Science.gov

Sample records for friendly energy production

  1. Enabling technologies: Supporting the development and use of innovative, energy-efficient, and environmentally friendly products and processes

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This pamphlet describes the Office of Industrial Technologies cooperative efforts to address industry needs for advanced materials, sensors and controls, process energy and energy efficiency. US industry needs enabling materials that are stronger and lighter, with resistance to high-temperature fatigue and improved resistance to corrosion and wear. New industrial materials such as intermetallic alloys and advanced ceramics have the potential to meet the challenges of the Industries of the Future. The manufacturing industries obtain over 85% of their energy from the on-site combustion of fuels. Enhancements to burners, boilers, and process heating systems can lower energy costs, reduce emissions, enhance fuel options, and increase safety and reliability. Robust, integrated measurement devices linked to intelligent control systems will enable US industry to use resources more efficiently and improve product quality. Through constant process monitoring and adjustment of parameters, these systems can reduce energy use and labor, minimize waste and pollution, and boost productivity. The Enabling Technologies Program is designed to address the cross-cutting needs of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT). OIT partners with industry to promote the development and use of energy-efficient, pollution-preventing technologies. The Nation`s environment benefits from greater use of these technologies, and industries benefit from cost savings, improved productivity, and increased competitiveness.

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    SciTech Connect

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  3. Membranes for Environmentally Friendly Energy Processes

    PubMed Central

    He, Xuezhong; Hägg, May-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Membrane separation systems require no or very little chemicals compared to standard unit operations. They are also easy to scale up, energy efficient, and already widely used in various gas and liquid separation processes. Different types of membranes such as common polymers, microporous organic polymers, fixed-site-carrier membranes, mixed matrix membranes, carbon membranes as well as inorganic membranes have been investigated for CO2 capture/removal and other energy processes in the last two decades. The aim of this work is to review the membrane systems applied in different energy processes, such as post-combustion, pre-combustion, oxyfuel combustion, natural gas sweetening, biogas upgrading, hydrogen production, volatile organic compounds (VOC) recovery and pressure retarded osmosis for power generation. Although different membranes could probably be used in a specific separation process, choosing a suitable membrane material will mainly depend on the membrane permeance and selectivity, process conditions (e.g., operating pressure, temperature) and the impurities in a gas stream (such as SO2, NOx, H2S, etc.). Moreover, process design and the challenges relevant to a membrane system are also being discussed to illustrate the membrane process feasibility for a specific application based on process simulation and economic cost estimation. PMID:24958426

  4. Parenthood and Productivity: A Study of Demands, Resources and Family-Friendly Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Jean E.; Young, Marisa C.

    2008-01-01

    We examine how the presence of children is related to women's and men's productivity. We hypothesize family demands, family resources, and family-friendly workplaces are also related to productivity. Productivity for 670 Alberta law firm lawyers is analyzed using a standardized measure of productivity referred to as billable hours. The results…

  5. The European Market for Animal-Friendly Products in a Societal Context

    PubMed Central

    Ingenbleek, Paul T. M.; Harvey, David; Ilieski, Vlatko; Immink, Victor M.; de Roest, Kees; Schmid, Otto

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article takes a future focus on the direction in which social forces develop the market for animal-friendly products in Europe. Although many stakeholders believe that the market is the most viable direction to improve farm animal welfare, economic productivity of the chain remains an issue that on a fundamental level conflicts with the objective to improve animal welfare. The European market for animal-friendly products is still largely fragmented and the differences between European countries are considerable. A more animal-friendly future that is achieved through the market will therefore need substantial policy attention from stakeholders in society. Abstract This article takes a future focus on the direction in which social forces develop the market for animal-friendly products in Europe. On the basis of qualitative data gathered in the context of the European EconWelfare project, the differences across eight European countries are studied. The findings suggest that, given international trade barriers that prevent an improvement of animal welfare through legislation, many stakeholders believe that the market is the most viable direction to improve farm animal welfare. Economic productivity of the chain remains, however, an issue that on a fundamental level conflicts with the objective to improve animal welfare. With the help of a deeper conceptual understanding of willingness to pay for animal welfare, the paper finds that the European market for animal-friendly products is still largely fragmented and that the differences between European countries are considerable. A more animal-friendly future that is achieved through the market will therefore need substantial policy attention from stakeholders in society. PMID:26479535

  6. On friendly index sets and product-cordial index sets of gear graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Gee-Choon; Lee, Sin-Min; Ng, Ho-Kuen

    2014-07-01

    Let G = (V,E) be a simple connected graph. A vertex labeling of f:V→{0,1} of G induces two edge labelings f+, f*:E→{0,1} defined by f+(xy) = f(x)+f(y)(mod2) and f*(xy) = f(x)f(y) for each edge xy ∈ E. For i∈{0,1}, let vf(i) = |{v∈V:f(v) = i}|, ef+(i) = |{e∈E:f+(e) = i}| and ef*(i) = |e∈E:f*(e) = i}|. A labeling f is called friendly if |vf(1)-vf(0)|≤1. The friendly index set and the product-cordial index set of G are defined as the sets {|ef+(0)-ef+(1)|:f is friendly} and {|ef*(0)-ef*(1)|:f is friendly}. In this paper, we completely determine the friendly index sets and product-cordial index sets of gear graphs. We also show that the product-cordial indices of a graph can be obtained from its adjacency matrix.

  7. Value added eco-friendly products from tannery solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Sastry, T P; Sehgal, R K; Ramasami, T

    2005-10-01

    Chrome shavings are the prominent solid wastes in tanning industry. Since chromium is known for its toxicity, the disposal of chrome shavings has been identified as a serious problem from the environmental point of view. At present, the popular utilization mode for chrome shavings is the manufacture of leather boards and related products. But this does not offer complete utilization of chrome shavings. Moreover, return per ton of chrome shavings is low if used for leather board production. In view of this, two processes have been developed to offer an alternative and better solution for the disposal of chrome shavings. The first process is preparation of parchment like membrane and the second process is related to development of leather like material. These products are analyzed for their mechanical behavior and other physicochemical properties. Parchment membrane can be used in the preparation of lampshades, chandeliers, wall hangers, table tops etc. and leather like material can be used in the preparation of chappal uppers, hand bags, purses, valets etc. The utilization of the chrome shavings in preparation of those two products not only reduces the environmental pollution but at the same time value added products can also be obtained.

  8. Developing a Friendly and Productive Language Learning Environment (FPLE) Using the Learner as a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaazi, Fred M.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the need to develop a friendly and productive Language learning environment (FPLE) using the learners as a resource in schools in Uganda. This is in light of the persistent challenging reality that the teaching and learning of languages in schools appears to be still largely traditional, teacher-centered and…

  9. Energy security and climate change: Friends with asymmetric benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav

    2016-06-01

    Combatting climate change is often considered to bring about security of energy supply by reducing reliance on imports. By modelling the impact of pursuing energy security policies, a study now finds that the inverse situation is less advantageous for the global climate.

  10. The European Market for Animal-Friendly Products in a Societal Context.

    PubMed

    Ingenbleek, Paul T M; Harvey, David; Ilieski, Vlatko; Immink, Victor M; de Roest, Kees; Schmid, Otto

    2013-08-14

    This article takes a future focus on the direction in which social forces develop the market for animal-friendly products in Europe. On the basis of qualitative data gathered in the context of the European EconWelfare project, the differences across eight European countries are studied. The findings suggest that, given international trade barriers that prevent an improvement of animal welfare through legislation, many stakeholders believe that the market is the most viable direction to improve farm animal welfare. Economic productivity of the chain remains, however, an issue that on a fundamental level conflicts with the objective to improve animal welfare. With the help of a deeper conceptual understanding of willingness to pay for animal welfare, the paper finds that the European market for animal-friendly products is still largely fragmented and that the differences between European countries are considerable. A more animal-friendly future that is achieved through the market will therefore need substantial policy attention from stakeholders in society.

  11. Eco-friendly Energy Storage System: Seawater and Ionic Liquid Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Kwang; Mueller, Franziska; Kim, Hyojin; Jeong, Sangsik; Park, Jeong-Sun; Passerini, Stefano; Kim, Youngsik

    2016-01-01

    As existing battery technologies struggle to meet the requirements for widespread use in the field of large-scale energy storage, novel concepts are urgently needed concerning batteries that have high energy densities, low costs, and high levels of safety. Here, a novel eco-friendly energy storage system (ESS) using seawater and an ionic liquid is proposed for the first time; this represents an intermediate system between a battery and a fuel cell, and is accordingly referred to as a hybrid rechargeable cell. Compared to conventional organic electrolytes, the ionic liquid electrolyte significantly enhances the cycle performance of the seawater hybrid rechargeable system, acting as a very stable interface layer between the Sn-C (Na storage) anode and the NASICON (Na3 Zr2 Si2 PO12) ceramic solid electrolyte, making this system extremely promising for cost-efficient and environmentally friendly large-scale energy storage.

  12. Conversion of methane to liquid products, hydrogen, and ammonia with environmentally friendly condition-based microgap discharge.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mindong; Zhang, Zhitao; Bai, Mindi; Bai, Xiyao; Gao, Honghui

    2008-12-01

    The conversion of methane to liquid products, hydrogen (H2), and ammonia (NH3) was investigated experimentally using microgap discharge plasma at an environmentally friendly condition. The experimental results indicated that H2 and NH3 were detected as the main gas products. The highest yield and production rate of H2 was 14.4% (v/v) and 2974.6 micromol/min, respectively, whereas the highest yield and production rate of NH3 was 8000 ppm (v/v) and 165.1 micromol/min, respectively. Particularly, the liquid products were collected on the plate and consisted of pyrrole, 2-methyl-1,4-pentadiene, c-amidopyridine, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole, methylpyrazine, 1-hexyne, 1,4-heptadiene, and polycyclic organic compounds. Some liquid products were the intermediates of drug, flavor, dye, and organic synthesis, as well as edible flavor. The collection efficiency in mass and energy efficiency were 26.3% at once and 22.9 g/kWh, respectively. The whole reaction process was considered to be in line with green chemistry principles.

  13. Towards an Abstraction-Friendly Programming Model for High Productivity and High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

    2009-10-06

    General purpose languages, such as C++, permit the construction of various high level abstractions to hide redundant, low level details and accelerate programming productivity. Example abstractions include functions, data structures, classes, templates and so on. However, the use of abstractions significantly impedes static code analyses and optimizations, including parallelization, applied to the abstractions complex implementations. As a result, there is a common perception that performance is inversely proportional to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, programming large scale, possibly heterogeneous high-performance computing systems is notoriously difficult and programmers are less likely to abandon the help from high level abstractions when solving real-world, complex problems. Therefore, the need for programming models balancing both programming productivity and execution performance has reached a new level of criticality. We are exploring a novel abstraction-friendly programming model in order to support high productivity and high performance computing. We believe that standard or domain-specific semantics associated with high level abstractions can be exploited to aid compiler analyses and optimizations, thus helping achieving high performance without losing high productivity. We encode representative abstractions and their useful semantics into an abstraction specification file. In the meantime, an accessible, source-to-source compiler infrastructure (the ROSE compiler) is used to facilitate recognizing high level abstractions and utilizing their semantics for more optimization opportunities. Our initial work has shown that recognizing abstractions and knowing their semantics within a compiler can dramatically extend the applicability of existing optimizations, including automatic parallelization. Moreover, a new set of optimizations have become possible within an abstraction-friendly and semantics-aware programming model. In the future, we will

  14. Greenhouse gas balances in low-productive drained boreal peatlands - is climate-friendly management possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojanen, Paavo; Minkkinen, Kari; Heikkinen, Tiina; Penttilä, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Five million hectares of peatland has been drained for forestry in Finland. About 20% of that, i.e. one million hectares, has been estimated to be so low-productive that the profitability of keeping them in forestry is questionable. At the same time, drainage has introduced changes in the ecosystem functions of these peatlands, including fluxes of greenhouse gases. Options to manage such peatlands include for example 1) no measures, i.e. leaving the drained peatlands as they are 2) increasing intensity by e.g. repetitive fertilisations and 3) restoration back to functional peatlands. Here we estimate the greenhouse gas impacts of these three management options. We collected GHG and organic carbon flux data from 50 low-productive peatlands under these management options over two years 2014-2015. Gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) were measured with closed chambers. Litter production rates of different plants above and below ground were estimated using litter traps (trees), biomass sampling (roots), through-grow nets (mosses), allometric biomass models (other vasculars) and published turnover rates (roots, other vasculars). Characteristics for estimating tree stand biomass increment were measured at each site from circular sample plots. In this presentation we will estimate the GHG impacts for the different management options, and aim to find the most climate-friendly options for the management of low-productive peatlands in the short and long term. This work was funded by Life+ LIFE12/ENV/FI/150.

