12. Cognitive Facilitation Following Intentional Odor Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence that, in addition to incidental olfactory pollutants, intentional odor delivery can impact cognitive operations both positively and negatively. Evidence for cognitive facilitation/interference is reviewed alongside four potential explanations for odor-induced effects. It is concluded that the pharmacological properties of odors can induce changes in cognition. However, these effects can be accentuated/attenuated by the shift in mood following odor exposure, expectancy of cognitive effects, and cues to behavior via the contextual association with the odor. It is proposed that greater consideration is required in the intentional utilization of odors within both industrial and private locations, since differential effects are observed for odors with positive hedonic qualities. PMID:22163909

  13. Molecular profiling of activated olfactory neurons identifies odorant receptors for odors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue; Gong, Naihua Natalie; Hu, Xiaoyang Serene; Ni, Mengjue Jessica; Pasi, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system uses a large family of odorant receptors to detect and discriminate amongst a myriad of volatile odor molecules. Understanding odor coding requires comprehensive mapping between odorant receptors and corresponding odors. Here we present high–throughput in vivo identification of odorant receptor repertoires responding to odorants, using phosphorylated ribosome immunoprecipitation of mRNA from olfactory epithelium of odor–stimulated mice followed by RNA–Seq. This approach screens the endogenously expressed odorant receptors against an odor in one set of experiments, using awake and freely behaving mice. In combination with validations in a heterologous system, we identify sets of odorant receptors for two odorants, acetophenone and 2,5–dihydro–2,4,5–trimethylthiazoline (TMT), encompassing 69 odorant receptor–odorant pairs. We also identified shared amino acid residues specific to the acetophenone or TMT receptors, and developed models to predict receptor activation by acetophenone. This study provides a means to understand the combinatorial coding of odors in vivo. PMID:26322927

  14. Hydrogen photoproduction in green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii sustainable over 2 weeks with the original cell culture without supply of fresh cells nor exchange of the whole culture medium.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Takafumi; Yamashita, Kyohei; Okada, Norihide; Isono, Takumi; Momose, Daisuke; Mineki, Shigeru; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    Unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are known to make hydrogen photoproduction under the anaerobic condition with water molecules as the hydrogen source. Since the hydrogen photoproduction occurs for a cell to circumvent crisis of its survival, it is only temporary. It is a challenge to realize persistent hydrogen production because the cells must withstand stressful conditions to survive with alternation of generations in the cell culture. In this paper, we have found a simple and cost-effective method to sustain the hydrogen production over 14 days in the original culture, without supply of fresh cells nor exchange of the culture medium. This is achieved for the cells under hydrogen production in a sulfur-deprived culture solution on the {anaerobic, intense light} condition in a desiccator, by periodically providing a short period of the recovery time (2 h) with a small amount of TAP(+S) supplied outside of the desiccator. As this operation is repeated, the response time of transition into hydrogen production (preparation time) is shortened and the rate of hydrogen production (build up time) is increased. The optimum states of these properties favorable to the hydrogen production are attained in a few days and stably sustained for more than 10 days. Since generations are alternated during this consecutive hydrogen production experiment, it is suggested that the improved hydrogen production properties are inherited to next generations without genetic mutation. The properties are reset only when the cells are placed on the {sulfur-sufficient, aerobic, moderate light} conditions for a long time (more than 1 day at least). PMID:27083446

  15. Characterization of epoxydecenal isomers as potent odorants in black tea (Dimbula) infusion.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Kenji; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2006-06-28

    In a black tea (Dimbula) infusion, the potent "sweet and/or juicy" odorants were identified as the cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenals by comparison of their gas chromatography retention indices, mass spectra, and odor quality to those of the actual synthetic compounds. Of the two odorants, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal has been identified for the first time in the black tea. On the basis of the aroma extract dilution analysis on the flavor distillate obtained using the solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique from the black tea infusion, these isomers showed higher flavor dilution (FD) factors. The FD factors and concentrations of these odorants in the black tea infusion were observed to be much higher than those from Japanese green tea. In addition, the model studies showed that these odorants were generated from linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides by heating, but the generated amounts of these odorants from linoleic acid were much less than those of its hydroperoxides. It can be assumed from these results that the withering and fermentation, which are characteristic processes during the manufacturing of the black tea, which includes the enzymatic reaction such as lipoxygenase, is one of the most important factors for the formation of the epoxydecenal isomers.

  16. Characterization of epoxydecenal isomers as potent odorants in black tea (Dimbula) infusion.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Kenji; Wada, Yoshiyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2006-06-28

    In a black tea (Dimbula) infusion, the potent "sweet and/or juicy" odorants were identified as the cis- and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenals by comparison of their gas chromatography retention indices, mass spectra, and odor quality to those of the actual synthetic compounds. Of the two odorants, cis-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal has been identified for the first time in the black tea. On the basis of the aroma extract dilution analysis on the flavor distillate obtained using the solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique from the black tea infusion, these isomers showed higher flavor dilution (FD) factors. The FD factors and concentrations of these odorants in the black tea infusion were observed to be much higher than those from Japanese green tea. In addition, the model studies showed that these odorants were generated from linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides by heating, but the generated amounts of these odorants from linoleic acid were much less than those of its hydroperoxides. It can be assumed from these results that the withering and fermentation, which are characteristic processes during the manufacturing of the black tea, which includes the enzymatic reaction such as lipoxygenase, is one of the most important factors for the formation of the epoxydecenal isomers. PMID:16787030

  17. Red junglefowl have individual body odors.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds. PMID:20435811

  18. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Sandra T.; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics. PMID:24860522

  19. Elaborated Odor Test for Extended Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Henry, Emily J.; Mast, Dion J.; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Tapia, Alma S.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns were raised when incidental exposure to a proprietary bonding material revealed the material had an irritating odor. The NASA-STD-6001B document describes a supplemental test method option for programs to evaluate materials with odor concerns (Test 6, Odor Assessment). In addition to the supplemental standard odor assessment with less than 10 seconds of exposure, the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Materials Flight Acceptance Testing section was requested to perform an odor test with an extended duration to evaluate effects of an extended exposure and to more closely simulate realistic exposure scenarios. With approval from the NASA Johnson Space Center Industrial Hygienist, WSTF developed a 15-minute odor test method. WSTF performed this extended-duration odor test to evaluate the odor and physical effects of the bonding material configured between two aluminum plates, after the safety of the gas was verified via toxicity analysis per NASA-STD-6001B Test 7, Determination of Offgassed Products. During extended-duration testing, odor panel members were arranged near the test material in a small room with the air handlers and doors closed to minimize dilution. The odor panel members wafted gas toward themselves and recorded their individual assessments of odor and physical effects at various intervals during the 15-minute exposure and posttest. A posttest interview was conducted to obtain further information. Testing was effective in providing data for comparison and selection of an optimal offgassing and odor containment configuration. The developed test method for extended exposure is proposed as a useful tool for further evaluating materials with identified odors of concern if continued use of the material is anticipated.

  20. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    PubMed

    Glass, Sandra T; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  1. Positive relationship between odor identification and affective responses of negatively valenced odors.

    PubMed

    Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Plotěná, Dagmar; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hedonic ratings of odors and olfactory preferences are influenced by a number of modulating factors, such as prior experience and knowledge about an odor's identity. The present study addresses the relationship between knowledge about an odor's identity due to prior experience, assessed by means of a test of cued odor identification, and odor pleasantness ratings in children who exhibit ongoing olfactory learning. Ninety-one children aged 8-11 years rated the pleasantness of odors in the Sniffin' Sticks test and, subsequently, took the odor identification test. A positive association between odor identification and pleasantness was found for two unpleasant food odors (garlic and fish): higher pleasantness ratings were exhibited by those participants who correctly identified these odors compared to those who failed to correctly identify them. However, we did not find a similar effect for any of the more pleasant odors. The results of this study suggest that pleasantness ratings of some odors may be modulated by the knowledge of their identity due to prior experience and that this relationship might be more evident in unpleasant odors. PMID:26029143

  2. Odor Landscapes in Turbulent Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celani, Antonio; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Vergassola, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    The olfactory system of male moths is exquisitely sensitive to pheromones emitted by females and transported in the environment by atmospheric turbulence. Moths respond to minute amounts of pheromones, and their behavior is sensitive to the fine-scale structure of turbulent plumes where pheromone concentration is detectible. The signal of pheromone whiffs is qualitatively known to be intermittent, yet quantitative characterization of its statistical properties is lacking. This challenging fluid dynamics problem is also relevant for entomology, neurobiology, and the technological design of olfactory stimulators aimed at reproducing physiological odor signals in well-controlled laboratory conditions. Here, we develop a Lagrangian approach to the transport of pheromones by turbulent flows and exploit it to predict the statistics of odor detection during olfactory searches. The theory yields explicit probability distributions for the intensity and the duration of pheromone detections, as well as their spacing in time. Predictions are favorably tested by using numerical simulations, laboratory experiments, and field data for the atmospheric surface layer. The resulting signal of odor detections lends itself to implementation with state-of-the-art technologies and quantifies the amount and the type of information that male moths can exploit during olfactory searches.

  3. Effect of odors in asthma.

    PubMed

    Shim, C; Williams, M H

    1986-01-01

    Many patients complain that some odors worsen their asthma. Perfume and cologne are two of the most frequently mentioned offenders. Four patients with a history of worsening of asthma on exposure to cologne underwent challenge with a cologne, and their pulmonary function was tested before, during, and after the exposure. Forced expiratory volume in one second declined 18 to 58 percent below the baseline period during the 10-minute exposure and gradually increased in the next 20 minutes. Saline placebo pretreatment did not affect the response to subsequent challenge. Single-blind pretreatment with metaproterenol and atropine prevented decline in one-second forced expiratory volume in three of four patients and blunted the response in the other. Cromolyn sodium prevented decline in one of four, and occlusion of nostrils prevented decline in one of three. A survey of 60 asthmatic patients revealed a history of respiratory symptoms in 57 on exposure to one or more common odors. Odors are an important cause of worsening of asthma.

  4. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged cattle manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P < 0.001). In fresh manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) over no addition treatments when carbohydrate (starch or cellulose) was added, whereas starch and protein treatments to aged manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P < 0.001). Branched-chain VFA and aromatic compounds accumulated only in the aged manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would

  5. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged cattle manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P < 0.001). In fresh manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) over no addition treatments when carbohydrate (starch or cellulose) was added, whereas starch and protein treatments to aged manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P < 0.001). Branched-chain VFA and aromatic compounds accumulated only in the aged manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would

  6. An odor flux model for cattle feedlots

    SciTech Connect

    Ormerod, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Odor nuisance associated with cattle feedlots has been an issue of major interest and concern to regulators, rural communities and the beef industry in Australia over the past decade. Methods of assessing the likely impacts of new feedlots on community odor exposure are still being developed, but in the past few years much has been learnt about the processes of odor generation, flux and dispersion as well as the acceptability of feedlot odor to exposed communities. This paper outlines a model which simulates the complex physical and chemical processes leading to odor emissions in a simple and practical framework. The model, named BULSMEL, has been developed as a response to regulatory requirements for quantitative assessments of odor impact. It will continue to be refined as more data are gathered.

  7. Encoding and decoding of overlapping odor sequences.

    PubMed

    Broome, Bede M; Jayaraman, Vivek; Laurent, Gilles

    2006-08-17

    Odors evoke complex responses in locust antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs)-the mitral cell analogs. These patterns evolve over hundreds of milliseconds and contain information about odor identity and concentration. In nature, animals often encounter many odorants in short temporal succession. We explored the effects of such conditions by presenting two different odors with variable intervening delays. PN ensemble representations tracked stimulus changes and, in some delay conditions, reached states that corresponded neither to the representation of either odor alone nor to the static mixture of the two. We then recorded from Kenyon cells (KCs), the PNs' targets. Their responses were consistent with the PN population's behavior: in some conditions, KCs were recruited that did not fire during single-odor or mixture stimuli. Thus, PN population dynamics are history dependent, and responses of individual KCs are consistent with piecewise temporal decoding of PN output over large sections of the PN population.

  8. Odors Discrimination by Olfactory Epithelium Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Ye, Weiwei; Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Humans are exploring the bionic biological olfaction to sense the various trace components of gas or liquid in many fields. For achieving the goal, we endeavor to establish a bioelectronic nose system for odor detection by combining intact bioactive function units with sensors. The bioelectronic nose is based on the olfactory epithelium of rat and microelectrode array (MEA). The olfactory epithelium biosensor generates extracellular potentials in presence of odor, and presents obvious specificity under different odors condition. The odor response signals can be distinguished with each other effectively by signal sorting. On basis of bioactive MEA hybrid system and the improved signal processing analysis, the bioelectronic nose will realize odor discrimination by the specific feature of signals response to various odors.

  9. Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, David; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-05-17

    Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) Each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction, and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor arrays.

  10. Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

  11. Unpleasant odors increase aversion to monetary losses.

    PubMed

    Stancak, Andrej; Xie, Yuxin; Fallon, Nicholas; Bulsing, Patricia; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Pantelous, Athanasios A

    2015-04-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of equal nominal values. Unpleasant odors not only influence affective state but have also been shown to activate brain regions similar to those mediating loss aversion. Therefore, we hypothesized a stronger loss aversion in a monetary gamble task if gambles were associated with an unpleasant as opposed to pleasant odor. In thirty human subjects, unpleasant (methylmercaptan), pleasant (jasmine), and neutral (clean air) odors were presented for 4 s. At the same time, uncertain gambles offering an equal chance of gain or loss of a variable amount of money, or a prospect of an assured win were displayed. One hundred different gambles were presented three times, each time paired with a different odor. Loss aversion, risk aversion, and logit sensitivity were evaluated using non-linear fitting of individual gamble decisions. Loss aversion was larger when prospects were displayed in the presence of methylmercaptan compared to jasmine or clean air. Moreover, individual differences in changes in loss aversion to the unpleasant as compared to pleasant odor correlated with odor pleasantness but not with odor intensity. Skin conductance responses to losses during the outcome period were larger when gambles were associated with methylmercaptan compared to jasmine. Increased loss aversion while perceiving an unpleasant odor suggests a dynamic adjustment of loss aversion toward greater sensitivity to losses. Given that odors are biological signals of hazards, such adjustment of loss aversion may have adaptive value in situations entailing threat or danger. PMID:25711689

  12. Children's Facial Responsiveness to Odors: Influences of Hedonic Valence of Odor, Gender, Age, and Social Presence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soussignan, Robert; Schall, Benoist

    1996-01-01

    Facial responsiveness to pleasant and unpleasant odors was examined in 5- to 12-year-old children. Children failed to display reflex-like patterns, but exhibited facial configurations that varied according to odor and social condition. Results suggest that facial responsiveness to odors is flexible and able to reorganize and supports emotional and…

  13. Kraft Board Odor Evaluation by Gas Chromatography and Odor Judging Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenot, J. L.

    This is an experimental study which was undertaken to determine if a gas chromatographic technique could be used to measure paperboard odor levels. Because there are many variations to odor testing using a panel of judges - which is the generally accepted method - the author states that, obviously, an objective method for ascertaining odor levels…

  14. Characterization of odor emission on the working face of landfill and establishing of odorous compounds index.

    PubMed

    Wenjing, Lu; Zhenhan, Duan; Dong, Li; Jimenez, Luis Miguel Caicedo; Yanjun, Liu; Hanwen, Guo; Hongtao, Wang

    2015-08-01

    Temporal variation (seasonal and daily) of odor emission on the working face of a large sanitary landfill in China was characterized through a 2 yearlong case study. Odor pollution was most serious in spring and autumn, while lower odor concentrations were detected in summer and winter. The daily fluctuation of odor concentration on the working face showed that 2:00am, 6:00am, 2:00pm and 10:00pm were the "most probable times" for odor pollution occurrence, which deserves focused attention in odor control projects. Correlations analysis found that 41% of the variance in odor concentrations can be explained by the chemical concentrations of odorous compounds. Moreover, the selection criteria for the index of odorous compounds were also established by evaluating the odor concentration, contribution to odor strength and the frequency of each compound present in all the samples. Ethyl alcohol, α-piene, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, limonene, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, and diethyl sulfide comprise the index of odorous compounds on the working face of typical municipal solid waste landfill in China.

  15. Deodorant Characteristics of Breath Odor Occurred from Favorite Foods Using Metal Oxide Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Shuichi; Oyabu, Takashi; Cai, Kuiqian; Katsube, Teruaki

    Three types of metal oxide gas sensors were adopted to detect the degree of breath odor. Various sorts of information are included in the odor. Each sensor has different sensitivities to gaseous chemical substances and the sensitivities also differ according to human behaviors, for example taking a meal, teeth-brushing and drinking something. There is also a possibility that the sensor can detect degrees of daily fatigue. Sensor sensitivities were low for the expiration of the elderly when the subject drank green tea. In this study, it is thought that the odor system can be incorporated into a healing robot. The robot can communicate with the elderly using several words and also connect to Internet. As for the results, the robot can identify basic human behaviors and recognize the living conditions of the resident. Moreover, it can also execute a kind of information retrieval through the Internet. Therefore, it has healing capability for the aged, and can also receive and transmit information.

  16. Positive relationship between odor identification and affective responses of negatively valenced odors

    PubMed Central

    Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Plotěná, Dagmar; Roberts, S. Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hedonic ratings of odors and olfactory preferences are influenced by a number of modulating factors, such as prior experience and knowledge about an odor’s identity. The present study addresses the relationship between knowledge about an odor’s identity due to prior experience, assessed by means of a test of cued odor identification, and odor pleasantness ratings in children who exhibit ongoing olfactory learning. Ninety-one children aged 8–11 years rated the pleasantness of odors in the Sniffin’ Sticks test and, subsequently, took the odor identification test. A positive association between odor identification and pleasantness was found for two unpleasant food odors (garlic and fish): higher pleasantness ratings were exhibited by those participants who correctly identified these odors compared to those who failed to correctly identify them. However, we did not find a similar effect for any of the more pleasant odors. The results of this study suggest that pleasantness ratings of some odors may be modulated by the knowledge of their identity due to prior experience and that this relationship might be more evident in unpleasant odors. PMID:26029143

  17. Sparse, Decorrelated Odor Coding in the Mushroom Body Enhances Learned Odor Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Andrew C.; Bygrave, Alexei; de Calignon, Alix; Lee, Tzumin; Miesenböck, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sparse coding may be a general strategy of neural systems to augment memory capacity. In Drosophila, sparse odor coding by the Kenyon cells of the mushroom body is thought to generate a large number of precisely addressable locations for the storage of odor-specific memories. However, it remains untested how sparse coding relates to behavioral performance. Here we demonstrate that sparseness is controlled by a negative feedback circuit between Kenyon cells and the GABAergic anterior paired lateral (APL) neuron. Systematic activation and blockade of each leg of this feedback circuit show that Kenyon cells activate APL and APL inhibits Kenyon cells. Disrupting the Kenyon cell-APL feedback loop decreases the sparseness of Kenyon cell odor responses, increases inter-odor correlations, and prevents flies from learning to discriminate similar, but not dissimilar, odors. These results suggest that feedback inhibition suppresses Kenyon cell activity to maintain sparse, decorrelated odor coding and thus the odor-specificity of memories. PMID:24561998

  18. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  20. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  1. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  2. 46 CFR 58.16-25 - Odorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Odorization. 58.16-25 Section 58.16-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-25 Odorization. (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 169.571 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Odorizing units. 169.571 Section 169.571 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.571 Odorizing units. Each carbon...

  4. 46 CFR 169.571 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Odorizing units. 169.571 Section 169.571 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.571 Odorizing units. Each carbon...

  5. 46 CFR 169.571 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Odorizing units. 169.571 Section 169.571 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.571 Odorizing units. Each carbon...

  6. Age-Related Changes in Odor Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Mahmut, Mehmet; Sundqvist, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Odor naming and recognition memory are poorer in children than in adults. This study explored whether such differences might result from poorer discriminative ability. Experiment 1 used an oddity test of discrimination with familiar odors on 6-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults. Six-year-olds were significantly poorer at discrimination relative…

  7. Impaired odor perception in tank cleaners.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, R; Berglund, B; Berglund, U; Lindvall, T; Wennberg, A

    1986-12-01

    The olfactory perception of 20 men (tank cleaners) exposed to petroleum products (while cleaning oil tanks) was examined. Office workers and watchmen were used as referents (N = 20 + 20). They were matched with regard to sex, age, and smoking habits. Odor detection thresholds and the perceived odor intensity of four odorous stimuli, pyridine, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), n-butanol, and heating oil vapor (gas phase of heating oil heated to +40 degrees C), were determined. The results suggested that the tank cleaners had higher absolute odor thresholds for n-butanol and oil vapor than the referents. The psychophysical function of the tank cleaners and referents differed for all the tested substances in respect to odor intensity. The tank cleaners displayed an odor deficit analogous to the hearing loss known as "loudness recruitment," ie, normal perception of strong stimuli but impaired perception of weak stimuli. This odor deficit was therefore named "odor intensity recruitment" and seems, in tank cleaners, to be associated with occupational exposure to oil vapor.

  8. Functional neuronal processing of human body odors.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Johan N; Olsson, Mats J

    2010-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life.

  9. Impaired odor perception in tank cleaners.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, R; Berglund, B; Berglund, U; Lindvall, T; Wennberg, A

    1986-12-01

    The olfactory perception of 20 men (tank cleaners) exposed to petroleum products (while cleaning oil tanks) was examined. Office workers and watchmen were used as referents (N = 20 + 20). They were matched with regard to sex, age, and smoking habits. Odor detection thresholds and the perceived odor intensity of four odorous stimuli, pyridine, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), n-butanol, and heating oil vapor (gas phase of heating oil heated to +40 degrees C), were determined. The results suggested that the tank cleaners had higher absolute odor thresholds for n-butanol and oil vapor than the referents. The psychophysical function of the tank cleaners and referents differed for all the tested substances in respect to odor intensity. The tank cleaners displayed an odor deficit analogous to the hearing loss known as "loudness recruitment," ie, normal perception of strong stimuli but impaired perception of weak stimuli. This odor deficit was therefore named "odor intensity recruitment" and seems, in tank cleaners, to be associated with occupational exposure to oil vapor. PMID:3823805

  10. Functional Neuronal Processing of Human Body Odors

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Johan N.; Olsson, Mats J.

    2013-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life. PMID:20831940

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  12. [Selective feeding in fish: Effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural odors].

    PubMed

    Kasumyan, A O; Marusov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural olfactory signals (the food odor, the alarm pheromone) on choice and consumption of food items different in color and taste, and the manifestation of foraging behavior were examined in fish (koi Cyprinus carpio, roach Rutilus rutilus). The agar-agar pellets of red and green color having one of the amino acids (glycine, L-proline, L-alanine; all in concentration of 0.1 M) were simultaneously offered to single fishes in pure water, and in water extract of Chironomidae larvae or in water extract of fish skin. It was found out that odors used have different effects on fish foraging activity and on pellet selection for both pellet choice and consumption. On background of food odor, fish grasped pellets more often than in pure water. The equal choice of red and green pellets in pure water shifted to the preference of red ones in the presence of food odor. Despite the increase in the absolute number of pellets grasped, the relative consumption reduced and was replaced by selective consumption of pellets with glycine regardless of their color. Increasing demand for the food quality, due to the increased feeding motivation in response to food odor, is an important adaptation enhancing selection and consumption of food with more appropriate sensory qualities for fish. Defensive motivation caused by alarm pheromone suppressed predisposition. of fish to feed. Fish grasped pellets several times less often than in pure water and refused most of them. Any changes in the color or taste preferences were absent. Feeding behavior of fish of both species was characterized by repeated intraoral pellet testing, but in koi handling was less typical than in roach. In both species, handling activity was higher in those cases when the pellet was finally rejected. This activity was enhanced also on the background of food odor. PMID:26201217

  13. [Selective feeding in fish: Effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural odors].

    PubMed

    Kasumyan, A O; Marusov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural olfactory signals (the food odor, the alarm pheromone) on choice and consumption of food items different in color and taste, and the manifestation of foraging behavior were examined in fish (koi Cyprinus carpio, roach Rutilus rutilus). The agar-agar pellets of red and green color having one of the amino acids (glycine, L-proline, L-alanine; all in concentration of 0.1 M) were simultaneously offered to single fishes in pure water, and in water extract of Chironomidae larvae or in water extract of fish skin. It was found out that odors used have different effects on fish foraging activity and on pellet selection for both pellet choice and consumption. On background of food odor, fish grasped pellets more often than in pure water. The equal choice of red and green pellets in pure water shifted to the preference of red ones in the presence of food odor. Despite the increase in the absolute number of pellets grasped, the relative consumption reduced and was replaced by selective consumption of pellets with glycine regardless of their color. Increasing demand for the food quality, due to the increased feeding motivation in response to food odor, is an important adaptation enhancing selection and consumption of food with more appropriate sensory qualities for fish. Defensive motivation caused by alarm pheromone suppressed predisposition. of fish to feed. Fish grasped pellets several times less often than in pure water and refused most of them. Any changes in the color or taste preferences were absent. Feeding behavior of fish of both species was characterized by repeated intraoral pellet testing, but in koi handling was less typical than in roach. In both species, handling activity was higher in those cases when the pellet was finally rejected. This activity was enhanced also on the background of food odor.

  14. Natural variation in odorant recognition among odorant-binding proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Lyman, Richard F; Mackay, Trudy F C; Anholt, Robert R H

    2010-03-01

    Chemical recognition is essential for survival and reproduction. Adaptive evolution has resulted in diverse chemoreceptor families, in which polymorphisms contribute to individual variation in chemosensation. To gain insights into the genetic determinants of individual variation in odorant recognition, we measured olfactory responses to two structurally similar odorants in a population of wild-derived inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are the first components of the insect olfactory system to encounter odorants. Previously four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Obp99 group were associated with variation in olfactory responses to benzaldehyde. Here, we identify six different SNPs that are associated with variation in responses to a structurally similar odorant, acetophenone, in the same Obp genes. Five SNPs are in coding regions of Obp99b and Obp99d and one SNP is in the 3'-untranslated region of Obp99a (A610G). We found that the 610G allele is associated with higher response scores to acetophenone than the 610A allele, but with lower expression of Obp99a, suggesting that binding of acetophenone to Opb99a might limit rather than facilitate access to odorant receptors. Our results show that overlapping sets of OBPs contribute to odorant recognition for structurally similar odorants, but that different SNPs are associated with odorant-specific individual variation. Thus, dual olfactory recognition where OBPs regulate odorant access to receptors may enhance olfactory discrimination. PMID:20026676

  15. A statistical property of fly odor responses is conserved across odors.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Charles F

    2016-06-14

    I have reanalyzed the data presented by Hallem and Carlson [Hallem EA, Carlson JR (2006) Cell 125(1):143-160] and shown that the combinatorial odor code supplied by the fruit fly antenna is a very simple one in which nearly all odors produce, statistically, the same neuronal response; i.e., the probability distribution of sensory neuron firing rates across the population of odorant sensory neurons is an exponential for nearly all odors and odor mixtures, with the mean rate dependent on the odor concentration. Between odors, then, the response differs according to which sensory neurons are firing at what individual rates and with what mean population rate, but not in the probability distribution of firing rates. This conclusion is independent of adjustable parameters, and holds both for monomolecular odors and complex mixtures. Because the circuitry in the antennal lobe constrains the mean firing rate to be the same for all odors and concentrations, the odor code is what is known as maximum entropy. PMID:27247407

  16. Odorant concentration differentiator for intermittent olfactory signals.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Terufumi; Kazawa, Tomoki; Sakurai, Takeshi; Fukushima, Ryota; Uchino, Keiro; Yamagata, Tomoko; Namiki, Shigehiro; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-12-10

    Animals need to discriminate differences in spatiotemporally distributed sensory signals in terms of quality as well as quantity for generating adaptive behavior. Olfactory signals characterized by odor identity and concentration are intermittently distributed in the environment. From these intervals of stimulation, animals process odorant concentration to localize partners or food sources. Although concentration-response characteristics in olfactory neurons have traditionally been investigated using single stimulus pulses, their behavior under intermittent stimulus regimens remains largely elusive. Using the silkmoth (Bombyx mori) pheromone processing system, a simple and behaviorally well-defined model for olfaction, we investigated the neuronal representation of odorant concentration upon intermittent stimulation in the naturally occurring range. To the first stimulus in a series, the responses of antennal lobe (AL) projection neurons (PNs) showed a concentration dependence as previously shown in many olfactory systems. However, PN response amplitudes dynamically changed upon exposure to intermittent stimuli of the same odorant concentration and settled to a constant, largely concentration-independent level. As a result, PN responses emphasized odorant concentration changes rather than encoding absolute concentration in pulse trains of stimuli. Olfactory receptor neurons did not contribute to this response transformation which was due to long-lasting inhibition affecting PNs in the AL. Simulations confirmed that inhibition also provides advantages when stimuli have naturalistic properties. The primary olfactory center thus functions as an odorant concentration differentiator to efficiently detect concentration changes, thereby improving odorant source orientation over a wide concentration range.

  17. Bleaching process preferred to decontaminate odorants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The problem of decontaminating and disposing of out-of-service gas odorizers has long faced both gas transmission and distribution companies since the early 1980s. Finding a methodology to safely and effectively decontaminate odorant-contaminated equipment has caused many companies to simply cap the equipment and put it in storage. The recommended process of decontamination by odorant manufacturers is currently a bleaching-type process. A sodium hypochlorite solution is added to water and either circulated or left standing in the contaminated equipment. The sodium hypochlorite effectively neutralizes the smell of the odorant and slightly corrodes the inside of the equipment to neutralize any odorant which has permeated the metal. The waste sodium hypochlorite and water is then shipped as hazardous waste (pH of 12.5) or non-hazardous waste after the pH has been adjusted. The bleaching process has proven cost-effective and less time-consuming than most other methods including bioremediation. To effectively use it, there are several problems to overcome--most importantly the removal of residual product and the release of vapors into the atmosphere. River Valley Technologies, a contractor located in Cincinnati, OH, specializing in odorant-equipment decontamination, has developed several methods and engineering controls to eliminate most of the problems associated with decontaminating odorant equipment. The paper describes these methods.

  18. Odor recognition: familiarity, identifiability, and encoding consistency.

    PubMed

    Rabin, M D; Cain, W S

    1984-04-01

    The investigation examined the association between the perceived identity of odorous stimuli and the ability to recognize the previous occurrence of them. The stimuli comprised 20 relatively familiar odorous objects such as chocolate, leather, popcorn, and soy sauce. Participants rated the familiarity of the odors and sought to identify them. At various intervals up to 7 days after initial inspection, the participants sought to recognize the odors among sets of distractor odors that included such items as soap, cloves, pipe tobacco, and so on. The recognition response entailed a confidence rating as to whether or not an item had appeared in the original set. At the time of testing, the participants also sought to identify the stimuli again. The results upheld previous findings of excellent initial recognition memory for environmentally relevant odors and slow forgetting. The results also uncovered, for the first time, a strong association between recognition memory and identifiability, rated familiarity, and the ability to use an odor label consistently at inspection and subsequent testing. Encodability seems to enhance rather than to permit recognizability. Even items identified incorrectly or inconsistently were recognized at levels above chance.

  19. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  20. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  1. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  2. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  3. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  4. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult.

  5. Fabrication of Odor Sensor Using Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokebuchi, Yuta; Hayashi, Kenshi; Toko, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ronggang; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    We report fabrication of an odor sensor using peptides. Peptides were designed to acquire the specific reception for a target odor molecule. Au surface of the sensor electrode was coated by the designed peptide using the method of self assembled monolayers (SAMs). Functionalized Au surfaces by the peptides were confirmed by ellipsometry and cyclic voltammetry. The odorants of vanillin, phenethyl alcohol and hexanol were discriminated by QCM sensor with the peptide surface. Moreover, we verified specific interaction between amino acid (Trp) and vanillin by fluorescence assay.

  6. Odor mental imagery in non-experts in odors: a paradox?

    PubMed Central

    Royet, Jean-Pierre; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Plailly, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In agreement with the theoretical framework stipulating that mental images arise from neural activity in early sensory cortices, the primary olfactory cortex [i.e., the piriform cortex (PC)] is activated when non-olfactory-experts try to generate odor mental images. This finding strongly contrasts with the allegation that it is typically impossible to mentally imagine odors. However, other neurophysiological or cognitive processes engaged in the endeavor of odor mental imagery such as sniffing, attention, expectation, and cross-modal interactions involve the PC and could explain this paradox. To unambiguously study the odor mental imagery, we first argued the need to investigate odor experts who have learned to specifically reactivate olfactory percepts. We then assert the necessity to explore the network dedicated to this function by considering variations in both the activity level and the connection strength of the areas belonging to this network as a function of the level of expertise of the odor experts. PMID:23519325

  7. Life span changes in the verbal categorization of odors.

    PubMed

    Russell, M J; Cummings, B J; Profitt, B F; Wysocki, C J; Gilbert, A N; Cotman, C W

    1993-03-01

    An odor description task was used to explore age-related change in odor perception based on 1.19 million U.S. and Canadian respondents (ages 10-90 years) to the National Geographic Smell Survey. Respondents sampled six microencapsulated odorants and selected 1 of 11 descriptors to characterize each smell. Four odors were characterized by strong consensus endorsement of a single descriptor. This consensus weakened with advancing age, and nonmodal descriptors were endorsed more frequently. Nonmodal responses were neither randomly selected, nor systematically biased across odors. Rather, they showed odor-specific patterns of change. Together, these results suggest a marked change in odor categorization across the life span. Odor descriptor profiles were used to generate age-specific multidimensional scaling maps. Stimulus configurations were stable from the third through fifth decades. Those from the sixth through ninth decades showed major displacements for two odors, and suggest that the sweet dimension of odor quality may be particularly variable with maturation.

  8. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: part 1 - project overview, collection methods, and quality control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock facilities have historically generated public concerns due to their emissions of odorous air and various chemical pollutants. Odor emission factors and identification of principal odorous chemicals are needed to better understand the problem. Applications of odor emission factors include i...

  9. Odor composition analysis and odor indicator selection during sewage sludge composting

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan-li; Zheng, Guo-di; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-bin; Wu, Fang-kun; Niu, Ming-jie; Zou, Ke-hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On the basis of total temperature increase, normal dehydration, and maturity, the odor compositions of surface and internal piles in a well-run sewage sludge compost plant were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with a liquid nitrogen cooling system and a portable odor detector. Approximately 80 types of substances were detected, including 2 volatile inorganic compounds, 4 sulfur organic compounds, 16 benzenes, 27 alkanes, 15 alkenes, and 19 halogenated compounds. Most pollutants were mainly produced in the mesophilic and pre-thermophilic periods. The sulfur volatile organic compounds contributed significantly to odor and should be controlled primarily. Treatment strategies should be based on the properties of sulfur organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, and carbon disulfide were selected as core indicators. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and isopentane were designated as concentration indicators. Benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, dimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylbenzene were selected as health indicators. According to the principle of odor pollution indicator selection, dimethyl disulfide was selected as an odor pollution indicator of sewage sludge composting. Monitoring dimethyl disulfide provides a highly scientific method for modeling and evaluating odor pollution from sewage sludge composting facilities. Implications: Composting is one of the most important methods for sewage sludge treatment and improving the low organic matter content of many agricultural soils. However, odors are inevitably produced during the composting process. Understanding the production and emission patterns of odors is important for odor control and treatment. Core indicators, concentration indicators, and health indicators provide an index

  10. Olfaction Presentation System Using Odor Scanner and Odor-Emitting Apparatus Coupled with Chemical Capsules of Alginic Acid Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakairi, Minoru; Nishimura, Ayako; Suzuki, Daisuke

    For the purpose of the application of odor to information technology, we have developed an odor-emitting apparatus coupled with chemical capsules made of alginic acid polymer. This apparatus consists of a chemical capsule cartridge including chemical capsules of odor ingredients, valves to control odor emission, and a temperature control unit. Different odors can be easily emitted by using the apparatus. We have developed an integrated system of vision, audio and olfactory information in which odor strength can be controlled coinciding with on-screen moving images based on analytical results from the odor scanner.

