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Sample records for friedrich aumayr hannspeter

  1. Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006): Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Bob

    2007-03-01

    Professor H Winter. It was with great sadness that we learnt of the death of colleague and friend Professor Hannspeter Winter in Vienna on the 8 November 2006. In memory of him and the contribution he made both to our conference and to the field of the physics of highly charged ions we dedicate these proceedings. Hannspeter was one of our distinguished invited speakers at HCI2006 and gave a talk on the status of the ITER programme. His invited paper on the subject is included in these proceedings. Hannspeter will be particularly remembered for his pioneering work on ion-surface interactions that, together with his colleagues at the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), has stimulated a worldwide experimental and theoretical interest in this field. He was appointed Director of the Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik at TUW in 1987 and using both his scientific and management skills has made it one of the leading university physics laboratories in the world. His research publications, of which there are 270, have inspired many others to work in the field of atomic and plasma physics. He was also a great European playing a major role in the EURATOM fusion programme, the European Physical Society and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and was an evaluator and advisory board member for many national and international institutions. Hannspeter was also an interesting and friendly social companion with interests in current affairs, music and fine wines and will be greatly missed both on a scientific and social level. Our condolences go to his wife Renate, son Dorian and his relatives. R W McCullough Co-chair HCI2006

  2. Carl Friedrich Gauss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kathryn; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss. Gauss was born on April 30, 1777, in the German city of Braunschweig (Brunswick). He was the only child of Gebhard Dietrich Gauss and Dorothea Benze. Neither of Gauss's parents had much education, his father could read and write, but earned his living doing menial jobs such as…

  3. Educational Theory as Topological Rhetoric: The Concepts of Pedagogy of Johann Friedrich Herbart and Friedrich Schleiermacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenklies, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The debate concerning the relation of the theory of education and the practice of education is not new. In Germany, these discussions are an integral part of the development of educational science in the eighteenth century which is closely connected to Johann Friedrich Herbart and Friedrich Schleiermacher. Their concepts illustrate different…

  4. The neurological illness of Friedrich Nietzsche.

    PubMed

    Hemelsoet, D; Hemelsoet, K; Devreese, D

    2008-03-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), one of the most profound and influential modern philosophers, suffered since his very childhood from severe migraine. At 44 he had a mental breakdown ending in a dementia with total physical dependence due to stroke. From the very beginning, Nietzsche's dementia was attributed to a neurosyphilitic infection. Recently, this tentative diagnosis has become controversial. To use historical accounts and original materials including correspondence, biographical data and medical papers to document the clinical characteristics of Nietzsche's illness and, by using this pathography, to discuss formerly proposed diagnoses and to provide and support a new diagnostic hypothesis. Original letters from Friedrich Nietzsche, descriptions by relatives and friends, and medical descriptions. Original German sources were investigated. Biographical papers published in medical journals were also consulted. Nietzsche suffered from migraine without aura which started in his childhood. In the second half of his life he suffered from a psychiatric illness with depression. During his last years, a progressive cognitive decline evolved and ended in a profound dementia with stroke. He died from pneumonia in 1900. The family history includes a possible vascular-related mental illness in his father who died from stroke at 36. Friedrich Nietzsche's disease consisted of migraine, psychiatric disturbances, cognitive decline with dementia, and stroke. Despite the prevalent opinion that neurosyphilis caused Nietzsche's illness, there is lack of evidence to support this diagnosis. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) accounts for all the signs and symptoms of Nietzsche's illness. This study adds new elements to the debate and controversy about Nietzsche's illness. We discuss former diagnoses, comment on the history of a diagnostic mistake, and integrate for the first time Nietzsche's medical problems.

  5. Friedrich-Christian Rosenthal: surgeon and anatomist.

    PubMed

    Binder, Devin K; Clusmann, Hans; Schaller, Carlo

    2006-12-01

    Friedrich-Christian Rosenthal was a prominent German anatomist and surgeon. He was born in Greifswald, Germany on June 3, 1780. In his time, he was best known for his work on the olfactory system and ichthyology. However, his late work also led to his description of the eponymous canal in the cochlea and basal cerebral vein. After an itinerant academic, military, and professional career, he died of tuberculosis in Greifswald on December 5, 1829, working to the end on an unfinished treatise on the anatomy of the brain and cranial nerves.

  6. Obituary: Ludwig Friedrich Oster, 1931-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Sabatino; Altschuler, Martin D.

    2003-12-01

    Ludwig Friedrich Oster died at the Anchorage Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Salisbury, MD on 28 February 2003, of complications from advanced Alzheimer's disease. He is survived by his wife Cheryl M. (Oroian) and his two children by a previous marriage, Ulrika and Mattias Oster. He had a distinguished career both as a researcher in solar physics and as a science administrator in the National Science Foundation. Ludwig was born on 8 March 1931 in Konstanz, Germany and emigrated to the U.S. in 1958, acquiring American citizenship in 1963. His mother and father were Emma Josefine (Schwarz) and Ludwig Friedrich Oster. He got a BS degree in physics at the University of Freiburg under the guidance of Prof. K. O. Kiepenheuer in 1951, and a MS (1954) and PhD from the University of Kiel in 1956 under the guidance of Prof. A. Unsold. From 1956 to 1958 he was a Fellow of the German Science Council at Kiel and, upon his arrival to the US in 1958, he became a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Physics Department of Yale University. He became an Assistant Professor of Physics and Astrophysics at Yale in 1960 and five years later he was promoted to Associate Professor. In 1967 he became an Associate Professor of Physics and Astrophysics at the University of Colorado and a Fellow of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics; he was promoted to Full Professor in 1970. In 1981 he was a Visiting Professor at Johns Hopkins University, and shortly thereafter became a National Research Council Senior Associate at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, where he worked on solar variability. He joined the National Science Foundation in 1983, where he became the Program Manager for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the Division of Astronomical Sciences of the Foundation; he remained there until his retirement in 1996. His early work, started in Germany and continued at Yale, concerned radiation mechanisms related to solar phenomena. His works on

  7. Stereotyping in "Damals war es Friedrich" and "Brandstiftung."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Gisela

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of young adult books in teaching high school and college-level German, particularly "Damals war es Friedrich" and "Brandstiftung." The didactic intentions of these books are to inform younger adults about the Nazi periods of the past and the Neo-nazi resurgence of the present, encourage them to confront the issues, and to take a…

  8. Stereotyping in "Damals war es Friedrich" and "Brandstiftung."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Gisela

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of young adult books in teaching high school and college-level German, particularly "Damals war es Friedrich" and "Brandstiftung." The didactic intentions of these books are to inform younger adults about the Nazi periods of the past and the Neo-nazi resurgence of the present, encourage them to confront the issues, and to take a…

  9. Möbius' disciple Karl (Carl) Friedrich Heym (German Title: Der Möbiusschüler Karl (Carl) Friedrich Heym )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgauds, Hans-Joachim

    Karl Friedrich Heym was a scientist of international renown in the field of insurance business, especially of insurance mathematics, and an author of numerous publications. However, his studies on astronomy in Leipzig, his work at Leipzig Observatory, and his teaching activity, e.g. at the Thomas school, are little known. The present contribution analyzes this particular aspect of the scientist's work.

  10. Means of unitaries, conjugations, and the Friedrichs operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Stephan Ramon

    2007-11-01

    If C is a conjugation (an isometric, conjugate-linear involution) on a separable complex Hilbert space , then is called C-symmetric if T=CT*C. In this note we prove that each C-symmetric contraction T is the mean of two C-symmetric unitary operators. We discuss several corollaries and an application to the Friedrichs operator of a planar domain.

  11. [God is dead--Friedrich Nietzsche's Oedipus complex].

    PubMed

    Wilkes, J

    1997-04-01

    The early psychoanalysts were influenced by the philosophical ideas of FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE. The work of SIGMUND FREUD was partly based on NIETZSCHE'S literary world. Just before his mental disaster NIETZSCHE radically destroyed once precious ideals. The roots of this provocative development will be elucidated by analyzing NIETZSCHE'S childhood. A main aspect is NIETZSCHES close mother-tie and especially his father's early death. The father-image of NIETZSCHE'S late years is an essential of this paper.

  12. Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833).

    PubMed

    Seidler, E

    1984-08-01

    On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birthday of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) it is appropriate to examine his contributions to the field of clinical genetics. Special emphasis is given to his laws of "diversity" and "reduction." These deal respectively with the evolutionary and developmental differences between organisms and the reasons for similarities in development of parts of an organism and the parts of different organisms. Meckel is an important pioneer of modern clinical teratology because he did not restrict his studies to normal development, but rather concentrated on its aberrations in his reflections on the history of development.

  13. Friedrich Schwab: variable stars and bugs in Transylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsoldos, Endre

    2001-10-01

    Friedrich Schwab was born in Marburg and moved to Klausenburg, Transylvania when he was 21 years old (1879). He observed variable stars there, interrupted only to participate in the German transit-of-Venus expedition to Punta Arenas in the Strait of Magellan. Returning to Transylvania he became the University mechanic in Klausenburg, and continued the observations of variables. He left his post in 1891, and possibly went back to Germany. He is last heard of in 1918, when he was working in the Technische Schule in Ilmenau.

  14. Friedrich Nietzsche and his illness: a neurophilosophical approach to introspection.

    PubMed

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Perrig, Stephen; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2013-01-01

    There are some arguments that Friedrich Nietzsche suffered from the autosomal dominant vascular microangiopathy: Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Here, a hypothesis is formulated supporting that CADASIL presenting with symptoms of bipolar disorder and Gastaut-Geschwind syndrome would contribute to the increased insight and creativity of a philosopher whose perceptions and intuitions often bear out the results of modern neuroscience. Alterations of the brain default and reward networks would account for such an increased level of introspection and creativity. A new framework on approaching illness is proposed, which, in conformity with Nietzsche's positive view, outlines the enabling aspects of some otherwise highly disabling neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Friedrich Möglich - sein Beitrag zum Aufbau der Physik in der DDR. Friedrich Möglich - langjähriger Mitherausgeber und Chefredakteur der Annalen der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompe, Robert

    Friedrich Möglich, ein Schüler von Max von Laue und Erwin Schrödinger, übernahm 1947 die Chefredaktion der Annalen der Physik.Translated AbstractFriedrich Möglich - His Contributions to the Formation of Physics in GDRFriedrich Möglich a student of Max von Laue and Erwin Schrödinger took over as editor in chief of Annalen der Physik in 1947.

  16. [Space and medical market: Johann Friedrich Glaser's practice in Suhl].

    PubMed

    Schilling, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The diary of the town and state physician Johann Friedrich Glaser (1707-1789) of Suhl enables us to reconstruct the area where he recruted his patients. A stream of visitors consulted him regularly. They often came from places where they had to travel at least two days in order to consult the physician. A visit in his house was therefore a decision consciously planned. A comparison of the sphere of Glaser's influence as a practitioner with the spheres of influence where his relatives (executioners and barber surgeons) lived shows how narrowly both were connected. Glaser's position on the medical market was very much influenced by his family network. The same picture can be obtained by analyzing the social spectrum of Glaser's patients, which is as manifold as the topographical indications, which one can draw from his diary. These do not give a systematic picture of the clients, which Glaser tried to gain, but are following communication channels established by his family network.

  17. Friedrich Nietzsche: the wandering and learned neuropath under Dionisius.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2015-08-18

    Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a remarkable philologist-philosopher while remaining in a condition of ill-health. Issues about his wandering/disruptive behavior that might be a consequence and/or protection against his cognitive decline and multifaceted disease are presented. The life complex that raises speculations about its etiology is constituted by: insight, creativity and wandering behavior besides several symptoms and signs of disease(s), mainly neurological one. The most important issue to be considered at the moment is not the disease diagnosis (Lissauer's general paresis or CADASIL, e.g.), but the probable Nietzsche's great cognitive reserve linked to the multifactorial etiology (genetic and environmental), and shared characteristics both to creativity and psychopathology. This makes any disease seems especial regarding Nietzsche, and whichever the diagnostic hypothesis has to consider the Nietzsche's unique background to express any disease(s).

  18. Friedrich Nietzsche: the wandering and learned neuropath under Dionisius.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2015-11-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a remarkable philologist-philosopher while remaining in a condition of ill-health. Issues about his wandering/disruptive behavior that might be a consequence and/or protection against his cognitive decline and multifaceted disease are presented. The life complex that raises speculations about its etiology is constituted by: insight, creativity and wandering behavior besides several symptoms and signs of disease(s), mainly neurological one. The most important issue to be considered at the moment is not the disease diagnosis (Lissauer's general paresis or CADASIL, e.g.), but the probable Nietzsche's great cognitive reserve linked to the multifactorial etiology (genetic and environmental), and shared characteristics both to creativity and psychopathology. This makes any disease seems especial regarding Nietzsche, and whichever the diagnostic hypothesis has to consider the Nietzsche's unique background to express any disease(s).

  19. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  20. [Friedrich Ludwig Urban--from blacksmith to veterinarian. The history of his life].

    PubMed

    Krüger, H

    1992-05-01

    Friedrich Ludwig Urban lived from 1808 to 1879. There is documentary evidence that he worked as a veterinary surgeon in Berlin and fought here on the barricades in 1848. Little is known about either his professional career or his private life. The author uses hitherto unpublished facts to present a detailed picture of the professional work and private life of Friedrich L. Urban, making a contribution to the historiography of veterinary surgery.

  1. Karl Friedrich Zollner and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  2. [Johann Friedrich Meckel, Jr. as founder of scientific teratology].

    PubMed

    Schierhorn, H

    1984-01-01

    n the occasion of the 150th anniversary of his death, the scientific work of the famous German anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781 to 1833) in Halle is appreciated. The Younger Meckel is counted to the most outstanding figures in the history of anatomy and medicine in the first third of 19th century. According to his founded knowledges in the normal, comparative, and pathologic anatomy and embryology he was able to give a scientific argument of malformations first of all in the history of medicine and biology. The edition of Meckel's Handbook of Pathologic Anatomy (in German language; 1st vol. 1812) is the birth of scientific teratology. Through his contributions to teratology Meckel directly participated in the raising of general pathology and pathologic anatomy to scientific disciplines. Meckel's interceding for C. F. Wolff's theory of epigenesis, not at last by translation of Wolff's paper "De formatione intestinorum" (1768 to 1769) into the German language, accelerated the development of the general and special embryology during the 19th century. In the contemporary medicine the succeeding eponyms are reminding of the imposing German physician and anatomist: the Meckel's diverticulum of ileum (1809), the Meckel's cartilage of the mandibular arch (1820) and the so-called Meckel syndrome (1822).

  3. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker - physicist and philosopher].

    PubMed

    Drieschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the philosopher Carl Friedrich von weizsäcker, especially under the aspect of the relation between physics and philosophy in his works. The decisive role of time in physics as well as in philosophy is described, and thereof is derived the comprehension of probability as a predicted relative frequency. Consequently quantum mechanics is interpreted as a theory of probability that uses "quantum logic" instead of classical propositional logic that is used in "normal" probability. The philosophical fruit of that is the interpretation of potentiality as the modality of the future. Weizsäcker's proposals for a justification of physics a priori are dealt with as well as his approach to a theory of "ur-objects", which are atoms in the strictest sense: q-bits.--Questions of Weizsäcker's personality are addressed: His role in the development of the nuclear reactor and atomic bomb in Nazi time, his enthusiasm and his religiousness as well as his efforts towards world peace.

  4. [Recollections of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker].

    PubMed

    Gottstein, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Reminiscences and a diary of the author allow a report on meetings, conversations, experiences and joint undertakings with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker during five decades. They began in the winter of 1948/49 in Göttingen in the Max Planck Institute for Physics where Werner Heisenberg was the director and Weizsäcker head of the Theory Division and where the author was graduate and post-graduate student and later group and division leader. In the 1960s a close cooperation with Weizsäcker resulted from common membership in Working Committee and Board of the Federation of German Scientists (VDW). As Science Attaché at the Embassy in Washington from 1971 to 1974 the author prepared for Weizsäcker the programme of his visits to the U.S. From 1974 to 1977 he cooperated closely with Weizsäcker, preparing the sessions of the Advisory Committee to the Federal Minister of Research and Technology of which Weizsäcker was Chair. Also in later years there were illuminating discussions and correspondences.

  5. The madness of Dionysus: a neurosurgical perspective on Friedrich Nietzsche.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher M; Schaller, Carlo; Binder, Devin K

    2007-09-01

    To examine the possibility that an intracranial mass may have been the etiology of the headaches and neurological findings of the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and the cause of his ultimate mental collapse in 1889. The authors conducted a comprehensive English and German language literature search on the topic of Nietzsche's health and illness, examining Nietzsche's own writings, medical notes from his physicians, contemporary medical literature, biographical texts, and past attempts at pathography. We also examined archived portraits and engravings of the philosopher from 1864 onward. An English language search in the modern literature on the topic of psychiatric presentations of intracranial mass lesions was also conducted. From his late 20s onward, Nietzsche experienced severe, generally right-sided headaches. He concurrently suffered a progressive loss of vision in his right eye and developed cranial nerve findings that were documented on neurological examinations in addition to a disconjugate gaze evident in photographs. His neurological findings are consistent with a right-sided frontotemporal mass. In 1889, Nietzsche also developed a new-onset mania which was followed by a dense abulia, also consistent with a large frontal tumor. A close examination of Nietzsche's symptomatic progression and neurological signs reveals a clinical course consistent with a large, slow growing, right-sided cranial base lesion, such as a medial sphenoid wing meningioma. Aspects of his presentation seem to directly contradict the diagnosis of syphilis, which has been the standard explanation of Nietzsche's madness. The meningioma hypothesis is difficult, though not impossible, to prove; imaging studies of Nietzsche's remains could reveal the bony sequelae of such a lesion.

  6. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and the Russian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichsanova, Vera N.

    In the first half of the 19th century the foundations of stellar astronomy were established thanks to the German astronomer, geodeticist and mathematician Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Internationally estimed and in close relationship with scientists in many countries, especially in Russia, Bessel (although not yet 30 years old) in 1814 became a foreign member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Wilhelm Struve, director of the Dorpat observatory, was in close contact with him. Together they discussed problems of observational procedures and the use of instruments. In 1817 Struve bought the same Reichenbach meridian circle as Bessel used in Königsberg. Both ordered their refractors from the famous Fraunhofer workshop in Munich. %(9-inch for Dorpat). Bessel was also involved in the high precision Russian geodetic survey which started in 1816 and which succeeded in connecting the Russian and western European triangulation networks. Struve tried to measure parallaxes using the bright star Vega (α Lyrae); his results were published in 1837. Also in 1837 Bessel, using his Fraunhofer heliometer and the star 61 Cygni, found a result close to modern values, later acknowledged with the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. In 1834 Struve was named director of the new Russian observatory in Pulkovo, St. Petersburg. Struve discussed the plans with Bessel and both acquired a Repsold meridian circle. The next aim, begun in the 1840s -- after the first determination of stellar distances -- was the distribution of stars in space (in the Milky Way). For this, catalogues with not only accurate stellar positions but also brightnesses were necessary. Thanks to Bessel's thorough reformation of measuring and reduction methods, making possible high accuracy telescopic observations, Struve was able to produce important results in stellar astronomy.

  7. Friedrich Heinrich Lewy (1885-1950) and his work.

    PubMed

    Holdorff, Bernd

    2002-03-01

    In 1912, Friedrich Heinrich Lewy first described the inclusion bodies named after him and seen in paralysis agitans (p.a.). Tretiakoff had found (1919) that the nucleus niger is most likely to be affected but in a subsequent large-scale series of post-mortem examinations (1923). Lewy was able to confirm this for a minority of cases only, with the exception of those that displayed postencephalitic Parkinsonism (and an unknown number of atypical Parkinson syndrome cases not identified until the 1960s). In a speculative paper (1932), he saw similarities between inclusion bodies in p.a. and viral diseases like lyssa and postulated a viral genesis of p.a. In a historical review of basal ganglia diseases (1942), he did not mention the putative significance of the inclusion bodies for the post-mortem diagnosis. It seems that their importance was seen only after Lewy's death, long after Tretiakoff's initial naming of the 'corps de Lewy'. Lewy, however, had already described their diffuse and cortical distribution (1923). An identification of diffuse Lewy body disease or dementia followed much later. Lewy's career in many diverse branches of neurology and internal medicine was strongly affected by World War I and the difficult situation faced by Jews in Germany. Shortly after the Neurological Institute was founded in Berlin in 1932 (as a clinic and research institute), he was forced, in 1933, to emigrate. His exile in England and the United States mirrors the fate of many German Jews and academics in the first half of the 20th century.

  8. Numerical evolution of plane gravitational waves in the Friedrich-Nagy gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauendiener, Jörg; Stevens, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The first proof of well posedness of an initial boundary value problem for the Einstein equations was given in 1999 by Friedrich and Nagy. They used a frame formalism with a particular gauge for formulating the equations. This "Friedrich-Nagy" gauge has never been implemented for use in numerical simulations before because it was deemed too complicated. In this paper we present an implementation of the Friedrich-Nagy gauge for systems with two commuting spacelike Killing vectors. We investigate the numerical performance of this formulation for plane wave space-times, reproducing the well-known Khan-Penrose solution for colliding impulsive plane waves and exhibiting a gravitational wave "ping-pong."

  9. Carl Friedrich Gauss - General Theory of Terrestrial Magnetism - a revised translation of the German text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeier, K.-H.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    2014-02-01

    This is a translation of the Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus published by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1839 in the Resultate aus den Beobachtungen des Magnetischen Vereins im Jahre 1838. The current translation is based on an earlier translation by Elizabeth Juliana Sabine published in 1841. This earlier translation has been revised, corrected, and extended. Numerous biographical comments on the scientists named in the original text have been added as well as further information on the observational material used by Carl Friedrich Gauss. An attempt is made to provide a readable text to a wider scientific community, a text laying the foundation of today's understanding of planetary magnetic fields.

  10. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker - a doctoral candidate's recollection].

    PubMed

    Lüst, Reimar

    2014-01-01

    The author and Sebastian von Hoerner was not only Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's first doctoral advisee and graduate but the lives and work of Lüst and Weizsäcker were otherwise also interconnected in various ways--for example, the author's term as president of the Max Planck Society coincided with the closing of the Institute at Starnberg. The present contribution attempts to sketch a (subjectively influenced) portrait of the person and scholar Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker from the perspective of his years at Göttingen.

  11. Inspiration to Teach--Reflections on Friedrich Froebel and Why He Counts in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Ruth; Campos, David

    2010-01-01

    The year 2010 is the 238th anniversary of Friedrich Froebel's birth, yet his spirit and philosophy of teaching are alive in the hearts and minds of 14 Texas early childhood teachers. In 2006, teacher education students at the University of the Incarnate Word (UIW), San Antonio, were inspired by Froebel, the founder of early kindergartens. Wanting…

  12. "Dancing Cannot Start Too Soon": Spiritual Education in the Thought of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2004-01-01

    Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825) adopted the pen-name "Jean Paul" in honour of Jean Jaques Rousseau. His "Levana or the doctrine of education" ("Levana oder Erziehlehre") was once a standard text and required reading in teacher education. Outside Germany the name of Jean Paul is now little known and the…

  13. "Dancing Cannot Start Too Soon": Spiritual Education in the Thought of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2004-01-01

    Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825) adopted the pen-name "Jean Paul" in honour of Jean Jaques Rousseau. His "Levana or the doctrine of education" ("Levana oder Erziehlehre") was once a standard text and required reading in teacher education. Outside Germany the name of Jean Paul is now little known and the…

  14. Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) pioneer in oral maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Knoener, Wibke; Schultheiss, Dirk

    2002-11-01

    After Carl Ferdinand von Graefe laid down the principles of rhinoplasty and related operations it was Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) who became a pioneer of plastic surgery in the 19th century. His biography and scientific work with emphasis on craniofacial surgery are presented in this article on the history of medicine.

  15. Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach: successful use of leeches in plastic surgery in the 1820s.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R T

    2000-04-01

    Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) regularly and successfully utilised leeches in sophisticated plastic surgery in Berlin in the 1820s and 1830s, well before anaesthesia, antisepsis and antibiotics. Inexplicably, it took nearly another 150 years before the use of leeches in this context was revived.

  16. Operational Equations of State. 2. The Generalized Courant-Friedrichs Equation of State for Condensed Matter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    The equation of state (EOS) with separable internal energy played a big role in the analysis of dynamics of condensed matter and development of the mathematical basis of the shock-wave physics (Courant, R.; Friedrichs, K. O. Supersonic Flow and Shock Waves; Interscience: New

  17. Friedrich Froebel's Gifts: Connecting the Spiritual and Aesthetic to the Real World of Play and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Friedrich Froebel, the German educator and founder of the Kindergarten Movement, developed a series of play materials including geometric building blocks and pattern activity blocks designed to teach children about forms and relationships found in nature. Froebel's notions about using activity and play in preschool education complement many…

  18. The Neo-Humanistic Concept of "Bildung" Going Astray: Comments to Friedrich Schiller's Thoughts on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinterbo-Hohr, Aagot; Hohr, Hansjorg

    2006-01-01

    Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), German poet, dramatist, philosopher and publisher, was a prominent contributor to the educational neo-humanistic concept of Bildung at the threshold to Romanticism. Schiller assigns a pivotal role to the aesthetic education arguing that aesthetic activity reconciles sensuousness and reason and thereby creates the…

  19. A Reflective Conversation with Terry Friedrichs on Teaching Academics to Gifted Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichs, Terence Paul; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective interview with Terry Friedrichs--a hands-on academic-learning specialist and researcher with gifted students with Asperger Syndrome--he defines these pupils, describes their "straightforward" and confusing traits, and recounts his initial and later instructional experiences with them over several decades. The piece…

  20. Inspiration to Teach--Reflections on Friedrich Froebel and Why He Counts in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Ruth; Campos, David

    2010-01-01

    The year 2010 is the 238th anniversary of Friedrich Froebel's birth, yet his spirit and philosophy of teaching are alive in the hearts and minds of 14 Texas early childhood teachers. In 2006, teacher education students at the University of the Incarnate Word (UIW), San Antonio, were inspired by Froebel, the founder of early kindergartens. Wanting…

  1. A Reflective Conversation with Terry Friedrichs on Teaching Academics to Gifted Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichs, Terence Paul; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective interview with Terry Friedrichs--a hands-on academic-learning specialist and researcher with gifted students with Asperger Syndrome--he defines these pupils, describes their "straightforward" and confusing traits, and recounts his initial and later instructional experiences with them over several decades. The piece…

  2. Friedrich Frobel, the Profession of Kindergarten Teacher and the Bourgeois Women's Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyer, Jurgen

    1989-01-01

    Appraises the influence that the bourgeois women's movement had on the development of social service professions. Reports how Friedrich Froebel's kindergartens affected this movement. Notes that Froebel's importance to the bourgeois women's movement lies in his assigning value to a feminine role that already existed. (KO)

  3. Two Rival Conceptions of Vocational Education: Adam Smith and Friedrich List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines and discusses two views of political economy: (1) the classical model of Adam Smith; and (2) the social capitalist model associated with Friedrich List. Explores two varieties of vocational education and training that emerge from a comparison of Smith's and List's ideas. (CMK)

  4. The Neo-Humanistic Concept of "Bildung" Going Astray: Comments to Friedrich Schiller's Thoughts on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinterbo-Hohr, Aagot; Hohr, Hansjorg

    2006-01-01

    Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), German poet, dramatist, philosopher and publisher, was a prominent contributor to the educational neo-humanistic concept of Bildung at the threshold to Romanticism. Schiller assigns a pivotal role to the aesthetic education arguing that aesthetic activity reconciles sensuousness and reason and thereby creates the…

  5. Two Rival Conceptions of Vocational Education: Adam Smith and Friedrich List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines and discusses two views of political economy: (1) the classical model of Adam Smith; and (2) the social capitalist model associated with Friedrich List. Explores two varieties of vocational education and training that emerge from a comparison of Smith's and List's ideas. (CMK)

  6. The First Red Clausewitz: Friedrich Engels and Early Socialist Military Theory, 1848-1870

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Between the European revolutions of the mid-nineteenth century and the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Friedrich Engels functioned as a writer, analyst...the development of his concepts from his earliest writings until the Franco-Prussian War. This project will demonstrate that Engels possessed a

  7. Friedrich Paschen and the Mecklenburg ordnance survey 1853 to 1873. (German Title: Friedrich Paschen und die mecklenburgische Landesvermessung 1853 bis 1873 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard

    At the suggestion of the Prussian military geodesist Johann Jacob Baeyer, the government of Mecklenburg decided in 1853 to undertake an ordnance survey on a trigonometric basis. It appointed Friedrich Paschen (1804-1873) as the scientific and technical head of this survey. Paschen was a lawyer, but visited Gauss' lectures on mathematics, astronomy and geodesy during his student years in Göttingen. This paper gives an account of the astronomical-geodetic works. For the first time also parts of Paschen's correspondence with Gauss and other scientists is published.

  8. A biographical note on Max Friedrich (1856-1887), Wundt's first PhD student in experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Cezary W

    2004-01-01

    This article unveils some previously unknown facts about the short life of Max Friedrich (1856-1887), the author in 1881 of the first PhD dissertation on experimental psychology, written under the supervision of Wilhelm Wundt: "On the Duration of Apperception for Simple and Complex Visual Stimuli." The article describes Friedrich's family background and life, professional career as a teacher, and works in psychology and mathematics.

  9. [Friedrich Nietzsche: history of his illness. On the 100th anniversary of the death of the poet-philosopher].

    PubMed

    Wilkes, J

    2000-04-01

    The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was one of the most famous patients in the psychiatric hospital Jena. Between 1889 and 1890, Otto Binswanger und Theodor Ziehen treated the progressive paralysis of Friedrich Nietzsche whose 100th anniversary of death is on 25th August 2000. After Nietzsche's death, an animated discussion about his disease arose. Many objected against the syphilitic diagnosis of the disease. Nietzsche's medical fill became a popular object of science, although it ended as a very odd story.

  10. Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker: A Fifty-Year Friendship*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper follows Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker during their fifty-year friendship from 1926, when they first met in Copenhagen, to Heisenberg's death in Munich in 1976. The relationship underwent profound changes during that period, as did physics, philosophy, and German society and politics, all of which exerted important influences on their lives, work, and interactions with each other. The nature of these developments and their impact are explored in this paper.

  11. ["Living with the bomb" - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's path from physics to politics].

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker spanned a spectrum from physics to politics, with philosophy in-between. This chapter surveys the most controversial part of his career, including his work on nuclear weapons and participation in cultural propaganda during the Second World War, his subsequent active political engagement during the postwar Federal German Republic, in particular the role of nuclear weapons, and his participation in myths surrounding Hitler's Bomb".

  12. THE USE OF CLASSICAL LAX-FRIEDRICHS RIEMANN SOLVERS WITH DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. RIDER; R. B. LOWRIE

    2001-03-01

    While conducting a von Neumann stability analysis of discontinuous Galerkin methods we found that the standard Lax-Friedrichs (LxF) Riemann solver is unstable for all time-step sizes. A simple modification of the Riemann solver's dissipation returns the method to stability. Furthermore, the method has a smaller truncation error than the corresponding method with an upwind flux for the RK2-DG(1) method. These results are confirmed upon testing.

  13. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's philosophy of the mind].

    PubMed

    Lyre, Holger

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's position within the philosophy of mind. It turns out that Weizsäcker's ontology is based on an unorthodox conception both in the philosophy of physics and in the philosophy of mind. His quantum information theoretic reductionism is based on a subtle combination of atomism and holism, his philosophy of mind connected to this is a neutral monism, which proposes a bold intertwining of mind, matter, and space.

  14. "It is wisest here, as always, to maintain a balance": the medical dissertations of Friedrich Schiller.

    PubMed

    Albury, W R; Weisz, G M

    2004-11-01

    Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805) is remembered today for his contributions to literature and aesthetic theory-it is less well known that his first career was in medicine (an army appointment). Scholars have generally held that his primary interest lay in psychology and the psychological aspects of medicine, and that his commitment to other aspects of medicine was perfunctory at best. The present paper argues that a study of Schiller's three medical dissertations-two on psychological aspects of medicine and one on fevers-reveals his attempt "to maintain a balance" between the mind and the body in his approach to medicine.

  15. Friedrich Robert Helmert, founder of modern geodesy, on the occasion of the centenary of his death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihde, Johannes; Reinhold, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Friedrich Robert Helmert died in Potsdam in 1917 at the age of 74 after serving for over 30 years as director of the Royal Prussian Geodetic Institute and of the Central Bureau of the Internationale Erdmessung, the forerunner of today's International Association of Geodesy. He dedicated his life and his scientific career to the field of geodesy. His teachings on theoretical and physical geodesy were incorporated into university curricula around the world and hence into international endeavours to measure planet Earth. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the impact he has had on the development of modern geodesy and on the related sciences.

  16. [Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) as the founder of plastic surgery. His contribution to maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Knöner, W; Kramer, F J; Jonas, U

    1998-11-01

    Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792-1847) is generally known as the founder of modern plastic surgery. One focus of his work, apart from the physiology of transplantation and operative techniques, was reconstructive oral and maxillofacial surgery. This special aspect of plastic surgery as well as Dieffenbach's biography is presented in this historic article.

  17. Carl Friedrich Richard Foerster (1825-1902) - the inventor of perimeter and photometer.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sobolewska, Bianka

    2015-09-01

    Carl Friedrich Richard Foerster (1825-1902) was a German who was born in the Polish city Leszno. He studied medicine at the Medical Faculty of Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland) University, and later in Heidelberg and Berlin. From 1855, he worked in Breslau, where he established in 1857 the first ophthalmology clinic. Later, he became a professor in ophthalmology, the first director of the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Breslau, and even the rector of this University. Forster did many pioneering works on visual fields, invented a photometer and the first perimeter, known for many years as the Foerster perimeter. Moreover, he studied night blindness, visual field changes due to different pathologies, and many eye diseases, including glaucoma, cataract, retinal and choroidal diseases.

  18. The large-time behavior of the scalar, genuinely nonlinear Lax-Friedrichs scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Lax-Friedrichs scheme, approximating the scalar, genuinely nonlinear conservation law u sub t + f sub x (u) = O where f(u) is, say, strictly double dot f dot a sub asterisk O is studied. The divided differences of the numerical solution at time t do not exceed 2 (t dot a sub asterisk) to the -1. This one-sided Lipschitz boundedness is in complete agreement with the corresponding estimate one has in the differential case; in particular, it is independent of the initial amplitude in sharp contrast to linear problems. It guarantees the entropy compactness of the scheme in this case, as well as providing a quantitative insight into the large-time behavior of the numerical computation.

  19. Vital forces and organization: philosophy of nature and biology in Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer.

    PubMed

    Gambarotto, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The historical literature on German life science at the end of the 18th century has tried to rehabilitate eighteenth century vitalism by stressing its difference from Naturphilosophie. Focusing on the work of Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer this paper argues that these positions are based on a historiographical bias and that the clear-cut boundary between German vitalism and Naturphilosophie is historically unattested. On the contrary, they both belong to the process of conceptual genealogy that contributed to the project of a general biology. The latter emerged as the science concerned with the laws that regulate the organization of living nature as a whole. The focus on organization was, at least partially, the result of the debate surrounding the notion of "vital force", which originated in the mid-eighteenth century and caused a shift from a regulative to a constitutive understanding of teleology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) and modern teratology].

    PubMed

    Klunker, Rudyard; Göbbel, Luminita; Musil, Anette; Tönnies, Holger; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    Among other special topics Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger concentrated his scientific researches on the systematic investigations of the human and animal malformations. He explored many samples which were part of his private anatomical collection. Today, the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology possesses a number of important teratological preparations which Meckel and his graduate students minutely investigated (e.g. the individuals to the Meckel, Klippel Feil and Hanhart syndrome). The goals of our studies are to identify the samples originating from the Meckel Collections, and to reinvestigate them with modern methods. Two objects (brainless malformation, Halle I, and neural tube defect, Halle II) were analysed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These results obtained are published in Toennies et al. (2002).

  1. [Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), an extremely important naturalist and scholar].