  15. A User-Friendly Model for Spray Drying to Aid Pharmaceutical Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. PMID:24040240

  16. Material and Energy Productivity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

  17. Nuclear Energy Technologies for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Yildiz, Bilge; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear energy can be used as the primary thermal energy source in centralized hydrogen production through several methods to address the expected demand for hydrogen. The hydrogen production technologies that the nuclear reactors can be coupled to are such as high temperature thermochemical and hybrid processes, water electrolysis, and high-temperature steam electrolysis. Energy efficiency and use of clean technologies is important to meet the increasing energy demand in a climate friendly manner. High operating temperatures are needed for more efficient thermochemical and electrochemical hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Therefore, high temperature reactors, such as the gas cooled, molten salt cooled and liquid metal cooled reactor technologies, are the candidates for use in hydrogen production. Among these alternatives, high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) coupled to an advanced gas reactor cooled by supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) and a direct S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle has the potential to provide higher energy efficiency at lower temperature range than the other alternatives. (authors)

  18. Energy Production Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in energy production systems is one of 15 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  19. Energy Vs. Productivity: Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Energy invested in corn production is compared with food energy returned in calculations by David Pimentel at Cornell University. The rate of return is falling off sharply in this already energy-intensive agriculture. Increased energy input, in the form of fertilizer, would yield far greater returns where agriculture is less sophisticated.…

  20. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  1. Sustainable Energy Crop Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels currently supply a small portion of the world’s energy needs but this is increasing due to mandates intended to reduce use of fossil fuels and the associated environmental impacts. However, the potentials of plant based feedstocks to substitute for fossil fuels and mitigate environmental im...

  2. Going Green: Environmentally Friendly Schools Pay Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The notion of campuses that are energy-efficient and ecologically friendly, and that provide a healthy, productive, comfortable environment for students and staff has been around for some time. But for many educators, green schools have remained more good intention than proven approach, a huge risk that few school leaders could--or would--take.…

  3. Renewable energy: Energy from agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-06-01

    Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10 percent of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10 percent mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production. Wider applications will require either government incentives or genetic engineering of crops and improve efficiencies in conversion processes to lower costs.

  4. Energy: Production, Consumption, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, John L., Ed.

    Energy policy in the United States and much of the analysis behind those policies is largely incomplete according to many. Systems for energy production, distribution, and use have traditionally been analyzed by supply sector, yet such analyses cannot capture the complex interplay of technology, economics, public policy, and environmental concerns…

  5. Renewable energy: energy from agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report discusses the major issues concerning fuels derived from agricultural products. Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10 percent of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10 percent mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Principle areas of interest are: growing crops such as napier grass or harvesting water hyacinths to produce methane that can be substituted for natural gas; expanded use of sugar, starch, and industrial and agricultural wastes as raw materials for ethanol production; and improved efficiency in conversion processes such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida plays a leading national role in energy crops research, while Walt Disney World is using a demonstration project to convert water hyacinths into methane. Increased use of fuels produced from agricultural products depends largely on their costs compared to other fuels. Ethanol is currently attractive because of federal and state tax incentives. The growth potential of ethanol and methane is enhanced by the ease with which they can be blended with fossil fuels and thereby utilize the current energy distribution system. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production.

  6. Renewable energy: energy from agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This study discusses major issues concerning fuels derived from agricultural products. Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10% of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10% mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Principle areas of interest are: Growing crops such as napier grass or harvesting water hyacinths to produce methane that can be substituted for natural gas; expanded use of sugar, starch, and industrial and agricultural wastes as raw materials for ethanol production; improved efficiency in conversion processes such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida plays a leading national role in energy crops research, while Walt Disney World is using a demonstration project to convert water hyacinths into methane. Increased use of fuels produced from agricultural products depends largely on their costs compared to other fuels. Ethanol is currently attractive because of federal and state tax incentives. The growth potential of ethanol and methane is enhanced by the ease with which they can be blended with fossil fuels and thereby utilize the current energy distribution system. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production.

  7. Total Energy CMR Production

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Kolagani, R M

    2008-08-11

    The following outlines the optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) procedure used to prepare Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (NSMO) temperature sensors at Towson University (Prof. Rajeswari Kolagani) for the LCLS XTOD Total Energy Monitor. The samples have a sharp metal/insulator transition at T {approx} 200 K and are optimized for operation at T {approx} 180 K, where their sensitivity is the highest. These samples are epitaxial multilayer structures of Si/YSZ/CeO/NSMO, where these abbreviations are defined in table 1. In this heterostructure, YSZ serves as a buffer layer to prevent deleterious chemical reactions, and also serves to de-oxygenate the amorphous SiO{sub 2} surface layer to generate a crystalline template for epitaxy. CeO and BTO serve as template layers to minimize the effects of thermal and lattice mismatch strains, respectively. More details on the buffer and template layer scheme are included in the attached manuscript accepted for publication in Sensor Letters (G. Yong et al., 2008).

  8. Biorefinery of corn cob for microbial lipid and bio-ethanol production: An environmental friendly process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Dong, Zhongshi; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    Microbial lipid and bio-ethanol were co-generated by an integrated process using corn cob bagasse as raw material. After pretreatment, the acid hydrolysate was used as substrate for microbial lipid fermentation, while the solid residue was further enzymatic hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production. The effect of acid loading and pretreatment time on microbial lipid and ethanol production were evaluated. Under the optimized condition for ethanol production, ∼131.3g of ethanol and ∼11.5g of microbial lipid were co-generated from 1kg raw material. On this condition, ∼71.6% of the overall fermentable sugars in corn cob bagasse could be converted into valuable products. At the same time, at least 33% of the initial COD in the acid hydrolysate was depredated.

  9. Biorefinery of corn cob for microbial lipid and bio-ethanol production: An environmental friendly process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Dong, Zhongshi; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    Microbial lipid and bio-ethanol were co-generated by an integrated process using corn cob bagasse as raw material. After pretreatment, the acid hydrolysate was used as substrate for microbial lipid fermentation, while the solid residue was further enzymatic hydrolysis for bio-ethanol production. The effect of acid loading and pretreatment time on microbial lipid and ethanol production were evaluated. Under the optimized condition for ethanol production, ∼131.3g of ethanol and ∼11.5g of microbial lipid were co-generated from 1kg raw material. On this condition, ∼71.6% of the overall fermentable sugars in corn cob bagasse could be converted into valuable products. At the same time, at least 33% of the initial COD in the acid hydrolysate was depredated. PMID:27060242

  10. Energy implications of product leasing.

    PubMed

    Intlekofer, Koji; Bras, Bert; Ferguson, Mark

    2010-06-15

    A growing number of advocates have argued that leasing is a "greener" form of business transactions than selling. Leasing internalizes the costs of process wastes and product disposal, placing the burden on the OEMs, who gain from reducing these costs. Product leasing results in closed material loops, promotes remanufacturing or recycling, and sometimes leads to shorter life cycles. This paper provides two case studies to quantitatively test these claims for two distinct product categories. Life cycle optimization and scenario analysis are applied, respectively, to the household appliance and computer industries to determine the effect that life spans have on energy usage and to what extent leasing the product versus selling it may influence the usage life span. The results show that products with high use impacts and improving technology can benefit from reduced life cycles (achieved through product leases), whereas products with high manufacturing impacts and no improving technology do not.

  11. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  12. Wave energy and intertidal productivity

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Egbert G.; Paine, Robert T.; Quinn, James F.; Suchanek, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    In the northeastern Pacific, intertidal zones of the most wave-beaten shores receive more energy from breaking waves than from the sun. Despite severe mortality from winter storms, communities at some wave-beaten sites produce an extraordinary quantity of dry matter per unit area of shore per year. At wave-beaten sites of Tatoosh Island, WA, sea palms, Postelsia palmaeformis, can produce > 10 kg of dry matter, or 1.5 × 108 J, per m2 in a good year. Extraordinarily productive organisms such as Postelsia are restricted to wave-beaten sites. Intertidal organisms cannot transform wave energy into chemical energy, as photosynthetic plants transform solar energy, nor can intertidal organisms “harness” wave energy. Nonetheless, wave energy enhances the productivity of intertidal organisms. On exposed shores, waves increase the capacity of resident algae to acquire nutrients and use sunlight, augment the competitive ability of productive organisms, and protect intertidal residents by knocking away their enemies or preventing them from feeding. PMID:16593813

  13. Study on Properties of Environment-friendly Concrete Containing Large Amount of Industrial by-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, H.; Maruoka, M.; Sadayama, C.; Nemoto, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamaji, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to reduce CO2 discharged from the cement and concrete industries by effective use of industrial by-products, such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and so on. In this paper, the properties of concrete containing large amount of industrial by-products and very small amount of alkaline activator including cement or sludge from ready mixed concrete plant are analyzed. As the result, it was confirmed that concretes containing large amount of industrial by-products can achieve sufficient compressive strength. However, these concretes showed poor frost resistance. It was thought that the reason was coarsening of air void system and this caused their poor frost resistance. Therefore, in order to micronize the air void system and improve frost resistance, the combination of air entraining agent and antifoaming agent was applied. By this method, it was confirmed that the frost resistance of some these concrete improved. In this study, other properties of these concretes, such as fresh properties and other durability were evaluated and it was confirmed that these concretes show sufficient properties.

  14. Bone Glue Modified Asphalt: A Step towards Energy Conservation and Environment Friendly Modified Asphalts.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Hashim Raza; Khattak, Mohammad Jamal; Gallo, August A

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has been modified for the past several decades using various additives, including synthetic polymers. Polymer modification improves structural and engineering characteristics of the binder, which is a result of improvement in rheological characteristics of binder as well as its adhesion capability with the aggregate. Such enhancement inevitably enhances the performance characteristics of hot mix asphalts (HMA) such as fatigue life, resistance to rutting, and thermal cracking. Even though polymer-modified HMA is popular in North America and European countries, its use is still limited in developing countries of Southeast Asia due to high costs associated with its manufacturing, processing, and energy consumption. In this study, a new kind of asphalt modifier derived from animal wastes, such as bones, hides, and flesh commonly known as Bone Glue, is studied. This biomaterial which is a by-product of food and cattle industries is cheap, conveniently available, and produced locally in developing countries. The results of the research study showed that the bone glue can easily be mixed with asphalt without significantly altering the asphalt binder's viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures of HMA. Additionally, improvements in complex shear modulus for a range of temperatures were also determined and it was found that complex shear modulus was improved by bone glue modification.

  15. Bone Glue Modified Asphalt: A Step towards Energy Conservation and Environment Friendly Modified Asphalts

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Hashim Raza; Gallo, August A.