  11. Odorant receptors of Drosophila are sensitive to the molecular volume of odorants.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Majid; Seyed-Allaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Which properties of a molecule define its odor? This is a basic yet unanswered question regarding the olfactory system. The olfactory system of Drosophila has a repertoire of approximately 60 odorant receptors. Molecules bind to odorant receptors with different affinities and activate them with different efficacies, thus providing a combinatorial code that identifies odorants. We hypothesized that the binding affinity of an odorant-receptor pair is affected by their relative sizes. The maximum affinity can be attained when the molecular volume of an odorant matches the volume of the binding pocket. The affinity drops to zero when the sizes are too different, thus obscuring the effects of other molecular properties. We developed a mathematical formulation of this hypothesis and verified it using Drosophila data. We also predicted the volume and structural flexibility of the binding site of each odorant receptor; these features significantly differ between odorant receptors. The differences in the volumes and structural flexibilities of different odorant receptor binding sites may explain the difference in the scents of similar molecules with different sizes. PMID:27112241

  12. Odorant receptors of Drosophila are sensitive to the molecular volume of odorants

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Majid; Seyed-allaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Which properties of a molecule define its odor? This is a basic yet unanswered question regarding the olfactory system. The olfactory system of Drosophila has a repertoire of approximately 60 odorant receptors. Molecules bind to odorant receptors with different affinities and activate them with different efficacies, thus providing a combinatorial code that identifies odorants. We hypothesized that the binding affinity of an odorant-receptor pair is affected by their relative sizes. The maximum affinity can be attained when the molecular volume of an odorant matches the volume of the binding pocket. The affinity drops to zero when the sizes are too different, thus obscuring the effects of other molecular properties. We developed a mathematical formulation of this hypothesis and verified it using Drosophila data. We also predicted the volume and structural flexibility of the binding site of each odorant receptor; these features significantly differ between odorant receptors. The differences in the volumes and structural flexibilities of different odorant receptor binding sites may explain the difference in the scents of similar molecules with different sizes. PMID:27112241

  13. Time course of androgenic modulation of odor preferences and odor cues in male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

    PubMed

    Ferkin, M H

    1992-12-01

    During the breeding season, male meadow voles prefer female over male odors and females prefer male over female odors. Testosterone control of males' odor preferences and production of odors attractive to females differ. A male meadow vole's preference for female versus male odor was still evident 1 week after castration, but not 1 week later. This preference was reinstated in testosterone-treated male voles 2 weeks after the onset of hormone replacement. The attractiveness of male odors to females did not disappear until 3 weeks after castration. The attractiveness of male odors was reinstated 1 week after castrated males were treated with testosterone. The time course for the androgenic modulation of production of odors attractive to females may facilitate breeding. For example, at the end of the breeding season males may emit an odor that is still attractive to females. Similarly, at the beginning of the breeding season males may emit an odor that is attractive to females. PMID:1478635

  14. Semantic, typicality and odor representation: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Chrea, C; Valentin, D; Sulmont-Rossé, C; Nguyen, D Hoang; Abdi, H

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated odor-category organization in three cultures by evaluating (i) the relationship between linguistic and perceptual categorization and (ii) the existence of an internal structure of odor categories. In the first experiment, three groups of 30 participants from American, French and Vietnamese cultures performed a sorting task. The first group sorted 40 odorants on the basis of odor similarity, the second group sorted 40 odor names on the basis of name similarity and the last group sorted 40 odor names on the basis of imagined odor similarity. Results showed that odor categorization was based on perceptual or conceptual similarity and was in part independent of word and imagined categorizations. In the second experiment, another group of 30 participants from each culture rated the typicality of the odorants for 11 odor categories. Results showed that some odorants were rated as more typical than others. Moreover, the typicality gradient predicted the odor space obtained in the odor sorting task in a consensual way among the three cultures. These results suggest that, as for other categories, odor categories are based on perceptual similarities rather than on semantic cues. Moreover odor-category structure might have a core representation which might be common to different cultures with boundaries which might be more culturally dependent.

  15. On the dimensionality of odor space.

    PubMed

    Meister, Markus

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in understanding human olfactory experience from a principled and quantitative standpoint. The comparison is often made to color vision, where a solid framework with a three-dimensional perceptual space enabled a rigorous search for the underlying neural pathways, and the technological development of lifelike color display devices. A recent, highly publicized report claims that humans can discriminate at least 1 trillion odors, which exceeds by many orders of magnitude the known capabilities of color discrimination. This claim is wrong. I show that the failure lies in the mathematical method used to infer the size of odor space from a limited experimental sample. Further analysis focuses on establishing how many dimensions the perceptual odor space has. I explore the dimensionality of physical, neural, and perceptual spaces, drawing on results from bacteria to humans, and propose some experimental approaches to better estimate the number of discriminable odors.

  16. Odor-induced mood state modulates language comprehension by affecting processing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Zhou, Bin; Zhou, Wen; Yang, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    It is controversial whether mood affects cognition by triggering specific processing strategies or by limiting processing resources. The current event-related potential (ERP) study pursued this issue by examining how mood modulates the processing of task relevant/irrelevant information. In question-answer pairs, a question context marked a critical word in the answer sentence as focus (and thus relevant) or non-focus (thereby irrelevant). At the same time, participants were exposed to either a pleasant or unpleasant odor to elicit different mood states. Overall, we observed larger N400s when the critical words in the answer sentences were semantically incongruent (rather than congruent) with the question context. However, such N400 effect was only found for focused words accompanied by a pleasant odor and for both focused and non-focused words accompanied by an unpleasant odor, but not for non-focused words accompanied by a pleasant odor. These results indicate top-down attentional shift to the focused information in a positive mood state and non-selective attention allocated to the focused and non-focused information in a less positive mood state, lending support to the “processing strategy” hypothesis. By using a novel approach to induce mood states, our study provides fresh insights into the mechanisms underlying mood modulation of language comprehension. PMID:27796356

  17. Ontogeny of Odor-LiCl vs. Odor-Shock Learning: Similar Behaviors but Divergent Ages of Functional Amygdala Emergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raineki, Charlis; Shionoya, Kiseko; Sander, Kristin; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Both odor-preference and odor-aversion learning occur in perinatal pups before the maturation of brain structures that support this learning in adults. To characterize the development of odor learning, we compared three learning paradigms: (1) odor-LiCl (0.3M; 1% body weight, ip) and (2) odor-1.2-mA shock (hindlimb, 1sec)--both of which…

  18. Composting public health aspects: Odors and bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.

    1995-09-01

    The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.

  19. Are odorant-binding proteins involved in odorant discrimination?

    PubMed

    Steinbrecht, R A

    1996-12-01

    Pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea of nine moth species belonging to six families and three superfamilies of Lepidoptera were immunolabelled with an antiserum against the pheromone-binding protein of Antheraea polyphemus. Strong immunolabelling of the sensillum lymph was observed in all long sensilla trichodea of A. polyphemus, A. pernyi (Saturniidae), Bombyx mori (Bombycidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Very weak labelling was found with all sensilla trichodea of Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lasiocampidae) and Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae). In three noctuid species, some long sensilla trichodea were labelled strongly, some only weakly and some were not labelled at all. The fraction of long sensilla trichodea that were strongly labelled was large in Helicoverpa armigera, but small in Spodoptera littoralis and Autographa gamma. The observed cross-reactivity was not correlated with taxonomic relatedness of the species but rather with chemical relatedness of the pheromones used by these species, as a high labelling density was consistently observed in sensilla tuned to pheromones with an alcyl chain of 16 carbon atoms. The highly divergent specificity of pheromone-receptor cells in Noctuidae appears to be mirrored by a similar diversity of the pheromone-binding proteins in the sensilla trichodea. These data support the notion that pheromone-binding proteins participate in odorant discrimination.

  20. Are odorant-binding proteins involved in odorant discrimination?

    PubMed

    Steinbrecht, R A

    1996-12-01

    Pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea of nine moth species belonging to six families and three superfamilies of Lepidoptera were immunolabelled with an antiserum against the pheromone-binding protein of Antheraea polyphemus. Strong immunolabelling of the sensillum lymph was observed in all long sensilla trichodea of A. polyphemus, A. pernyi (Saturniidae), Bombyx mori (Bombycidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Very weak labelling was found with all sensilla trichodea of Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lasiocampidae) and Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae). In three noctuid species, some long sensilla trichodea were labelled strongly, some only weakly and some were not labelled at all. The fraction of long sensilla trichodea that were strongly labelled was large in Helicoverpa armigera, but small in Spodoptera littoralis and Autographa gamma. The observed cross-reactivity was not correlated with taxonomic relatedness of the species but rather with chemical relatedness of the pheromones used by these species, as a high labelling density was consistently observed in sensilla tuned to pheromones with an alcyl chain of 16 carbon atoms. The highly divergent specificity of pheromone-receptor cells in Noctuidae appears to be mirrored by a similar diversity of the pheromone-binding proteins in the sensilla trichodea. These data support the notion that pheromone-binding proteins participate in odorant discrimination. PMID:8985600

  1. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  2. Odor investigation of a Portland cement plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pleus, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    The main concern expressed by Smithville residents is whether the odors they were smelling during odor events were due to chemicals that could cause adverse health effects. Odors were allegedly emanating from the town`s Portland cement plant. The purpose of the study was to measure the ambient air for 20 reduced sulfur, 50 volatile organic compounds, and air samples for olfactometric analysis. Carbonyl sulfide was found to be at a concentration that could create a sense of odor and irritation. This sense of irritation may be due to a physiological response by the central nervous system, and is not associated with any known adverse effects. This physiological response could account for some or all of the irritation experienced by residents during odor events. Comparing chemical concentrations that were detected in air samples to standard and recognized guidelines for acceptable exposure, all measured concentrations were found to be well below the acceptable criteria. From these data the authors conclude that no acute or chronic adverse health effects are expected at the concentrations of the chemicals detected downwind of the cement plant, either routinely or during odor events.

  3. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture Regulations... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer...

  4. Robust and Rapid Air-Borne Odor Tracking without Casting.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Urvashi; Bhalla, Upinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Casting behavior (zigzagging across an odor stream) is common in air/liquid-borne odor tracking in open fields; however, terrestrial odor localization often involves path selection in a familiar environment. To study this, we trained rats to run toward an odor source in a multi-choice olfactory arena with near-laminar airflow. We find that rather than casting, rats run directly toward an odor port, and if this is incorrect, they serially sample other sources. This behavior is consistent and accurate in the presence of perturbations, such as novel odors, background odor, unilateral nostril stitching, and turbulence. We developed a model that predicts that this run-and-scan tracking of air-borne odors is faster than casting, provided there are a small number of targets at known locations. Thus, the combination of best-guess target selection with fallback serial sampling provides a rapid and robust strategy for finding odor sources in familiar surroundings. PMID:26665165

  5. Robust and Rapid Air-Borne Odor Tracking without Casting.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Urvashi; Bhalla, Upinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Casting behavior (zigzagging across an odor stream) is common in air/liquid-borne odor tracking in open fields; however, terrestrial odor localization often involves path selection in a familiar environment. To study this, we trained rats to run toward an odor source in a multi-choice olfactory arena with near-laminar airflow. We find that rather than casting, rats run directly toward an odor port, and if this is incorrect, they serially sample other sources. This behavior is consistent and accurate in the presence of perturbations, such as novel odors, background odor, unilateral nostril stitching, and turbulence. We developed a model that predicts that this run-and-scan tracking of air-borne odors is faster than casting, provided there are a small number of targets at known locations. Thus, the combination of best-guess target selection with fallback serial sampling provides a rapid and robust strategy for finding odor sources in familiar surroundings.

  6. Neonatal Odor-Shock Conditioning Alters the Neural Network Involved in Odor Fear Learning at Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevelinges, Yannick; Sullivan, Regina M.; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Adult learning and memory functions are strongly dependent on neonatal experiences. We recently showed that neonatal odor-shock learning attenuates later life odor fear conditioning and amygdala activity. In the present work we investigated whether changes observed in adults can also be observed in other structures normally involved, namely…

  7. Direct nuclear magnetic resonance observation of odorant binding to mouse odorant receptor MOR244-3.

    PubMed

    Burger, Jessica L; Jeerage, Kavita M; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    Mammals are able to perceive and differentiate a great number of structurally diverse odorants through the odorant's interaction with odorant receptors (ORs), proteins found within the cell membrane of olfactory sensory neurons. The natural gas industry has used human olfactory sensitivity to sulfur compounds (thiols, sulfides, etc.) to increase the safety of fuel gas transport, storage, and use through the odorization of this product. In the United States, mixtures of sulfur compounds are used, but the major constituent of odorant packages is 2-methylpropane-2-thiol, also known as tert-butyl mercaptan. It has been fundamentally challenging to understand olfaction and odorization due to the low affinity of odorous ligands to the ORs and the difficulty in expressing a sufficient number of OR proteins. Here, we directly observed the binding of tert-butyl mercaptan and another odiferous compound, cis-cyclooctene, to mouse OR MOR244-3 on living cells by saturation transfer difference (STD) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This effort lays the groundwork for resolving molecular mechanisms responsible for ligand binding and resulting signaling, which in turn will lead to a clearer understanding of odorant recognition and competition.

  8. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human ...

  9. Comparative Study of the Volatile Components of Fresh and Fermented Flowers of Alnus sieboldiana (Betulaceae).

    PubMed

    Ab Ghani, Nurunajah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the volatile components present in the fresh male and female flowers and young leaves shows that 2-phenylethanol is the major component in all these three organs, which play a significant role in the strong resinous aromatic odor. The male flowers contained styrene as a second major compound. The level of styrene does not affect the male flowers odor concentration. The level of β-phenylethyl cinnamate and trans-methyl cinnamate in the fermented male flowers decreased as the fermentation time increased. This was due to the Penicillium enzymatic action on the fermented male flowers.

  10. Feasibility Study of Odor Biosensor Using Dissociate Neuronal Culture with Gene Expression of Ionotropic Odorant Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanada, Norio; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Bakkum, Douglas; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    We propose a highly sensitive and real-time odor biosensor by expressing ionotropic odorant receptors of insects into dissociated cultures of neurons of rats. The odorant-gated ion channel structure of insect odorant receptor is expected to allow easy functional expression into cells. The neuronal dissociated cultures of rats have two significant advantages: a long lifetime comparable to rats, i.e., a few years; and amplification ability from weak ionic currents of odorant receptors into easily detectable action potentials of neurons. In the present work, in order to show the feasibility of the proposed sensor, we attempt to express the pheromone receptors of silkmoth, Bombyx mori, into cultured neurons of rats. We demonstrate that 10% of neuronal cells transfected using Lipofectamine successfully expressed pheromone receptors, and that these cells showed significant increase of calcium signals by 50% at the presentation of pheromone.

  11. Natural gas odor level testing: Instruments and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, E.H.

    1995-12-01

    An odor in natural and LP gases is necessary. The statistics are overwhelming; when gas customers can smell a leak before the percentage of gas in air reaches a combustible mixture, the chances of an accident are greatly reduced. How do gas companies determine if there is sufficient odor reaching every gas customers home? Injection equipment is important. The rate and quality of odorant is important. Nevertheless, precision odorization alone does not guarantee that customers` homes always have gas with a readily detectable odor. To secure that goal, odor monitoring instruments are necessary.

  12. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  13. Food odors trigger Drosophila males to deposit a pheromone that guides aggregation and female oviposition decisions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Preti, George; Potter, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Animals use olfactory cues for navigating complex environments. Food odors in particular provide crucial information regarding potential foraging sites. Many behaviors occur at food sites, yet how food odors regulate such behaviors at these sites is unclear. Using Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model, we found that males deposit the pheromone 9-tricosene upon stimulation with the food-odor apple cider vinegar. This pheromone acts as a potent aggregation pheromone and as an oviposition guidance cue for females. We use genetic, molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches to show that 9-tricosene activates antennal basiconic Or7a receptors, a receptor activated by many alcohols and aldehydes such as the green leaf volatile E2-hexenal. We demonstrate that loss of Or7a positive neurons or the Or7a receptor abolishes aggregation behavior and oviposition site-selection towards 9-tricosene and E2-hexenal. 9-Tricosene thus functions via Or7a to link food-odor perception with aggregation and egg-laying decisions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08688.001 PMID:26422512

  14. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; McConnell, Laura; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Razote, Edna; Hatfield, Jerry

    2011-08-01

    Odors from cattle feedlots can negatively affect air quality in local communities. Our objectives were the following: 1) identify key odor-causing compounds using odor activity values (OAVs) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques; 2) compare odor threshold values from published databases; and 3) track the movement of odors from a cattle feedlot to receptor community. Odorous compounds emitted from a cattle feedlot were sampled on-site, 250 m downwind and 3.2 km downwind using both sorbent tubes and denuders. Sorbent tubes were analyzed by both GC-MS and GC-MS-O and key odorants determined using both OAV and GC-Surface Nasal Impact Frequency (SNIF) analysis, while denuders were analyzed by ion chromatography. Odorant concentrations had a diurnal pattern with peak concentrations during early morning and late evening periods. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were the most abundant of the major odorants. Odorants with concentrations above their odor threshold values at the feedlot included amines, VFAs, phenol compounds, and indole compounds. Key odorants at the feedlot were VFAs and phenol compounds, but their relative importance diminished with downwind distance. Indole compounds, while not the key odorants at the feedlot, increased in relative importance downwind of the feedlot. In general, the odorous compounds identified by GC-SNIF and OAV as having fecal/manure nature were similar. GC-SNIF was the more sensitive analytical technique; it identified several compounds that may have contributed to the unpleasantness of the cattle feedlot odor, but its throughput was extremely low thereby limiting its usefulness. There is a need to improve field sampling devices and odor threshold databases to enhance understanding and confidence in evaluating odors.

  15. The Influence of Odors on Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Millot, Jean-Louis; Laurent, Lucie; Casini, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The effect of an olfactory stimulation on the perception of time was investigated through two different experiments based on temporal bisection tasks. In experiment 1, the durations to be classified as either short or long were centered on 400 ms while in Experiment 2 there were centered on 2000 ms. The participants were different in the two experiments (36 subjects in each one). In each experiment, half of the subjects learnt the anchor durations when smelling an unpleasant odor (decanoic acid) and the other half when smelling no odor. After the learning phase, both groups were tested with and without odor. The results showed opposite effects depending on the duration range. The subjects underestimated the time in the presence of the unpleasant odor in the short duration range while they overestimated it in the long duration range. The results have been discussed in the framework of the pacemaker-counter clock model and a potential emotional effect induced by the odor on the subjective time perception has also been considered. PMID:26925008

  16. How do mice follow odor trails?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, David; Trastour, Sophie; Mishra, Shruti; Mathis, Alexander; Murthy, Venkatesh; Brenner, Michael P.

    2015-11-01

    Mice are excellent at following odor trails e.g. to locate food or to find mates. However, it is not yet understood what navigation strategies they use. In principle, they could either evaluate temporal differences between sniffs or they could use concurrent input from the two nostrils. It is unknown to what extend these two strategies contribute to mice's performance. When mice follow trails, odors evaporate from the ground, are transported by flow in the air, and are then inhaled with the two nostrils. In order to differentiate between the two navigation strategies, we determine what information the mouse receives: first, we calculate the airflow by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We then determine the spatiotemporal odor concentration from the resulting advection-diffusion equations. Lastly, we determine the odor amount in each nostril by calculating the inhalation volumes using potential flow theory. Taken together, we determine the odor amount in each nostril during each sniff, allowing a detailed study of navigation strategies.

  17. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  18. Relationship between 3-Methyl-2,4-nonanedione Concentration and Intensity of Light-induced Off-odor in Soy Bean Oil.

    PubMed

    Sano, Takashi; Iwahashi, Maiko; Imagi, Jun; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    A beany and green off-odor is developed in soy bean oil (SBO) under light-induced oxidative conditions. 3-Methyl-2,4-nonanedione (3-MND) was inferred as the compound responsible for the off-odor. In this study, we designed a simple quantification method for 3-MND in SBO, and evaluated the relationship between the 3-MND concentration and the intensity of the off-odor. 3-MND was analyzed by GC/MS with a thermal desorption unit system. By our method, the 3-MND concentration was found to increase with storage days and the SBO content under light exposure, and there was a high correlation between the measured 3-MND concentration and the intensity of the light-induced off-odor in SBO (R = 0.9586).

  19. Odors Pulsed at Wing Beat Frequencies are Tracked by Primary Olfactory Networks and Enhance Odor Detection

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Shreejoy J.; Peters, Oakland J.; Staudacher, Erich M.; Kalwar, Faizan R.; Hatfield, Mandy N.; Daly, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    Each down stroke of an insect's wings accelerates axial airflow over the antennae. Modeling studies suggest that this can greatly enhance penetration of air and air-born odorants through the antennal sensilla thereby periodically increasing odorant-receptor interactions. Do these periodic changes result in entrainment of neural responses in the antenna and antennal lobe (AL)? Does this entrainment affect olfactory acuity? To address these questions, we monitored antennal and AL responses in the moth Manduca sexta while odorants were pulsed at frequencies from 10–72 Hz, encompassing the natural wingbeat frequency. Power spectral density (PSD) analysis was used to identify entrainment of neural activity. Statistical analysis of PSDs indicates that the antennal nerve tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz. Furthermore, at least 50% of AL local field potentials (LFPs) and between 7–25% of unitary spiking responses also tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz in a frequency-locked manner. Application of bicuculline (200 μM) abolished pulse tracking in both LFP and unitary responses suggesting that GABAA receptor activation is necessary for pulse tracking within the AL. Finally, psychophysical measures of odor detection establish that detection thresholds are lowered when odor is pulsed at 20 Hz. These results suggest that AL networks can respond to the oscillatory dynamics of stimuli such as those imposed by the wing beat in a manner analogous to mammalian sniffing. PMID:20407584

  20. Odor-identity dependent motor programs underlie behavioral responses to odors

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Hye; Hueston, Catherine; Bhandawat, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    All animals use olfactory information to perform tasks essential to their survival. Odors typically activate multiple olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes and are therefore represented by the patterns of active ORNs. How the patterns of active ORN classes are decoded to drive behavior is under intense investigation. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we investigate the logic by which odors modulate locomotion. We designed a novel behavioral arena in which we could examine a fly’s locomotion under precisely controlled stimulus condition. In this arena, in response to similarly attractive odors, flies modulate their locomotion differently implying that odors have a more diverse effect on locomotion than was anticipated. Three features underlie odor-guided locomotion: First, in response to odors, flies modulate a surprisingly large number of motor parameters. Second, similarly attractive odors elicit changes in different motor programs. Third, different ORN classes modulate different subset of motor parameters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11092.001 PMID:26439011

  1. Maternal prefrontal cortex activation by newborn infant odors.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Shota; Kuwamoto, Saori; Takahira, Asuka; Miyamura, Tsunetake; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Mothers are attracted by infant cues of a variety of different modalities. To clarify the possible neural mechanisms underlying maternal attraction to infant odor cues, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during odor detection tasks in which 19 mothers and 19 nulliparous females (nonmothers) were presented with infant or adult male odors. They were instructed to make a judgment about whether they smelled an odor during each task. We estimated the PFC activity by measuring the relative oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) concentrations. The results showed that while detecting the infant odors, bilateral PFC activities were increased in mothers but not in nonmothers. In contrast, adult male odors activated the PFC similarly in mothers and nonmothers. These findings suggest that maternal activation of the PFC in response to infant odors explains a part of the neural mechanisms for maternal attraction to infant odors.

  2. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... that is in the LPG in the tank due to a chemical reaction between the odorant and the oxidized (rusted... causes a chemical reaction resulting in a color change of the tube material. The quantity of odorant...

  3. Olfactory receptor neuron profiling using sandalwood odorants.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Stephan; Monastyrskaia, Katherine; Schilling, Boris

    2004-07-01

    The mammalian olfactory system can discriminate between volatile molecules with subtle differences in their molecular structures. Efforts in synthetic chemistry have delivered a myriad of smelling compounds of different qualities as well as many molecules with very similar olfactive properties. One important class of molecules in the fragrance industry are sandalwood odorants. Sandalwood oil and four synthetic sandalwood molecules were selected to study the activation profile of endogenous olfactory receptors when exposed to compounds from the same odorant family. Dissociated rat olfactory receptor neurons were exposed to the sandalwood molecules and the receptor activation studied by monitoring fluxes in the internal calcium concentration. Olfactory receptor neurons were identified that were specifically stimulated by sandalwood compounds. These neurons expressed olfactory receptors that can discriminate between sandalwood odorants with slight differences in their molecular structures. This is the first study in which an important class of perfume compounds was analyzed for its ability to activate endogenous olfactory receptors in olfactory receptor neurons.

  4. Ventilation requirements for control of occupancy odor and tobacco smoke odor: laboratory studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.S.; Isseroff, R.; Leaderer, B.P.; Lipsitt, E.D.; Huey, R.J.; Perlman, D.; Bergland, L.G.; Dunn, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    Experiments on occupancy odor addressed the question of why required ventilation rate per occupant increased progressively with increases in the number of persons in a space. In order to investigate ventilation requirements under approximately ideal conditions, we constructed an aluminum-lined environmental chamber with excellent control over environmental conditions and a ventilation system that provided rapid and uniform mixing of air. Psychophysical experiments on occupancy odor explored 47 different combinations of occupancy density, temperature and humidity, and ventilation rate. The experiments collected judgements both from visitors, who smelled air from the chamber only once every few minutes, and from occupants, who remained in the chamber for an hour at a time. The judgements of visitors revealed that occupancy odor increased only gradually over time and rarely reached very high or objectionable levels. Judgements of occupants also revealed rather minor dissatisfaction. Only during combinations of high temperature and humidity did objectionability become more than a minor issue to either group. Experiments on cigarette smoking explored rates of 4, 8, and 16 cigarettes per hour under various environmental conditions and with ventilation rates as high as 68 cfm (34 L.s/sup -1/) per occupant. As soon as occupants lit cigarettes in the chamber, the odor level increased dramatically. At ventilation rates far greater than necessary to control occupancy odor, the odor from cigarette smoking remained quite intense. In general, the odor proved impossible to control adequately even with a ventilation rate of 68 cfm (34 L.s/sup -1/) per occupant (4 occupants) and even when only one occupant smoked at a time. As in the case of occupancy odor, a combination of high temperature and humidity exacerbated the odor problem.

  5. Odor-taste interactions: effects of attentional strategies during exposure.

    PubMed

    Prescott, John; Johnstone, Victoria; Francis, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    Through repeated pairings with a tastant such as sucrose, odors are able to take on the tastant's qualities, e.g. by becoming more sweet smelling. When such odors are subsequently experienced with a sweet tastant in solution, the mixture is often given a higher sweetness rating than the tastant alone. Odor-induced taste enhancement appears to be sensitive to whether an odor-taste combination is viewed analytically as a set of discrete qualities, or synthetically as a flavor. The present research attempted to determine if adoption of these different perceptual approaches during co-exposure with sucrose would influence the extent to which an odor would become sweet smelling and subsequently enhance sweetness intensity. In Experiment 1, subjects received multiple exposures to mixtures of sucrose with low sweetness, low familiarity odors or, as a control, the odors and sucrose solutions separately. Two groups that received mixtures made intensity ratings that promoted either synthesis or analysis of the individual elements in the mixtures. The odors became sweeter smelling irrespective of group. Only adopting a synthetic strategy produced odors that enhanced sweetness in solution. However, these effects were also shown with a 'non-exposed' control odor. This could be accounted for if the single co-exposure with sucrose that all odors received in the pre-test was able to produce sweeter odors. A second experiment confirmed this prediction. Thus, while even a single co-exposure with sucrose is sufficient to produce a sweeter odor, the adoption of a synthetic perceptual strategy during the co-exposure is necessary to produce an odor that will enhance sweetness. These data are consistent with associative leaning accounts of how odors take on taste qualities and also support the interpretation that these effects reflect the central integration of odors and tastes into flavors.

  6. Sampling Odor Substances by Mist-Cyclone System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Osamu; Jiang, Zhiheng; Toyama, Shigeki

    2009-05-01

    Many techniques have been developed to measure odor substances. However most of those methods are based on using aquatic solutions(1),(2). Many odor substances specifically at low density situation, are difficult to dissolve into water. To absorb odor substances and obtain highest concentration solutions are key problems for olfactory systems. By blowing odor substances contained air mixture through mist of water and then separating the liquid from two-phases fluid with a cyclone unit a high concentration solution was obtained.

  7. Testing for odor discrimination and habituation in mice.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Erin P; Smith, Gregory D; Gomez, Maribel C; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2015-05-05

    This video demonstrates a technique to establish the presence of a normally functioning olfactory system in a mouse. The test helps determine whether the mouse can discriminate between non-social odors and social odors, whether the mouse habituates to a repeatedly presented odor, and whether the mouse demonstrates dishabituation when presented with a novel odor. Since many social behavior tests measure the experimental animal's response to a familiar or novel mouse, false positives can be avoided by establishing that the animals can detect and discriminate between social odors. There are similar considerations in learning tests such as fear conditioning that use odor to create a novel environment or olfactory cues as an associative stimulus. Deficits in the olfactory system would impair the ability to distinguish between contexts and to form an association with an olfactory cue during fear conditioning. In the odor habitation/dishabituation test, the mouse is repeatedly presented with several odors. Each odor is presented three times for two minutes. The investigator records the sniffing time directed towards the odor as the measurement of olfactory responsiveness. A typical mouse shows a decrease in response to the odor over repeated presentations (habituation). The experimenter then presents a novel odor that elicits increased sniffing towards the new odor (dishabituation). After repeated presentation of the novel odor the animal again shows habituation. This protocol involves the presentation of water, two or more non-social odors, and two social odors. In addition to reducing experimental confounds, this test can provide information on the function of the olfactory systems of new knockout, knock-in, and conditional knockout mouse lines.

  8. Preference mapping of frozen and fresh raspberries.

    PubMed

    Villamor, R R; Daniels, C H; Moore, P P; Ross, C F

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify key sensory attributes that influence consumer liking for frozen and fresh red raspberries using preference mapping. Sensory profiling of different raspberry cultivars and selections from the Washington State Univ. and Oregon State Univ. breeding programs was carried out using a trained panel (frozen, n = 12 and fresh, n = 10). In addition, a subset of frozen and fresh raspberries of each cultivar was assessed by consumers for sensory acceptability (n = 105 and n = 100, respectively). Based on overall hedonic ratings, cluster analysis identified 3 clusters of frozen raspberry consumers from day 1 (41% "nondistinguishers," 34% "likers," and 25% "nonlikers") and day 2 (41% "group 1 likers," 26% "nonlikers," and 34% and 33% group 2 likers"). For fresh raspberry consumers, 2 clusters were detected from day 1 (54% "likers" and 46% nondistinguishers") and day 2 (54% "group 1 likers" and 46% "group 2 likers"). Preference mapping was applied on the descriptive sensory and acceptability of clustered consumer data. Partial least squares regression results showed that liking of frozen raspberries was driven by high raspberry flavor, firmness, and sweetness. Conversely, disliking of frozen raspberries was related to high sour and aftertaste intensity. In the case of fresh raspberries, high color uniformity, raspberry aroma, raspberry flavor, floral aroma, green flavor, bitter, astringency, and aftertaste increased the acceptability, whereas high color intensity and green aroma were associated with negative drivers of liking. The information obtained in this study can be a useful guide for breeders in the selection of characteristics for growing superior quality raspberries.

  9. Degradation of Pheromone and Plant Volatile Components by a Same Odorant-Degrading Enzyme in the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nicolas; Carot-Sans, Gerard; Bozzolan, Françoise; Rosell, Gloria; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Chertemps, Thomas; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Background Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs) are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant. Methodology Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants. Conclusion SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla. PMID:22216190

  10. [A case of a child with bad odor].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo; Busso, Raúl; Barcudi, Silvina; Tapia, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    The odor emitted by a patient may be one of the first major clues leading to an early diagnosis. Certain conditions produce a characteristic smell and several diseases are associated with a specific odor. We report an illustrative case and review olfactory physiology, the value of smell in physical examination, and finally discuss several illnesses associated with unusual odors.

  11. Postnatal odorant exposure induces peripheral olfactory plasticity at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Cadiou, Hervé; Aoudé, Imad; Tazir, Bassim; Molinas, Adrien; Fenech, Claire; Meunier, Nicolas; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) form the primary elements of the olfactory system. Inserted in the olfactory mucosa lining of the nasal cavity, they are exposed to the environment and their lifespan is brief. Several reports say that OSNs are regularly regenerated during the entire life and that odorant environment affects the olfactory epithelium. However, little is known about the impact of the odorant environment on OSNs at the cellular level and more precisely in the context of early postnatal olfactory exposure. Here we exposed MOR23-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and M71-GFP mice to lyral or acetophenone, ligands for MOR23 or M71, respectively. Daily postnatal exposure to lyral induces plasticity in the population of OSNs expressing MOR23. Their density decreases after odorant exposure, whereas the amount of MOR23 mRNA and protein remain stable in the whole epithelium. Meanwhile, quantitative PCR indicates that each MOR23 neuron has higher levels of olfactory receptor transcripts and also expresses more CNGA2 and phosphodiesterase 1C, fundamental olfactory transduction pathway proteins. Transcript levels return to baseline after 4 weeks recovery. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that exposed MOR23 neurons respond to lyral with higher sensitivity and broader dynamic range while the responses' kinetics were faster. These effects are specific to the odorant-receptor pair lyral-MOR23: there was no effect of acetophenone on MOR23 neurons and no effect of acetophenone and lyral on the M71 population. Together, our results clearly demonstrate that OSNs undergo specific anatomical, molecular, and functional adaptation when chronically exposed to odorants in the early stage of life.

  12. Behavioral Responses to Mammalian Blood Odor and a Blood Odor Component in Four Species of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical “metallic, blood-like” odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a “character impact compound” of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental

  13. Behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and a blood odor component in four species of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical "metallic, blood-like" odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a "character impact compound" of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental enrichment

  14. Behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and a blood odor component in four species of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sara; Sjöberg, Johanna; Amundin, Mats; Hartmann, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea; Laska, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical "metallic, blood-like" odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a "character impact compound" of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental enrichment

  15. Characterization of the Major Odor-Active Compounds in the Leaves of the Curry Tree Bergera koenigii L. by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin

    2015-04-29

    Curry leaves are a popular seasoning herb with a pronounced sulfury and burnt odor, the molecular background of which was yet unclear. Application of an aroma extract dilution analysis to the volatile fraction of curry leaves isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation afforded 23 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 1 to 8192. On the basis of the comparison of their retention indices, mass spectra, and odor properties with data of reference compounds, the structures of 22 odorants could be assigned, 15 of which had not been reported in curry leaves before. Odorants with high FD factors included 1-phenylethanethiol (FD factor 8192), linalool (4096), α-pinene (2048), 1,8-cineole (1024), (3Z)-hex-3-enal (256), 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (128), myrcene (64), (3Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol (32), and (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal (32). The unique sulfury and burnt odor exhibited by 1-phenylethanethiol in combination with its high FD factor suggested that it constitutes the character impact compound of fresh curry leaf aroma. PMID:25857926

  16. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags.

    PubMed

    Parker, David B; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L; Cole, N Andy; Koziel, Jacek A

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m(-3)) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m(-3)), propionic (15,800 μg m(-3)), isobutyric (1,686 μg m(-3)), butyric (1,049 μg m(-3)), isovaleric (1,236 μg m(-3)), valeric (643 μg m(-3)), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m(-3)) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry.

  17. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  18. Effect of odor preexposure on acquisition of an odor discrimination in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Smith, David W; Wynne, Clive D L

    2014-06-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the impact of odor preexposure treatments on the acquisition of an olfactory discrimination in dogs. In the first experiment, four groups of dogs were each given five days' odor-exposure treatment prior to discrimination training. Dogs in the exposure group were exposed to anise extract (S+) for 30 min daily. Dogs in the Pavlovian-relevant pairing group received six daily delayed-conditioning trials to the same S+. The Pavlovian-irrelevant pairing group received conditioning trials to almond extract (S'). Dogs in the control group received no pretreatment. All of the dogs were then trained to detect S+ from a background pine odor (an AX-vs.-X discrimination). The Pavlovian-relevant pairing group acquired the odor discrimination significantly faster than all of the other exposure and control groups, and the remaining groups acquired the discrimination at the same rate as the no-exposure control group. In a second experiment, we extended these results to a within-subjects design using an AX-versus-BX discrimination. Six dogs were simultaneously trained on two different odor discriminations, one discrimination in which the S+ was previously Pavlovian conditioned, and one discrimination in which the S+ was novel. All of the dogs learned the odor discrimination with the previously conditioned S+ faster than they learned the novel odor discrimination, replicating the results of Experiment 1, and demonstrating that familiarity in the form of Pavlovian conditioning enhances odor-discrimination training. The potential mechanisms of the facilitated transfer of a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus to discrimination training are discussed.

  19. The perception of odor objects in everyday life: a review on the processing of odor mixtures.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Sinding, Charlotte; Romagny, Sébastien; El Mountassir, Fouzia; Atanasova, Boriana; Le Berre, Elodie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie; Coureaud, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Smelling monomolecular odors hardly ever occurs in everyday life, and the daily functioning of the sense of smell relies primarily on the processing of complex mixtures of volatiles that are present in the environment (e.g., emanating from food or conspecifics). Such processing allows for the instantaneous recognition and categorization of smells and also for the discrimination of odors among others to extract relevant information and to adapt efficiently in different contexts. The neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning this highly efficient analysis of complex mixtures of odorants is beginning to be unraveled and support the idea that olfaction, as vision and audition, relies on odor-objects encoding. This configural processing of odor mixtures, which is empirically subject to important applications in our societies (e.g., the art of perfumers, flavorists, and wine makers), has been scientifically studied only during the last decades. This processing depends on many individual factors, among which are the developmental stage, lifestyle, physiological and mood state, and cognitive skills; this processing also presents striking similarities between species. The present review gathers the recent findings, as observed in animals, healthy subjects, and/or individuals with affective disorders, supporting the perception of complex odor stimuli as odor objects. It also discusses peripheral to central processing, and cognitive and behavioral significance. Finally, this review highlights that the study of odor mixtures is an original window allowing for the investigation of daily olfaction and emphasizes the need for knowledge about the underlying biological processes, which appear to be crucial for our representation and adaptation to the chemical environment. PMID:24917831

  20. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    PubMed Central

    Parker, David B.; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L.; Cole, N. Andy; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m−3) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m−3), propionic (15,800 μg m−3), isobutyric (1,686 μg m−3), butyric (1,049 μg m−3), isovaleric (1,236 μg m−3), valeric (643 μg m−3), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m−3) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. PMID:22163671

  1. Turning tryptophanase into odor-generating biosensors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaqin; Zhang, Zhuyuan; Ali, M Monsur; Sauder, Joanna; Deng, Xudong; Giang, Karen; Aguirre, Sergio D; Pelton, Robert; Li, Yingfu; Filipe, Carlos D M

    2014-03-01

    An odor-based sensor system that exploits the metabolic enzyme tryptophanase (TPase) as the key component is reported. This enzyme is able to convert an odorless substrate like S-methyl-L-cysteine or L-tryptophan into the odorous products methyl mercaptan or indole. To make a biosensor, TPase was biotinylated so that it could be coupled with a molecular recognition element, such as an antibody, to develop an ELISA-like assay. This method was used for the detection of an antibody present in nM concentrations by the human nose. TPase can also be combined with the enzyme pyridoxal kinase (PKase) for use in a coupled assay to detect adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). When ATP is present in the low μM concentration range, the coupled enzymatic system generates an odor that is easily detectable by the human nose. Biotinylated TPase can be combined with various biotin-labeled molecular recognition elements, thereby enabling a broad range of applications for this odor-based reporting system.