    PubMed

    Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

    2002-11-01

    Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) belongs to the famous scientists of the 19th century. His research work is enormous. Important termini e.g. diverticulum Meckelii, cartilago Meckelii, Meckel syndrome and Meckel Serres law reflect the scientific results obtained by Meckel. He worked as a professor of anatomy, pathology and zoology at the University of Halle, a town in the Central Germany. Meckel founded the scientific teratology. In the literature he is also referred to the German Cuvier. On 8 April 1802, J. F. Meckel defended his doctoral thesis "De cordis conditionibus abnormibus". On occasion of the 200th anniversary of this event, we like to honor J. F. Meckel the famous German anatomist. Therefore, during the 97th session of the Anatomische Gesellschaft at Halle, a satellite symposium "From Meck el to genom" was held.

  2. [A town-physician in the 18th century: Johann Friedrich Glaser].

    PubMed

    Schilling, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Glaser rose from an executioner's family to the position of a town physician in Suhl. The contribution concentrates on the importance of this position for Glaser. It first looks at the position of town physicians in Suhl. They possessed due to certain historical circumstances several duties and rights. They enjoyed a remarkably high standing in the town society which made the position especially attractive for Glaser as a road to social acceptance. His interaction with the medical administration in Dresden (Suhl belonged to the jurisdiction of Electoral Saxony) further enhanced his possibilities to interact with local and territorial spheres. Altogether, Glaser's official functions gained importance over his role as a (medical) scientist, because they offered him the best way to gain social and cultural prestige.

  3. [Friedrich Nietzsche: life and work in the struggle against his suffering].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Otto

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between the life, sense of mission and suffering in the work of Friedrich Nietzsche. It shows that, as early as his Basel years, he wanted to become a philosopher who was willing to transmit without fear what he considered to be true to everybody, even if he would have to suffer and remain unappreciated. He was afflicted with increasing numbers of headaches and bouts of nausea from the mid-1870s and was further handicapped by constantly deteriorating vision. The ten years before his breakdown were spent as a traveller searching for a place where his suffering could be eased. The isolation imposed on him by the illness gave him the inner freedom to break the old certainties and to offer a new myth as an alternative. His failure as a writer was compensated by an intensified and, finally, gross sense of mission which ended in mental derangement in early January 1889.

  4. Friedrich Nietzsche's mental illness--general paralysis of the insane vs. frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Orth, M; Trimble, M R

    2006-12-01

    For a long time it was thought that Nietzsche suffered from general paralysis of the insane (GPI). However, this diagnosis has been questioned recently, and alternative diagnoses have been proposed. We have charted Friedrich Nietzsche's final fatal illness, and viewed the differential diagnosis in the light of recent neurological understandings of dementia syndromes. It is unclear that Nietzsche ever had syphilis. He lacked progressive motor and other neurological features of a progressive syphilitic central nervous system (CNS) infection and lived at least 12 years following the onset of his CNS signs, which would be extremely rare for patients with untreated GPI. Finally, his flourish of productivity in 1888 would be quite uncharacteristic of GPI, but in keeping with reports of burgeoning creativity at some point in the progression of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We suggest that Nietzsche did not have GPI, but died from a chronic dementia, namely FTD.

  5. [The ambivalence concept by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker - attempt at an exegesis].

    PubMed

    Laitko, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker treated the problematic implications of scientific-technological progress, emerging in the lifetime of his generation, under the key-word "ambivalence". Obviously it means a proto-theoretical, fuzzy concept that cannot be introduced explicitly per definition; starting with an intuitive perception, "ambivalence" should gradually gain meaning by using it in different argumentative contexts. Following a circular course (Kreisgang)--a procedure typical for Weizsäcker's style of thought--, he moves successively from explicit ambivalence in the application sphere of science through ambivalent features in scientists' behaviour and action up to the general ambivalence of human existence, disclosed only at an anthropological level of deliberation. The given paper delineates the ambivalence concept used by Weizsäcker during the 1960s and 1970s.

  6. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's design of a unity of physics].

    PubMed

    Görnitz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As I learned in many conversations with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, he saw his place in the history of science deriving from his "Theory of Urs". This theory will establish the unity of science on the basis of quantum bits. Any attempts to find some "fundamental bricks"--of whatever kind--must fail because of the antinomies of atomism. An abstract quantum bit is a structure quantum that cannot be conceived as a particle in space and time. However, it is clear, solely for logical reasons, that a quantum bit is an ultimate and indecomposable entity. Weizsäcker's revolutionary goal was--already 50 years ago--to unite quantum theory with cosmology and, on these grounds, proceed to a theory of elementary particles. The article gives a short overview of Weizsäcker's approach to the unity of physics, ending with a brief summary of what has been achieved in that endeavour up to now.

  7. Professor Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928) of Friedrich Wilhelm University, Berlin: neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, pianist.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the life and work of Bernhard Pollack (1865-1928), a pioneer neurohistologist, ophthalmologist, and world-class pianist. In 1897, Pollack published the first standard manual on staining methods for the nervous system. Born into a Prussian-Jewish family, he received his piano education from the composer Moritz Moszkowski and his pathology education from Carl Weigert. Pollack worked in the Institutes of Wilhelm Waldeyer (anatomy), Emanuel Mendel (neuropsychiatry), the later Nobel laureate Robert Koch (infectious diseases), and the Eye Policlinic of Paul Silex (ophthalmology), becoming a Professor of Ophthalmology at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in 1919. The study also chronicles the founding by Pollack of the Berlin Doctors' Orchestra in 1911.

  8. Lax-Friedrichs fast sweeping methods for steady state problems for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weitao; Chou, Ching-Shan; Kao, Chiu-Yen

    2013-02-01

    Fast sweeping methods are efficient iterative numerical schemes originally designed for solving stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Their efficiency relies on Gauss-Seidel type nonlinear iterations, and a finite number of sweeping directions. In this paper, we generalize the fast sweeping methods to hyperbolic conservation laws with source terms. The algorithm is obtained through finite difference discretization, with the numerical fluxes evaluated in WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-oscillatory) fashion, coupled with Gauss-Seidel iterations. In particular, we consider mainly the Lax-Friedrichs numerical fluxes. Extensive numerical examples in both scalar and system test problems in one and two dimensions demonstrate the efficiency, high order accuracy and the capability of resolving shocks of the proposed methods.

  9. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and the Bethe-Weizsäcker cycle].

    PubMed

    Wiescher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Carbon- or Bethe-Weizsäcker Cycle plays an important role in astrophysics as one of the most important energy sources for a quiescent and explosive hydrogen burning in stars. This paper presents the historical background and the contributions by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Hans Bethe who provided the first predictions of the cycle. Furthermore, it discussed the experimental verification of the predicted process in the following decades. Also discussed is the extension of the initial Carbon cycle to the CNO multi-cycles and the hot CNO cycles which followed from the detailed experimental studies of the associated nuclear reactions. Finally discussed is the impact of the experimental and theoretical results on our present understanding of hydrogen burning in different stellar environments and on our understanding of the chemical evolution of our universe.

  10. The large-time behavior of the scalar, genuinely nonlinear Lax-Friedrichs scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Lax-Friedrichs scheme, approximating the scalar, genuinely nonlinear conservation law u sub t + f sub x (u) = 0 where f(u) is, say, strictly convex double dot f dot a sub asterisk 0 is studied. The divided differences of the numerical solution at time t do not exceed 2 (t dot a sub asterisk) to the -1. This one-sided Lipschitz boundedness is in complete agreement with the corresponding estimate one has in the differential case; in particular, it is independent of the initial amplitude in sharp contrast to liner problems. It guarantees the entropy compactness of the scheme in this case, as well as providing a quantitive insight into the large-time behavior of the numerical computation.

  11. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (1912-2007): scientist and citizen].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    This contribution provides an introductory overview of the life and work of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker for the present volume. It presents him as a prominent scholar of the twentieth century. This pupil of Werner Heisenberg made fundamental contributions to physics, specifically, nuclear physics, and after World War II was able to excel as a highly acknowledged philosopher of science and pioneer in twentieth-century conflict and peace research. Beyond science, politics and religion also counted among the defining influences of Weizsäcker's life, which also molded him into civic leadership. This aspect is treated particularly in the second and central part of this article, which discusses and closely documents his membership in the Leopoldina and his engagement elsewhere, particularly in the sphere of East German church activities.

  12. Floquet resonant states and validity of the Floquet-Magnus expansion in the periodically driven Friedrichs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The Floquet eigenvalue problem is analyzed for periodically driven Friedrichs models on discrete and continuous space. In the high-frequency regime, there exists a Floquet bound state consistent with the Floquet-Magnus expansion in the discrete Friedrichs model, while it is not the case in the continuous model. In the latter case, however, the bound state predicted by the Floquet-Magnus expansion appears as a metastable state whose lifetime diverges in the limit of large frequencies. We obtain the lifetime by evaluating the imaginary part of the quasienergy of the Floquet resonant state. In the low-frequency regime, there is no Floquet bound state and instead the Floquet resonant state with exponentially small imaginary part of the quasienergy appears, which is understood as the quantum tunneling in the energy space.

  13. Earliest description by Johann Friedrich Meckel, Senior (1750) of what is known today as Lutembacher syndrome (1916).

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, H R

    1994-10-15

    The letter that the famous anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel, Sr. sent from Berlin on May 5, 1750 to the great Albrecht von Haller (at that time resident in Göttingen) contains the earliest reference to an unusual observation made by the former. Even today this observation is considered in the clinical literature to be the first description of a coarctation of the aorta. In fact, it is probably the first description of what is known today as Lutembacher syndrome.

  14. [Augustin Delondre and Friedrich AuguIst Flückiger : an unpublished correspondence 1868-1869].

    PubMed

    Bonté, Frédéric; Kuballa, Bernard; Lobstein, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an unpublished correspondence between Augustin-Ambroise Delondre (1823- 1879), son of the famous pharmacist Augustin - Pierre Delondre and Friedrich August Flückiger, Swiss pharmacist (1828-1894), professor between 1873 to 1892 of the Chair in pharmacy at the university of Strasbourg and considered as the father of pharmacognosy. This set of 9 unique hand- written letters (1868 and 1869) allows to have an clearer idea of their scientific and human relations.

  15. Building a National Heritage Registry for the Sudan: the Friedrich W. Hinkel Archive Digitization Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrenz, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Republic of the Sudan is home to outstanding and diverse cultural heritage ranging from Neolithic sites of human activity and settlement to historic sites of the 19th and 20th century. While certain phases of the Sudan's cultural heritage such as the period of Egyptian influence during the second and first millennium B.C. have been the focus of archaeological research since the 19th century, other aspects of the country's rich history have remained largely unknown locally and internationally due to a lack of documentation and registration of such sites. Since 2014, the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) has been engaged in an effort to support the creation of a national heritage registry in close cooperation with the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums (NCAM) by digitizing the archive of German architect Friedrich W. Hinkel and engaging in capacity building measures focusing on analog and digital data curation. The archive contains structured information (photos, drawings, maps and assembled written documentation) regarding over 14,000 archaeological and historical sites in the Sudan using an alphanumeric coding system that allows for easy integration of data in a digital environment such as the DAI's IT infrastructure, the iDAI.world. As such the data assembled by Hinkel will serve as the basis of the national heritage registry currently in development.

  16. Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul.

    PubMed

    Teo, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psychologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the development of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on sensation and perception in order to defend Kant's epistemological idealism. Based on a critique of phrenology and philosophical psychology of his time, Lange developed a program of a psychology without a soul. He suggested that only those phenomena that can be observed and controlled should be studied, that psychology should focus on actions and speech, and that for each psychological event the corresponding physical or physiological processes should be identified. Lange opposed introspection and subjective accounts and promoted experiments and statistics. He also promoted Darwinism for psychology while developing a socialist progressive-democratic reading of Darwin in his social theory. The implications of socialist Darwinism on Lange's conceptualization of race are discussed and his prominence in nineteenth century philosophy and psychology is summarized. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Johann Friedrich Horner and the Repeated Discovery of Oculosympathoparesis: Whose Syndrome Is It?

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmed; Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Mantinderpreet; Belle, Vaijayantee; Chandar, Krishan; Miller, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Disruption of cranial sympathetic tone leads to the symptom complex of miosis, ptosis, and hemifacial anhidrosis. It is widely believed that this phenomenon was discovered in 1869 by the Swiss ophthalmologist Johann Friedrich Horner, and as a result, the term Horner syndrome has become synonymous with the clinical presentation. However, the syndrome that would become Horner syndrome had actually been described several times before his report. François Pourfour du Petit documented the ocular effects of sympathetic trunk lesions in animal studies in 1727. Claude Bernard identified the full clinical triad in animal studies in 1852, and as a result, the condition is sometimes called Bernard syndrome. There were also 2 previous reports of ptosis and miosis resulting from sympathetic nerve damage in humans: 1 by Edward Selleck Hare in 1838 associated with brachial plexus tumor, and the other by Silas Weir Mitchell in 1864 associated with a gunshot wound to the neck. Although Horner was the first to objectively characterize the co-occurrence of vasomotor and ocular changes in a human patient, he did not identify the etiology of the condition, discuss its relationship to the sympathetic nervous system, or reference any of the previous studies in animals or humans. It is possible that a lack of familiarity with previous investigations delayed the full appreciation of the mechanism underlying this disorder.

  18. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and the Society of German Scientists].

    PubMed

    Bieber, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The Federation of German Scientists (VDW) was founded in 1959 as West-German pendant of the Federation of American Scientists and as West-German group of the Pugwah Conferences. From the beginning, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker played a leading role in the VDW and pleaded for influencing politicians by scientifically and politically uncontestable studies, in the 1960s mainly of the effects of nuclear war and world food affairs. These studies were conducted by a research institute in Hamburg funded by external funds, industry and banks. It was the nucleus of the "Max Planck Institute for living conditions of the technical-industrial world" founded in Starnberg in 1969. Due to a "super inheritance", the research institute was continued in addition to the Starnberg institute. Young Marxist social scientists published several studies here which the executive board of the VDW disapproved of. Numerous prominent members left the VDW, donations decreased rapidly. In 1975, the research institute was closed down.

  19. Friedrich Berthold Reinke (1862-1919): anatomist of the vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Dräger, Désirée Louise; Branski, Ryan C; Wree, Andreas; Sulica, Lucian

    2011-05-01

    Although Reinke's space, or layer, is a critical laryngeal structure, and the eponym is in current use in both clinical and research milieus, little is known about the life of the eponymist, German anatomist Friedrich Berthold Reinke. Extensive investigation of the archives at the University of Rostock and other sources, as well as multinational collaboration, has yielded unique insight into the personal and professional life of this pioneer who, among other things, identified and characterized the subepithelial space of the vocal fold and structures in the Leydig cells of the testicles and ovaries. This breadth of investigation reflects Reinke's intellectual curiosity and broad-ranging interest as well as his scientific environment. Without question, Reinke's observations of the human vocal fold are substantive contributions, without which modern laryngology could not have evolved. In 2009, at the 90th anniversary of Reinke's death, we summarize his achievements to express our appreciation for his singular brilliance and fundamental contribution to laryngology. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and the interpretations of quantum theory].

    PubMed

    Stöckler, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    What are 'interpretations' of quantum theory? What are the differences between Carl Friedrich von Weizsäkcker's approach and contemporary views? The various interpretations of quantum mechanics give diverse answers to questions concerning the relation between measuring process and standard time development, the embedding of quantum objects in space ('wave-particle-dualism'), and the reference of state vectors. Does the wave function describe states in the real world or does it refer to our knowledge about nature? First, some relevant conceptions in Weizsäcker's book The Structure of Physics (Der Aufbau der Physik, 1985) are introduced. In a second step I point out why his approach is not any longer present in contemporary debates. One reason is that Weizsäcker is mainly affected by classical philosophy (Platon, Aristoteles, Kant). He could not esteem the philosophy of science that was developed in the spirit of logical empiricism. So he lost interest in disputes with Anglo-Saxon philosophy of quantum mechanics. Especially his interpretation of probability and his analysis of the collapse of the state function as change in knowledge differ from contemporary standard views. In recent years, however, epistemic interpretations of quantum mechanics are proposed that share some of Weizsäcker's intuitions.

  1. [Friedrich Kraus--originator of functional diagnosis and electrocardiography in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schwartze, D

    1987-06-15

    The 50th anniversary of the death of Friedrich Kraus (31 May 1858 to 1 March 1936) was the occasion to remind of the merits of this internist for the development of the functional diagnostics and the spreading of the electrocardiography in Germany. After the first professorship in Graz (foundation of the constitution research) he was appointed director of the 2nd Medical Clinic of the Charité in Berlin 1902, where he worked up to his discharge from the active service in 1927. From 1906 he dealt with electrocardiological problems, mainly together with G.F. Nicolai (1874-1955). In 1910 the first monography on "The Electrocardiogram of the Healthy and Ill Man" was published. After World War I Kraus dealt with the "Special Pathology and Therapy of Internal Diseases" and the "General and Special Pathology of the Person". In the theory of the depth person, being ahead of the time, psychosomatic connections were explained. A selective bibliography of the most important works of Kraus is added to the paper.

  2. Vitalism and synthesis of urea. From Friedrich Wöhler to Hans A. Krebs.

    PubMed

    Kinne-Saffran, E; Kinne, R K

    1999-01-01

    In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler, a German physician and chemist by training, published a paper that describes the formation of urea, known since 1773 to be a major component of mammalian urine, by combining cyanic acid and ammonium in vitro. In these experiments the synthesis of an organic compound from two inorganic molecules was achieved for the first time. These results weakened significantly the vitalistic hypothesis on the functioning of living cells, although Wöhler, at that time, was more interested in the chemical consequences of isomerism than in the philosophical implications of his finding. However, the chemical synthesis observed by Wöhler does not represent the reaction which is employed in the mammalian liver for urea synthesis. The mechanism of this process was elucidated by the German physician Hans A. Krebs and his medical student Kurt Henseleit in 1932 and was shown to include the ornithine cycle. This 'urea cycle' is only observed in living cells; this apparently vitalistic phenomenon is caused by the compartmentalization of the various enzymatic reactions in mitochondria and cytosol, respectively.

  3. Partial wave decomposition in Friedrichs model with self-interacting continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhiguang; Zhou, Zhi-Yong

    2017-07-01

    We consider the nonrelativistic model of coupling bare discrete states with continuum states in which the continuum states can have interactions among themselves. By partial-wave decomposition and constraint to the conserved angular momentum eigenstates, the model can be reduced to Friedrichs-like model with additional interactions between the continua. If a kind of factorizable form factor is chosen, the model can be exactly solvable, that is, the generalized discrete eigenstates including bound states, virtual states, and resonances can all be represented using the original bare states, and so do the in-state and out-state. The exact S matrix is thus obtained. We then discuss the behaviors of the dynamically generated S-wave and P-wave discrete states as the coupling is varying when there is only one self-interacting bare continuum state. We find that even when the potential is repulsive there could also be resonances and virtual states. In the P-wave cases with attractive interaction, we find that when there is a near-threshold bound state, there will always be an accompanying virtual state and we also give a more general argument of this effect.

  4. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's language, rhetoric and habitus].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was not only an exceptional physicist, philosopher and peace scholar, but also a skilled and articulate speaker and a highly successful author. Dozens of his books were published in tens of thousands of copies despite their highly nontrivial content. This wide impact was only possible--this at least is one of the claims made in this paper--because of his sophisticated style and rhetorics. The analysis here is based on hand-picked samples from all kinds of Weizsäcker texts (talks, scientific and popular papers and books, poems and Limericks). Strangely enough, this interesting stylistic and rhetorical facet of his oeuvre has hitherto not been analyzed in any detail despite its crucial importance in the broad impact on his multifarious audience. My paper starts out from a collection of striking features of his language and structural specialties in his published talks and speeches, and explore findings from sound recordings and film tapes which offer further insight into his manner of emphasis, usage of pauses and intonation. On the basis of these stylistic traits and their often subcutaneous, but nevertheless clever rhetorics, I close with a few remarks on the habitus of this scholar and his positioning within the ensemble of German-speaking physicists of that generation.

  5. Model building with wind and water: Friedrich Ahlborn's photo-optical flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Hinterwaldner, Inge

    2015-02-01

    Around 1900, several experimenters investigated turbulences in wind tunnels or water basins by creating visualizations. One of them, the German zoologist Friedrich Ahlborn (1858-1937), was familiar with the works by his contemporaries but he struck a new path. He combined three different kinds of photographs taken at the same time and showed the same situation in his water trough-but each in a different way. With this first basic operation, Ahlborn heuristically opened up a previously non-existent space for experimentation, analysis, and recombination. He generated an astonishing diversity of information by adopting the tactics of 'inversions' in which he interpreted one part of the experimental setup, or its results, in different ways. Between the variants of the 'autographs' which he developed, he defined areas of intersection to be able to translate results from individual records into each other. To this end, Ahlborn created other sets of visual artifacts such as drawn diagrams, three-dimensional wire frame constructions, and clay reliefs. His working method can be described as a cascading array of successive modeling steps, as elaborated by Eric Winsberg (1999), or of inscriptions in Bruno Latour's words (Latour, 1986). By examining Ahlborn's procedures closely we propose conceptualizations for the experimenter's various operations.

  6. The laryngeal disease of the German Emperor Friedrich III: treatment failure or fateful course.

    PubMed

    Rudert, Heinrich; Werner, Jochen A

    2016-06-01

    Since the death of the Emperor Friedrich III in June 1888, there are still controversial discussions whether the Crown Prince could have been healed from his laryngeal cancer by a thyrotomy planned by his German physicians for May 21, 1887. In order to find an answer to this historical question, the Emperor's biographies, the literature on laryngology published in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, German manuals on laryngology and ENT, the BMJ and Lancet were thoroughly studied where in particular not only Mackenzie but also Virchow had published several articles on the disease of Friedrich III. Prof. Gerhardt had decided not to perform biopsies of the tumor. Furthermore, he did not perform iodine potassium treatment ex juvantibus as it was common practice at that time in order to confirm the diagnosis of carcinoma by excluding syphilitic gumma. So Mackenzie was perfectly right when insisting on performing excisional biopsy before surgery. It is tragedy that Virchow by making the diagnosis of pachydermia laryngis provided the justification for canceling the surgical intervention that had already been decided. It was also mistake that Prof. Gerhardt did not accompany the Crown Prince during his stay in England in summer 1887. The authority of the delegated medical officer Dr. Landgraf did not suffice to persuade Mackenzie to discuss again the matter of performing surgery together with Gerhardt and von Bergmann. The drawings made by Dr. Landgraf show an impressive tumor growth. The refusal of new consultations with Gerhardt and von Bergmann by Mackenzie can only be explained by the fact that Mackenzie was generally against such a surgical intervention. Regarding the question of the chances of such a surgery it can be said that thyrotomy and laryngectomy had been refused by the majority of laryngologists since the Congress of London in 1881 and the publication of P. v. Bruns in 1878. In Berlin, however, the improvement of surgical and anesthetic

  7. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: nuclear disarmament and the search for freedom].

    PubMed

    Neuneck, Götz

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's comprehensive contributions to nuclear disarmament and arms control, as well as his peace policy impulses are to be understood primarily in the context of his family origin, his comprehensive thinking and the historical circumstances of the emerging nuclear age. They have a scientific, political and a strong philosophical-moral component. Beside the factual problems (nuclear energy, military strategy) he was interested in political power issues and their ambivalence and perception. His actual work is not only based on general academic knowledge, but also serve the immediate political influence on a scientific basis. Weizsäcker was not committed to nuclear disarmament or arms control per se, but about creating a lasting peace policy in the nuclear age. The paper discusses in chronological order of Weizsäcker's work within the policy field peace and disarmament. Family origin, study and work on the nuclear programme by Nazi-Germany laid the foundations for his later career. As a young physicist, he was directly involved in the political and ethical dilemma of the military and civilian use of nuclear energy. After the war, in Göttingen and Hamburg the reflections of the Nazi phase and the discussion of ways out of the dangers of the Cold War followed. The Max-Planck Institute in Starnberg dealt with the science-based treatment of global world problems, including the dangers of nuclear proliferation. Finally, Weizsäcker initiated a Peace Council in 1985. He urged both the perception of the moral responsibility of scientists as well as an ethics of the scientific-technological age. According to him, a general and profound change in the consciousness of humankind is needed to solve the existing power problems and the problem of war.

  8. [The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].

    PubMed

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling.

  9. [Adalbert Friedrich Markus (1753-1816): remarkable organizer of health service, philosopher, sponsor, and social figure].

    PubMed

    Nogaller, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Adalbert Friedrich Markus (1753-1816) was one of the most eminent doctors of his time. His name was given not accidentally to one of the largest squares, a street and a bridge across the river Regnitz in Bamberg, the town where he worked more than 40 years. Markus was well-known among the population as an excellent doctor, he also was a personal doctor of Kurfürst bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal. Markus was the first principal to found a hospital affordable to everyone, where medical personnel was taught and many professors worked. He was also founder and principal of the medico-surgical school, whose program of studies was equal to those of an university. On Markus' initiative a birthhouse was founded, as well as a sheltered housing complex for the elderly and a school, as well as a social system for poor citizens. In January 1803 Markus became the head of the health department of the principality of Frankonia. On his initiative a free smallpocks vaccination for all new born was carried out. Markus brought up an annual report of medical science and numerous magazines on therapy. In his scientifical articles in different magazines he wrote about diseases of respiratory tract, skin, liver, as well as typhus and feaver. In many of his published works he appears to be a philosopher supporting a naturalistic philosophy and disagreeing with its idealistic attitude at the same time. He was the head of a literature society called "Harmony", and he supported the construction of the first theatre where E. T. A Hoffmann worked who was a friend of Markus. A. F. Markus' death 1816 put his friends and supporters into a deep grief. According to the newspapers of that time, the whole town followed the funeral procession and all the churches rang their bells goodbye. The name of A. F. Markus has an important place among the extraordinary German physicians of the late 18th and early 19th century.

  10. The legacy of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder (1724-1774): a 4-generation dynasty of anatomists.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Rashid M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Goebbel, Luminita; Pait, T Glenn; Shields, Christopher B

    2010-04-01

    Few families have had an impact on medicine to equal that of the Meckel family. Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder is of special interest to the neurosciences, given that his dissertation on the fifth cranial nerve included the first description of the arachnoid space investing the trigeminal nerve into the middle fossa. He was interested in neuroanatomy, along with botany and pathology of the inguinal hernia and the lymphatic system. His mentors included the eminent Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777) and August Buddaeus (1695-1753), and he extended his own influence on the work of Giovanni Morgagni and Alexander Monro II. He spent the latter part of his life in Berlin as professor of anatomy, botany, and obstetrics. His son, Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803), was one of the founders of the current collection of anatomic specimens at the University of Halle and provided important groundwork for the practice of obstetrics. Meckel the Elder's grandson, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), was a more prolific investigator and founder of the science of teratology. Many anatomic structures, such as Meckel's diverticulum, bear his name, and he vastly expanded the university's anatomic collection. August Albrecht Meckel (1789-1829), Meckel the Younger's brother, practiced legal medicine and investigated avian anatomy but died prematurely from tuberculosis. August's son, Johann Heinrich Meckel (1821-1856), took the instructor's position in pathologic anatomy at the University of Berlin that his great-grandfather had held at the Charité. After his untimely death from pulmonary disease, his position was filled by Rudolf Virchow. The history of this family is discussed in detail.

  11. [Caspar Friedrich Wolff (1734-1794). The concept of epigenesis and the problem of spontaneous generation].

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The link between the notion of epigenesis and that of spontaneous generation does not seem complicated when it is viewed in theoretical terms or when it is approached in a pure model form. However, once any of its particular manifestations in the history of biology is analysed, the interrelationship between the two notions ceases to be unequivocal. One example of that comes with the first fully-fledged concept of epigenesis, based on careful observation of embryonic development, presented by Caspar Friedrich Wolff in the 18th century. The process of development that an act of spontaneous generation has given rise to cannot, of course, be anything else but one of epigenesis. In this sense, epigenesis constitutes a necessary condition for spontaneous generation, but is not a sufficient condition, i.e. not every process of development through epigenesis has at its source an act of spontaneous generation. Evidence that Wolff was inclined towards the concept of spontaneous generation comes from the presence in his works of a notion described by the Latin term ortus (emergence). That notion--together with that of an organic body--is subject to detailed analysis in the current paper. If the process of spontaneous generation is understood as a process of emergence in nature of what is animate and organic, from what is inanimate and non-organic, and as a process in which living beings are not involved, but a living being is its outcome, then the notion of ortus is close in meaning to the notion of spontaneous generation. However, the deistic and theological philosophical foundation of Wolff's concept of epigenesis is in conflict with the notion of spontaneous generation. It seems that Wolff's notion of ortus can be interpreted in two ways. Firstly, it can be interpreted as as result of the theoretical extrapolation in time applied by Wolff to the usual way in which organic bodies emerge (the process is always given rise to by a nonorganic body, supplied by another organic

  12. Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch and astronomy in Nuremberg in the second half of the 18th century. (German Title: Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch und die Astronomie in Nürnberg in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    In the second half of the 18th century, Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch (1731 - 1802) was the best-known living mathematician and astronomer in Nuremberg. Being a physician by training, he obtained, in 1769, the post of lecturer in mathematics and physics at the Egidien secondary school. Subsequently, he tried in vain to re-erect the observatory, torn down in 1751. In the early 1770s, he became famous for preparing the second edition of Johann Leonhard Rost's Astronomisches Handbuch that was, in its first edition of 1718, the first compendium of astronomy written in German, and which had a wide circulation. In 1790, Kordenbusch was raised to the nobility for his achievements.

  13. "A talented young man" - The short life of Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817; (German Title: "Ein talentvoller junger Mann" - Das kurze Leben des Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies, 1796-1817)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemin, Friedhelm

    Friedrich Wilhelm Tönnies' name is hardly found in the major histories of astronomy. This is not surprising since he died before the age of twenty-one. Nevertheless, and perhaps because he knew at heart that not much time was granted to him, he left an astonishingly prolific oeuvre which indicates his rich talents. His contemporaries also testify that this son af a wealthy textile merchant had a great talent. But it is idle to speculate whether he would have become a second Bessel, or just an inconspicuous high school teacher in some remote Prussian province. He experienced a decisive career advancement by the Berlin astronomer J.E. Bode, obtained his Ph.D. already at the age of nineteen, published, among other things, about the large solar eclipse of November 19, 1816, and corresponded with several professional astronomers, before he succumbed to a pulmonary disease.

  14. The Calendar Edict of 10 May 1700 by Friedrich III., Elector of Brandenburg (German Title: Das Kalender-Edikt des Brandenburgischen Kurfürsten Friedrich III. vom 10. Mai 1700)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielen, Roland

    The Calendar Edict of 10 May 1700 was issued by Friedrich III., Elector of Brandenburg. With this edict, he founded at Berlin an astronomical observatory and an academy of sciences. The Elector assigned to the academy the exclusive right to issue calendars in all his territories. Leibniz had proposed this in order to finance the academy and the observatory from the income of the calendar privilege. The astronomers were responsible for calculating and supervising the new calendar in Brandenburg and later in Prussia, which was introduced in 1700 in all the Protestant territories of Germany as the 'Improved Calendar'. We present here scans of the printed Calendar Edict and of the last page of the handwritten original with the signature of the Elector. Furthermore, we show images of a few pages of the calendar for 1701, the first one issued by the academy. Finally, we reproduce the full text of the Calendar Edict.

  15. Factored singularities and high-order Lax-Friedrichs sweeping schemes for point-source traveltimes and amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Songting; Qian, Jianliang

    2011-06-01

    In the high frequency regime, the geometrical-optics approximation for the Helmholtz equation with a point source results in an Eikonal equation for traveltime and a transport equation for amplitude. Because the point-source traveltime field has an upwind singularity at the source point, all formally high-order finite-difference Eikonal solvers exhibit first-order convergence and relatively large errors. In this paper, we propose to first factor out the singularities of traveltimes, takeoff angles, and amplitudes, and then we design high-order Lax-Friedrichs sweeping schemes for point-source traveltimes, takeoff angles, and amplitudes. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of our new method.

  16. [A failed experiment - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Jürgen Habermas and the Max-Planck Society].

    PubMed

    Leendertz, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    From 1970 to 1980 Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker headed the Max-Planck-lnstitut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPI for the study of the living conditions of the world of science and technology) in Starnberg, jointly with Jürgen Habermas since 1971. From the start, the Max Planck Society regarded the new institute as an experiment that might perhaps be aborted a few years later. This is exactly what happened. With the retirement of Weizsäcker, his section was closed and the whole institute was renamed. In 1981. Habermas resigned, and then the institute was closed. This paper focusses on some of the problem constellations within the institute that partly explain its development and eventual closure: its birth out of the idea of scientific policy advice, the debates within the Max Planck Society and the complex relationship between Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas.

  17. [Encounters and re-encounters - philosophy and religion of the physicist Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Abich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    (1) Quantum theory deals not just with reality but with the physical (scientific) reality of its objects. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker understood this to imply that scientific knowledge of objects converges with philosophical knowledge of their objectivity but did not succeed in rounding off physics. (2) We are actors as well as spectators not only in scientific knowledge but in political processes as well, particularly by means of science. It is, therefore, not justified to deny political responsibility even in 'basic research'. Carl Friedrich von Weizsacker identified classical physics as the venture of knowledge without love but believed that this boundary could be transcended. The apparent neutrality of science must not be tolerated by the churches, however. (3) In religion Weizsäcker felt most at home in Buddhist spirituality, this being akin to Christian spirituality which has been more or less lost by the Christian churches. Yet he tried to support his church and to participate in its actions. (4) Lack of love corresponds to an excess of power in the religious critique of science. In both respects Weizsäcker presented the mirror to industrial society but people in general did not recognize their image. The Max-Planck-Society, however, shut up Weizsäcker's "Institute for the study of the conditions of life in the modern world" (Starnberg 1970-1980) as soon as possible. (5) Weizsäcker always refrained from exerting any power except that of reason or truth. According to Lao Tse this is the power least perceived as such. In politics he generally followed the mainstream after once having been tempted to action in 1941/42. His influence on German society was based on his charismatic spirituality.

  18. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791-1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of 'mesmerist' influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval's 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber's 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß's story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß's biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about 'animal magnetism' to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß's recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses 'from above' and 'from below' as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period.

  19. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791–1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of ‘mesmerist’ influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval’s 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber’s 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß’s story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß’s biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about ‘animal magnetism’ to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß’s recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses ‘from above’ and ‘from below’ as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period. PMID:26651186

  20. Human and animal health on three continents--a biography of the early life of Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974).

    PubMed

    Pospischil, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Karl Friedrich Meyer (KF) was born and educated as a veterinarian in Europe; he researched infectious diseases in Europe, South Africa and the United States. He is one of the true forefathers of the 'one health-one medicine' concept. The broad scope of his research covered botulism, leptospirosis, brucellosis, plague, ornithosis, Western equine encephalitis, mussel poisoning and clostridia. This manuscript adds some more details of his early biography.

  1. ["... and of course my views have become more independent"--Friedrich Ratzel's letters to Ernst Haeckel, his mentor and academic colleague].

    PubMed

    Zigman, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    This article for the first time provides an edition and commentary of the letters of Friedrich Ratzel to his older colleague, teacher and mentor, Ernst Haeckel, which are kept in the archive of the Ernst-Haeckel-House (memorial museum) in Jena. Altogether fifteen letters and one postcard are presented. Haeckel's letters to Ratzel are considered to be lost. The edition is prefaced with a detailed description of Ratzel's life, career and work, as a part of the edition.

  2. [Where are we going? Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker as a pioneering personality - a personal acknowledgment on his 100th birthday].

    PubMed

    Schorlemmer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    The author reports from his own experience on Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's presence in the Evangelische Studentengemeinde (ESG) Halle (Saale). The paper shows how Weizsäcker, the scientist, philosopher, and Christ, had combined the rational, the emotional, and the spiritual dimension. In doing so he had formed the experience of the history of mankind in which each individual found himself as an example.

  3. KARL FRIEDRICH ZOELLNER and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry A collection of papers on the History of Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  4. Carl Friedrich Naumann and the introduction of enantio terminology: a review and analysis on the 150th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Gal, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    Enantiomorphism and enantiomorphous were the first enantio-based terms, introduced 150 years ago, by Carl Friedrich Naumann, a German crystallographer, to refer to non-superposable mirror-image crystals. The terminology was not adopted by Pasteur, the discoverer of molecular chirality, and was not embraced at first in the stereochemical context, until it was accepted in 1877 by Van't Hoff in the German edition of his proposal for the tetrahedral asymmetric carbon atom. In the 1890s the use of enantio terms began to spread in the research literature, and many new derivatives of Naumann's original two terms were subsequently introduced. Problems in the usage of some of the terms are often found in the literature, e.g., enantiomorphism is sometimes confused with chirality; enantiomeric is often misused; the meaning of some of the many derived terms, e.g., enantiosymmetric, enantioposition, etc., is unclear. All in all, Naumann should be remembered as the creator of essential terminology in the realm of chirality.