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has been modified for the past several decades using various additives, including synthetic polymers. Polymer modification improves structural and engineering characteristics of the binder, which is a result of improvement in rheological characteristics of binder as well as its adhesion capability with the aggregate. Such enhancement inevitably enhances the performance characteristics of hot mix asphalts (HMA) such as fatigue life, resistance to rutting, and thermal cracking. Even though polymer-modified HMA is popular in North America and European countries, its use is still limited in developing countries of Southeast Asia due to high costs associated with its manufacturing, processing, and energy consumption. In this study, a new kind of asphalt modifier derived from animal wastes, such as bones, hides, and flesh commonly known as Bone Glue, is studied. This biomaterial which is a by-product of food and cattle industries is cheap, conveniently available, and produced locally in developing countries. The results of the research study showed that the bone glue can easily be mixed with asphalt without significantly altering the asphalt binder's viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures of HMA. Additionally, improvements in complex shear modulus for a range of temperatures were also determined and it was found that complex shear modulus was improved by bone glue modification. PMID:27437456

  16. Hematite Core Nanoparticles with Carbon Shell: Potential for Environmentally Friendly Production from Iron Mining Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stević, Dragana; Mihajlović, Dijana; Kukobat, Radovan; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Sagisaka, Kento; Kaneko, Katsumi; Atlagić, Suzana Gotovac

    2016-08-01

    Hematite nanoparticles with amorphous, yet relatively uniform carbon shell, were produced based exclusively on the waste sludge from the iron mine as the raw material. The procedure for acid digestion-based purification of the sludge with the full recovery of acid vapors and the remaining non-toxic rubble is described. Synthesis of the hematite nanoparticles was performed by the arrested precipitation method with cationic surfactant. The particles were thoroughly characterized and the potential of their economical production for the battery industry is indicated.

  17. Particle production at collider energies

    SciTech Connect

    Geich-Gimbel, C. )

    1989-01-01

    High energy particle physics, which has been trying to understand and to devise new laws governing nature at per particle energies far beyond everyday energies, has entered a new episode. Having surpassed the low energy regime, where (s channel) resonance production dominantly projects onto the final state, very interesting features of the strong interaction arose at c.m. energies in the tens of GEV range, as found at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). One recalls the onset of hard scattering processes, which was understood as a scattering between constituents of the nucleon, hence supporting the Quark Parton Model (QPM). Surprisingly enough the total cross section started to rise again, when it was initially believed to have reached a constant value, suggesting an asymptotia. Furthermore correlations among the final state particles produced were observed, and especially long range correlations, which must reflect dynamical laws.

  18. Pigment production by filamentous fungi on agro-industrial byproducts: an eco-friendly alternative.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Tichota, Deise Michele; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Segalin, Jéferson; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-10-01

    The search for new sources of natural pigments has increased, mainly because of the toxic effects caused by synthetic dyes used in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and cosmetic industries. Fungi provide a readily available alternative source of natural pigments. In this context, the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum IFL1 and IFL2, Fusarium graminearum IFL3, Monascus purpureus NRRL 1992, and Penicillium vasconiae IFL4 were selected as pigments producers. The fungal identification was performed using ITS and part of the β-tubulin gene sequencing. Almost all fungi were able to grow and produce water-soluble pigments on agro-industrial residues, with the exception of P. vasconiae that produced pigments only on potato dextrose broth. The production of yellow pigments was predominant and the two strains of P. chrysogenum were the largest producers. In addition, the production of pigments and mycotoxins were evaluated in potato dextrose agar using TOF-MS and TOF-MS/MS. Metabolites as roquefortine C, chrysogine were found in both extracts of P. chrysogenum, as well fusarenone X, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol in F. graminearum extract. In the M. purpureus extract, the pigments monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, and the mycotoxin citrinin were found. The crude filtrates have potential to be used in the textile industry; nevertheless, additional pigment purification is required for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  19. Is DHT Production by 5α-Reductase Friend or Foe in Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Takeo; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2014-01-01

    The first advance in the history of studies on prostate cancer (PCa) and androgens was the development of treatment with castration and administration of estrogen by Charles B. Huggins, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. Since then, and for 70 years, androgen deprivation therapy has been the standard therapy for advanced PCa and the center of studies on PCa. However, recent advances have shed light on the relationship between androgens and the development or the progression of PCa. The use of 5AR inhibitors to prevent progression of PCa continues to be widely discussed. Discussion has been fueled by the findings of two large randomized, placebo-controlled trials: the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with finasteride and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial. Does the development of PCa or progression to castration-resistant PCa depend on dihydrotestosterone (DHT)? Here, we summarize and discuss recent topics of local androgen production of DHT in PCa. PMID:25279351

  20. An environmental friendly method for the automatic determination of hypochlorite in commercial products using multisyringe flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Soto, N Ornelas; Horstkotte, B; March, J G; López de Alba, P L; López Martínez, L; Cerdá Martín, V

    2008-03-24

    A multisyringe flow injection analysis system was used for the determination of hypochlorite in cleaning agents, by measurement of the native absorbance of hypochlorite at 292 nm. The methodology was based on the selective decomposition of hypochlorite by a cobalt oxide catalyst giving chloride and oxygen. The difference of the absorbance of the sample before and after its pass through a cobalt oxide column was selected as analytical signal. As no further reagent was required this work can be considered as a contribution to environmental friendly analytical chemistry. The entire analytical procedure, including in-line sample dilution in three steps was automated by first, dilution in a stirred miniature vessel, second by dispersion and third by in-line addition of water using multisyringe flow injection technique. The dynamic concentration range was 0.04-0.78 gL(-1) (relative standard deviation lower than 3%), where the extension of the hypochlorite decomposition was of 90+/-4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial cleaning products. The accuracy of the method was established by iodometric titration. PMID:18328319

  1. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Mammoli, Andrea

    2015-11-04

    Distributed energy resources have the potential to provide services to facilities and buildings at lower cost and environmental impact in comparison to traditional electric-gridonly services. The reduced cost could result from a combination of higher system efficiency and exploitation of electricity tariff structures. Traditionally, electricity tariffs are designed to encourage the use of ‘off peak’ power and discourage the use of ‘onpeak’ power, although recent developments in renewable energy resources and distributed generation systems (such as their increasing levels of penetration and their increased controllability) are resulting in pressures to adopt tariffs of increasing complexity. Independently of the tariff structure, more or less sophisticated methods exist that allow distributed energy resources to take advantage of such tariffs, ranging from simple pre-planned schedules to Software-as-a-Service schedule optimization tools. However, as the penetration of distributed energy resources increases, there is an increasing chance of a ‘tragedy of the commons’ mechanism taking place, where taking advantage of tariffs for local benefit can ultimately result in degradation of service and higher energy costs for all. In this work, we use a scheduling optimization tool, in combination with a power distribution system simulator, to investigate techniques that could mitigate the deleterious effect of ‘selfish’ optimization, so that the high-penetration use of distributed energy resources to reduce operating costs remains advantageous while the quality of service and overall energy cost to the community is not affected.

  2. Identifying solar energy potentials and intensifying the climate-friendly use of photovoltaics within urban areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, N.

    2016-04-01

    Limited non-renewable fossil energy reserves and the essential ideas of sustainability have caused an increase in the demand for solar energy. The intensified use of renewable energy in Germany is primarily encouraged by the German renewable-energy-law. Solar panels mounted on roofs generate electricity using the energy radiated from the sun by taking advantage of the photovoltaic effect. However, not every roof is usable for power generation through solar energy. Therefore, web-based solar energy registers for multiple regions in Germany have been developed that provide detailed information on roofs suitable for carrying solar panels. The analyses are based on a digital object model derived from airborne laser scanning data of high accuracy and a fully automated technology to classify the points. First, roof points are separated according to their single roof sides and are converted into polygons. Then, exposure, slope, size of the roof, and particularly shading effects are computed to calculate the solar potential of each roof side. The web-GIS provides detailed information about the roof's suitability, such as the installable capacity and the expected generation of electricity. Thus, it helps house owners to calculate their investment and later revenues.

  3. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  4. Food Production and the Energy Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Pimentel, David

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the energy inputs in United States and green revolution crop production techniques, using corn as a typical crop. Examines the energy needs for a world food supply that depends on modern energy intensive agriculture, and considers alternatives in crop production technology which might reduce energy inputs in food production. (CC)

  5. Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.

  6. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Shariff, M.

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties. PMID:25874216

  7. Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties. PMID:25874216

  8. Water, energy, and farm production

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Seely, H.S.; Willis, D.B.; Anderson, D.M.

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility rate deregulation can have disproportionate impacts on water-intensive crops, which have historically relied upon pressurized irrigation technologies and surface water resources. Based on a case study of agricultural growers in southern California, the paper models the impacts of utility rates considered in the Western Area Power Administration`s Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region. The study was performed as part of the 2004 Power Marketing Program Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The empirical results reflect linear-programming estimates of the income transfers from growers to energy providers based on county-wide coverage of 13 junior and senior irrigation districts and short-run production possibilities of 11 irrigated crops. Transfers of income from growers to energy suppliers occur through their losses in producer surplus.

  9. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  10. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  11. Metal phosphonate hybrid mesostructures: environmentally friendly multifunctional materials for clean energy and other applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2011-10-17

    The synthesis of porous hybrid materials has been extended to mesoporous non-silica-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials, in which mesoporous metal phosphonates represent an important family. By using organically bridged polyphosphonic acids as coupling molecules, the homogeneous incorporation of a considerable number of organic functional groups into the metal phosphonate hybrid framework has been realized. Small amounts of organic additives and the pH value of the reaction solution have a large impact on the morphology and textural properties of the resultant hybrid mesoporous metal phosphonate solids. Cationic and nonionic surfactants can be used as templates for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous metal phosphonates. The materials are used as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal ions, CO₂, and aldehydes, as well as in the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also useful photocatalysts under UV and simulated solar light irradiation for organic dye degradation. Further functionalization of the synthesized mesoporous hybrids makes them oxidation and acid catalysts, both with impressive performances in the fields of sustainable energy and environment. PMID:21598407

  12. Metal phosphonate hybrid mesostructures: environmentally friendly multifunctional materials for clean energy and other applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2011-10-17

    The synthesis of porous hybrid materials has been extended to mesoporous non-silica-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials, in which mesoporous metal phosphonates represent an important family. By using organically bridged polyphosphonic acids as coupling molecules, the homogeneous incorporation of a considerable number of organic functional groups into the metal phosphonate hybrid framework has been realized. Small amounts of organic additives and the pH value of the reaction solution have a large impact on the morphology and textural properties of the resultant hybrid mesoporous metal phosphonate solids. Cationic and nonionic surfactants can be used as templates for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous metal phosphonates. The materials are used as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal ions, CO₂, and aldehydes, as well as in the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also useful photocatalysts under UV and simulated solar light irradiation for organic dye degradation. Further functionalization of the synthesized mesoporous hybrids makes them oxidation and acid catalysts, both with impressive performances in the fields of sustainable energy and environment.

  13. Laccase mediator systems for eco-friendly production of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) on a pilot scale: physicochemical analysis of the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Euring, Markus; Rühl, Martin; Ritter, Nina; Kües, Ursula; Kharazipour, Alireza

    2011-10-01

    Increasing prices of petrochemical resins and possible harmful formaldehyde emissions from conventionally produced wood composites have resulted in increased interest in enzymatic binder systems as environmentally friendly alternatives for gluing lignocellulosic products. In this study, laccase mediator systems (LMSs) were used to activate lignin on wood fiber surfaces in the pilot-scale production of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) using a dry process. Three different mediators were applied: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), and acetosyringone (AS) of which HBA performed best. The mechanical properties of the manufactured boards produced with thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers, laccase, and HBA fulfilled all required European standards for wood-based panels. Oxygen consumption rates of the different LMSs and (13)C NMR spectroscopy results for treated TMP fibers were obtained for qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignin activation. The results show that reactions were most effective within the first 30 min of incubation. Oxygen consumption was fastest and highest for the LMS using HBA. (13)C NMR spectroscopy indicated the highest decrease of aromatic groups in the wood fiber lignin with this LMS. The data correlated well with the quality of the MDF. The required enzymatic reaction times allowed direct integration of the LMS into standard MDF production techniques. The results indicate that application of LMSs has a high potential for environmentally friendly MDF production.

  14. Chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid and chitin/chitosan production using marine waste sources: characteristics, applications and eco-friendly processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Amado, Isabel; Montemayor, María Ignacia; Fraguas, Javier; González, María Del Pilar; Murado, Miguel Anxo

    2013-03-11

    In the last decade, an increasing number of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chitin and chitosan applications have been reported. Their commercial demands have been extended to different markets, such as cosmetics, medicine, biotechnology, food and textiles. Marine wastes from fisheries and aquaculture are susceptible sources for polymers but optimized processes for their recovery and production must be developed to satisfy such necessities. In the present work, we have reviewed different alternatives reported in the literature to produce and purify chondroitin sulfate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitin/chitosan (CH/CHs) with the aim of proposing environmentally friendly processes by combination of various microbial, chemical, enzymatic and membranes strategies and technologies.