  2. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Yuji; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61). PMID:27326765

  3. Comparison of models of odor interaction.

    PubMed

    Cain, W S; Schiet, F T; Olsson, M J; de Wijk, R A

    1995-12-01

    Subjects rated the overall perceived intensity of concentrations of the odorants cineole, geraniol, hexyl salicylate, and linalyl acetate smelled alone and in binary mixtures. The subjects also rated intensity of specified constituents (e.g. amount of cineole in cineole, and in mixtures of cineole and linalyl acetate). The intensity of the stronger component alone offered a close description of perceived intensity. In addition to the Stronger Component model, two other psychological models (Vector and U model) and two psychophysical models (UPL2 and Equiratio Mixture model) offered descriptions ranging from fair to very good. Psychological models gave better fits, but lack explanatory power. Some results indicated that weaker odors add more potently than stronger odors, an outcome incompatible with these models. The psychophysical models, based on the additivity of single components, generally overestimated perceived intensity. Judgments of individual qualities gave only slight encouragement to any expectation of differences in masking or maskability among odorants. The results highlight the need to test particular critical hypotheses regarding how people perceive mixtures.

  4. On the dimensionality of odor space

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Markus

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in understanding human olfactory experience from a principled and quantitative standpoint. The comparison is often made to color vision, where a solid framework with a three-dimensional perceptual space enabled a rigorous search for the underlying neural pathways, and the technological development of lifelike color display devices. A recent, highly publicized report claims that humans can discriminate at least 1 trillion odors, which exceeds by many orders of magnitude the known capabilities of color discrimination. This claim is wrong. I show that the failure lies in the mathematical method used to infer the size of odor space from a limited experimental sample. Further analysis focuses on establishing how many dimensions the perceptual odor space has. I explore the dimensionality of physical, neural, and perceptual spaces, drawing on results from bacteria to humans, and propose some experimental approaches to better estimate the number of discriminable odors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07865.001 PMID:26151672

  5. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61). PMID:27326765

  6. EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

  7. Source chemical characterization of swine odor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from swine production have been linked to a host of issues affecting quality of life, property values and potentially human health. Typical compounds and classes of compounds include: sulfides, thiols, acids, phenols, indoles, ammonia and amines. The wide range of compounds assoicated with swi...

  8. Odor identification: perceptual and semantic dimensions.

    PubMed

    Cain, W S; de Wijk, R; Lulejian, C; Schiet, F; See, L C

    1998-06-01

    Five studies explored identification of odors as an aspect of semantic memory. All dealt in one way or another with the accessibility of acquired olfactory information. The first study examined stability and showed that, consistent with personal reports, people can fail to identify an odor one day yet succeed another. Failure turned more commonly to success than vice versa, and once success occurred it tended to recur. Confidence ratings implied that subjects generally knew the quality of their answers. Even incorrect names, though, often carried considerable information which sometimes reflected a semantic and sometimes a perceptual source of errors. The second study showed that profiling odors via the American Society of Testing and Materials list of attributes, an exercise in depth of processing, effected no increment in the identifiability/accessibility beyond an unelaborated second attempt at retrieval. The third study showed that subjects had only a weak ability to predict the relative recognizability of odors they had failed to identify. Whereas the strength of the feeling that they would 'know' an answer if offered choices did not associate significantly with performance for odors, it did for trivia questions. The fourth study demonstrated an association between ability to discriminate among one set of odors and to identify another, but this emerged only after subjects had received feedback about identity, which essentially changed the task to one of recognition and effectively stabilized access. The fifth study illustrated that feedback improves performance dramatically only for odors involved with it, but that mere retrieval leads to some improvement. The studies suggest a research agenda that could include supplemental use of confidence judgments both retrospectively and prospectively in the same subjects to indicate the amount of accessible semantic information; use of second and third guesses to examine subjects' simultaneously held hypotheses about

  9. The Effects of Odor Quality and Temporal Asynchrony on Modulation of Taste Intensity by Retronasal Odor.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Tomoyuki; Wise, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    The experiments had 2 main goals: 1) to add to the sparse literature on how retronasal aromas interact with bitter tastes, and 2) to determine whether modulation of taste intensity by aroma depends on temporal contiguity, as one might expect if flavor interactions depend on cross-modal binding (similar to object perception in other modalities). An olfactometer-gustometer allowed independent oral presentation of odorized air and liquid samples. First, using simultaneous presentation of odors and tastes (Experiments 1a-d) we found that a "sweet-smelling" aroma enhanced the rated sweetness of sucrose and decreased the rated bitterness of sucrose octaacetate (SOA), and that a "bitter-smelling" aroma enhanced the bitterness of SOA and decreased the sweetness of sucrose. Thus, with respect to effects on taste intensity, sweet and bitter aromas mimicked mixture-interactions between sweet and bitter tastes under current conditions. Next (Experiment 2), both odors were again paired with both tastes, with a parametric manipulation of odor onset. Odor presentation ranged from before taste delivery to after taste delivery. Enhancement of taste intensity was greatest with simultaneous onset, and greatly attenuated with offsets of 1s. These results are consistent with the idea that enhancement of taste by retronasal aroma depends on a temporal binding window like many other cross-modal interactions. The effects of temporal offsets on suppression of taste were inconclusive. These findings are discussed within the context of past work on odor-taste interactions. PMID:27143280

  10. Temporal coding of odor mixtures in an olfactory receptor neuron

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chih-Ying; Martelli, Carlotta; Emonet, Thierry; Carlson, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Most natural odors are mixtures and often elicit percepts distinct from those elicited by their constituents. This emergence of a unique odor quality has long been attributed to central processing. Here we show that sophisticated integration of olfactory information begins in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in Drosophila. Odor mixtures are encoded in the temporal dynamics as well as in the magnitudes of ORN responses. ORNs can respond to an inhibitory odorant with different durations depending on the level of background excitation. ORNs respond to mixtures with distinctive temporal dynamics that reflect the physicochemical properties of the constituent odorants. The insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), which attenuates odor responses of multiple ORNs, differs from an ORN-specific inhibitor in its effects on temporal dynamics. Our analysis reveals a means by which integration of information from odor mixtures begins in ORNs and provides insight into the contribution of inhibitory stimuli to sensory coding. PMID:21383179

  11. Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of white pepper powder showing an intense fecal, cowshed-like off-flavor revealed 3-methylindole (fecal, swine-manure) and 4-methylphenol (fecal, horse-like) with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 22 odor-active compounds detected. In addition, high FD factors and/or undesirable odor qualities suggested 3-methylphenol (phenolic), butanoic acid (cheese-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (cheese-like) as well as pentanoic acid and hexanoic acid (cheese-like odors) as contributors to the malodor. Although the intensities of the off-note were clearly different in 50 commercial samples of white pepper, quantitation of 3-methylindole and 3- and 4-methylphenol as well as of the five short-chain acids by means of stable isotope dilution assays showed similar concentrations in most of the samples. Storage of a freshly ground white pepper powder for up to 7 months revealed a significant decrease in the typical odor qualities of white pepper and an increase in the fecal odor note with storage time. Because the concentrations of the odorants mentioned above were not much changed during storage, possibly very volatile odorants, such as alpha-pinene, which are able to mask the malodor, are lost during storage of, in particular, pepper powders. On the basis of odor activity values, which were calculated using breakthrough thresholds, in particular, 3-methylindole, 4-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and butanoic acid could be suggested as the main sources of the fecal off-flavor.

  12. Effect of fragrance use on discrimination of individual body odor

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Caroline; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that artificial fragrances may be chosen to complement or enhance an individual’s body odor, rather than simply masking it, and that this may create an odor blend with an emergent quality that is perceptually distinguishable from body odor or fragrance alone. From this, it can be predicted that a new emergent odor might be more easily identified than an individual’s body odor in isolation. We used a triangle test paradigm to assess whether fragrance affects people’s ability to distinguish between individual odors. Six male and six female donors provided axillary odor samples in three conditions (without fragrance, wearing their own fragrance, and wearing an assigned fragrance). In total, 296 female and 131 male participants selected the odd one from three odor samples (two from one donor, one from another; both of the same sex). We found that participants could discriminate between the odors at above chance levels in all three odor conditions. Olfactory identification ability (measured using Sniffin’ Sticks) positively predicted discrimination performance, and sex differences in performance were also observed, with female raters being correct more often than men. Success rates were also higher for odors of male donors. Additionally, while performance was above chance in all conditions, individual odor discrimination varied across the three conditions. Discrimination rate was significantly higher in the “no fragrance” condition than either of the fragranced conditions. Importantly, however, discrimination rate was also significantly higher in the “own fragrance” condition than the “assigned fragrance” condition, suggesting that naturally occurring variance in body odor is more preserved when blended with fragrances that people choose for themselves, compared with other fragrances. Our data are consistent with the idea that fragrance choices are influenced by fragrance interactions with an individual’s own body odor

  13. Odor representations in the olfactory bulb evolve after the first breath and persist as an odor afterimage

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michael Andrew; Lagier, Samuel; Carleton, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Rodents can discriminate odors in one breath, and mammalian olfaction research has thus focused on the first breath. However, sensory representations dynamically change during and after stimuli. To investigate these dynamics, we recorded spike trains from the olfactory bulb of awake, head-fixed mice and found that some mitral cells’ odor representations changed following the first breath and others continued after odor cessation. Population analysis revealed that these postodor responses contained odor- and concentration-specific information—an odor afterimage. Using calcium imaging, we found that most olfactory glomerular activity was restricted to the odor presentation, implying that the afterimage is not primarily peripheral. The odor afterimage was not dependent on odorant physicochemical properties. To artificially induce aftereffects, we photostimulated mitral cells using channelrhodopsin and recorded centrally maintained persistent activity. The strength and persistence of the afterimage was dependent on the duration of both artificial and natural stimulation. In summary, we show that the odor representation evolves after the first breath and that there is a centrally maintained odor afterimage, similar to other sensory systems. These dynamics may help identify novel odorants in complex environments. PMID:23918364

  14. Proteinaceous precursors of human axillary odor: isolation of two novel odor-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A I; Zeng, X N; Leyden, J J; Preti, G

    1995-01-15

    The characteristic odor which arises in the human axillary region consists of volatile C6-C11 acids with the most abundant being (E)-3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid (E-3M2H). This acid, as well as several other components of the characteristic axillary odor, can be liberated from the odorless, aqueous soluble components of apocrine secretion by either saponification or bacteriolysis. It is therefore likely that a major characteristic odor is being carried to the skin surface bound to a water soluble precursor where it is liberated by axillary bacteria. The individual proteins found in apocrine secretions were separated, isolated and hydrolyzed with the resultant hydrolyzates analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These studies demonstrated that 3M2H was liberated from 2 proteins with apparent molecular mass of 26 and 45 kilodaltons: Apocrine Secretion Odor-Binding Protein 1 and 2, respectively (ASOB1 and ASOB2). Antisera to these proteins were prepared and used to examine a variety of other body fluids. Several fluids contained an immunoreactive protein with the same electropheretic migration pattern as the 45 KDa protein. Three of these body fluids (tears, nasal secretions and saliva) were separated into aqueous and organic soluble fractions and hydrolyzed to demonstrate that 3M2H could be liberated from the aqueous soluble materials. These results suggest interesting parallels between non-human mammalian odors used as chemical signals and human axillary odor. Previous studies have suggested the axillae as a source of human primer-type pheromones; consequently, if the odors which characterize the underarm are responsible for the pheromonal activity, then the chemistry involved may be similar to that in other mammalian chemical communication systems where proteins act as carriers of one or more chemical signals.

  15. From cats and blackcurrants: structure and dynamics of the sulfur-containing cassis odorant cat ketone.

    PubMed

    Mouhib, Halima; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Sulfur-containing odorants and flavors play an important role in flavor and food industry, especially when meaty, garlic, onion, and vegetable scents are needed. Still, many S-containing flavors also possess fruity scents and may be used in compositions of perfumes that require a fresh and fruity odor perception. They are naturally abundant in various fruits, essential oils, and food. Most of these compounds possess strong scents, and their scent composition is highly dependent on the concentration applied. At higher concentrations, they usually feature repellent off-odors, while their sweet and fruity nature is only experienced at very low concentrations. This represents a challenge for their application in perfumery, as well as in food industry. From a molecular point of view, the endless structural and scent variety of these compounds makes them fascinating, especially as their O-analogs are usually free of any malodors. Here, we report on the investigation of the gas-phase structure and dynamics of the S-containing blackcurrant odorant cat ketone (4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one). The work was performed by combining quantum-chemical calculations and molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy as complementary tools. Using this technique, we are able to determine the structures of sizeable molecules where energy differences are small and conformational distinction is not always possible by quantum-chemical calculations alone. The presented results can be used for further structure-activity correlation studies, as well as for benchmarks to improve theoretical models, especially, as there is still significant interest in characterizing the various conformers of organic molecules in terms of relative energies, structures, and dipole moments.

  16. Odor-baited trap trees: a new approach to monitoring plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Prokopy, Ronald J; Chandler, Bradley W; Dynok, Sara A; Piñero, Jaime C

    2003-06-01

    We compared a trap approach with a trap-tree approach to determine the need and timing of insecticide applications against overwintered adult plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst.), in commercial apple orchards in Massachusetts in 2002. All traps and trap trees were baited with benzaldehyde (attractive fruit odor) plus grandisoic acid (attractive pheromone). Sticky clear Plexiglas panel traps placed at orchard borders, designed to intercept adults immigrating from border areas by flight, captured significantly more adults than similarly placed black pyramid traps, which are designed to capture adults immigrating primarily by crawling, or Circle traps wrapped around trunks of perimeter-row trees, which are designed to intercept adults crawling up tree trunks. None of these trap types, however, exhibited amounts of captures that correlated significantly with either weekly or season-long amounts of fresh ovipositional injury to fruit by adults. Hence, none appears to offer high promise as a tool for effectively monitoring the seasonal course of plum curculio injury to apples in commercial orchards in Massachusetts. In contrast, baiting branches of selected perimeter-row trees with benzaldehyde plus grandisoic acid led to significant aggregation (14-15-fold) of ovipositional injury, markedly facilitating monitoring of the seasonal course of injury to apples. A concurrent experiment revealed that addition of other synthetic fruit odor attractants to apple trees baited with benzaldehyde plus grandisoic acid did not enhance aggregation of ovipositional injury above that of this dual combination. We conclude that monitoring apples on odor-baited trap trees for fresh ovipositional injury could be a useful new approach for determining need and timing of insecticide application against plum curculio in commercial orchards.

  17. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control. PMID:26522967

  18. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control. PMID:26522967

  19. Recognition of Bread Key Odorants by Using Polymer Coated QCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Takashi; Kouno, Shinji; Hiruma, Naoya; Shuzo, Masaki; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Polyisobutylene (PIB) polymer and methylphenylsiloxane (25%) diphenylsiloxane (75%) copolymer (OV25) were coated on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors and used in recognition of bread key odorants. Representative compounds of key roasty odorants of bread were taken as 3-acetylpyridine and benzaldehyde, and representative key fatty odorants were hexanal and (E)-2-nonenal. Both OV25- and PIB-coated QCM fabricated sensors could detect concentration as low as 0.9 ppm of 3-acetylpyridine and 1.2 ppm of (E)-2-nonenal. The sensitivity to 3-acetylpyridine of the OV25-coated QCM was about 1000 times higher than that of ethanol, the major interference compound in bread key odorant analysis. Further, the OV25-coated QCM response was 5-6 times and 2-3 times larger than that of the PIB-coated QCM when exposed to roasty odorants and to fatty odorants, respectively. The difference in sensitivity of the OV25- and PIB-coated QCMs we fabricated made possible to discriminate roasty from fatty odorants as was evidenced by the odor recognition map representing the frequency shifts of the OV25-coated QCM against the frequency shift of the PIB-coated QCM. In conclusion, we found that the combination of an OV25-coated QCM and a PIB-coated QCM was successful in discriminating roasty odorants from fatty odorants at the ppm level.

  20. Livestock odors: implications for human health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential effects of livestock odors on the health and well-being of neighbors. Complaints of odor nuisance have become more frequent in communities surrounding areas with high concentrations of livestock. This increase in complaints from livestock odors parallels increased complaints of odor in general, including ammonia, diesel exhaust, beauty products, cleaners, and paints. Persons who report symptoms from odors generally find problems with many different types of odorous compounds. A review of recent studies suggests that the main complaints of health symptoms from odors are eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, and drowsiness. Sensory irritation (pungency) can be produced by a broad range of odorous volatile organic compounds from trees, flowers, foods (pepper and ginger) as well as emissions from livestock operations. Odors can also potentially affect mood and memory. Further research is required to assess fully the health impact of odors in order to establish recommendations for air quality guidelines based on scientific data. PMID:9621940

  1. Visually induced motion sickness can be alleviated by pleasant odors.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Stelzmann, Daniela; Paillard, Aurore; Hecht, Heiko

    2015-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a common side effect in virtual environments and simulators. Several countermeasures against VIMS exist, but a reliable method to prevent or ease VIMS is unfortunately still missing. In the present study, we tested whether olfactory cues can alleviate VIMS. Sixty-two participants were exposed to a 15-min-long video showing a first-person-view bicycle ride that had successfully induced VIMS in previous studies. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups; the first group was exposed to a pleasant odor (rose) while watching the video, the second group was exposed to an unpleasant odor (leather), and the third group was not exposed to any odor. VIMS was measured using a verbal rating scale (0-20) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed that only half of the participants who were exposed to the odor did notice it (n = 21), whereas the other half failed to detect the odor. However, among those participants who did notice the odor, the rose scent significantly reduced the severity of VIMS compared to the group that did not notice the odor. A moderate positive correlation between odor sensitivity and VIMS showed that participants with higher odor sensitivity also reported stronger VIMS. Our results demonstrate that olfaction can modulate VIMS and that a pleasant odor can potentially reduce VIMS. The relationship between olfactory perception, olfactory sensibility, and VIMS is discussed.

  2. Identification of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Turetsky, Bruce I; Moberg, Paul J

    2011-05-15

    Recent work on odor hedonics in schizophrenia has indicated that patients display abnormalities in hedonic judgments of odors in comparison to healthy comparison participants. In the current study, identification accuracy for pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls was examined. Thirty-three schizophrenia patients (63% male) and thirty-one healthy volunteers (65% male) were recruited. The groups were well matched on age, sex, and smoking status. Participants were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, which was subsequently divided into 16 pleasant, 15 neutral, and 9 unpleasant items. Analysis of identification z-scores for pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors revealed a significant diagnosis by valence interaction. Post-hoc analysis revealed that schizophrenia participants made more identification errors on pleasant and neutral odors compared to healthy controls, with no differences observed for unpleasant odors. No effect was seen for sex. The findings from the current investigation suggest that odor identification accuracy in patients is influenced by odor valence. This pattern of results parallels a growing body of literature indicating that patients display aberrant pleasantness ratings for pleasant odors and highlights the need for additional research on the influence of odor valence on olfactory identification performance in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:21239063

  3. Body Odor Based Personality Judgments: The Effect of Fragranced Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor (BO) alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples - one with and one without cosmetic use); the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers' ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; r s = 0.20) than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; r s = 0.15). Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (r s = 0.34 for natural BO and r s = 0.21 for BO+cosmetics), whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors' body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor.

  4. Body Odor Based Personality Judgments: The Effect of Fragranced Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor (BO) alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples – one with and one without cosmetic use); the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers’ ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; rs = 0.20) than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; rs = 0.15). Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (rs = 0.34 for natural BO and rs = 0.21 for BO+cosmetics), whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors’ body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor. PMID:27148138

  5. Air Pollution and Odor in Communities Near Industrial Swine Operations

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve; Horton, Rachel Avery; Marshall, Stephen W.; Thu, Kendall; Tajik, Mansoureh; Schinasi, Leah; Schiffman, Susan S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Odors can affect health and quality of life. Industrialized animal agriculture creates odorant compounds that are components of a mixture of agents that could trigger symptoms reported by neighbors of livestock operations. Objective We quantified swine odor episodes reported by neighbors and the relationships of these episodes with environmental measurements. Methods Between September 2003 and September 2005, 101 nonsmoking volunteers living within 1.5 mi of industrial swine operations in 16 neighborhoods in eastern North Carolina completed twice-daily odor diaries for approximately 2 weeks. Meteorological conditions, hydrogen sulfide, and particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were monitored in each neighborhood. We used mixed models to partition odor variance within and between people and between neighborhoods, and to quantify relationships between environmental factors and odor. Results Participants reported 1,655 episodes of swine odor. In nine neighborhoods, odor was reported on more than half of study-days. Odor ratings were related to temperature, PM10, and semivolatile PM10 in standard but not mixed models. In mixed models, odor increased 0.15 ± 0.05 units (mean ± SE) for a 1-ppb increase in H2S, and 0.45 ± 0.14 units for a 10-μg/m3 increase in PM10 at wind speeds > 6.75 miles per hour. The odds of reporting a change in daily activities due to odor increased 62% for each unit increase in average odor during the prior 12 hr (t-value = 7.17). Conclusions This study indicates that malodor from swine operations is commonly present in these communities and that the odors reported by neighbors are related to objective environmental measurements and interruption of activities of daily life. PMID:18941579

  6. Body Odor Based Personality Judgments: The Effect of Fragranced Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor (BO) alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples - one with and one without cosmetic use); the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers' ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; r s = 0.20) than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; r s = 0.15). Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (r s = 0.34 for natural BO and r s = 0.21 for BO+cosmetics), whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors' body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor. PMID:27148138

  7. Walking patterns induced by learned odors in the honeybee, Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toshiya; Haupt, S Shuichi; Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Ai, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The odor localization strategy induced by odors learned via differential conditioning of the proboscis extension response was investigated in honeybees. In response to reward-associated but not non-reward-associated odors, learners walked longer paths than non-learners and control bees. When orange odor reward association was learned, the path length and the body turn angles were small during odor stimulation and greatly increased after stimulation ceased. In response to orange odor, bees walked locally with alternate left and right turns during odor stimulation to search for the reward-associated odor source. After odor stimulation, bees walked long paths with large turn angles to explore the odor plume. For clove odor, learning-related modulations of locomotion were less pronounced, presumably due to a spontaneous preference for orange in the tested population of bees. This study is the first to describe how an odor-reward association modulates odor-induced walking in bees. PMID:26567342

  8. Olfactory signal coding in an odor background.

    PubMed

    Renou, Michel; Party, Virginie; Rouyar, Angéla; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-10-01

    Insects communicating with pheromones are confronted with an olfactory environment featuring a diversity of volatile organic compounds from plant origin. These volatiles constitute a rich and fluctuant background from which the information carried by the pheromone signal must be extracted. Thus, the pheromone receptor neurons must encode into spike trains the quality, intensity and temporal characteristics of the signal that are determinant to the recognition and localization of a conspecific female. We recorded and analyzed the responses of the pheromone olfactory receptor neurons of male moths to sex pheromone in different odor background conditions. We show that in spite of the narrow chemical tuning of the pheromone receptor neurons, the sensory input can be altered by odorant background. PMID:26116090

  9. Reception of odors and repellents in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anandasankar

    2015-10-01

    Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to find hosts, nectar, and oviposition sites, and to avoid repellents. A small number of mosquito species are adapted to feed on humans and have a major impact on public health by transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis. The application of odorants for behavioral control has not been fully realized yet due to complexity of the mosquito olfactory system. Recent progress in molecular and computational tools has enabled rigorous investigations of the mosquito olfactory system function and has started to reveal how specific receptors contribute to attractive and aversive behaviors. Here we discuss recent advances in linking odors to receptors and in exploiting this knowledge in finding attractants and repellents for mosquitoes. PMID:26202080

  10. Odor and chemical emissions from dairy and swine facilities: Part 1 - project overview and collection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock facilities have received numerous criticisms due to their emissions of odorous air and chemicals. Hence, there is a significant need for odor emission factors and identification of principle odorous chemicals. Odor emission factors are used as inputs to odor setback models, while chemica...

  11. Odor and pheromone sensing via chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghong

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionally, chemosensation is an ancient but yet enigmatic sense. All organisms ranging from the simplest unicellular form to the most advanced multicellular creature possess the capability to detect chemicals in the surroundings. Conversely, all living things emit some forms of smells, either as communicating signals or as by-products of metabolism. Many species (from worms, insects to mammals) rely on the olfactory systems which express a large number of chemoreceptors to locate food and mates and to avoid danger. Most chemoreceptors expressed in olfactory organs are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and can be classified into two major categories: odorant receptors (ORs) and pheromone receptors, which principally detect general odors and pheromones, respectively. In vertebrates, these two types of receptors are often expressed in two distinct apparatuses: The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), respectively. Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) in the MOE typically expresses one type of OR from a large repertoire. General odors activate ORs and their host OSNs (ranging from narrowly- to broadly-tuned) in a combinatorial manner and the information is sent to the brain via the main olfactory system leading to perception of smells. In contrast, pheromones stimulate relatively narrowly-tuned receptors and their host VNO neurons and the information is sent to the brain via the accessory olfactory system leading to behavioral and endocrinological changes. Recent studies indicate that the functional separation between these two systems is blurred in some cases and there are more subsystems serving chemosensory roles. This chapter focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying odor and pheromone sensing in rodents, the best characterized vertebrate models. PMID:22399397

  12. Odor and pheromone sensing via chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghong

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionally, chemosensation is an ancient but yet enigmatic sense. All organisms ranging from the simplest unicellular form to the most advanced multicellular creature possess the capability to detect chemicals in the surroundings. Conversely, all living things emit some forms of smells, either as communicating signals or as by-products of metabolism. Many species (from worms, insects to mammals) rely on the olfactory systems which express a large number of chemoreceptors to locate food and mates and to avoid danger. Most chemoreceptors expressed in olfactory organs are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and can be classified into two major categories: odorant receptors (ORs) and pheromone receptors, which principally detect general odors and pheromones, respectively. In vertebrates, these two types of receptors are often expressed in two distinct apparatuses: The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), respectively. Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) in the MOE typically expresses one type of OR from a large repertoire. General odors activate ORs and their host OSNs (ranging from narrowly- to broadly-tuned) in a combinatorial manner and the information is sent to the brain via the main olfactory system leading to perception of smells. In contrast, pheromones stimulate relatively narrowly-tuned receptors and their host VNO neurons and the information is sent to the brain via the accessory olfactory system leading to behavioral and endocrinological changes. Recent studies indicate that the functional separation between these two systems is blurred in some cases and there are more subsystems serving chemosensory roles. This chapter focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying odor and pheromone sensing in rodents, the best characterized vertebrate models.

  13. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 5 - Correlations between odor intensities and chemical concentrations (GC-MS/O)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) of air samples from livestock operations is a very useful approach for quantification of target odorous gases and also for ranking of odorous compounds. This information can help link spec...

  14. Quantitative method to determine the regional drinking water odorant regulation goals based on odor sensitivity distribution: illustrated using 2-MIB.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Cao, Nan; Yang, Min; Gu, Junong; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Ning

    2014-07-01

    Taste and odor (T/O) in drinking water often cause consumer complaints and are thus regulated in many countries. However, people in different regions may exhibit different sensitivities toward T/O. This study proposed a method to determine the regional drinking water odorant regulation goals (ORGs) based on the odor sensitivity distribution of the local population. The distribution of odor sensitivity to 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) by the local population in Beijing, China was revealed by using a normal distribution function/model to describe the odor complaint response to a 2-MIB episode in 2005, and a 2-MIB concentration of 12.9 ng/L and FPA (flavor profile analysis) intensity of 2.5 was found to be the critical point to cause odor complaints. Thus the Beijing ORG for 2-MIB was determined to be 12.9 ng/L. Based on the assumption that the local FPA panel can represent the local population in terms of sensitivity to odor, and that the critical FPA intensity causing odor complaints was 2.5, this study tried to determine the ORGs for seven other cities of China by performing FPA tests using an FPA panel from the corresponding city. ORG values between 12.9 and 31.6 ng/L were determined, showing that a unified ORG may not be suitable for drinking water odor regulations. This study presents a novel approach for setting drinking water odor regulations.

  15. Fast odor learning improves reliability of odor responses in the locust antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Bazhenov, Maxim; Stopfer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Laurent, Gilles

    2005-05-01

    Recordings in the locust antennal lobe (AL) reveal activity-dependent, stimulus-specific changes in projection neuron (PN) and local neuron response patterns over repeated odor trials. During the first few trials, PN response intensity decreases, while spike time precision increases, and coherent oscillations, absent at first, quickly emerge. We examined this "fast odor learning" with a realistic computational model of the AL. Activity-dependent facilitation of AL inhibitory synapses was sufficient to simulate physiological recordings of fast learning. In addition, in experiments with noisy inputs, a network including synaptic facilitation of both inhibition and excitation responded with reliable spatiotemporal patterns from trial to trial despite the noise. A network lacking fast plasticity, however, responded with patterns that varied across trials, reflecting the input variability. Thus, our study suggests that fast olfactory learning results from stimulus-specific, activity-dependent synaptic facilitation and may improve the signal-to-noise ratio for repeatedly encountered odor stimuli.

  16. Good odorant practices ensure safer operations. [Natural gas odorant detection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Oudman, P. )

    1993-12-01

    Regulations in Canada and the US require that combustible gas used as a fuel be odorized at such a level that a concentration in air of one-fifth the lower explosive limit the gas can be readily detected and recognized by a person with a normal sense of smell. These regulations do not specify how the odorant level should be determined. However, since the requirement is related to smell, the level should be determined by an olfactory method. There are two odorant monitoring methods commonly used by gas companies, the olfactory (odorometer) and the instrumentation (gas chromatograph) methods. The instrument method provides only quantitative results, which somehow must be related to an olfactory response. This paper discusses these methods.

  17. Child Odors and Parenting: A Survey Examination of the Role of Odor in Child-Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Masako; Shirasu, Mika; Fujita, Rei; Hirasawa, Yukei; Touhara, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child’s body (n = 507). The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384). Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs) was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888). We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child’s bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child’s development. PMID:27138751

  18. Recent developments in the chemistry of sandalwood odorants.

    PubMed

    Brocke, Constanze; Eh, Marcus; Finke, Anja

    2008-06-01

    Natural sandalwood oil, a unique and valuable ingredient in fine perfumery, has been the focus of scientific interest for many years. Due to its scarcity and its high price, the search for novel synthetic raw materials imitating the characteristic odor profile of sandalwood oil is as challenging as ever. In this context, the preparation of the novel sandalwood odorants 26, 33, and 39 will be discussed, including their sensory properties and structure-odor relationship.

  19. Characterization of an Antennal Carboxylesterase from the Pest Moth Spodoptera littoralis Degrading a Host Plant Odorant

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nicolas; Carot-Sans, Gerard; Chertemps, Thomas; Bozzolan, Françoise; Party, Virginie; Renou, Michel; Debernard, Stéphane; Rosell, Gloria; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Background Carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs) are highly diversified in insects. These enzymes have a broad range of proposed functions, in neuro/developmental processes, dietary detoxification, insecticide resistance or hormone/pheromone degradation. As few functional data are available on purified or recombinant CCEs, the physiological role of most of these enzymes is unknown. Concerning their role in olfaction, only two CCEs able to metabolize sex pheromones have been functionally characterized in insects. These enzymes are only expressed in the male antennae, and secreted into the lumen of the pheromone-sensitive sensilla. CCEs able to hydrolyze other odorants than sex pheromones, such as plant volatiles, have not been identified. Methodology In Spodoptera littoralis, a major crop pest, a diversity of antennal CCEs has been previously identified. We have employed here a combination of molecular biology, biochemistry and electrophysiology approaches to functionally characterize an intracellular CCE, SlCXE10, whose predominant expression in the olfactory sensilla suggested a role in olfaction. A recombinant protein was produced using the baculovirus system and we tested its catabolic properties towards a plant volatile and the sex pheromone components. Conclusion We showed that SlCXE10 could efficiently hydrolyze a green leaf volatile and to a lesser extent the sex pheromone components. The transcript level in male antennae was also strongly induced by exposure to this plant odorant. In antennae, SlCXE10 expression was associated with sensilla responding to the sex pheromones and to plant odours. These results suggest that a CCE-based intracellular metabolism of odorants could occur in insect antennae, in addition to the extracellular metabolism occurring within the sensillar lumen. This is the first functional characterization of an Odorant-Degrading Enzyme active towards a host plant volatile. PMID:21124773

  20. Coding of odor stimulus features among secondary olfactory structures.

    PubMed

    Xia, Christina Z; Adjei, Stacey; Wesson, Daniel W

    2015-07-01

    Sensory systems must represent stimuli in manners dependent upon a wealth of factors, including stimulus intensity and duration. One way the brain might handle these complex functions is to assign the tasks throughout distributed nodes, each contributing to information processing. We sought to explore this important aspect of sensory network function in the mammalian olfactory system, wherein the intensity and duration of odor exposure are critical contributors to odor perception. This is a quintessential model for exploring processing schemes given the distribution of odor information by olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells into several anatomically distinct secondary processing stages, including the piriform cortex (PCX) and olfactory tubercle (OT), whose unique contributions to odor coding are unresolved. We explored the coding of PCX and OT neuron responses to odor intensity and duration. We found that both structures similarly partake in representing descending intensities of odors by reduced recruitment and modulation of neurons. Additionally, while neurons in the OT adapt to odor exposure, they display reduced capacity to adapt to either repeated presentations of odor or a single prolonged odor presentation compared with neurons in the PCX. These results provide insights into manners whereby secondary olfactory structures may, at least in some cases, uniquely represent stimulus features. PMID:26041832

  1. Coding of odor stimulus features among secondary olfactory structures

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Christina Z.; Adjei, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems must represent stimuli in manners dependent upon a wealth of factors, including stimulus intensity and duration. One way the brain might handle these complex functions is to assign the tasks throughout distributed nodes, each contributing to information processing. We sought to explore this important aspect of sensory network function in the mammalian olfactory system, wherein the intensity and duration of odor exposure are critical contributors to odor perception. This is a quintessential model for exploring processing schemes given the distribution of odor information by olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells into several anatomically distinct secondary processing stages, including the piriform cortex (PCX) and olfactory tubercle (OT), whose unique contributions to odor coding are unresolved. We explored the coding of PCX and OT neuron responses to odor intensity and duration. We found that both structures similarly partake in representing descending intensities of odors by reduced recruitment and modulation of neurons. Additionally, while neurons in the OT adapt to odor exposure, they display reduced capacity to adapt to either repeated presentations of odor or a single prolonged odor presentation compared with neurons in the PCX. These results provide insights into manners whereby secondary olfactory structures may, at least in some cases, uniquely represent stimulus features. PMID:26041832

  2. A field study on downwind odor transport from swine facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents field data to illustrate the characteristics of downwind odor dispersion. A total of eight swine facilities were studied in this project and power functions were found to be an appropriate description of the pattern of downwind odor transport for both swine buildings and manure storage lagoons and tanks. The coefficients of correlation for the power regressions ranged from 0.75-0.87. It was found that swine buildings have the potential of generating more odor than manure storage facilities such as lagoons and tanks and thus could be the major odor sources causing downwind odor nuisance. Therefore, to maintain the building clean should be highly recommended as swine producers' best management practice. For earthen basins, the odor strength was reduced by 80% at about 250-meter distance from the source. While for the swine building, a 50% of reduction in odor strength was observed at the same distance. The study did not show any advantages of using lagoons over concrete (or steel) manure tanks in terms of reducing downwind odor concentrations. Land application of manure did not cause persistent downwind odor problems. PMID:10736772

  3. A field study on downwind odor transport from swine facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents field data to illustrate the characteristics of downwind odor dispersion. A total of eight swine facilities were studied in this project and power functions were found to be an appropriate description of the pattern of downwind odor transport for both swine buildings and manure storage lagoons and tanks. The coefficients of correlation for the power regressions ranged from 0.75-0.87. It was found that swine buildings have the potential of generating more odor than manure storage facilities such as lagoons and tanks and thus could be the major odor sources causing downwind odor nuisance. Therefore, to maintain the building clean should be highly recommended as swine producers' best management practice. For earthen basins, the odor strength was reduced by 80% at about 250-meter distance from the source. While for the swine building, a 50% of reduction in odor strength was observed at the same distance. The study did not show any advantages of using lagoons over concrete (or steel) manure tanks in terms of reducing downwind odor concentrations. Land application of manure did not cause persistent downwind odor problems.