  5. 'Tipping the Balance': Karl Friedrich Meyer, Latent Infections, and the Birth of Modern Ideas of Disease Ecology.

    PubMed

    Honigsbaum, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss-born medical researcher Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974) is best known as a 'microbe hunter' who pioneered investigations into diseases at the intersection of animal and human health in California in the 1920s and 1930s. In particular, historians have singled out Meyer's 1931 Ludwig Hektoen Lecture in which he described the animal kingdom as a 'reservoir of disease' as a forerunner of 'one medicine' approaches to emerging zoonoses. In so doing, however, historians risk overlooking Meyer's other intellectual contributions. Developed in a series of papers from the mid-1930s onwards, these were ordered around the concept of latent infections and sought to link microbial behavior to broader bio-ecological, environmental, and social factors that impact hostpathogen interactions. In this respect Meyer-like the comparative pathologist Theobald Smith and the immunologist Frank Macfarlane Burnet-can be seen as a pioneer of modern ideas of disease ecology. However, while Burnet's and Smith's contributions to this scientific field have been widely acknowledged, Meyer's have been largely ignored. Drawing on Meyer's published writings and private correspondence, this paper aims to correct that lacuna while contributing to a reorientation of the historiography of bacteriological epidemiology. In particular I trace Meyer's intellectual exchanges with Smith, Burnet and the animal ecologist Charles Elton, over brucellosis, psittacosis and plague-exchanges that not only showed how environmental and ecological conditions could 'tip the balance' in favor of parasites but which transformed Meyer thinking about resistance to infection and disease.

  6. [Living with responsibility: Max Born and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker as philosophers with distance].

    PubMed

    Schirrmacher, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Both Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker und Max Born belong to the most active scientists, which have raised their voice for peace in the 1950s. While Born, senior to Weizsäcker by one generation, engaged in peace movements at an early stage, which was also due to his emigration, and was a driving force for the Einstein-Russell memorandum, Weizsäcker entered the stage essentially with the Göttingen declaration but quickly dominated the discourse. The comparison of their different engagements for peace sheds new light on Weizsäcker. Unlike the German emigrant with a British passport, who was mainly influenced by EInstein and Russell as well as some socialist thoughts he had encountered at an early age, the son of a noble diplomat and the physicist, who was saved from military duties because of his work in the German wartime nuclear project, had quite a different perspective on the postwar atomic threat. The relation of Born and Weizsäcker remained marked by a certain distance even when both took up very similar roles of 'public scientists' active for peace, be it as delegates at Pugwash conferences, on the air, or as speakers in the Frankfurt Paulskirche.

  7. [A utopian episode - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker in the networks of the Max-Planck Society].

    PubMed

    Kant, Horst; Renn, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was a key figure in the history of the Max Planck Society (MPS). This essay contextualises his work with the development of the MPS, highlighting the institutional and personal networks upon which it was based. Some of the stations addressed in the following are his role in the German Uranium Project, in preparing the Mainau Declaration, the Göttingen Manifesto, and the Memorandum of Tübingen as well as his involvement in the foundation of the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Human Development and his own MPI for the Research of Living Conditions in the Modern World located in Starnberg. The relationship between Weizsäcker and Hellmut Becker, long-time friend and founding director of the MPI for Human Development, will be of particular interest. Another issue broached here is the connection between natural science and the humanities in Weizsäcker's work, and subsequently the relation between these two science cultures in the MPS. Finally, we look at the challenges Weizsäcker's work could present to the MPS today.

  8. [General practice-oriented forms of education of the 18th century. On the 250th anniversary of the birth of Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen (1742-1788)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1993-02-01

    Widely differing conditions applied to practice-oriented medical teaching at universities in the various German principalities or territorial states in the 18th century. Initially, the institutions used by professors as "collegium clinicum" belonged either to foundations or were being run on a private basis. It was only in the second half of the 18th century that these institutions became state-supervised, with the inclusion of the discipline of surgery. The results of such reorganization are demonstrated, taking Halle and the work done by Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Goldhagen as examples.

  9. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900): a classical case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome?

    PubMed

    Koszka, Christiane

    2009-08-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche was one of the most influential and profound German philosophers. After prolonged illness, he died at the age of 55 in Weimar, Germany. The interest in his medical biography has always been strong while the cause of his illness and death has remained a mystery, intriguing philosophers as well as physicians. The diagnosis of syphilis proposed in the 19th century has been controversial until today and many other diagnoses have been discussed. This paper suggests that Nietzsche suffered from mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome.

  10. On the ornithological collection of Friedrich Sellow in Brazil (1814-1831), with some considerations about the provenance of his specimens.

    PubMed

    Rego, Marco Antonio; Moreira-Lima, Luciano; Silveria, Luís Fábio; Frahnert, Sylke

    2013-02-22

    The Prussian naturalist Friedrich Sellow (1789-1831) traveled through Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina between 1814 and 1831 gathering numerous zoological and botanical specimens. Despite the effort spent in those countries, the ornithological collection assembled by Sellow did not receive adequate care after it had been deposited in the Zoologische Museum in Berlin, thus compromising its integrity. In the present article we discuss the treatment given by Lichtenstein and by Sellow to this bird material, with special focus on some cases in which incorrect label information on Sellow's specimens led to faulty conclusions on the zoogeography of South American birds.

  11. [The German physician and pacifist Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) as a pupil of the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovic Pavlov (1849-1936)].

    PubMed

    Kästner, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    In 1906, Dr. med. Georg Friedrich Nicolai, a young specialist in the field of electrocardiography from the university of Berlin, spent some months in the laboratory of Pavlov, where he was one of the first German visitors. Two letters written by Nicolai to Pavlov are a mirror of Nicolai's admiration for the brilliant Russian Nobel prize winner, but also of Nicolai's remarkable insight into the perspectives of Pavlov's physiological method for "objective" psychological investigations. Nicolai regarded himself a pupil of Pavlov until his death in South America, where he was forced to emigrate after World War I due to his pacifist activities.

  12. [Natural science vs. natural philosophy: Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs and the emergence of modern western medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Werner

    2016-12-01

    The beginnings of modern western medicine reach to about 1800 when under the liberating influence of French Revolution observation of diseases was started to follow more scientifically justified criteria. At that time speculative doctrines prevailed, e. g. those set up natural philosopher Schelling. In this context Internist Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs at Berlin Charité University Hospital gained great merits because of his struggle for a scientifically-based experimental clinical medicine. This is demonstrated nicely in a recently found autograph document. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. ["The hard core". Science between politics and philosophy by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and in the finalization theory].

    PubMed

    Krohn, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In the Starnberg Max-Planck Institute one of the working groups was concerned with science as the formative condition--or "hard core"--of societal modernity, and with science as potential resource for solving social problems and addressing future goals. More precisely, the group intended to differentiate between phases in which scientific disciplines predominantly care for their own paradigmatic completion and those allowing their theoretical potential resonate with external needs. The conceptual model was coined "finalization in science". It soon provoked a heated controversy on the dangers of social control of science. The paper analyses Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's views on the relation between philosophy and policy of science including his interpretation of Thomas Kuhn and reconstructs the impact of his ideas on the finalization model. It finally reflects on the relationship between science development and change of consciousness in the context of scientific responsibility for (the use of) research outcomes.

  14. [The "utopian" national socialism - a mutual dispute in the philosophy of Martin Heidegger and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker?].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Wolf

    2014-01-01

    In a letter to his wife from October 14, 1943, Werner Heisenberg describes a fierce clash with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker. The sudden conflict raises numerous questions, two of which are tackled here. First: How is now the friendly relationship between Heisenberg and Weizsäcker in the postwar years to be understood? The answer is: as a strategic performance. Second: How are the radical opinions to be explained that Weizsäcker expressed at the time? A thorough reconstruction of the lifelong connection that Weizsäcker maintained with Martin Heidegger and Heidegger's philosophy gives the answer: the young Weizsäcker was fired up by the "utopian" National Socialism with which Heidegger trumped the real existing.

  15. ["World domestic policy" as a way to eternal peace? Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's realistic idealism as theory of a sustainable policy].

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The intention of this article is to show the suitability of "Weltinnenpolitik" (world domestic policy) as an analytic and programmatic view on contemporary policy. A full reconstruction or comparison of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's concept is not at the focus. As mentioned in other contributions to this volume, Weizsäcker did not refer to the disciplinary discourses in detail. His approach is particularly 'unique' since he set about in 1963 to study the conditions of peace in a very general way. By doing so, he was able to circumscribe the conditions of peace realistically: those valid for us today and apparently also in the future. Weizsäcker probably did underestimate the complexity of the transformation to sustainable politics for preventing climate change. Vice versa one should hope that we today do not discount the prevention of atomic war as a sine qua non for sustainable climate-saving policy. Both could mark the quintessential conditions for peace.

  16. [Living without atomic power? Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker as expert in the nuclear energy debate of the 1970's].

    PubMed

    Seefried, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker crossed the boundaries separating science, politics and the public sphere. In this he was led by the conviction that scientists in the modern 'technical age' are responsible for consequences resulting from their applied knowledge. Weizsäcker tried to introduce his knowledge into the policy process by advising politicians or by using the public sphere, thus applying pressure on politics. This was not only true for the 'Göttinger Erklärung' in 1957 but also for his engagement in the nuclear energy debate of the 1970s. Influenced by the 'Limits to Growth' discourse, Weizsäcker more and more gravitated towards an ecological world view and increasingly questioned material growth as well as a techno-scientific based understanding of progress. Weizsäcker thought about risks of the technical age in general and of the use of nuclear energy in particular. In the light of a growing fragmentation of scientific authority, Weizsäcker revealed uncertainty as he became fully aware that expertise cannot be based on scientific reason and cannot code the problems in terms of truth, but is inextricably linked with value spheres and contingencies. Nevertheless, his expertise was utilized as he encouraged parts of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) around Erhard Eppler to think about alternatives in energy policy.

  17. [The scholarly program of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) and it importance for the development of life sciences].

    PubMed

    Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    Although Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger was one of the most famous anatomists, his research work has been severely neglected in the recent historiographical literature on the German morphology. The goal of our study is to approach a general characterization of his research program. Our analysis reveals that Meckel introduced the Cuvierian empiricism in Germany, but he also considered the "Abstraktion" as a main component of the scientific knowledge. According to his epistemology on nascent organisms and transmutable species, both, variability and relatedness of the organic forms are important to the same degree. Meckel explicitly adopted the Jean-Baptiste de Lamarcks (1744-1829) evolutionary theories. Even though in Meckel's discourse about diversity the Cuvierian notion of "functional adaptation" was preserved, the main goal of his research program was to demonstrate empirically the "Allgemeinheit des Bildungstypus". For this purpose, he considered the entire variety of the animal kingdom: normal as well as abnormal organisms, adult specimens and above all embryos. Moreover, he believed that the abnormal development is due to the same laws as the normal development. He applied parallelisms to a new domain, the study of malformation. With Meckel's researches on teratology, a new era in the analyses of the anomalies was opened. They became an integral part of the natural diversity and thus a highly exploited subject of biomedical researches. Meckel's empirical and epistemological writings on the embryology, comparative embryology, teratology, pathology, systematics and comparative anatomy have largely contributed to the foundation of the biological research.

  18. [Friedrich Panse: well established in all systems. Psychiatrist in the Weimar Republic, in the Third Reich, and in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    PubMed

    Forsbach, R

    2012-03-01

    The psychiatrist Friedrich Panse (1899-1973) was a T4 assessor during the Nazi era who sent mentally disabled and mentally ill people to their deaths. In the German Armed Forces he used higher galvanic currents to cure "war neurotics" and expose "malingerers." As a National Socialist he was a committed teacher of racial hygiene. Nonetheless, after the end of the Nazi regime many supporters quickly surfaced who were prepared to exonerate Panse. Panse himself was not among those who indignantly repudiated the accusation of any contact with the Nazi Party. He did not deny that he had openly embraced the Nazi measures for preserving the genetic integrity of the populace, but he did let it be known that he had suffered incredibly under the heavy burden. The State Government of North Rhine-Westphalia refused to allow Panse to continue in his capacity as an extraordinary professor. Panse successfully contested this decision at the State Administrative Court in Düsseldorf. He became the Director of the Institution in Düsseldorf-Grafenberg, the Psychiatric Clinic in Düsseldorf, a member of the German Council of Medical Advisors for questions regarding care for war victims of the German Federal Ministry of Labor, and President of the German Society for Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. On the mammals collected by Friedrich Sellow in Brazil and Uruguay (1814-1831), with special reference to the types and their provenance.

    PubMed

    Garbino, Guilherme S T; Nogueira, Marcelo R

    2017-01-17

    From 1814 to 1831, the Prussian naturalist Friedrich Sellow collected 263 mammals in Brazil and Uruguay. Upon receiving the specimens, the curator of the Berlin Zoological Museum, Martin Lichtenstein, removed the original labels and replaced with ones containing more generalized locations. As a consequence, several type specimens have now dubious type localities. We examined these types as well as geographically restricted mammals collected by Sellow. In some cases, there are inconsistencies between the specimen label and the collection catalog regarding the collecting locality. We conclude that the locality information on the lectotype of the tent-making bat Uroderma bilobatum is mistakenly identified, and therefore, we restrict it to "eastern Brazil". We designate a lectoype for Azara's agouti, Dasyprocta azarae, and restrict its type locality to the region travelled by Sellow in São Paulo. Although there are no recent records of the woolly giant rat, Kunsia tomentosus, from its type locality, the species may have been recently extirpated from the area. Two primate specimens supposedly collected by Sellow, a silvery marmoset, Mico argentatus, and a black tamarin, Saguinus niger, occur only in the Amazonia of northern Brazil, outside the route travelled by the naturalist, and are more likely to have been collected by Sieber. Our investigations stress the importance of collecting vouchers for verifying species occurrence records and establishing a solid taxonomy.

  20. [Friedrich Nietzsche's last lucid year].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2007-05-01

    As an outstanding philosopher Nietzsche poses the question whether his creativeness persisted in spite of his deteriorating disease or appeared, among other features, as a consequence of his illness. A thorough psychopathological understanding of his last lucid year is attempted. He had an exaggerated self-esteem and grandiose sense of confidence and achievements. But his lack of insight did not lead him to engage in activities that could harm himself or his loved ones. Between January 1888 and until his ultimate deterioration in January 1889, Nietzsche was exceedingly productive. During this period, polar changes along with moderately overlapping periods appeared.

  1. [From "physical idealist" to "freedom fighter". The change in the perception of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker in the DDR - exemplified by honorary doctorate and the Leipzig Colloquium 1987/88].

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article draws a representative picture of the official public perception of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker in the GDR. In the beginning Weizsäcker served as a classic example of a successful scientist with bourgeois philosophical ideas. So he was often a target of philosophical criticism. This changed with Weizsäcker's activities in peace studies, and the official GDR made an attempt to monopolize him. This could be seen, for example, in connection with his honorary doctorate awarded by the University of Leipzig in 1987 and with the scientific colloquium in 1988. From these examples we can also see that efforts took place to change the focus towards his physical und philosophical achievements. Weizsäcker's official recognition was also helpful for other activities in which he played a leading role. The article looks behind the scenes of a part of the academic machinery in the GDR. It shows that CFvW was an eminent stimulator also in the GDR.

  2. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker - supporter of the concept of the East German movement in favor of self-organization during the political turning point 1989/90].

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's holistic thinking in the former German Democratic Republic (DDR) is reviewed. Broad-minded academics sought, in accordance with the modern paradigm of self-organization, beyond the ideological template for ways out of the dead end of incrustations of society and innovation blockages under the constraints of a dictatorship. Right after the fall of the wall, Weizsäcker willingly backed a "community of free researchers for self-organization" (Freie Forschungsgemeinschaft Selbstorganisation, FFGSO). This group, conceived as a nonpartisan "think tank" of civil activism, is also discussed. At a number of its meetings Weizsäcker debated the dangers of ideologically influenced science. The effectiveness of the dual leadership at his own Starnberg Institute, for instance, was stymied by the tensions arisen out of such conflicting aims. Against the voluntaristic anticipations of the mainstream in sociology, precisely that system proved to be more viable that was meant to be overcome: faulty and purportedly futureless capitalism. Weizsäcker repudiated social prognoses made in the absence of rules for their falsification resp. verification. Weizsäcker acted as a leading figure at the FFGSO's Potsdam conference, opened on 30 Mar. 1990, on the "DDR--and afterwards?". Its intention was in order to trigger a nationwide discussion of scientific scenarios in designing German unification in the face of gross practical disparities between East and West Germany. The Trust Agency inspired by the FFGSO at the Round Table between opposition and old government was supposed to transfer the national public property "Volkseigentum" of the DDR into private property of the East German citizens, to enable them to realize a role as subject through self-organization. At the group's request, Weizsäcker mediated the readiness by the Lutheran World Federation to assume the role of ombudsman in anticipation of conflicts of interest within the

  3. Friedrich Zöllner's personal papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, W. R.

    After Zöllner's death in 1882, his personal papers probably remained with his mother. These papers were still together around 1899, though at an unknown place, when Felix Koerber used them for writing Zoellner's biography. Around 1920 the Staatsbibliothek at Berlin obtained parts of Zoellner's papers from Martin Breslauer, publisher and antiquarian in Berlin, but most of these letters have been lost during World War II. This paper presents a list of the documents preserved at the library, as well as an overview of the material obtained from Breslauer.

  4. Zöllner, Johann Karl [Carl] Friedrich (1834-82)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer, born in Leipzig, was a pioneer solar astronomer, classifying solar prominences. He first suggested that the spectral types of stars represent an evolutionary sequence, starting hot and cooling. This idea was taken up with variations by H C VOGEL and NORMAN LOCKYER....

  5. Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Younger (1781-1833).

    PubMed

    Gluecklich, B

    1976-09-01

    Meckel's name is well known in the medical world because of the intestinal abnormality that carries his eponym. We are less familiar with his personal life and his far-reaching achievement as a prominent anatomist. Also described is his complex personality as well as the indelible impression he made on his contemporaries.

  6. The "Madness" of Friedrich Hölderlin: an iatrogenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Horowski, R

    2017-06-01

    The German poet Hölderlin, assumed to have suffered from schizophrenia, in fact has been the victim of a combined calomel and cantharidine intoxication administered by his physician Autenrieth. This new theory explains much better his behavioural changes and also his neurological and other concomitant symptoms; it can be tested by analysing a very few of his hairs for the presence of these compounds.

  7. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Werner Heisenberg].

    PubMed

    Cassidy, David C

    2014-01-01

    The 50-year relationship between Weizsäcker and Heisenberg spanned the highpoints of discovery and dictatorship during the 1930s, extended into the war-time uranium project, the post-war controversy over that project, debates over West German nuclear policy, and the philosophical implications of modern physics. This paper explores the interaction between these two leading figures during that difficult and significant half-century.

  8. [The symptomatic psychosis of Friedrich Nietzsche, made evident by his last attempt at an autobiography].

    PubMed

    Peters, U H

    1990-01-01

    Nietzsche's autobiography gestates neither conflicts, nor life problems, nor matter suppressed from his subconscious, nor are the speech distortions of the schizophrenic patient to be found. In all, analysis allows with certainty the conclusion that is was written by a sick person suffering from a psycho-organic disorder of the kind Bonhoeffer referred to by the general term "symptomatic psychosis".

  9. What Friedrich Nietzsche Cannot Stand about Education: Toward a Pedagogy of Self-Reformulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Examines Nietzsche's rejection of mass education, arguing that it was based on his desire for education to be more self- reformulative than he thought possible, and concluding that education in schools is beneficial because it can foster radical forms of selfhood. This process can begin by listening to Nietzsche's philosophy while ignoring his…

  10. Childhood, Philosophy and Play: Friedrich Schiller and the Interface between Reason, Passion and Sensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Philosophy for Children claims to foster not only critical thinking, but also creative and caring thinking. However, its theoretical foundations draw mainly on the analytic and pragmatist philosophical tradition. Consequently, and made evident by the choice of the terms "caring thinking" and "creative thinking", it seem to reduce these concepts…

  11. Going to School with Friedrich Nietzsche: The Self in Service of Noble Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacek, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    To understand Nietzsche's pedagogy of self-overcoming and to determine its true import for contemporary education, it is necessary to understand Nietzsche's view of the self that is to be overcome. Nevertheless, previous interpretations of self-overcoming in the journals of the philosophy of education have lacked serious engagement with…

  12. What Friedrich Nietzsche Cannot Stand about Education: Toward a Pedagogy of Self-Reformulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Examines Nietzsche's rejection of mass education, arguing that it was based on his desire for education to be more self- reformulative than he thought possible, and concluding that education in schools is beneficial because it can foster radical forms of selfhood. This process can begin by listening to Nietzsche's philosophy while ignoring his…

  13. Going to School with Friedrich Nietzsche: The Self in Service of Noble Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacek, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    To understand Nietzsche's pedagogy of self-overcoming and to determine its true import for contemporary education, it is necessary to understand Nietzsche's view of the self that is to be overcome. Nevertheless, previous interpretations of self-overcoming in the journals of the philosophy of education have lacked serious engagement with…

  14. Childhood, Philosophy and Play: Friedrich Schiller and the Interface between Reason, Passion and Sensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Philosophy for Children claims to foster not only critical thinking, but also creative and caring thinking. However, its theoretical foundations draw mainly on the analytic and pragmatist philosophical tradition. Consequently, and made evident by the choice of the terms "caring thinking" and "creative thinking", it seem to reduce these concepts…

  15. Awaiting Education: Friedrich Nietzsche on the Future of Our Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ansgar

    2017-01-01

    The republication of Nietzsche's lectures "On the Future of Our Educational Institutions" invites reconsideration of Nietzsche's thought on education. Though there is much in these lectures that might appeal to those struggling for the future of the humanities, or for the future of education more generally, I argue against their use in…

  16. [The "secret book" of Dr Friedrich Benjamin Osiander: anonymous births in the Göttingen Accouchierhaus, 1794-1819].

    PubMed

    Schlumbohm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The problem of anonymous or confidential deliveries, a subject of current controversy, has a long history. Some maternity hospitals offered the possibility for "clandestine" births as early as the 18th and 19th century. A recently emerged source about the maternity clinic of Göttingen University allows insight into the motives that led to keeping a birth secret and the consequences of such a clandestine birth for mother, father and child. The director of the institution, a professor of obstetrics, wrote case reports on the women, who paid a handsome sum for his help and the in-patient care they received. In return, these women could be admitted under a pseudonym, and thus falsify their child's birth certificate; moreover they were not used as teaching material for medical students and midwife apprentices, whereas "regular" patients had to give their names and, in return for being treated free of charge, be available for teaching purposes. The ten cases that have been painstakingly investigated reveal that the reasons that led the women and men to opt for an anonymous birth were manifold, that they used this offer in different ways and with different consequences. All of these pregnancies were illegitimate, of course. In one case the expectant mother was married. In several cases it would be the father who was married. Most of the women who gave birth secretly seem to have given the professor their actual details and he kept quiet about them--with the exception of one case where he revealed the contents of the case report many years later in an alimony suit. Only one of the men admitted paternity openly, but many revealed their identity implicitly by registering the pregnant woman or by accompanying her to the clinic. If the birth was to be kept secret the child needed to be handed over to foster parents. By paying a lump sum that covered the usual fourteen years of parenting, one mother was able to avoid any later contact with her son. In most cases contact seems to have been limited to the payment of this boarding money. One of the couples married later and took in the twins that had been born clandestinely out of wedlock. One mother kept close contact with her son through intermediaries. All of the women who gave birth in this clandestine fashion received practical as well as financial support, often from the child's father or from a relative. Few of them came by themselves. In those days, only women who used the maternity hospital free of charge would have been as isolated in the difficult perinatal period as are women today who choose to deliver their babies anonymously.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DB white dwarfs from the Hamburg/ESO survey (Friedrich+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, S.; Koester, D.; Christlieb, N.; Reimers, D.; Wisotzki, L.

    2000-11-01

    We present an analysis of 40 cool helium-rich white dwarfs found in the Hamburg/ESO survey. They were selected for follow-up spectroscopy because of their U-B colour below -0.18, the absence of strong absorption lines, and a continuum shape similar to that of a quasar. Effective temperatures for individual stars were determined by fitting model atmospheres of nearly pure helium with a small admixture of hydrogen. As a consequence of the selection criteria all but one sample stars have Teff below 20000K. Four stars clearly show helium and hydrogen lines in their spectra. In the spectra of another three, helium, hydrogen, and metal lines can be detected. For these stars hydrogen and metal abundances were also determined by fitting appropriate model atmospheres containing these elements. Seven sample stars most likely have helium-rich atmospheres but do not show any helium lines. They either have featureless spectra or show calcium lines. (4 data files).

  18. Knowledge Management to Exploit Agrarian Resources as Part of Late-Eighteenth-Century Cultures of Innovation: Friedrich Casimir Medicus and Franz Von Paula Schrank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popplow, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    This essay contributes to a recent strain of research that questions clear-cut dichotomies between "scientists" and "artisans" in the early modern period. With a focus on the exploitation of agrarian resources, it argues for the appreciation of a more complex panorama of intersecting knowledge systems spanning from botany as…

  19. Fathers of orthopaedics in Germany (eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries): Lorenz Heister in Helmsted; Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in Berlin; Heine and family in Würzburg.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In orthopaedic medicine in Germany, Lorenz Heister, practicing in the eighteenth century, is considered one of the fathers of German surgery and is renowned for his books on management of hemorrhage, wounds, fractures, bandaging, instrumentation and surgery. After Heister, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, orthopaedic medicine in Germany developed uniformly. In a period when few doctors were interested in a separate discipline of orthopaedics, Germany led in this field. Heine devoted himself to the development of the new profession of orthopaedics, and in 1816, he opened the first orthopaedic institute on German soil in the former monastery of St. Stephen, which later became known as the Karolinen-Institut. Along with Heine and his family, the special development of orthopaedics in Berlin may be attributed to the work of Dieffenbach who, in 1832, became professor at the University of Berlin and in 1840 director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery at Charité Hospital.

  20. Knowledge Management to Exploit Agrarian Resources as Part of Late-Eighteenth-Century Cultures of Innovation: Friedrich Casimir Medicus and Franz Von Paula Schrank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popplow, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    This essay contributes to a recent strain of research that questions clear-cut dichotomies between "scientists" and "artisans" in the early modern period. With a focus on the exploitation of agrarian resources, it argues for the appreciation of a more complex panorama of intersecting knowledge systems spanning from botany as…

  1. Institute of Astrophysics and Extraterrestrial Research of the Rhineland Friedrich-Wilhelm Bonn University (Germany, F.R.): Research field of interplanetary space and solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    In the field of astrophysics, subjects concerning galactic winds, cosmology, double star wind, and general relativity theory are studied. Contributions to the study of the upper atmosphere are made. Theoretical studies of the solar wind, and of the distribution of interstellar neutral gases on the heliosphere are performed.

  2. PREFACE: 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, Richard

    2004-12-01

    Universiteit Eindhoven, Netherlands Dr Martin Lampe Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC, USA Dr Jo Lister Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Lausanne, Switzerland Dr Paola Mantica Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Milan, Italy Professor Tito Mendonca Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal Dr Patrick Mora École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France Professor Lennart Stenflo Umeå Universitet, Sweden Professor Paul Thomas CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France Professor Friedrich Wagner Max-Planck-Institut fr Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany Professor Hannspeter Winter Technische Universität Wien, Austria

  3. Countering the Effects of Violent Transnational Crime: Major Findings of the Technical Seminar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    187 Richard Lowe (SOCA) – The Economics of the Opiate Trade ..................... 213 Friedrich Schneider ( Johannes Kepler ...Francisco Vice President, República de Colombia TBD Schneider, Prof. Dr. Friedrich Johannes Kepler University of Linz Yes Semesky, Mr. Don Drug...statistics. The morning session ended with a presentation by Professor Friedrich Schneider, Johannes Kepler University of Linz, on money laundering. He

  4. Advances in empirically based assessment: revised cross-informant syndromes and new DSM-oriented scales for the CBCL, YSR, and TRF: comment on Lengua, Sadowksi, Friedrich, and Fischer (2001).

    PubMed

    Achenbach, T M; Dumenci, L

    2001-08-01

    L. Lengua et al. (2001) proposed scoring the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; T. Achenbach, 1991b) on dimensions that "correspond to current conceptualizations of child symptomatology," (p. 695) embodied in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; 4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994). They concluded that their "results support the use of the new dimensions." Yet, their regressions and diagnostic efficiency statistics showed that DSM diagnoses were predicted less well by their dimensions than by CBCL syndromes that reflect actual patterns of problems. Not only these findings, but also the high correlations of their dimensions with CBCL syndromes and the lack of norms and validated clinical cutoffs for their dimensions, argue against use of their dimensions. To advance assessment and taxonomy, new national samples have been used to construct DSM-oriented scales and to revise cross-informant syndromes.

  5. Media Development and Economic Crisis. Communication Manual. Proceedings of a Panel Discussion Organized by Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung and North-South Forum (Bonn, West Germany, September 19, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaura, Ramesh, Ed.; And Others

    The discussion presented in this booklet was organized to foster international understanding by encouraging a genuine dialogue between the industrialized nations of the northern hemisphere and the developing nations in the southern hemisphere. The first section of the booklet presents introductory statements by the chairperson of the North-South…

  6. Modeling Storm Surges Using Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Abbreviations AMR Adaptive Mesh Refinement BE Backward Euler CG Continuous Galerkin Method CFL Courant -Friedrichs-Lewy Condition DG Discontinuous Galerkin Method...large time- steps whereas the explicit has to satisfy the Courant -Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. The CFL condition is a restriction on the maximum...time in- 17 tegrators are restricted by their time step. To determine the time step for explicit time integrators, we use the Courant -Friedrichs-Lewy

  7. Selected Publications in Image Understanding and Computer Vision from 1974 to 1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-18

    Friedrich -Schiller-Universitat, Jena, 1983. 20. British Pattern Recognition Association Second International Conference on Pattern Recognition (Oxford...Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 1982. 13. Autbild 81 (Automatische Bildverarbeitung, Jena, DDR, May 7-8, 1981). Friedrich -Schiller Universitat, Jena, 1982. B-I...Probleme der Bildverarbeitung, Georgenthal, DDR, December 13-17, 1982), Friedrich -Schiller Universitat, Jena, 1982. A.2. Paper Collections, Journals 22. E

  8. ’ISM’ Analysis: A Necessity for Effective Strategic Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Weltanschauung.” The concept has gone on to capture the attention from the likes of Peter Berger, Thomas Luckmann, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Engels . The same...challenging works of Western civilization: Aristotle, Plato, Thomas Aquinas, John Locke, Karl von Clausewitz, John Stewart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich ...notion of worldview could flourish” (Naugle, p. 59). No doubt influenced by Kant, Georg Wilhem Friedrich Hegel showed an interest in Weltanschauung

  9. Major Naval Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    der Theorie der operativen kunst der SSK, trans. Dieter Foerster and Bernd Kulbe (Dresden: Friedrich Engels Military Academy, March 1989; translation...Feil, ed., Grundlagen der Theorie der operativen kunst der SSK, trans. Dieter Foerster and Bernd Kulbe (Dresden: Friedrich Engels Military Academy...Seeoperationen (Dresden: Friedrich Engels Military Academy, 1973; translation of Operativnoye iskusstvo VMF [Leningrad: 1970]), pp. 11–12. 32. Ibid., p. 13

  10. Jin–Xin relaxation solution to the spatially-varying Burgers equation in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungkasi, Sudi; Laras, Fioretta

    2017-01-01

    We consider the spatially-varying Burgers equation in one dimension. We take the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume method and Jin–Xin relaxation method in solving the equation. According to our research, the Jin–Xin relaxation method produces a more accurate solution, as they produce smaller error than the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume method. However, the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume method is faster in computation than the Jin–Xin method.

  11. Process Performance: Words of Wisdom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    themselves. This is the trap Friedrich Nietzsche spoke of when he said, “Many are stubborn in pursuit of the path they have chosen, few in pursuit of...BrainyQuote.com 22. Powell, Colin. . Quotationspage.com. Retrieved September 28, 2011, from quotationspage.com 23. Nietzsche , Friedrich

  12. Neuronal Spoken Word Recognition: The Time Course of Processing Variation in the Speech Signal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schild, Ulrike; Roder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent neurobiological studies revealed evidence for lexical representations that are not specified for the coronal place of articulation (PLACE; Friedrich, Eulitz, & Lahiri, 2006; Friedrich, Lahiri, & Eulitz, 2008). Here we tested when these types of underspecified representations influence neuronal speech recognition. In a unimodal…

  13. When One Biographer "Borrows" from Another, the Dispute Gets Philosophical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Mark Anderson, a professor of philosophy at Belmont University, publishes an account of Nietzsche's life and work. He remembered liking "Friedrich Nietzsche" (Overlook Press, 2005), by the late independent scholar Curtis Cate, so he started rereading that one. But then he had second thoughts. After all, "Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical…

  14. Struve family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Struve, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (1793-1864); Struve, Otto Wilhelm (1819-1905), son of Friedrich; Struve, Karl Hermann (1854-1920), elder son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Gustav; Struve, Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (1858-1920), younger son of Otto Wilhelm, brother of Karl; Struve, Otto (1897-1963) [Otto Struve II], son of Gustav....

  15. When One Biographer "Borrows" from Another, the Dispute Gets Philosophical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Mark Anderson, a professor of philosophy at Belmont University, publishes an account of Nietzsche's life and work. He remembered liking "Friedrich Nietzsche" (Overlook Press, 2005), by the late independent scholar Curtis Cate, so he started rereading that one. But then he had second thoughts. After all, "Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical…

  16. Neuronal Spoken Word Recognition: The Time Course of Processing Variation in the Speech Signal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schild, Ulrike; Roder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent neurobiological studies revealed evidence for lexical representations that are not specified for the coronal place of articulation (PLACE; Friedrich, Eulitz, & Lahiri, 2006; Friedrich, Lahiri, & Eulitz, 2008). Here we tested when these types of underspecified representations influence neuronal speech recognition. In a unimodal…

  17. Is the U.S. National Security Strategy Balanced? An Assessment of the Role of Domestic Issues as Part of the National Security Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-10

    Budget Office, 82. 16Nye, 220-222. 17 Edward M. Earle, " Adam Smith , Alexander Hamilton, Friedrich List: The Economic Foundations of Military Power...34 Adam Smith , Alexander Hamilton, Friedrich List: the Economic Foundations of Military Power." Makers of Modern Strategy. Princeton; NJ: Princeton

  18. Pressure-induced phase transition in γ-MnOOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenroth, Wolfgang; Winkler, Bjoern; Milman, Victor

    2013-06-01

    At ambient conditions manganite, γ-MnOOH, crystallizes in space group P21/c (Kohler et al. 1997). A high pressure study by Suzuki (2006) up to 9 GPa gave a bulk modulus of 91(2) GPa, when the data was fitted with a 2nd order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Preliminary DFT calculation predicted a phase transition to an orthorhombic space group at pressures above 15 GPa. In order to test the prediction, natural γ-MnOOH was ground to powder and compressed in a DAC up to 70 GPa. Lattice parameters were determined from X-ray patterns recorded at the Extreme Conditions Beamline P02.2@PETRA III. A structural phase transition into an orthorhombic phase was observed at 47 GPa. The bulk modulus of the ambient pressure phase is 98(3) GPa with K' = 7.7(3). Currently, DFT +U calculations are carried out to understand the compression mechanism and the phase transition. Funding by the BMBF (project 05K10RFA) is gratefully acknowledged. We thank DESY Photon Science for beam time and Hanns-Peter Liermann and his team for support. Kohler T. et al., J Solid State Chemistry, 1997, 133, 486-500. Suzuki A., SPring-8 Exp. Report, 2006, 2006A1464.

  19. State selective Rydberg charge transfer and ionization in low energy ion-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perumal, A. N.; Tripathi, D. N.