  15. Chondroitin Sulfate, Hyaluronic Acid and Chitin/Chitosan Production Using Marine Waste Sources: Characteristics, Applications and Eco-Friendly Processes: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Amado, Isabel; Montemayor, María Ignacia; Fraguas, Javier; del Pilar González, María; Murado, Miguel Anxo

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, an increasing number of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chitin and chitosan applications have been reported. Their commercial demands have been extended to different markets, such as cosmetics, medicine, biotechnology, food and textiles. Marine wastes from fisheries and aquaculture are susceptible sources for polymers but optimized processes for their recovery and production must be developed to satisfy such necessities. In the present work, we have reviewed different alternatives reported in the literature to produce and purify chondroitin sulfate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitin/chitosan (CH/CHs) with the aim of proposing environmentally friendly processes by combination of various microbial, chemical, enzymatic and membranes strategies and technologies. PMID:23478485

  16. PRODUCING ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Segre, E.; Kennedy, J.W.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-10-13

    This patent broadly discloses the production of plutonium by the neutron bombardment of uranium to produce neptunium which decays to plutonium, and the fissionability of plutonium by neutrons, both fast and thermal, to produce energy and fission products.

  17. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  18. Fuel cell systems for a sustainable energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Kivisaari, T.

    1996-12-31

    When talking about fuel cell systems for stationary applications, two of the advantages are claimed to be a high inherent efficiency and environmentally favourable characteristics. It should, however, be obvious to everybody that in order to call an energy production route environmentally benign, it is not enough that just the energy production step itself has a low negative environmental impact, but that all steps involved (e.g. fuel pre-treatment, fuel processing etc.) should be subjected to the same constraints if the overall production process is to be considered environmentally friendly. In order to evaluate the technical possibilities of a biomass fuelled MCFC unit for stationary applications a system study of a 40 MWe biomass-fired MCFC system is currently carried out at The Royal Institute of Technology, as part of the international co-operation within the IEA Advanced Fuel Cell Programme Annex 1, Balance of Plant of MCFC Systems. In addition to the present work, other recent studies involving biomass and fuel cells can be found in literature.

  19. Switchgrass: Production, Economics, and Net Energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The critical questions for a biomass bioenergy production system are: • What are the economics? • Is energy from biomass net energy positive? • Is production system information available and verified? • Is the system sustainable? To address these questions, ten farmers in the mid-continental USA w...

  20. Energy conservation in ethylene production

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, N.

    1983-10-01

    The petrochemical industry is one of the most important industries and is of critical importance to the steel industry, petroleum refining industry and other heavy-and-chemical industries. These heavy-andchemical industries are the basis of the driving and growing force of the Japanese economic progress. And these industries consume a large amount of material and energy. Last year, the Chiba Plant won a commendation for being an excellent energy-controlling plant by the Chief of Resources and Energy Office. It was the first commendation among the many ethylene units. In light of this, the authors have prepared a review of the efforts in the field of saving energy in ethylene unit.

  1. Worker productivity rises with energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Romm, J.J. )

    1995-01-01

    Many American companies have found that saving energy and cutting pollution dramatically improves the bottom line. But beyond these gains, businesses that launch energy efficiency programs to save money are often astonished to discover unforeseen benefits: energy efficient lighting, heating, cooling, motors, and industrial processes can increase worker productivity, decrease absenteeism, and improve the quality of work performed. Profits created by the jump in worker productivity can exceed energy savings by a factor of ten. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention represent the next wave in manufacturing, following the quality revolution launched by the Japanese in the 1960s. Unless America leads the lean and clean revolution, economic health will be undermined as other countries develop clean processes and products and US companies suffer competitively. Also, developing countries will leapfrog their wasteful model and buy products and manufacturing processes from foreign firms already practicing lean and clean.

  2. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, Amy; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Johnson, Rolland; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  3. Automatic control algorithm effects on energy production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnerney, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model was developed using actual wind time series and turbine performance data to simulate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model was used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long term energy production. The results from local site and turbine characteristics were generalized to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.

  4. Production of a raw material for energy production in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellstroem, G.

    1980-04-01

    The total amount of energy in products produced by Swedish agriculture was estimated to 80 TWH: 30 TWh for cereals, 15 TWh for grass and leguminosae, and 35 TWh for straw and other agricultural wastes. Of this production a large part will be used as food even in the future. New plants that would produce more energy than the ones traditionally grown in Sweden are discussed. Also other types of energy from agriculture are discussed such as methane from manure, methanol from gasification processes, and ethanol from fermentative processes. Costs were estimated from different alternatives.

  5. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  6. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.; Purcell, C.W.

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  7. Relighting for energy efficiency and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L. ); Purcell, C.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the process and approach of the Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI). It describes the major steps in relighting Federal buildings for energy efficiency and increased productivity.

  8. A reliable and environmentally-friendly liquid-chromatographic method for multi-class determination of fat-soluble UV filters in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chisvert, Alberto; Tarazona, Isuha; Salvador, Amparo

    2013-08-01

    An environmentally-friendly analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 15 fat-soluble ultraviolet (UV) filters currently authorized by the European Union regulation on cosmetic products has been developed. The determination was performed by liquid chromatography with UV spectrophotometric detection. Different parameters, such as type of column, oven temperature, mobile phase composition and flow rate were studied. The best chromatographic separation was obtained under the following conditions: C18 column set at 60°C and gradient ethanol:water (containing 1% formic acid and 20mM of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) as mobile phase pumped at 1mL min(-1). 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was added as mobile phase modifier to achieve the complete resolution of some of the chromatographic peaks. The 15 target compounds were separated in less than 30min. The method was satisfactorily validated by analyzing three laboratory-made cosmetic samples besides of eleven commercially available cosmetic products containing different combination of the target UV filters. Good accordance of the found levels compared with those of the laboratory-made samples and those of the commercial samples (when available) was achieved. Moreover, excellent recoveries (97-104%) and good intra-day and inter-day precision values at different concentration levels, besides limits of detection values below the μg mL(-1) level, were obtained. These good analytical features, as well as their environmentally-friendly characteristics, make the presented method suitable not only for routine analysis in cosmetics industries, but also as candidate reference method for sunscreen analysis.

  9. Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, David; Patzek, Tad; Cecil, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The prime focus of ethanol production from corn is to replace the imported oil used in American vehicles, without expending more fossil energy in ethanol production than is produced as ethanol energy. In a thorough and up-to-date evaluation of all the fossil energy costs of ethanol production from corn, every step in the production and conversion process must be included. In this study, 14 energy inputs in average U.S. corn production are included. Then, in the fermentation/distillation operation, 9 more identified fossil fuel inputs are included. Some energy and economic credits are given for the by-products, including dried distillers grains (DDG). Based on all the fossil energy inputs, a total of 1.43 kcal fossil energy is expended to produced 1 kcal ethanol. When the energy value of the DDG, based on the feed value of the DDG as compared to that of soybean meal, is considered, the energy cost of ethanol production is reduced slightly, to 1.28 kcal fossil energy input per 1 kcal ethanol produced. Several proethanol investigators have overlooked various energy inputs in U.S. corn production, including farm machinery, processing machinery, and the use of hybrid corn. In other studies, unrealistic, low energy costs were attributed to such inputs as nitrogen fertilizer, insecticides, and herbicides. Controversy continues concerning the energy and economic credits that should be assigned to the by-products. The U.S. Department of Energy reports that 17.0 billion L ethanol was produced in 2005. This represents only less than 1% of total oil use in the U.S. These yields are based on using about 18% of total U.S. corn production and 18% of cornland. Because the production of ethanol requires large inputs of both oil and natural gas in production, the U.S. is importing both oil and natural gas to produce ethanol. Furthermore, the U.S. Government is spending about dollar 3 billion annually to subsidize ethanol production, a subsidy of dollar 0.79/L ethanol produced. With

  10. How carbon-friendly is nuclear energy? A hybrid MRIO-LCA model of a Spanish facility.

    PubMed

    Zafrilla, Jorge E; Cadarso, María-Ángeles; Monsalve, Fabio; de la Rúa, Cristina

    2014-12-16

    Spain faces the challenge of 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050 (European Energy Roadmap). As a possible first step to fulfill this objective, this paper presents a two-level analysis. First, we estimate the carbon footprint of a hypothetical nuclear facility in Spain. Using a hybrid multiregional input-output model, to avoid truncation while diminishing sector aggregation problems and to improve environmental leakages estimations, we calculate the CO2 equivalent emissions associated with the different phases of the nuclear life-cycle--construction, fuel processing and operation and maintenance--taking into account the countries or regions where the emissions have been generated. Our results estimate a nuclear carbon footprint of 21.30 gCO2e/kWh, of which 89% comes from regions outside Spain. In some regions, the highest impacts are mostly direct (92%, 95%, and 92% of total carbon emissions in the U.S., France, and UK, respectively), meaning that these emissions are linked to the inputs directly required for nuclear energy production; in other regions, indirect emissions are higher (83% in China), which becomes relevant for policy measures. Second, through the analyses of different scenarios, we unravel and quantify how different assumptions that are often taken in the literature result in different carbon emissions.

  11. How carbon-friendly is nuclear energy? A hybrid MRIO-LCA model of a Spanish facility.

    PubMed

    Zafrilla, Jorge E; Cadarso, María-Ángeles; Monsalve, Fabio; de la Rúa, Cristina

    2014-12-16

    Spain faces the challenge of 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050 (European Energy Roadmap). As a possible first step to fulfill this objective, this paper presents a two-level analysis. First, we estimate the carbon footprint of a hypothetical nuclear facility in Spain. Using a hybrid multiregional input-output model, to avoid truncation while diminishing sector aggregation problems and to improve environmental leakages estimations, we calculate the CO2 equivalent emissions associated with the different phases of the nuclear life-cycle--construction, fuel processing and operation and maintenance--taking into account the countries or regions where the emissions have been generated. Our results estimate a nuclear carbon footprint of 21.30 gCO2e/kWh, of which 89% comes from regions outside Spain. In some regions, the highest impacts are mostly direct (92%, 95%, and 92% of total carbon emissions in the U.S., France, and UK, respectively), meaning that these emissions are linked to the inputs directly required for nuclear energy production; in other regions, indirect emissions are higher (83% in China), which becomes relevant for policy measures. Second, through the analyses of different scenarios, we unravel and quantify how different assumptions that are often taken in the literature result in different carbon emissions. PMID:25386802

  12. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... of pollen spores that you breathe in. Leave gardening tools and clothing (such as gloves and shoes) ...

  13. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  14. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2016-07-12

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  15. Bioprocess design and economic analysis for the commercial production of environmentally friendly bioinsecticides from Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1 kurstaki.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Gerald E; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2004-05-20

    A production process for B. thuringiensis (Bt) bioinsecticides was designed in detail, including alternative batch, low-density fed-batch (LDFB), and high-density fed-batch (HDFB) fermentation configurations. Capital and operating costs, as well as profitability based on simple rate of return, were performed using a purpose-written FORTRAN program, explicitly analyzing production of a water-based flowable product used in forestry applications. The total capital cost was 18 million dollars (Canadian dollars) for a stand-alone plant with base-scale capacity of 3 x 10(7) billion international units (BIU)/year. Raw material costs amounted to 1.5 million dollars yearly, of which approximately half was for formulation ingredients. Per-unit production cost rose sharply for scales of less than 1 x 10(7) BIU/year, but was little affected by scale above 3 x 10(7) BIU/year. Product cost was much lower at all scales for a LDFB as opposed to batch fermentation process, but HDFB gave relatively little additional cost benefit. Profitability analysis performed by co-varying scale and selling price showed that break-even occurred at a price of 0.45 dollars/BIU for a batch process at base scale, while with LDFB fermentation the same production volume sold at 0.35 dollars/BIU gave a 12% rate of return. Since the assumed base scale would represent 8-15% of current world Bt bioinsecticide production, based on value or volume, it was concluded that profitability would require some or all of the following elements: targeting higher-value markets such as disease vector control, in addition to forestry; a potentially lower plant capacity (although at least 1 x 10(7) BIU/year;) and coproduction of other large-volume microbial products to absorb capacity and match bioinsecticide output to market demand.