  4. Odor perception phenotypes: multiple, specific hyperosmias to musks.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, A N; Kemp, S E

    1996-08-01

    Olfactory detection thresholds for 11 structurally diverse musk odorants and one non-musk odorant were obtained from 32 subjects. Hierarchical cluster analysis produced four groups of subjects. One group (n = 12) was uniformly sensitive to all musks; another (n = 16) was uniformly insensitive. Two groups of subjects contained otherwise insensitive individuals who were exceptionally sensitive to cyclopentadecanone and musk xylol (n = 2) and to delta9-hexadecenolactone and tonalid (n = 2) respectively. We propose that the latter two groups are odor perception phenotypes (MSHM1 and MSHM2) that consist of multiple, specific hyperosmias to musk odorants.

  5. Cross-modal associations between odors and colors.

    PubMed

    Luisa Demattè, M; Sanabria, Daniel; Spence, Charles

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the nature of any cross-modal associations between colors and odors. In Experiment 1, we show that participants consistently match certain odors to specific colors when asked to explicitly select from among different colors the one that best matched a given odor. In Experiment 2, we investigated the robustness of these cross-modal associations using a cross-modal variant of the implicit association test (IAT). Participants made speeded discrimination responses to a random sequence of odors (strawberry vs. spearmint) and color patches (pink vs. turquoise). On the basis of the results of Experiment 1, the assignment of these targets onto the two response keys was manipulated in order to generate compatible (e.g., responding to the pink color and to the strawberry odor with the same response key) and incompatible (e.g., responding to the pink color and to the spearmint odor with the same response key) blocks of trials. The results showed that participants responded more rapidly and accurately to odor-color pairings having a stronger association than to those having a weaker (or no) association. These results suggest that odor-color associations can be both systematic and robust. The paradigm developed here provides a novel cross-modal extension of the IAT to probe the nature of color-odor associations.

  6. Odorant-Binding Protein: Localization to Nasal Glands and Secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Sklar, Pamela B.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1986-07-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants.

  7. Full evaporation dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for uniform enrichment of odor compounds in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    A method for analysis of a wide range of odor compounds in aqueous samples at sub-ng mL⁻¹ to μg mL⁻¹ levels was developed by full evaporation dynamic headspace (FEDHS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compared to conventional DHS and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), FEDHS provides more uniform enrichment over the entire polarity range for odor compounds in aqueous samples. FEDHS at 80°C using 3 L of purge gas allows complete vaporization of 100 μL of an aqueous sample, and trapping and drying it in an adsorbent packed tube, while providing high recoveries (85-103%) of the 18 model odor compounds (water solubility at 25°C: log0.54-5.65 mg L⁻¹, vapor pressure at 25°C: 0.011-3.2 mm Hg) and leaving most of the low volatile matrix behind. The FEDHS-GC-MS method showed good linearity (r²>0.9909) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.21-5.2 ng mL⁻¹) for the model compounds even with the scan mode in the conventional MS. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analyses of key odor compounds including hydrophilic and less volatile characteristics in beverages (whiskey and green tea). In a single malt whiskey sample, phenolic compounds including vanillin could be determined in the range of 0.92-5.1 μg mL⁻¹ (RSD<7.4%, n=6). For a Japanese green tea sample, 48 compounds including 19 potent odorants were positively identified from only 100 μL of sample. Heat-induced artifact formation for potent odorants was also examined and the proposed method does not affect the additional formation of thermally generated compounds. Eighteen compounds including 12 potent odorants (e.g. coumarin, furaneol, indole, maltol, and pyrazine congeners) were determined in the range of 0.21-110 ng mL⁻¹ (RSD<10%, n=6).

  8. Full evaporation dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for uniform enrichment of odor compounds in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    A method for analysis of a wide range of odor compounds in aqueous samples at sub-ng mL⁻¹ to μg mL⁻¹ levels was developed by full evaporation dynamic headspace (FEDHS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compared to conventional DHS and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), FEDHS provides more uniform enrichment over the entire polarity range for odor compounds in aqueous samples. FEDHS at 80°C using 3 L of purge gas allows complete vaporization of 100 μL of an aqueous sample, and trapping and drying it in an adsorbent packed tube, while providing high recoveries (85-103%) of the 18 model odor compounds (water solubility at 25°C: log0.54-5.65 mg L⁻¹, vapor pressure at 25°C: 0.011-3.2 mm Hg) and leaving most of the low volatile matrix behind. The FEDHS-GC-MS method showed good linearity (r²>0.9909) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.21-5.2 ng mL⁻¹) for the model compounds even with the scan mode in the conventional MS. The feasibility and benefit of the method was demonstrated with analyses of key odor compounds including hydrophilic and less volatile characteristics in beverages (whiskey and green tea). In a single malt whiskey sample, phenolic compounds including vanillin could be determined in the range of 0.92-5.1 μg mL⁻¹ (RSD<7.4%, n=6). For a Japanese green tea sample, 48 compounds including 19 potent odorants were positively identified from only 100 μL of sample. Heat-induced artifact formation for potent odorants was also examined and the proposed method does not affect the additional formation of thermally generated compounds. Eighteen compounds including 12 potent odorants (e.g. coumarin, furaneol, indole, maltol, and pyrazine congeners) were determined in the range of 0.21-110 ng mL⁻¹ (RSD<10%, n=6). PMID:22542289

  9. Color and odor of artificial fruit used to signal potential dispersers in the Atlantic forest in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Aliny Oliveira; Perônico, Clayton; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob

    2012-06-01

    Fruit color and odor are the main features regulating the rate of fruit predation and dispersal. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of odor and color on fruit predators and dispersers. The present study was conducted in a 30ha area of secondary forest in Southeastern Atlantic Brazil. This area was divided into two transects, in which four points were marked with a 30m distance from each other. Each sampling point contained a total of 30 artificial fruit which belong to six different treatment groups, with five artificial fruit per group. Each group was randomly placed on the ground and that artificial fruit was checked every seven days. For each group of five fruit, 5mL of essence (vanilla or pineapple) were placed, and no essence was used in the control group. Artificial fruit was made with green and red nontoxic modeling clay, as well as artificial essences (vanilla and pineapple). A total of 960 fruits were used. Predated fruit equaled 26.9% (258 units), from which the red/pineapple had the highest predation rate (81.9%), followed by red/vanilla (46.3%), while green/control fruits were not predated. Throughout the experiment, bitten fruit and pecked fruit equaled 58.3% and 41.7%, respectively. No significant differences were recorded (x2=7.57, df=5, p=0.182) between bitten and pecked fruit. Fruit color and odor are important in attracting predators and dispersers, which explains the high rate of predation of red/ vanilla and red/pineapple, and the absence of predated fruits in the green/control group. Regarding the potential disperser, there was no statistically significant difference between pecked fruit and bitten fruit. As a result, it should be taken into consideration that zoochory (mammalochory and ornithochory) is the most important dispersal; therefore, it should be concluded that birds are more attracted by color and mammals by odor.

  10. Color and odor of artificial fruit used to signal potential dispersers in the Atlantic forest in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Aliny Oliveira; Perônico, Clayton; Eutrópio, Frederico Jacob

    2012-06-01

    Fruit color and odor are the main features regulating the rate of fruit predation and dispersal. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of odor and color on fruit predators and dispersers. The present study was conducted in a 30ha area of secondary forest in Southeastern Atlantic Brazil. This area was divided into two transects, in which four points were marked with a 30m distance from each other. Each sampling point contained a total of 30 artificial fruit which belong to six different treatment groups, with five artificial fruit per group. Each group was randomly placed on the ground and that artificial fruit was checked every seven days. For each group of five fruit, 5mL of essence (vanilla or pineapple) were placed, and no essence was used in the control group. Artificial fruit was made with green and red nontoxic modeling clay, as well as artificial essences (vanilla and pineapple). A total of 960 fruits were used. Predated fruit equaled 26.9% (258 units), from which the red/pineapple had the highest predation rate (81.9%), followed by red/vanilla (46.3%), while green/control fruits were not predated. Throughout the experiment, bitten fruit and pecked fruit equaled 58.3% and 41.7%, respectively. No significant differences were recorded (x2=7.57, df=5, p=0.182) between bitten and pecked fruit. Fruit color and odor are important in attracting predators and dispersers, which explains the high rate of predation of red/ vanilla and red/pineapple, and the absence of predated fruits in the green/control group. Regarding the potential disperser, there was no statistically significant difference between pecked fruit and bitten fruit. As a result, it should be taken into consideration that zoochory (mammalochory and ornithochory) is the most important dispersal; therefore, it should be concluded that birds are more attracted by color and mammals by odor. PMID:23894956

  11. In vitro study of the biochemical origin and production limits of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2001-12-01

    Livestock odors are closely correlated to airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are a complex mixture of carbon-, sulfur-, and nitrogen-containing compounds produced primarily during the incomplete anaerobic fermentation of animal manure by microorganisms. Volatile fatty acids, alcohols, and aromatic ring compounds comprise a substantial fraction of VOC, yet very little is known about their biochemical origin and environmental factors controlling their production. The anaerobic production of fermentation products and consumption of substrates (CP, starch, and nonstarch carbohydrate) were analyzed in slurries of fresh (< 24 h) and aged (> 1 d) cattle manure over several weeks. Ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, and H2 were the major products of fermentation. Aged cattle manure produced twice the concentration of VFA during incubation produced by the fresh manure (P < 0.001). Aromatic compounds (phenols, indoles, and benzoates) remained unchanged in both manures. Production of VFA from fresh manure was inhibited when the pH fell below 4.5. It is likely that the presence of calcareous soil, which has a high buffering capacity, and lactate-consuming microorganisms minimized acidification in the aged manure slurries. Low starch content limited VFA production in the aged manure. Starch was the likely biochemical source for fermentation products in both manures based on the strong negative correlations between fermentation product and starch content (r = -0.944 and -0.773) and ratio of fermentation products produced to starch consumed (r = 0.64 and 0.72) for fresh and aged manure, respectively. Nonstarch carbohydrate served an indeterminate role in the production of fermentation products. Nonstarch carbohydrate decreased by 4.7 and 23.4 g/L in the fresh and aged manure, respectively, whereas the starch content decreased by 18.6 and 22.4 g/L in the fresh and aged manure, respectively. The concentration of CP did not change, which

  12. Preserving Fresh Fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

  13. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from dairy and swine facilities: Part 5-Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis with Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry - Olfactometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simultaneous chemical and sensory analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) for air samples collected at barn exhaust fans were used for quantification and ranking of odor impact of target odorous gases. Fifteen target odorous VOCs (odorants) were selected. Air sampl...

  14. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  15. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma.

  16. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. PMID:25172758

  17. A Female-Biased Odorant Receptor from Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) Tuned to Some Plant Odors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhixiang; Zhang, Meiping; Yan, Shuwei; Wang, Guirong; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a serious pest of cotton, jujube, grape and many other crops around the world. Understanding how olfactory information directs this insect to its host plants may provide environment-friendly approaches to the control of its population in agriculture. In our study, we cloned an odorant receptor gene, AlucOR46, that was specifically expressed in antennae and female-biased. Functional expression of AlucOR46 in Xenopus oocytes showed that it is tuned to six plant volatiles (S)-(−)-Limonene, (R)-(+)-Limonene, (E)-2-Hexenal, (E)-3-Hexenol, 1-Heptanol and (1R)-(−)-Myrtenol. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings revealed that all six compounds could elicit electrophysiological responses from the antennae of A. lucorum, higher in females. Our results are in agreement with previous reports showing that (E)-2-Hexenal could attract female A. lucorum in behavior experiments. These results suggest that AlucOR46 might play an important role in locating the host plants of A. lucorum and therefore represents a suitable target for green pest control. PMID:27483241

  18. A Female-Biased Odorant Receptor from Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) Tuned to Some Plant Odors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhixiang; Zhang, Meiping; Yan, Shuwei; Wang, Guirong; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a serious pest of cotton, jujube, grape and many other crops around the world. Understanding how olfactory information directs this insect to its host plants may provide environment-friendly approaches to the control of its population in agriculture. In our study, we cloned an odorant receptor gene, AlucOR46, that was specifically expressed in antennae and female-biased. Functional expression of AlucOR46 in Xenopus oocytes showed that it is tuned to six plant volatiles (S)-(-)-Limonene, (R)-(+)-Limonene, (E)-2-Hexenal, (E)-3-Hexenol, 1-Heptanol and (1R)-(-)-Myrtenol. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings revealed that all six compounds could elicit electrophysiological responses from the antennae of A. lucorum, higher in females. Our results are in agreement with previous reports showing that (E)-2-Hexenal could attract female A. lucorum in behavior experiments. These results suggest that AlucOR46 might play an important role in locating the host plants of A. lucorum and therefore represents a suitable target for green pest control. PMID:27483241

  19. An odor timer in milk? Synchrony in the odor of milk effluvium and neonatal chemosensation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Belin, Laurine; Patris, Bruno; Schaal, Benoist

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian newborns exhibit avid responsiveness to odor compounds emanating from conspecific milk. Milk is however developmentally heterogeneous in composition as a function of both evolved constraints and offspring demand. The present study aimed to verify whether milk odor attractivity for neonates is equally distributed along lactation in Mus musculus (Balb-c strain). Therefore, we exposed pups varying in age to milk samples collected from females in different lactational stages. The pups were assayed at postnatal days 2 (P2), 6 (P6) and 15 (P15) in a series of paired-choice tests opposing either murine milk and a blank (water), or two samples of milk collected in different stages of lactation [lactation days 2 (L2), 6 (L6), and 15 L15)]. Pups of any age were able to detect, and were attracted to, the odor of the different milk. When milk from different lactational stages were simultaneously presented, P2 pups oriented for a similar duration to the odors of L2 and of L6 milk, but significantly less to the odor of L15 milk. Next, P6 pups roamed equivalently over L2 and L6 milk odors, but still less over the odor of L15 milk. Finally, P15 pups explored as much L15 milk odor as the odors of both L2 and L6 milk. This developmental shift in milk attractivity is discussed in terms of changing chemosensory properties of milk and of shifting chemosensory abilities/experience of pups. PMID:23133511

  20. An Odor Timer in Milk? Synchrony in the Odor of Milk Effluvium and Neonatal Chemosensation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Al Aïn, Syrina; Belin, Laurine; Patris, Bruno; Schaal, Benoist

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian newborns exhibit avid responsiveness to odor compounds emanating from conspecific milk. Milk is however developmentally heterogeneous in composition as a function of both evolved constraints and offspring demand. The present study aimed to verify whether milk odor attractivity for neonates is equally distributed along lactation in Mus musculus (Balb-c strain). Therefore, we exposed pups varying in age to milk samples collected from females in different lactational stages. The pups were assayed at postnatal days 2 (P2), 6 (P6) and 15 (P15) in a series of paired-choice tests opposing either murine milk and a blank (water), or two samples of milk collected in different stages of lactation [lactation days 2 (L2), 6 (L6), and 15 L15)]. Pups of any age were able to detect, and were attracted to, the odor of the different milk. When milk from different lactational stages were simultaneously presented, P2 pups oriented for a similar duration to the odors of L2 and of L6 milk, but significantly less to the odor of L15 milk. Next, P6 pups roamed equivalently over L2 and L6 milk odors, but still less over the odor of L15 milk. Finally, P15 pups explored as much L15 milk odor as the odors of both L2 and L6 milk. This developmental shift in milk attractivity is discussed in terms of changing chemosensory properties of milk and of shifting chemosensory abilities/experience of pups. PMID:23133511

  1. Animal-to-Animal Variation in Odor Preference and Neural Representation of Odors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honegger, Kyle; Smith, Matthew; Turner, Glenn; de Bivort, Benjamin

    Across any population of animals, individuals exhibit diverse behaviors and reactions to sensory stimuli like tastes and odors. While idiosyncratic behavior is ubiquitous, its biological basis is poorly understood. In this talk, I will present evidence that individual fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) display idiosyncratic olfactory behaviors and discuss our ongoing efforts to map these behavioral differences to variation in neural circuits. Using a high-throughput, single-fly assay for odor preference, we have demonstrated that highly inbred flies display substantial animal-to-animal variability, beyond that expected from experimental error, and that these preferences persist over days. Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging, we are beginning to examine the idiosyncrasy of neural coding in the fly olfactory pathway and find that the odor responses of individual processing channels in the antennal lobe can vary substantially from fly to fly. These results imply that individual differences in neural coding may be used to predict the idiosyncratic behavior of an individual - a hypothesis we are currently testing by imaging neural activity from flies after measuring their odor preferences.

  2. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 4 - correlations between sensory and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study supplemented the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) by making comprehensive measurements, over a full calendar year, of odor emissions from five swine and four dairy rooms/buildings (subset of the total number of buildings monitored for the NAEMS project). The measurements ma...

  3. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: part 4-correlations between sensory and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study supplemented the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) with one year of comprehensive measurements of odor emission at five swine and four dairy buildings. The measurements included both standard human sensory measurements using dynamic forced-choice olfactometry and chemical an...

  4. The effect of a salient odor context on memory retrieval in young infants.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Melissa; Prigot, Joyce; Fagen, Jeffrey

    2007-12-01

    Three-month-old infants were trained to move a mobile in the presence of a coconut or cherry odor (context). One or 5 days later, the infants were tested for retrieval in the presence of either the same odor, the alternate odor, or no odor. Infants tested with the training odor displayed retention at both intervals; retention was not seen at either interval in the alternate odor or no odor conditions. These data suggest that the odor combines with the mobile to form a compound-stimulus representation of the learned task whose presence after both short (1 day) and long (5 days) intervals is a necessary retrieval cue.

  5. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    DOEpatents

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  6. Fresh, Rayed Impact Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-416, 9 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a fresh, young meteor impact crater on the martian surface. It is less than 400 meters (less than 400 yards) across. While there is no way to know the exact age of this or any other martian surface feature, the rays are very well preserved. On a planet where wind can modify surface features at the present time, a crater with rayed ejecta patterns must be very young indeed. Despite its apparent youth, the crater could still be many hundreds of thousands, if not several million, of years old. This impact scar is located within the much larger Crommelin Crater, near 5.6oN, 10.0oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  7. Crystal structures of bovine odorant-binding protein in complex with odorant molecules.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Florence; Ramoni, Roberto; Spinelli, Silvia; Grolli, Stefano; Tegoni, Mariella; Cambillau, Christian

    2004-10-01

    The structure of bovine odorant-binding protein (bOBP) revealed a striking feature of a dimer formed by domain swapping [Tegoni, M., Ramoni, R., Bignetti, E., Spinelli, S. & Cambillau, C. (1996) Nat. Struct. Biol.3, 863-867; Bianchet, M.A., Bains, G., Pelosi, P., Pevsner, J., Snyder, S.H., Monaco, H.L. & Amzel, L.M. (1996) Nat. Struct. Biol.3, 934-939] and the presence of a naturally occuring ligand [Ramoni, R., Vincent, F., Grolli, S., Conti, V., Malosse, C., Boyer, F.D., Nagnan-Le Meillour, P., Spinelli, S., Cambillau, C. & Tegoni, M. (2001) J. Biol. Chem.276, 7150-7155]. These features led us to investigate the binding of odorant molecules with bOBP in solution and in the crystal. The behavior of odorant molecules in bOBP resembles that observed with porcine OBP (pOBP), although the latter is monomeric and devoid of ligand when purified. The odorant molecules presented K(d) values with bOBP in the micromolar range. Most of the X-ray structures revealed that odorant molecules interact with a common set of residues forming the cavity wall and do not exhibit specific interactions. Depending on the ligand and on the monomer (A or B), a single residue--Phe89--presents alternate conformations and might control cross-talking between the subunits. Crystal data on both pOBP and bOBP, in contrast with binding and spectroscopic studies on rat OBP in solution, reveal an absence of significant conformational changes involving protein loops or backbone. Thus, the role of OBP in signal triggering remains unresolved.

  8. Characterization and dispersion modeling of odors from a piggery facility.

    PubMed

    Karageorgos, Petros; Latos, Manolis; Mpasiakos, Christos; Chalarakis, Elefterios; Dimitrakakis, Emmanuel; Daskalakis, Charis; Psillakis, Elefteria; Lazaridis, Mihalis; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Piggeries are known for their nuisance odors, creating problems for workers and nearby residents. Chemical substances that contribute to these odors include sulfurous organic compounds, hydrogen sulfide, phenols and indoles, ammonia, volatile amines, and volatile fatty acids. In this work, daily mean concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were measured by hand-held devices. Measurements were taken in several places within the facility (farrowing to finishing rooms). Hydrogen sulfide concentration was found to be 40 to 50 times higher than the human odor threshold value in the nursery and fattening room, resulting in strong nuisance odors. Ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 18 mL m(-3) and also contributed to the total odor nuisance. Emission data from various chambers of the pig farm were used with the dispersion model AERMOD to determine the odor nuisance caused due to the presence of H2S and NH3 to receptors at various distances from the facility. Because just a few seconds of exposure can cause an odor nuisance, a "peak-to-mean" ratio was used to predict the maximum odor concentrations. Several scenarios were examined using the modified AERMOD program, taking into account the complex terrain around the pig farm.

  9. Development Switch in Neural Circuitry Underlying Odor-Malaise Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunday, Lauren; Miner, Cathrine; Roth, Tania L.; Sullivan, Regina M.; Shionoya, Kiseko; Moriceau, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Fetal and infant rats can learn to avoid odors paired with illness before development of brain areas supporting this learning in adults, suggesting an alternate learning circuit. Here we begin to document the transition from the infant to adult neural circuit underlying odor-malaise avoidance learning using LiCl (0.3 M; 1% of body weight, ip) and…

  10. Origins and identities of key manure odor components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odor is just one of many environmental issues associated with animal manures. Odor arises from a number of different locations in animal production systems, but the chemistry and biochemical origin is similar across sites. A complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and inorganic compoun...

  11. Olfactory sensitivity of subjects working in odorous environments.

    PubMed

    Hummel, T; Guel, H; Delank, W

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether people with a professional interest in odors also exhibit higher olfactory sensitivity. To this end, we investigated 58 subjects (age 33.6 +/- 11.0 years, mean +/- SD; 55 women) employed in perfume retail outlets and compared their olfactory sensitivity to 58 controls (age 34.6 +/- 9.9 years; 53 women) matched for age, gender and professional activities who did not work in such odorous environments. Olfactory function was assessed using the 'Sniffin' Sticks' test kit which includes tests for n-butanol odor threshold, odor discrimination and odor identification. Subjects working in perfume retail outlets scored higher in odor discrimination tests compared to controls. Working in an odorous environment for a full day had no major effect on general olfactory abilities, as indicated by measures performed at the beginning and end of a working day. Taken together, results from the present study do not support the idea that odorous environments are deleterious to general olfactory function.

  12. Influence of manure application method on odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface application of manure in reduced tillage systems can serve as a major source of nuisance odors. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate odor emissions associated with various technologies that incorporate manure with minimal soil disturbance. Dairy manure slurry was applied by five meth...

  13. Multiple activities of insect repellents on odorant receptors in mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several lines of evidence suggest that insect repellent molecules reduce mosquito-host contacts by interacting with odorants and odorant receptors (ORs) ultimately affecting olfactory-driven behaviors. We describe the molecular effects of ten insect repellents and a pyrethroid insecticide with known...

  14. Semantic context facilitates odor identification in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Goubet, Nathalie; McCall, Daniel D; Ducz, Jennifer K; Bingham, Megan L

    2014-04-01

    The current study investigated the influence of semantic cues on odor identification in preschool-aged children and adults. We tested the hypothesis that odor identification in a multiple-choice task is facilitated when choices belong to different semantic categories compared to when they belong to the same category. Participants were shown three color pictures, one of which represented the target odor and the other two depicted items that were either from the same or different semantic categories as the target odor. After smelling the target odor, participants were asked to identify the odor they had just smelled by pointing to one of the three pictures. Results indicated that while adults outperformed children, performance in both age groups was better when the picture of the target odor was semantically unrelated to the foil pictures. These data support the idea that well-known deficits in odor identification may result from weak associations between the olfactory percept and semantic memory rather than from poor olfactory perception per se. PMID:23775043

  15. Cross-modal integration between odors and abstract symbols.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Arshamian, Artin; Schemmer, Kerstin; Scheer, Ingeborg; Sander, Thorsten; Ritter, Guido; Hummel, Thomas

    2010-07-12

    This study aimed to investigate the cross-modal association of an "abstract symbol," designed for representation of an odor, with its corresponding odor. First, to explore the associations of abstract symbols with odors, participants were asked to match 8 odors with 19 different abstract symbols (Experiment 1). Next, we determined whether congruent symbols could modulate olfactory perception and olfactory event-related potentials (ERPs) (Experiment 2). One of two odors (phenylethanol (PEA) or 1-butanol) was presented with one of three conditions (congruent or incongruent symbol, no-symbol), and participants were asked to rate odor intensity and pleasantness during olfactory ERP recordings. Experiment 1 demonstrated that certain abstract symbols could be paired with specific odors. In Experiment 2 congruent symbol enhanced the intensity of PEA compared to no-symbol presentation. In addition, the respective congruent symbol increased the pleasantness of PEA and the unpleasantness of 1-butanol. Finally, compared to the incongruent symbol, the congruent symbol produced significantly higher amplitudes and shorter latencies in the N1 peak of olfactory ERPs. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that abstract symbols may be associated with specific odors.

  16. [Analysis of odor pollutants in kitchen waste composting].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-yu; Zou, Ke-hua; Yang, Jin-bing; Li, Guo-xue; Yang, Qing-yuan; Zhang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    Odor pollution has become a major environmental problem in municipal solid waste composting. The odor samples at different composting phases of kitchen waste were collected and analyzed by olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The correlation between the odor concentration and the emission of odor compounds was also analyzed. The results showed that there were 43 kinds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the composting process of kitchen waste, including 5 kinds of sulfur odor compounds, 22 kinds of hydrocarbon compounds, 11 kinds of aromatic compounds and 5 kinds of other odor compounds. The correlation analysis indicated that the odor concentration was very significantly correlated with the emission of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, 1,3-xylene and o-xylene (P < 0.01), and significantly correlated with the emission of dimethyl disulfide and p-xylene (P < 0.05). Therefore, those 6 kinds of odor compounds should be intensively monitored and controlled during the composting process of kitchen waste.

  17. Antioxidant properties of natural substances in irradiated fresh poultry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrour, A.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsa-Tabiri, J.; Calderon, N.; Calderon, R.; Gagnon, M.

    1998-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if a combined treatment (marinating in natural plant extracts or vacuum) with irradiation could have a synergistic effect, in order to prevent the lipid oxidation resulting in the development of undesirable flavours. The fresh chicken legs were irradiated at 0,3 and 5 kGy. The fatty acids composition of lipids was identified using gas liquid chromatography. The effect of irradiation treatment combined with a pre-treatment on the fatty acids composition was followed. The day after irradiation, ten panallists were asked to evaluate, using the instruction scaling, the overall appearance, the odor, the flavor and the overall acceptability of the samples. The major fatty acids identified in lipids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and stearic acid. Pre-treatments have a significant effect on linoleic acid (C18:2) and higher fatty acids. The unsaturated fatty acids derived from phospholipids appeared to be more affected by the irradiation dose: however, marinating have better protection on C18:2 derived from phospholipids. The results of sensory evaluation have shown a significant better odor and flavor for the irradiated chicken at 5 kGy than the control. No significant difference have been found between the marinated chicken, the chicken irradiated under vacuum and the control.

  18. The study of multiphase flow control during odor reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dehan; Yu, Hao; Fan, Danjun; He, Meiqiu

    2014-04-01

    Odor reproduction, is the use of the chemical composition of the basic components of odor recipe, according to a certain proportion, to control the flow of the various components, which make them sufficiently blended to achieve reproduction. In this paper, reproducing method is to find the corresponding liquid flavor, and then based on chemical flavor recipes, using flowmeters to control the chemical composition of the liquid flavor ratio. In the proportional control, the liquid chemical composition is very likely to be volatile, so that the proportional control is multiphase flow control. Measurement of the flow control will directly affect the odor reproducible results. Using electronic nose to obtain reproducible odor data, and then use pattern recognition algorithm to determine reproducible results. The experimental results can be achieved on the process of odor components multiphase flow proportional control parameter adjustment.

  19. Odor of taste stimuli in conditioned "taste" aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Elizabeth D; Hunter, Martin J; Privitera, Gregory J

    2004-12-01

    The present research addresses whether rats can express odor aversions to the odor of taste stimuli. In Experiment 1, saccharin or salt were either mixed in distilled water, so the rats could taste and smell them, or presented on disks attached to the tubes' metal spouts so the rats could only smell them. Aversions were established to taste stimuli under both conditions. The results of Experiment 2 indicate that conditioning was to the odor of the tastes when they were presented on disks in Experiment 1, hence both taste and odor aversions were established by means of "taste" stimuli. Taste aversion learning thus may more properly be termed flavor aversion learning, with flavor referring to both taste and odor components.

  20. Perception of environmental tobacco smoke odors: An olfactory and visual response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschandreas, D. J.; Relwani, S. M.

    Odor perception of approximately 200 subjects was measured to determine whether visual contact with an odor source affects sensory responses and to estimate the magnitude of such an effect. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) odors were generated in a chamber either by a smoke machine or by an investigator who smoked. Several levels of odor intensity were generated. Odor intensity, odor hedonics and odor characters were the parameters measured before and after visual contact with the odor source. Visual contact increased the perceived odor intensity, the hedonic nature of the odor changed directionally toward unpleasant and the number of subjects perceiving tobacco odor increased. The change caused by visual contact led to differences that were statistically significant.

  1. Nuisance Odors: Is there a Concern - 12340

    SciTech Connect

    Brounstein, Robert A.

    2012-07-01

    Nuisance odors are generally thought of as just being annoying or unpleasant and not causing any physiological harm to our internal organs or other biologic systems. Yet during an excavation of buried animal remains, field workers experienced a multitude of symptoms that are associated with exposures to toxic materials. An examination of the decomposition process revealed that there is a potential off-gassing of a number of common, yet harmful chemicals including ammonia, mercaptans, hydrogen sulfide, butyric acid and phenol. In addition, other compounds, that have limited information such as established health data and occupational exposure limits, were also potential contaminants-of-concern. While a variety of monitoring and sampling techniques were used to assess worker exposures, all results indicated non-detectable airborne concentrations. Nevertheless, workers were experiencing such symptoms as nausea and headaches. As such, protective measures were necessary for field personnel to continue work while having confidence that the project was instituting sincere steps to ensure their health and safety. Researching the possible reasons for the causes of workers exhibiting adverse health effects from nuisance odors revealed that such exposures initiate electrochemical pathways, starting from the olfactory bulb to the brain, followed by a transfer of information to such biologic systems as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. These systems, in turn, secrete hormones that cause a number of involuntary reactions; many of which are observed as typical adverse health effects, when in fact, they are merely reactions caused by the brain's memory; most likely created from previous experiences to unpleasant odors. The concern then focuses of how the Occupational Safety and Health community shall respond to such workplace exposures. Future work in this area may need to focus on the viability of current occupational exposure limits and the possibility of revising these

  2. Serial position effects in recognition memory for odors: a reexamination.

    PubMed

    Miles, Christopher; Hodder, Kathryn

    2005-10-01

    Seven experiments examined recognition memory for sequentially presented odors. Following Reed (2000), participants were presented with a sequence of odors and then required to identify an odor from the sequence in a test probe comprising 2 odors. The pattern of results obtained by Reed (2000, although statistically marginal) demonstrated enhanced recognition for odors presented at the start (primacy) and end (recency) of the sequence: a result that we failed to replicate in any of the experiments reported here. Experiments 1 and 3 were designed to replicate Reed (2000), employing five-item and seven-item sequences, respectively, and each demonstrated significant recency, with evidence of primacy in Experiment 3 only. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1, with reduced interstimulus intervals, and produced a null effect of serial position. The ease with which the odors could be verbally labeled was manipulated in Experiments 4 and 5. Nameable odors produced a null effect of serial position (Experiment 4), and hard-to-name odors produced a pronounced recency effect (Experiment 5); nevertheless, overall rates of recognition were remarkably similar for the two experiments at around 70%. Articulatory suppression reduced recognition accuracy (Experiment 6), but recency was again present in the absence of primacy. Odor recognition performance was immune to the effects of an interleaved odor (Experiment 7), and, again, both primacy and recency effects were absent. There was no evidence of olfactory fatigue: Recognition accuracy improved across trials (Experiment 1). It is argued that the results of the experiments reported here are generally consistent with that body of work employing hard-to-name visual stimuli, where recency is obtained in the absence of primacy when the retention interval is short.

  3. A Sensory 3D Map of the Odor Description Space Derived from a Comparison of Numeric Odor Profile Databases.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Many authors have proposed different schemes of odor classification, which are useful to aid the complex task of describing smells. However, reaching a consensus on a particular classification seems difficult because our psychophysical space of odor description is a continuum and is not clustered into well-defined categories. An alternative approach is to describe the perceptual space of odors as a low-dimensional coordinate system. This idea was first proposed by Crocker and Henderson in 1927, who suggested using numeric profiles based on 4 dimensions: "fragrant," "acid," "burnt," and "caprylic." In the present work, the odor profiles of 144 aroma chemicals were compared by means of statistical regression with comparable numeric odor profiles obtained from 2 databases, enabling a plausible interpretation of the 4 dimensions. Based on the results and taking into account comparable 2D sensory maps of odor descriptors from the literature, a 3D sensory map (odor cube) has been drawn up to improve understanding of the similarities and dissimilarities of the odor descriptors most frequently used in fragrance chemistry. PMID:25847969

  4. Odor and odorous compound emissions from manure of swine fed standard and dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) supplemented diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact diets containing dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) have on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS. Pigs were fed ...

  5. Analysis of the cooked aroma and odorants that contribute to umami aftertaste of soy miso (Japanese soybean paste).

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yutaka; Kato, Sachie; Saikusa, Miyu; Suzuki, Chihiro; Otsubo, Yuriko; Tanaka, Yutaro; Watanabe, Hirohito; Hayase, Fumitaka

    2016-12-15

    Soy miso, the traditional Japanese fermented soybean paste prepared using soybean koji, is used for imparting umami aftertaste to cooked dishes. The objective of this study was to identify the key odorants of cooked soy miso and their influence on umami aftertaste perception. Volatile compounds of soy miso and two rice misos were prepared using simultaneous distillation-extraction, and the key odorants were identified by using the gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution assay approach, and soy miso was compared with rice misos. Forty-one aroma-active compounds were detected in cooked soy miso, and malty, green, roasty and sulfury aromas were identified as the characteristic aromas. Finally, sensory evaluation was conducted to assess the contribution to the umami aftertaste of six key compounds with the highest flavour dilution factor. Results revealed that dimethyl trisulfide, which was newly identified in cooked miso, contributes to the umami aftertaste and palatability of cooked soy miso. PMID:27451212

  6. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  7. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  8. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  9. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  10. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans....

  11. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand from a landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry. Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the green sands change from their o...

  12. Acute Atrazine Exposure has Lasting Effects on Chemosensory Responses to Food Odors in Crayfish (Orconectes virilis).

    PubMed

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Mooney, Lauren N; Nguyen, Hung M; Abraham, Noor K; Peters, Tyler J; Kana, Maria A; May, Lauren A

    2016-02-01

    The herbicide atrazine is known to impact negatively olfactory-mediated behaviors in aquatic animals. We have shown that atrazine exposure has deleterious effects on olfactory-mediated behavioral responses to food odors in crayfish; however, recovery of chemosensory abilities post-atrazine exposure has not been investigated. We examined whether crayfish (Orconectes virilis) recovered chemosensory abilities after a 96-h exposure to sublethal, environmentally relevant concentrations of 80 ppb (µg/L) atrazine. Following treatment, we analyzed the ability of the crayfish to locate a food source using a Y-maze with one arm containing fish-flavored gelatin and the other containing unflavored gelatin. We compared the time spent in the food arm of the Y-maze, near the food source, as well as moving and walking speed of control and atrazine-treated crayfish. We also compared the number of crayfish that handled the food source and the amount of food consumed. Following 24-, 48-, and 72-h recovery periods in fresh water, behavioral trials were repeated to determine if there was any observable recovery of chemosensory-mediated behaviors. Atrazine-treated crayfish spent less time in the food arm, at the odor source, and were less successful at finding the food odor source than control crayfish for all times tested. Additionally, atrazine-treated crayfish consumed less fish-flavored than control crayfish; however, treatment did not affect locomotion. Overall, we found that crayfish are not able to recover chemosensory abilities 72 h post-atrazine exposure. Because crayfish rely heavily on their chemosensory abilities to acquire food, the negative impacts of atrazine exposure could affect population size in areas where atrazine is heavily applied.

  13. Concentrations of aroma compounds and odor activity values of odorant series in different olive cultivars and their oils.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    Olives from Picual, Arbequina, Manzanilla de Sevilla, and Local cultivars together with their corresponding oils were analyzed in terms of odor activity values (OAVs) to establish the relationship between the aromatic profile of both olives and oils. The OAVs for the different compounds were classified in nine odorant series: grass, leaf, wood, bitter, sweet, pungent, olive fruit, apple, and banana. The total intensities for every aromatic series were calculated as the sum of the OAVs of each compound associated with this series. As a result, olives had characteristic profiles. Picual cultivar had not a clear sensory characterization from the volatile compounds. Arbequina cultivar was mainly characterized by apple and bitter odorant series; Manzanilla de Sevilla by apple, bitter, and grass odorant series; and Local variety by banana and olive fruit. However, in the oils obtained from those olives, these differences disappeared, and all oils showed the same profile with pungent, bitter, and wood odorant series most strongly contributing.