    1998-10-01

    The Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation method with a core modified interaction potential has been used to study the single charge transfer in Na +and Ar + ions colliding with a variety of state selected Na Rydberg atom targets ( n=24, 28, 33, 40 and l=2) in the reduced velocity region v=0.2-2.0. The experimentally observed structures in the total capture cross section versus reduced velocity curves are reproduced by CTMC method. The n-distribution of final capture state has got two peaks viz. first one at nf= ni and the second one at a higher nf depending on the initial angular momentum in the velocity regime 0.4-0.6. These structures have been explained in terms of quasimolecular-ion formation and a classical model proposed by Roy et al. (B.N. Roy, D.N. Tripathi, D.K. Rai, Phys. Rev. A 5 (1972) 1252). The CTMC ionization cross section results are benchmarked with the recent experimental measurement of Makarov et al. (O.P. Makarov, D.M. Homan, O.P. Sorokina, K.B. MacAdam, in: F. Aumayr, G. Betz, H.P. Winter (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on the Physics of Electronics and Atomic Collisions, Vienna, 1997, p. FR052) for Na +-Na(24 d).

  20. Killing Initial Data on spacelike conformal boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetz, Tim-Torben

    2016-08-01

    We analyze Killing Initial Data on Cauchy surfaces in conformally rescaled vacuum space-times satisfying Friedrich's conformal field equations. As an application, we derive the KID equations on a spacelike ℐ-.

  1. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  2. A chemist's legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebach, Malte C.

    2016-09-01

    Although Friedrich Stromeyer is best remembered for writing one of the founding works in plant geography -- the forerunner to modern-day biogeography -- his contributions to chemistry should not be underestimated, argues Malte C. Ebach.

  3. The Black Forest in a Bamboo Garden: Missionary Kindergartens in Japan, 1868-1912.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollons, Roberta

    1993-01-01

    Traces the history of kindergartens in Japan. Maintains that the Japanese government embraced the concept and modified it to encourage modernization. Includes 10 photographs of wood block prints showing how Friedrich Froebel's moral lessons were replicated in Japanese settings. (CFR)

  4. An Exploration of the Source of Key Concepts and Principles in Froebel's Educational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang-Wook; Evans, Roy

    1996-01-01

    Traces the origins of Friedrich Froebel's views on children, curriculum, pedagogics, and didactics; the underpinnings of his beliefs concerning the nature of knowledge; and the kinds of knowledge and dispositions he believed were appropriate for children to acquire. (MDM)

  5. The Black Forest in a Bamboo Garden: Missionary Kindergartens in Japan, 1868-1912.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollons, Roberta

    1993-01-01

    Traces the history of kindergartens in Japan. Maintains that the Japanese government embraced the concept and modified it to encourage modernization. Includes 10 photographs of wood block prints showing how Friedrich Froebel's moral lessons were replicated in Japanese settings. (CFR)

  6. Zoellner studies at Archenhold Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, D.

    Historical research at Archenhold Observatory revealed that Karl Friedrich Zoellner was one of the central figures in the early history of astrophysics in Germany. Without his work the genesis of the new scientific discipline of astrophysics cannot be understood.

  7. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  8. CFD Tools for Design and Simulation of Transient Flows in Hypersonic Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-24

    slugs) and CFL is the specified Courant - Friedrichs-Lewy number. It is normally restricted to CFL ≤ 0.5 in the simulations discussed later. For each cell...here. In an unsteady, time-accurate flow simulation, the allowable timestep is constrained by the Courant -Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) criterion. In a...flow simulation codes. Beyond the list of authors, material in this paper has come from the efforts of Richard Morgan, David Mee, Tim McIntyre, Paul

  9. Operational Leadership: A Case of General Helmuth von Moltke (The Younger)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    makes his decision too late to have an impact. II. Historical Framework Helmuth Johannes Ludwig von Moltke, known as von Moltke (The Younger) to distin...T. N. Dupuy, A Genius for War (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentis-Hall, Inc. 1977) 140. 1 Otto Friedrich , Blood and Iron: From Bismarck to Hitler the von...Press, 1996) 160. 1 Tuchman, The Guns of August, 73. 1 Friedrich , Blood and Iron, 229. 1 Holmes, “The Schlieffen Plan,” 13. ii

  10. In the footsteps of astronomers in Bremen and Lilienthal. (German Title: Auf den Spuren von Astronomen in Bremen und Lilienthal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langkavel, Arno

    When Bremen and Lilienthal are mentioned, people interested in the history of astronomy will first of all remember Wilhelm Olbers (1785-1840) and Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745-1816). In addition to them, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777-1855) have also left their traces. Two walks describe the main memorial sites, which are all outdoors and easily accessible to the general public.

  11. Jin–Xin relaxation method for solving a traffic flow problem in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambar Sulistiyawati, Bernadetta; Mungkasi, Sudi

    2017-01-01

    We test the performance of the Jin–Xin relaxation and Lax–Friedrichs finite volume numerical methods in solving a traffic flow problem. In particular, we focus on traffic flow at a traffic light turning from red to green. Numerical solutions are compared with the analytical solution to the mathematical model. We find that the Jin–Xin relaxation solution is more accurate than the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume solution.

  12. Comparisons of numerical methods with respect to convectively dominated problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqi; Hutter, Kolumban

    2001-11-01

    A series of numerical schemes: first-order upstream, Lax-Friedrichs; second-order upstream, central difference, Lax-Wendroff, Beam-Warming, Fromm; third-order QUICK, QUICKEST and high resolution flux-corrected transport and total variation diminishing (TVD) methods are compared for one-dimensional convection-diffusion problems. Numerical results show that the modified TVD Lax-Friedrichs method is the most competent method for convectively dominated problems with a steep spatial gradient of the variables. Copyright

  13. Automatically Parallelizing Legacy Binary Code for Multicore Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Division Sensors Directorate //Signature// TODD A. KASTLE Chief, Aerospace Components & Subsystems Technology Division Sensors...algorithm in the worst case. Kavitha and Mathew [KM07] gave a slightly better variant. Recently, Ajwani, Friedrich and Meyer [AFM08] present a...Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4835:464–475, 2007. [AFM08] D. Ajwani, T. Friedrich, and U. Meyer . An

  14. Legitimate Use of Military Force Against State-Sponsored International Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Retired, �Oldest Weapon in the Arsenal: Terror,� Army 23, no. 8 (August 1973): 10-17. 57. Friedrich Nietzsche quoted in Neale, 11. 58. Niccolo...and factions of the Palestine Liberation Organization.56 Over the years, several political thinkers have written about this phenomenon. Friedrich ... Nietzsche wrote, �We are terrified by the idea of being terrified.�57 Niccolo Machiavelli advised in The Prince that �in actions of man, and

  15. An Evaluation of Individual Empowerment and Self-Efficacy on Sexual Harrassment in the Work Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    34 (Fulcher, 1992:23). Even though there are cases of matriarchal societies, the western belief of male dominance continued through the 1800s when Friedrich ... Nietzsche , a German philosopher stated, "Men shall be trained for war, and women trained for the recreation of the men: all else is folly. Too sweet...Nietsche, Friedrich . Thus Spake Zarathustra. New York: Random House, 1982. Nunnally, Jum C. Educational Measurement and Evaluation. New York: McGraw-Hill

  16. The Prediction of Detonation Velocities of Solid Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1941-01-17

    from Mean rate kT ,cc the mean,% 10 PETN. M = 316; Hfo -123,000 cal/mole; Ti = 4930 K; Di 2390 m/sec. Case I Data of Friedrich 0.50 3960 204 10 0.65...Data of others 124 cc at 46500K 1.67 8380 126 2 3-Nitroglycerine; M = 227; Hfo = -82,700; Ti = 5230; Di = 2360 Case I Data of Friedrich 1.59 8020 133...experimental data (continued) 27 0 Tetryl; M = 287; Hfo = 9,300; Ti = 3950 ; Di = 2360 Case III Data of Friedrich 1.00 5480 lbIJ 4 1.28 6500 177 2 1.45 7210 176

  17. [My great-grandfather Christian Batschelet (1813 - 1897) veterinarian in Walperswil (BE).].

    PubMed

    Baumann, H

    2010-01-01

    In the introduction I will start from a biographical novel on Friedrich Baumann, who was born in 1835 as an illegitimate child and later stood in high respect as building contractor, founder's president of the Swiss master builder's federation and politician, and we will look after his father who emigrated to America. In the following sections I will present the Batschelet family as well as the family of the veterinarian Christian Batschelet and the department for animal pharmaceutics of the academy in Bern. The time of the young veterinarian in Walperswil as well as his emigration and his life in the USA will also be examined and I will also introduce Christian Batschelet's son, Friedrich Baumann and his son, my father Erwin Friedrich Baumann.

  18. Neue Lautzeichen im Advanced Learners Dictionary (ALD). Stellungnahmen zum Pro und Kontra (New Sound Symbols in the Advanced Learners Dictionary [ALD]. Considerations Pro and Con)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielsprache Englisch, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The phonetic symbols in the "Advanced Learners Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London) are discussed critically in articles by L. Alfes, H. Arndt, E. Bauch, G. Dahlmann-Resing, W. Friedrich, E. Germer, B. Haycraft, H. P. Kelz. Reference is made to an earlier article "Neue Zeichen", by H. G. Hoffmann. (Text is in German.)…

  19. "Their Little Wooden Bricks": A History of the Material Culture of Kindergarten in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochner, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the material culture of kindergarten in the United States in relation to the production and consumption of materials and kindergarten theory and pedagogy. The focus is on Friedrich Froebel's building gifts as they were manufactured and sold by the Milton Bradley Company from 1869 to 1939. A review of trade catalogues over the…

  20. Sand Face: Humanism after Antihumanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcilla, René V.

    2015-01-01

    Have the critiques of humanism of the 1960s and 1970s buried this idea once and for all? Or is there a way that humanism can absorb some of this antihumanist thinking and thereby renew itself? Drawing on writings of Michel Foucault, Charles Taylor, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger in order to illuminate artworks by Robert Smithson and…

  1. International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM) symposium on Aerothermodynamics in Combustors Held in Taipei, Taiwan on 3-5 June 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    LS29JT, U.K. Prof. G. Chernyi, Institute of Mechanics, Moscow University, Mos- cow 117192, U. S. S. R. Prof. F. Durst, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitit...seiiting a niultichamber geometry, is istalled [5). initially slow deflagration can be increased by ftir- The blockage ratio is defined as the ratio of tire

  2. On the Dynamics of the Educational Behavior of Well-Off and Low-Income Russians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliucharev, G. A.; Kofanova, E. N.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors make use of the findings of the national sociological survey "The Rich and the Poor in Today's Russia," conducted in March 2003 in collaboration with the Russian Federation Office of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation. The main sample of the survey (the national Russian representative sample) consisted of 2,118…

  3. Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Patty Smith

    This reprint of an encyclopedia article describes the history of kindergarten education through approximately 1940. Kindergarten is defined as "a specialized school adapted to the nature and needs of young children from the fourth to the sixth year." Kindergarten was originated by Friedrich Froebel in Germany around 1840. Froebel's…

  4. Teachers Unions at Risk of Losing "Agency Fees"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonucci, Mike

    2016-01-01

    For 50 years, American education policy has often danced to the tune of labor realities. "Friedrichs v. California Teachers Association" is a case that awaits hearing by the U.S. Supreme Court that could dramatically change this picture. The case, if decided for the plaintiffs, could end the practice of "agency" fees--money…

  5. Impossible Geometric Constructions: A Calculus Writing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awtrey, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a writing project that offers students the opportunity to solve one of the most famous geometric problems of Greek antiquity; namely, the impossibility of trisecting the angle [pi]/3. Along the way, students study the history of Greek geometry problems as well as the life and achievements of Carl Friedrich Gauss. Included is…

  6. The Riemann Zeta Zeros from an Asymptotic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In 1859, on the occasion of being elected as a corresponding member of the Berlin Academy, Bernard Riemann (1826-66), a student of Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), presenteda lecture in which he presented a mathematics formula, derived from complex integration, which gave a precise count of the primes on the understanding that one of the terms in…

  7. "Like Sending Coals to Newcastle": Impressions from and of the Anglo-American Kindergarten Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawrotzki, Kristen D.

    2007-01-01

    Developed by the German pedagogue Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), the Kindergarten offered a revolutionary educational program for young children. In the mid-nineteenth century, after several decades of limited success in the German states, Froebel's Kindergarten began to be transplanted to other countries, including the USA and England. The…

  8. Froebel Is Dead; Long Live Froebel! The National Froebel Foundation and English Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawrotzki, Kristen D.

    2006-01-01

    The German pedagogue Friedrich Froebel lived from 1782 to 1852. The pedagogy that made Froebel famous was encompassed in his Kindergarten, a set of strictly defined methods and activities for the education of young children, which he developed and refined in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Froebel's Kindergarten reached England in…

  9. Features described and illustrated in 1684 suggesting Meckel-Gruber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kompanje, Erwin J O

    2003-01-01

    In 1684, Mr. Christopher Krahe described a monstrous child, born in Denmark on Friday, February 29, 1684. The description is suggestive of a diagnosis of Meckel-Gruber syndrome (dysencephalia splanchnocystica). This may represent the oldest description and illustration of the syndrome, of which the first detailed description is attributed to Johann Friedrich der Jüngere in 1822.

  10. Mental Maps and Ethnocentrism: Geographic Characterizations in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    Reexamines geographic thought regarding ethnocentrism as expressed in the writings including Ellen Churchill Semple, Hendrick Willem Van Loon, Ellsworth Huntington, Roswell C. Smith, J. Olney, Henry Thomas Buckle, Georg Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottfried Von Herder, Charles de Montesquieu, Ibn Khaldun, and Hippocrates. (DB)

  11. On the Need for Dionysian Education in Schools Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Although much has been written about Friedrich Nietzsche's views on education over the years, and much has also been written about Dionysus, god of wine and ecstasy, very little attention has been given to the meaning of, and need for, Dionysian education. In this article, Sean Steel attempts to begin that project. Drawing Nietzsche's…

  12. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desilet, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general. (SR)

  13. "Groundhog Day, Deja Vu," and the Myth of the Eternal Recurrence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voeltz, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Reveals that through the use of the movie "Groundhog Day," students in humanities courses can grasp Friedrich Nietzsche's myth of eternal recurrence; the myth addresses the question of what if everything that occurred in one's life occurred again just as it happened before. Discusses the similarities between Nietzsche's myth and the…

  14. "Nietzsche als Erzieher" Kontra "Nietzsche in der Padagogik?" Ein Vergleich der Anglo-Amerikanischen un der Deutschen Nietzshe-Interpretationen am Vorabend des 21. Jahrhunderts ("Nietzsche as Educator" versus "Nietzsche in Pedagogics?" A Comparison of Anglo-American and German Readings of Nietzsche at the Dawning of the 21st Century).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenow, Eliyahu

    2000-01-01

    Examines the pedagogical interpretations of Friedrich Nietzsche published during the past two decades in German and English comparing the pedagogical characterizations in these publications. States that German researchers exclude him from educational theory and philosophy. Reveals the cultural differences in pedagogical reflection. (CMK)

  15. Montaigne, Nietzsche, and the Mnemotechnics of Student Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This essay explores the educational implications of the thought of Michel de Montaigne and Friedrich Nietzsche on the subject of memory. It explores the sorts of cultural memory practices that Nietzsche has called "mnemotechnics", that is, the aspects of memory use that allow human beings to live life more fully. Nietzsche and Montaigne's work is…

  16. The Use and Abuse of Education for Culture; Lesson from Nietzsche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratos, John

    2000-01-01

    States that Friedrich Nietzsche identifies three ways the past is used. Using examples from ethnic, cultural, and political projects, considers the three abuses of education for culture: (1) the need for monumental history; (2) antiquarian uses of education for culture; and (3) critical uses of education for culture. (CMK)

  17. Taking Up Space: Museum Exploration in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Museums have become a crucible for questions of the role that traditional art and art history should play in contemporary art. Friedrich Nietzsche argued in the nineteenth century that museums can be no more than mausoleums for effete (fine) art. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, curators dispelled such blanket pessimism by…

  18. A (R)evaluation of Nietzsche's Anti-Democratic Pedagogy: The Overman, Perspectivism, and Self-Overcoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that Friedrich Nietzsche's concept of self-overcoming has been largely misinterpreted in the philosophy of education journals. The misinterpretation partially stems from a misconstruction of Nietzsche's perspectivism, and leads to a conception of self-overcoming that is inconsistent with Nietzsche's educational ideals. To…

  19. Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  20. Making College More Expensive: The Unintended Consequences of Federal Tuition Aid. Policy Analysis. No. 531

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Gary

    2005-01-01

    As Congress debates the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act (HEA), it should heed Friedrich Hayek's warning that democracy is "peculiarly liable, if not guided by accepted common principles, to produce over-all results that nobody wanted." One result of the federal government's student financial aid programs is higher tuition…

  1. "Their Little Wooden Bricks": A History of the Material Culture of Kindergarten in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochner, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the material culture of kindergarten in the United States in relation to the production and consumption of materials and kindergarten theory and pedagogy. The focus is on Friedrich Froebel's building gifts as they were manufactured and sold by the Milton Bradley Company from 1869 to 1939. A review of trade catalogues over the…

  2. The Potentiation of Meaning through Translative Reading: Poetic Translation and the Case of Gottfried Benn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ian Egon

    2009-01-01

    The theory of literary translation has been plagued by a disregard of the comprehensive aspect of the task since its inception, largely focusing on the challenges of the expressive aspect instead. This development throughout the history of translation--with the notable exceptions of Martin Luther and Friedrich Schleiermacher--has led to…

  3. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  4. Dynamics, Stability, and Evolutionary Patterns of Mesoscale Intrathermocline Vortices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Courant -Friedrich-Lewy HPCMP High Performance Computing Modernization Program MITgcm Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation...and published estimates of lateral diffusivities vary by several orders of magnitude (e.g., Ruddick and Gargett 2003; Ruddick and Richards 2003). For...interleaving. Ruddick and Richards (2003) recommend creating a database of intrusion observations and developing a method to estimate lateral fluxes

  5. Pre-School Education in Egypt, Oman and Japan: A Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    This paper examines preschool education in Egypt, Oman, and Japan in the light of the comparative education approach developed by George Bereday utilizing description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison. The literature of early childhood education is surveyed, beginning with the three most influential pioneers: Friedrich Wilhelm…

  6. Defense Management in the 1980s: The Role of the Service Secretaries,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    in military organizations those difficulties are 24 particularly acute. In his classic study of innovation and the military. Edward Katzenbach ...p. 48. 70. Edward L. Katzenbach , Jr., "The Horse Cavalry in the Twentieth Century," in Carl J. Friedrich and Seymour E. Harris (eds.), Public Policy

  7. A Convenient Model for the Evolution of Early Psychology as a Scientific Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert

    1981-01-01

    To help college students understand psychology, the article suggests that instructors develop curriculum based on the relationship between scientific and technological advances and the development of early psychology. Views of many nineteenth century psychologists are summarized, including Johann Friedrich Herbart, Hermann Lotze, and Georg…

  8. The Particularities and the Research Missions of the Educational Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Wu

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the analysis of the theoretical drawbacks of classical pedagogy stretching from Johann Friedrich Herbart to John Dewey, this paper advocates that educational research in China in the new century should take on a theory mission that calls for the classification of the knowledge of educational theory and the definition of its…

  9. Home Teaching and Herbart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Val D.; Reed, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Viewing the growing disenchantment with state-controlled schooling, the authors predict that home teaching will become an established educational alternative within a short time, and they reflect on the teachings and writings of Johann Friedrich Herbart, an eighteenth-century advocate of educating children at home. (Editor/SJL)

  10. Play as Education in the School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Friedrich Froebel, an early advocate of the use of play in kindergarten teaching, argued that the ultimate goal of education was developing the creative person. According to Froebel, teachers could promote creativity through play by using gifts, occupations, and mother play songs. By contrast, Johann Herbart called for a subject centered…

  11. Von Steuben and the German Contribution to the American Revolution: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krewson, Margrit B.

    This Library of Congress selected bibliography highlights the efforts of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, other German and German-American military leaders, and the Hessian auxiliary military forces in assisting the American colonies during the Revolutionary War. The booklet is divided into five parts. Part 1 provides historical information…

  12. Astronomical dilettante or misunderstood genius? On Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's image in the history of science. (German Title: Astronomischer Dilettant oder verkanntes Genie? Zum Bild Johann Hieronymus Schroeters in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Günther

    The paper deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works - especially by Wilhelm Olbers and Carl Friedrich Gauß - and also later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations voiced by astronomers and historians.

  13. Reprint Series: Memorable Personalities in Mathematics: Nineteenth Century. RS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) Laplace; (2) Carl Friedrich Gauss; (3) Wolfgang and Johann Bolyai; (4) Evariste Galois; and (5) Josiah Willard Gibbs.…

  14. Reuniting Art and Nature in the Life of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch-Nelson, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes looking at the history of education can be a bit frustrating. Examination of the past is necessary, however, if people are to move forward responsibly for the sake of the child. In this article, the author examines the common ancestry of the kindergarten, art, and nature study. As the founder of the kindergarten, Friedrich Froebel played…

  15. Did the American Herbartians Have a Research Base?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westfall, Barry H.

    The origins of the Herbartian Movement began with the writings of Johan Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841), a German philosopher and educator. He believed that, through instruction, the mind and morals of the child could be molded. For this purpose, ideas are available from two sources: experience, which furnishes knowledge of nature, and social…

  16. Payback Time? Discourses of Lack, Debt and the Moral Regulation of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighton, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses recent policy and discourse in the UK lifelong learning sector to identify a tension in discourse which positions teacher educators as essential to the knowledge economy while simultaneously insisting on the deficits they represent. Drawing on critical analyses from Friedrich Nietzsche, Maurizio Lazzarato and Gilles Deleuze, I…

  17. The "Encounter" as an "Event of Truth" in Education: An Anthropological-Pedagogical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantazis, Vasileios E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Vasileios Pantazis examines how two philosophers having different orientations acknowledge and study the phenomenon of the "encounter" ("Begegnung") and its fundamental importance to human life and education. On the one hand, Otto Friedrich Bollnow drew on existential philosophy and philosophical anthropology in his analysis of the…

  18. "Translated, It Is: …"--An Ethics of Transreading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Huiwen

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by Friedrich Nietzsche's idea of philology and William Gass's concept of transreading, Huiwen (Helen) Zhang employs "transreader" to suggest the integration of four roles in one: reader, translator, writer, and scholar. "Transreader" recognizes that close reading, literary translation, creative writing, and…

  19. Payback Time? Discourses of Lack, Debt and the Moral Regulation of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighton, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses recent policy and discourse in the UK lifelong learning sector to identify a tension in discourse which positions teacher educators as essential to the knowledge economy while simultaneously insisting on the deficits they represent. Drawing on critical analyses from Friedrich Nietzsche, Maurizio Lazzarato and Gilles Deleuze, I…

  20. Changing Homeland Security: Shape, Patterns, Not Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Nietzsche wrote about this process: To make plans and project designs brings with it many good sensations; and whoever had the strength to be...Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche , Human, All Too Human (Stanford University Press, 2000). 3 The phrase “homeland security community” and the pronoun “we

  1. A (R)evaluation of Nietzsche's Anti-Democratic Pedagogy: The Overman, Perspectivism, and Self-Overcoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that Friedrich Nietzsche's concept of self-overcoming has been largely misinterpreted in the philosophy of education journals. The misinterpretation partially stems from a misconstruction of Nietzsche's perspectivism, and leads to a conception of self-overcoming that is inconsistent with Nietzsche's educational ideals. To…

  2. Taking Up Space: Museum Exploration in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Museums have become a crucible for questions of the role that traditional art and art history should play in contemporary art. Friedrich Nietzsche argued in the nineteenth century that museums can be no more than mausoleums for effete (fine) art. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, curators dispelled such blanket pessimism by…

  3. "Nietzsche als Erzieher" Kontra "Nietzsche in der Padagogik?" Ein Vergleich der Anglo-Amerikanischen un der Deutschen Nietzshe-Interpretationen am Vorabend des 21. Jahrhunderts ("Nietzsche as Educator" versus "Nietzsche in Pedagogics?" A Comparison of Anglo-American and German Readings of Nietzsche at the Dawning of the 21st Century).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenow, Eliyahu

    2000-01-01

    Examines the pedagogical interpretations of Friedrich Nietzsche published during the past two decades in German and English comparing the pedagogical characterizations in these publications. States that German researchers exclude him from educational theory and philosophy. Reveals the cultural differences in pedagogical reflection. (CMK)

  4. The madness of Nietzsche: a misdiagnosis of the millennium?

    PubMed

    Cybulska, E M

    2000-08-01

    This article represents a personal discussion about Nietzsche's mental illness, which formed part of a larger paper 'The masks of Nietzsche and eternal return of the repressed'. This was presented at the 6th Annual Conference of The Friedrich Nietzsche Society, September 1996, Manchester UK, as reported by Nussbaumer-Benz (1998).

  5. The "Hard Problem" and the Quantum Physicists. Part 2: Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. U. M.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second part of a review of the work of quantum physicists on the "hard part" of the problem of mind. After an introduction which sets the scene and a brief review of contemporary work on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) the work of four prominent modern investigators is examined: J.C. Eccles/Friedrich Beck; Henry Stapp;…

  6. Changing Images of Childhood. Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goellner, Lydia A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the changing images of childhood throughout history, focusing on how changes are reflected in beliefs and educational and social practices toward children with special needs. Describes impact of a painful childhood on Friedrich Froebel and actor Cary Grant. Suggests ways to enhance children's lives, including government subsidized…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between English Composition Teachers' Beliefs about Written Feedback and Their Written Feedback Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandercook, Sandra Ficker

    2012-01-01

    For teachers of freshman English composition, the most time-consuming aspect of teaching is responding to student papers (Anson, 2012; Straub, 2000b). Teachers respond in various ways, but most teachers agree that they should offer written feedback to students (Beach & Friedrich, 2006). However, little research has been conducted to determine…

  8. "Like Sending Coals to Newcastle": Impressions from and of the Anglo-American Kindergarten Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawrotzki, Kristen D.

    2007-01-01

    Developed by the German pedagogue Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), the Kindergarten offered a revolutionary educational program for young children. In the mid-nineteenth century, after several decades of limited success in the German states, Froebel's Kindergarten began to be transplanted to other countries, including the USA and England. The…

  9. Development and Self-Identity: Hegel's Concept of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, A. W.; George, Michael

    1982-01-01

    This essay draws together various ideas on education that appear in the works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and demonstrates how these ideas relate to Hegel's total philosophy. Education, by retracing the path of the mind's self-realization, raises the individual's subjective consciousness to recognition of the rationality underlying social…

  10. Between Knowledge and "Plagiarism," or, How the Chinese Language Was Studied in the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Q. S.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at descriptions of the Chinese language in Western intellectual writings as indicative of a particular process of knowledge formation and reproduction. Beginning with the first systematic account produced by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), it charts views offered by John Wilkins (1614-1672), James Beattie (1735-1803), Friedrich von…

  11. Marxisms as Utopias: Evolving Ideologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Immanuel

    1986-01-01

    Contends that there have been three stages or eras of social science: the philosophic, the scientific, and the as yet unnamed present era. Maintains that the three eras match, in chronological development, the successive periods of Marxian thought and the three different views of utopia offered by Thomas More, Friedrich Engels, and Karl Mannheim.…

  12. Validating a Psychology as a Helping Profession Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervasio, Amy Herstein; Wendorf, Craig A.; Yoder, Natalie F.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an 11-item Psychology as a Helping Profession (PHP) scale that measured aspects of personal growth/helping skills and applied helping. The scale was only weakly correlated with Friedrich's (1996) Psychology as Science (PAS) scale, implying that the 2 scales measure different conceptions of the nature of psychology. Psychology majors…

  13. The "Hard Problem" and the Quantum Physicists. Part 2: Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. U. M.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second part of a review of the work of quantum physicists on the "hard part" of the problem of mind. After an introduction which sets the scene and a brief review of contemporary work on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) the work of four prominent modern investigators is examined: J.C. Eccles/Friedrich Beck; Henry Stapp;…

  14. The Origin of the s, p, d, f Orbital Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2007-01-01

    The theory of s, p, d and f dealing with the line spectra of the alkali metals during the period 1881 based on analogies with the harmonic ratios of sound is described. Friedrich Hund followed Bohr's practice of labelling the various shells and subshells by replacing the secondary quantum number with the series notations (s, p, d, and f), which…

  15. Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  16. The First Treatise in Comparative Education Rediscovered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The Latin essay "De re Scholastica Anglica cum Germanica Comparata" (English and German school education compared) published in 1795-1798 by the Freiberg/Saxony grammar school principal Friedrich August Hecht is the first treatise in comparative education. The rediscovery of the text, its earlier mentioning in the history of comparative…

  17. Political "Bildung" in the Context of Discipline, Instruction, and Moral Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) is considered the founding father of the science of education. In this article, I will try to show that Herbart sees the promotion of political "Bildung" as the task of discipline, instruction, and moral guidance, and that his work presents important components of a theory of political…

  18. A Reflection on Educating College Students about the Value of Public-Sector Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Christine; Volchok, Edward

    2016-01-01

    This year, labor unions got a reprieve: The Supreme Court deadlocked in a much-anticipated case that could have turned almost every state into Wisconsin, where partisan interests have crippled union power. The case, "Friedrichs vs. California Teachers Association," addressed a previous case, "Abood v. Detroit Board of…

  19. Mental Maps and Ethnocentrism: Geographic Characterizations in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    Reexamines geographic thought regarding ethnocentrism as expressed in the writings including Ellen Churchill Semple, Hendrick Willem Van Loon, Ellsworth Huntington, Roswell C. Smith, J. Olney, Henry Thomas Buckle, Georg Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottfried Von Herder, Charles de Montesquieu, Ibn Khaldun, and Hippocrates. (DB)

  20. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's…

  1. Neue Lautzeichen im Advanced Learners Dictionary (ALD). Stellungnahmen zum Pro und Kontra (New Sound Symbols in the Advanced Learners Dictionary [ALD]. Considerations Pro and Con)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielsprache Englisch, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The phonetic symbols in the "Advanced Learners Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London) are discussed critically in articles by L. Alfes, H. Arndt, E. Bauch, G. Dahlmann-Resing, W. Friedrich, E. Germer, B. Haycraft, H. P. Kelz. Reference is made to an earlier article "Neue Zeichen", by H. G. Hoffmann. (Text is in German.)…

  2. An Experience in Froebel's Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elizabeth S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the activities of a classroom teacher and her students at Addison Gardens British Nursery School in London, England, which was influenced by, and incorporated the tenets of, Friedrich Froebel's educational philosophy of children's learning. Discusses the application of Froebel's principles to art education. (BB)

  3. EBEC 2012--an energetic time in Freiburg.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Paolo; Giorgio, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The seventeenth European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC) took place in September 2012 at the Albert-Ludwigs-University in Freiburg, Germany, and was hosted by Thorsten Friedrich. The conference is a biannual event that brings together researchers from across the globe to discuss progress in this diverse and challenging field.

  4. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  5. The Origin of the s, p, d, f Orbital Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2007-01-01

    The theory of s, p, d and f dealing with the line spectra of the alkali metals during the period 1881 based on analogies with the harmonic ratios of sound is described. Friedrich Hund followed Bohr's practice of labelling the various shells and subshells by replacing the secondary quantum number with the series notations (s, p, d, and f), which…

  6. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's…

  7. Validating a Psychology as a Helping Profession Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervasio, Amy Herstein; Wendorf, Craig A.; Yoder, Natalie F.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an 11-item Psychology as a Helping Profession (PHP) scale that measured aspects of personal growth/helping skills and applied helping. The scale was only weakly correlated with Friedrich's (1996) Psychology as Science (PAS) scale, implying that the 2 scales measure different conceptions of the nature of psychology. Psychology majors…

  8. "Translated, It Is: …"--An Ethics of Transreading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Huiwen

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by Friedrich Nietzsche's idea of philology and William Gass's concept of transreading, Huiwen (Helen) Zhang employs "transreader" to suggest the integration of four roles in one: reader, translator, writer, and scholar. "Transreader" recognizes that close reading, literary translation, creative writing, and…

  9. Poly(Enaminonitriles) Containing Biphenyl and Terphenyl Rings in the Main Chain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-30

    This work was supported by funds from IBM and the Office of Naval Research. REFERENCES a) K. Wallenfels . Chimia .20 203 (1966); Chem. Abstr., 66, 2109...1967) b) K. Wallenfels . K. Friedrich. J. Rieser, W. Ertel. K. Thieme. Angew. Chem ’nt. Ed. Eng. 15, 261 1976) . (a) J. A. Moore, D. R. Robello

  10. The Kindergarten in Germany and the United States, 1840-1914: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Kindergarten pedagogy, which was based on educational play and cognitive development, was designed by the German Friedrich Frobel in the 1840s to train the future citizens of the new state that liberals aspired to create. It created a professional role for women, whom Frobel believed were innately gifted teachers of young children. German…

  11. An English Course in Science and Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reno, Robert P.

    1979-01-01

    One way in which changing attitudes toward scientific knowledge and technology can be made the focus of attention in a college literature course is suggested by this analysis of Christopher Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus," Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein," and Friedrich Durrenmatt's "The Physicists." (JMD)

  12. Art, Water, and the Environment: Hundertwasser and Ukiyo-e

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    This brief article explores the work of Friedrich Stowasser (1928-2000), an Austrian artist who modified his name throughout his career, eventually settling upon the invented name of Friedensreich Hundertwasser. Both Hundertwasser's original Slavic surname and his invented surname mean about the same: hundred waters. Both names illustrate the…

  13. None So Blind: Early Childhood Education and Care--The Connective Tissue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The author makes sense of the story of his professional life through the eyes of several important writers and teachers on education and says that, for him, Bridget Plowden ranks alongside John Dewey, Friedrich Froebel, Ben Morris and A.S. Neill.

  14. Froebel Is Dead; Long Live Froebel! The National Froebel Foundation and English Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nawrotzki, Kristen D.

    2006-01-01

    The German pedagogue Friedrich Froebel lived from 1782 to 1852. The pedagogy that made Froebel famous was encompassed in his Kindergarten, a set of strictly defined methods and activities for the education of young children, which he developed and refined in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Froebel's Kindergarten reached England in…

  15. Montaigne, Nietzsche, and the Mnemotechnics of Student Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This essay explores the educational implications of the thought of Michel de Montaigne and Friedrich Nietzsche on the subject of memory. It explores the sorts of cultural memory practices that Nietzsche has called "mnemotechnics", that is, the aspects of memory use that allow human beings to live life more fully. Nietzsche and Montaigne's work is…

  16. On the Need for Dionysian Education in Schools Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Although much has been written about Friedrich Nietzsche's views on education over the years, and much has also been written about Dionysus, god of wine and ecstasy, very little attention has been given to the meaning of, and need for, Dionysian education. In this article, Sean Steel attempts to begin that project. Drawing Nietzsche's…

  17. Suspended Sediment and Seabed Modifications Driven by Energetic Waves and a Strong Coastal Current

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    River Delta, Marine Geology, 203, 95-107, 2004. Friedrichs, C.T., and M.E. Scully, Modeling deposition by wave-supported gravity flows on the Po...Observations and modeling of wave-supported sediment gravity flows on the Po prodelta and comparison to prior observations from the Eel shelf

  18. A Reflection on Educating College Students about the Value of Public-Sector Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Christine; Volchok, Edward

    2016-01-01

    This year, labor unions got a reprieve: The Supreme Court deadlocked in a much-anticipated case that could have turned almost every state into Wisconsin, where partisan interests have crippled union power. The case, "Friedrichs vs. California Teachers Association," addressed a previous case, "Abood v. Detroit Board of…

  19. Meeting Standards in the Changing Landscape of Today's Kinder"garden"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, Deanna Pecaski

    2011-01-01

    First conceptualized by Friedrich Froebel as a "children's garden," kindergarten classrooms in Canada today emphasize play and exploration as the primary methods of learning and development. This garden provides multiple opportunities for children to become lost in spontaneous play and creative interactions with peers. Kindergarten has…

  20. Rediscovering Froebel: A Call to Re-Examine His Life and Gifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the life of Friedrich Froebel, the founder of the kindergarten movement and his first 10 "gifts to children." The author suggests that Froebel's philosophy of German Romanticism caused the waning use of his methods. He continues to state that Froebel's development of instructional material and structured play-based curricula…

  1. The Dilemma of Scripted Instruction: Comparing Teacher Autonomy, Fidelity, and Resistance in the Froebelian Kindergarten, Montessori, Direct Instruction, and Success for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: More than a century before modern controversies over scripted instruction, the Froebelian kindergarten--the original kindergarten method designed by Friedrich Froebel--and Maria Montessori's pedagogy were criticized for rigidly prescribing how teachers taught and children learned. Today, scripted methods such as Direct…

  2. The Riemann Zeta Zeros from an Asymptotic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In 1859, on the occasion of being elected as a corresponding member of the Berlin Academy, Bernard Riemann (1826-66), a student of Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), presenteda lecture in which he presented a mathematics formula, derived from complex integration, which gave a precise count of the primes on the understanding that one of the terms in…

  3. LAYER DEPENDENT ADVECTION IN CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advection methods used in CMAQ require that the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition be satisfied for numerical stability and accuracy. In CMAQ prior to version 4.3, the ADVSTEP algorithm established CFL-safe synchronization and advection timesteps that were uniform throu...