  16. Environmental consequences of energy production: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    The Seventeenth Annual Illinois Energy conference entitled Environmental consequences of Energy Production was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 19-20, 1989. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the technical, economic and institutional issues surrounding energy production and related environmental problems. The conference program was developed by a planning committee which included Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The conference included presentations on four major topic areas. The issue areas were: urban pollution: where are we now and what needs to be done in the future; the acid rain problem: implications of proposed federal legislation on the Midwest; global warming: an update on the scientific debate; and strategies to minimize environmental damage. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (FL)

  17. Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

    2013-10-15

    The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances. PMID:23850762

  18. Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

    2013-10-15

    The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances.

  19. Thermoradiation processes of energy-carrier production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzantiev, B. G.; Ermakov, A. N.; Zhitomirskii, V. M.; Popov, V. N.

    Thermoradiation processes in the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide from water vapor and CO2 are discussed. An radiolysis experiment was conducted using a one-pass flow system and an electron accelerator (with energy of 3 Me V), according to parameters of dose rate, regent-radiation contact time, and temperature (700 deg). Steady-state concentrations of H2 and CO were found to correspond to 20 and 40 percent radiation energy-product and energy conversion, respectively. The results of the experiment permit an accurate determination of the optimal parameters of the conversion process and an estimate of the relative efficiencies of chemonuclear and electrochemical methods (plasmolysis and electrolysis) of H2 and CO production using nuclear piles.

  20. Electrorheology for energy production and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ke

    Recently, based on the physics of viscosity, we developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. The method is universal and applicable to all complex fluids with suspended particles of nano-meter, submicrometer, or micrometer size. Completely different from the traditional viscosity reduction method, raising the temperature, this technology is energy-efficient, as it only requires small amount of energy to aggregate the suspended particles. In this thesis, we will first discuss this new technology in detail, both in theory and practice. Then, we will report applications of our technology to energy science research. Presently, 80% of all energy sources are liquid fuels. The viscosity of liquid fuels plays an important role in energy production and energy conservation. With an electric field, we can reduce the viscosity of asphalt-based crude oil. This is important and useful for heavy crude oil and off-shore crude oil production and transportation. Especially, since there is no practical way to raise the temperature of crude oil inside the deepwater pipelines, our technology may play a key role in future off-shore crude oil production. Electrorehology can also be used to reduce the viscosity of refinery fuels, such as diesel fuel and gasoline. When we apply this technology to fuel injection, the fuel droplets in the fuel atomization become smaller, leading to faster combustion in the engine chambers. As the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines depends on the combustion speed and timing, the fast combustion produces much higher fuel efficiency. Therefore, adding our technology on existing engines improves the engine efficiency significantly. A theoretical model for the engine combustion, which explains how fast combustion improves the engine efficiency, is also presented in the thesis. As energy is the key to our national

  1. Material and energy intensity of fullerene production.

    PubMed

    Anctil, Annick; Babbitt, Callie W; Raffaelle, Ryne P; Landi, Brian J

    2011-03-15

    Fullerenes are increasingly being used in medical, environmental, and electronic applications due to their unique structural and electronic properties. However, the energy and environmental impacts associated with their commercial-scale production have not yet been fully investigated. In this work, the life cycle embodied energy of C(60) and C(70) fullerenes has been quantified from cradle-to-gate, including the relative contributions from synthesis, separation, purification, and functionalization processes, representing a more comprehensive scope than used in previous fullerene life cycle studies. Comparison of two prevalent production methods (plasma and pyrolysis) has shown that pyrolysis of 1,4-tetrahydronaphthalene emerges as the method with the lowest embodied energy (12.7 GJ/kg of C(60)). In comparison, plasma methods require a large amount of electricity, resulting in a factor of 7-10× higher embodied energy in the fullerene product. In many practical applications, fullerenes are required at a purity >98% by weight, which necessitates multiple purification steps and increases embodied energy by at least a factor of 5, depending on the desired purity. For applications such as organic solar cells, the purified fullerenes need to be chemically modified to [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), thus increasing the embodied energy to 64.7 GJ/kg C(60)-PCBM for the specified pyrolysis, purification, and functionalization conditions. Such synthesis and processing effects are even more significant for the embodied energy of larger fullerenes, such as C(70), which are produced in smaller quantities and are more difficult to purify. Overall, the inventory analysis shows that the embodied energy of all fullerenes are an order of magnitude higher than most bulk chemicals, and, therefore, traditional cutoff rules by weight during life cycle assessment of fullerene-based products should be avoided.

  2. Fish Protection: Cooperative research advances fish-friendly turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Foust, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Renewable hydropower is a tremendous resource within the Pacific Northwest that is managed with considerable cost and consideration for the safe migration of salmon. Recent research conducted in this region has provided results that could lower the impacts of hydro power production and make the technology more fish-friendly. This research is now being applied during a period when a huge emphasis is being made to develop clean, renewable energy sources.

  3. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I.

    2014-07-16

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however, a number of approaches (a beam rastering, in first place) are suggested to mitigate the issue. The efficiency of the considered EPD as a Materials Test Station (MTS) is also evaluated in this study.

  4. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  5. Production of low-cost calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) as an environmentally friendly deicer from cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Zhu, H.; Li, Y.; Tang, I.C.

    1993-12-31

    About 28 billion lbs of cheese whey are being wasted in the US because of the high biological oxygen demand (BOD) of whey, disposing of surplus whey is a pollution problem. An innovative, wide-scale solution to the whey disposal problem is to use whey as a zero- or low-cost feedstock for the production of an environmentally safe, noncorrosive, road deicer-calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). CMA can be used to replace some of the 10 to 14 million tons road salt used in the North America for deicing. A novel anaerobic fermentation process is developed to produce calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) from whey permeate. A co-culture consisting of homolactic (S. lactis) and homoacetic (C. formicoaceticum) bacteria was used to convert whey lactose to lactate and then to acetate in continuous, immobilized cell bioreactors. The acetate yield from lactose was {approximately}95% (wt/wt), and the final concentration of acetic acid was 4%. The acetic acid present in the fermentation broth can be recovered by solvent-extraction with a tertiary amine and reacted with dolomitic lime (Ca/MgO) to form a concentrated (>25%) CMA solution. About 25 tons CMA can be produced from a plant processing 1 million lbs whey permeate (4.5% lactose) per day. The production costs are estimated at {approximately}$220/ton CMA, which is only about one third of the present market price for CMA deicer. Therefore, about 0.8 million tons/yr CMA deicer can be produced from the currently unused whey. This will partially fulfill market demand for economically and environmentally sound chemicals for roadway deicing. This also will provide a viable solution to the whey disposal problem currently facing many dairies in the North America.

  6. Energy management analysis of lunar oxygen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazzolari, R.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.

    1990-01-01

    Energy load models in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being developed. The load models will be used as a first step to ultimately determine the optimal energy system needed to supply the power requirements for the process. The goal is to determine the energy requirements in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite to produce oxygen. The general approach is shown, and the objectives are to determine the energy loads of the processes in the system. Subsequent energy management studies will be made to minimize the system losses (irreversibilities) and to design optimal energy system power requirements. A number of processes are being proposed as possible candidates for lunar application and some detailed experimental efforts are being conducted within this project at the University of Arizona. Priorities are directed toward developing the energy models for each of the proposed processes being considered. The immediate goals are to identify the variables that would impact energy requirements and energy sources of supply.

  7. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  8. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2012-10-01

    As data centers proliferate in both size and number, their energy efficiency is becoming increasingly important. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing between different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve (or even maximize) energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and among data centers.

  9. New Energy-efficient Snow production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhyner, H.

    2009-04-01

    Artificial snow making is widely used in the Alps, mainly to compensate for missing snow cover. Since snow production requires both water and energy, it is necessary to develop new technologies in this field that optimise the production process. In particular in terms of energy consumption, new technologies are developed to minimize the use of energy and costs. The aims of this paper are to model the process of artificial snow making in the Swiss Alps. Several field and laboratory campaigns will be presented. The actual process of snow produciton, as it exits the snow canons and snow hoses and acummulates on the ground is modelled and validated with field and laboratory experiments. Amongst other techniques, infra-red meausurements show detailed temperature distributions. Techniques are demonstrated on how snow-making can be optimised.

  10. Use of bottom ash from olive pomace combustion in the production of eco-friendly fired clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Eliche-Quesada, D; Leite-Costa, J

    2016-02-01

    Olive pomace bottom ash was used to replace different amounts (10-50wt%) of clay in brick manufacturing. The aim of this study is both studying bricks properties and showing a new way of olive pomace bottom ash recycling. Properties of waste bricks were compared to conventional products following standard procedures in order to determine the maximum waste percentage. The amount of olive pomace bottom ash is limited to 20wt%, obtaining bricks with superior engineering properties when 10wt% of waste is added. Adding higher amount of waste (30-50wt%) resulted in bricks with water absorption and compressive strength values on the edge of meeting those established by standards. Therefore, the addition of 10 and 20wt% of olive pomace bottom ash produced bricks with a bulk density of 1635 and 1527kg/m(3) and a compressive strength of 33.9MPa and 14.2MPa, respectively. Fired bricks fulfil standards requirements for clay masonry units, offering, at the same time, better thermal insulation of buildings due to a reduction in thermal conductivity of 14.4% and 16.8% respectively, compared to control bricks (only clay).

  11. Use of bottom ash from olive pomace combustion in the production of eco-friendly fired clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Eliche-Quesada, D; Leite-Costa, J

    2016-02-01

    Olive pomace bottom ash was used to replace different amounts (10-50wt%) of clay in brick manufacturing. The aim of this study is both studying bricks properties and showing a new way of olive pomace bottom ash recycling. Properties of waste bricks were compared to conventional products following standard procedures in order to determine the maximum waste percentage. The amount of olive pomace bottom ash is limited to 20wt%, obtaining bricks with superior engineering properties when 10wt% of waste is added. Adding higher amount of waste (30-50wt%) resulted in bricks with water absorption and compressive strength values on the edge of meeting those established by standards. Therefore, the addition of 10 and 20wt% of olive pomace bottom ash produced bricks with a bulk density of 1635 and 1527kg/m(3) and a compressive strength of 33.9MPa and 14.2MPa, respectively. Fired bricks fulfil standards requirements for clay masonry units, offering, at the same time, better thermal insulation of buildings due to a reduction in thermal conductivity of 14.4% and 16.8% respectively, compared to control bricks (only clay). PMID:26653359

  12. Electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers as thin layer chromatographic media for eco-friendly screening of steroids adulterated in traditional medicine and nutraceutical products.

    PubMed

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Plianwong, Samarwadee; Su-uta, Kosit; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2013-10-15

    Nanofibers fabricated from cheap, naturally derived biopolymer, namely cellulose acetate via facile electrospinning technique were successfully applied for the first time to use as separation media for thin layer chromatography (TLC). From the optimization studies, uniform, bead-free nanofibers with good adherence to the backing plates were obtained by electrospinning 17% (w/v) cellulose acetate solution prepared in acetone/N,N-dimethylacetamide (2:1, v-v), using a feed rate of 0.6 mL/h and an electrostatic field strength of 17.5 kV/15 cm for 4h. The nanofibers exhibited reversed phase characteristics, thereby offering the possibility to use simple, polar and more environmental friendly mixtures of water and alcohols as mobile phase. In this work, the application of the fabricated fibers was illustrated by using them combined with the optimal mobile phase e.g. ethanol/water (40:60, v-v) for the screening of steroids adulterated in traditional medicine and nutraceutical products. Due to the satisfactory separation performance, electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers were shown to be an efficient alternative for TLC media and could be potentially used for the development of green and facile analytical methods.