  14. Concentrations of aroma compounds and odor activity values of odorant series in different olive cultivars and their oils.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    Olives from Picual, Arbequina, Manzanilla de Sevilla, and Local cultivars together with their corresponding oils were analyzed in terms of odor activity values (OAVs) to establish the relationship between the aromatic profile of both olives and oils. The OAVs for the different compounds were classified in nine odorant series: grass, leaf, wood, bitter, sweet, pungent, olive fruit, apple, and banana. The total intensities for every aromatic series were calculated as the sum of the OAVs of each compound associated with this series. As a result, olives had characteristic profiles. Picual cultivar had not a clear sensory characterization from the volatile compounds. Arbequina cultivar was mainly characterized by apple and bitter odorant series; Manzanilla de Sevilla by apple, bitter, and grass odorant series; and Local variety by banana and olive fruit. However, in the oils obtained from those olives, these differences disappeared, and all oils showed the same profile with pungent, bitter, and wood odorant series most strongly contributing. PMID:23659432

  15. Fresh Veggies from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Professor Marc Anderson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed a technology for use in plant-growth experiments aboard the Space Shuttle. Anderson's research and WCSAR's technology were funded by NASA and resulted in a joint technology licensed to KES Science and Technology, Inc. This transfer of space-age technology resulted in the creation of a new plant-saving product, an ethylene scrubber for plant growth chambers. This innovation presents commercial benefits for the food industry in the form of a new device, named Bio-KES. Bio-KES removes ethylene and helps to prevent spoilage. Ethylene accounts for up to 10 percent of produce losses and 5 percent of flower losses. Using Bio-KES in storage rooms and displays will increase the shelf life of perishable foods by more than one week, drastically reducing the costs associated with discarded rotten foods and flowers. The savings could potentially be passed on to consumers. For NASA, the device means that astronauts can conduct commercial agricultural research in space. Eventually, it may also help to grow food in space and keep it fresh longer. This could lead to less packaged food being taken aboard missions since it could be cultivated in an ethylene-free environment.

  16. Empirical model of odor emission from deep-pit swine finishing barns to derive a standardized odor emission factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauberger, Günther; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Ni, Ji-Qin; Bundy, Dwaine S.; Haymore, Barry L.; Diehl, Claude A.; Duggirala, Ravi K.; Heber, Albert J.

    2013-02-01

    Odor emission from swine housing is influenced by the herd characteristics and building environment. The following three specific factors were identified as inputs to a swine house odor emission model: indoor temperature, barn ventilation rate, and pig activity. Model input parameters were determined based on tests of four, identical, 1000-head, mechanically-ventilated swine finishing houses. Each building had two sidewall curtains, a curtain on the west end wall, five exhaust fans on the east end wall, four pit ventilation fans, and long-term manure storage beneath a fully slatted floor. Odor concentrations of 112 odor samples were determined using dynamic forced-choice olfactometry with four to six trained panelists. The emission model showed that the standard live mass specific odor emission factor was 48 OU s-1 per 500 kg live mass or animal unit (AU), and it corresponded to an indoor temperature of T0 = 20 °C, a ventilation rate of V0 = 200 m3 h-1 (55.6 × 10-3 m3 s-1) per pig (maximum capacity for summer time), and the daily mean animal activity. The rate of odor emission from a swine finishing house can be calculated based on these parameters coupled with the number of animals, the mean live mass, and the standard live mass specific odor emission factor. Using this process-based odor emission model, the odor emission estimation and therefore the input for odor dispersion models can be improved to obtain more reliable estimates of separation distance for siting future pig farms.

  17. Microbial safety of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book entitled “Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce” with 23 chapters is divided into following six sections: Microbial contamination of fresh produce, Pre-harvest strategies, post-harvest interventions, Produce safety during processing and handling, Public, legal, and economic Perspectives, and Re...

  18. Exposure to odors of rivals enhances sexual motivation in male giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xiaoxing; Liu, Dingzhen; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Males will alter their mating behavior to cope with the presence of their competitors. Even exposure to odors from potential competitors can greatly increase male ejaculate expenditure in a variety of animals including insects, fishes, birds and rodents. Major efforts have been made to examine males' plastic responses to sperm competition and its fitness benefits. However, the effects of competitor absence on male's sexual motivation and behaviors remain unclear, which has been proposed to be one of the causes for the poor sexual performance of some captive mammals. This study revealed that sexual motivation can be greatly enhanced in captive male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by exposure to chemosensory cues from either one or three conspecifics males. It had been shown that potential rivals' odors increased males' chemosensory investigation behavior, as well as their observing, following and sniffing behaviors towards estrous females. Behaviors changed regardless of the number of rivals (one or three). Our results demonstrate the effects of potential competition on male giant pandas' sexual motivation and behavioral coping strategy. We anticipate that our research will provide a fresh insight into the mechanisms underlying poor sexual performance in male captive mammals, and valuable information for the practical management and ex situ conservation of endangered species. PMID:23940532

  19. Exposure to odors of rivals enhances sexual motivation in male giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xiaoxing; Liu, Dingzhen; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Males will alter their mating behavior to cope with the presence of their competitors. Even exposure to odors from potential competitors can greatly increase male ejaculate expenditure in a variety of animals including insects, fishes, birds and rodents. Major efforts have been made to examine males' plastic responses to sperm competition and its fitness benefits. However, the effects of competitor absence on male's sexual motivation and behaviors remain unclear, which has been proposed to be one of the causes for the poor sexual performance of some captive mammals. This study revealed that sexual motivation can be greatly enhanced in captive male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by exposure to chemosensory cues from either one or three conspecifics males. It had been shown that potential rivals' odors increased males' chemosensory investigation behavior, as well as their observing, following and sniffing behaviors towards estrous females. Behaviors changed regardless of the number of rivals (one or three). Our results demonstrate the effects of potential competition on male giant pandas' sexual motivation and behavioral coping strategy. We anticipate that our research will provide a fresh insight into the mechanisms underlying poor sexual performance in male captive mammals, and valuable information for the practical management and ex situ conservation of endangered species.

  20. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  1. Transitivity of odor preferences: constant and particularities in hedonic perception.

    PubMed

    Brand, Gérard; Haaz, Virginie; Jacquot, Laurence

    2012-09-01

    Transitivity of preferences has been investigated for a long time in decision-making. In the field of perception, the pleasantness of odors raises several questions related to individual versus cultural or universal preferences and the existence of a classification in a delimited hedonic space. The aim of this study was to test transitivity in olfactory hedonicity using a first panel of 10 mixed odors and a second panel of 10 odors from a delimited floral category. Data were collected by paired comparisons in a two-alternative forced choice. Results in both panels showed a strong transitivity for each participant leading to a linear range of 10 odors classified by preference. However, ranges varied from one participant to another and the mean preferences of the group did not allow one to infer individual's hedonic classification of odors. Moreover, the individual classification appeared stable over time and undisturbed by odorant distractors. These findings suggest that humans have considerable ability to classify odors hedonically as a model of individual preferences in a sensory space usually considered to be more involved in affective/emotional states than in cognitive performances.

  2. Metabolic and Sensory Influences on Odor Sensitivity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, Marielle G; Verhoef, Alard; Gort, Gerrit; Luning, Pieternel A; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-02-01

    Our olfactory sense plays an important role in eating behavior by modulating our food preferences and intake. However, hunger or satiety may also influence how we perceive odors. Albeit speculative, contradictory results found in the past may have resulted from confounding by type of meal that participants ate to induce satiety. We aimed to investigate the influence of hunger state on olfactory sensitivity, comparing hunger to satiety using 2 different types of lunch to control for sensory-specific satiety. Odor detection thresholds were measured in 2 groups of participants (39 per group, 18-40 years), under 3 conditions: when hungry (twice), after a sweet lunch, and after a savory lunch. One group had their detection thresholds tested for a sweet odor, whereas in the other group, sensitivity to a savory odor was measured. Differences in olfactory sensitivity conditions were analyzed using linear mixed models. Participants had higher scores on the odor sensitivity task in a hungry versus satiated state (P = 0.001). Within the satiated condition, there was no effect of type of lunch on odor sensitivity. In conclusion, hunger slightly enhances sensitivity to food odors, but did not significantly depend on the type of food participants ate, suggesting no clear influence of sensory-specific satiety.

  3. Odor Discrimination in Drosophila: From Neural Population Codes to Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Parnas, Moshe; Lin, Andrew C.; Huetteroth, Wolf; Miesenböck, Gero

    2013-01-01

    Summary Taking advantage of the well-characterized olfactory system of Drosophila, we derive a simple quantitative relationship between patterns of odorant receptor activation, the resulting internal representations of odors, and odor discrimination. Second-order excitatory and inhibitory projection neurons (ePNs and iPNs) convey olfactory information to the lateral horn, a brain region implicated in innate odor-driven behaviors. We show that the distance between ePN activity patterns is the main determinant of a fly’s spontaneous discrimination behavior. Manipulations that silence subsets of ePNs have graded behavioral consequences, and effect sizes are predicted by changes in ePN distances. ePN distances predict only innate, not learned, behavior because the latter engages the mushroom body, which enables differentiated responses to even very similar odors. Inhibition from iPNs, which scales with olfactory stimulus strength, enhances innate discrimination of closely related odors, by imposing a high-pass filter on transmitter release from ePN terminals that increases the distance between odor representations. PMID:24012006

  4. Rapid odor perception in rat olfactory bulb by microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Dong, Qi; Zhuang, Liu-jing; Li, Rong; Wang, Ping

    2012-12-01

    Responses of 302 mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb were recorded from 42 anesthetized freely breathing rats using a 16-channel microwire electrode array. Saturated vapors of four pure chemicals, anisole, carvone, citral and isoamyl acetate were applied. After aligning spike trains to the initial phase of the inhalation after odor onset, the responses of M/T cells showed transient temporal features including excitatory and inhibitory patterns. Both odor-evoked patterns indicated that mammals recognize odors within a short respiration cycle after odor stimulus. Due to the small amount of information received from a single cell, we pooled results from all responsive M/T cells to study the ensemble activity. The firing rates of the cell ensembles were computed over 100 ms bins and population vectors were constructed. The high dimension vectors were condensed into three dimensions for visualization using principal component analysis. The trajectories of both excitatory and inhibitory cell ensembles displayed strong dynamics during odor stimulation. The distances among cluster centers were enlarged compared to those of the resting state. Thus, we presumed that pictures of odor information sent to higher brain regions were depicted and odor discrimination was completed within the first breathing cycle. PMID:23225857

  5. Smelling shapes: crossmodal correspondences between odors and shapes.

    PubMed

    Hanson-Vaux, Grant; Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Crossmodal correspondences between odors and visual stimuli-particularly colors-are well-established in the literature, but there is a paucity of research involving visual shape correspondences. Crossmodal associations between 20 odors (a selection of those commonly found in wine) and visual shape stimuli ("kiki"/"bouba" forms-Köhler W. 1929. Gestalt psychology. New York: Liveright.) were investigated in a sample of 25 participants (mean age of 21 years). The odors were rated along a form scale anchored by 2 shapes, as well as several descriptive adjective scales. Two of the odors were found to be significantly associated with an angular shape (lemon and pepper) and two others with a rounded shape (raspberry and vanilla). Principal component analysis indicated that the hedonic value and intensity of odors are important in this crossmodal association, with more unpleasant and intense smells associated with more angular forms. These results are discussed in terms of their practical applications, such as in the use of bottle, logo, or label shape by marketers of perfume and wine to convey the prominent notes through congruent odor-shape pairing. In conclusion, these results support the existence of widespread crossmodal associations (or correspondences) between odors and visual shape stimuli.

  6. Odor recognition memory: two encoding trials are better than one.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lauren A; Ober, Beth A; Shenaut, Gregory K

    2012-10-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of one versus two encoding trials in the classical yes/no recognition memory paradigm using olfactory stimuli. A group of 24 young adults rated 18 standard microencapsulated odorant targets for familiarity (first encoding block) or pleasantness (second encoding block). Once-encoded targets were in only one block and twice-encoded targets were in both, with items counterbalanced across participants. Participants performed a 20-min nonverbal distractor task followed by a yes/no recognition test incorporating 18 additional odors as foils. Memory performance for twice-encoded targets was superior to that for once-encoded targets. For once-encoded targets, performance did not differ between those rated for familiarity versus those rated for pleasantness. Less pleasant odors produced overall better recognition, with a tendency for less familiar odors to produce overall better recognition. There was a tendency for the second encoding trial to have a larger effect for less pleasant or familiar odors than for more pleasant or familiar odors. The main conclusion is that recognition memory for odors is better for items encoded two times than for items encoded only once. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:22843762

  7. Odor quality coding and categorization in human posterior piriform cortex

    PubMed Central

    Howard, James D; Plailly, Jane; Grueschow, Marcus; Haynes, John-Dylan; Gottfried, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    Efficient recognition of odorous objects universally shapes animal behavior and is crucial for survival. To distinguish kin from non-kin, mate from non-mate, food from non-food, organisms must be able to create meaningful perceptual representations of odor qualities and categories. It is currently unknown where, and in what form, the brain encodes information about odor quality. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with multivariate (pattern-based) techniques, we show that spatially distributed ensemble activity in human posterior piriform cortex (PPC) coincides with perceptual ratings of odor quality, such that odorants with more (or less) similar fMRI patterns were perceived as more (or less) alike. Critically, these effects were not observed in anterior piriform cortex, amygdala, or orbitofrontal cortex, demonstrating that ensemble coding of odor categorical perception is regionally specific for PPC. These findings substantiate theoretical models emphasizing the importance of distributed piriform templates for the perceptual reconstruction of odor object quality. PMID:19483688

  8. Metabolic and Sensory Influences on Odor Sensitivity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, Marielle G; Verhoef, Alard; Gort, Gerrit; Luning, Pieternel A; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-02-01

    Our olfactory sense plays an important role in eating behavior by modulating our food preferences and intake. However, hunger or satiety may also influence how we perceive odors. Albeit speculative, contradictory results found in the past may have resulted from confounding by type of meal that participants ate to induce satiety. We aimed to investigate the influence of hunger state on olfactory sensitivity, comparing hunger to satiety using 2 different types of lunch to control for sensory-specific satiety. Odor detection thresholds were measured in 2 groups of participants (39 per group, 18-40 years), under 3 conditions: when hungry (twice), after a sweet lunch, and after a savory lunch. One group had their detection thresholds tested for a sweet odor, whereas in the other group, sensitivity to a savory odor was measured. Differences in olfactory sensitivity conditions were analyzed using linear mixed models. Participants had higher scores on the odor sensitivity task in a hungry versus satiated state (P = 0.001). Within the satiated condition, there was no effect of type of lunch on odor sensitivity. In conclusion, hunger slightly enhances sensitivity to food odors, but did not significantly depend on the type of food participants ate, suggesting no clear influence of sensory-specific satiety. PMID:26567260

  9. Multidimensional representation of odors in the human olfactory cortex.

    PubMed

    Fournel, A; Ferdenzi, C; Sezille, C; Rouby, C; Bensafi, M

    2016-06-01

    What is known as an odor object is an integrated representation constructed from physical features, and perceptual attributes mainly mediated by the olfactory and trigeminal systems. The aim of the present study was to comprehend how this multidimensional representation is organized, by deciphering how similarities in the physical, olfactory and trigeminal perceptual spaces of odors are represented in the human brain. To achieve this aim, we combined psychophysics, functional MRI and multivariate representational similarity analysis. Participants were asked to smell odors diffused by an fMRI-compatible olfactometer and to rate each smell along olfactory dimensions (pleasantness, intensity, familiarity and edibility) and trigeminal dimensions (irritation, coolness, warmth and pain). An event-related design was implemented, presenting different odorants. Results revealed that (i) pairwise odorant similarities in anterior piriform cortex (PC) activity correlated with pairwise odorant similarities in chemical properties (P < 0.005), (ii) similarities in posterior PC activity correlated with similarities in olfactory perceptual properties (P <0.01), and (iii) similarities in amygdala activity correlated with similarities in trigeminal perceptual properties (P < 0.01). These findings provide new evidence that extraction of physical, olfactory and trigeminal features is based on specific fine processing of similarities between odorous stimuli in a distributed manner in the olfactory system. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2161-2172, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991044

  10. Generalization Mediates Sensitivity to Complex Odor Features in the Honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Geraldine A.; Kottcamp, Sonya M.; Thomson, Mitchell G. A.

    2008-01-01

    Animals use odors as signals for mate, kin, and food recognition, a strategy which appears ubiquitous and successful despite the high intrinsic variability of naturally-occurring odor quantities. Stimulus generalization, or the ability to decide that two objects, though readily distinguishable, are similar enough to afford the same consequence [1], could help animals adjust to variation in odor signals without losing sensitivity to key inter-stimulus differences. The present study was designed to investigate whether an animal's ability to generalize learned associations to novel odors can be influenced by the nature of the associated outcome. We use a classical conditioning paradigm for studying olfactory learning in honeybees [2] to show that honeybees conditioned on either a fixed- or variable-proportion binary odor mixture generalize learned responses to novel proportions of the same mixture even when inter-odor differences are substantial. We also show that the resulting olfactory generalization gradients depend critically on both the nature of the stimulus-reward paradigm and the intrinsic variability of the conditioned stimulus. The reward dependency we observe must be cognitive rather than perceptual in nature, and we argue that outcome-dependent generalization is necessary for maintaining sensitivity to inter-odor differences in complex olfactory scenes. PMID:18301779

  11. Multidimensional representation of odors in the human olfactory cortex.

    PubMed

    Fournel, A; Ferdenzi, C; Sezille, C; Rouby, C; Bensafi, M

    2016-06-01

    What is known as an odor object is an integrated representation constructed from physical features, and perceptual attributes mainly mediated by the olfactory and trigeminal systems. The aim of the present study was to comprehend how this multidimensional representation is organized, by deciphering how similarities in the physical, olfactory and trigeminal perceptual spaces of odors are represented in the human brain. To achieve this aim, we combined psychophysics, functional MRI and multivariate representational similarity analysis. Participants were asked to smell odors diffused by an fMRI-compatible olfactometer and to rate each smell along olfactory dimensions (pleasantness, intensity, familiarity and edibility) and trigeminal dimensions (irritation, coolness, warmth and pain). An event-related design was implemented, presenting different odorants. Results revealed that (i) pairwise odorant similarities in anterior piriform cortex (PC) activity correlated with pairwise odorant similarities in chemical properties (P < 0.005), (ii) similarities in posterior PC activity correlated with similarities in olfactory perceptual properties (P <0.01), and (iii) similarities in amygdala activity correlated with similarities in trigeminal perceptual properties (P < 0.01). These findings provide new evidence that extraction of physical, olfactory and trigeminal features is based on specific fine processing of similarities between odorous stimuli in a distributed manner in the olfactory system. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2161-2172, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Odors eliciting fear: a conditioning approach to Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances.

    PubMed

    Leer, Arne; Smeets, Monique A M; Bulsing, Patricia J; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2011-06-01

    Patients suffering from Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances (IEI) report health symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, which are triggered by harmless odors and therefore medically unexplainable. In line with previous research that predominantly points towards psychological explanations, the present study tests the hypothesis that IEI symptoms result from learning via classical conditioning of odors to fear. A differential conditioning paradigm was employed. Hedonically different odors were compared on ease of fear acquisition. Conditioned stimuli (CSs) were Dimethyl Sulfide (unpleasant) and peach (pleasant). The unconditioned stimulus (US) was an electrical shock. During acquisition one odor (CS+) was followed by shock, while the other odor (CS-) was not. Next, fear extinction was tested by presenting both CS+ and CS- without US. Electrodermal response, odor evaluation, and sniffing behavior were monitored. Results showed successful fear conditioning irrespective of hedonic character as evidenced by electrodermal response. Acquired fear did not extinguish. There was no evidence of evaluative conditioning taking place, as CS evaluation did not change during fear acquisition. Early avoidance of the CS+, as deduced from odor inhalation measures, was demonstrated, but did not sustain during the entire acquisition phase. This study suggests that a fear conditioning account of IEI is only partially satisfactory.

  13. Age-Related Changes in Children's Hedonic Response to Male Body Odor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Repacholi, Betty M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined children's and adolescents' ability to identify male sweat and other odors and their rating of odors for liking. Found that only female adolescents could identify and disliked male sweat. When cued about odor identity, both male and female adolescents disliked male sweat more than children. Concluded that dislike for male sweat odor may…

  14. Research on odor interaction between aldehyde compounds via a partial differential equation (PDE) model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Qu, Chen; Gu, Xingye; Zhao, Xia

    2015-01-28

    In order to explore the odor interaction of binary odor mixtures, a series of odor intensity evaluation tests were performed using both individual components and binary mixtures of aldehydes. Based on the linear relation between the logarithm of odor activity value and odor intensity of individual substances, the relationship between concentrations of individual constituents and their joint odor intensity was investigated by employing a partial differential equation (PDE) model. The obtained results showed that the binary odor interaction was mainly influenced by the mixing ratio of two constituents, but not the concentration level of an odor sample. Besides, an extended PDE model was also proposed on the basis of the above experiments. Through a series of odor intensity matching tests for several different binary odor mixtures, the extended PDE model was proved effective at odor intensity prediction. Furthermore, odorants of the same chemical group and similar odor type exhibited similar characteristics in the binary odor interaction. The overall results suggested that the PDE model is a more interpretable way of demonstrating the odor interactions of binary odor mixtures.

  15. Numerical simulations of odorant detection by biologically inspired sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Schuech, R; Stacey, M T; Barad, M F; Koehl, M A R

    2012-03-01

    The antennules of many marine crustaceans enable them to rapidly locate sources of odorant in turbulent environmental flows and may provide biological inspiration for engineered plume sampling systems. A substantial gap in knowledge concerns how the physical interaction between a sensing device and the chemical filaments forming a turbulent plume affects odorant detection and filters the information content of the plume. We modeled biological arrays of chemosensory hairs as infinite arrays of odorant flux-detecting cylinders and simulated the fluid flow around and odorant flux into the hair-like sensors as they intercepted a single odorant filament. As array geometry and sampling kinematics were varied, we quantified distortion of the flux time series relative to the spatial shape of the original odorant filament as well as flux metrics that may be important to both organisms and engineered systems attempting to measure plume structure and/or identify chemical composition. The most important predictor of signal distortion is the ratio of sensor diameter to odorant filament width. Achieving high peak properties (e.g. sharpness) of the flux time series and maximizing the total number of odorant molecules detected appear to be mutually exclusive design goals. Sensor arrays inspired specifically by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus and mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus introduce little signal distortion but these species' neural systems may not be able to resolve plume structure at the level of individual filaments via temporal properties of the odorant flux. Current chemical sensors are similarly constrained. Our results suggest either that the spatial distribution of flux across the aesthetasc array is utilized by P. argus and G. falcatus, or that such high spatiotemporal resolution is unnecessary for effective plume tracking. PMID:22155966

  16. Odorant binding characteristics of three recombinant odorant binding proteins in Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Keming; Wang, Shanning; Zhang, Kang; Ren, Liyan; Ali, Abid; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Guo, Yuyuan

    2014-06-01

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are believed to be important for transporting semiochemicals through the aqueous sensillar lymph to the olfactory receptor cells within the insect antennal sensilla. In this study, three new putative OBP genes, MmedOBP8-10, were identified from a Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) antennal cDNA library. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that all three of the OBP genes were expressed mainly in the antennae of adult wasps. The three OBPs were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni ion affinity chromatography. Fluorescence competitive binding assays were performed using N-phenyl-naphthylamine as a fluorescent probe and 45 small organic compounds as competitors. These assays demonstrated that the three M. mediator OBPs can bind a broad range of odorant molecules with different binding affinities. They can bind the following ligands: nonane, farnesol, nerolidol, nonanal, β-ionone, acetic ether, and farnesene. In a Y-tube assay with these ligands as odor stimuli and paraffin oil as a control, all ligands, except nerolidol and acetic ether, were able to elicit behavioral responses in adult M. mediator. The wasps were significantly attracted to β-ionone, nonanal, and farnesene and repelled by nonane and farnesol. The results of this work provide insight into the chemosensory functions of the OBPs in M. mediator.

  17. Principles of odor coding and a neural network for odor discrimination.

    PubMed

    Schild, D

    1988-12-01

    A concept of olfactory coding is proposed. It describes the stimulus responses of all receptor cells by the use of vector spaces. The morphological convergence pattern between receptor cells and glomeruli is given in the same vector space as the receptor cell activities. The overall input of a glomerulus follows as the scalar product of the receptor cell activity vector and the vector of the glomerulus' convergence pattern. The proposed coding concept shows how the network of the olfactory bulb succeeds in discriminating odors with high selectivity. It is concluded that sets of mitral cells coding similar odors work very much in the way of mutually inhibited matched filters. This solves one main problem both in olfaction as well as real-time odor detection by an artificial nose, i.e., how the fairly low degree of selectivity of receptor cells or sensors is overcome by the neural network following the receptor stage. The formal description of olfactory coding suggests that quality perception which is invariant under concentration shifts is accomplished by an associative memory in the olfactory bulb.

  18. Enhancement of Odor Sensitivity Following Repeated Odor and Visual Fear Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Parma, Valentina; Ferraro, Stefania; Miller, Stacie S; Åhs, Fredrik; Lundström, Johan N

    2015-09-01

    Odor detection sensitivity can be rapidly altered by fear conditioning; whether this effect is augmented over time is not known. The present study aimed to test whether repeated conditioning sessions induce changes in odor detection threshold as well as in conditioned responses and whether olfactory stimuli evoke stronger conditioned responses than visual stimuli. The repeated conditioning group participated in repeated sessions over 2 weeks whereas the single conditioning group participated in 1 conditioning session; both groups were presented with visual and olfactory stimuli, were paired with an electric shock (CS+) and 2 matched control stimuli not paired with shock (CS-) while olfactory detection threshold and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured before and after the last session. We found increased sensitivity for the CS+ odor in the repeated but not in the single conditioning group, consistent with changes in olfactory sensitivity following repeated aversive learning and of a similar magnitude to what has previously been demonstrated in the periphery. SCR to the visual and olfactory CS+ were similar between groups, indicating that sensory thresholds can change without corresponding change in conditioned responses. In conclusion, repeated conditioning increases detection sensitivity and reduces conditioned responses, suggesting that segregated processes influence perception and conditioned responses.

  19. The Conformational Behaviour of the Odorant Dihydrocarveol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loru, Donatella; Jarman, Natasha; Sanz, M. Eugenia

    2016-06-01

    The odorant dihydrocarveol (C10H18O) has been investigated in the gas phase using a 2-8 GHz chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Dihydrocarveol was purchased as a mixture of n-, iso-, neo-, and neoiso- isomers. The sample was placed in a bespoke heating nozzle at about 85°C and seeded in Ne at 5 bar. Three conformers were observed and their rotational constants were determined. By comparing the experimental rotational constants with those calculated ab initio the three conformers were identified as belonging to n-dihydrocarveol. In all three conformers the isopropenyl group is in equatorial position with respect to the six-membered ring, and the OH group maintains the same configuration. The conformers differ in the orientation of the isopropenyl group.

  20. Emissions of odorous aldehydes from alkyd paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, John C. S.; Guo, Zhishi

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environ-mental chambers. It was found that, for each gram of alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of aldehydes (mainly hexanal) were emitted during the curing (drying) period. Since no measurable hexanal was found in the original paint, it is suspected that the aldehydes emitted were produced by autoxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the alkyd resins. The hexanal emission rate was simulated by a model assuming that the autoxidation process was controlled by a consecutive first-order reaction mechanism. Using the emission rate model, indoor air quality simulation indicated that the hexanal emissions can result in prolonged (several days) exposure risk to occupants. The occupant exposure to aldehydes emitted from alkyd paint also could cause sensory irritation and other health concerns.

  1. Odorant design based on the carbon/silicon switch strategy.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Reinhold; Metz, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Silicon chemistry has been demonstrated to be a novel source of chemical diversity in odorant design. The carbon/silicon switch strategy, i.e., sila-replacement in known odorants, is one of the methods currently used for the development of silicon-based odorants. Examples resulting from this strategy are sila-coranol, sila-dimetol, sila-linalool, sila-muguetalcohol, sila-majantol, sila-hydratropyl acetate, sila-bourgeonal, sila-lilial, disila-versalide, and disila-okoumal.

  2. New alicyclic musks: the fourth generation of musk odorants.

    PubMed

    Eh, Marcus

    2004-12-01

    Musk odorants are one of the most important classes of fragrances in perfumery because they impart sensuality to perfume-oil compositions. Among the three well-known classes of musks, a new and very exciting generation of musk odorants, the so-called alicyclic musks, was discovered recently, of which Helvetolide (2) and Romandolide (3) are the most popular representatives so far. To find new, structurally related alicyclic musks, we have synthesized a library of 114 unique alicyclic molecules with modified cyclohexyl moieties. The olfactory properties of all compounds were evaluated to identify the structural requirements to be met for a musk odorant.

  3. Study of Odor Approximation by Using Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Masashi; Nihei, Yasunori; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2011-09-01

    Since a set of odor components to cover wide range of smells has not been revealed yet, we studied the selection of odor components using essential-oil mass spectrum database. Basis vectors were extracted using non-negative matrix factorization method1 and then non-negative least squares method was used to determine the recipe. The odor approximations of three typical essential oils were confirmed by the sensory test. It was found that the mass spectrum data were correlated with the sensory test result. Moreover, this correlation was remarkable in the high m/z region.

  4. The Swipe Card Model of Odorant Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Jennifer C.; Horsfield, Andrew P.; Stoneham, A. Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Just how we discriminate between the different odours we encounter is not completely understood yet. While obviously a matter involving biology, the core issue is a matter for physics: what microscopic interactions enable the receptors in our noses-small protein switches—to distinguish scent molecules? We survey what is and is not known about the physical processes that take place when we smell things, highlighting the difficulties in developing a full understanding of the mechanics of odorant recognition. The main current theories, discussed here, fall into two major groups. One class emphasises the scent molecule's shape, and is described informally as a “lock and key” mechanism. But there is another category, which we focus on and which we call “swipe card” theories: the molecular shape must be good enough, but the information that identifies the smell involves other factors. One clearly-defined “swipe card” mechanism that we discuss here is Turin's theory, in which inelastic electron tunnelling is used to discern olfactant vibration frequencies. This theory is explicitly quantal, since it requires the molecular vibrations to take in or give out energy only in discrete quanta. These ideas lead to obvious experimental tests and challenges. We describe the current theory in a form that takes into account molecular shape as well as olfactant vibrations. It emerges that this theory can explain many observations hard to reconcile in other ways. There are still some important gaps in a comprehensive physics-based description of the central steps in odorant recognition. We also discuss how far these ideas carry over to analogous processes involving other small biomolecules, like hormones, steroids and neurotransmitters. We conclude with a discussion of possible quantum behaviours in biology more generally, the case of olfaction being just one example. This paper is presented in honour of Prof. Marshall Stoneham who passed away unexpectedly during its

  5. The swipe card model of odorant recognition.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Jennifer C; Horsfield, Andrew P; Stoneham, A Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Just how we discriminate between the different odours we encounter is not completely understood yet. While obviously a matter involving biology, the core issue isa matter for physics: what microscopic interactions enable the receptors in our noses-small protein switches—to distinguish scent molecules? We survey what is and is not known about the physical processes that take place when we smell things, highlighting the difficulties in developing a full understanding of the mechanics of odorant recognition. The main current theories, discussed here, fall into two major groups. One class emphasises the scent molecule's shape, and is described informally as a "lock and key" mechanism. But there is another category, which we focus on and which we call "swipe card" theories:the molecular shape must be good enough, but the information that identifies the smell involves other factors. One clearly-defined "swipe card" mechanism that we discuss here is Turin's theory, in which inelastic electron tunnelling is used to discern olfactant vibration frequencies. This theory is explicitly quantal, since it requires the molecular vibrations to take in or give out energy only in discrete quanta. These ideas lead to obvious experimental tests and challenges. We describe the current theory in a form that takes into account molecular shape as well as olfactant vibrations. It emerges that this theory can explain many observations hard to reconcile in other ways. There are still some important gaps in a comprehensive physics-based description of the central steps in odorant recognition. We also discuss how far these ideas carry over to analogous processes involving other small biomolecules, like hormones, steroids and neurotransmitters. We conclude with a discussion of possible quantum behaviours in biology more generally, the case of olfaction being just one example. This paper is presented in honour of Prof. Marshall Stoneham who passed away unexpectedly during its writing. PMID

  6. Odds and Trends: Recent Developments in the Chemistry of Odorants Note on trademarks: Words which we know or have reason to believe constitute registered trademarks (R) are designated as such. However, neither the presence nor absence of such designation should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademark. Note on perfume analysis: The quoted percentages of perfume raw materials in market products are rounded figures. They are often derived from area percentages from the GC (FID) analysis, and are thus subject to analytical error.

    PubMed

    Kraft; Bajgrowicz; Denis; Fráter

    2000-09-01

    Fragrance chemistry is, together with the closely related area of flavor chemistry, one of the few domains, if not the only one, in which chemists can immediately experience structure-activity relationships. This review presents structure-odor correlations and olfactophore models for the main odor notes of perfumery: "fruity", "marine", "green", "floral", "spicy", "woody", "amber", and "musky". New trendsetters and so-called captive odorants of these notes are introduced, and recent activities and highlights in fragrance chemistry are summarized. The design of odorants, their chemical synthesis, and their use in modern perfumery is discussed. Our selection is guided and illustrated by creative fragrances, and features new odorants which encompassed current trends in perfumery. New odorants for grapefruit and blackcurrant, for galbanum, and leafy top notes are presented. Compounds with fashionable marine, ozonic, and aquatic facets are treated, as well as new odorants for classical lily-of-the-valley, rose, and jasmine accords. Compounds with sweet and spicy tonalities are also discussed, as are the most recent developments for woody notes such as sandalwood and vetiver. We conclude with musky and ambery odorants possessing uncommon or unusual structural features. Some odor trends and effects are illustrated by microencapsulated fragrance samples, and areas where there is need for the development of new synthetic materials and methodologies are pointed out. Thus, chemists are invited to explore fragrance chemistry and participate in the design and synthesis of new odorants. This review gives the latest state of the art of the subject.

  7. Odor sensitivity and respiratory complaint profiles in a community-based sample with asthma, hay fever, and chemical odor intolerance.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, C M; Bell, I R; O'Rourke, M K

    1999-01-01

    This is a community-based study of odor sensitivity and respiratory complaints for persons reporting asthma (n = 14/141), hay fever (n = 72/140), and chemical odor intolerance (CI) (n = 41/181). CI, a symptom of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), was determined from self-ratings of feeling 'moderately' to 'severely' ill using the Chemical Odor Intolerance Index (CII). Index odors included perfume, pesticide, drying paint, new carpet odor, and car exhaust. Six additional odors [natural gas, disinfectants, chlorinated water, room deodorizers, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)] were also assessed in the health and environment survey. Asthmatics reported feeling 'frequently' to 'almost always' ill from the CII index odors of drying paint, new carpet odor, perfume, and cleaning agents compared to nonasthmatics. People with hay fever documented feeling 'frequently' to 'almost always' ill from pesticides, drying paint, and car exhaust compared to individuals without hay fever. The CI cited illness from air freshener, natural gas and chlorinated water, in addition to the index odors of perfume, paint, pesticides, new carpeting and auto exhaust. All three groups were significantly more likely to report feeling ill from ETS. People with asthma were significantly more likely to report lower lung complaints, such as wheeze and dyspnea. People with hay fever cited more chest tightness. The CI were significantly more likely to report upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Given this overlap in respiratory complaints, it could be that CI may serve to amplify these traditional immune-related disorders and/or suggest that having asthma or hay fever could make one more vulnerable to CI.

  8. Pattern recognition for selective odor detection with gas sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Chulki; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Taikjin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new pattern recognition approach for enhancing the selectivity of gas sensor arrays for clustering intelligent odor detection. The aim of this approach was to accurately classify an odor using pattern recognition in order to enhance the selectivity of gas sensor arrays. This was achieved using an odor monitoring system with a newly developed neural-genetic classification algorithm (NGCA). The system shows the enhancement in the sensitivity of the detected gas. Experiments showed that the proposed NGCA delivered better performance than the previous genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) methods. We also used PCA for data visualization. Our proposed system can enhance the reproducibility, reliability, and selectivity of odor sensor output, so it is expected to be applicable to diverse environmental problems including air pollution, and monitor the air quality of clean-air required buildings such as a kindergartens and hospitals. PMID:23443378

  9. Relationship between odor perception and depression in the Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Satoh, S; Morita, N; Matsuzaki, I; Konishi, T; Nakano, T; Minoshita, S; Arizono, H; Saito, S; Ayabe, A S

    1996-10-01

    Odor perception has been studied in patients with various mental disorders; however, no consensus has been reached as to its detection, identification, or pleasantness/unpleasantness of odors especially in patients with depression. One hundred and nineteen normal elderly individuals living at home were exposed to odors of rose, perfume, white ginger, Indian ink, cigarette smoke, milk, feces and orange scent using the scratch and sniff method. They were asked to rate the strength of each odor, its pleasantness or unpleasantness, their liking for it, and their familiarity with it. They were also asked to complete a self-rating depression scale (SDS). The relationship of the score of each psychological olfactory scale with the SDS score and the difference in the score of each psychological scale between high-SDS and low-SDS groups are discussed.

  10. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  11. Frequency transitions in odor-evoked neural oscillations.