  4. The Investigation of Hypervelocity Gouging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) facility at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico , is a ground based test facility designed to test items...Friedrichs KO, and Lewy H, ‘ Uber die partiellen Differenzengleichungen der mathematischen Physik’, Mathematische Annalen Vol. 100, pp 32-74 (1928

  5. Block Iterative Methods for Elliptic and Parabolic Difference Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Wisconsin 53706. (3) University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545. *Will also appear as Los Alamos Scientic...Courant, K. Friedrichs, and H. Lewy, Uber die Partiellen Differenzengleichungen der Mathematischen Physik, Math. Ann., 100 (1928), pp. 32-74 = On the

  6. The Implications of the Changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe on NATO-WARSAW Pact Relationship and the U.S. Department of Defense Budget

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    140, v. XXXII, March/April 1990, p. 135 -136. 83Ibid. 84Wolfgang G. Gibowski and Holli A. Semetko , Public Opinion in the USA and the Federal Republic... Semetko , H. A., Public Opinion in the USA and the Federal Republic Germany: A Two Nation Study, Friedrich-Naumann- Stiftung, March 1990. Goodby, J

  7. The correct typification of Tradescantia crassula (Commelinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Funez, Luís A.; Ferreira, João Paulo R.; Aona, Lidyanne Y. S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Here, we present evidence that the alleged correction of the typification of Tradescantia crassula recently proposed by Pellegrini, Forzza and Sakuragui is erroneous. Furthermore, we clarify misconceptions concerning the epitype of T. crassula, the specimen B-100521014, which was collected by Friedrich Sello in southern Brazil, and is not original material for T. crassula. PMID:28781563

  8. The correct typification of Tradescantia crassula (Commelinaceae).

    PubMed

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Funez, Luís A; Ferreira, João Paulo R; Aona, Lidyanne Y S

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present evidence that the alleged correction of the typification of Tradescantia crassula recently proposed by Pellegrini, Forzza and Sakuragui is erroneous. Furthermore, we clarify misconceptions concerning the epitype of T. crassula, the specimen B-100521014, which was collected by Friedrich Sello in southern Brazil, and is not original material for T. crassula.

  9. Revitalising "Bildsamkeit"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeverot, Herner

    2016-01-01

    In the book "Forgotten Connections. On Culture and Upbringing," originally from 1983, the late German educator Klaus Mollenhauer interprets Johann Friedrich Herbart's educational concept of "Bildsamkeit", i.e., the ability and willingness to be educated. Furthermore, Mollenhauer conceives "Bildsamkeit" as growing out…

  10. Love and Ruin(s): Robert Frost on Moral Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    This essay begins where Alasdair MacIntyre's "After Virtue" begins: facing a moral world in ruin. MacIntyre argues that this predicament leaves us with a choice: we can follow the path of Friedrich Nietzsche, accepting this moral destruction and attempting to create lives in a rootless, uncertain world, or the path of Aristotle, working to reclaim…

  11. Love and Ruin(s): Robert Frost on Moral Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    This essay begins where Alasdair MacIntyre's "After Virtue" begins: facing a moral world in ruin. MacIntyre argues that this predicament leaves us with a choice: we can follow the path of Friedrich Nietzsche, accepting this moral destruction and attempting to create lives in a rootless, uncertain world, or the path of Aristotle, working to reclaim…

  12. Teachers Unions at Risk of Losing "Agency Fees"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonucci, Mike

    2016-01-01

    For 50 years, American education policy has often danced to the tune of labor realities. "Friedrichs v. California Teachers Association" is a case that awaits hearing by the U.S. Supreme Court that could dramatically change this picture. The case, if decided for the plaintiffs, could end the practice of "agency" fees--money…

  13. Reuniting Art and Nature in the Life of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch-Nelson, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes looking at the history of education can be a bit frustrating. Examination of the past is necessary, however, if people are to move forward responsibly for the sake of the child. In this article, the author examines the common ancestry of the kindergarten, art, and nature study. As the founder of the kindergarten, Friedrich Froebel played…

  14. Between Knowledge and "Plagiarism," or, How the Chinese Language Was Studied in the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Q. S.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at descriptions of the Chinese language in Western intellectual writings as indicative of a particular process of knowledge formation and reproduction. Beginning with the first systematic account produced by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), it charts views offered by John Wilkins (1614-1672), James Beattie (1735-1803), Friedrich von…

  15. The First Treatise in Comparative Education Rediscovered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The Latin essay "De re Scholastica Anglica cum Germanica Comparata" (English and German school education compared) published in 1795-1798 by the Freiberg/Saxony grammar school principal Friedrich August Hecht is the first treatise in comparative education. The rediscovery of the text, its earlier mentioning in the history of comparative…

  16. Sand Face: Humanism after Antihumanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcilla, René V.

    2015-01-01

    Have the critiques of humanism of the 1960s and 1970s buried this idea once and for all? Or is there a way that humanism can absorb some of this antihumanist thinking and thereby renew itself? Drawing on writings of Michel Foucault, Charles Taylor, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger in order to illuminate artworks by Robert Smithson and…

  17. Eucalyptus helped solve a timber problem: 1853-1880

    Treesearch

    Gayle M. Groenendaal

    1983-01-01

    California was settled in an era before the full impact of the industrial revolution that was taking place in Great Britain was fully realized, a revolution that was to change the course of western culture more drastically than any previous time in history. Friedrich Engels wrote in 1845 of the industrial revolution as "a revolution which at the same time changed...

  18. The Close Aboard Bastion: A Soviet Ballistic Missile Submarine Deployment Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    reviews Legal and Political factors regarding the CAB strategy. 39Friedreich Ruge, The Soviets As Naval ODDonents , Naval Institute Press, Annapolis...Washington, D.C., 1975. Ruge, Friedrich, The Soviets As Naval ODDonents , Naval Institute Press, Annanpolis, Maryland, 1979. Scott, Harriet and William

  19. Changing Images of Childhood. Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goellner, Lydia A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the changing images of childhood throughout history, focusing on how changes are reflected in beliefs and educational and social practices toward children with special needs. Describes impact of a painful childhood on Friedrich Froebel and actor Cary Grant. Suggests ways to enhance children's lives, including government subsidized…

  20. Art, Water, and the Environment: Hundertwasser and Ukiyo-e

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    This brief article explores the work of Friedrich Stowasser (1928-2000), an Austrian artist who modified his name throughout his career, eventually settling upon the invented name of Friedensreich Hundertwasser. Both Hundertwasser's original Slavic surname and his invented surname mean about the same: hundred waters. Both names illustrate the…

  1. Meeting Standards in the Changing Landscape of Today's Kinder"garden"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, Deanna Pecaski

    2011-01-01

    First conceptualized by Friedrich Froebel as a "children's garden," kindergarten classrooms in Canada today emphasize play and exploration as the primary methods of learning and development. This garden provides multiple opportunities for children to become lost in spontaneous play and creative interactions with peers. Kindergarten has…

  2. The urban wilderness park: an oxymoron?

    Treesearch

    Susan P. Rust

    1995-01-01

    The concept of wilderness in an urban context is explored by using Friedrich Wilderness Park in San Antonio, Texas, as an example. The issue of how natural resources protection and environmental education can be accomplished in spite of inadequate public funding is addressed.

  3. Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and the Aesthetically Sublime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenabeele, Bart

    2003-01-01

    Much has been written on the relationship between Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche. Much remains to be said, however, concerning their respective theories of the sublime. In this article, the author first argues against the traditional, dialectical view of Schopenhauer's theory of the sublime that stresses the crucial role the sublime…

  4. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  5. If We Knew What Spirituality Was, We Would Teach for It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yob, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    Two extraordinary recent experiences that the author would call highly "spiritual" are explored against the background of ideas provided by writers such as Friedrich Schleiermacher, Rudolf Otto, Paul Tillich, and Abraham Maslow to unpack what spirituality is, with particular attention to the emotions and the insights involved in spirituality. The…

  6. Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and the Aesthetically Sublime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenabeele, Bart

    2003-01-01

    Much has been written on the relationship between Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche. Much remains to be said, however, concerning their respective theories of the sublime. In this article, the author first argues against the traditional, dialectical view of Schopenhauer's theory of the sublime that stresses the crucial role the sublime…

  7. "Supposing History Is a Woman--What Then?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1984-01-01

    The sexual imagery of Friedrich Nietzsche and English historian Michael Oakeshott in characterizing perspectives on the past, especially the comparison of the relationship of a historian to history with that of a man to a woman, are compared and discussed. (MSE)

  8. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  9. Introducing a Microcomputer to a Preschool Classroom: The Effects on Children's Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nida, Robert E.; And Others

    Two studies investigated the effect of microcomputers on children's social behavior in preschool classrooms. The first study was conducted at a university nursery school; the second took place at a university day care center. Guided by a list of behaviors selected from the Friedrich and Stein Observation Scale, observations were made at both…

  10. The Fun of Learning Starts in Kindergarten: Preschool Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bildung und Wissenschaft, 1989

    1989-01-01

    In our modern industrial society, kindergartens are an indispensable, independent educational facility for children. Priority is given to the all-round, comprehensive promotion of children's natural resources rather than to subject-tied programs. German educator Friedrich Frobel (1782-1852) developed the concept of kindergarten, attaching great…

  11. Konkordanz zu Schillers aesthetischen und philosophischen Schriften (Concordance of Schiller's Aesthetic and Philosophical Writings).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Gerlinde Ulm

    This document provides a computer-based concordance of the vocabulary used in Friedrich von Schiller's "Aesthetic and Philosophical Writings" as they appear in Volumes 20 and 21 of Schiller's "Werke," 1967 edition, edited by Benno von Wiese. The first section includes the entire text, each sentence numbered for research…

  12. Seminar on the Role of Communication in the Euro-Arab Dialogue, Cairo, December 18-21, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Bonn (West Germany).

    Presented in this booklet are descriptions of the sessions at a seminar on the role of communication in European-Arab relations, organized by the German Friedrich Ebert Foundation in collaboration with the Ministry of Information of Egypt. Following an introduction and a list of items on the seminar agenda, the booklet describes the opening…

  13. Counter Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Operations. Air Force Doctrine Document 2-1.8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    atomic arms. This explanation was based on a number of considerations: The high caliber of German theoretical and experimental physicists like Otto ... Hahn , Paul Harteck, Werner Heisenberg, Fritz Strassman, and Carl-Friedrich Von Weizsacker. German control of Europe’s only uranium mine after the

  14. LAYER DEPENDENT ADVECTION IN CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The advection methods used in CMAQ require that the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition be satisfied for numerical stability and accuracy. In CMAQ prior to version 4.3, the ADVSTEP algorithm established CFL-safe synchronization and advection timesteps that were uniform throu...

  15. Laser Exposure of High-Pressure Arc Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-20

    Kettlitz, H. Schneidenbach, and H. Hess Institute for Low-Temperature Plasma Physics Friedrich- Ludwig -Jahn-Strasse 19, D- 17489 Greifswald, Germany...ment of an appropriate anode model. where a is the Stefan- Boltzmann constant. The thermal conductivity coefficient X and the total emissivity of the

  16. Froebel and the Rise of Educational Theory in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baader, Meika Sophia

    2004-01-01

    This contribution compares entries on Friedrich Froebel and the kindergarten in German and United States' histories of education from 1857 to 1933. In the American histories, Froebel appears as the great "hero" of education of the 19th century, whereas in the German histories, Pestalozzi is the "hero." This difference in the…

  17. Over Two Years, What Did Froebel Say to Pestalozzi?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clem

    2000-01-01

    Argues that Friedrich Froebel used essential principles of Heinrich Pestalozzi, related to pedagogy and curriculum. Investigates two periods when Froebel and Pestalozzi might have conversed to gain information about the other person. Believes that the educational principles of child-centered education originated from Pestalozzi, not Froebel. (CMK)

  18. Rediscovering Froebel: A Call to Re-Examine His Life and Gifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the life of Friedrich Froebel, the founder of the kindergarten movement and his first 10 "gifts to children." The author suggests that Froebel's philosophy of German Romanticism caused the waning use of his methods. He continues to state that Froebel's development of instructional material and structured play-based curricula…

  19. Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Patty Smith

    This reprint of an encyclopedia article describes the history of kindergarten education through approximately 1940. Kindergarten is defined as "a specialized school adapted to the nature and needs of young children from the fourth to the sixth year." Kindergarten was originated by Friedrich Froebel in Germany around 1840. Froebel's…

  20. Writing with Light: Jacob Riis's Ambivalent Exposures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The current interest in multimodal rhetoric was anticipated by Jacob Riis's social documentary texts and presentations during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In contrast with the socialist urban critiques presented by Friedrich Engels, Riis's work demonstrated profound ambivalence toward the city's poor. While calling for reform…

  1. Marxism and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick J.; Soloski, John

    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had little to say specifically about communication and language, but their works hint at the direction their critique of communication might have taken. Language and consciousness are conditioned by specific means of production and sociopolitical circumstances and are therefore ideological. The domain of ideology…

  2. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  3. Hermeneutics and the Study of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossberg, Lawrence; Christians, Clifford G.

    The manner in which hermeneutics (the study of the interpretive process) has treated the phenomenon of interpretation is examined in this paper. Following a historical review of hermeneutics from its Hellenic roots through the phase of traditional hermeneutics to the major reformulation of the field by Friedrich Schleiermacher and Wilhelm Dilthey…

  4. Development and Self-Identity: Hegel's Concept of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, A. W.; George, Michael

    1982-01-01

    This essay draws together various ideas on education that appear in the works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and demonstrates how these ideas relate to Hegel's total philosophy. Education, by retracing the path of the mind's self-realization, raises the individual's subjective consciousness to recognition of the rationality underlying social…

  5. [Considering all facets of man].

    PubMed

    Quentin, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Michel Foucault and Erving Goffman, through their works, questioned the notion of mental illness as well as traditional psychiatry. However, Friedrich Hegel, in reference to Philippe Pinel and to "human treatment" is opposed to any unilateral model which would tend to exclude the institution, insanity and therefore the patient.

  6. Historical Roots of the Project Approach in the United States: 1850-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuCharme, Catherine C.

    This paper contends that the historical roots of the project approach in the United States can give strength to early childhood educators today, offering insight and models for the implementation of child-oriented curriculum. The project approach to teaching and learning evolved as a result of the educational ideas of Friedrich Froebel, William…

  7. Impossible Geometric Constructions: A Calculus Writing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awtrey, Chad

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a writing project that offers students the opportunity to solve one of the most famous geometric problems of Greek antiquity; namely, the impossibility of trisecting the angle [pi]/3. Along the way, students study the history of Greek geometry problems as well as the life and achievements of Carl Friedrich Gauss. Included is…

  8. Lifestyle and Landscapes: The Element of Culture in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballas, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Addressing the study of man/land relationships, this article discusses the following: cultural geography, environmental determinism (a la Friedrich Ratzel), "possibilism" (a la Paul Vidal de la Balche), cultural landscapes (a distinction is made between cultural and natural landscapes), and environmental perception. (JC)

  9. The Use and Abuse of Education for Culture; Lesson from Nietzsche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratos, John

    2000-01-01

    States that Friedrich Nietzsche identifies three ways the past is used. Using examples from ethnic, cultural, and political projects, considers the three abuses of education for culture: (1) the need for monumental history; (2) antiquarian uses of education for culture; and (3) critical uses of education for culture. (CMK)

  10. Marxisms as Utopias: Evolving Ideologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Immanuel

    1986-01-01

    Contends that there have been three stages or eras of social science: the philosophic, the scientific, and the as yet unnamed present era. Maintains that the three eras match, in chronological development, the successive periods of Marxian thought and the three different views of utopia offered by Thomas More, Friedrich Engels, and Karl Mannheim.…

  11. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  12. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    initiates the week of numerous friendly meetings with Soviet soldiers throughout the country. He said that 140 years ago, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ...of being destroyed, this scientifically founded optimism of Marx and Engels is becoming more of a material force than it has ever been before. In

  13. Writing with Light: Jacob Riis's Ambivalent Exposures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The current interest in multimodal rhetoric was anticipated by Jacob Riis's social documentary texts and presentations during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In contrast with the socialist urban critiques presented by Friedrich Engels, Riis's work demonstrated profound ambivalence toward the city's poor. While calling for reform…

  14. Numerical Study of Active Flow Control for a Transitional Highly-Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Count Using Vortex Generator Jet Separation Control,” ASME Paper GT-2002-30602, Jun. 2002. [16] Eulitz, F. and Engel , K., “Numerical Investigation of...Around a Low Pressure Turbine Blade,” Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation IV, ERCOFTAC Series Vol. 8 , edited by B. J. Guerts, R. Friedrich , and O

  15. Applications of Strengths-Based Leadership Theory for the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    practice: From research to application (pp. 256-268). New York: Wiley. 26 Kaplan, S., Cortina, J., Ruark, G. A., Orvis, K., Engel , K...job satisfaction and work climate. Journal of Nursing Management, 16, 578– 587. Shipman, A., Friedrich , T., Vessey, B., Connelly, S., Day, E

  16. An Introductory Characterization of a Combat-Casualty-Care Relevant Swine Model of Closed Head Injury Resulting from Exposure to Explosive Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-08

    Cerebrovascular resuscitation after polytrauma and fluid restriction. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 204, 261-275. Frasch, M., Walter, B., Brodhun, M., Friedrich , H...McGurk, D., Thomas, J., Cox, A., Engel , C, and Castro, C. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers return- ing from Iraq. N. Eng. J. Med

  17. Marxism and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick J.; Soloski, John

    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had little to say specifically about communication and language, but their works hint at the direction their critique of communication might have taken. Language and consciousness are conditioned by specific means of production and sociopolitical circumstances and are therefore ideological. The domain of ideology…

  18. Revitalising "Bildsamkeit"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeverot, Herner

    2016-01-01

    In the book "Forgotten Connections. On Culture and Upbringing," originally from 1983, the late German educator Klaus Mollenhauer interprets Johann Friedrich Herbart's educational concept of "Bildsamkeit", i.e., the ability and willingness to be educated. Furthermore, Mollenhauer conceives "Bildsamkeit" as growing out…

  19. The "Encounter" as an "Event of Truth" in Education: An Anthropological-Pedagogical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantazis, Vasileios E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Vasileios Pantazis examines how two philosophers having different orientations acknowledge and study the phenomenon of the "encounter" ("Begegnung") and its fundamental importance to human life and education. On the one hand, Otto Friedrich Bollnow drew on existential philosophy and philosophical anthropology in his analysis of the…

  20. A Study of the Holocaust, Student Readings. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    This book of student readings is intended to provide factual information on the Holocaust and help students understand the importance of individual choice and responsibility for the people of a free society. Topics covered include: (1) "Racism and Anti-Semitism in Germany"; (2) an excerpt from "Friedrich" by Hans Peter Richter…

  1. If We Knew What Spirituality Was, We Would Teach for It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yob, Iris M.

    2011-01-01

    Two extraordinary recent experiences that the author would call highly "spiritual" are explored against the background of ideas provided by writers such as Friedrich Schleiermacher, Rudolf Otto, Paul Tillich, and Abraham Maslow to unpack what spirituality is, with particular attention to the emotions and the insights involved in spirituality. The…

  2. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-26

    losses are, and Jean Paul Sartre , Friedrich Nietzsche, Abraham Maslow, what are its lessons of experience are all matters that we and Sigmund Freud as...in a "love triangle." Some Chinese-made television dramas have The "star," in jeans and sneakers, shows off his or her followed suit. A period drama

  3. Protest Movements and the Security Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany Since 1950.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    for one has only to recall the effects that other past radical German thinkers have had on society, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Feuerbach...Hegel and Nietzsche . Other alternatives to INF, which include varieties of conventional defenses, and pacifist notions of unilateral withdrawals, can all

  4. The Use and Abuse of Socrates in Present Day Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rud, Anthony G., Jr.

    The philosophical and educational significance of the present study lies in its attempt to clarify the value and importance of the Socratic legacy for education, in addition to underscoring the difficulty of understanding that legacy. Perspectives on Socrates and his legacy, from Friedrich Nietzsche to contemporary critics, such as Bruce Kimball…

  5. "Groundhog Day, Deja Vu," and the Myth of the Eternal Recurrence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voeltz, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Reveals that through the use of the movie "Groundhog Day," students in humanities courses can grasp Friedrich Nietzsche's myth of eternal recurrence; the myth addresses the question of what if everything that occurred in one's life occurred again just as it happened before. Discusses the similarities between Nietzsche's myth and the…

  6. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desilet, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general. (SR)

  7. Nietzsche among the Scholars. A Bibliometric Analysis and Study of Nietzsche Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Matthew T.

    This paper addresses the literary canon surrounding the nineteenth century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, in order to inform philosophy librarians as to the nature of the particular body of literature. Using the "Philosopher's Index" database to locate all the Nietzschean literature published between 1986 and 1995, defining…

  8. "Supposing History Is a Woman--What Then?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1984-01-01

    The sexual imagery of Friedrich Nietzsche and English historian Michael Oakeshott in characterizing perspectives on the past, especially the comparison of the relationship of a historian to history with that of a man to a woman, are compared and discussed. (MSE)

  9. Form--a matter of generation: the relation of generation, form, and function in the epigenetic theory of Caspar F. Wolff.

    PubMed

    Witt, Elke

    2008-12-01

    The question, how organisms obtain their specific complex and functional forms, was widely discussed during the eighteenth century. The theory of preformation, which was the dominant theory of generation, was challenged by different alternative epigenetic theories. By the end of the century it was the vitalist approach most famously advocated by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach that prevailed. Yet the alternative theory of generation brought forward by Caspar Friedrich Wolff was an important contribution to the treatment of this question. He turned his attention from the properties of matter and the forces acting on it towards the level of the processes of generation in order to explain the constitution of organismic forms. By regarding organic structures and forms to be the result of the lawfulness of ongoing processes, he opened up the possibility of a functional but non-teleological explanation of generation, and thereby provided an important complement to materialist and vitalist approaches.

  10. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 9; (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions deal with astronomical events of the past 1000 years. We elucidate the person of the single European observer of the supernova of 1006, and the views of Christoph Scheiner and Otto von Guericke on the structure and substance of the cosmos. A study of the development of the Copernican and the cosmological principles conclude this group of themes. Biographical investigations were carried out on the clockmaker Nikolaus Lilienfeld, the astronomers Johann Wurzelbau, Friedrich Wilhelm Toennies and Boris Karpov as well as the “panbabylonist” Alfred Jeremias. Astronomers can be active also in poetry and fiction. This is shown in the studies of Johann Leonard Rost and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Finally, Johannes Hevelius' Observatory in Danzig/Gdansk, destroyed by a fire in 1679, is reconstructed by means of printed sources, old maps and photographs. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  11. From "The Depleted Self" to "The Will to Believe": Excavating the Hermeneutics of Donald Capps.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Yolanda

    2017-09-05

    The concept of "reframing" lies at the heart of the pastoral psychology of Donald Capps. In previous articles I have argued that the process of reframing follows a circular hermeneutics. An excavation of Capps' hermeneutics reveals foundations in the fields of philosophy and psychology. This article focuses on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder, Friedrich Schleiermacher, William James and Paul Ricoeur. It explores the differences and commonalities between William James and Friedrich Schleiermacher's understanding of religious experience as well as Paul Ricoeur's understanding of narrativity and traces these strains to Capps' pastoral psychology. As illustration of his pastoral approach to healing and wholeness the problem of "the depleted self," so prevalent in "our narcissistic age," encounters the healing narrative of Jesus that appeals to "the will to believe."

  12. History of the cushing reflex.

    PubMed

    Fodstad, Harald; Kelly, Patrick J; Buchfelder, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Increasing systolic and pulse pressure with bradycardia and respiratory irregularity are signs of increased intracranial pressure, leading to cerebral herniation and fatal brainstem compression. This phenomenon, the vasopressor response, is generally known as the Cushing reflex based on Harvey Cushing's experimental work in Europe in 1901 and 1902. However, similar experiments had been carried out decades earlier by others, notably Paul Cramer, Ernst von Bergmann, Ernst von Leyden, Georg Althann, Friedrich Jolly, Friedrich Pagenstecher, Henri Duret, Bernard Naunyn, and Julius Schreiber. Cushing initially failed to give credit to the work of these predecessors. Nonetheless, he studied the brain's reaction to compression more carefully than previous researchers and offered an improved explanation of the pathophysiology of the phenomenon named after him.

  13. [Schiller and the history of medicine].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel; Neuhausen, Karl August

    2014-01-01

    Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), one of the most renowned German poets, also received a professional training (1776-80) as surgeon at the military academy at Stuttgart. It is almost unknown that Schiller received a formal education in medical history during the first year of his academic curriculum. His exam in medical history included the public defense of 38 Latin theses presenting historical interpretations, philological criticism and an evaluation of 18th century medicine side by side. These theses had been compiled by his teacher Johann Friedrich Consbruch, who recommended an eclectic use of contemporary knowledge and was an adherent of Haller's experimental medicine. This paper presents a thorough examination of these doctrines in historical perspective. As our investigation shows, at Schiller's time medical history as an academic discipline was primarily used to emphasize medicine's significance as a healing art and to ascertain the practicing physician's professional identity.

  14. Some remarks on the Hijazi inequality and generalizations of the Killing equation for spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Thomas; Chul Kim, Eui

    2001-01-01

    We generalize the well-known lower estimates for the first eigenvalue of the Dirac operator on a compact Riemannian spin manifold proved by Friedrich [Math. Nachr. 97 (1980) 117-146] and Hijazi [Math. Phys. 104 (1986) 151-162; J. Geom. Phys. 16 (1995) 27-38]. The special solutions of the Einstein-Dirac equation constructed recently by Friedrich/Kim are examples for the limiting case of these inequalities. The discussion of the limiting case of these estimates yields two new field equations generalizing the Killing equation as well as the weak Killing equation for spinor fields. Finally, we discuss the two-and three-dimensional case in more detail.

  15. Lecture Notes on Engineering Measurement for Software Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    atmospheric pressure, ioniza- tion of either sign equal to one electrostatic unit of charge Nikola Tesla American physi- tesla : magnetic 1 weber per...scale) Charles R. Richter (scale) Michael Faraday (2 answers) Wilhelm Rontgen Enrico Fermi Nikola Tesla Karl Friedrich Gauss Allesandro Volta Joseph... tesla matician, astro- flux density nomer 1777-1855 Joseph Henry American physi- henry: inductance inductance of a circuit in which cist 1797-1878 the

  16. Fighting Tomorrows Fire Today: Leveraging Intelligence for Scenario-Based Exercise Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    2005, the focus shifted again to an all-hazards approach.2 Regardless of the nature of the emergency, collaboration among competing agencies is...psychologists from the Department of Intercultural Business Communication, Friedrich-Schiller-University in Jena, Germany, explain the psychological...61 Kim S. Cameron and Robert E. Quinn, Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture : Based on the Competing Values Framework, rev. ed (San

  17. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 3: Aus dem Leben des Instituts (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 3: The Life of the Institute)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    wesentlich niedrigeren Preise, in kleinen Gaststdtten ein. Sehr beliebt war das >Tam-Tamo, wo es ftir wenig Geld zdhe Schnitzel und hervorragende Avocados und...ausreichend bemnessen; sie erlaubten insbesondere in der Phase der Erstausstattung eine grol3zUlgige Beschaffung aller ftir Lehre und Forschung...Fakultdt der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat in Bonn auf. Ein besonderes Ereignis unter den damaligen Bedingungen stellte ftir mich ein

  18. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  19. Numerical Simulations, Mean Field Theory and Modulational Stability Analysis of Thermohaline Intrusions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    importance) to those of baroclinic eddies (Ruddick and Richards , 2003a, Joyce et al., 1978). Intrusions can be an essential component of the global...scheme and periodicity in all dimensions. The time-step, used to solve partial differential equations, is limited by the Courant -Friedrichs-Lewy...than a certain value. The CFL condition for pure advection schemes (one dimension) is given by: u t C x ∆ < ∆ (4) where C is the Courant number, u

  20. High Work, High-Efficiency Turbines for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Addendum to AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2013-0198

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    finite difference methods. The beginning of modern numerical analysis is sometimes attributed to a famous paper by Courant , Friedrichs, and Lewy...Examination Mitch Wolff, Ph.D. Scott Thomas, Ph.D. Joseph Shang, Ph.D. Rolf Sondergaard, Ph.D. John Clark, Ph.D. Richard Branam, Ph.D., Major USAF 317...also like to thank my dissertation committee members for making this a more complete work. Drs. Mitch Wolff, Joseph Shang, Scott Thomas, Richard Branam

  1. Method of Lines Transpose an Implicit Vlasov Maxwell Solver for Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-17

    commas, e.g. Smith, Richard , J, Jr. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES). Self-explanatory. 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...solution method, which is un- conditionally stable (or A-stable) - that is, it is not subject to the Courant -Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction limiting the...and Jiazong Zhang, A finite-difference time-domain method without the courant stability conditions, Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, IEEE 9 (1999

  2. Depth perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirola, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    In most disciplines, finding the distance from one object to the next is, at least in theory, a simple operation. Not so in astronomy. While the size of Earth itself was determined with a fair degree of accuracy in ancient times, the scale of the solar system wasn't fully understood until just a few centuries ago, and the distances to even the closest of stars wasn't reliably determined until Friedrich Bessel measured the distance to 61 Cygni in 1838.

  3. Understanding the Nature of Bureaucracy: An Integration of the Organizational and Public Choice Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    of the Lausanne school, founded by Leon Wairas, and continued by the Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto (Rothbard, 1991:76). Consequently, some of the...between the physical and social sciences. As Friedrich Hayek points out, Vilfredo Pareto , a modern founder of mathematical economics, never intended to...price theory (Do equilibria exist? Are they stable? Pareto efficient? Hlow are they obtained?). (1989:3,41) The works of Niskanen (1971), Breton (1974

  4. Flow Separation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    Born, Constantin Caratheodory, Richard Couiant, Kurt Friedrichs, Werner Heisenberg, Gustav Herglotz, Erich von Hoist, Pascual Jordan, Walther Nernst...existence of these two flow regimes in boundary layers was discovered by PRANDTL when EIFFEL [8] published in 1912 his measurements on the drag of...simultaneously by G. EIFFEL in Paris and became so successful that other wind tunnels were modelled after it in many countries. Fig. 18 gives an impression of

  5. Independent External Peer Review Report of the Dredged Material Management Plan for Green Bay, Wisconsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    Roseville, MN ► Call & Nicholas, Inc., Tucson , AZ ► Sitka Corporation, Kirkland, WA ► RMT, Inc., Madison and Milwaukee, WI ► STS Consultants, Ltd...performance ► Michael, Best & Friedrich, Milwaukee and Madison, WI, 1983 and 1984, on coastal slope stabilization; 1984, on earth construction...during dredging operations, and delineating new sand borrow sources. Duffield Associates —Project Engineer Delaware City Flood Mitigation Plan

  6. Cooperation and Integration: Keeping Austria’s Forces Relevant for 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    December, 12, 2012). 59 Johann Frank Johann Pucher, “Strategie Und Sicherheit 2012” (Anton Pelinka: Die Oesterreichische Aussen- und...Sicherheitspolitik), Boehlau Verlag, 2012, 637. 60 Johann Frank Johann Pucher, “Strategie Und Sicherheit 2012” (Thomas Mayer, Sicherheitspolitik nach dem Psst...Proposal, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Berlinn 2010, http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/id/ipa/07075.pdf, (accessed September 20, 2012), 55. 65 European

  7. A Model of Emotion Management for U.S. Army Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Research Product 2011-03 A Model of Emotion Management for U.S. Army Amanda Shipman, Tamara Friedrich, Brandon...University of Oklahoma Technical review by Melinda J. Roberts, U.S. Army Research Institute Christopher L. Vowels , U.S. Army Research Institute...of Emotion Management for U.S. Army Leaders 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER W91WAW-08-P-0438 5b. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 622785 6

  8. Furious Frederich: Nietzsche's neurosyphilis diagnosis and new hypotheses.

    PubMed

    André, Charles; Rios, André Rangel

    2015-12-01

    The causes of Friedrich Nietzsche's mental breakdown in early 1889 and of the subsequent slow decay to end-stage dementia along ten years will possibly remain open to debate. The diagnosis of syphilitic dementia paralytica, based only on medical anamnesis and physical examination, was considered indisputable by Otto Binswanger. On the other hand, taking into account recently described diseases, selectively collected evidence lend some support to alternative hypotheses: basal forebrain meningioma, CADASIL, MELAS and frontotemporal dementia.

  9. Multiphase flow modeling based on the hyperbolic thermodynamically compatible systems theory

    SciTech Connect

    Romenski, E.

    2015-03-10

    An application of the theory of thermodynamically compatible hyperbolic systems to design a multiphase compressible flow models is discussed. With the use of such approach the governing equations are derived from the first principles, formulated in a divergent form and can be transformed to a symmetric hyperbolic system in the sense of Friedrichs. A usage of the proposed approach is described for the development of multiphase compressible fluid models, including two-phase flow models.

  10. Standing Fast: German Defensive Doctrine on the Russian Front During World War II; Prewar to March 1943,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    coalition whose combined resources exceeded those of the Central Powers. The German command team of Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich ...w -r~fu %% AP’ .. "-.’. , t NN %Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, commander of the Field Marshal Erich von Manstein, commander of % ~~German Sixth...Gittingen: Erich Borries. 1960). 149: and Horst Grossman, Geschichte der rheinisch-u’estfdischen 6. Infantere-Division 1939- 1945 (Bad Nauheim: Hans

  11. Resolving Ethical Challenges in an Era of Persistent Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    surprising, given his exposure to philosophers like Kant, who emphasized the role of will, and Friedrich Hegel , who empha- sized a dialectical process...of reasoning. But Paret notes that while Clausewitz was certainly exposed to Hegel and Kant, he did not seem to apply their insights directly to his...of great thinkers like Kant and Hegel in how he ap- proached the subject. 21. Victor D. Hanson, Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of

  12. Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT/Weapon of Mass Destruction Incident. Volumes 1 and 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Decontamination Guide Clotting Rnnoind Decontamination Po«tD J^ i St - - fiTT mefOu&boo f ill I ••inn — inooora •••• ••••• Figure 10-2. Cold...Decontamination of Warfare Agents: The History of Biological Warfare; 2008. Friedrich Frischknecht; Andre Richards and Marc- Michael Blum. 13

  13. France, Germany, Greece and the United Kingdom: An Analysis and Comparison of Budget Deficits and Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Liberty, 2008a). Friedrich August Hayek, who was building his economic theory models at the same time as Keynes, believed that Keynesian policies... theories on government budget deficits and defense spending and the European Union’s Stability and Growth Pact. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Government budget...research, theories on government budget deficits and defense spending and the European Union’s Stability and Growth Pact. vi

  14. A brief overview on IRM function across evolution.

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, Martin; Höhne, Martin; Huber, Tobias B

    2014-01-01

    The description of the Rst protein by Karl-Friedrich Fischbach and colleagues was a milestone in the discovery of the irre cell recognition module (IRM). IRM proteins represent a family of immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion proteins that orchestrate intercellular adhesion and signaling events necessary for the development of various tissues. This review briefly summarizes the fundamental role of IRM proteins for neuronal wiring and filtration in organisms spanning the evolutionary distance from Drosophila (nephrocyte diaphragm) to humans (slit diaphragm).

  15. Electronic Energies for Neon Dimer Dication Radiative Charge Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    The Journal of Chemical Physics , 90, 1018 (1989). . James S. Cohen, and Barry...Schneider, The Journal of Chemical Physics , 61, #8, 3230-3239 (1974). s Friedrich Grein, Sigrid D. Peyerimhoff, and Robert J. Buenker, The Journal of Chemical Physics , 82...1, 353-363 (1985). 7 F. Grein and S. D. Peyerimhoff, The Journal of Chemical Physics , 87 #8, 4684-4692 (1987). s D.