  13. Siberian Earth System Science Cluster - A web-based Geoportal to provide user-friendly Earth Observation Products for supporting NEESPI scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, J.; Gerlach, R.; Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-04-01

    To provide earth observation products in the area of Siberia, the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) was established as a spatial data infrastructure at the University of Jena (Germany), Department for Earth Observation. This spatial data infrastructure implements standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organizsation for Standardization (ISO) for data discovery, data access, data processing and data analysis. The objective of SIB-ESS-C is to faciliate environmental research and Earth system science in Siberia. The region for this project covers the entire Asian part of the Russian Federation approximately between 58°E - 170°W and 48°N - 80°N. To provide discovery, access and analysis services a webportal was published for searching and visualisation of available data. This webportal is based on current web technologies like AJAX, Drupal Content Management System as backend software and a user-friendly surface with Drag-n-Drop and further mouse events. To have a wide range of regular updated earth observation products, some products from sensor MODIS at the satellites Aqua and Terra were processed. A direct connection to NASA archive servers makes it possible to download MODIS Level 3 and 4 products and integrate it in the SIB-ESS-C infrastructure. These data can be downloaded in a file format called Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). For visualisation and further analysis, this data is reprojected, converted to GeoTIFF and global products clipped to the project area. All these steps are implemented as an automatic process chain. If new MODIS data is available within the infrastructure this process chain is executed. With the link to a MODIS catalogue system, the system gets new data daily. With the implemented analysis processes, timeseries data can be analysed, for example to plot a trend or different time series against one another. Scientists working in this area and working with MODIS data can make use

  14. Photobiological hydrogen production and artificial photosynthesis for clean energy: from bio to nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Nath, K; Najafpour, M M; Voloshin, R A; Balaghi, S E; Tyystjärvi, E; Timilsina, R; Eaton-Rye, J J; Tomo, T; Nam, H G; Nishihara, H; Ramakrishna, S; Shen, J-R; Allakhverdiev, S I

    2015-12-01

    Global energy demand is increasing rapidly and due to intensive consumption of different forms of fuels, there are increasing concerns over the reduction in readily available conventional energy resources. Because of the deleterious atmospheric effects of fossil fuels and the uncertainties of future energy supplies, there is a surge of interest to find environmentally friendly alternative energy sources. Hydrogen (H2) has attracted worldwide attention as a secondary energy carrier, since it is the lightest carbon-neutral fuel rich in energy per unit mass and easy to store. Several methods and technologies have been developed for H2 production, but none of them are able to replace the traditional combustion fuel used in automobiles so far. Extensively modified and renovated methods and technologies are required to introduce H2 as an alternative efficient, clean, and cost-effective future fuel. Among several emerging renewable energy technologies, photobiological H2 production by oxygenic photosynthetic microbes such as green algae and cyanobacteria or by artificial photosynthesis has attracted significant interest. In this short review, we summarize the recent progress and challenges in H2-based energy production by means of biological and artificial photosynthesis routes.

  15. Photobiological hydrogen production and artificial photosynthesis for clean energy: from bio to nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Nath, K; Najafpour, M M; Voloshin, R A; Balaghi, S E; Tyystjärvi, E; Timilsina, R; Eaton-Rye, J J; Tomo, T; Nam, H G; Nishihara, H; Ramakrishna, S; Shen, J-R; Allakhverdiev, S I

    2015-12-01

    Global energy demand is increasing rapidly and due to intensive consumption of different forms of fuels, there are increasing concerns over the reduction in readily available conventional energy resources. Because of the deleterious atmospheric effects of fossil fuels and the uncertainties of future energy supplies, there is a surge of interest to find environmentally friendly alternative energy sources. Hydrogen (H2) has attracted worldwide attention as a secondary energy carrier, since it is the lightest carbon-neutral fuel rich in energy per unit mass and easy to store. Several methods and technologies have been developed for H2 production, but none of them are able to replace the traditional combustion fuel used in automobiles so far. Extensively modified and renovated methods and technologies are required to introduce H2 as an alternative efficient, clean, and cost-effective future fuel. Among several emerging renewable energy technologies, photobiological H2 production by oxygenic photosynthetic microbes such as green algae and cyanobacteria or by artificial photosynthesis has attracted significant interest. In this short review, we summarize the recent progress and challenges in H2-based energy production by means of biological and artificial photosynthesis routes. PMID:25899392

  16. Innovative energy production in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-10-01

    Concepts of innovative energy production in neutron-lean fusion reactors without having the conventional turbine-type generator are proposed for improving the plant efficiency. These concepts are: (1) traveling wave direct energy conversion of 14.7 MeV protons; (2) cusp type direct energy conversion of charged particles; (3) efficient use of radiation with semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas; and (4) direct energy conversion from deposited heat to electric power with semiconductor utilizing Nernst effect. The candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system are also studied for application of the new concepts. The study shows the above concepts for a commercial reactor are promising.

  17. Energy accounting in canning tomato products

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.P.; Carroad, P.A.; Chhinnan, M.S.; Rose, W.W.; Jacob, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    An energy accounting method was used to determine energy consumption in various unit operations in canning tomato juice, wholepeeled tomatoes, and tomato paste. Data on steam and electric consumption were obtained from a canning plant with the use of steam flow meters and electric transducers. Unit operations associated with the following equipment were investigated: crushers, hot-break heaters, pulpers, finishers, lye-bath peelers, evaporators, and retorts. The average thermal and electrical energy intensities of canning tomato products were 538 Btu and 0.0126 kWh per pound of tomatoes received, respectively. Energy intensive operations were identified as those associated with hot-break heaters, lye-bath peelers, evaporators, and retorts.

  18. Geothermal energy production with supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.

    2003-12-30

    There has been invented a method for producing geothermal energy using supercritical fluids for creation of the underground reservoir, production of the geothermal energy, and for heat transport. Underground reservoirs are created by pumping a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide into a formation to fracture the rock. Once the reservoir is formed, the same supercritical fluid is allowed to heat up and expand, then is pumped out of the reservoir to transfer the heat to a surface power generating plant or other application.

  19. Production of Energy Efficient Preform Structures (PEEPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John A. Baumann

    2012-06-08

    Due to its low density, good structural characteristics, excellent fabrication properties, and attractive appearance, aluminum metal and its alloys continue to be widely utilized. The transportation industry continues to be the largest consumer of aluminum products, with aerospace as the principal driver for this use. Boeing has long been the largest single company consumer of heat-treated aluminum in the U.S. The extensive use of aluminum to build aircraft and launch vehicles has been sustained, despite the growing reliance on more structurally efficient carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. The trend in the aerospace industry over the past several decades has been to rely extensively on large, complex, thin-walled, monolithic machined structural components, which are fabricated from heavy billets and thick plate using high speed machining. The use of these high buy-to-fly ratio starting product forms, while currently cost effective, is energy inefficient, with a high environmental impact. The widespread implementation of Solid State Joining (SSJ) technologies, to produce lower buy-to-fly ratio starting forms, tailored to each specific application, offers the potential for a more sustainable manufacturing strategy, which would consume less energy, require less material, and reduce material and manufacturing costs. One objective of this project was to project the energy benefits of using SSJ techniques to produce high-performance aluminum structures if implemented in the production of the world fleet of commercial aircraft. A further objective was to produce an energy consumption prediction model, capable of calculating the total energy consumption, solid waste burden, acidification potential, and CO2 burden in producing a starting product form - whether by conventional or SSJ processes - and machining that to a final part configuration. The model needed to be capable of computing and comparing, on an individual part/geometry basis, multiple possible

  20. Friends' Discovery Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Seth

    2008-01-01

    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  1. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  2. Nanomaterials for renewable energy production and storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Can; Grätzel, Michaël; Kostecki, Robert; Mao, Samuel S

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decades, there have been many projections on the future depletion of the fossil fuel reserves on earth as well as the rapid increase in green-house gas emissions. There is clearly an urgent need for the development of renewable energy technologies. On a different frontier, growth and manipulation of materials on the nanometer scale have progressed at a fast pace. Selected recent and significant advances in the development of nanomaterials for renewable energy applications are reviewed here, and special emphases are given to the studies of solar-driven photocatalytic hydrogen production, electricity generation with dye-sensitized solar cells, solid-state hydrogen storage, and electric energy storage with lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

  3. Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public. The

  4. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Products at Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for LENR occurring on or very near to the surface of materials. Several types of experimental indications for LENR surface reactions have been reported and will be reviewed. LENR result in two types of products, energy and the appearance of new elements. The level of instantaneous power production can be written as the product of four factors: (1) the total area of the surface on which the reactions can occur, (2) the fraction of the area that is active at any time, (3) the reaction rate, that is, the number of reactions per unit active area per second, and (4) the energy produced per reaction. Each of these factors, and their limits, are reviewed. A graphical means of relating these four factors over their wide variations has been devised. The instantaneous generation of atoms of new elements can also be written as the product of the first three factors and the new elemental mass produced per reaction. Again, a graphical means of presenting the factors and their results over many orders of magnitude has been developed.

  5. Utilizing environmental friendly iron as a substitution element in spinel structured cathode materials for safer high energy lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong -Min; Liu, Yijin; Liu, Jue; Yu, Xiqian; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Zhou, Jigang; Khalifah, Peter; Ariyoshi, Kingo; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2015-12-03

    Suppressing oxygen release from lithium ion battery cathodes during heating is a critical issue for the improvement of the battery safety characteristics because oxygen can exothermically react with the flammable electrolyte and cause thermal runaway. Previous studies have shown that oxygen release can be reduced by the migration of transition metal cations from octahedral sites to tetrahedral sites during heating. Such site-preferred migration is determined by the electronic structure of cations. In addition, taking advantage of the unique electronic structure of the environmental friendly Fe, this is selected as substitution element in a high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 to improve the thermal stability. The optimized LiNi0.33Mn1.33Fe0.33O4 material shows significantly improved thermal stability compared with the unsubstituted one, demonstrated by no observed oxygen release at temperatures as high as 500°C. Due to the electrochemical contribution of Fe, the high energy density feature of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is well preserved.

  6. Utilizing environmental friendly iron as a substitution element in spinel structured cathode materials for safer high energy lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong -Min; Liu, Yijin; Liu, Jue; Yu, Xiqian; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Zhou, Jigang; Khalifah, Peter; Ariyoshi, Kingo; Nam, Kyung -Wan; et al

    2015-12-03

    Suppressing oxygen release from lithium ion battery cathodes during heating is a critical issue for the improvement of the battery safety characteristics because oxygen can exothermically react with the flammable electrolyte and cause thermal runaway. Previous studies have shown that oxygen release can be reduced by the migration of transition metal cations from octahedral sites to tetrahedral sites during heating. Such site-preferred migration is determined by the electronic structure of cations. In addition, taking advantage of the unique electronic structure of the environmental friendly Fe, this is selected as substitution element in a high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 to improvemore » the thermal stability. The optimized LiNi0.33Mn1.33Fe0.33O4 material shows significantly improved thermal stability compared with the unsubstituted one, demonstrated by no observed oxygen release at temperatures as high as 500°C. Due to the electrochemical contribution of Fe, the high energy density feature of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is well preserved.« less

  7. Food production and the energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D; Hurd, L E; Bellotti, A C; Forster, M J; Oka, I N; Sholes, O D; Whitman, R J

    1973-11-01

    The principal raw material of modern U.S. agriculture is fossil fuel, whereas the labor input is relatively small (about 9 hours per crop acre). As agriculture is dependent upon fossil energy, crop production costs will also soar when fuel costs increase two- to fivefold. A return of 2.8 kcal of corn per 1 kcal of fuel input may then be uneconomical. Green revolution agriculture also uses high energy crop production technology, especially with respect to fertilizers and pesticides. While one may not doubt the sincerity of the U.S. effort to share its agricultural technology so that the rest of the world can live and eat as it does, one must be realistic about the resources available to accomplish this mission. In the United States we are currently using an equivalent of 80 gallons of gasoline to produce an acre of corn. With fuel shortages and high prices to come, we wonder if many developing nations will be able to afford the technology of U.S. agriculture. Problems have already occurred with green revolution crops, particularly problems related to pests (57). More critical problems are expected when there is a world energy crisis. A careful assessment should be made of the benefits, costs, and risks of high energy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be certain that this program will not aggravate the already serious world food situation (58). To reduce energy inputs, green revolution and U.S. agriculture might employ such alternatives as rotations and green manures to reduce the high energy demand of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. U.S. agriculture might also reduce energy expenditures by substituting some manpower currently displaced by mechanization. While no one knows for certain what changes will have to be made, we can be sure that when conventional energy resources become scarce and expensive, the impact on agriculture as an industry and a way of life will be significant. This analysis is but a preliminary investigation of a significant