    PubMed

    Ito, Iori; Bazhenov, Maxim; Ong, Rose Chik-ying; Raman, Baranidharan; Stopfer, Mark

    2009-12-10

    In many species, sensory stimuli elicit the oscillatory synchronization of groups of neurons. What determines the properties of these oscillations? In the olfactory system of the moth, we found that odors elicited oscillatory synchronization through a neural mechanism like that described in locust and Drosophila. During responses to long odor pulses, oscillations suddenly slowed as net olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) output decreased; thus, stimulus intensity appeared to determine oscillation frequency. However, changing the concentration of the odor had little effect upon oscillatory frequency. Our recordings in vivo and computational models based on these results suggested that the main effect of increasing odor concentration was to recruit additional, less well-tuned ORNs whose firing rates were tightly constrained by adaptation and saturation. Thus, in the periphery, concentration is encoded mainly by the size of the responsive ORN population, and oscillation frequency is set by the adaptation and saturation of this response.

  12. Individual odor differences and their social functions in insects.

    PubMed

    Barrows, E M; Bell, W J; Michener, C D

    1975-07-01

    The evolution of individual or subgroup differences in odors of halictine bees is suggested from possible widespread intraspecific variation in pheromones. An important result of such variation may be maintenance of genetic polymorphisms; in nesting Hymenoptera odor differences may also facilitate individual nest recognition. In Lasioglosum zephyrum males habituate to odors of different females and perhaps thus save time by not trying to copulate with nonreceptive individuals. Guards (females) at nest entrances distinguish their few nestmates (other females) from other conspecific individuals by odors, seemingly pheromones. Duration of the habituation in L. zephyrum is at least an hour (perhaps much more) for males in relation to females and 6 or 7 days for guards in relation to nestmates. Studies of pheromones should take into consideration the possibility of pheromonal polymorphism in any species and the likelihood that it may be significant from biological and practical viewpoints. PMID:1058498

  13. Evaluation Of Odors Associated With Land Application Of Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    An odor study was performed at a biosolids application demonstration site using several different gas collection devices and analytical methods to determine changes in air concentration of several organic and inorganic compounds associated with biosolids application over various ...

  14. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  15. Avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, John A.; Zhang, Qing-He; Birgersson, Göran

    The bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern Europe for suitable branches of its host, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia; oak, Quercus robur; alder buckthorn, Frangula alnus; blueberry, Vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, Rubus idaeus; and grass, Deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction of the bark beetle to traps releasing its aggregation pheromone components in the field. Volatiles from the leaves or bark of each of these plants significantly reduced the attraction of the beetles to their pheromone. Odors collected from these nonhosts and analyzed by GC/MS contained monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and ``green-leaf'' alcohols, several of which (e.g., 1-octene-3-ol and β-caryophyllene) reduced the attraction to pheromone in the field and elicited electroantennographic responses. In the laboratory, reproduction by the beetle was marginal in nonhost Norway spruce, Picea abies, and was absent in the other nonhost trees. Olfactory avoidance of unsuitable nonhosts may have evolved due to advantages in avoiding mistakes during host selection.

  16. Avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors.

    PubMed

    Byers, John A; Zhang, Qing-He; Birgersson, Göran

    2004-05-01

    The bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern Europe for suitable branches of its host, Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris). We tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia; oak, Quercus robur; alder buckthorn, Frangula alnus; blueberry, Vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, Rubus idaeus; and grass, Deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction of the bark beetle to traps releasing its aggregation pheromone components in the field. Volatiles from the leaves or bark of each of these plants significantly reduced the attraction of the beetles to their pheromone. Odors collected from these nonhosts and analyzed by GC/MS contained monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and "green-leaf" alcohols, several of which (e.g., 1-octene-3-ol and beta-caryophyllene) reduced the attraction to pheromone in the field and elicited electroantennographic responses. In the laboratory, reproduction by the beetle was marginal in nonhost Norway spruce, Picea abies, and was absent in the other nonhost trees. Olfactory avoidance of unsuitable nonhosts may have evolved due to advantages in avoiding mistakes during host selection.

  17. Wild Western Lowland Gorillas Signal Selectively Using Odor

    PubMed Central

    Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses. PMID:25006973

  18. Wild western lowland gorillas signal selectively using odor.

    PubMed

    Klailova, Michelle; Lee, Phyllis C

    2014-01-01

    Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s). Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses.

  19. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  20. Simultaneous removal of multiple odorants from source water suffering from septic and musty odors: Verification in a full-scale water treatment plant with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingyuan; Yang, Kai; Yu, Jianwei; Wang, Chunmiao; Wen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Liping; Yang, Min; Xia, Ping; Zhang, Dong

    2016-09-01

    Ozonation is known to be very effective in the removal of odorants from source water. However, it is not known if ozonation is effective in the removal of multiple odorants causing different types of odors. In this study, the removal performance for odors and odorants were evaluated in a Water Treatment Plant (WTP), which was equipped with coagulation, sedimentation, ozonation, biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration, sand filtration, and chlorination in succession and located in the downstream of the Huangpu (HP) River, over the period from April, 2014 to April, 2015. Flavor profile analysis (FPA) results showed that the source water was constantly associated with septic and musty odors. Geosmin and 2-MIB, with an average OAV of 4.54 and 1.38, respectively, were the major odorants for musty odor, while bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether, DEDS and DMDS with an average OAV of 2.35, 1.65 and 0.78, respectively, might be responsible for the septic odor. While the musty odor could be removed effectively through the combination of ozonation and BAC, the septic odor and associated odorants required further treatment with sand filtration and chlorination for complete removal. It is clear that the advanced treatment process was effective for the treatment of source water containing complicated odorants. It should be noted that the sedimentation process needs careful management because release of odorants may occur during the treatment. The result of this study will be helpful for the mitigation of odors in WTP using source waters suffering from complicated odor problems. PMID:27173729

  1. Simultaneous removal of multiple odorants from source water suffering from septic and musty odors: Verification in a full-scale water treatment plant with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingyuan; Yang, Kai; Yu, Jianwei; Wang, Chunmiao; Wen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Liping; Yang, Min; Xia, Ping; Zhang, Dong

    2016-09-01

    Ozonation is known to be very effective in the removal of odorants from source water. However, it is not known if ozonation is effective in the removal of multiple odorants causing different types of odors. In this study, the removal performance for odors and odorants were evaluated in a Water Treatment Plant (WTP), which was equipped with coagulation, sedimentation, ozonation, biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration, sand filtration, and chlorination in succession and located in the downstream of the Huangpu (HP) River, over the period from April, 2014 to April, 2015. Flavor profile analysis (FPA) results showed that the source water was constantly associated with septic and musty odors. Geosmin and 2-MIB, with an average OAV of 4.54 and 1.38, respectively, were the major odorants for musty odor, while bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether, DEDS and DMDS with an average OAV of 2.35, 1.65 and 0.78, respectively, might be responsible for the septic odor. While the musty odor could be removed effectively through the combination of ozonation and BAC, the septic odor and associated odorants required further treatment with sand filtration and chlorination for complete removal. It is clear that the advanced treatment process was effective for the treatment of source water containing complicated odorants. It should be noted that the sedimentation process needs careful management because release of odorants may occur during the treatment. The result of this study will be helpful for the mitigation of odors in WTP using source waters suffering from complicated odor problems.

  2. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  3. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms). In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  4. Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors Influence Hedonic Evaluations of Human Faces: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Wright, Hazel; Thomas, Anna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Field, Matt; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Healthy, young participants (N = 20) rated neutral faces presented after a 3 s pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine), unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan), or no-odor control (clean air). Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600-950 ms). In the 620-640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (>600) and ultra-late (>900 ms) latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations. PMID:26733843

  5. Implicit and Explicit Measurements of Affective Responses to Food Odors.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; de Wijk, René A; de Graaf, Cees; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-10-01

    One of the main functions of olfaction is to activate approach/avoidance behavior, toward or away from people, foods, or other odor sources. These behaviors are partly automated and therefore poorly accessible via introspection. Explicit tests need therefore be complemented by implicit tests to provide additional insights into the underlying processes of these behaviors. Affective responses to seven food odors plus one control nonodor were assessed in 28 female participants (18-30 years) using explicit tests [pleasantness, intensity, and non-verbal emotional ratings (PrEmo)] as well as implicit tests that reflect dynamic expressive emotional reactions (facial expressions) as well as behavioral-preparation responses (autonomic nervous system responses: heart rate, skin conductance, and skin temperature). Explicit tests showed significant differences in pleasantness (P < 0.05), and all PrEmo emotions (P < 0.05) except shame. Explicit emotional responses were summarized by valence (explaining 83% of the responses variance) and arousal (14%) as principal components. Early implicit facial and ANS responses (after 1s) seem to reflect the odors' arousal, whereas later ANS responses (after 3-4s) reflected the odors' valence. The results suggest that explicit measures primarily reflect the odors' valence, as result of from relatively long (conscious) processing, which may be less relevant for odor acceptance in the real world where fast and automated processes based on arousal may play a larger role. PMID:27340136

  6. Canine detection odor signatures for mine-related explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, James M.; Williams, Marc; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Dugan, Regina E.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-09-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives used in land mines. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to (1) blank air, (2) a target odor such as an explosive, and (3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like the target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT and C-4. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  7. Differential Electrophysiological Responses to Odorant Isotopologues in Drosophilid Antennae.

    PubMed

    Drimyli, Efstathia; Gaitanidis, Alexandros; Maniati, Klio; Turin, Luca; Skoulakis, Efthimios M C

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction presents the ultimate challenge to molecular recognition as thousands of molecules have to be recognized by far fewer olfactory receptors. We have presented evidence that Drosophila readily distinguish odorants based on their molecular vibrations using a battery of behavioral assays suggesting engagement of a molecular vibration-sensing component. Here we interrogate electrophysiologically the antennae of four Drosophilids and demonstrate conserved differential response amplitudes to aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, nitriles, and their deuterated isotopologues. Certain deuterated odorants evoked larger electroantennogram (EAG) amplitudes, while the response to the normal odorant was elevated in others. Significantly, benzonitrile isotopologues were not distinguishable as predicted. This suggests that isotopologue-specific EAG amplitudes result from differential activation of specific olfactory receptors. In support of this, odorants with as few as two deuteria evoke distinct EAG amplitudes from their normal isotopologues, and this is independent of the size of the deuterated molecule. Importantly, we find no evidence that these isotopologue-specific amplitudes depend on perireceptor mechanisms or other pertinent physical property of the deuterated odorants. Rather, our results strongly suggest that Drosophilid olfactory receptors are activated by molecular vibrations differentiating similarly sized and shaped odorants in vivo, yielding sufficient differential information to drive behavioral choices. PMID:27351023

  8. Stable Odor Recognition by a neuro-adaptive Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Magna, Gabriele; Polese, Davide; Vergara, Alexander; Schild, Detlev; di Natale, Corrado

    2015-06-01

    Sensitivity, selectivity and stability are decisive properties of sensors. In chemical gas sensors odor recognition can be severely compromised by poor signal stability, particularly in real life applications where the sensors are exposed to unpredictable sequences of odors under changing external conditions. Although olfactory receptor neurons in the nose face similar stimulus sequences under likewise changing conditions, odor recognition is very stable and odorants can be reliably identified independently from past odor perception. We postulate that appropriate pre-processing of the output signals of chemical sensors substantially contributes to the stability of odor recognition, in spite of marked sensor instabilities. To investigate this hypothesis, we use an adaptive, unsupervised neural network inspired by the glomerular input circuitry of the olfactory bulb. Essentially the model reduces the effect of the sensors’ instabilities by utilizing them via an adaptive multicompartment feed-forward inhibition. We collected and analyzed responses of a 4 × 4 gas sensor array to a number of volatile compounds applied over a period of 18 months, whereby every sensor was sampled episodically. The network conferred excellent stability to the compounds’ identification and was clearly superior over standard classifiers, even when one of the sensors exhibited random fluctuations or stopped working at all.

  9. Differential Electrophysiological Responses to Odorant Isotopologues in Drosophilid Antennae123

    PubMed Central

    Drimyli, Efstathia; Gaitanidis, Alexandros; Maniati, Klio; Turin, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Olfaction presents the ultimate challenge to molecular recognition as thousands of molecules have to be recognized by far fewer olfactory receptors. We have presented evidence that Drosophila readily distinguish odorants based on their molecular vibrations using a battery of behavioral assays suggesting engagement of a molecular vibration-sensing component. Here we interrogate electrophysiologically the antennae of four Drosophilids and demonstrate conserved differential response amplitudes to aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, nitriles, and their deuterated isotopologues. Certain deuterated odorants evoked larger electroantennogram (EAG) amplitudes, while the response to the normal odorant was elevated in others. Significantly, benzonitrile isotopologues were not distinguishable as predicted. This suggests that isotopologue-specific EAG amplitudes result from differential activation of specific olfactory receptors. In support of this, odorants with as few as two deuteria evoke distinct EAG amplitudes from their normal isotopologues, and this is independent of the size of the deuterated molecule. Importantly, we find no evidence that these isotopologue-specific amplitudes depend on perireceptor mechanisms or other pertinent physical property of the deuterated odorants. Rather, our results strongly suggest that Drosophilid olfactory receptors are activated by molecular vibrations differentiating similarly sized and shaped odorants in vivo, yielding sufficient differential information to drive behavioral choices. PMID:27351023

  10. Detection and avoidance of a carnivore odor by prey

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, David M.; Lemon, Jamie K.; Fluegge, Daniela; Pashkovski, Stan L.; Korzan, Wayne J.; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Spehr, Marc; Fendt, Markus; Liberles, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships provide a classic paradigm for the study of innate animal behavior. Odors from carnivores elicit stereotyped fear and avoidance responses in rodents, although sensory mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we identified a chemical produced by predators that activates a mouse olfactory receptor and produces an innate behavioral response. We purified this predator cue from bobcat urine and identified it to be a biogenic amine, 2-phenylethylamine. Quantitative HPLC analysis across 38 mammalian species indicates enriched 2-phenylethylamine production by numerous carnivores, with some producing >3,000-fold more than herbivores examined. Calcium imaging of neuronal responses in mouse olfactory tissue slices identified dispersed carnivore odor-selective sensory neurons that also responded to 2-phenylethylamine. Two prey species, rat and mouse, avoid a 2-phenylethylamine odor source, and loss-of-function studies involving enzymatic depletion of 2-phenylethylamine from a carnivore odor indicate it to be required for full avoidance behavior. Thus, rodent olfactory sensory neurons and chemosensory receptors have the capacity for recognizing interspecies odors. One such cue, carnivore-derived 2-phenylethylamine, is a key component of a predator odor blend that triggers hard-wired aversion circuits in the rodent brain. These data show how a single, volatile chemical detected in the environment can drive an elaborate danger-associated behavioral response in mammals. PMID:21690383

  11. Receptive range analysis of a mouse odorant receptor subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingyi; Haddad, Rafi; Santos, Vanessa; Bavan, Selvan; Luetje, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Mammals deploy a large array of odorant receptors (ORs) to detect and distinguish a vast number of odorant molecules. ORs vary widely in the type of odorant structures recognized and in the breadth of molecular receptive range (MRR), with some ORs recognizing a small group of closely related molecules and other ORs recognizing a wide range of structures. While closely related ORs have been shown to have similar MRRs, the functional relationships among less closely related ORs are unclear. We screened a small group of ORs with a diverse odorant panel to identify a new odorant-OR pairing (unsaturated aldehydes and MOR263-3). We then extensively screened MOR263-3 and a series of additional MORs related to MOR263-3 in various ways. MORs related by phylogenetic analysis (several other members of the MOR263 subfamily) had MRRs that overlapped with the MRR of MOR263-3, even with amino acid identity as low as 48% (MOR263-2). MOR171-17, predicted to be functionally related to MOR263-3 by an alternative bioinformatic analysis, but with only 39% amino acid identity, had a distinct odorant specificity. Our results support the use of phylogenetic analysis to predict functional relationships among ORs with relatively low amino acid identity. PMID:25772782

  12. Identification of agonists for a group of human odorant receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Kristeller, Daniela C.; do Nascimento, João B. P.; Galante, Pedro A. F.; Malnic, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction plays a critical role in several aspects of the human life. Odorants are detected by hundreds of odorant receptors (ORs) which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons of the nose. The information provided by the activation of different combinations of ORs in the nose is transmitted to the brain, leading to odorant perception and emotional and behavioral responses. There are ~400 intact human ORs, and to date only a small percentage of these receptors (~10%) have known agonists. The determination of the specificity of the human ORs will contribute to a better understanding of how odorants are discriminated by the olfactory system. In this work, we aimed to identify human specific ORs, that is, ORs that are present in humans but absent from other species, and their corresponding agonists. To do this, we first selected 22 OR gene sequences from the human genome with no counterparts in the mouse, rat or dog genomes. Then we used a heterologous expression system to screen a subset of these human ORs against a panel of odorants of biological relevance, including foodborne aroma volatiles. We found that different types of odorants are able to activate some of these previously uncharacterized human ORs. PMID:25784876

  13. Chemotopic Odorant Coding in a Mammalian Olfactory System

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brett A.; Leon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Systematic mapping studies involving 365 odorant chemicals have shown that glomerular responses in the rat olfactory bulb are organized spatially in patterns that are related to the chemistry of the odorant stimuli. This organization involves the spatial clustering of principal responses to numerous odorants that share key aspects of chemistry such as functional groups, hydrocarbon structural elements, and/or overall molecular properties related to water solubility. In several of the clusters, responses shift progressively in position according to odorant carbon chain length. These response domains appear to be constructed from orderly projections of sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium and may also involve chromatography across the nasal mucosa. The spatial clustering of glomerular responses may serve to “tune” the principal responses of bulbar projection neurons by way of inhibitory interneuronal networks, allowing the projection neurons to respond to a narrower range of stimuli than their associated sensory neurons. When glomerular activity patterns are viewed relative to the overall level of glomerular activation, the patterns accurately predict the perception of odor quality, thereby supporting the notion that spatial patterns of activity are the key factors underlying that aspect of the olfactory code. A critical analysis suggests that alternative coding mechanisms for odor quality, such as those based on temporal patterns of responses, enjoy little experimental support. PMID:17480025

  14. Apolipoprotein e4 Is Associated with More Rapid Decline in Odor Identification than in Odor Threshold or Dementia Rating Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun-Haney, R.; Murphy, C.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with the apolipoprotein E e4 genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) show deficits in olfactory function. The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinally odor identification (odor ID), odor threshold, picture identification, and global cognitive status in allele positive (e4+) and negative (e4-) persons.…

  15. Determination of roasted pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) key odorants by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Aceña, Laura; Vera, Luciano; Guasch, Josep; Busto, Olga; Mestres, Montserrat

    2011-03-23

    Key odorants in roasted pistachio nuts have been determined for the first time. Two different pistachio varieties (Fandooghi and Kerman) have been analyzed by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). The aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA) applied have revealed 46 and 41 odor-active regions with a flavor dilution (FD) factor≥64 for the Fandooghi and the Kerman varieties, respectively, and 39 of them were related to precisely identified compounds. These included esters, pyrazines, aldehydes, acids, furans, and phenols. The results show that the Fandooghi variety presents, not only more odor-active regions but also higher FD factors than the Kerman variety that can lead to the conclusion that the first variety has a richer aromatic profile than the second one. The descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that the roasted, chocolate/coffee, and nutty attributes were rated significantly higher in the Fandooghi variety, whereas the green attribute was significantly higher in the Kerman one.

  16. Robust and Rapid Air-Borne Odor Tracking without Casting1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Urvashi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Casting behavior (zigzagging across an odor stream) is common in air/liquid-borne odor tracking in open fields; however, terrestrial odor localization often involves path selection in a familiar environment. To study this, we trained rats to run toward an odor source in a multi-choice olfactory arena with near-laminar airflow. We find that rather than casting, rats run directly toward an odor port, and if this is incorrect, they serially sample other sources. This behavior is consistent and accurate in the presence of perturbations, such as novel odors, background odor, unilateral nostril stitching, and turbulence. We developed a model that predicts that this run-and-scan tracking of air-borne odors is faster than casting, provided there are a small number of targets at known locations. Thus, the combination of best-guess target selection with fallback serial sampling provides a rapid and robust strategy for finding odor sources in familiar surroundings. PMID:26665165

  17. CaMKII mediates stimulus specificity in early odor preference learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Modarresi, Shirin; Mukherjee, Bandhan; McLean, John H; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

    2016-08-01

    After naturalistic odor preference training, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was rapidly phosphorylated in the olfactory bulb, specifically in the odor encoding regions of the glomerular layer and external plexiform layer. Intrabulbar CaMKII antagonist experiments revealed that CaMKII supports short- and long-term preference memory formation. With bulbar PKA activation as the unconditioned stimulus odor preferences could be induced despite CaMKII blockade, but now odor specificity was lost, with odor preference generalizing to an untrained odor. Odor-specific learning was associated with increased membrane-associated AMPA receptors, while nonspecific odor preference was not. Thus CaMKII activation provides a tag to confer stimulus specificity as well as supporting natural odor preference learning.

  18. Preventive control of odor emissions through manipulation of operational parameters during the active phase of composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxiu; Lau, Anthony K; Wen, Zhiping S

    2009-06-01

    Better understanding of the effects of key operational parameters or environmental factors on odor emission is of critical importance for minimizing the generation of composting odors. A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to examine the effects of various operating conditions on odor emissions. The results revealed that airflow rates that were too high or too low could result in higher total odor emissions. An optimal flowrate for odor control would be approximately 0.6 L/min.kg dry matter with intermittent aeration and a duty cycle of 33%. Temperature setpoint at 60 degrees C appeared to be a turning point for odor emission. Below this point, odor emissions increased with increasing temperature setpoint; conversely, odor emissions decreased with increasing temperature setpoint above this point. With regard to the composting material properties, odor emissions were greatly affected by the initial moisture content of feedstock. Both peak odor concentration and emission rate generally increased with higher initial moisture content. Odor emission was significant only at moisture levels higher than 65%. An initial moisture level below 45% is not recommended due to concern with the resulting lower degree of biodegradation. Biodegradable volatile solids content (BVS) of feedstock had pronounced effect on odor emissions. Peak odor concentration and emission rate increased dramatically as BVS increased from 45% to 65%, thus, total odor emission increased exponentially with BVS. PMID:20183055

  19. Identification, quantification and treatment of fecal odors released into the air at two wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yubin; Hallis, Samantha A; Vitko, Tadeo; Suffet, Irwin H Mel

    2016-09-15

    Odorous emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an annoyance for neighboring communities. This article, for the first time, quantitatively reports on an evaluation of the presence of fecal odorants identified in air samples from two exemplary WWTPs by the odor profile method (OPM) and chemical analysis. The fecal odorants indole and skatole were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The odor threshold concentration of skatole was determined to be 0.327 ng/L (60 pptV) in Teflon Bags by an expert panel. Skatole was found to be the primary chemical leading to fecal odor, due to its odor concentration to odor threshold concentration ratio that ranged from 2.8 to 22.5. The Weber-Fechner law was followed by pure skatole, but was not applicable when there was a mixture of fecal odorants and other odorant types present in WWTP air emission samples. This is probably caused by antagonism with other odorant types. Several existing odor control treatment methods for fecal odorants were evaluated at different wastewater treatment operations at two WWTPs by the OPM and chemical analysis for indole and skatole. Chemical scrubbing and biofiltration performed best in removing fecal odors among current control technologies. PMID:27235805

  20. Odor characterization from barns and slurry treatment facilities at a commercial swine facility in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, emission characteristics of major odorants in pig confinement facilities were investigated through comparative analysis between odorant composition and odor intensity. Odorant samples in ambient air were collected from five different paired sampling sites: (1) in- and outside of windowless pig barn, (2) in- and outside of open pig barn, (3) before/after slurry treatment (via liquid fertilization), (4) before/after composting, and (5) two reference background sites on a pig confinement facility. A total of 47 compounds consisting of key offensive odorants (such as reduced sulfur and volatile organic compounds) were measured from each selected site. When the results are compared in terms of odor intensity, a list of odorants (sulfur compounds, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles) were generally seen at enhanced levels on most sites. In two types of pig barn facilities (windowless ('W') and open ('O')), butyric and valeric acid were the predominant species. The removal efficiency of odorants was quite different between the two slurry treatment approaches of composting and liquid fertilization. Although the efficiencies of odor removal in the former were not sufficient, that of the latter was fairly significant in terms of odor intensity. However, some odorants like hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, p-cresol, and butyric acid were still retained above the odor threshold level. Accordingly, odorant emissions from animal housing facilities can be characterized most effectively by key odorants such as volatile fatty acids and reduced sulfur species.

  1. Odor and Odorous Compound Emissions from Manure of Swine Fed Standard and Dried Distillers Grains with Soluble Supplemented Diets.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian; Scoggin, Kenwood

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a diet containing 35% DDGS over a 42-d feeding trial. Their waste was collected and transferred to individual manure storage containers. Manure from pigs fed diets containing DDGS had significantly lower odorant emissions expressed in animal units for hydrogen sulfide (HS) and ammonia (NH) ( < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the CSBM diet, but emissions of volatile fatty acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher ( < 0.05) for manures from animals fed the DDGS diet. There was no significant difference for indole compound emissions due to the dietary treatment applied. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from manure accounted for less than 0.1% of carbon consumed for either diet. There were no significant differences in odor emissions for either diet as quantified with human panels or measured as the sum total of the odor activity value. Manure odors from pigs fed the CSBM diet were dominated by HS, whereas animals fed the diet containing DDGS were dominated by VOCs.

  2. Understanding the underlying dimensions in perfumers' odor perception space as a basis for developing meaningful odor maps.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel; Stanton, David T

    2009-02-01

    Various low-dimensional perceptual maps of fragrances have been proposed in the literature, as well as sensory maps for the odor descriptors most frequently applied in perfumery. To reach a consensus, however, seems difficult, if at all possible. In the present study, we applied principal components analysis to two databases. The first contains numeric odor profiles of 309 compounds based on 30 descriptors. The loading plot corresponding to the relevant components was strikingly similar to the odor effects diagram proposed by P. Jellinek (1951), primarily on the basis of his long experience as a perfumer. We obtained similar results in our analysis of the second database, which comprises 66 descriptors and contains the semantic descriptions of 119 perfume materials. On the basis of the results of both analyses, a commercial map of fragrances is discussed. Our findings suggest that it is possible to develop standard sensory maps of perfumery odor descriptors, if a consensus is first reached regarding which odorants best represent particular odor qualities.

  3. Odor and Odorous Compound Emissions from Manure of Swine Fed Standard and Dried Distillers Grains with Soluble Supplemented Diets.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian; Scoggin, Kenwood

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a diet containing 35% DDGS over a 42-d feeding trial. Their waste was collected and transferred to individual manure storage containers. Manure from pigs fed diets containing DDGS had significantly lower odorant emissions expressed in animal units for hydrogen sulfide (HS) and ammonia (NH) ( < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the CSBM diet, but emissions of volatile fatty acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher ( < 0.05) for manures from animals fed the DDGS diet. There was no significant difference for indole compound emissions due to the dietary treatment applied. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from manure accounted for less than 0.1% of carbon consumed for either diet. There were no significant differences in odor emissions for either diet as quantified with human panels or measured as the sum total of the odor activity value. Manure odors from pigs fed the CSBM diet were dominated by HS, whereas animals fed the diet containing DDGS were dominated by VOCs. PMID:27136158

  4. Odor of the muskox : A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Flood, P F; Abrams, S R; Muir, G D; Rowell, J E

    1989-08-01

    The behavior of captive male muskoxen was observed closely during their characteristic superiority display, the anatomy of the preputial region was studied in two adults and three calves, and preputial washings and preorbital gland secretion were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. During the superiority display, the prepuce was everted to form a pendulous tube tipped with a fringe of matted hair. Owing to the movement of the animal, the urine that dribbled from the preputial opening was liberally applied to the long guard hairs of the belly. The superiority display was almost exclusively confined to dominant males and apparently accounted for their odor. In the quiescent state, the hair seen around the preputial opening was drawn inside and formed an 8 cm-wide band on the lining of the prepuce. The preputial washings contained large amounts of benzoic acid andp-cresol. The infraorbital gland secretion contained cholesterol, benzaldehyde, and a homologous series of saturated γ-lactones ranging from 8 to 12 carbons. The latter compounds and the natural secretion smell similar to the human nose.

  5. Packing material formulation for odorous emission biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, François; Andres, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In biological gas treatment, like biofiltration of volatile organic compounds or odorous substances, the microbial nutritional needs could be a key factor of the process. The aim of this work is to propose a new packing material able to provide the lacking nutrients. In the first part of this study, two kinds of material composed of calcium carbonate, an organic binder and two different nitrogen sources, ammonium phosphate and urea phosphate (UP), were compared. The new supports present bulk densities between 0.88 and 1.15g cm(-3), moisture retention capacities close to 50% and 70%, and water cohesion capacities greater than six months for the material with 20% binder. In the second part, oxygen consumption measurements in liquid experiments show that these packing materials could enhance bacterial growth compared to pine bark or pozzolan and have no inhibitory effect. The biodegradation of different substrates (sodium sulfide and ammonia) and the support colonization by the biomass were evaluated. Finally, UP 20 was chosen and tested in a hydrogen sulfide or ammoniac biofiltration process. This showed that, for H2S concentrations greater than 100mg m(-3), UP 20 has a real advantage over pine bark or pozzolan. PMID:17889256

  6. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety.

  7. Odor of the muskox : A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Flood, P F; Abrams, S R; Muir, G D; Rowell, J E

    1989-08-01

    The behavior of captive male muskoxen was observed closely during their characteristic superiority display, the anatomy of the preputial region was studied in two adults and three calves, and preputial washings and preorbital gland secretion were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. During the superiority display, the prepuce was everted to form a pendulous tube tipped with a fringe of matted hair. Owing to the movement of the animal, the urine that dribbled from the preputial opening was liberally applied to the long guard hairs of the belly. The superiority display was almost exclusively confined to dominant males and apparently accounted for their odor. In the quiescent state, the hair seen around the preputial opening was drawn inside and formed an 8 cm-wide band on the lining of the prepuce. The preputial washings contained large amounts of benzoic acid andp-cresol. The infraorbital gland secretion contained cholesterol, benzaldehyde, and a homologous series of saturated γ-lactones ranging from 8 to 12 carbons. The latter compounds and the natural secretion smell similar to the human nose. PMID:24272381

  8. Odor Recognition vs. Classification in Artificial Olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Baranidharan; Hertz, Joshua; Benkstein, Kurt; Semancik, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Most studies in chemical sensing have focused on the problem of precise identification of chemical species that were exposed during the training phase (the recognition problem). However, generalization of training to predict the chemical composition of untrained gases based on their similarity with analytes in the training set (the classification problem) has received very limited attention. These two analytical tasks pose conflicting constraints on the system. While correct recognition requires detection of molecular features that are unique to an analyte, generalization to untrained chemicals requires detection of features that are common across a desired class of analytes. A simple solution that addresses both issues simultaneously can be obtained from biological olfaction, where the odor class and identity information are decoupled and extracted individually over time. Mimicking this approach, we proposed a hierarchical scheme that allowed initial discrimination between broad chemical classes (e.g. contains oxygen) followed by finer refinements using additional data into sub-classes (e.g. ketones vs. alcohols) and, eventually, specific compositions (e.g. ethanol vs. methanol) [1]. We validated this approach using an array of temperature-controlled chemiresistors. We demonstrated that a small set of training analytes is sufficient to allow generalization to novel chemicals and that the scheme provides robust categorization despite aging. Here, we provide further characterization of this approach.

  9. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, P V; Caleb, O J; Singh, Z; Watkins, C B; Geyer, M

    2014-06-13

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  10. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Singh, Z.; Watkins, C. B.; Geyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  11. Complex and non-redundant signals from individual odor receptors that underlie chemotaxis behavior in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Jeewanjot S.; Nguyen, Christine; Robles, Raquel; Cho, Christina; Kir, Karolina; Fledderman, Nicole; Gacharna, George; Wesolowski, Michael; Klinger, Christie; Vallejo, Pedro; Menhennett, Lorien; Nagaraj, Abhiram; Ebo, Chineze; Peacy, Garrett; Davelis, Eftihia; Kucher, David; Giers, Sarah; Kreher, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rules by which odor receptors encode odors and allow behavior are still largely unexplored. Although large data sets of electrophysiological responses of receptors to odors have been generated, few hypotheses have been tested with behavioral assays. We use a data set on odor responses of Drosophila larval odor receptors coupled with chemotaxis behavioral assays to examine rules of odor coding. Using mutants of odor receptors, we have found that odor receptors with similar electrophysiological responses to odors across concentrations play non-redundant roles in odor coding at specific odor concentrations. We have also found that high affinity receptors for odors determine behavioral response thresholds, but the rules for determining peak behavioral responses are more complex. While receptor mutants typically show loss of attraction to odors, some receptor mutants result in increased attraction at specific odor concentrations. The odor receptor mutants were rescued using transgenic expression of odor receptors, validating assignment of phenotypes to the alleles. Vapor pressures alone cannot fully explain behavior in our assay. Finally, some odors that did not elicit strong electrophysiological responses are associated with behavioral phenotypes upon examination of odor receptor mutants. This result is consistent with the role of sensory neurons in lateral inhibition via local interneurons in the antennal lobe. Taken together, our results suggest a complexity of odor coding rules even in a simple olfactory sensory system. PMID:25238759

  12. The differential mice response to cat and snake odor.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Crisanto, Karen; de Andrade, Wylqui Mikael Gomes; de Azevedo Silva, Kayo Diogenes; Lima, Ramón Hypolito; de Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; de Souza Cavalcante, Jeferson; de Lima, Ruthnaldo Rodrigues Melo; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva; Cavalcante, Judney Cley

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the last two decades have pointed to multiple mechanisms of fear. For responding to predators, there is a group of highly interconnected hypothalamic nuclei formed by the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the dorsal premammillary nucleus—the predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit. This circuit expresses Fos in response to predator presence or its odor. Lesion of any component of this system blocks or reduces the expression of fear and consequently defensive behavior when faced with a predator or its cue. However, most of the knowledge about that circuit has been obtained using the rat as a model of prey and the cat as a source of predator cues. In the present study, we exposed mice to strong cat or snake odors, two known mice predators, and then we used the rat exposure test (RET) to study their behavior when confronted with the same predator's odor. Our data point to a differential response of mice exposed to these odors. When Swiss mice were exposed to the cat odor, they show defensive behavior and the predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit expressed Fos. The opposite was seen when they faced snake's odor. The acute odor exposure was not sufficient to activate the mouse predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit and the mice acted like they were not in a stressful situation, showing almost no sign of fear or defensive posture. This leads us to the conclusion that not all the predator cues are sufficient to activate the predator-responsive hypothalamic circuit of mice and that their response depends on the danger that these predators represent in the natural history of the prey.

  13. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  14. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  15. Salmonella surveillance on fresh produce in retail in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gunel, Elif; Polat Kilic, Gozde; Bulut, Ece; Durul, Bora; Acar, Sinem; Alpas, Hami; Soyer, Yeşim

    2015-04-16

    Although Turkey is one of the major producers of fruits and vegetables in the world, there has been no information available on the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce. To fill this gap, we collected 503 fresh produce samples including tomato, parsley, iceberg lettuce, green-leaf lettuce and five different fresh pepper varieties (i.e., green, kapya, bell, mazamort and Charleston) from 3 major districts within 9 supermarkets and 3 bazaars in Ankara, Turkey to investigate the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 0.8% (4/503) of samples by conventional culturing method with molecular confirmation conducted through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For further characterization of isolates, serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST; aroC, thrA, purE, sucA, hisD, hemD and dnaN) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Anatum, Charity, Enteritidis and Mikawasima were isolated from two parsley, one pepper and one lettuce samples, respectively. MLST resulted in 4 sequence types (STs) for each serotype, including one novel ST for serotype Mikawasima. Similarly, PFGE revealed four different XbaI PFGE patterns. The results of this survey, obtained by the most common subtyping methods (i.e. serotyping, MLST and PFGE) worldwide, contributes to the development of a national database in Turkey, which is essential for investigating the evolutionary pathways, geographical distribution and genetic diversity of Salmonella strains.