  16. Life after INF (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces): West Germany in the Year 2000.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-14

    adversely affected. THE RULING CLASS "The ruling ideas of each age have been the ideas of its ruling class." Karl Marx 7 Those born between 1940 and...deterrent presence of foreign military forces are its two centers of gravity. THE ECONOMY AND MITTELEUROPA Over a century ago Karl Marx outlined four major...Says Statistics Office," The German Tribune (Hamburg), 13 September 1987, p. 15. 7. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, translated

  17. Some observations on a new numerical method for solving Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.

    1981-01-01

    An explicit-implicit technique for solving Navier-Stokes equations is described which, is much less complex than other implicit methods. It is used to solve a complex, two-dimensional, steady-state, supersonic-flow problem. The computational efficiency of the method and the quality of the solution obtained from it at high Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) numbers are discussed. Modifications are discussed and certain observations are made about the method which may be helpful in using it successfully.

  18. Victories are not Enough: Limitations of the German Way of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    nationalistic banner, in 1864 he involved Prussia and Austria in a war against Denmark over the territories of Schleswig- Holstein . Though Austria and Prussia...and the Prussians. That 18 conflict, inherent in the dual administration of Schleswig- Holstein and which supported Bismarck’s anti-Austrian posture...Friedrich von Holstein , were convinced that Bismarck’s efforts to integrate Russia into the mainstream of the European security system and keep it away

  19. Wave-function model for the CP violation in mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberi Fathi, S. M.; Courbage, M.; Durt, T.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple quantum model of the kaons decay providing an estimate of the CP symmetry violation parameter. We use the two-level Friedrich's Hamiltonian model to obtain a good quantitative agreement with the experimental estimate of the violation parameter for neutral kaons. A temporal wave-function approach, based on an analogy with spatial wave-functions, plays a crucial role in our model.

  20. Ethics: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    organizational decision making and behavior. http://josephsoninstitute.org Kant , Immanuel . The Critique of Pure Reason, translated by J.M.D. Meiklejohn. The...Meredith. Vol. 42 of Great Books of the Western World. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1955. 613pp. (AC1 .G7 v.42) Kant , Immanuel . The Philosophy of... Kant : Immanuel Kant’s Moral and Political Writing. Edited by Carl J. Friedrich. New York: Modern Library, 1993. 525pp. (B2758 .F7 1993) Kidder

  1. [Genealogy of the Meckel anatomy family (from Hem[b]sbach)].

    PubMed

    Viebig, Michael; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    The main goal of our investigations is to complete the genealogy of the famous Meckel dynasty. It is important to answer a lot of questions which have remained unanswered until now. During the investigations we were able to find the names of three children who died early and were dissected by their father Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803). Besides, it was possible to extend distinctly our knowledge of the various genealogical lines of the Meckel family.

  2. Instruction at the Hopkins Marine Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-29

    Thur. 9.10 Video editing - Mark Shelly 10 Optical recording of membrane potential - Lev Ram 4 Mechanisms of Ca oscillations - Stryer Fri. 9-10...marine macrophyte Ulva fenes - Ple’.e ,address all correspondeince nd request% for rrprinits to G. trata. U. fnestrata is a benthic grecn alga possessing a...Duke, S. H.. Friedrich, 1 W. Schrader. L. E.. Koukkari. W L. (1978). Oscillations in the activities of enzymes of nitrate reduc-nitrate when light is

  3. [Christian Andreas Cothenius (1708-1789). A pro-memoria on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his death].

    PubMed

    Völker, A

    1990-04-01

    The 200th anniversary of the death of Christian Andreas Cothenius gave occasion to appreciate life and work of this personage of a physician. Cothenius maintained manifold connections to Halle, of which the golden doctorate and the heritage of the pharmaceutic enterprises of his teacher Friedrich Hoffmann were treated in this place. The picture of the local relations was supplemented by the history of the Cothenius medal which is today awarded by the Leopoldina of Halle.

  4. Dynamical Mechanisms for the South China Sea Seasonal Circulation and Thermohaline Variabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    shelf is the submerged connection between southeast Asia, Malaysia , Sumatra, Java, and Borneo and is 100 m deep in the middle; the center of the Gulf... Malaysia , and it still joins the flow out of the Gulf of Thailand to contribute to an intensification of current off southern Vietnam. Winter closed...survey of the South China Sea, May 1995. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 21 637–21 652. Courant, R., K. O. Friedrichs, and H. Levy, 1928: Uber die partiellen

  5. [Critical mass, explosive participation at the Max-Planck Institute about research of the living conditions of the scientific-technical world in Starnberg].

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers of the Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPIL) did focus upon an abundance of vague reports of evaluative commissions, of benchmarking, of scientific modes. Thus it remained rather neglected, what staff actually had researched. An example: Progression and end of project AKR (Work-Consumption-Assessment) does display all kinds of related emotions at MPIL, and the sensitive guidance by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker.

  6. The Replication of an original Zoellner-Photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staubermann, K.; Berger, L.; Boettcher, H.; Borchardt-Ott, W.; Buzzoni, B.; Franza, F.; Frercks, J.; Griffin, R.; Herrmann, D. B.; Heyer, H.; Nair, A.; Pettersson, B.; Ruland, H.; Sterken, C.; Wolfschmidt, G.

    In 1858 the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner designed a photometer which became one of the most popular astrophysical instruments in the 19th century. To understand the instrument a replica of it has been built which is based on descriptions, pictures and remaining parts of the original instrument. In this paper we describe the investigation of this material and the reconstruction of the photometer.

  7. Calculation of quasi-one-dimensional flows with shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, S. F.; Hafez, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The two-point subsonic method of Wornom (1983) is modified to permit calculation of transonic flows with shocks using artificial density and/or artificial pressure. This method, which requires no numerical boundary conditions, is then used to calculate transonic flow for large and small CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) numbers. Convergence acceleration is achieved for small CFL numbers by using multi-grid.

  8. [Promoting competition and improving quality. Accepting the intergenerational contract by stabilizing health care reform].

    PubMed

    Wasem, J

    2002-08-01

    The challenge of demographic transition requires a health care reform which strengthens competition and quality in health care. With this, important contributions in stabilizing intergenerational relations, especially intergenerational solidarity in the public health care system, can be achieved. The reform proposal by an expert group, invited by the Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation to develop a concept of health care reform, takes these considerations into account.

  9. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs, No. 1474

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    personnel, including scientific personnel, are called upon, in the words of Friedrich Engels , "to grasp correctly the character, significance, and...immense theoretical and practical activity on the part of V. I. Lenin—the brilliant heir of K. Marx and F. Engels , who continued their great work...class, and the principles for its creation and activities belong to Marx and Engels . It is especially important to point this out, keeping in mind

  10. West Europe Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    86) 73 DENMARK Defense Minister Engell Warns of Budget Freeze Effects (AKTUELT, 24 Feb 87; BERLINGSKE TIDENDE, 3, 18 Mar 87) 78 Would...Strains Militia’s Training Resources ( Friedrich Suter Interview; ALLGEMEINE SCHWEIZERISCHE MILITAERZEITSCHRIFT, Feb 87) 140 Simulators...DEFENSE MINISTER ENGELL WARNS OF BUDGET FREEZE AFFECTS Would Mean Less Capability- Copenhagen AKTUELT in Danish 2k Feh 87 p l6 [Article by Peter

  11. Southeast Asia Report, Vietnam, Tap Chi Cong San, No. 11, November 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    birth of F. Engels ] [Text] Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820-5 August 1895) was one of the founders of scientific communism, a talented leader of...Unattributed article) 81 The Dialectical Thinking of F. Engels and Economic Thinking (pp 76-81) (Hong Long) 87 Angola: 10 Years of Building and... ENGELS AND ECONOMIC THINKING Hanoi TAP CHI CONG SAN in Vietnamese No 11, Nov 85 PP 76-81 [Article by Hong Long commemorating the 165th anniversary of the

  12. Acrofacial dysostosis (AFD) with preaxial limb hypoplasia (Nager AFD) and club foot diagnosed in a fetus from 1812 in the anatomical collections at the University of Halle, Germany.

    PubMed

    Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger; Klunker, Rudyard; Stock, Karsten; Wand, Dorothee; Olsson, Lennart; Gerlach, Antje; Tönnies, Holger

    2005-09-01

    The Anatomical Collections of the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Halle, Germany, comprise more than 8,000 specimens, about 600 of them congenital anomalies. The collection of abnormal human and animal specimens began with the private collections of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder (1724-1774), his son Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803), and his grandson Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833). Meckel the Younger founded the science of developmental pathology in Germany. Radiographical techniques, computer tomographic methods (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and molecular cytogenetic techniques, for example, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were used to diagnose abnormal human fetuses in the Meckel Collection. On examination of one of the human fetuses, originally described by JF Meckel the Younger in 1812 or earlier, we found striking clinical manifestations including mandibulofacial defects and preaxially malformed limbs. With respect to external findings, we propose that the condition is acrofacial dysostosis (AFD) with preaxial limb hypoplasia (Nager AFD) in combination with club foot, tibial torsion, and single umbilical artery. We used genetic analyses to test whether the observed limb malformations could be caused by aneuploidy. CGH-ratio profiles of all chromosomes were apparently normal. It is likely that Meckel's specimen is the earliest known fetus with Nager AFD.

  13. Nuchal cystic hygroma in five fetuses from 1819 to 1826 in the Meckel-anatomical collections at the University of Halle, Germany.

    PubMed

    Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger; Klunker, Rudyard; Stock, Karsten; Helm, Jürgen; Olsson, Lennart; Opitz, John M; Gerlach, Antje; Tönnies, Holger

    2007-01-15

    The Anatomical collection of the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical School of the University of Halle, Germany, comprises more than 8,000 specimens. Around 600 of them show congenital anomalies. The collection of abnormal human and animal fetuses began as the private collection of Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder (1724-1774), his son Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803) and his grandson Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833). Meckel the Younger founded the systematic science of developmental pathology. Radiographical techniques, computer tomographic (CT) methods, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were used to diagnose abnormal human fetuses in the Meckel-anatomical collections. Cystic hygroma colli was found in five of the human fetuses originally described by JF Meckel the Younger in 1826 and one of his students in 1819 [Hencke, 1819]. CGH analyses were used to test whether the observed cystic hygroma colli could be caused by chromosomal aneuploidies. CGH-ratio profiles of all chromosomes were apparently normal. PCR-based sex determination tests on ancient DNA were used to determine the fetal gonosomal constitution. It is likely that the Meckel specimens are among the oldest fetuses in which Ullrich-Turner "phenotype" has been diagnosed.

  14. Fokker-Planck equation of distributions of financial returns and power laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    2001-02-01

    Our purpose is to relate the Fokker-Planck formalism proposed by [Friedrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 5224] for the distribution of stock market returns to the empirically well-established power-law distribution with an exponent in the range 3-5. We show how to use Friedrich et al.'s formalism to predict that the distribution of returns is indeed asymptotically a power law with an exponent μ that can be determined from the Kramers-Moyal coefficients determined by Friedrich et al. However, with their values determined for the U.S. dollar-German mark exchange rates, the exponent μ predicted from their theory is found to be around 12, in disagreement with the often-quoted value between 3 and 5. This could be explained by the fact that the large asymptotic value of 12 does not apply to real data that lie still far from the stationary state of the Fokker-Planck description. Another possibility is that power laws are inadequate. The mechanism for the power law is based on the presence of multiplicative noise across time-scales, which is different from the multiplicative noise at fixed time-scales implicit in the ARCH models developed in the Finance literature.

  15. A new setup for experimental investigations of solar wind sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Paul S.; Berger, Bernhard M.; Chiba, Rimpei; Stadlmayr, Reinhard; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2017-04-01

    obtained simultaneously. The results coincide very well with SDTrimSP predictions showing the feasibility of the new design [4]. Furthermore, Fe-coated QCM targets with different surface roughness were investigated in the new setup. The surface roughness represents a key factor for the solar wind induced erosion of planetary or lunar rocks. It has a strong influence on the absolute sputtering yield as well as on the spatial distribution of sputtered particles and was therefore investigated. As a next step, sputtering experiments with Mercury or Moon analogues will be conducted. Knowledge gained in the course of this research will enhance the understanding of surface sputtering by solar wind ions and used to improve theoretical models of the Mercury's and Moon's exosphere formation. References: [1] E. Kallio, et al., Planetary and Space Science, 56, 1506 (2008). [2] G. Hayderer, et al., Review of Scientific Instruments, 70, 3696 (1999). [3] A. Mutzke, R. Schneider, W. Eckstein, R. Dohmen, SDTrimSP: Version 5.00, IPP Report, 12/8, (2011). [4] B. M. Berger, P. S. Szabo, R. Stadlmayr, F. Aumayr, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B, doi: 10.1016/j.nimb.2016.11.039

  16. FOREWORD: Carbon and Oxygen Collision Data for Fusion Plasma Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janev, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    On May 12-13, 1988, a Specialists' Meeting on "Carbon and Oxygen Collision Data for Fusion Plasma Research" was held in Vienna, Austria, organized by the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The objectives of the meeting were to review the data status of carbon and oxygen atoms and ions colliding with the most abundant constituents of a reactor-grade fusion plasma (electrons, protons, neutral hydrogen and helium), to identify the gaps in the data base, and through specific original contributions to contribute to the enlargement of this data base. About twenty specialists from the most active atomic collision research laboratories participated in the meeting. Comprehensive reviews and quality analysis of the collisional data base for carbon and oxygen ions were presented at the meeting by R A Phaneuf (electron-impact excitation and ionization), H Tawara and T Kato (electron-impact excitation of He-like ions), D C Griffin and Y Hahn (radiative and dielectronic recombination), H B Gilbody (total electron capture and ionization in Cq+, Oq+ - H, H2, He collisions), A Salin (state-selective electron capture) and T Watanabe (theoretical methods for charge exchange). New results for electron-ion collision processes were presented by P Defrance, Y Hahn, L J Roszman and for the heavy-particle collision processes by H Tawara, R E Hoekstra, A Bárány, R D Rivarola and Dz S Belkic. Y Nakai presented a semi-empirical formula for the total charge transfer cross sections, F Aumayr discussed the problem of electron capture measurements in presence of metastable fractions in the ion beam, and W L Wiese presented briefly the spectroscopic data base for carbon and oxygen ions. Two Working Groups were organized to summarize the discussions on the collisional data base of carbon and oxygen ions of interest to controlled fusion research. The present topical issue of Physica Scripta contains the Reports of the Working Groups and the contributions

  17. Fire in the Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Walter L.

    2000-05-01

    The legend of the lost city of Atlantis has captivated the human imagination for centuries. Did this city actually exist, and, if so, what happened to it? Was it destroyed in the greatest cataclysmic event of the Bronze Age? While the truth behind the legend of Atlantis may never be known, Fire in the Sea tells the story of one of the largest and most devastating natural disasters of classical history that may also hold vital clues to the possible existence and fate of the lost city. In vivid prose, author Walter L. Friedrich describes the eruption of the Greek island of Santorini, or Thera, sometime in the 17th or 16th century BC. This eruption, perhaps one of the largest explosions ever witnessed by humankind, sent a giant cloud of volcanic ash into the air that eventually covered settlements on the island. Friedrich relates how this event forever altered the course of civilization in the region, and inspired a mystery that has fired humanity's imagination ever since. More than 160 elegant, full-color photographs and vivid prose capture the beauty, the geology, archaeology, history, peoples and environmental setting of Santorini. Fire in the Sea will readily appeal to the general reader interested in natural catastrophies as well as the beauty of the region. It will also enchant anyone who has ever dreamt about uncovering the mystery of the legend of Atlantis. Walter Friedrich is currently an associate professor at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Aarhus, Denmark. He has visited Santorini at least 35 times since 1975 and has published numerous scientific articles in such international journals as Nature, Lethaia, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, and other publications.

  18. Some Historical Points of Interest in Göttingen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    The Georgia Augusta University of Göttingen, founded in 1737, was a child of the Enlightenment, and the new sciences have always played a major role here.1 Among the teachers of physics, physical chemistry, astronomy, and related subjects we find Johann Christian Polykarp Erxleben, Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Johann Tobias Mayer, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Johann B. Listing, Wilhelm Eduard Weber, Woldemar Voigt, Friedrich Kohlrausch, Eduard Riecke, Walther Nernst and Peter Debye — the last two subsequently moved on to Berlin. In the 1920s, physics students were jestingly referred to as “Frankierte, Bornierte und Polierte” (loosely translated as stamped, limited and polished), in allusion to their teachers, the theoretical physicist Max Born and the experimentalists James Franck and Robert Wichard Pohl, the first two being important figures in the history of quantum theory, the third, one of the founding fathers of experimental solid state physics.2 The National Socialist’s rise to power had a devastating effect on this world-renowned center for physics and mathematics. Most of its high-caliber scientists either were dismissed on the basis of the racist “Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” or themselves felt compelled to emigrate: About a dozen members of the physics faculty, including Born and Franck, and ten from the mathematics faculty left Göttingen.3 After the war, Richard Becker, who in 1936 had received a compulsory order to take the chair for theoretical physics vacant since Born’s emigration, and Friedrich Hund, who was also an enthusiastic historian of science, distinguished themselves as physics teachers there but the university as a whole never recovered its international standing of before 1933 (see Figs. 1 and 2).

  19. Late Pleistocene oscillations of the Drau Glacier (southern Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnitschar, Christina; Reitner, Jürgen; Draganits, Erich

    2016-04-01

    The Drau Glacier was the largest Pleistocene glacier in the southeastern part of the Alps and significantly shaped the landscape in this region. The study area is located at the termination of the Drau Glacier in the southern part of Austria (Carinthia). The investigation aims to decipher glacial dynamics during the Late Pleistocene glacial advance, stabilisation and final recession of this glacier based on geological/geomorphological mapping, interpretation of airborne laser scan (ALS) topographic data and lithostratigraphic investigations of glacial and periglacial sediments. Special emphasis is laid on the reconstruction of the maximum extent of the glaciation (LGM). Based on previous mapping by Bobek (1959) and Ucik (1996-1998) more details have been gained for the paleogeographic reconstruction based on glacial and non-glacial erosion and accumulation features. These include traces of pre-Upper Pleistocene glaciation, drumlins, terminal moraines and kettle holes. Paleogeographic reconstruction was done with correlation of different outcrops based on lithostratigraphy and ALS topography. Sequences of gravel related to glacial advance covered by till, followed by periglacial sediments allowed detailed reconstruction of the glacial sequence in this area and the complex succession of various extents of the Drau Glacier. References Bobek, Hans. 1959: Der Eisrückgang im östlichen Klagenfurter Becken. In: Mitteilungen der österreichischen geographischen Gesellschaft, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1996: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 340, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1997: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 325-326, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1998: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 142, S. 333-334, Wien.

  20. A comparison of fatigue loads of wind turbine resulting from a non-Gaussian turbulence model vs. standard ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontier, H.; Schaffarczyk, A. P.; Kleinhans, D.; Friedrich, R.

    2007-07-01

    This project funded by the federal ministry of education and research from the research group 'Wind turbulence and its significance in the use of wind energy' handles a comparison between the load ranges for horizontal axis wind turbines resulting from different turbulence models, i.e. between the usual models as defined in the standards and a new model designed by Friedrich and Kleinhans. This should enable an evaluation of the relevance of this new model for wind modelling for wind turbines and if so, provide the community with new tools in wind simulation. Indeed, spectral models do not well reproduce extreme wind increments as met in gusts. Those models simulate using purely Gaussian statistics. However, measurements show that those increments do not follow normal statistics. The new model developed aims at correcting this problem. The turbulence models used are the Kaimal, von Karman and Mann models as defined in the IEC guidelines and the Friedrich-Kleinhans model, based on stochastic processes called Continuous Time Random Walks. The comparison is based on load ranges resulting from an RFC analysis of 100 time series obtained for 100 different seed numbers. Five wind speeds are investigated. The aeroelastic code used is FLEX5. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that the non-Gaussian Friedrich-Kleinhans model produces loads that are significantly different from the loads obtained with the Kaimal model. That proves that the form of the tails of the increment distribution has a major influence on the loads of the wind turbine and should be considered when making fatigue calculations.

  1. 'Shooting at the sun god Apollo': the Apollonian-Dionysian balance of the TimeSlips Storytelling Project.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel R

    2013-09-01

    In The Birth of Tragedy, Friedrich Nietzsche celebrated the dueling forces of reason and emotion as personified by the ancient Greek gods Apollo and Dionysus. A subtle Apollonian-Dionysian balance can be observed in TimeSlips, a group-based creative storytelling activity developed in the 1990s and increasingly used in dementia care settings worldwide. This article explains how the Apollonion-Dionysian aspects of TimeSlips are beneficial not only for persons with dementia, but also for their carers. Narrative data from medical students at Penn State College of Medicine who participated in TimeSlips at a local retirement community are shared.

  2. Global strong solution to the 3D incompressible magnetohydrodynamic system in the scaling invariant Besov-Sobolev-type spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Haitao; Zhai, Xiaoping; Yan, Wei; Li, Yongsheng

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we study the global well posedness of the 3D incompressible magnetohydrodynamic system with horizontal dissipation and horizontal magnetic diffusion in the scaling invariant Besov-Sobolev-type spaces. We first get a unique global solution to this system with small initial data by the classical Friedrich's regularization method. Then using a weighted Chemin-Lerner-type norm, we prove the system also can generate a global solution if the horizontal components of the initial data are small enough compared to the vertical components. In particular, our results imply the global large solutions with highly oscillating initial data.

  3. [Theodor Kocher and Zurich].

    PubMed

    Ritzmann, K

    1992-01-01

    Theodor Kocher was linked to Zurich by many relationships. It was in this town that he spent his last semester at university, and his contacts with his teachers Friedrich Horner and Theodor Billroth were of some importance with regard to his election as a professor at Berne. Kocher was on friendly terms with his Zurich colleagues Rudolf Ulrich Krönlein and Ferdinand Sauerbruch. In spite of many common views, however, the two Swiss surgeons Kocher and Krönlein were not always of the same opinion.

  4. A semi-Lagrangian approach in the finite element method for the Navier-Stokes equations of viscous heat-conducting gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaidurov, V.; Shchepanovskaya, G.; Yakubovich, M.

    2014-11-01

    The approach is proposed for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-dimensional motion of viscous heat-conducting gas. The discretization of equations is performed by a combination of a special semi-Lagrangian approximation for transport derivatives and the conforming finite element method with piecewise linear or bilinear basis functions for other terms. This approach gives a simpler structure of the discrete system of algebraic equations and does not involve the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy restriction on the relation between temporal and spatial steps. Numerical results for a supersonic flow around an obstacle for some Mach and Reynolds numbers are presented.

  5. The Estimation of Temperature Distribution in Cylindrical Battery Cells under Unknown Cooling Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    01-2286, 04 2003. [9] C . Forgez, D. Vinh Do, G. Friedrich, M. Morcrette, and C . Delacourt, “Thermal modeling of a cylindrical lifepo4 /graphite...ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 L = 65 .15 R 12.93 r h T ∞ Heat...core and surface of the battery can be expressed as T (0, t) = Tc = a(t), (5) T (R, t) = Ts = a(t) + b(t) + d(t), (6) where subscripts c and s denote

  6. Bismaleimide/Preceramic Polymer Blends for Hybrid Material Transition Regions. Part 2. Incorporating Compatibilizers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    cannula. The mixture was refluxed with magnetic stirring as about 50 mL of toluene with a few milliliter of water were removed and drained from the...mL round-bottomed flask equipped with a water -cooled Friedrich condenser, 125 mL addition funnel, and adapters for argon atmosphere, tetramethyl...for 72 h. The volatiles were then evaporated in a stream of argon while warming the flask in a 50C water bath affording clear brown oil. With stirring

  7. Introduction to the special issue: under pressure.

    PubMed

    Howard, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces this special issue on the theme "Under Pressure." It uses an analysis of experimental lesbian filmmaker Su Friedrich's Seeing Red (2005) to frame the issue's focus on the ways that the category "lesbian" is placed under pressure and/or the pressure "lesbian" places on twentieth- and twenty-first-century cultural production. After this overview, the introduction summarizes all seven articles in the order that they appear in the issue. These summaries also show the connections between the articles and suggest possibilities for future critical dialogues on the theme.

  8. In-Situ Patterning: Selective Area Deposition and Etching. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Volume 158

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-21

    developed to form the desired interconnect patterns. Thicker copper a then electroplated to a thickness of 3 to 6 um. After the resist is removed, te...and -Friedrich Eachmann DIRECT WRITING OF COPPER LINES FROM COPPER FORMATE PRECURSORS-USIIG A ND:YAG-LASER 169 Heinrich G. MUller and Siegfried Schuler...and D. Haarer SELECTIVE ETCHING AND PHOTO-BLEACHING IN THIN AMORPHOUS Ge-Sb-S FILMS 313 Evdokia B. Savova and B.I. Pashmakoff 4 Z COPPER VAPOR LASER

  9. The discrete one-sided Lipschitz condition for convex scalar conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenier, Yann; Osher, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    Physical solutions to convex scalar conservation laws satisfy a one-sided Lipschitz condition (OSLC) that enforces both the entropy condition and their variation boundedness. Consistency with this condition is therefore desirable for a numerical scheme and was proved for both the Godunov and the Lax-Friedrichs scheme--also, in a weakened version, for the Roe scheme, all of them being only first order accurate. A new, fully second order scheme is introduced here, which is consistent with the OSLC. The modified equation is considered and shows interesting features. Another second order scheme is then considered and numerical results are discussed.

  10. The Dürrenmatt's ``Physicists'' as a Tool in Understanding the Ethics of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapor, Darko

    2007-04-01

    Part of the course of the History of Physics taught by the author is dedicated to the ethics of science, in particular to moral responsibility of the scientist towards society. In order to make the subject more interesting to the students, the first step is reading the play ``Physicists'' by Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1962). The students are then asked to relate some of the events connected to the nuclear studies before and during the World War II and armaments race with some situations in the play or the author's theses related to it.

  11. On the Behaviour of Porcine Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissues under Shock Compression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    is provided by Courant [24]. Evidence suggests that Riemann (1860) was one of the earliest to develop the theory of shock waves. However, it appears...P (ρ, E) (4.25) Constitutive model : σij = f(ij, ̇ij, E, K) (4.26) Courant − Friedrich− Levy criterion : ∆t < ∆x c (4.27) In an explicit time...integration, the finite difference time-step is con- trolled by the Courant -Friedrich-Levy (CFL) criterion [68]. This states that the time-step (∆t) is

  12. Semi-Lagrangian off-lattice Boltzmann method for weakly compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Andreas; Küllmer, Knut; Reith, Dirk; Joppich, Wolfgang; Foysi, Holger

    2017-02-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method is a simulation technique in computational fluid dynamics. In its standard formulation, it is restricted to regular computation grids, second-order spatial accuracy, and a unity Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. This paper advances the standard lattice Boltzmann method by introducing a semi-Lagrangian streaming step. The proposed method allows significantly larger time steps, unstructured grids, and higher-order accurate representations of the solution to be used. The appealing properties of the approach are demonstrated in simulations of a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex, doubly periodic shear layers, and a three-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex.

  13. [Weizsäcker's concept of time from the current viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's concept of time is deeply based on the asymmetry between past and future, which he considers as a fundamental aspect of Nature. I review these ideas and their philosophical back ground and confront them with a presentation of the concept of time in modern physics. I argue that the observed irreversibility of our world can be understood from fundamental laws which are invariant under time reversal. I conclude with an outlook on the expected theory of quantum gravity.

  14. The image of the physicist in modern drama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, W.

    1988-07-01

    While the role of the scientist in society has been a subject for playwrights from the time of the Renaissance onwards, quite a number of post-World War II plays have focused on the role physics and physicists play in modern society. In this article, the plays of Bertold Brecht, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, William Golding, and Heinar Kipphardt are reviewed, which focus especially on the difficult choices faced by physicists in the modern world in which the consequences of physics-based technology are immense, if not overwhelming. These plays also provide an attractive context for discussion on science and social responsibility.

  15. Modeling the Fate of Groundwater Contaminants Resulting from Leakage of Butanol-blended Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Comment Biomass Biofilm density, ρ mg/L 105 (Gomez et al., 2008) Aerb d-1 0.2 (Gomez et al., 2008) SRBb d-1 0.002 (Godeke et al., 2008) Metb d-1...kinetics, and biofilm density had been previously studied (Gomez et al., 2008). A continuous release scenario with butanol at 1000 mg/L and benzene at...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, September 2009. Heinze, U. and C.G. Friedrich. Respiratory activity of biofilms : measurement and its significance for

  16. Comment on 'Bound-state eigenenergy outside and inside the continuum for unstable multilevel systems'

    SciTech Connect

    Bulgakov, E. N.; Sadreev, A. F.; Rotter, I.

    2007-06-15

    We discuss the solution of the basic equations of the N-level Friedrichs model by using the Feshbach projection operator (FPO) technique and consider the relation between bound states in the continuum (BICs) and form factors. In the FPO formalism, the BICs are eigenstates of a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator with vanishing decay width. The wave function of a BIC is localized inside the system. On the basis of the FPO solutions we discuss the mechanism to yield a BIC at every coupling strength between system and environment. We relate our results to those given by Miyamoto [Phys. Rev. A 72, 063405 (2005)].

  17. Johann Gottlieb Schrader and the construction of telescopes in Lilienthal. (German Title: Johann Gottlieb Schrader und der Lilienthaler Fernrohrbau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, Hans-Joachim

    More than 200 years ago, the first large reflectors on the European continent were built at Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's observatory in Lilienthal near Bremen. Johann Gottlieb Friedrich Schrader, professor of physics and chemistry at Kiel University, developed a white reflecting metal alloy during his 10-month stay with Schroeter, and used it for the production of numerous telescope mirrors. The period of telescope making at Lilienthal started with Schrader. This paper describes the cooperation of the two astronomers and reports about the results of an optical and chemical analysis of three Herschel telescope mirrors.

  18. ["Dr Breuer will care for him with utmost attention." A plan for Nietzsche's neuropathological treatment in Vienna].

    PubMed

    Müller-Buck, Renate

    2007-01-01

    This essay is about a plan for the treatment of Friedrich Nietzsche by Josef Breuer in the spring of 1878. The plan was developed by Siegfried Lipiner, a philosphy student from Galicia and an admirer of Nietzsche, who was acquainted with Breuer as well as with Freud. Lipiner was convinced that Nietzsche could be treated by the Viennese specialists and tried his best to arrange this. However all his endeavors were frustrated by the opposition of Nietzsche's advisors in Basel, as well as his docters, and ultimately of Nietzsche himself who preferred the cold-water therapy in Baden-Baden.

  19. [Poet-physicians in German literature].

    PubMed

    Perels, C

    1991-12-17

    Starting with standards arising from the relationship between medicine and art in classical antiquity, biblical tradition and teutonic-pagan antiquity, this article roams through german literature from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century, from Hildegard of Bingen to Gottfried Benn and Alfred Döblin, guided by the question, how strongly medical knowledge and medical practise are reflected in the poetry of writing physicians. Individual dispositions and epoque-specific features are discussed. Special attention is given to Paul Fleming and Angelus Silesius, Albrecht von Haller and Friedrich Schiller, romanticism and Georg Büchner.

  20. Fractional Feynman-Kac equation for non-brownian functionals.

    PubMed

    Turgeman, Lior; Carmi, Shai; Barkai, Eli

    2009-11-06

    We derive backward and forward fractional Feynman-Kac equations for the distribution of functionals of the path of a particle undergoing anomalous diffusion. Fractional substantial derivatives introduced by Friedrich and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230601 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.230601] provide the correct fractional framework for the problem. For applications, we calculate the distribution of occupation times in half space and show how the statistics of anomalous functionals is related to weak ergodicity breaking.

  1. Finite volume numerical solution to a blood flow problem in human artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayanti Budiawan, Inge; Mungkasi, Sudi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we solve a one dimensional blood flow model in human artery. This model is of a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation system which can generate either continuous or discontinuous solution. We use the Lax-Friedrichs finite volume method to solve this model. Particularly, we investigate how a pulse propagates in human artery. For this simulation, we give a single sine wave with a small time period as an impluse input on the left boundary. The finite volume method is successful in simulating how the pulse propagates in the artery. It detects the positions of the pulse for the whole time period.

  2. Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A ``Physics of Music'' Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worland, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In our "Physics of Music" class for non-science majors, we have developed a laboratory exercise in which students experiment with Chladni sand patterns on drumheads. Chladni patterns provide a kinesthetic, visual, and entertaining way to illustrate standing waves on flat surfaces and are very helpful when making the transition from one-dimensional systems, such as string and wind instruments, to the two-dimensional membranes and plates of the percussion family. Although the sand patterns attributed to Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827) are often demonstrated for this purpose using metal plates,2-4 the use of drumheads offers several pedagogical and practical advantages in the lab.

  3. Operational Art in the 1944 Ardennes Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-10

    Dyer, LTC George. =T Cor2s: Spearhead of Patton’s Third m y I Corps History Association, 1947. Eisenhower, John S. D. The Bitter Woods. Putnam’s, New...1984. Published in the U.S. as & Time for Trumoes. Mellenthln, Friedrich Wilhem von, Panzer Battle,% A Study of the Eunloyment of Armor In the Second...Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1984. Toland, John , Battle - The Story of the 1u3tge. Random House, New York, 1959. Weigley, Russell F

  4. SMART Rotor Development and Wind Tunnel Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    600 800 Side - Cos 5P, lb S id e - S in 5 P , l b 4P 5P 6P 0deg 30deg Baseline 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 90 180 270 360 Phase, deg V ib ra ti...1 SMART Rotor Development and Wind Tunnel Test Friedrich K. Straub Boeing Technical Fellow The Boeing Company Mesa, Arizona Vaidyanathan R...Anand Dynamics Engineer The Boeing Company Mesa, Arizona Terrence S . Birchette Design Engineer The Boeing Company Mesa, Arizona Benton H. Lau

  5. Hyperbolic Structure for a Simplified Model of Dynamical Perfect Plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadjian, Jean-François; Mifsud, Clément

    2017-02-01

    This paper is devoted to confronting two different approaches to the problem of dynamical perfect plasticity. Interpreting this model as a constrained boundary value Friedrichs' system enables one to derive admissible hyperbolic boundary conditions. Using variational methods, we show the well-posedness of this problem in a suitable weak measure theoretical setting. Thanks to the property of finite speed propagation, we establish a new regularity result for the solution in short time. Finally, we prove that this variational solution is actually a solution of the hyperbolic formulation in a suitable dissipative/entropic sense, and that a partial converse statement holds under an additional time regularity assumption for the dissipative solutions.

  6. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-23

    immeasurably magnificent goal revealed by Karl Marx , the socialist movement has JPRS-CAR-89-024 23 March 1989 21 ECONOMIC retreated again and again...ists. Over the past century and more, there has been no sounding of the "death knell" of capitalism as Karl Marx predicted nor has there been a...class conditions. I6" The wisdom of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels lies in the fact that they never regarded their theory as an unchangeable dogma

  7. The Tortured History of Gauss's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Ross

    2009-10-01

    American physics textbooks contain the following equation, which is called Gauss's law: E .d S = qenclosed ɛ0 It is odd, however, that biographies of Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) contain no mention of this law. A brief history of this important result will be presented in which it will be shown that what we call Gauss's law today was originally guessed at by Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) after he read a letter from Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), then was derived, forgotten, and re-derived several times in two different contexts by many of the luminaries of physics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  8. Analysis of 2-spar cantilever wings with special reference to torsion and load transference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1936-01-01

    This report deals with the analysis of 2-spar cantilever wings in torsion, taking cognizance of the fact that the spars are not independent, but are interconnected by ribs and other structural members. The principles of interaction are briefly explained, showing that the mutual relief action occurring depends on the "pure torsional stiffness" of the wing cross section. Various practical methods of analysis are outlined. The "Friedrichs-Von Karman equations" are shown to require the least amount of labor. Numerical examples by the several methods of analysis are given and the agreement between the calculation and experiment is shown.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    The element cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Friedrich Stromeyer, a professor of chemistry at the University of Göttingen in Germany. Stromeyer noticed that a yellowish glow would occur when heat was applied to certain samples of calamine, a zinc-carbonate. This was unusual as the reaction was expected to be colorless. After further testing, Stromeyer deduced that an unknown metallic impurity in the carbonate caused the color change. He called the new metal "cadmium" after "kadmeia," the Greek word for calamine.