  8. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi

    2005-09-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well. PMID:20549448

  9. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi

    2005-09-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  10. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shaviv, Avi

    2005-12-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  11. Biodelignification of lignocellulose substrates: An intrinsic and sustainable pretreatment strategy for clean energy production.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Anuj K; Gonçalves, Bruna C M; Strap, Janice L; da Silva, Silvio S

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is a promising sugar feedstock for biofuels and other high-value chemical commodities. The recalcitrance of LB, however, impedes carbohydrate accessibility and its conversion into commercially significant products. Two important factors for the overall economization of biofuel production is LB pretreatment to liberate fermentable sugars followed by conversion into ethanol. Sustainable biofuel production must overcome issues such as minimizing water and energy usage, reducing chemical usage and process intensification. Amongst available pretreatment methods, microorganism-mediated pretreatments are the safest, green, and sustainable. Native biodelignifying agents such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporous cinnabarinus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus can remove lignin, making the remaining substrates amenable for saccharification. The development of a robust, integrated bioprocessing (IBP) approach for economic ethanol production would incorporate all essential steps including pretreatment, cellulase production, enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of the released sugars into ethanol. IBP represents an inexpensive, environmentally friendly, low energy and low capital approach for second-generation ethanol production. This paper reviews the advancements in microbial-assisted pretreatment for the delignification of lignocellulosic substrates, system metabolic engineering for biorefineries and highlights the possibilities of process integration for sustainable and economic ethanol production. PMID:24156399

  12. Biodelignification of lignocellulose substrates: An intrinsic and sustainable pretreatment strategy for clean energy production.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Anuj K; Gonçalves, Bruna C M; Strap, Janice L; da Silva, Silvio S

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is a promising sugar feedstock for biofuels and other high-value chemical commodities. The recalcitrance of LB, however, impedes carbohydrate accessibility and its conversion into commercially significant products. Two important factors for the overall economization of biofuel production is LB pretreatment to liberate fermentable sugars followed by conversion into ethanol. Sustainable biofuel production must overcome issues such as minimizing water and energy usage, reducing chemical usage and process intensification. Amongst available pretreatment methods, microorganism-mediated pretreatments are the safest, green, and sustainable. Native biodelignifying agents such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporous cinnabarinus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus can remove lignin, making the remaining substrates amenable for saccharification. The development of a robust, integrated bioprocessing (IBP) approach for economic ethanol production would incorporate all essential steps including pretreatment, cellulase production, enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of the released sugars into ethanol. IBP represents an inexpensive, environmentally friendly, low energy and low capital approach for second-generation ethanol production. This paper reviews the advancements in microbial-assisted pretreatment for the delignification of lignocellulosic substrates, system metabolic engineering for biorefineries and highlights the possibilities of process integration for sustainable and economic ethanol production.

  13. Boosting CSP Production with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2012-06-01

    Combining concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage shows promise for increasing grid flexibility by providing firm system capacity with a high ramp rate and acceptable part-load operation. When backed by energy storage capability, CSP can supplement photovoltaics by adding generation from solar resources during periods of low solar insolation. The falling cost of solar photovoltaic (PV) - generated electricity has led to a rapid increase in the deployment of PV and projections that PV could play a significant role in the future U.S. electric sector. The solar resource itself is virtually unlimited; however, the actual contribution of PV electricity is limited by several factors related to the current grid. The first is the limited coincidence between the solar resource and normal electricity demand patterns. The second is the limited flexibility of conventional generators to accommodate this highly variable generation resource. At high penetration of solar generation, increased grid flexibility will be needed to fully utilize the variable and uncertain output from PV generation and to shift energy production to periods of high demand or reduced solar output. Energy storage is one way to increase grid flexibility, and many storage options are available or under development. In this article, however, we consider a technology already beginning to be used at scale - thermal energy storage (TES) deployed with concentrating solar power (CSP). PV and CSP are both deployable in areas of high direct normal irradiance such as the U.S. Southwest. The role of these two technologies is dependent on their costs and relative value, including how their value to the grid changes as a function of what percentage of total generation they contribute to the grid, and how they may actually work together to increase overall usefulness of the solar resource. Both PV and CSP use solar energy to generate electricity. A key difference is the ability of CSP to utilize high

  14. Drell-Yan production at collider energies

    SciTech Connect

    Neerven, W.L. Van

    1995-07-01

    We present some results of the Drell-Yan cross sections d{sigma}/dm and {sigma}{sub tot} which includes the O ({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) contribution to the coefficient function. In particular we study the total cross section {sigma}{sub tot} for vector boson production and d{sigma}/dm for low invariant masses m of the lepton pairs at large hadron collider energies. This study includes a detailed discussion of the dependence of the cross sections on the chosen scheme ({bar M}S versus DIS) and the factorization scale.

  15. Green and energy-efficient methods for the production of metallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Naghdi, Mitra; Taheran, Mehrdad; Verma, M; Surampalli, R Y; Valero, J R

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the last decade, researchers paid great attention to the concept of “Green Chemistry”, which aims at development of efficient methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) in terms of the least possible impact on human life and environment. Generally, several reagents including precursors, reducing agents, stabilizing agents and solvents are used for the production of NPs and in some cases, energy is needed to reach the optimum temperature for reduction. Therefore, to develop a green approach, researchers had the opportunity to investigate eco-friendly reagents and new energy transfer techniques. In order to substitute the harmful reagents with green ones, researchers worked on different types of saccharides, polyols, carboxylic acids, polyoxometalates and extracts of various plants that can play the role of reducers, stabilizers or solvents. Also, there are some reports on using ultraviolet (UV), gamma and microwave irradiation that are capable of reducing and provide uniform heating. According to the literature, it is possible to use green reagents and novel energy transfer techniques for production of NPs. However, these new synthesis routes should be optimized in terms of performance, cost, product quality (shape and size distribution) and scale-up capability. This paper presents a review on most of the employed green reagents and new energy transfer techniques for the production of metallic NPs. PMID:26734527

  16. Green and energy-efficient methods for the production of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Mitra; Taheran, Mehrdad; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, M; Surampalli, R Y; Valero, J R

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, researchers paid great attention to the concept of "Green Chemistry", which aims at development of efficient methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) in terms of the least possible impact on human life and environment. Generally, several reagents including precursors, reducing agents, stabilizing agents and solvents are used for the production of NPs and in some cases, energy is needed to reach the optimum temperature for reduction. Therefore, to develop a green approach, researchers had the opportunity to investigate eco-friendly reagents and new energy transfer techniques. In order to substitute the harmful reagents with green ones, researchers worked on different types of saccharides, polyols, carboxylic acids, polyoxometalates and extracts of various plants that can play the role of reducers, stabilizers or solvents. Also, there are some reports on using ultraviolet (UV), gamma and microwave irradiation that are capable of reducing and provide uniform heating. According to the literature, it is possible to use green reagents and novel energy transfer techniques for production of NPs. However, these new synthesis routes should be optimized in terms of performance, cost, product quality (shape and size distribution) and scale-up capability. This paper presents a review on most of the employed green reagents and new energy transfer techniques for the production of metallic NPs.

  17. Green and energy-efficient methods for the production of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Mitra; Taheran, Mehrdad; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, M; Surampalli, R Y; Valero, J R

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, researchers paid great attention to the concept of "Green Chemistry", which aims at development of efficient methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) in terms of the least possible impact on human life and environment. Generally, several reagents including precursors, reducing agents, stabilizing agents and solvents are used for the production of NPs and in some cases, energy is needed to reach the optimum temperature for reduction. Therefore, to develop a green approach, researchers had the opportunity to investigate eco-friendly reagents and new energy transfer techniques. In order to substitute the harmful reagents with green ones, researchers worked on different types of saccharides, polyols, carboxylic acids, polyoxometalates and extracts of various plants that can play the role of reducers, stabilizers or solvents. Also, there are some reports on using ultraviolet (UV), gamma and microwave irradiation that are capable of reducing and provide uniform heating. According to the literature, it is possible to use green reagents and novel energy transfer techniques for production of NPs. However, these new synthesis routes should be optimized in terms of performance, cost, product quality (shape and size distribution) and scale-up capability. This paper presents a review on most of the employed green reagents and new energy transfer techniques for the production of metallic NPs. PMID:26734527

  18. Environmentally Friendly Coolant System

    SciTech Connect

    David Jackson Principal Investigator

    2011-11-08

    Energy reduction through the use of the EFCS is most improved by increasing machining productivity. Throughout testing, nearly all machining operations demonstrated less land wear on the tooling when using the EFCS which results in increased tool life. These increases in tool life advance into increased productivity. Increasing productivity reduces cycle times and therefore reduces energy consumption. The average energy savings by using the EFCS in these machining operations with these materials is 9%. The advantage for end milling stays with flood coolant by about 6.6% due to its use of a low pressure pump. Face milling and drilling are both about 17.5% less energy consumption with the EFCS than flood coolant. One additional result of using the EFCS is improved surface finish. Certain machining operations using the EFCS result in a smoother surface finish. Applications where finishing operations are required will be able to take advantage of the improved finish by reducing the time or possibly eliminating completely one or more finishing steps and thereby reduce their energy consumption. Some machining operations on specific materials do not show advantages for the EFCS when compared to flood coolants. More information about these processes will be presented later in the report. A key point to remember though, is that even with equivalent results, the EFCS is replacing petroleum based coolants whose production produces GHG emissions and create unsafe work environments.

  19. 16 CFR 260.11 - Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... friendly to, the ozone layer or the atmosphere. Example 1: A product is labeled “ozone-friendly.” The claim... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. 260.11... THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.11 Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. It...

  20. 16 CFR 260.11 - Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... friendly to, the ozone layer or the atmosphere. Example 1: A product is labeled “ozone-friendly.” The claim... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. 260.11... THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.11 Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. It...

  1. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

  2. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mohammed Khan, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  3. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ..., U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies... Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation...

  4. Renewable energy for productive uses in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, C.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a USAID/USDOE sponsored program to implement renewable energy in Mexico for productive uses. The objectives are to expand markets for US and Mexican industries, and to combat global climate change - primarily greenhouse gas emissions. The focus is on off-grid applications, with an emphasis on developing the institution structure to support the development of these industries within the country. Agricultural development is an example of the type of industry approached, where photovoltaic and wind power can be used for water pumping. There are hundreds of projects under review, and this interest has put renewables as a line item in Mexico`s rural development budget. Village power projects are being considered in the form of utility partnerships.