  16. Salmonella surveillance on fresh produce in retail in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gunel, Elif; Polat Kilic, Gozde; Bulut, Ece; Durul, Bora; Acar, Sinem; Alpas, Hami; Soyer, Yeşim

    2015-04-16

    Although Turkey is one of the major producers of fruits and vegetables in the world, there has been no information available on the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce. To fill this gap, we collected 503 fresh produce samples including tomato, parsley, iceberg lettuce, green-leaf lettuce and five different fresh pepper varieties (i.e., green, kapya, bell, mazamort and Charleston) from 3 major districts within 9 supermarkets and 3 bazaars in Ankara, Turkey to investigate the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 0.8% (4/503) of samples by conventional culturing method with molecular confirmation conducted through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For further characterization of isolates, serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST; aroC, thrA, purE, sucA, hisD, hemD and dnaN) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Anatum, Charity, Enteritidis and Mikawasima were isolated from two parsley, one pepper and one lettuce samples, respectively. MLST resulted in 4 sequence types (STs) for each serotype, including one novel ST for serotype Mikawasima. Similarly, PFGE revealed four different XbaI PFGE patterns. The results of this survey, obtained by the most common subtyping methods (i.e. serotyping, MLST and PFGE) worldwide, contributes to the development of a national database in Turkey, which is essential for investigating the evolutionary pathways, geographical distribution and genetic diversity of Salmonella strains. PMID:25643853

  17. From Cassyrane to cashmeran - the molecular parameters of odorants.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Philip; Di Cristofaro, Valeria; Jordi, Samuel

    2014-10-01

    This review, including some new experimental results, is the summary of a talk at the 'flavors & fragrances 2013' conference in Leipzig, organized jointly by the GDCh, the Liebig-Vereinigung, and the EuCheMS. After times of searching for natural odor principles and serendipitous discoveries by chemical inspiration, directed odorant design today offers the highest hit rates for the discovery of new odorants, although serendipity still plays a role. Keeping intact the electronic shape required for a certain olfactophore-binding geometry, one can add or subtract structural elements, rigidify molecular structures, or introduce more structural flexibility. To find out which structural features are critical, the 'seco-approach', in which different fragments are removed by cutting strategic bonds, is the most analytical. Following this approach, such ingredients as Serenolide, Sylkolide, and Pomarose were designed. Transferring this design principle from the family of damascones to that of the theaspiranes led to the discovery of Cassyrane, though completely different structural features turned out to be relevant. Application of the seco-concept to a 3,7a-substituted 2,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-1H-inden-5-yl musk lead structure derived from carotol resulted in the discovery of a new family of dienone musks with novel structure-odor correlations. However, cutting the C(2)-O bond of Cassyrane and oxidizing the resulting seco-structure to the 1,2,5,1″-tetradehydro derivative links the family of dienone musks with that of blackcurrant odorants, but the resulting target structures turned out to be potent orris odorants. (3E,5E)-5-(tert-Butyl)octadeca-3,5-dien-2-one even possesses the lowest odor threshold in the whole ionone family (0.036 ng/l air), which could be rationalized by a superposition analysis on (-)-cis-γ-irone. In the course of the synthesis of these high-impact orris odorants, we discovered that, depending on the reaction conditions, the dehydration step of the

  18. Stressors impair odor recognition memory via an olfactory bulb-dependent noradrenergic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Manella, Laura C.; Alperin, Samuel; Linster, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Non-associative habituation and odor recognition tasks have been widely used to probe questions of social recognition, odor memory duration, and odor memory specificity. Among others, these paradigms have provided valuable insight into how neuromodulation, and specifically norepinephrine/noradrenaline (NE) influences odor memory. In general, NE levels are modulated by arousal, stress, and behavioral state, but there is sparse evidence of a direct relationship between NE and odor memory in adult rodents. The present study uses simple mild psychological stressors (bright light and sound) to modulate NE levels physiologically in order to probe stressors NE-dependent effect on odor recognition memory. In rats with bilateral bulbar cannulations, we show that these stressors modulate olfactory memory and that this effect is at least partially mediated by the olfactory bulb. Specifically, we show that the presence of stressors during the acquisition of odor memory suppresses memory for an odor when tested 30 min after familiarization to that odor. This suppression is blocked by infusing NE antagonists into the olfactory bulb prior to odor acquisition. Additionally, we find that infusion of bulbar NE is sufficient to suppress odor memory in a manner mimicking that of our stressors. These effects are unlikely to be solely mediated by locomotor/exploratory changes produced by stressors, although these stressors influence certain behaviors not directly related to odor investigation. This study provides important information about how behaviorally relevant changes in NE can influence top-down sensory processing and odor memory. PMID:24391558

  19. What's that smell? An ecological approach to understanding preferences for familiar odors.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Goldberger, Carolyn S; Palmer, Stephen E; Levitan, Carmel A

    2015-01-01

    How do odor preferences arise? Following Palmer and Schloss's (2010, PNAS, 107, 8877-8882) ecological valence theory of color preferences, we propose that preference for an odor is determined by preferences for all objects and/or entities associated with that odor. The present results showed that preferences for familiar odors were strongly predicted by average preferences for all things associated with the odors (eg people liked the apple odor which was associated with mostly positive things, such as apples, soap, and candy, but disliked the fish odor, which was associated with mostly negative things, such as dead fish, trash, and vomit). The odor WAVEs (weighted affective valence estimates) performed significantly better than one based on preference for only the namesake object (eg predicting preference for the apple odor based on preference for apples). These results suggest that preferences for familiar odors are based on a summary statistic, coding the valence of previous odor-related experiences. We discuss how this account of odor preferences is consistent with the idea that odor preferences exist to guide organisms to approach beneficial objects and situations and avoid harmful ones. PMID:26489214

  20. Now you like me, now you don't: impact of labels on odor perception.

    PubMed

    Manescu, Simona; Frasnelli, Johannes; Lepore, Franco; Djordjevic, Jelena

    2014-02-01

    Past research has shown that odor perception can be affected by how we label odors. The aim of this study was to expand on previous work by investigating the impact of labels on edibility, pleasantness, and intensity ratings as well as on reaction times when detecting labeled odors. We tested 50 subjects. Five odorants were administered, each with a positive and a negative label. Participants had to detect odors as fast as possible and then rate their edibility, pleasantness, and intensity. Because of a lack of fit, only 4 of the initial 5 odorants were analyzed. All odorants presented with positive labels were rated as being more edible than when they were presented with negative labels. Specifically, the effect was also seen for the 2 nonfood odorants suggesting an unbiased effect. All odorants presented with positive labels were rated as being more pleasant than when they were presented with negative labels. Labels also modulated intensity ratings and reaction times for some odors. In summary, odor labels affect pleasantness ratings and edibility perception. Although labels appear to also influence intensity ratings and reaction times, this seems to be a more complex relationship that could be modulated by additional factors such as odor valence, label fit, and possibly the edibility attributed to an odor or a label.

  1. Olfactory learning in the rat immediately after birth: unique salience of first odors

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stacie S.; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    An infant rat’s chance of survival is increased when it remains close to the nest. Early olfactory learning supports such adaptive behavior. Previous experiments indicated that non-associative odor exposure immediately after birth promoted later attachment to a similarly scented artificial nipple. The goal of the current experiments was to extend these findings on olfactory learning in the hours after birth by: exposing pups to more than one odor exposure (Exp. 1), dissecting the role of timing versus order of odor exposure (Exp. 2), testing the odor specificity of these effects (Exp. 3 and 4), and evaluating associative odor conditioning soon after birth (Exp. 5). Without explicit prior odor experience, pups only hours old do not respond much to a novel odor. Prior non-associative odor experience increases later motor activity to that same odor and to novel odors. Furthermore, these findings may be specific to certain amodal dimensions of the (in our case) lemon odor exposure. Single odor non-associative and associative conditioning was equally effective immediately after birth and during the third postnatal hour. Nevertheless, pups given two mere odor exposures responded to the first one more than the second at test, regardless of whether the exposures began immediately or two hours after birth. Possible mechanisms for these findings concerning early olfactory learning are discussed. PMID:19582793

  2. A unique memory process modulated by emotion underpins successful odor recognition and episodic retrieval in humans

    PubMed Central

    Saive, Anne-Lise; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Ravel, Nadine; Thévenet, Marc; Garcia, Samuel; Plailly, Jane

    2014-01-01

    We behaviorally explore the link between olfaction, emotion and memory by testing the hypothesis that the emotion carried by odors facilitates the memory of specific unique events. To investigate this idea, we used a novel behavioral approach inspired by a paradigm developed by our team to study episodic memory in a controlled and as ecological as possible way in humans. The participants freely explored three unique and rich laboratory episodes; each episode consisted of three unfamiliar odors (What) positioned at three specific locations (Where) within a visual context (Which context). During the retrieval test, which occurred 24–72 h after the encoding, odors were used to trigger the retrieval of the complex episodes. The participants were proficient in recognizing the target odors among distractors and retrieving the visuospatial context in which they were encountered. The episodic nature of the task generated high and stable memory performances, which were accompanied by faster responses and slower and deeper breathing. Successful odor recognition and episodic memory were not related to differences in odor investigation at encoding. However, memory performances were influenced by the emotional content of the odors, regardless of odor valence, with both pleasant and unpleasant odors generating higher recognition and episodic retrieval than neutral odors. Finally, the present study also suggested that when the binding between the odors and the spatio-contextual features of the episode was successful, the odor recognition and the episodic retrieval collapsed into a unique memory process that began as soon as the participants smelled the odors. PMID:24936176

  3. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  4. Mapping of Learned Odor-Induced Motivated Behaviors in the Mouse Olfactory Tubercle.

    PubMed

    Murata, Koshi; Kanno, Michiko; Ieki, Nao; Mori, Kensaku; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-07-22

    An odor induces food-seeking behaviors when humans and animals learned to associate the odor with food, whereas the same odor elicits aversive behaviors following odor-danger association learning. It is poorly understood how central olfactory circuits transform the learned odor cue information into appropriate motivated behaviors. The olfactory tubercle (OT) is an intriguing area of the olfactory cortex in that it contains medium spiny neurons as principal neurons and constitutes a part of the ventral striatum. The OT is therefore a candidate area for participation in odor-induced motivated behaviors. Here we mapped c-Fos activation of medium spiny neurons in different domains of the mouse OT following exposure to learned odor cues. Mice were trained to associate odor cues to a sugar reward or foot shock punishment to induce odor-guided approach behaviors or aversive behaviors. Regardless of odorant types, the anteromedial domain of the OT was activated by learned odor cues that induced approach behaviors, whereas the lateral domain was activated by learned odor cues that induced aversive behaviors. In each domain, a larger number of dopamine receptor D1 type neurons were activated than D2 type neurons. These results indicate that specific domains of the OT represent odor-induced distinct motivated behaviors rather than odor stimuli, and raise the possibility that neuronal type-specific activation in individual domains of the OT plays crucial roles in mediating the appropriate learned odor-induced motivated behaviors. Significance statement: Although animals learn to associate odor cues with various motivated behaviors, the underlying circuit mechanisms are poorly understood. The olfactory tubercle (OT), a subarea of the olfactory cortex, also constitutes the ventral striatum. Here, we trained mice to associate odors with either reward or punishment and mapped odor-induced c-Fos activation in the OT. Regardless of odorant types, the anteromedial domain was

  5. Mapping of Learned Odor-Induced Motivated Behaviors in the Mouse Olfactory Tubercle.

    PubMed

    Murata, Koshi; Kanno, Michiko; Ieki, Nao; Mori, Kensaku; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-07-22

    An odor induces food-seeking behaviors when humans and animals learned to associate the odor with food, whereas the same odor elicits aversive behaviors following odor-danger association learning. It is poorly understood how central olfactory circuits transform the learned odor cue information into appropriate motivated behaviors. The olfactory tubercle (OT) is an intriguing area of the olfactory cortex in that it contains medium spiny neurons as principal neurons and constitutes a part of the ventral striatum. The OT is therefore a candidate area for participation in odor-induced motivated behaviors. Here we mapped c-Fos activation of medium spiny neurons in different domains of the mouse OT following exposure to learned odor cues. Mice were trained to associate odor cues to a sugar reward or foot shock punishment to induce odor-guided approach behaviors or aversive behaviors. Regardless of odorant types, the anteromedial domain of the OT was activated by learned odor cues that induced approach behaviors, whereas the lateral domain was activated by learned odor cues that induced aversive behaviors. In each domain, a larger number of dopamine receptor D1 type neurons were activated than D2 type neurons. These results indicate that specific domains of the OT represent odor-induced distinct motivated behaviors rather than odor stimuli, and raise the possibility that neuronal type-specific activation in individual domains of the OT plays crucial roles in mediating the appropriate learned odor-induced motivated behaviors. Significance statement: Although animals learn to associate odor cues with various motivated behaviors, the underlying circuit mechanisms are poorly understood. The olfactory tubercle (OT), a subarea of the olfactory cortex, also constitutes the ventral striatum. Here, we trained mice to associate odors with either reward or punishment and mapped odor-induced c-Fos activation in the OT. Regardless of odorant types, the anteromedial domain was

  6. Investigating a persistent odor at an aircraft seat manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; de Perio, Marie A; Roberts, Jennifer; Burton, Nancy C; Lemons, Angela R; Green, Brett J; Brueck, Scott E

    2016-10-01

    An aircraft seat manufacturing company requested a NIOSH health hazard evaluation to help identify a strong odor that had persisted throughout the facility for over a year. Employees reported experiencing health effects thought to be related to the odor. We collected and analyzed area air samples for volatile organic compounds, endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and metalworking fluid aerosol. Bulk metalworking fluid samples were analyzed for endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and viable bacteria and fungus. We also evaluated the building ventilation systems and water diversion systems. Employees underwent confidential medical interviews about work practices, medical history, and health concerns. Based on our analyses, the odor was likely 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine. This pyrazine was found in air samples across the facility and originated from bacteria in the metalworking fluid. We did not identify bacteria known to produce the compound but bacteria from the same Proteobacteria order were found as well as bacteria from orders known to produce other pyrazines. Chemical and biological contaminants and odors could have contributed to health symptoms reported by employees, but it is likely that the symptoms were caused by several factors. We provided several recommendations to eliminate the odor including washing and disinfecting the metalworking machines and metalworking fluid recycling equipment, discarding all used metalworking fluid, instituting a metalworking fluid maintenance program at the site, and physically isolating the metalworking department from other departments.

  7. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-01

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 μm thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit. PMID:26061093

  8. Proposed Objective Odor Control Test Methodology for Waste Containment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Cockpit Working Group has requested that an odor control testing methodology be proposed to evaluate the odor containment effectiveness of waste disposal bags to be flown on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. As a standardized "odor containment" test does not appear to be a matter of record for the project, a new test method is being proposed. This method is based on existing test methods used in industrial hygiene for the evaluation of respirator fit in occupational settings, and takes into consideration peer reviewed documentation of human odor thresholds for standardized contaminates, industry stardnard atmostpheric testing methodologies, and established criteria for laboratory analysis. The proposed methodology is quantitative, though it can readily be complimented with a qualitative subjective assessment. Isoamyl acetate (IAA - also known at isopentyl acetate) is commonly used in respirator fit testing, and there are documented methodologies for both measuring its quantitative airborne concentrations. IAA is a clear, colorless liquid with a banana-like odor, documented detectable smell threshold for humans of 0.025 PPM, and a 15 PPB level of quantation limit.

  9. Investigating a persistent odor at an aircraft seat manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; de Perio, Marie A; Roberts, Jennifer; Burton, Nancy C; Lemons, Angela R; Green, Brett J; Brueck, Scott E

    2016-10-01

    An aircraft seat manufacturing company requested a NIOSH health hazard evaluation to help identify a strong odor that had persisted throughout the facility for over a year. Employees reported experiencing health effects thought to be related to the odor. We collected and analyzed area air samples for volatile organic compounds, endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and metalworking fluid aerosol. Bulk metalworking fluid samples were analyzed for endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and viable bacteria and fungus. We also evaluated the building ventilation systems and water diversion systems. Employees underwent confidential medical interviews about work practices, medical history, and health concerns. Based on our analyses, the odor was likely 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine. This pyrazine was found in air samples across the facility and originated from bacteria in the metalworking fluid. We did not identify bacteria known to produce the compound but bacteria from the same Proteobacteria order were found as well as bacteria from orders known to produce other pyrazines. Chemical and biological contaminants and odors could have contributed to health symptoms reported by employees, but it is likely that the symptoms were caused by several factors. We provided several recommendations to eliminate the odor including washing and disinfecting the metalworking machines and metalworking fluid recycling equipment, discarding all used metalworking fluid, instituting a metalworking fluid maintenance program at the site, and physically isolating the metalworking department from other departments. PMID:27494786

  10. Floral odor learning within the hive affects honeybees' foraging decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2007-03-01

    Honeybees learn odor cues quickly and efficiently when visiting rewarding flowers. Memorization of these cues facilitates the localization and recognition of food sources during foraging flights. Bees can also use information gained inside the hive during social interactions with successful foragers. An important information cue that can be learned during these interactions is food odor. However, little is known about how floral odors learned in the hive affect later decisions of foragers in the field. We studied the effect of food scent on foraging preferences when this learning is acquired directly inside the hive. By using in-hive feeders that were removed 24 h before the test, we showed that foragers use the odor information acquired during a 3-day stimulation period with a scented solution during a food-choice situation outside the nest. This bias in food preference is maintained even 24 h after the replacement of all the hive combs. Thus, without being previously collected outside by foragers, food odors learned within the hive can be used during short-range foraging flights. Moreover, correct landings at a dual-choice device after replacing the storing combs suggests that long-term memories formed within the colony can be retrieved while bees search for food in the field.

  11. Taste-potentiated odor aversion learning based on amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Bryant, P A; Boakes, R A; McGregor, I S

    1993-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether a taste can potentiate a conditioned odor aversion based on amphetamine as well as those based on lithium. A taste-potentiated odor aversion (TPOA) based on lithium was obtained in Experiment 1 only with a low concentration of an almond odor. This concentration was used in Experiment 2 where the taste, 0.1% saccharin, potentiated an odor aversion based on 1 mg/kg d-amphetamine. This was replicated in Experiment 3 where potentiation was found with doses of both 1 and 3 mg/kg amphetamine, and no effect of dose was detected. It was concluded that TPOA learning is not restricted to drugs such as lithium that produce conditioned unpalatability as well as conditioned aversions to a taste, because amphetamine does not produce conditioned unpalatability at the doses used here. Furthermore, because in Experiment 3 postconditioning extinction of the saccharin aversion removed the potentiation effect, it appears that this form of TPOA may depend on an association between the odor and taste, as proposed by within-compound theory.

  12. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  13. Macroglomeruli for fruit odors change blend preference in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibba, Irene; Angioy, Anna Maria; Hansson, Bill S.; Dekker, Teun

    2010-12-01

    The olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster is becoming increasingly clear. However, how olfactory processing translates into appropriate behavioral responses is still poorly understood. Using a sibling species approach, we tested how a perturbation in the olfactory circuitry affects odor preference. In a previous study, we found that the sibling species of D. melanogaster, the specialist D. sechellia, overrepresents a sensillum, ab3, the A neuron of which is sensitive to hexanoate esters, characteristic of the species' sole host, the Morinda citrifolia fruit. Concordantly, the corresponding glomerulus, DM2, is enlarged. In this study, we found that the ab3B neuron, the expansion of which was previously assumed to be pleiotropic and of no ecological significance, is in fact tuned to another morinda fruit volatile, 2-heptanone (HP). Axons of this neuron type arborize in a second enlarged glomerulus. In behavioral experiments we tested how this has affected the fly's odor preference. We demonstrate that D. sechellia has a reversed preference for the key ligands of these macroglomeruli, especially at high concentrations. Whereas D. melanogaster was repelled by high concentrations of these odors, D. sechellia was highly attracted. This was the case for odors presented singly, but more notably for blends thereof. Our study indicates that relatively simple changes, such as a shift in sensillar abundance, and concordant shifts in glomerular size, can distort the resulting olfactory code, and can lead to saltatory shifts in odor preference. D. sechellia has exploited this to align its olfactory preference with its ecological niche.

  14. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-01

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 μm thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit.

  15. Sweet reward increases implicit discrimination of similar odors

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Porcherot, Christelle; Jenkins, Tatiana; Cayeux, Isabelle; Sander, David

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli associated with emotional events signal the presence of potentially relevant situations, thus learning to rapidly identify this kind of stimuli can be highly beneficial. It has been demonstrated that individuals acquire a better perceptual representation of stimuli associated with negative and threatening emotional events. Here we investigated whether the same process occurs for stimuli associated with positive and rewarding emotional events. We used an appetitive Pavlovian conditioning paradigm during which one of two perceptually non-distinguishable odors was associated with a rewarding taste (i.e., chocolate). We investigated whether appetitive conditioning could improve the recognition of the odor associated with the reward, rendering it discriminable from its similar version that was never associated with the reward. Results revealed a dissociation between explicit perception and physiological reactions. Although participants were not able to explicitly perceive a difference, they reacted faster, inhaled more and had higher skin conductance responses when confronted with the reward-associated odor compared to its similar version that was never associated with the reward. Our findings have demonstrated that positive emotional associations can improve the implicit perceptual representation of odors, by triggering different physiological responses to odors that do not seem to be otherwise distinguishable. PMID:24834039

  16. The role of piriform associative connections in odor categorization

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiaojun; Raguet, Louise LG; Cole, Sydni M; Howard, James D; Gottfried, Jay A

    2016-01-01

    Distributed neural activity patterns are widely proposed to underlie object identification and categorization in the brain. In the olfactory domain, pattern-based representations of odor objects are encoded in piriform cortex. This region receives both afferent and associative inputs, though their relative contributions to odor perception are poorly understood. Here, we combined a placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI paradigm with multivariate pattern analyses to test the role of associative connections in sustaining olfactory categorical representations. Administration of baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist known to attenuate piriform associative inputs, interfered with within-category pattern separation in piriform cortex, and the magnitude of this drug-induced change predicted perceptual alterations in fine-odor discrimination performance. Comparatively, baclofen reduced pattern separation between odor categories in orbitofrontal cortex, and impeded within-category generalization in hippocampus. Our findings suggest that odor categorization is a dynamic process concurrently engaging stimulus discrimination and generalization at different stages of olfactory information processing, and highlight the importance of associative networks in maintaining categorical boundaries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13732.001 PMID:27130519

  17. Subjective ratings of odorants by women with chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M; Schwartz, G E; Bell, I R

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether women with chemical sensitivity rated the intensity and pleasantness of three odorants [peppermint, vanilla, and propylene glycol (PG)] and odorless room air differently than women without chemical sensitivity. The ratings of the experimental group (women with self-reported chemical sensitivity and no history of sexual abuse) were compared to those of two control groups who did not report chemical sensitivity [sexually abused (SA) women and healthy women without sexual abuse history]. All subjects were exposed to odorants and odorless control stimuli once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. Our findings indicate that women with chemical sensitivity perceive odorants as neither more or less intense nor more or less pleasant than women without chemical sensitivity. Moreover, the control women without sexual abuse outperformed the women in the other two groups by correctly identifying the target bottle containing the odorant. These findings suggest that perception of odorants alone is unlikely to account for the symptoms associated with chemical sensitivity. These findings, along with those of Doty et al. (1988), support the notion that olfactory-sensory function does not differ between individuals with and without chemical sensitivity. PMID:10560135

  18. Alkaline biofiltration of H2S odors.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio; Deshusses, Marc A

    2008-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very common odor nuisance which is best controlled by chemical or biological scrubbing. Under alkaline pH, the amount of H2S that can be solubilized in a scrubbing liquid increases significantly, and therefore, gas-liquid mass transfer limitations can be reduced. To date, biological scrubbing of H2S has been limited to neutral or acidic pH, despite the potential benefit of reduced mass transfer limitations at alkaline pH. In the present paper, an alkaliphilic sulfoxidizing bacterial consortium was deployed in a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter treating H2S at pH 10. The gas contact time ranged from 1 to 6 s, and H2S inlet concentrations, from 2.5 to 18 ppm(v). The results showed that under most conditions, H2S removal exceeded 98% and the degradation end-product was sulfate. At the highest H2S concentrations and shortest gas contacttimes, when the loading exceeded 30 g m(-3) h(-1), the H2S removal efficiency decreased significantly due to biological reaction limitation, and incompletely oxidized sulfides were measured in the trickling liquid. An analysis of the process demonstrated that operating the biotrickling filter at high pH results in an enhancement of the mass transfer by a factor of 1700-11 000. Overall, alkaline biotrickling filtration was shown to be very effective at low concentration of H2S and very short gas contact time. This is the first demonstration of a biotrickling filter for air pollution control operated at high pH.

  19. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  20. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  1. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  2. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... orange in combination with caffeine or caffeine-containing herbs can increase blood pressure and heart rate in ... serious heart problems. Avoid this combination.Caffeine-containing herbs and supplementsUsing green coffee along with other caffeine- ...

  3. Performance of green waste biocovers for enhancing methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mei, Changgen; Yazdani, Ramin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M Erfan; Chanton, Jeff; VanderGheynst, Jean; Imhoff, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Green waste aged 2 and 24months, labeled "fresh" and "aged" green waste, respectively, were placed in biocover test cells and evaluated for their ability to oxidize methane (CH4) under high landfill gas loading over a 15-month testing period. These materials are less costly to produce than green waste compost, yet satisfied recommended respiration requirements for landfill compost covers. In field tests employing a novel gas tracer to correct for leakage, both green wastes oxidized CH4 at high rates during the first few months of operation - 140 and 200g/m(2)/day for aged and fresh green waste, respectively. Biocover performance degraded during the winter and spring, with significant CH4 generated from anaerobic regions in the 60-80cm thick biocovers. Concurrently, CH4 oxidation rates decreased. Two previously developed empirical models for moisture and temperature dependency of CH4 oxidation in soils were used to test their applicability to green waste. Models accounted for 68% and 79% of the observed seasonal variations in CH4 oxidation rates for aged green waste. Neither model could describe similar seasonal changes for the less stable fresh green waste. This is the first field application and evaluation of these empirical models using media with high organic matter. Given the difficulty of preventing undesired CH4 generation, green waste may not be a viable biocover material for many climates and landfill conditions. PMID:25792440

  4. Performance of green waste biocovers for enhancing methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mei, Changgen; Yazdani, Ramin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M Erfan; Chanton, Jeff; VanderGheynst, Jean; Imhoff, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Green waste aged 2 and 24months, labeled "fresh" and "aged" green waste, respectively, were placed in biocover test cells and evaluated for their ability to oxidize methane (CH4) under high landfill gas loading over a 15-month testing period. These materials are less costly to produce than green waste compost, yet satisfied recommended respiration requirements for landfill compost covers. In field tests employing a novel gas tracer to correct for leakage, both green wastes oxidized CH4 at high rates during the first few months of operation - 140 and 200g/m(2)/day for aged and fresh green waste, respectively. Biocover performance degraded during the winter and spring, with significant CH4 generated from anaerobic regions in the 60-80cm thick biocovers. Concurrently, CH4 oxidation rates decreased. Two previously developed empirical models for moisture and temperature dependency of CH4 oxidation in soils were used to test their applicability to green waste. Models accounted for 68% and 79% of the observed seasonal variations in CH4 oxidation rates for aged green waste. Neither model could describe similar seasonal changes for the less stable fresh green waste. This is the first field application and evaluation of these empirical models using media with high organic matter. Given the difficulty of preventing undesired CH4 generation, green waste may not be a viable biocover material for many climates and landfill conditions.

  5. A Time-Based Account of the Perception of Odor Objects and Valences

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Jonas K.; Bowman, Nicholas E.; Khatibi, Katherine; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Is human odor perception guided by memory or emotion? Object-centered accounts predict that recognition of unique odor qualities precedes valence decoding. Valence-centered accounts predict the opposite: that stimulus-driven valence responses precede and guide identification. In a speeded response time study, participants smelled paired odors, presented sequentially, and indicated whether the second odor in each pair belonged to the same category as the first (object evaluation task) or whether the second odor was more pleasant than the first (valence evaluation task). Object evaluation was faster and more accurate than valence evaluation. In a complementary experiment, participants performed an identification task, in which they indicated whether an odor matched the previously presented word label. Responses were quicker for odors preceded by semantically matching, rather than nonmatching, word labels, but results showed no evidence of interference from valence on nonmatching trials. These results are in accordance with object-centered accounts of odor perception. PMID:22961773

  6. Evaluation of the active odorants in Amontillado sherry wines during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Lourdes; Zea, Luis; Moreno, Jose A; Medina, Manuel

    2010-06-01

    Odor compounds in Amontillado sherry white wine obtained by means of biological aging first and oxidative aging second in American oak casks were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Sniffing revealed fruity, fatty, chemical, spicy, vegetable, floral and empyreumatic odors, the first being the most common. Olfactometric intensity was assessed on a four-point scale. Most changes were detected during the first years of the oxidative aging step. Ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, and eugenol were the strongest odor compounds detected by sniffing in wines. The odor spectrum values for all active odorants were calculated in relation to ethyl octanoate, this compound being the most potent odorant. On the basis of olfactometric intensities and odor spectrum values, ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, eugenol, ethyl isobutanoate, and sotolon can be deemed the main group of potent odorants in Amontillado wines. These compounds maintained similar relative contributions to the aroma profile during the oxidative aging step. PMID:20465212

  7. Identification of latent variables in a semantic odor profile database using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel; Stanton, David T

    2006-10-01

    Many classifications of odors have been proposed, but none of them have yet gained wide acceptance. Odor sensation is usually described by means of odor character descriptors. If these semantic profiles are obtained for a large diversity of compounds, the resulting database can be considered representative of odor perception space. Few of these comprehensive databases are publicly available, being a valuable source of information for fragrance research. Their statistical analysis has revealed that the underlying structure of odor space is high dimensional and not governed by a few primary odors. In a new effort to study the underlying sensory dimensions of the multivariate olfactory perception space, we have applied principal component analysis to a database of 881 perfume materials with semantic profiles comprising 82 odor descriptors. The relationships identified between the descriptors are consistent with those reported in similar studies and have allowed their classification into 17 odor classes.

  8. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Acar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors' data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented. PMID:27384568

  9. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Acar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors’ data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented. PMID:27384568

  10. Odor impact of volatiles emitted from marijuana, cocaine, heroin and their surrogate scents

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile compounds emitted into headspace from illicit street drugs have been identified, but until now odor impact of these compounds have not been reported. Data in support of identification of these compounds and their odor impact to human nose are presented. In addition, data is reported on odor detection thresholds for canines highlighting differences with human ODTs and needs to address gaps in knowledge. New data presented here include: (1) compound identification, (2) gas chromatography (GC) column retention times, (3) mass spectral data, (4) odor descriptors from 2 databases, (5) human odor detection thresholds from 2 databases, (6) calculated odor activity values, and (7) subsequent ranking of compounds by concentration and ranking of compounds by odor impact (reported as calculated odor activity values). For further interpretation and discussion, see Rice and Koziel [1] and Rice [2]. PMID:26958621

  11. Influence of Ambient Odors on Time Perception in a Retrospective Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Brand, Gérard; Thiabaud, F; Dray, N

    2016-06-01

    Environmental stimuli can influence time perception, including sensory stimulations. Among them, odors are known to modulate emotion, attention, behavior, or performance, but few studies have investigated the possible effects of ambient odors on time perception. Thus, the present study aimed to compare in a retrospective paradigm the time estimation in three conditions, i.e., with phenyl ethyl alcohol as a pleasant odor, pyridine as unpleasant odor, and a control condition without ambient odor. A total of 90 participants (M age = 23 years, 10 months) took part in three different tasks, i.e., an aesthetic classification task, a sensorimotor checking task, and a mathematical operations task. Results showed a better accuracy of the time estimation in odor condition (1) independently of the characteristics of odorants (2) limited to tasks with a low cognitive involvement. These findings are discussed in relation to the possible role of attention and arousal in the modulation of time perception by ambient odors. PMID:27194618

  12. Photoperiod and gonadal hormones influence odor preferences of the male meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

    PubMed

    Ferkin, M H; Gorman, M R

    1992-05-01

    Male meadow voles housed in a long photoperiod (14 h light/day, LP) preferred female to male odors, whereas males maintained in a short photoperiod (10 h light/day, SP) did not display preferences for odors of either sex. These odor-preference patterns matched those of free-living males during spring and autumn, respectively. The preference of LP male voles for female over male odors was eliminated by gonadectomy and reinstated by treatment with testosterone. In SP males, although gonadectomy did not affect odor choices, a preference for female odors was induced by testosterone treatment. Treatment with estradiol did not alter odor preferences of LP or SP males. In conjunction with previous result, the present findings suggest that hormonal responsiveness of neural substrates that control odor preferences are sexually dimorphic and may reflect sex differences in reproductive strategies. PMID:1615048

  13. Odor quality: discrimination versus free and cued identification.

    PubMed

    de Wijk, R A; Cain, W S

    1994-07-01

    Eighty-two adults, ranging in age from young to elderly, performed odor-quality discrimination and both free and cued identification on six odorants presented at two intensity levels. The odorants simulated the real-world substances banana, licorice, cherry/almond, wintergreen, clove, and lemon. Performance on all three tasks declined with age, but improved with stimulus intensity. Performance at discrimination benefited from the mere availability of the six names during testing. Performance in cued identification far exceeded that in free identification and, for young and middle-aged adults, fell close to that for discrimination. For elderly adults, however, performance in cued identification fell substantially below that in discrimination. Although not entirely free of cognitive influences, discrimination seems to offer particularly clear resolution of alterations in olfactory functioning.

  14. Differential Odor Processing in Two Olfactory Pathways in the Honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Schmuker, Michael; Szyszka, Paul; Mizunami, Makoto; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-01-01

    An important component in understanding central olfactory processing and coding in the insect brain relates to the characterization of the functional divisions between morphologically distinct types of projection neurons (PN). Using calcium imaging, we investigated how the identity, concentration and mixtures of odors are represented in axon terminals (boutons) of two types of PNs – lPN and mPN. In lPN boutons we found less concentration dependence, narrow tuning profiles at a high concentration, which may be optimized for fine, concentration-invariant odor discrimination. In mPN boutons, however, we found clear rising concentration dependence, broader tuning profiles at a high concentration, which may be optimized for concentration coding. In addition, we found more mixture suppression in lPNs than in mPNs, indicating lPNs better adaptation for synthetic mixture processing. These results suggest a functional division of odor processing in both PN types. PMID:20198105

  15. Regulation of cutaneous allergic reaction by odorant inhalation.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, J; Tsuchiya, T

    2000-03-01

    Olfactory stimuli modulate emotional conditions and the whole body immune system. Effects of odorant inhalation on cutaneous immune reaction were examined. Contact hypersensitivity to 2,4, 6-trinitrochlorobenzene was elicited in C57BL/6 mice. The reaction was suppressed at both the induction and elicitation phases by exposure to an odorant, citralva. Topical application of citralva or lyral/lilial did not affect the reaction. The suppressive effect of citralva was more potent than that of another odorant, lyral/lilial. Citralva decreased the number of epidermal Langerhans cells, whereas lyral/lilial had a weak effect. Citralva but not lyral/lilial induced plasma corticosterone. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonist abrogated the suppressive effect of citralva on contact hypersensitivity. Serum interleukin-12 was downregulated by exposure to citralva or lyral/lilial. These data demonstrate that olfactory stimuli regulate the cutaneous immune system.

  16. From Molecule to Mind: an Integrative Perspective on Odor Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Mainland, Joel D.; Lundström, Johan N.; Reisert, Johannes; Lowe, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in systems neuroscience is mapping the physical properties of a stimulus to perceptual characteristics. In vision, wavelength translates into color; in audition, frequency translates into pitch. Although odorant concentration is a key feature of olfactory stimuli, we do not know how concentration is translated into perceived intensity by the olfactory system. A variety of neural responses at several levels of processing have been reported to vary with odorant concentration, suggesting specific coding models. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these phenomena underlie the perception of odor intensity. Here we provide an overview of current models at different stages of olfactory processing, and identify promising avenues for future research. PMID:24950600

  17. Memory for brief, widely spaced odor presentations in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, C T; Slotnick, B M

    1995-04-01

    Rats trained on a series of 16 novel 2-odor discrimination tasks using a 10-s intertrial interval (ITI) rapidly improved in performance and made only 0-3 errors by the end of the test series. They were then tested on other novel pairs of odors, but with a 10- and a 30-min interval between trials. There was no decrement in performance accuracy in the longer ITI tests and, in most cases, criterion performance was achieved after making zero or 1 error after the first (information) trial. These results demonstrate that rats have the capacity to remember for at least 30 min whether a single brief presentation of a novel odor was followed by a reward.

  18. Mammalian Odor Information Recognition by Implanted Microsensor Array in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Dong, Qi; Zhuang, Liujing; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    The mammalian olfactory system has an exquisite capacity to rapidly recognize and discriminate thousands of distinct odors in our environment. Our research group focus on reading information from olfactory bulb circuit of anethetized Sprague-Dawley rat and utilize artificial recognition system for odor discrimination. After being stimulated by three odors with concentration of 10 μM to rat nose, the response of mitral cells in olfactory bulb is recorded by eight channel microwire sensor array. In 20 sessions with 3 animals, we obtained 30 discriminated individual cells recordings. The average firing rates of the cells are Isoamyl acetate 26 Hz, Methoxybenzene 16 Hz, and Rose essential oil 11 Hz. By spike sorting, we detect peaks and analyze the interspike interval distribution. Further more, principal component analysis is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the data sets and classify the response.