  10. Rotational and rotationless states of weakly bound molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Lemeshko, Mikhail; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2009-05-15

    By making use of the quantization rule of Raab and Friedrich [Phys. Rev. A 78, 022707 (2008)], we derive simple and accurate formulae for the number of rotational states supported by a weakly bound vibrational level of a diatomic molecule and the rotational constants of any such levels up to the threshold, and provide a criterion for determining whether a given weakly bound vibrational level is rotationless. The results depend solely on the long-range part of the molecular potential and are applicable to halo molecules.

  11. 10. Photocopy of an engraving of a stained glass window ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of an engraving of a stained glass window design by Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869) on which two of the chancel windows in the Church of the Holy Cross are thought to have been based. This copy is of a photocopy obtained from the Treasury of Notre Dame de Paris, Paris, France, by the late Mrs. Walter C. White of Stateburg, South Carolina. Mrs. White's photocopy is in the possession of Mrs. Richard K. Anderson of the Borough House at Stateburg. - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  12. A critique of Bernstein's beyond objectivism and relativism: science, hermeneutics, and praxis.

    PubMed

    Matusitz, Jonathan; Kramer, Eric

    2011-06-01

    This analysis comments on Bernstein's lack of clear understanding of subjectivity, based on his book, Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis. Bernstein limits his interpretation of subjectivity to thinkers such as Gadamer and Habermas. The authors analyze the ideas of classic scholars such as Edmund Husserl and Friedrich Nietzsche. Husserl put forward his notion of transcendental subjectivity and phenomenological ramifications of the relationship between subjectivity and objectivity. Nietzsche referred to subjectivity as "perspectivism," the inescapable fact that any and all consciousnesses exist in space and time. Consciousness is fundamentally constituted of cultural, linguistic, and historical dimensions.

  13. Semi-Lagrangian off-lattice Boltzmann method for weakly compressible flows.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Andreas; Küllmer, Knut; Reith, Dirk; Joppich, Wolfgang; Foysi, Holger

    2017-02-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method is a simulation technique in computational fluid dynamics. In its standard formulation, it is restricted to regular computation grids, second-order spatial accuracy, and a unity Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. This paper advances the standard lattice Boltzmann method by introducing a semi-Lagrangian streaming step. The proposed method allows significantly larger time steps, unstructured grids, and higher-order accurate representations of the solution to be used. The appealing properties of the approach are demonstrated in simulations of a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex, doubly periodic shear layers, and a three-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex.

  14. Very weak solutions of wave equation for Landau Hamiltonian with irregular electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhansky, Michael; Tokmagambetov, Niyaz

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study the Cauchy problem for the Landau Hamiltonian wave equation, with time-dependent irregular (distributional) electromagnetic field and similarly irregular velocity. For such equations, we describe the notion of a `very weak solution' adapted to the type of solutions that exist for regular coefficients. The construction is based on considering Friedrichs-type mollifier of the coefficients and corresponding classical solutions, and their quantitative behaviour in the regularising parameter. We show that even for distributional coefficients, the Cauchy problem does have a very weak solution, and that this notion leads to classical or distributional-type solutions under conditions when such solutions also exist.

  15. Moltke’s Mission Command Philosophy in the Twenty-First Century: Fallacy or Verity?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    William I, Prince Friedrich Karl. First Army had to push into Bohemia, force a crossing over the Iser River, and fix the Austrian Northern Army...commanders took initiative. On the march routes to Königgrätz, First Army had to seize bridges to cross the Iser River. On June 26, 1866, the first real...significant reserve, the main body of Prussian General Heinrich Horn’s 8th Division pushed the remaining Austrian defense away from the Iser and took control

  16. Recent considerations concerning D-region collision frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, M.

    Previous research on laboratory and ionospheric measurements of collision frequencies for radio wave propagation is reviewed. Data of Cole and Kantor (1978), Torkar and Friedrich (1983), and Mechtly show that the constant K does not increase with an increase in altitude or height. The relationship between K as a function of temperature and velocity dependence of cross sections is determined to be linear based on Aggarwal and Setty (1980). These data reinforce the magnetoionic theory and the usefulness of collision frequencies for radio wave propagation.

  17. The Blaschka models of the Humboldt University of Berlin and their historical context.

    PubMed

    Hackethal, Sabine

    2008-03-01

    The Humboldt University of Berlin has a collection of Blaschka models which came from the teaching collection of the Zoological Institute and the former exhibition of the Museum of Natural History. Besides those from the Blaschkas other models from model makers like Adolf and Friedrich Ziegler in Freiburg, Rudolf Weisker and Paul Loth in Leipzig, Paul Osterloh, Marcus Sommer, and others were used for teaching purposes in the Zoological Institute. They were created in close cooperation between scientists, craftsmen, and artists and tell us about anatomical and zoological research of their time. The origin, history and application of different types of models are explained and compared.

  18. Historical Examples of Misrepresentation, Innovation, and Morality in Physical Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwald, Jed

    2016-03-01

    The pressures of publication, the desire to be first in innovation, and moral convictions have long been at work in the history of science and technology. Historians think and argue best through stories, so I've chosen three examples that exemplify one or more of these aspects. The first involves the discovery of electric waves by Heinrich Hertz in 1888; the second concerns the controlled production of electromagnetic radiation by Marconi and Fleming in the early 1900s; our final case involves a bitter controversy between the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz and the astronomer Friedrich Zöllner in the 1890s.

  19. Ludwig Merzbacher (1875-1942): the man behind the disease.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, J; Gehrmann, J

    1995-07-01

    Ludwig Merzbacher (1875-1942) is widely known for his seminal work on the pathology of the dysmyelinating CNS disease named for the clinician Friedrich Pelizaeus and himself. Yet his training, his scientific achievements and his list of publications suggest a scientist with broad interests in neuropathology, neuroscience, neurology and psychiatry. Among several studies in experimental and clinical neuropathology, Merzbacher's work on scavenger cells is the most outstanding. While working in Alois Alzheimer's laboratory in Munich in 1906/1907, Ludwig Merzbacher analyzed in great detail the reaction patterns of these cells, which are nowadays known as reactive microglia, and already attempted to elucidate their function in brain pathology.

  20. Republication of: On the initial value problem of the equations of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmacher, Karl

    2010-07-01

    This is an English translation of a paper by Karl Stellmacher, first published in German in 1938, in which he presented the first, correct and successful, formulation of the initial value problem for Einstein’s equations in vacuum and with a dust source. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Helmut Friedrich and Stellmacher’s brief biography written by Hubert Goenner.

  1. Very weak solutions of wave equation for Landau Hamiltonian with irregular electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhansky, Michael; Tokmagambetov, Niyaz

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study the Cauchy problem for the Landau Hamiltonian wave equation, with time-dependent irregular (distributional) electromagnetic field and similarly irregular velocity. For such equations, we describe the notion of a `very weak solution' adapted to the type of solutions that exist for regular coefficients. The construction is based on considering Friedrichs-type mollifier of the coefficients and corresponding classical solutions, and their quantitative behaviour in the regularising parameter. We show that even for distributional coefficients, the Cauchy problem does have a very weak solution, and that this notion leads to classical or distributional-type solutions under conditions when such solutions also exist.

  2. Coastal Benthic Boundary Layer (CBBL) Research Program: A review of the fourth year

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Bucht and the Gulf of Mexico off Panama City, Florida (Principal Investigators: L.D.Wright and C.T. Friedrichs)………………………………………….. 166 3.0 CBBL...sediment textural properties of inner shelf sands, northeastern Gulf of Mexico , Geo-Marine Letters, v. 16, p. 273-278. Tiesong, Lu, 1996, Statistical...in the Gulf of Mexico and in the New York harbor area. In addition to using the cone penetrometer during the CBBL field work in Eckernförde and the

  3. Progress on the simulation of a mixture two-phase flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräbel, J.; Zeidan, D.; Bähr, P.; Ueberholz, P.; Farber, P.

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports a recent progress in the simulation results for a compressible two-phase mixture model. A two-dimensional explosion problem is numerically investigated by implementing the Lax-Friedrich scheme on the basis of gas and liquid flows with velocity non-equilibrium. It is implemented with the help of finite volume splitting approach on a Cartesian grid. The relative motion containing both smooth and discontinuous solutions are included to verify the model equations behaviour, in addition to the accuracy of the numerical treatment.

  4. Eigenvalue estimates for the Dirac-Schrödinger operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Bertrand

    2001-04-01

    We give new estimates for the eigenvalues of the hypersurface Dirac operator in terms of the intrinsic energy-momentum tensor, the mean curvature and the scalar curvature. We also discuss their limiting cases as well as the limiting cases of the estimates obtained by Zhang and Hijazi [Math. Res. Lett. 5 (1998) 199; 6 (1999) 465; Ann. Glob. Anal. Geom., in press]. We compare these limiting cases with those corresponding to the Friedrich and Hijazi inequalities. We conclude by comparing these results to intrinsic estimates for the Dirac-Schrödinger operator D f=D- {1}/{2}f .

  5. Cuba: The Next Unanticipated Anticipated Strategic Crisis?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    Taft-Morales ,6-7. 34 Ibid, 7. 35 Sean Federico -O’Murchu, and Mary Murray, “Top Cuban Says U.S. Farmers May Suffer Losses,” Released by MSNBC and NBC...Castro and Latin America: A Second Wind?” World Policy Journal 21 (Spring 2004): 32-40. 20 Federico -O’Murchu, Sean and Mary Murray. “Top Cuban...Internet. Accessed 1 December 2004. Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels . The Communist Manifesto . New York: Penguin Books ,1988. Mintz, S. “No Islands

  6. Development of efficient overland flow routing based on recursive algorithms - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pin-Chun; Lee, KwanTun

    2017-04-01

    Two primary concerns in performing watershed overland flow routing are the numerical instability and computational efficiency. The stability of an explicit scheme is usually restrained by selecting an adequate routing time increment to follow the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy condition and the Hunter condition. The Courant-Friedrich-Lewy condition is adopted to confirm that the numerical marching speed is larger than the wave celerity, and the Hunter condition is used to avoid back-and-forth refluxing between adjacent grids on flat regions, whereas selection of a small time increment following these two conditions has decreased the computational efficiency in performing overland flow routing. This study aims to create a robust algorithm to relax both restrictions simultaneously. The proposed algorithm was first implemented on a 1D overland plane to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical result by comparing it with an analytical solution. Then, the algorithm was further applied to a mountain watershed for 2D runoff simulations. The results show that the proposed integrated algorithm can provide an accurate runoff simulation and achieve satisfactory performance in terms of computational efficiency.

  7. Design of provably physical-constraint-preserving methods for general relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kailiang

    2017-05-01

    The paper develops high-order physical-constraint-preserving (PCP) methods for general relativistic hydrodynamic (GRHD) equations, equipped with a general equation of state. Here the physical constraints, describing the admissible states of GRHD, are referred to the subluminal constraint on the fluid velocity and the positivity of the density, pressure and specific internal energy. Preserving these constraints is very important for robust computations, otherwise violating one of them will lead to the ill-posed problem and numerical instability. To overcome the difficulties arising from the inherent strong nonlinearity contained in the constraints, we derive an equivalent definition of the admissible states. Using this definition, we prove the convexity, scaling invariance and Lax-Friedrichs (LxF) splitting property of the admissible state set G , and discover the dependence of G on the spacetime metric. Unfortunately, such dependence yields the nonequivalence of G at different points in curved spacetime, and invalidates the convexity of G in analyzing PCP schemes. This obstacle is effectively overcame by introducing a new formulation of the GRHD equations. Based on this formulation and the above theories, a first-order LxF scheme is designed on general unstructured mesh and rigorously proved to be PCP under a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. With two types of PCP limiting procedures, we design high-order, provably (not probably) PCP methods under discretization on the proposed new formulation. These high-order methods include the PCP finite difference, finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin methods.

  8. [The anatomy of Johann Samuel Eduard d'Alton (1803-1854)--his life and work in Halle (Saale)].

    PubMed

    Zwiener, Sabine; Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger

    2002-11-01

    After the death of Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), Eduard d'Alton was appointed to be his successor. From 1834 to 1854, he was Professor of Anatomy and head of the "Anatomisches Theater" at the University of Halle. In the literature we can only find little details about him. The aim is to investigate his life and work. Before he came to Halle, he was first professor at the Academy of Arts in Berlin. Then few years later he received the professorship of anatomy and physiology at the Friedrich-Wilhelm-University in Berlin. During his work as anatomist and physiologist in Halle he was rector twice, in 1845 and 1846. d'Alton worked very accurately and highly engaged. He supported the students' education very conscientiously but, since he was strict and exacting at the same time, he was not very popular. His extraordinary drawings of human and comparative anatomy earned him great recognition. In 1850, he published the "Handbuch der menschlichen Anatomie". d'Alton was mainly engaged in comparative anatomy, embryology and teratology and performed experimental embryological tests. In 1853, he published a catalogue of teratological preparations many of which can still be found in the Anatomical Collections in Halle.

  9. [The Helvetius dynasty].

    PubMed

    Van Heiningen, Teunis Willem

    2014-01-01

    The Helvetius dynasty originates from the Principality of Anhalt, in Germany. George Vigelius, one of its ancestors, was born in the Palatinate (Germany) and studied theology in the town of Basel (Switzerland), after which he was given the surname Swietser. In 1649, his eldest son, Johann Friedrich Swietser, moved to the United Provinces and changed his name into Johan Frederik Helvétius. In 1656, he took his doctorate of medicine at the university of Harderwyck Guelderland). He settled in Amsterdam and moved later to The Hague, where he had a lightning career. Three of his four sons studied medicine in Leyden: Jean-Balthasar, Philippe-Maximilien, and Joseph-Jean. Jean-Adrien, the second son of Johann-Friedrich, settled in Paris and took his doctorate of medicine at the university of Reims, using the pseudonym of Christian-Lebrecht Helvétius. He had a prosperous career. He was the father of Jean-Claude-Adrien Helvétius, who became also a successful physician and first physician to the queen of France. His grandson was Claude-Adrien Helvétius, who became a leading philosopher and writer.

  10. Analysis and algorithms for a regularized Cauchy problem arising from a non-linear elliptic PDE for seismic velocity estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, M.K.; Fomel, S.B.; Sethian, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work we derive and study a nonlinear elliptic PDE coming from the problem of estimation of sound speed inside the Earth. The physical setting of the PDE allows us to pose only a Cauchy problem, and hence is ill-posed. However we are still able to solve it numerically on a long enough time interval to be of practical use. We used two approaches. The first approach is a finite difference time-marching numerical scheme inspired by the Lax-Friedrichs method. The key features of this scheme is the Lax-Friedrichs averaging and the wide stencil in space. The second approach is a spectral Chebyshev method with truncated series. We show that our schemes work because of (1) the special input corresponding to a positive finite seismic velocity, (2) special initial conditions corresponding to the image rays, (3) the fact that our finite-difference scheme contains small error terms which damp the high harmonics; truncation of the Chebyshev series, and (4) the need to compute the solution only for a short interval of time. We test our numerical scheme on a collection of analytic examples and demonstrate a dramatic improvement in accuracy in the estimation of the sound speed inside the Earth in comparison with the conventional Dix inversion. Our test on the Marmousi example confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Zeit im Wandel der Zeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichelburg, P. C.

    Contents: Einleitung(P. C. Aichelburg). 1. Über Zeit, Bewegung und Veränderung (Aristoteles). 2. Ewigkeit und Zeit (Plotin). 3. Was ist die Zeit? (Augustinus). 4. Von der Zeit (Immanuel Kant). 5. Newtons Ansichten über Zeit, Raum und Bewegung (Ernst Mach). 6. Über die mechanische Erklärung irreversibler Vorgänge (Ludwig Boltzmann). 7. Das Maß der Zeit (Henri Poincaré). 8. Dauer und Intuition (Henri Bergson). 9. Die Geschichte des Unendlichkeitsproblems (Bertrand Russell). 10. Raum und Zeit (Hermann Minkowski). 11. Der Unterschied von Zeit und Raum (Hans Reichenbach). 12. Newtonscher und Bergsonscher Zeitbegriff (Norbert Wiener). 13. Die Bildung des Zeitbegriffs beim Kinde (JeanPiaget).14. Eine Bemerkung über die Beziehungen zwischen Relativitätstheorie und der idealistischen Philosophie (Kurt Gödel). 15. Der zweite Hauptsatz und der Unterschied von Vergangenheit und Zukunft (Carl Friedrich v. Weizsäcker). 16. Zeit als physikalischer Begriff (Friedrich Hund). 17. Zeitmessung und Zeitbegriff in der Astronomie (Otto Heckmann). 18. Kann die Zeit rückwärts gehen? (Martin Gardner). 19. Zeit und Zeiten (Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers). 20. Zeit als dynamische Größe in der Relativitätstheorie (P. C. Aichelburg).

  12. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  13. [The first set of legislation for doctors in Denmark and its source of inspiration].

    PubMed

    Brix, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The first set of legislation for doctors in Denmark was conditional on a national need to regulate the conditions of the pharmaceutical and medical professions. By request of the king, this legislation, which came into force in 1672, was made by doctors residing in Denmark. These doctors had all been educated at foreign universities where the existing legislation had Roger II's and Friedrich II's legislation from the 12th and 13th centuries' South Italy as its source of inspiration. Thus, it is reasonable to presume that the doctors who participated in the making of the Danish legislation were familiar with this legislation. A translation into Danish of Roger II's and Friedrich II's sections regarding the work of a doctor has been made in order to be able to compare it with the content of the Danish set of legislation from 1672. The result of this comparison is that there are so many similarities that there can hardly be any doubt about the fact that the medieval legislation has been used as source for the Danish legislation from 1672.

  14. Digital learning programs - competition for the classical microscope?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The development of digital media has been impressive in recent years which is also among the reason for their increasing use in academic teaching. This is especially true for teaching Anatomy and Histology in the first two years in medical and dental curricula. Modern digital technologies allow for efficient, affordable and easily accessible distribution of histological images in high quality. Microscopy depends almost exclusively on such images. Since 20 years numerous digital teaching systems have been developed for this purpose. Respective developments have changed the ways students acquire knowledge and prepare for exams. Teaching staff should adapt lectures, seminars and labs accordingly. As a first step, a collection of high resolution digital microscopic slides was made available for students at the Friedrich-Schiller-University in Jena. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of conventional light microscopy and related technologies in current and future medical and dental education aswell. A survey was done among 172 medical and dental students at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. 51% of students use now frequently new digital media for learning histology in contrast to 5% in the year 2000 [1]. Digital media including Internet, CD- based learning combined with social networks successfully compete with classical light microscopy.

  15. Building fast well-balanced two-stage numerical schemes for a model of two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, Mai Duc

    2014-06-01

    We present a set of well-balanced two-stage schemes for an isentropic model of two-phase flows arisen from the modeling of deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular materials. The first stage is to absorb the source term in nonconservative form into equilibria. Then in the second stage, these equilibria will be composed into a numerical flux formed by using a convex combination of the numerical flux of a stable Lax-Friedrichs-type scheme and the one of a higher-order Richtmyer-type scheme. Numerical schemes constructed in such a way are expected to get the interesting property: they are fast and stable. Tests show that the method works out until the parameter takes on the value CFL, and so any value of the parameter between zero and this value is expected to work as well. All the schemes in this family are shown to capture stationary waves and preserves the positivity of the volume fractions. The special values of the parameter 0,1/2,1/(1+CFL), and CFL in this family define the Lax-Friedrichs-type, FAST1, FAST2, and FAST3 schemes, respectively. These schemes are shown to give a desirable accuracy. The errors and the CPU time of these schemes and the Roe-type scheme are calculated and compared. The constructed schemes are shown to be well-balanced and faster than the Roe-type scheme.

  16. The Knorre astronomers' dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinigin, G.

    2009-06-01

    We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of Tartu by stellar observations. Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the first director of the Naval Observatory in Nikolaev since the age of 20, provided the Black Sea navy with accurate time and charts, trained mariners in astronomical navigation, and certified navigation equipment. He compiled star maps and catalogues, and determined positions of comets and planets. He also participated in Bessel's project of the Academic Star Charts, and was responsible for Hora 4, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This sheet permitted to discover two minor planets, Astraea and Flora. Viktor Knorre (1840-1919) was born in Nikolaev. In 1862 he left for Berlin to study astronomy. After defending his thesis for a doctor's degree, he went to Pulkovo as an astronomical calculator in 1867. Since 1873 Viktor worked as an observer of the Berlin Observatory Fraunhofer refractor. His main research focussed on minor planets, comets and binary stars. He discovered the minor planets Koronis, Oenone, Hypatia and Penthesilea. Viktor Knorre also worked on improving astronomical instrumentation, e.g. the Knorre / Heele equatorial telescope mounting.

  17. Discontinuous Galerkin Method with Numerical Roe Flux for Spherical Shallow Water Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, T.; Choi, S.; Kang, S.

    2013-12-01

    In developing the dynamic core of a numerical weather prediction model with discontinuous Galerkin method, a numerical flux at the boundaries of grid elements plays a vital role since it preserves the local conservation properties and has a significant impact on the accuracy and stability of numerical solutions. Due to these reasons, we developed the numerical Roe flux based on an approximate Riemann problem for spherical shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates [1] to find out its stability and accuracy. In order to compare the performance with its counterpart flux, we used the Lax-Friedrichs flux, which has been used in many dynamic cores such as NUMA [1], CAM-DG [2] and MCore [3] because of its simplicity. The Lax-Friedrichs flux is implemented by a flux difference between left and right states plus the maximum characteristic wave speed across the boundaries of elements. It has been shown that the Lax-Friedrichs flux with the finite volume method is more dissipative and unstable than other numerical fluxes such as HLLC, AUSM+ and Roe. The Roe flux implemented in this study is based on the decomposition of flux difference over the element boundaries where the nonlinear equations are linearized. It is rarely used in dynamic cores due to its complexity and thus computational expensiveness. To compare the stability and accuracy of the Roe flux with the Lax-Friedrichs, two- and three-dimensional test cases are performed on a plane and cubed-sphere, respectively, with various numbers of element and polynomial order. For the two-dimensional case, the Gaussian bell is simulated on the plane with two different numbers of elements at the fixed polynomial orders. In three-dimensional cases on the cubed-sphere, we performed the test cases of a zonal flow over an isolated mountain and a Rossby-Haurwitz wave, of which initial conditions are the same as those of Williamson [4]. This study presented that the Roe flux with the discontinuous Galerkin method is less

  18. Causes and consequences of hypoxia on the Western Black Sea Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Gomoiu, Marian-Trajan; Naeher, Sebastian; Secrieru, Dan; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Black Sea, containing the world's largest natural anoxic basin since ca 7500 years (Jones & Gagnon 1994), suffers from combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication, overfishing and climate variability (Oguz & Gilbert 2007). We discuss causes for hypoxia in western shelf waters. Freshwater runoff by the large rivers Danube, Dniester and Dnieper results in strong thermohaline stratification that limits bottom water ventilation on the north-western shelf during warm seasons. This makes the western shelf generally prone to oxygen deficiency. During autumn and winter, the thermohaline stratification is eroded by frequent storms and the water column is re-oxygenated. The causal chain of anthropogenic eutrophication since the 1970s led to seasonal hypoxia on the western shelf for more than 20 years causing the catastrophic decline of key shelf habitats (Mee et al. 2005). More frequent and intense algal blooms, red tides (i.e. Noctiluca, Prorocentrum cordatum) and changes in species composition in phytoplankton resulted in deposition of surplus organic matter on the seafloor increasing the oxygen demand, with serious consequences for pelagic and benthic ecosystem structure and functioning. During hypoxia, release of reduced substances like ammonia and phosphate from the sediment to the water fuelled eutrophication internally (Friedrich et al. 2002). The combination of existing data with those gained during EU FP7 HYPOX on the Romanian shelf enables to assess the development of bottom water hypoxia and changes in benthic community and hence, the current state and trends in recovery of the Romanian Black Sea shelf ecosystem. Mud worms are the winners of eutrophication and hypoxia, whereas filter feeders like Mytilus galloprovincialis and Acanthocardia paucicostata are the losers. The western shelf benthic ecosystem showed a significant reduction in species diversity, a reduction of biofilter strength due to the loss of filter-feeder populations and flourishing of

  19. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yaming; Hutton, Roger

    2011-07-01

    , under the Chairmanship of Professors Thomas Stoehlker and Joachim Ullrich. We wish them all the best with their plans and look forward to meeting you all again in 2012. Committees, Exhibitors and Sponsors HCI2010 International Advisory Committee F Aumayr (Austria) T Azuma (Japan) P Beiersdorfer (USA) J Burgdoerfer (Austria) A Cassimi (France) H Cederquist (Sweden) J Costello (Ireland) F Currell (UK) R Hoekstra (Holland) X Ma (China) F Martín (Spain) A Mueller (German) N Nakamura (Japan) M Pajek (Poland) R Rivarola (Argentina) Z Rudzikas (Lithuania) V Shabaev (Russia) R Schuch (Sweden) T Stoehlker (Germany) J Tanis (USA) L Tribedi (India) K Tokési (Hungary) J Ullrich (Germany) D Vernhet (France) Y Zou (China) T Zouros (Greece) HCI2010 Local Organizing Committee Co-chairs: Yaming Zou and Roger Hutton (Fudan university) Secretaries: Baoren Wei and Yunqing Fu (Fudan University) Treasurers: Xiuqing Xu and Daoli Xu (Shanghai Nuclear Society) Members Chongyang Chen (Shanghai) Jianmin Yuan (Changsha) Jun Yan (Beijing) Chenzhong Dong (Lanzhou) Xiaohong Cai (Lanzhou) Xinwen Ma (Lanzhou) Xuru Duan (Sichuan) Baohan Zhang (Sichuan) Exhibitors Andor Technology andor.com Shanghai Kelin Technology Development Co. Ltd chnkelin.com Varian Inc. varianinc.com Sponsors Natural Science Foundation of China International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) Fudan University

  20. Hansteen's magnetometer and the origin of the magnetic crusade.

    PubMed

    Enebakk, Vidar

    2014-12-01

    In the early nineteenth century, Norwegian mathematician and astronomer Christopher Hansteen (1784-1873) contributed significantly to international collaboration in the study of terrestrial magnetism. In particular, Hansteen was influential in the origin and orientation of the magnetic lobby in Britain, a campaign which resulted in a global network of fixed geomagnetic observatories. In retrospect, however, his contribution was diminished, because his four-pole theory in Untersuchungen der Magnetismus der Erde (1819) was ultimately refuted by Carl Friedrich Gauss in Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus (1839). Yet Hansteen's main contribution was practical rather than theoretical. His major impact was related to the circulation of his instruments and techniques. From the mid-1820s, 'Hansteen's magnetometer' was distributed all over the British Isles and throughout the international scientific community devoted to studying terrestrial magnetism. Thus in the decades before the magnetic crusade, Hansteen had established an international system of observation, standardization and representation based on measurements with his small and portable magnetometers.

  1. A semi-Lagrangian approximation in the Navier-Stokes equations for the gas flow around a wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaydurov, V.; Liu, Tiegang; Shchepanovskaya, G.; Yakubovich, M.

    2015-10-01

    In the paper, a semi-Lagrangian approximation is presented for the numerical solution of the two-dimensional time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for viscous heat-conducting gas. In each equation, a combination of three first-order derivatives describing the transfer of a corresponding substance (density, velocity components, or internal energy) along trajectories is interpreted as the "transfer derivative" in the transfer direction. The other terms of the equations are written in the Euler form. On the sought-for time level, the standard conforming finite element method is realized for them with the linear elements on triangles and the bilinear ones on rectangles. The stencil adaptation along trajectories enables us to avoid the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy upper limit which describes the dependence of the time step on the mesh-size of the space triangulation. At the end of the paper, a numerical example illustrates the implementation of the described algorithms.

  2. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 8 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions span a time interval of more than 450 years. There are biographical investigations on Georg Joachim Rheticus, C.W.A. von Wahl and K.F. Heym, investigation on a reprint of a chapter of the principal work of Nicolaus Copernicus, on Christoph Scheiner and the "camera obscura", and, with respect to the history of timekeeping, on the "big Nuremberg clock". 19th century topics are: a contribution on the honorary doctorate of Joseph Fraunhofer, and on the construction of a lunar globe by Wilhelmine Witte, while the report on Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and the cholera pandemia in Königsberg in the year 1831 gives a view into everyday life of scientists. 20th century topics are: the contributions on Bruno Thüring in Vienna and his relations with national socialism, as well as on Arthur Beer, Albert Einstein and the Warburg library. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  3. Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement from Invasive to Unobtrusive: Celebration of 200th Birth Anniversary of Carl Ludwig.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Rong; Zhao, Ni; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Pettigrew, Roderic; Lo, Benny; Miao, Fen; Li, Ye; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2016-10-25

    The year 2016 marks the 200th birth anniversary of Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (1816-1895). As one of the most remarkable scientists, Ludwig invented the kymograph, which for the first time enabled the recording of continuous blood pressure (BP), opening the door to the modern study of physiology. Almost a century later, intra-arterial BP monitoring through an arterial line has been used clinically. Subsequently, arterial tonometry and volume clamp method were developed and applied in continuous BP measurement in a noninvasive way. In the last two decades, additional efforts have been made to transform the method of unobtrusive continuous BP monitoring without the use of a cuff. This review summarizes the key milestones in continuous BP measurement; that is, kymograph, intra-arterial BP monitoring, arterial tonometry, volume clamp method, and cuffless BP technologies. Our emphasis is on recent studies of unobtrusive BP measurements as well as on challenges and future directions.

  4. The first measurement of the deflection of the vertical in longitude. The figure of the earth in the early 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrimpf, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    During the summer of 1837 Christian Ludwig Gerling, a former student of Carl Friedrich Gauß's, organized the world wide first determination of the deflection of the vertical in longitude. From a mobile observatory at the Frauenberg near Marburg (Hesse) he measured the astronomical longitude difference between C.F. Gauß's observatory at Göttingen and F.G.B. Nicolai's observatory at Mannheim within an error of 0.̋4. To achieve this precision he first used a series of light signals for synchronizing the observatory clocks and, second, he very carefully corrected for the varying reaction time of the observers. By comparing these astronomical results with the geodetic-determined longitude differences he had recently measured for the triangulation of Kurhessen, he was able to extract a combined value of the deflection of the vertical in longitude of Göttingen and Mannheim. His results closely agree with modern vertical deflection data.

  5. Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement From Invasive to Unobtrusive: Celebration of 200th Birth Anniversary of Carl Ludwig.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Rong; Zhao, Ni; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Pettigrew, Roderic I; Lo, Benny; Miao, Fen; Li, Ye; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2016-11-01

    The year 2016 marks the 200th birth anniversary of Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (1816-1895). As one of the most remarkable scientists, Ludwig invented the kymograph, which for the first time enabled the recording of continuous blood pressure (BP), opening the door to the modern study of physiology. Almost a century later, intraarterial BP monitoring through an arterial line has been used clinically. Subsequently, arterial tonometry and volume clamp method were developed and applied in continuous BP measurement in a noninvasive way. In the last two decades, additional efforts have been made to transform the method of unobtrusive continuous BP monitoring without the use of a cuff. This review summarizes the key milestones in continuous BP measurement; that is, kymograph, intraarterial BP monitoring, arterial tonometry, volume clamp method, and cuffless BP technologies. Our emphasis is on recent studies of unobtrusive BP measurements as well as on challenges and future directions.

  6. A numerical method for solving the Navier-Stokes equations with application to shock-boundary layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccormack, R. W.; Baldwin, B. S.

    1975-01-01

    A numerical method for solving the compressible form of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations is described. This method was originally presented in 1970 and has since been modified during the development of computer programs at Ames for implementing models that account for the effects of turbulence in shock-induced separated flows. Although this paper does not describe the turbulence models themselves, a complete description of the basic numerical method is given with emphasis on the choice of a computational mesh for high Reynolds number flows, finite-difference approximations for mixed partial derivatives, extension of the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability condition for viscous flows, mesh boundary conditions, and numerical smoothing for strong shock-wave calculations.

  7. Non-oscillatory central differencing for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessyahu, Haim; Tadmor, Eitan

    1990-01-01

    Many of the recently developed high resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws are based on upwind differencing. The building block for these schemes is the averaging of an appropriate Godunov solver; its time consuming part involves the field-by-field decomposition which is required in order to identify the direction of the wind. Instead, the use of the more robust Lax-Friedrichs (LxF) solver is proposed. The main advantage is simplicity: no Riemann problems are solved and hence field-by-field decompositions are avoided. The main disadvantage is the excessive numerical viscosity typical to the LxF solver. This is compensated for by using high-resolution MUSCL-type interpolants. Numerical experiments show that the quality of results obtained by such convenient central differencing is comparable with those of the upwind schemes.

  8. Conformal Infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauendiener, Jörg

    2004-12-01

    The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, "conformal infinity" is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  9. Microscopic Polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sharon A.; Seo, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis In 1923, Friedrich Wohlwill described two patients with a “microscopic form of periarteritis nodosa”, which was distinct from classical polyarteritis nodosa. This disease, now known as microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), is a primary systemic vasculitis characterized by inflammation of the small-caliber blood vessels and the presence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Typically, microscopic polyangiitis presents with glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis, although involvement of the skin, nerves, and gastrointestinal tract is not uncommon. Treatment of MPA generally requires use of a cytotoxic agent (such as cyclophosphamide) in addition to high-dose glucocorticoids. Recent research has focused on identifying alternate treatment strategies that minimize or eliminate exposure to cytotoxic agents. This article will review the history, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MPA. PMID:20688249

  10. Burdach's column.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2006-01-01

    After the Greek physicians Herophilus and Galen, the major anatomical advances in the anatomy of the spinal cord were made possible by the microtome devised by Benedikt Stilling in January 1842. This enabled him to cut the frozen, thin sections and examine them, unstained,with the microscope. The technique founded future investigation of the cord's anatomy. Brown-Séquard, Türck, Clarke, Lissauer, Goll, and Flechsig all contributed. An important result of these progressing anatomical experiments was the identification of the posterior columns. In 1826, the German physiologist Karl Friedrich Burdach (1776-1847) described, from macroscopic study, the fasciculus cuneatus, known as the tract of Burdach: the lateral portion of the posterior columns of the cord that terminate in the nucleus cuneatus of the medulla.

  11. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music.

  12. Johann Elert Bode's history of the Berlin Observatory until the year 1811. Edition of the manuscript. (German Title: Johann Elert Bodes Geschichte der Berliner Sternwarte bis zum Jahr 1811. Edition der Handschrift.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielen, Roland; Wielen, Ute

    In this paper we present an edition of the manuscript entitled 'Entwurf einer litterarischen Geschichte der hiesigen Königl. Sternwarte bis zum Jahr 1811', written by Johann Elert Bode. The manuscript describes the history of the Berlin Observatory from its foundation in 1700 until 1811. The observatory belonged during this period to the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences at Berlin. Bode served as director of the observatory from 1787 to 1825. We have transliterated and commentated Bode's manuscript. This manuscript of 14 pages in folio format is held for more than a century in the archives of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, which was founded in Berlin and has been moved to Heidelberg in 1945. In addition we edit the letter (Cabinet Order) of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III. to Bode, dated 6 November 1798, in which the king agrees to a modification of the observatory.

  13. On positivity-preserving high order discontinuous Galerkin schemes for compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangxiong

    2017-01-01

    We construct a local Lax-Friedrichs type positivity-preserving flux for compressible Navier-Stokes equations, which can be easily extended to multiple dimensions for generic forms of equations of state, shear stress tensor and heat flux. With this positivity-preserving flux, any finite volume type schemes including discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes with strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta time discretizations satisfy a weak positivity property. With a simple and efficient positivity-preserving limiter, high order explicit Runge-Kutta DG schemes are rendered preserving the positivity of density and internal energy without losing local conservation or high order accuracy. Numerical tests suggest that the positivity-preserving flux and the positivity-preserving limiter do not induce excessive artificial viscosity, and the high order positivity-preserving DG schemes without other limiters can produce satisfying non-oscillatory solutions when the nonlinear diffusion in compressible Navier-Stokes equations is accurately resolved.