  19. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  20. Role of Self-Generated Odor Cues in Contextual Representation

    PubMed Central

    Aikath, Devdeep; Weible, Aldis P; Rowland, David C; Kentros, Clifford G

    2014-01-01

    As first demonstrated in the patient H.M., the hippocampus is critically involved in forming episodic memories, the recall of “what” happened “where” and “when.” In rodents, the clearest functional correlate of hippocampal primary neurons is the place field: a cell fires predominantly when the animal is in a specific part of the environment, typically defined relative to the available visuospatial cues. However, rodents have relatively poor visual acuity. Furthermore, they are highly adept at navigating in total darkness. This raises the question of how other sensory modalities might contribute to a hippocampal representation of an environment. Rodents have a highly developed olfactory system, suggesting that cues such as odor trails may be important. To test this, we familiarized mice to a visually cued environment over a number of days while maintaining odor cues. During familiarization, self-generated odor cues unique to each animal were collected by re-using absorbent paperboard flooring from one session to the next. Visual and odor cues were then put in conflict by counter-rotating the recording arena and the flooring. Perhaps surprisingly, place fields seemed to follow the visual cue rotation exclusively, raising the question of whether olfactory cues have any influence at all on a hippocampal spatial representation. However, subsequent removal of the familiar, self-generated odor cues severely disrupted both long-term stability and rotation to visual cues in a novel environment. Our data suggest that odor cues, in the absence of additional rule learning, do not provide a discriminative spatial signal that anchors place fields. Such cues do, however, become integral to the context over time and exert a powerful influence on the stability of its hippocampal representation. © 2014 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24753119

  1. Annual variations of odor concentrations and emissions from swine gestation, farrowing, and nursery buildings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huiqing; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Yuming

    2011-12-01

    To obtain annual odor emission profiles from intensive swine operations, odor concentrations and emission rates were measured monthly from swine nursery, farrowing, and gestation rooms for a year. Large annual variations in odor concentrations and emissions were found in all the rooms and the impact of the seasonal factor (month) was significant (P < 0.05). Odor concentration was low in summer when ventilation rate was high but high in winter when ventilation rate was low, ranging from 362 (farrowing room in July) to 8934 (nursery room in December) olfactory unit (OU) m(-3). This indicates that the air quality regarding odor was significantly better in summer than that in winter. Odor emission rate did not show obvious seasonal pattern as odor concentration did, ranging from 2 (gestation room in November) to 90 (nursery room in April) OU m(-2) sec(-1); this explains why the odor complaints for swine barns have occurred all year round. The annual geometric mean odor concentration and emission rate of the nursery room was significantly higher than the other rooms (P < 0.05). In order to obtain the representative annual emission rate, measurements have to be taken at least monthly, and then the geometric mean of the monthly values will represent the annual emission rate. Incorporating odor control technologies in the nursery area will be the most efficient in reducing odor emission from the farm considering its emission rate was 2 to 3 times of the other areas. The swine grower-finisher area was the major odor source contributing 53% of odor emission of the farm and should also be targeted for odor control. Relatively positive correlations between odor concentration and both H2S and CO2 concentrations (R(2) = 0.58) means that high level of these two gases might likely indicate high odor concentration in swine barns.

  2. Intensity invariant dynamics and odor-specific latencies in olfactory receptor neuron response

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Carlotta; Carlson, John R.; Emonet, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Odors elicit spatio-temporal patterns of activity in the brain. Spatial patterns arise from the specificity of the interaction between odorants and odorant receptors expressed in different olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). But the origin of temporal patterns of activity and their role in odor coding remain unclear. We investigate how physiological aspects of ORN response and physical aspects of odor stimuli give rise to diverse responses in Drosophila ORNs. We show that odor stimuli have intrinsic dynamics that depend on odor type and strongly affect ORN response. Using linear-nonlinear modeling to remove the contribution of the stimulus dynamics from the ORN dynamics we study the physiological properties of the response to different odorants and concentrations. For several odorants and receptor types the ORN response dynamics normalized by the peak response are independent of stimulus intensity for a large portion of the neuron’s dynamic range. Adaptation to a background odor changes the gain and dynamic range of the response but does not affect normalized response dynamics. Stimulating ORNs with various odorants reveals significant odor-dependent delays in the ORN response functions. These differences however can be dominated by differences in stimulus dynamics. In one case the response of one ORN to two odorants is predicted solely from measurements of the odor signals. Within a large portion of their dynamic range ORNs can capture information about stimulus dynamics independently from intensity while introducing odor-dependent delays. How insects might use odor-specific stimulus dynamics and ORN dynamics in discrimination and navigation tasks remains an open question. PMID:23575828

  3. Epac Activation Initiates Associative Odor Preference Memories in the Rat Pup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Powell, Maria; Gutierrez, Sandra Mohammed; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we examine the role of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in ß-adrenergic-dependent associative odor preference learning in rat pups. Bulbar Epac agonist (8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP, or 8-pCPT) infusions, paired with odor, initiated preference learning, which was selective for the paired odor. Interestingly, pairing odor with Epac…

  4. Structure-Odor Activity Studies on Monoterpenoid Mercaptans Synthesized by Changing the Structural Motifs of the Key Food Odorant 1-p-Menthene-8-thiol.

    PubMed

    Schoenauer, Sebastian; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-05-18

    1-p-Menthene-8-thiol (1) has been discovered as the key odorant in grapefruit juice several decades ago and contributes to the overall odor of the fruit with an extremely low odor threshold of 0.000034 ng/L in air. This value is among the lowest odor thresholds ever reported for a food odorant. To check whether modifications in the structure of 1 would lead to changes in odor threshold and odor quality, 34 mercapto-containing p-menthane and 1-p-menthene derivatives as well as several aromatic and open-chain mercapto monoterpenoids were synthesized. Eighteen of them are reported for the first time in the literature, and their odor thresholds and odor qualities as well as analytical data are supplied. A comparison of the sensory data with those of 1 showed that hydrogenation of the double bond led to a clear increase in the odor threshold. Furthermore, moving the mercapto group into the ring always resulted in higher odor thresholds compared to thiols with a mercapto group in the side chains. Although all tertiary thiols always exhibited low odor thresholds, none of the 31 compounds reached the extremely low threshold of 1. Also, none of the synthesized mercapto monoterpenoids showed a similar odor quality resembling grapefruit. Although the saturated and aromatic analogues exhibited similar scents as 1, the aromas of the majority of the other compounds were described as sulfury, rubber-like, burned, soapy, or even mushroom-like. NMR and MS data as well as retention indices of the 23 newly reported sulfur-containing compounds might aid in future research to identify terpene-derived mercaptans possibly present in trace levels in foods. PMID:27121638

  5. Structure-Odor Activity Studies on Monoterpenoid Mercaptans Synthesized by Changing the Structural Motifs of the Key Food Odorant 1-p-Menthene-8-thiol.

    PubMed

    Schoenauer, Sebastian; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-05-18

    1-p-Menthene-8-thiol (1) has been discovered as the key odorant in grapefruit juice several decades ago and contributes to the overall odor of the fruit with an extremely low odor threshold of 0.000034 ng/L in air. This value is among the lowest odor thresholds ever reported for a food odorant. To check whether modifications in the structure of 1 would lead to changes in odor threshold and odor quality, 34 mercapto-containing p-menthane and 1-p-menthene derivatives as well as several aromatic and open-chain mercapto monoterpenoids were synthesized. Eighteen of them are reported for the first time in the literature, and their odor thresholds and odor qualities as well as analytical data are supplied. A comparison of the sensory data with those of 1 showed that hydrogenation of the double bond led to a clear increase in the odor threshold. Furthermore, moving the mercapto group into the ring always resulted in higher odor thresholds compared to thiols with a mercapto group in the side chains. Although all tertiary thiols always exhibited low odor thresholds, none of the 31 compounds reached the extremely low threshold of 1. Also, none of the synthesized mercapto monoterpenoids showed a similar odor quality resembling grapefruit. Although the saturated and aromatic analogues exhibited similar scents as 1, the aromas of the majority of the other compounds were described as sulfury, rubber-like, burned, soapy, or even mushroom-like. NMR and MS data as well as retention indices of the 23 newly reported sulfur-containing compounds might aid in future research to identify terpene-derived mercaptans possibly present in trace levels in foods.

  6. Postpartum factors related to mother's attraction to newborn infant odors.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A S; Corter, C; Franks, P; Surbey, M; Schneider, B; Steiner, M

    1993-03-01

    Hedonic responses to a variety of infant (general body, urine, and feces) and noninfant (lotion, cheese, and spice) odorants were compared in four groups of subjects: new mothers, mothers a 1-month postpartum, and female and male nonparents. Using standard scaling procedures, subjects rated each of the odorants twice on a scale from extremely unpleasant (-20.5) to extremely pleasant (+20.5). In addition, all subjects completed a set of attitude questionnaires, and mothers also answered a childbirth questionnaire and were observed while feeding their infants.

  7. Odor threshold prediction by means of the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Cappellini, Luigi; Benfenati, Emilio; Davoli, Enrico

    2016-11-01

    A large set of organic compounds (n=906) has been used as a basis to build up a model for the odor threshold (mg/m(3)). The statistical characteristics of the best model are the following: n=523, r(2)=0.647, RMSE=1.18 (training set); n=191, r(2)=0.610, RMSE=1.03, (calibration set); and n=192, r(2)=0.686, RMSE=1.06 (validation set). A mechanistic interpretation of the model is presented as the lists of statistical promoters of the increase and decrease in the odor threshold.

  8. Narrow SAR in odorant sensing Orco receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Romaine, Ian M; Taylor, Robert W; Saidu, Samsudeen P; Kim, Kwangho; Sulikowski, Gary A; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Waterson, Alex G

    2014-06-15

    The systematic exploration of a series of triazole-based agonists of the cation channel insect odorant receptor is reported. The structure-activity relationships of independent sections of the molecules are examined. Very small changes to the compound structure were found to exert a large impact on compound activity. Optimal substitutions were combined using a 'mix-and-match' strategy to produce best-in-class compounds that are capable of potently agonizing odorant receptor activity and may form the basis for the identification of a new mode of insect behavior modification. PMID:24813736

  9. Odor threshold prediction by means of the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Cappellini, Luigi; Benfenati, Emilio; Davoli, Enrico

    2016-11-01

    A large set of organic compounds (n=906) has been used as a basis to build up a model for the odor threshold (mg/m(3)). The statistical characteristics of the best model are the following: n=523, r(2)=0.647, RMSE=1.18 (training set); n=191, r(2)=0.610, RMSE=1.03, (calibration set); and n=192, r(2)=0.686, RMSE=1.06 (validation set). A mechanistic interpretation of the model is presented as the lists of statistical promoters of the increase and decrease in the odor threshold. PMID:27500544

  10. A rare case of fish odor syndrome presenting as depression

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Shagufta, K.

    2014-01-01

    A young lady presents to the psychiatry out-patient department with depressive symptoms. Evaluation revealed long standing stressor in the form of a foul odor emanating from her body and over a period of time resulting in social withdrawal and depression with significant impairment of day-to-day functioning. A diagnosis of trimethylaminurea (fish odor syndrome) and adjustment disorder was arrived at. Careful empathetic handling with psychoeducation, behavioral and cognitive counseling and a short course of antidepressants helped her improve significantly with return to almost normal functioning. PMID:24891709

  11. Odor Sensing System Using Preconcentrator with Variable Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Isaka, Y; Nakamoto, Takamichi; Moriizumi, T; Grate, Jay W. )

    1999-01-01

    An odor sensing system using QCM gas sensor array and pattern recognition technique is useful to identify various kinds of odors. A preconcentrator with variable temperature is promising to obtain further pattern separation after the appropriate temperature changes, whereas it has been so far used to enhance sensor sensitivity. After the preconcentrator collects the vapors, it is heated so that they can be thermally desorbed. The combination of the preconcentrator with the sensor array enhances the capability of discrimination among vapors since their desorption temperatures depend upon vapor kinds.

  12. DESIGN MANUAL: ODOR AND CORROSION CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater is known to the public for its potential to create odor nuisance. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the odor source is a wastewater treatment facility. Yet there are wastewater treatment facilities that are fr...

  13. Dummies versus air puffs: efficient stimulus delivery for low-volatile odors.

    PubMed

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Aiming to unravel how animals perceive odors, a variety of neurophysiological techniques are used today. For olfactory stimulation, odors are commonly incorporated into a constant airstream that carries odor molecules to the receptor organ (air-delivered stimulation). Such odor delivery works well for odors of high volatility (naturally effective over long distances) but less or not at all for low-volatile odors (usually only received at short range). We developed a new odor stimulation technique especially suited for low-volatile odors and compared it with conventional air-delivered stimulation using 2 neurophysiological approaches. Odor-loaded dummies were moved into close vicinity of the receptor organs on the antenna of the Florida carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus (dummy-delivered stimulation). Neuronal activity was monitored either at receptor neuron level using electroantennography or in the first olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobes, using calcium imaging. We tested 3 odors of different volatility: C. floridanus' highly volatile alarm pheromone undecane, its low-volatile trail pheromone nerolic acid, and an even less volatile, behaviorally active C23 alkene, cis-9-tricosene. For low-volatile odors, dummy-delivered stimulation was particularly efficient. We conclude that dummy-delivered stimulation is advantageous compared to the commonly used air-delivered stimulation when studying an animal's detection and processing of low-volatile odors.

  14. Sensory Preconditioning in Newborn Rabbits: From Common to Distinct Odor Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coureaud, Gerard; Tourat, Audrey; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether olfactory preconditioning is functional in newborn rabbits and based on joined or independent memory of odorants. First, after exposure to odorants A+B, the conditioning of A led to high responsiveness to odorant B. Second, responsiveness to B persisted after amnesia of A. Third, preconditioning was also functional…

  15. Dummies versus air puffs: efficient stimulus delivery for low-volatile odors.

    PubMed

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Aiming to unravel how animals perceive odors, a variety of neurophysiological techniques are used today. For olfactory stimulation, odors are commonly incorporated into a constant airstream that carries odor molecules to the receptor organ (air-delivered stimulation). Such odor delivery works well for odors of high volatility (naturally effective over long distances) but less or not at all for low-volatile odors (usually only received at short range). We developed a new odor stimulation technique especially suited for low-volatile odors and compared it with conventional air-delivered stimulation using 2 neurophysiological approaches. Odor-loaded dummies were moved into close vicinity of the receptor organs on the antenna of the Florida carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus (dummy-delivered stimulation). Neuronal activity was monitored either at receptor neuron level using electroantennography or in the first olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobes, using calcium imaging. We tested 3 odors of different volatility: C. floridanus' highly volatile alarm pheromone undecane, its low-volatile trail pheromone nerolic acid, and an even less volatile, behaviorally active C23 alkene, cis-9-tricosene. For low-volatile odors, dummy-delivered stimulation was particularly efficient. We conclude that dummy-delivered stimulation is advantageous compared to the commonly used air-delivered stimulation when studying an animal's detection and processing of low-volatile odors. PMID:20212009

  16. The Enantioselectivity of Odor Sensation: Some Examples for Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Philip; Mannschreck, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses seven chiral odorants that demonstrate the enantioselectivity of odor sensation: carvone, Celery Ketone, camphor, Florhydral, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, muscone, and methyl jasmonate. After a general introduction of the odorant-receptor interaction and the combinatorial code of olfaction, the olfactory properties of the…

  17. Effectiveness of a manure scraper system for odor control in tunnel-ventilated swine finisher barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Options for odor control from tunnel-ventilated swine barns are limited. Automated scrapers have been successful for reducing odor emissions in free-stall dairies, and for reducing H2S emissions in research-scale swine finisher rooms, but their effectiveness for reducing odor in commercial tunnel-v...

  18. Computational modeling and experimental validation of odor detection behaviours of classically conditioned parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To further improve the sensitivity of odor¬ and odor concentration detection of the Wasp Hound, searching behaviors of a food-conditioned wasp in a confined area with the conditioning odor were recorded. The experiments were recorded using a video camera. First, the wasps are individually hand condi...

  19. Noradrenergic Control of Odor Recognition in a Nonassociative Olfactory Learning Task in the Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veyrac, Alexandra; Nguyen, Veronique; Marien, Marc; Didier, Anne; Jourdan, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of pharmacological modulations of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system on odor recognition in the mouse. Mice exposed to a nonrewarded olfactory stimulation (training) were able to memorize this odor and to discriminate it from a new odor in a recall test performed 15 min later. At longer delays (30 or…

  20. Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and Odor Activity Value (OAV).

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2016-06-22

    The volatile compounds of cranberries obtained from four cultivars (Early Black, Y1; Howes, Y2; Searles, Y3; and McFarlin, Y4) were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). The result presented that a total of thirty-three, thirty-four, thirty-four, and thirty-six odor-active compounds were identified by GC-O in the Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In addition, twenty-two, twenty-two, thirty, and twenty-seven quantified compounds were demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs > 1). Among these compounds, hexanal (OAV: 27-60), pentanal (OAV: 31-51), (E)-2-heptenal (OAV: 17-66), (E)-2-hexenal (OAV: 18-63), (E)-2-octenal (OAV: 10-28), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 8-77), ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (OAV: 10-33), β-ionone (OAV: 8-73), 2-methylbutyric acid (OAV: 18-37), and octanal (OAV: 4-24) contributed greatly to the aroma of cranberry. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean data accumulated from sensory evaluation by the panelists, odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), and samples. Sample Y3 was highly correlated with the sensory descriptors "floral" and "fruity". Sample Y4 was greatly related to the sensory descriptors "mellow" and "green and grass". Finally, an aroma reconstitution (Model A) was prepared by mixing the odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) based on their measured concentrations in the Y1 sample, indicating that the aroma profile of the reconstitution was pretty similar to that of the original sample. PMID:27265519

  1. Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and Odor Activity Value (OAV).

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2016-06-22

    The volatile compounds of cranberries obtained from four cultivars (Early Black, Y1; Howes, Y2; Searles, Y3; and McFarlin, Y4) were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). The result presented that a total of thirty-three, thirty-four, thirty-four, and thirty-six odor-active compounds were identified by GC-O in the Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In addition, twenty-two, twenty-two, thirty, and twenty-seven quantified compounds were demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs > 1). Among these compounds, hexanal (OAV: 27-60), pentanal (OAV: 31-51), (E)-2-heptenal (OAV: 17-66), (E)-2-hexenal (OAV: 18-63), (E)-2-octenal (OAV: 10-28), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 8-77), ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (OAV: 10-33), β-ionone (OAV: 8-73), 2-methylbutyric acid (OAV: 18-37), and octanal (OAV: 4-24) contributed greatly to the aroma of cranberry. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean data accumulated from sensory evaluation by the panelists, odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), and samples. Sample Y3 was highly correlated with the sensory descriptors "floral" and "fruity". Sample Y4 was greatly related to the sensory descriptors "mellow" and "green and grass". Finally, an aroma reconstitution (Model A) was prepared by mixing the odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) based on their measured concentrations in the Y1 sample, indicating that the aroma profile of the reconstitution was pretty similar to that of the original sample.

  2. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice

    PubMed Central

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice. Aim Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary) from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice. Procedures Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J), and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes) and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections. Results In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12), Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a

  3. Odor attributes change in relation to the time of the year. Cinnamon odor is more familiar and pleasant during Christmas season than summertime.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Seok; Buschhüter, Dorothee; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to examine whether odor attributes like pleasantness and familiarity change in relation to the time of the year. In the first part of the study a total of 100 subjects answered to questions without odor presentation whether a certain odor was more related to summertime or Christmas season. Another 41 and 51 subjects rated the familiarity and hedonicity of 12 odors either during summertime or Christmas season, respectively. Importantly, this investigation was performed at the same place within a science museum during stable environmental conditions. Subjects reported that rose odor was more related to summertime, whereas orange, cinnamon, and cloves were more associated with Christmas season with cinnamon being most intimately connected to this time of the year. Moreover, subjects showed significantly higher familiarity and pleasantness ratings when they smelled cinnamon during the Christmas season than during summertime. Taken together, this study demonstrated that attributes of some odors change throughout the year.

  4. Green foot.

    PubMed

    LeFeber, W P; Golitz, L E

    1984-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa may infect the skin surface, nails, hair follicles, or deeper tissues. We report a 13-year-old male with an asymptomatic green discoloration of the toenails and sole of the right foot. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured from the shoe, but not from the discolored skin. We suspect that constant wearing of occlusive, rubber-soled, basketball shoes associated with hyperhidrosis allowed colonization of his shoe with pseudomonas. This case is unique in that colonization resulted in a green color of the foot not associated with infection of the skin.

  5. Development of an odorant emission model for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Cobb, J

    2001-01-01

    In the field of odour assessment, much attention has been paid to the measurement of odour concentration. Whilst the concentration of an odour at a receptor is a useful indicator of annoyance, the concentration at the source tells only half the story. The emission rate - the product of odour concentration and air flow rate - is required to appreciate the significance of odour sources. Knowledge of emission rates allows odour sources to be ranked in terms of significance and facilitates appropriate selection and design of odour control units. The emission rate is also a key input for atmospheric dispersion models. Given the increasing importance of odour to sewage treatment works operators, there is a clear need for predictive methods for odour emission rates. Theory suggests that the emission of odorants from sewage to air is controlled by mass transfer resistances in both the gas and liquid phase. These are in turn controlled by odorant and emission source characteristics. The required odorant characteristics are largely known, and mass transfer from many different types of emission sources have been studied. Sewage treatment processes can be described by one or more of six characteristic emission sources, these being quiescent surfaces, channels, weirs and drop structures, diffused aeration, surface aeration and flow over media. This paper describes the development of odorant mass transfer models for these characteristic emission types. The models have been applied in the form of spreadsheet models to the prediction of H2S emissions and the results compared with commercial VOC emission models.

  6. Transitivity of Odor Preferences: Constant and Particularities in Hedonic Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Gerard; Haaz, Virginie; Jacquot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences has been investigated for a long time in decision-making. In the field of perception, the pleasantness of odors raises several questions related to individual versus cultural or universal preferences and the existence of a classification in a delimited hedonic space. The aim of this study was to test transitivity in…

  7. 49 CFR 192.625 - Odorization of gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 192.625, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Odorization of gas. 192.625 Section 192.625... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER...

  8. 49 CFR 192.625 - Odorization of gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 192.625, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Odorization of gas. 192.625 Section 192.625... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER...

  9. 49 CFR 192.625 - Odorization of gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 192.625, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Odorization of gas. 192.625 Section 192.625... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER...

  10. Olfaction in petrels: from homing to self-odor avoidance.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    In the 1960s, Betsy Bang unraveled the complexity of the olfactory apparatus of procellariiform seabirds (petrels and albatrosses), suggesting an important role for olfaction in their ecology. Shortly thereafter, Prof. B. Wenzel continued the investigations on petrels' well-developed olfactory neuroanatomy as well as their sensitivity to food-related scents. Later studies demonstrated further that the sense of smell is also critical to these birds when homing to their burrow. Building on these findings, we have demonstrated in several petrel species the importance of the burrow olfactory signature in homing. The nature of this olfactory signature relies predominantly on their mate's odor. Indeed, in our Y-maze experiments, Antarctic prions (Pachyptila desolata) and blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea) could discriminate between their own and their mates' odors. However, although they are attracted by their mate odor, they prefer the odor of a conspecific bird to their own. These results have drawn attention to the possible use of chemical signals in birds' social behaviors, such as individual recognition and/or mate choice. Indeed, petrel life history traits suggest that olfactory-mediated mate choice may have evolved in this group to ensure genetic compatibility between mates. We have recently shown that a bird's semiochemical profile is more similar to itself, year after year, than to that of a conspecific. As a result, a novel function of olfaction emerges in petrels: the perception of a chemical signal that may broadcast individuals' identity and quality, thereby contributing to an optimal mate choice. PMID:19686171

  11. Functional transformations of odor inputs in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Adam, Yoav; Livneh, Yoav; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Groysman, Maya; Luo, Liqun; Mizrahi, Adi

    2014-01-01

    Sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium to the olfactory bulb (OB) are organized as a discrete map in the glomerular layer (GL). This map is then modulated by distinct types of local neurons and transmitted to higher brain areas via mitral and tufted cells. Little is known about the functional organization of the circuits downstream of glomeruli. We used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging for large scale functional mapping of distinct neuronal populations in the mouse OB, at single cell resolution. Specifically, we imaged odor responses of mitral cells (MCs), tufted cells (TCs) and glomerular interneurons (GL-INs). Mitral cells population activity was heterogeneous and only mildly correlated with the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) inputs, supporting the view that discrete input maps undergo significant transformations at the output level of the OB. In contrast, population activity profiles of TCs were dense, and highly correlated with the odor inputs in both space and time. Glomerular interneurons were also highly correlated with the ORN inputs, but showed higher activation thresholds suggesting that these neurons are driven by strongly activated glomeruli. Temporally, upon persistent odor exposure, TCs quickly adapted. In contrast, both MCs and GL-INs showed diverse temporal response patterns, suggesting that GL-INs could contribute to the transformations MCs undergo at slow time scales. Our data suggest that sensory odor maps are transformed by TCs and MCs in different ways forming two distinct and parallel information streams.

  12. Context odor presentation during sleep enhances memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Zwaka, Hanna; Bartels, Ruth; Gora, Jacob; Franck, Vivien; Culo, Ana; Götsch, Moritz; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-11-01

    Sleep plays an important role in stabilizing new memory traces after learning [1-3]. Here we investigate whether sleep's role in memory processing is similar in evolutionarily distant species and demonstrate that a context trigger during deep-sleep phases improves memory in invertebrates, as it does in humans. We show that in honeybees (Apis mellifera), exposure to an odor during deep sleep that has been present during learning improves memory performance the following day. Presentation of the context odor during wake phases or novel odors during sleep does not enhance memory. In humans, memory consolidation can be triggered by presentation of a context odor during slow-wave sleep that had been present during learning [3-5]. Our results reveal that deep-sleep phases in honeybees have the potential to prompt memory consolidation, just as they do in humans. This study provides strong evidence for a conserved role of sleep-and how it affects memory processes-from insects to mammals.

  13. Odors and Air Pollution: A Bibliography with Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Air Programs.

    The annotated bibliography presents a compilation of abstracts which deal with odors as they relate to air pollution. The abstracts are arranged within the following categories: Emission sources; Control methods; Measurement methods; Air quality measurements; Atmospheric interaction; Basic science and technology; Effects-human health;…

  14. 46 CFR 193.15-17 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-17 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide extinguishing system installed or altered after July 9, 2013, must have an approved... carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide...

  15. 46 CFR 95.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  16. 46 CFR 76.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  17. 46 CFR 76.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  18. 46 CFR 76.15-60 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-60 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide... the scent of wintergreen, the detection of which will serve as an indication that carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide may migrate....

  19. 46 CFR 193.15-17 - Odorizing units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-17 Odorizing units. Each carbon dioxide extinguishing system installed or altered after July 9, 2013, must have an approved... carbon dioxide gas is present in a protected area and any other area into which the carbon dioxide...

  20. Odorous VOC emission following land application of swine manure slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David B.; Gilley, John; Woodbury, Bryan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Galvin, Geordie; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Li, Xu; Snow, Daniel D.

    2013-02-01

    Swine manure is often applied to crop land as a fertilizer source. Odor emissions from land-applied swine manure may pose a nuisance to downwind populations if manure is not applied with sufficient forethought. A research project was conducted to assess the time decay of odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions following land application of swine manure. Three land application methods were compared: surface application, incorporation 24 h after surface application, and injection. Emission rates were measured in field plots using a small wind tunnel and sorbent tubes. VOCs including eight volatile fatty acids, five aromatics, and two sulfur-containing compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In most cases, a first order exponential decay model adequately described the flux versus time relationship for the 24 h period following land application, but the model sometimes overestimated flux in the 6-24 h range. The same model but with the time term squared adequately predicted flux over the entire 24 h period. Three compounds (4-methylphenol, skatole, and 4-ethylphenol) accounted for 93 percent of the summed odor activity value. First order decay constants (k) for these three compounds ranged from 0.157 to 0.996 h-1. When compared to surface application, injection of swine manure resulted in 80-95 percent lower flux for the most odorous aromatic compounds. These results show that VOC flux decreases rapidly following land application of swine manure, declining below levels of detection and near background levels after 4 to 8 h.

  1. Context odor presentation during sleep enhances memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Zwaka, Hanna; Bartels, Ruth; Gora, Jacob; Franck, Vivien; Culo, Ana; Götsch, Moritz; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-11-01

    Sleep plays an important role in stabilizing new memory traces after learning [1-3]. Here we investigate whether sleep's role in memory processing is similar in evolutionarily distant species and demonstrate that a context trigger during deep-sleep phases improves memory in invertebrates, as it does in humans. We show that in honeybees (Apis mellifera), exposure to an odor during deep sleep that has been present during learning improves memory performance the following day. Presentation of the context odor during wake phases or novel odors during sleep does not enhance memory. In humans, memory consolidation can be triggered by presentation of a context odor during slow-wave sleep that had been present during learning [3-5]. Our results reveal that deep-sleep phases in honeybees have the potential to prompt memory consolidation, just as they do in humans. This study provides strong evidence for a conserved role of sleep-and how it affects memory processes-from insects to mammals. PMID:26592345

  2. Early Expression of Odorant Receptors Distorts the Olfactory Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Marks, Carolyn A.; Belluscio, Leonardo; Ryba, Nicholas J. P.

    2010-01-01

    The odor response properties of a mammalian olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) are determined by the tightly regulated expression of a single member of a very large family of odorant receptors (ORs). The OR also plays an important role in focusing the central projections of all OSNs expressing that particular receptor to a pair of stereotypic locations (glomeruli) in each olfactory bulb (OB), thus creating a spatial map of odor responses in the brain. Here we show that when initiated late in neural development, transgenic expression of one OR in almost all OSNs has little influence on the architecture of the OB. In contrast, early OR-transgene expression (mediated by the Gγ8-promoter) in 50–70% of OSNs grossly distorts the morphology of glomeruli and alters the projection patterns of many residual OSNs not expressing the transgene. Interestingly, this disruption of targeting persists in adult animals despite down-regulation of Gγ8 and transgenic OR expression that occurs as olfactory neurogenesis declines. Indeed, functional imaging studies reveal a dramatic decrease in the complexity of responses to odorants in adult Gγ8-transgenic OR mice. Thus, we show that initiation of transgenic OR-expression early in the development of OSNs, rather than just the extent of transgene expression, determines its effectiveness at modifying OB anatomy and function. Taken together these data imply that OR-expression timing needs to be very tightly controlled to achieve the precise wiring and function of the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:20610762

  3. Ozone inactivation of norovirus surrogates on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Hirneisen, K A; Markland, S M; Kniel, K E

    2011-05-01

    Preharvest contamination of produce by foodborne viruses can occur through a variety of agents, including animal feces/manures, soil, irrigation water, animals, and human handling. Problems of contamination are magnified by potential countrywide distribution. Postharvest processing of produce can involve spraying, washing, or immersion into water with disinfectants; however, disinfectants, including chlorine, have varying effects on viruses and harmful by-products pose a concern. The use of ozone as a disinfectant in produce washes has shown great promise for bacterial pathogens, but limited research exists on its efficacy on viruses. This study compares ozone inactivation of human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus [FCV] and murine norovirus [MNV]) on produce (green onions and lettuce) and in sterile water. Green onions and lettuce inoculated with FCV or MNV were treated with ozone (6.25 ppm) for 0.5- to 10-min time intervals. Infectivity was determined by 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50)) and plaque assay for FCV and MNV, respectively. After 5 min of ozone treatment, >6 log TCID(50)/ml of FCV was inactivated in water and ∼2-log TCID(50)/ml on lettuce and green onions. MNV inoculated onto green onions and lettuce showed a >2-log reduction after 1 min of ozone treatment. The food matrix played the largest role in protection against ozone inactivation. These results indicate that ozone is an alternative method to reduce viral contamination on the surface of fresh produce. PMID:21549058

  4. Fancy Citrus, Feel Good: Positive Judgment of Citrus Odor, but Not the Odor Itself, Is Associated with Elevated Mood during Experienced Helplessness.

    PubMed

    Hoenen, Matthias; Müller, Katharina; Pause, Bettina M; Lübke, Katrin T

    2016-01-01

    Aromatherapy claims that citrus essential oils exert mood lifting effects. Controlled studies, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Notably, studies so far did not control for odor pleasantness, although pleasantness is a critical determinant of emotional responses to odors. This study investigates mood lifting effects of d-(+)-limonene, the most prominent substance in citrus essential oils, with respect to odor quality judgments. Negative mood was induced within 78 participants using a helplessness paradigm (unsolvable social discrimination task). During this task, participants were continuously (mean duration: 19.5 min) exposed to d-(+)-limonene (n = 25), vanillin (n = 26), or diethyl phthalate (n = 27). Participants described their mood (Self-Assessment-Manikin, basic emotion ratings) and judged the odors' quality (intensity, pleasantness, unpleasantness, familiarity) prior to and following the helplessness induction. The participants were in a less positive mood after the helplessness induction (p < 0.001), irrespective of the odor condition. Still, the more pleasant the participants judged the odors, the less effective the helplessness induction was in reducing happiness (p = 0.019). The results show no odor specific mood lifting effect of d-(+)-limonene, but indicate a positive effect of odor pleasantness on mood. The study highlights the necessity to evaluate odor judgments in aromatherapy research. PMID:26869973

  5. Evaluation of the masking of dimethyl sulfide odors by citronellal, limonene and citral through the use of trained odor sensor mice.

    PubMed

    Osada, Kazumi; Hanawa, Masaaki; Tsunoda, Kenji; Izumi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the most common result of mixing two odors is the decreased olfactory perception of one or both components in the mixture. An excellent example of this phenomenon is provided by the masking of an unpleasant odor by a pleasant odor. This study hypothesized that dimethyl sulfide (DS; a major chemical component of oral malodor) might be masked by citronellal, a monoterpene aldehyde that produces an intense lemon aroma. To investigate this hypothesis, mice were chosen as odor sensor animals. Mice were trained in a Y maze to discriminate between DS (10 ppm in aqueous solution) and water. A series of generalization tests revealed that these trained "odor sensor" mice could also distinguish between 1 ppm DS and water, but not between 0.1 ppm DS and water. The mice were then confronted with the original choice of 10 ppm DS and water, but now in the presence of various concentrations of citronellal. The mice failed to detect the odor of DS when confronted with 30 ppm citronellal. The mice were similarly confused when confronted with citral (90 ppm) or limonene (3000 ppm). This study is the first to show that citrus odorants can mask the odor of DS, altering the behavioral responses of trained odor sensor mice.

  6. Fancy Citrus, Feel Good: Positive Judgment of Citrus Odor, but Not the Odor Itself, Is Associated with Elevated Mood during Experienced Helplessness.

    PubMed

    Hoenen, Matthias; Müller, Katharina; Pause, Bettina M; Lübke, Katrin T

    2016-01-01

    Aromatherapy claims that citrus essential oils exert mood lifting effects. Controlled studies, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Notably, studies so far did not control for odor pleasantness, although pleasantness is a critical determinant of emotional responses to odors. This study investigates mood lifting effects of d-(+)-limonene, the most prominent substance in citrus essential oils, with respect to odor quality judgments. Negative mood was induced within 78 participants using a helplessness paradigm (unsolvable social discrimination task). During this task, participants were continuously (mean duration: 19.5 min) exposed to d-(+)-limonene (n = 25), vanillin (n = 26), or diethyl phthalate (n = 27). Participants described their mood (Self-Assessment-Manikin, basic emotion ratings) and judged the odors' quality (intensity, pleasantness, unpleasantness, familiarity) prior to and following the helplessness induction. The participants were in a less positive mood after the helplessness induction (p < 0.001), irrespective of the odor condition. Still, the more pleasant the participants judged the odors, the less effective the helplessness induction was in reducing happiness (p = 0.019). The results show no odor specific mood lifting effect of d-(+)-limonene, but indicate a positive effect of odor pleasantness on mood. The study highlights the necessity to evaluate odor judgments in aromatherapy research.

  7. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  8. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  9. Green Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, David, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses "going green" concept in school-building design, its cost-savings benefits through more efficient energy use, and its use by the State University of New York at Buffalo as solution to an energy retrofit program. Examples are provided of how this concept can be used, even for small colleges without large capital budgets, and how it can…

  10. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  11. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  12. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  13. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  14. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  15. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  16. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  17. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  18. Clinical usefulness of maternal odor in newborns: soothing and feeding preparatory responses.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R M; Toubas, P

    1998-12-01

    This study assessed the responsiveness of newborn breast- and bottle-fed infants to presentations of maternal odor. Maternal odor was presented for 1 min to crying, sleeping or awake newborns. The odors were: (1) own mother's odor - presentation of a hospital gown worn by the baby's mother, (2) other mother's odor - presentation of a hospital gown of another newborn baby's mother, (3) clean gown - presentation of a clean hospital gown and (4) no gown - no gown presented. The results indicated that crying babies stopped crying when either own mother or other mother odor was presented. Awake babies responded specifically to their own mother's odor by increasing mouthing. These results suggest that the practice of presenting the mother's odor to a distressed infant is of clinical usefulness since it was capable of attenuating crying. The results also characterized a role for maternal odor with respect to feeding since presentation of the infant's own mother odor increased mouthing. Thus, presentation of maternal odor may also be useful in enhancing nipple acceptance and feeding in newborns. PMID:9784631

  19. Recruits of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis learn food odors from the nest atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, Christian; Jarau, Stefan; Aguilar, Ingrid; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The ability to learn food odors inside the nest and to associate them with food sources in the field is of essential importance for the recruitment of nestmates in social bees. We investigated odor learning by workers within the hive and the influence of these odors on their food choice in the field in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis. During the experiments, recruited bees had to choose between two feeders, one with an odor that was present inside the nest during the recruitment process, and one with an unknown odor. In all experiments with different odor combinations (linalool/phenylacetaldehyde, geraniol/eugenol) a significant majority of bees visited the feeder with the odor they had experienced in their nest ( χ 2-tests; p < 0.05). By contrast, the bees showed no preference for one of two feeders when they were either baited with the same odor (linalool) or contained no odor. Our results clearly show that naïve workers of S. pectoralis can learn the odor of a food source during the recruitment process from the nest atmosphere and that their subsequent food search in the field is influenced by the learned odor.

  20. α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: Role in Early Odor Learning Preference in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hellier, Jennifer L.; Arevalo, Nicole L.; Smith, Lynelle; Xiong, Ka-Na; Restrepo, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7) in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP), an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5–18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor) for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21), mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits. PMID:22514723