  14. Zabór Palace in the Light of the Latest Discoveries - Interior of the Elevation using Sgraffito Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielinis-Kopeć, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The property in Zabór from the fifteenth century belonged, among others, to families: von Tschammer, von Dyhrn, Montani, von Dünnewald, von Cosel and von Schönaich-Carolath. The testimony of its magnificence is a palace built by Count Johann Heinrich von Dünnewald in the 4th quarter of the seventeenth century, in the type of early baroque French residence, which, after 1745 was expanded in a magnificent baroque residence by Count Friedrich August von Cosel. In 2014 during the renovation of the monument one encountered a mannerist sgraffito, and facades of the old previously unknown buildings, were decorated with it, dating back probably to the early seventeenth century, which sheds a new light on the history of the monument and its construction phases.

  15. A history of erotic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Soble, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth.

  16. Part I: Houtermans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, Victor Ya.

    The following sections are included: * PROFESSOR FRIEDRICH HOUTERMANS: WORKS, LIFE, FATE * Introduction * Beginnings * Göttingen * Berlin * 1933 * London * Impressions of Kharkov * Kharkov: 1935-1937 * Arrests * Last Months in the USSR (From Charlotte Houtermans' Diary) * Descent into the Prisons: 1937-39 * From Desperation to Hope (Continuation of Charlotte Houtermans' Diary) * Fighting for Freedom * Descent into the Prisons: 1939-40 * The Bridge over the River Bug * On the Other Shore * Back in Berlin * The Plutonium Report * "They should Accelerate!" * Back in Kharkov * Kharkov Trace (What Happened at the Session of the Academy of Sciences) * Who are Beck and Godin? * War's End * The Age of the Earth * Friends on Houtermans * Chronology * Appendices (Compiled by the Editor) * Last Diary * Odessa 1930 * Chronological Report of my Life in Russian Prisons * Alexander Weissberg's Letter * After the War

  17. A Posteriori Analysis for Hydrodynamic Simulations Using Adjoint Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, C S; Estep, D; Sandelin, J; Wang, H

    2009-02-26

    This report contains results of analysis done during an FY08 feasibility study investigating the use of adjoint methodologies for a posteriori error estimation for hydrodynamics simulations. We developed an approach to adjoint analysis for these systems through use of modified equations and viscosity solutions. Targeting first the 1D Burgers equation, we include a verification of the adjoint operator for the modified equation for the Lax-Friedrichs scheme, then derivations of an a posteriori error analysis for a finite difference scheme and a discontinuous Galerkin scheme applied to this problem. We include some numerical results showing the use of the error estimate. Lastly, we develop a computable a posteriori error estimate for the MAC scheme applied to stationary Navier-Stokes.

  18. Synthesis of four diastereomers of sclerophytin F and structural reassignment of several sclerophytin natural products.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Stephen; Delion, Laëtitia; Farrugia, Louis J

    2015-03-16

    Synthesis of the triol that has been proposed to be the marine natural product sclerophytin F has been completed along with the syntheses of three diastereomers. Comparison of the NMR spectroscopic data for all four compounds to the data reported for the natural product reveals that sclerophytin F is not the 3S diastereomer of sclerophytin A as proposed by Friedrich and Paquette. Re-analysis of the NMR spectroscopic data for known sclerophytin natural products and synthetic analogues leads to the conclusion that sclerophytins E and F are the same compound. This finding has allowed structural reassignment of several other cladiellin natural products. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The social origins of illness: a neglected history.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, H

    1981-01-01

    Although interest in the social origins of illness has grown recently, the sources of this concern in Marxist thought have received little attention. Friedrich Engels, Rudolf Virchow, and Salvador Allende made important early contributions to this field. Engels analyzed features of the workplace and environment that caused disability and early death for the British working class. Virchow's studies in "social medicine" and infectious diseases called for social change as a solution to medical problems. Allende traced poor health to class oppression, economic underdevelopment, and imperialism. These analysts provided divergent, though complementary, views of social etiology, multifactorial causation, the methodology of dialectic materialism, an activist role for medical scientists and practitioners, social epidemiology, health policy, and strategies of sociomedical change. The social origins of illness remain with us and reveal the scope of reconstruction needed for meaningful solutions.

  20. The tragic and the metaphysical in philosophy and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Stolorow, Robert D; Atwood, George E

    2013-06-01

    This article elaborates a claim, first introduced by Wilhelm Dilthey, that metaphysics represents an illusory flight from the tragedy of human finitude. Metaphysics, of which psychoanalytic metapsychologies are a form, transforms the unbearable fragility and transience of all things human into an enduring, permanent, changeless reality, an illusory world of eternal truths. Three "clinical cases" illustrate this thesis in the work and lives of a philosopher and two psychoanalytic theorists: Friedrich Nietzsche and his metaphysical doctrine of the eternal return of the same, Sigmund Freud and his dual instinct theory, and Heinz Kohut and his theoretical language of the self. It is contended that the best safeguard against the pitfalls of metaphysical illusion lies in a shared commitment to reflection on the constitutive contexts of all our theoretical ideas.

  1. Relationship between directions of wave and energy propagation for cold plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion relation for plasma waves is considered in the 'cold' plasma approximation. General formulas for the dependence of the phase and group velocities on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the local magnetic field are obtained for a cold magnetized plasma. The principal cold plasma resonances and cut-off frequencies are defined for an arbitrary angle and are used to establish basic regimes of frequency where the cold plasma waves can propagate or can be evanescent. The relationship between direction of wave and energy propagation, for cold plasma waves in hydrogen atmosphere, is presented in the form of angle diagrams (angle between group velocity and magnetic field versus angle between phase velocity and magnetic field) and polar diagrams (also referred to as 'Friedrich's diagrams') for different directions of wave propagation. Morphological features of the diagrams as well as some critical angles of propagation are discussed.

  2. Meckel-Gruber syndrome (dysencephalia splanchnocystica).

    PubMed

    Shetty, B Prasanna; Alva, Nandakishore; Patil, Shankargouda; Shetty, Rohit

    2012-09-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a rare lethal autosomal recessive condition which was first described by Johann Friedrich Meckel in 1822 and GB Gruber in 1934. More than 200 cases have been reported worldwide with an incidence ranging from 1:13,250 to 1:140,000 live births. A 21-year-old female with G3 A2 L0, presented with twin pregnancy with history of previous two anencephalic pregnancies. The present pregnancy was a preterm vaginal delivery of female twins by face presentation at 35 weeks of gestation (diamniotic dichorionic twin gestation). Neonatal autopsy revealed classical triad of occipital encephalocele, polycystic kidneys and lungs with postaxial polydactyly. This case is presented for its rarity and its documented occurrence in Gujarati Indians.

  3. [Fatal diseases and "imaginary" suffering. "Hypochondria" and "consumption" in the correspondence between Jean Paul and Johann Bernhard Hermann, with a perspective on Jean Paul's literature and aesthetics].

    PubMed

    Meier, Monika

    2007-01-01

    The German writerJean Paul (Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, 1763-1825) and his friendJohann Bernhard Hermann (1761-1790) became acquainted with the thoughts of late Enlightenment at the University of Leipzig. They particularly appreciated the anthropology of Ernst Platner, who taught philosophy and aesthetics as well as medicine. Their confidential correspondence contains reflections on their respective situation and well being. Both write about feeling ill and label their illness "hypochondria". In the course of the correspondence Jean Paul's understanding of hypochondria evolves from an illness of the entrails as he follows Hermann, who supports the modern concept of hypochondria as an illness of the nerves. Two important themes from this correspondence recur in Jean Paul's novels and tales: firstly, his way of expressing comfort is related to his aesthetics, and secondly, the satirical way of portraying at least certain aspects of illness as imaginary reappears in his first successful novel "The Invisible Lodge" (1793).

  4. Fetus-in-fetu: a pediatric rarity.

    PubMed

    Narayanasamy, Jeyanthi N; Nallusamy, Mohan Arunasalam; Baharuddin, Nur Daliza

    2014-02-01

    Fetus-in-fetu (FIF) is a rare entity resulting from abnormal embryogenesis in diamniotic monochorionic twins, being first described by Johann Friedrich Meckel (1800s). This occurs when a vertebrate fetus is enclosed in a normally growing fetus. Clinical manifestations vary. Detection is most often in infancy, the oldest reported age being 47. We report the case of a 4-day-old girl who was referred postnatally following a prenatal fetal scan which had revealed the presence of a multi-loculated retroperitoneal mass lesion with calcifications within. A provisional radiological diagnosis of FIF was made. Elective laparotomy revealed a well encapsulated retroperitoneal mass containing among other structures a skull vault and rudimentary limb buds. Recovery was uneventful. Here we discuss the difference between FIF and teratomas, risks of non-operative therapy and the role of serology in surveillance and detection of malignant change.

  5. The birth and development of the DNA theory of inheritance: sixty years since the discovery of the structure of DNA.

    PubMed

    Portin, Petter

    2014-04-01

    The development of the DNA theory of inheritance culminated in the publication of the molecular structure of DNA 60 years ago. This paper describes this development, beginning with the discovery of DNA as a chemical substance by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, followed by its basic chemical analysis and demonstration of its participation in the structure of chromosomes. Subsequently it was discovered by Oswald Avery in 1944 that DNA was the genetic material, and then Erwin Chargaff showed that the proportions of the bases included in the structure of DNA followed a certain law. These findings, in association with the biophysical studies of Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin with Raymond Gosling, led James Watson and Francis Crick to the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA in 1953. The paper ends with a short description of the development of the DNA theory of inheritance after the discovery of the double helix.

  6. Efficient implementation of essentially non-oscillatory shock capturing schemes, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Chi-Wang; Osher, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    Earlier work on the efficient implementation of ENO (essentially non-oscillatory) shock capturing schemes is continued. A new simplified expression is provided for the ENO construction procedure based again on numerical fluxes rather than cell averages. Also considered are two improvements which are labeled ENO-LLF (local Lax-Friedrichs) and ENO-Roe, which yield sharper shock transitions, improved overall efficiency, and lower computational cost than previous implementation of the ENO schemes. Two methods of sharpening contact discontinuities, i.e., the subcell resolution idea of Harten and the artificial compression idea of Yang, which those authors used originally in the cell-average framework, are supplied to the current ENO schemes using numerical fluxes and TVD Runge-Kutta time discretizations. The implementation for nonlinear systems and multi-dimensions is given. Finally, many numerical examples, including a compressible shock turbulence interaction flow calculation, are given.

  7. PHURBAS: AN ADAPTIVE, LAGRANGIAN, MESHLESS, MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS CODE. II. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, Colin P.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Maron, Jason L. E-mail: jmaron@amnh.org

    2012-05-01

    We present an algorithm for simulating the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics and other systems of differential equations on an unstructured set of points represented by sample particles. The particles move with the fluid, so the time step is not limited by the Eulerian Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. Full spatial adaptivity is required to ensure the particles fill the computational volume and gives the algorithm substantial flexibility and power. A target resolution is specified for each point in space, with particles being added and deleted as needed to meet this target. We have parallelized the code by adapting the framework provided by GADGET-2. A set of standard test problems, including 10{sup -6} amplitude linear magnetohydrodynamics waves, magnetized shock tubes, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities is presented. Finally, we demonstrate good agreement with analytic predictions of linear growth rates for magnetorotational instability in a cylindrical geometry. This paper documents the Phurbas algorithm as implemented in Phurbas version 1.1.

  8. Freud's "bad conscience": The case of Nietzsche's Genealogy.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott

    2002-01-01

    This article develops the argument that Friedrich Nietzsche influenced several aspects of Freud's later writings by illustrating, in particular, the impact of Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morals on Freud's Civilization and its Discontents. The theoretical and conceptual schemes represented in Freud's Discontents are found to bear a remarkable similarity to Nietzsche's Genealogy on a number of highly specific points. It is suggested that "DAS ES," "Uber-ich," and "bad conscience," concepts central to Freud's moral theory of mind, are at least partly derived from Nietzsche. Moreover, Freud's phylogenetic theory of guilt is based upon premises found in Nietzsche, as are specific details relating to ideas on human prehistory and the ancestral family. Based on this evidence, a re-examination of the moral and social dimensions of Freud's "structural" model may be in order. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nietzsche, autobiography, history: mourning and Martin and John.

    PubMed

    Champagne, J

    1998-01-01

    How might gay and lesbian literature be read not as a mimetic representation of homosexuality, but as an activity linked to problems of subjectivity and historiography? Reading Dale Peck's novel Martin and John alongside passages from Friedrich Nietzsche's "On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life" and Sigmund Freud's "Mourning and Melancholia," this essay argues for an understanding of Peck's text as an attempt to link two apparently different processes of import to contemporary gay male subjects in particular: the writing of what Nietzsche terms "critical history," and the mourning of those lost to HIV disease. It concludes by linking Martin and John to feminist critiques of identity and traditional historiography, as well as noting the connection between these two critiques.

  10. [The psychology of compassion. An analysis of the 100th anniversary of the death of Fredrich Nietzsche].

    PubMed

    Wilkes, J

    2000-06-01

    Friedrich Nietzsche is supposed to have been one of the harshest critics of compassion. Many of his publications try to unmask its failings and to expose its true motives. From an ardent admirer of Schopenhauers's ethics of compassion, Nietzsche turned into a vigorous despiser of compassionate feelings. It is shown that this change was above all caused by overwhelming personal experiences of compassion due to illness and death in his family and, later on, with his first aid activities in military hospitals during the German-French war in 1870. Combined with that, Nietzsche suffered from feelings of passivity and helplessness, which gave him the impression of compassion being a negative and--in the end--loathed emotion.

  11. Mitochondrial metals as a potential therapeutic target in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grubman, A; White, A R; Liddell, J R

    2014-01-01

    Transition metals are critical for enzyme function and protein folding, but in excess can mediate neurotoxic oxidative processes. As mitochondria are particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage due to radicals generated during ATP production, mitochondrial biometal homeostasis must therefore be tightly controlled to safely harness the redox potential of metal enzyme cofactors. Dysregulation of metal functions is evident in numerous neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Friedrich's ataxia. This review describes the mitochondrial metal defects in these disorders and highlights novel metal-based therapeutic approaches that target mitochondrial metal homeostasis in neurological disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24206195

  12. Epigenesis in Kant: Recent reconsiderations.

    PubMed

    Zammito, John H

    2016-08-01

    Epigenesis has become a far more exciting issue in Kant studies recently, especially with the publication of Jennifer Mensch's Kant' Organicism. In my commentary, I propose to clarify my own position on epigenesis relative to that of Mensch and others by once again considering the discourse of epigenesis in the wider eighteenth century. Historically, I maintain that Kant was never fully an epigenesist because he feared its materialist implications. This makes it highly unlikely that he drew heavily, as other interpreters like Dupont and Huneman have suggested, on Caspar Friedrich Wolff for his ultimate theory of "generic preformation." In order to situate more precisely what Kant made of epigenesis, I distinguish his metaphysical use, as elaborated by Mensch, from his view of it as a theory for life science. In that light, I raise questions about the scope and authority of philosophy vis a vis natural science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the child psychopathology beast: a reply to Achenbach and Dumenci's (2001) commentary.

    PubMed

    Lengua, L J; Sadowski, C A

    2001-08-01

    This article is a response to T. M. Achenbach and L. Dumenci's (2001) commentary concerning L. J. Lengua, C. A. Sadowski, W. N. Friedrich, and J. Fisher's (2001) article proposing an alternative scoring approach for the Child Behavior Checklist. The authors note that T. M. Achenbach and L. Dumenci do not comment on the stated goals of the alternative scoring approach and focus on a limited set of the results to make their argument. Although the original and proposed scoring approaches operate similarly, important differences suggest that the proposed scoring approach is promising for use in specific instances, including identifying distinct etiologies, developmental course, and co-occurrence of specific syndromes. The importance of combining rational and empirical approaches in articulating conceptual definitions and developing measures of child psychopathology is discussed.

  14. The Lenticular Process of the Incus

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.; Chole, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    17th century anatomists, including Franciscus Sylvius, identified a small bony structure between the distal end of the incus and the stapes that they believed was a separate and thus additional ossicle. The existence of the ossicle at the distal portion of the long process of the incus was controversial for the next two hundred years. In the 19th century, anatomists including Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Henry Jones Shrapnell, Eduard Hagenbach, and Joseph Hyrtl provided numerous arguments to demonstrate why the so-called additional ossicle was actually attached to the incus by a thin strut, and thus not a separate bone. Since then, the ovoid end of the incus has been referred to as the “lenticular process” of the incus. The best nomenclature for the bony connection between the lenticular process and the rest of the incus remains uncertain, but the term “lenticular process” should not include its connecting pedicle. PMID:21986927

  15. PREPARATION OF FLUORESCEIN ISOTHIOCYANATE-LABELED GAMMA-GLOBULIN BY DIALYSIS, GEL FILTRATION, AND IONEXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY IN COMBINATION.

    PubMed

    DEDMON, R E; HOLMES, A W; DEINHARDT, F

    1965-03-01

    Dedmon, Robert E. (Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago, Ill.), Albert W. Holmes, and Friedrich Deinhardt. Preparation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled gamma-globulin by dialysis, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography in combination. J. Bacteriol. 89:734-739. 1965.-Antiviral immune gamma-globulins isolated from rabbit and guinea pig sera were labeled through dialysis membranes with fluorescein isothiocyanate and purified in several ways to eliminate nonspecific staining. Gel filtration of the conjugate with Sephadex G-25 coarse beads followed by column fractionation with diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex yielded consistently highly specific staining materials. Fluorescein-protein ratios varied between 1.0 and 4.0. This technique has proved to be simple and reliable, and is less time-consuming than previous techniques.

  16. On a fourth order accurate implicit finite difference scheme for hyperbolic conservation laws. I - Nonstiff strongly dynamic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.; Tal-Ezer, H.

    1981-01-01

    An implicit finite difference method of fourth order accuracy in space and time is introduced for the numerical solution of one-dimensional systems of hyperbolic conservation laws. The basic form of the method is a two-level scheme which is unconditionally stable and nondissipative. The scheme uses only three mesh points at level t and three mesh points at level t + delta t. The dissipative version of the basic method given is conditionally stable under the CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) condition. This version is particularly useful for the numerical solution of problems with strong but nonstiff dynamic features, where the CFL restriction is reasonable on accuracy grounds. Numerical results are provided to illustrate properties of the proposed method.

  17. Child sexual behavior inventory: a comparison between Latino and normative samples of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maureen C; Wurtele, Sandy K

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative dearth of research examining normative sexual behavior in Latino preschool children, despite an increased presence of Latinos as a minority population in the United States. To meet this need, a sample of Latino mothers were asked to complete the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI; Friedrich et al., 1992 ) on their preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years old; n = 188). When their children's scores were compared to CSBI normative data, significant differences emerged. Compared to the normative sample, Latino boys and girls scored significantly higher on the sexual abuse specific items subscale, and Latino girls scored significantly higher on the developmentally related sexual behavior subscale. Possible cultural explanations for these elevations are explored.

  18. [Kekulé's dream. Additional observations on the "benzol ring"].

    PubMed

    Le Soldat, J

    1993-02-01

    20 years ago, Alexander Mitscherlich published in this journal a brief psychological study of the famous dream the chemist Friedrich August Kekulé had immediately before putting forward his representation of the benzene molecule in the "Kekulé formula". Mitscherlich (among whose forebears a number of prominent chemists figured) interpreted the dream as an expression of a frustrated and repressed sexual desire. The present author, by contrast, favours an interpretation which shifts the focus away from the suggestive power of the dream image-a snake biting its own tail-and sees Kekulé's dream production as a reflection of the psychic effort it cost him to ward off latent feelings of guilt associated with the early death of his wife and to alleviate scruples of conscience about his own achievement.

  19. A method for modeling oxygen diffusion in an agent-based model with application to host-pathogen infection

    DOE PAGES

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Sershen, Cheryl L.; May, Elebeoba E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a method for incorporating a diffusion field modeling oxygen usage and dispersion in a multi-scale model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection mediated granuloma formation. We implemented this method over a floating-point field to model oxygen dynamics in host tissue during chronic phase response and Mtb persistence. The method avoids the requirement of satisfying the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition, which is necessary in implementing the explicit version of the finite-difference method, but imposes an impractical bound on the time step. Instead, diffusion is modeled by a matrix-based, steady state approximate solution to the diffusion equation. Moreover, presented in figuremore » 1 is the evolution of the diffusion profiles of a containment granuloma over time.« less

  20. Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfeld, A. W.

    2001-05-01

    The new book "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" chronicles the centuries-long struggle to secure the first distance to a star through detection of stellar parallax. Beginning with the naked-eye attempts of Tycho Brahe and proceeding through the telescopic studies of Robert Hooke, James Bradley, and William Herschel, all three of whom employed observational strategies suggested by Galileo, the effort to measure stellar parallax gained momentum in the early 19th century with dramatic improvements in telescope technology by German craftsmen such as Joseph Fraunhofer. Three near-contemporaneous announcements of stellar parallaxes were made in the late 1830s by Thomas Henderson (Alpha Centauri), Wilhelm Struve (Vega), and Friedrich Bessel (61 Cygni). By consensus of the astronomical community, Bessel was credited with the first successful measurement of a star's distance. With its biographical focus, "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" highlights the human dimensions of scientific achievement.

  1. On the theory of individual health

    PubMed Central

    Danzer, G; Rose, M; Walter, M; Klapp, B

    2002-01-01

    On top of elaborate methods and approaches in research, diagnostics, and therapy, medicine is in need of a theory of its own thought and action; without theoretical reflection and referentiality, action becomes blind (and thus costly) and thought takes on a monotonous and circular character. Take the concept of health. The field of medicine, more and more taking its cues from evidence-based medicine (EBM), is onesidedly oriented to concepts of health which are based on notions of standard values for large populations or—in the shadow of the genome project—see health as the outcome of an intact genome, often turning a blind eye to the individual aspects of health. With an eye in particular to Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy, the present paper looks into some continental European theories of individual health, seeking to determine to what extent they can contribute to reducing medicine's theory deficit and what consequences this may have for research, diagnostics, and therapy. PMID:11834753

  2. [Heinrich Hoffmann's Der Struwwelpeter (1845/1859): a parody on the romantic cult of childhood].

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Lies

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes the cultural dynamics of the construction and deconstruction of childhood images, by means of a case study of Heinrich Hoffmann's classic picture book, Der Struwwelpeter (1845/1859). Childhood images are the joint product of sciences (especially anthropology, pedagogy and developmental psychology) and arts (especially painting, photography and (children's) literature). These images are historically variable, because childhood is the permanent target of idealization and demystification. This article interprets Der Struwwelpeter as a demystication of Romantic idealizations of childhood as propounded by Romantic Naturphilosophie and, more specifically, the pedagogy of Friedrich Fröbel (1772-1852). In my view, this picture book satirizes the developmentalism and the pastoryl idyll which informed the Romantic image of childhood, through its verbal and visual components. As I argue at length, this satire directly bears upon leading scientific and political controversies of Hoffmann's time.

  3. Non-oscillatory central differencing for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessyahu, Haim; Tadmor, Eitan

    1988-01-01

    Many of the recently developed high resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws are based on upwind differencing. The building block for these schemes is the averaging of an appropriate Godunov solver; its time consuming part involves the field-by-field decomposition which is required in order to identify the direction of the wind. Instead, the use of the more robust Lax-Friedrichs (LxF) solver is proposed. The main advantage is simplicity: no Riemann problems are solved and hence field-by-field decompositions are avoided. The main disadvantage is the excessive numerical viscosity typical to the LxF solver. This is compensated for by using high-resolution MUSCL-type interpolants. Numerical experiments show that the quality of results obtained by such convenient central differencing is comparable with those of the upwind schemes.

  4. "Cosmomorphistic geometry" in the unconscious geometry of Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Adolf

    Some mathematical aspects of the Music theory by Johannes Kepler are discussed, paying a special attention to the book "De harmonice mundi". Other scientists interested in Music theory are mentioned throughout the paper: The Pythagorean school, Klaudios Ptolemaios, Leonard Euler, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian von Goldbach, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholz, Karl Friedrich Gauss. The relation with the ancient chinese schools of cosmography has been discussed: From the the Pythagorean to the ancient Chinese schools of cosmography we find arithmo-geometrical applications of numbers which are emblematic, hold meaning or represent the essence of things, the author writes. It was Johannes Kepler who taught us this "transconstructive method" of forming classical and ancient begginings of structuralistic thinking into a system from which deductions can readily be made.

  5. Vectorization of the time-dependent Boltzmann transport equation: Application to deep penetration problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, Agustín C.; Poma, Ana L.; Alvarez, Guillermo D.; Sanz, Darío E.

    2016-10-01

    We introduce an alternative method to calculate the steady state solution of the angular photon flux after a numerical evolution of the time-dependent Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). After a proper discretization the transport equation was converted into an ordinary system of differential equations that can be iterated as a weighted Richardson algorithm. As a different approach, in this work the time variable regulates the iteration process and convergence criteria is based on physical parameters. Positivity and convergence was assessed from first principles and a modified Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition was devised to guarantee convergence. The Penelope Monte Carlo method was used to test the convergence and accuracy of our approach for different phase space discretizations. Benchmarking was performed by calculation of total fluence and photon spectra in different one-dimensional geometries irradiated with 60Co and 6 MV photon beams and radiological applications were devised.

  6. [DNA: from Miescher to Venter and beyond].

    PubMed

    Gabryelska, Marta M; Szymański, Maciej; Barciszewski, Jan

    2009-01-01

    DNA, one of the most famous molecules is 140-years-old. Its history has engaged three centuries of experiments, leading us to a point, where the Homo sapiens genome sequence is known. The "DNA breakthrough" is dated on 1953, when James Watson and Francis Crick proposed the model of molecular structure of DNA. But the origin of that great achievement goes back to 1869 and early efforts of Friedrich Miescher, the Swiss doctor, who isolated DNA (than termed nuclein) for the first time. Since that time wealth information on "nuclein", its functions, structure and usage has been collected and formed a basis for modern molecular biology, chemical biology and biotechnology. This article describes the events and circumstances of the most important DNA discoveries since its first isolation up to completing the human genome project and deep DNA sequencing techniques application.

  7. Karl Knorre, the first astronomer of Nikolaev Observatory (on the occasion of his bicentenary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G. M.; Pinigin, G. I.

    2002-07-01

    Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the son of Ernst Knorre, an astronomy professor at Dorpat university. During his education at Dorpat university, he became acquainted with Wilhelm Struve, the future director of Pulkovo observatory. Because of Knorre's passion for astronomy, Struve recommended him to the post of director of the planned naval observatory in Nikolaev. From its foundation in 1821, Karl Knorre was director of the Nikolaev Naval (and later Astronomical) Observatory. He carried out star position observations with the meridian circle, worked as an astronomy instructor for sea navigators, compiled the fifth section of the star charts of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and lead all hydrographic determinations on the Azov and Black seas. In 1871, Karl Nikolaev Observatory, and moved to Berlin.

  8. Munchausen's syndrome--masquerading as necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Park, A J; Scerri, G V

    1996-03-01

    We would like to present a novel form of Munchausen's syndrome which presented us with a difficult problem in the midst of the recent media hysteria regarding flesh eating bacteria. This condition, first described by Richard Asher in 1951, is often very difficult to diagnose and it is not, therefore, surprising that the victims have been through several episodes of treatment before the suspicions of staff are raised. It owes its name to a fictitious character, Baron Karl Friedrich Hieronymus Freihess von Munchausen, who recounted extraordinary and wildly exaggerated exploits of adventure and daring, not unlike patients who present with this condition. Our enquiries revealed that the laid down procedure when faced with a patient with this condition is that the regional medical officer (RMO) should be contacted. It is then his responsibility to contact other RMOs, who in turn pass the information on to accident and emergency consultants in their area.

  9. A minimum entropy principle in the gas dynamics equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1986-01-01

    Let u(x bar,t) be a weak solution of the Euler equations, governing the inviscid polytropic gas dynamics; in addition, u(x bar, t) is assumed to respect the usual entropy conditions connected with the conservative Euler equations. We show that such entropy solutions of the gas dynamics equations satisfy a minimum entropy principle, namely, that the spatial minimum of their specific entropy, (Ess inf s(u(x,t)))/x, is an increasing function of time. This principle equally applies to discrete approximations of the Euler equations such as the Godunov-type and Lax-Friedrichs schemes. Our derivation of this minimum principle makes use of the fact that there is a family of generalized entrophy functions connected with the conservative Euler equations.

  10. [There is a life after stroke: five courage histories and a desperate actor].

    PubMed

    Montes-Santiago, J

    2010-03-01

    Stroke is a terrible disease conditioning in an important manner the lives of patients. Recovery is, often, very laborious. The cases of six well-known artists who suffered it are presented and also their efforts to defeat it. Patobiographic data of the painters C.F. Friedrich, L. Krasner and C. Close, poet and artist G. Apollinaire, the film director and cartoonist F. Fellini and actor K. Douglas are discussed. The vital changes introduced by a such process, the strength to recover and the post-stroke artwork production are commented. The artists' premorbid personality influenced notably the recovery. These artists faced to the disease and with their masterpieces also bequeathed to the posterity their examples of courage. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Scalar field probes of power-law space-time singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blau, Matthias; Frank, Denis; Weiss, Sebastian

    2006-08-01

    We analyse the effective potential of the scalar wave equation near generic space-time singularities of power-law type (Szekeres-Iyer metrics) and show that the effective potential exhibits a universal and scale invariant leading inverse square behaviour ~ x-2 in the ``tortoise coordinate'' x provided that the metrics satisfy the strict Dominant Energy Condition (DEC). This result parallels that obtained in [1] for probes consisting of families of massless particles (null geodesic deviation, a.k.a. the Penrose Limit). The detailed properties of the scalar wave operator depend sensitively on the numerical coefficient of the x-2-term, and as one application we show that timelike singularities satisfying the DEC are quantum mechanically singular in the sense of the Horowitz-Marolf (essential self-adjointness) criterion. We also comment on some related issues like the near-singularity behaviour of the scalar fields permitted by the Friedrichs extension.

  12. Crystallography from Haüy to Laue: controversies on the molecular and atomistic nature of solids.

    PubMed

    Kubbinga, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The history of crystallography has been assessed in the context of the emergence and spread of the molecular theory. The present paper focuses on the 19th century, which saw the emancipation of crystallography as a science sui generis. Around 1800, Laplace's molecularism called the tune in the various sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, crystallography). In crystallography, two schools opposed each other: that of Weiss, in Berlin, and that of Haüy, in Paris. Symmetry proved essential. It will be shown how the lattice theory arose in an essentially molecular framework and how group theory imposed itself. The salt hydrates suggested the idea of (two or more) superimposed molecular lattices. Gradually it became clear that an ultimate lattice theory ought to be atomic. The experiments of Laue, Friedrich and Knipping confirmed that atomic basis.

  13. The Pulkovo Observatory on the Centuries' Borderline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, Viktor K.

    The present paper deals with the development of astrophysical research at the Pulkovo Observatory (now: the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences) at adjacent time periods separated by the threshold between the 19th and the 20th centuries. The Pulkovo Observatory had been inaugurated in 1839. Its traditional field of research work was astrometry. The confirmation of light absorption phenomenon in interstellar space by Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve marked the turn of the Observatory's research programs toward astrophysics. New tendencies in the development of contemporaneous astronomy in Russia were pointed out by Otto Struve in his paper “About the Place of Astrophysics in Astronomy” presented in 1866 to the Saint-Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Wide-scale astrophysical studies were performed at Pulkovo Observatory around 1900 during the directorships of Theodore Bredikhin, Oscar Backlund and Aristarchos Belopolsky.

  14. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century,

  15. Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis "Stone Lungs": A Case of Clinico-Radiological Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Andrew; Shaharyar, Sameer; Chokshi, Binna; Bhardwaj, Nikhil

    2016-08-24

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare infiltrative lung disease characterized by deposition of spherical calcium phosphate microliths called calcospherites within the alveoli. PAM was first described by Friedrich in 1856 and then by Harbitz in 1918. The disease pathogenesis is based on mutations in the SLC34A2 gene that encodes for the Type IIb sodium-phosphate cotransporter. The majority of the patients are diagnosed at an early age, usually between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The hallmark of this disease is a striking dissociation between the radiological findings and the mild clinical symptoms.  We report a case of 35-year-old woman who presented post-motor vehicle accident with back pain and with minimal dyspnea on exertion. The final diagnosis was made after computed tomography and lung biopsy. The present case exhibits the remarkable clinico-radiological dissociation with complete calcification of the lungs on radiographic images with a relatively mild clinical presentation.

  16. Fixed mesh refinement in the characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, W.; de Oliveira, H. P.; Rodriguez-Mueller, B.

    2017-08-01

    We implement a spatially fixed mesh refinement under spherical symmetry for the characteristic formulation of General Relativity. The Courant-Friedrich-Levy condition lets us deploy an adaptive resolution in (retarded-like) time, even for the nonlinear regime. As test cases, we replicate the main features of the gravitational critical behavior and the spacetime structure at null infinity using the Bondi mass and the News function. Additionally, we obtain the global energy conservation for an extreme situation, i.e. in the threshold of the black hole formation. In principle, the calibrated code can be used in conjunction with an ADM 3+1 code to confirm the critical behavior recently reported in the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in an asymptotic anti-de Sitter spacetime. For the scenarios studied, the fixed mesh refinement offers improved runtime and results comparable to code without mesh refinement.

  17. Hyperbolic Second Order Equations with Non-Regular Time Dependent Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garetto, Claudia; Ruzhansky, Michael

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we study weakly hyperbolic second order equations with time dependent irregular coefficients. This means assuming that the coefficients are less regular than Hölder. The characteristic roots are also allowed to have multiplicities. For such equations, we describe the notion of a `very weak solution' adapted to the type of solutions that exist for regular coefficients. The construction is based on considering Friedrichs-type mollifiers of coefficients and corresponding classical solutions, and their quantitative behaviour in the regularising parameter. We show that even for distributional coefficients, the Cauchy problem does have a very weak solution, and that this notion leads to classical or to ultradistributional solutions under conditions when such solutions also exist. In concrete applications, the dependence on the regularising parameter can be traced explicitly.

  18. Narcissism, solitude, friendship: notes on the therapeutic alliance in the context of the Freud-Jung relationship.

    PubMed

    Carta, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    This paper deals with friendship and therapeutic alliance as a transformation of the libidinal love that structures the Oedipal complex. The author considers the relationship between Jung and Freud as a formidable test that may shed light on their personalities and on the relevance of the Oedipal complex for both of them and for their particular theories and practices. The author discusses the possibility that the Oedipal complex may be seen under a finalistic frame of reference and discusses which implicit goals it may express. Such a goal has not been reached by either Freud nor Jung, but might be the key to underline and recognize the fundamental importance of the 'therapeutic alliance' within the analytical situation, seen as a potential relationship between the selves of the patient and of the analyst springing from a transformation of libidinal love into 'friendship' as it was described by Friedrich Nietzsche. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  19. [F. W. Sertürner and the discovery of morphine. 200 years of pain therapy with opioids].

    PubMed

    Klockgether-Radke, A P

    2002-05-01

    Since many centuries mankind has been aware of the poppy (papaver somniferum) and has known its product opium as an analgesic drug. Until the beginning of the 19 (th) century its compounds were not known, making it almost impossible to apply the substance in exact doses. 1803/04, Friedrich Wilhelm Sertürner (1783 - 1841) succeeded in isolating a crystalline substance from opium in the test tube, which he called morphium. In animals and in man he was able to prove that this new compound he had discovered was the principium somniferum of opium. He isolated morphine, the first pure opioid available for calculated pain therapy with one defined compound. Moreover, he laid the foundations of a new class of pharmaceutical drugs, the alcaloids.

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of heat flow, segregation, and interface shape of gradient-freeze crystal growth in a centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, C. W.; Tu, C. Y.

    2001-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) heat flow, dopant segregation, and interface shape during crystal growth by a gradient freeze technique in a centrifuge are analyzed by a finite volume method. The basic flow patterns for a fixed geometry (with a concave interface) at different configurations agree well with the previous report (Friedrich et al., J. Crystal Growth 167 (1996) 45). However, the self-consistent analysis allows us for the first time to further investigate the role of the Coriolis force and centrifugal acceleration on the heat and mass transfer and the interface, simultaneously. Furthermore, the rotation speed found for the weakest convection, where the Coriolis force balances the gravitational and centrifugal forces, turns out to have larger radial segregation, despite having a larger effective segregation coefficient. Rotation about the growth axis is also investigated. For this configuration, it is found that both axial and radial segregation could be reduced under certain conditions.