  5. NEXT GENERATION ENERGY EFFICIENT FLUORESCENT LIGHTING PRODUCT

    SciTech Connect

    Alok Srivastava; Anant Setlur

    2003-04-01

    This is the Final Report of the Next-Generation Energy Efficient Fluorescent Lighting Products program, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program was to develop novel phosphors to improve the color rendition and efficiency of compact and linear fluorescent lamps. The prime technical approach was the development of quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) to further increase the efficiency of conventional linear fluorescent lamps and the development of new high color rendering phosphor blends for compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) as potential replacements for the energy-hungry and short-lived incandescent lamps in market segments that demand high color rendering light sources. We determined early in the project that the previously developed oxide QSP, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+}, did not exhibit an quantum efficiency higher than unity under excitation by 185 nm radiation, and we therefore worked to determine the physical reasons for this observation. From our investigations we concluded that the achievement of quantum efficiency exceeding unity in SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+} was not possible due to interaction of the Pr{sup 3+} 5d level with the conduction band of the solid. The interaction which gives rise to an additional nonradiative decay path for the excitation energy is responsible for the low quantum efficiency of the phosphor. Our work has led to the development of a novel spectroscopic method for determining photoionzation threshold of luminescent centers in solids. This has resulted in further quantification of the requirements for host phosphor lattice materials to optimize quantum efficiency. Because of the low quantum efficiency of the QSP, we were unable to demonstrate a linear fluorescent lamp with overall performance exceeding that of existing mercury-based fluorescent lamps. Our work on the high color rendering CFLs has been very successful. We have demonstrated CFLs that satisfies the EnergyStar requirement with color

  6. Hydrogen production. Green algae as a source of energy.

    PubMed

    Melis, A; Happe, T

    2001-11-01

    Hydrogen gas is thought to be the ideal fuel for a world in which air pollution has been alleviated, global warming has been arrested, and the environment has been protected in an economically sustainable manner. Hydrogen and electricity could team to provide attractive options in transportation and power generation. Interconversion between these two forms of energy suggests on-site utilization of hydrogen to generate electricity, with the electrical power grid serving in energy transportation, distribution utilization, and hydrogen regeneration as needed. A challenging problem in establishing H(2) as a source of energy for the future is the renewable and environmentally friendly generation of large quantities of H(2) gas. Thus, processes that are presently conceptual in nature, or at a developmental stage in the laboratory, need to be encouraged, tested for feasibility, and otherwise applied toward commercialization.

  7. Optimized Solvent for Energy-Efficient, Environmentally-Friendly Capture of CO{sub 2} at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, G. A.; Rimpf, L. M.

    2014-04-30

    The overall goal of this project, as originally proposed, was to optimize the formulation of a novel solvent as a critical enabler for the cost-effective, energy-efficient, environmentally-friendly capture of CO{sub 2} at coal-fired utility plants. Aqueous blends of concentrated piperazine (PZ) with other compounds had been shown to exhibit high rates of CO{sub 2} absorption, low regeneration energy, and other desirable performance characteristics during an earlier 5-year development program conducted by B&W. The specific objective of this project was to identify PZ-based solvent formulations that globally optimize the performance of coal-fired power plants equipped with CO{sub 2} scrubbing systems. While previous solvent development studies have tended to focus on energy consumption and absorber size, important issues to be sure, the current work seeks to explore, understand, and optimize solvent formulation across the full gamut of issues related to commercial application of the technology: capital and operating costs, operability, reliability, environmental, health and safety (EH&S), etc. Work on the project was intended to be performed under four budget periods. The objective of the work in the first budget period has been to identify several candidate formulations of a concentrated PZ-based solvent for detailed characterization and evaluation. Work in the second budget period would generate reliable and comprehensive property and performance data for the identified formulations. Work in the third budget period would quantify the expected performance of the selected formulations in a commercial CO{sub 2} scrubbing process. Finally, work in the fourth budget period would provide a final technology feasibility study and a preliminary technology EH&S assessment. Due to other business priorities, however, B&W has requested that this project be terminated at the end of the first budget period. This document therefore serves as the final report for this project. It

  8. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  9. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  10. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  11. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  12. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Energy-efficient products... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203...

  13. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, C. S., Jr.; Day, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ehtyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54 percent of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  14. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, C.S. Jr.; Day, J.W. Jr.

    1980-01-18

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ethyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54% of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  15. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW.... Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC88 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation......

  16. Comment on the Θ+-PRODUCTION at High Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A. I.; Hosaka, A.; Daté, S.; Ohashi, Y.

    2005-04-01

    We show that the cross sections of the Θ+-pentaquark production in different processes decrease with energy faster than the cross sections of production of the conventional three-quark hyperons. Therefore, the threshold region with the initial energy of a few GeV or less seems to be more favorable for the production and experimental study of Θ+-pentaquark.

  17. Nonverbal Communication in "Friends"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…

  18. Recommend to a Friend?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Jennifer Lynham

    2012-01-01

    New York's Cornell University spends millions of dollars and thousands of staff and volunteer hours to produce more than 1,400 events around the world each year. That's one event every six hours. Is it worth it? Do the 40,000 alumni, parents, and friends who attend feel closer to Cornell after these events? Do they disengage because Cornell didn't…

  19. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  20. Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

  1. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    PubMed

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  2. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    PubMed

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success. PMID:26667058

  3. 78 FR 73737 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AD09 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Lamps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable......

  4. Letter from the Friends Chairman

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  5. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source.

    PubMed

    Ciunel, Krzysztof; Klugmann-Radziemska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a by-product of fatty acid methyl esters production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage; the sources ofbiomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products, fossil coal and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer's own energetic demand is obtained. In this article, the experimental results of combusting rapeseed pellet in a calorimeter, combustion in a boiler heater and the analysis of the emissions level of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation are presented. It has been proved that the pellet, a by-product of biodiesel production, is not only a valuable substitute of animal fodder, but also an excellent renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, viable for use in household tap water heating installations. PMID:24600857

  6. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source.

    PubMed

    Ciunel, Krzysztof; Klugmann-Radziemska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a by-product of fatty acid methyl esters production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage; the sources ofbiomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products, fossil coal and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer's own energetic demand is obtained. In this article, the experimental results of combusting rapeseed pellet in a calorimeter, combustion in a boiler heater and the analysis of the emissions level of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation are presented. It has been proved that the pellet, a by-product of biodiesel production, is not only a valuable substitute of animal fodder, but also an excellent renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, viable for use in household tap water heating installations.

  7. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  9. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  10. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  11. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  12. Ionic liquid-based green processes for energy production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suojiang; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Xiaochun; Xin, Jiayu; Miao, Qingqing; Wang, Jianji

    2014-11-21

    To mitigate the growing pressure on resource depletion and environment degradation, the development of green processes for the production of renewable energy is highly required. As a class of novel and promising media, ionic liquids (ILs) have shown infusive potential applications in energy production. Aiming to offer a critical overview regarding the new challenges and opportunities of ILs for developing green processes of renewable energy, this article emphasises the role of ILs as catalysts, solvents, or electrolytes in three broadly interesting energy production processes from renewable resources, such as CO2 conversion to fuels and fuel additives, biomass pretreatment and conversion to biofuels, as well as solar energy and energy storage. It is expected that this article will stimulate a generation of new ideas and new technologies in IL-based renewable energy production. PMID:24553494

  13. Ionic liquid-based green processes for energy production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suojiang; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Xiaochun; Xin, Jiayu; Miao, Qingqing; Wang, Jianji

    2014-11-21

    To mitigate the growing pressure on resource depletion and environment degradation, the development of green processes for the production of renewable energy is highly required. As a class of novel and promising media, ionic liquids (ILs) have shown infusive potential applications in energy production. Aiming to offer a critical overview regarding the new challenges and opportunities of ILs for developing green processes of renewable energy, this article emphasises the role of ILs as catalysts, solvents, or electrolytes in three broadly interesting energy production processes from renewable resources, such as CO2 conversion to fuels and fuel additives, biomass pretreatment and conversion to biofuels, as well as solar energy and energy storage. It is expected that this article will stimulate a generation of new ideas and new technologies in IL-based renewable energy production.

  14. Children's Restrictive Disclosure to Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Sliz, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Children's restrictive disclosure to friends, which is a facet of intimate friendship, was investigated. It was found that children in kindergarten, second, and fourth grade showed restrictive disclosure to friends, and that greater disclosure of positive personal information to friends than to nonfriends was exhibited with age. (PCB)

  15. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  16. Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, GregoryK; Sanchez, Marla; Brown, RichardE; Lai, Judy

    2010-08-24

    This paper presents current and projected savings for ENERGY STAR labeled products, and details the status of the model as implemented in the September 2009 spreadsheets. ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates for ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2008, annual forecasts for 2009 and 2010, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2008 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2009 through 2015. Through 2008 the program saved 8.8 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 158 metric tones carbon (MtC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 18.1 Quads or primary energy saved and 316 MtC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 104 MtC and 213 MtC (1993 to 2008) and between 206 MtC and 444 MtC (2009 to 2015). In this report we address the following questions for ENERGY STAR labeled products: (1) How are ENERGY STAR impacts quantified; (2) What are the ENERGY STAR achievements; and (3) What are the limitations to our method?

  17. Coal production and energy fact in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Sensogut, C.; Oren, O.

    2009-07-01

    Energy is an important input for manufacturing plants and serves human beings to improve their level of development. However, as a person living in this society, each of us is getting anxious since the external dependence on the side of energy increases. In order to handle the deficiencies, which may occur in the near future, it is necessary to look into today's energy policies. In doing so, coal should be kept in mind as a respectful actor.

  18. Global energy consumption and production in 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, E. L.; Davison, C.; Dougher, R.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reilly, J.

    1981-02-01

    This study anticipates that global energy demand will continue to expand through 2000, although at a slower pace than in 1965 to 1978. Growth of supply is expected to be largely in conventional, nonrenewable fuels - coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas. Energy growth is also expected to slow down in terms of energy consumption per unit of output as a consequence of continuing efficiency improvements, which, in turn, result from higher energy prices. Slower rates of economic growth are expected in all groups of countries, developed and underdeveloped.

  19. Silvicultural systems for the energy efficient production of fuel biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Ledig, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Production of biomass by forests is highly energy efficient. Purely exploitative schemes are more efficient than highly intensive silviculture. However, net energy yield increases with intensity of cultivation, so silvicultural systems approaching those of agricultural cropping should be favored from an energy production standpoint. Efficiency can be further increased by breeding, an area neglected in forestry for centuries after it had become a proven assist in agriculture. The rate of production of biomass can be increased by breeding for rapid growth. Simultaneously, it may be possible to reduce energy inputs by breeding for trees that do not require supplemental fertilization or by engineering new symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing organisms.

  20. Technical analysis of the use of biomass for energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiewak, I.; Nichols, J. P.; Alvic, D.; Delene, J. G.; Fitzgerald, B. H.; Hightower, J. R.; Klepper, O. H.; Krummel, J. R.; Mills, J. B.

    1982-08-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of the use of biomass for energy production are presented. Estimates are made of the current and projected production and uses of biomass in the forms of wood, crop residues, grass and herbage, special crops, and animal wastes in various sectors of the US energy market. These studies indicate that because of its higher-value uses, bulkiness, diffuseness, and high water content, biomass is generally not competitive with conventional energy sources and is expected to have only limited application for energy production in the major market sectors - including the commercial sector, manufacturing, transportation, and electric utilities. The use of biomass for energy production is increasing in the forest-products industry, in farm applications, and in home heating because it is readily available to those users.

  1. A Novel, Safe, and Environmentally Friendly Technology for Water Production Through Recovery of Rejected Thermal Energy From Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Yehia F.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2006-07-01

    In this work, we describe a novel design that utilizes seawater and a portion of rejected heat from a nuclear plant's steam cycle to operate a water desalination system using forward osmosis technology. Water produced from this process is of sufficient quality to be readily used to supply plant demands for continuous makeup water. The proposed process minimizes the environmental concerns associated with thermal pollution of public waters and the resulting adverse impact on marine ecology. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this conceptual design of a water treatment process, we discuss a case study as an example to describe how the proposed design can be implemented in a nuclear power station with a once--through cooling system that discharges rejected heat to an open sound seawater as its ultimate heat sink. In this case study, the station uses a leased (vendor owned and operated) onsite water treatment system that demineralizes and polishes up to 500-gpm of city water (at 100 ppm TDS) to supply high-quality makeup water (< 0.01 ppm TDS) to the plant steam system. The objectives of implementing the new design are three fold: 1) forego current practice of using city water as the source of plant makeup water, thereby reducing the nuclear station's impact on the region's potable water supply by roughly 100 million gallons/year, 2) minimize the adverse impact of discharging rejected heat into the open sound seawater and, hence, protect the marine ecology, and 3) eliminate the reliance on external vendor that owns and operates the onsite water treatment system, thereby saving an annual fixed cost of $600 K plus 6 cents per 1,000 gallons of pure water. The design will also eliminate the need for using two double-path reverse osmosis (RO) units that consume 425 kW/h of electric power to operate two RO pumps (480 V, 281.6 HP, and 317.4 amps). (authors)

  2. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  3. Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Gregory K; Sanchez, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-11-15

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency labeling program operated jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products, buildings and practices. Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products, and currently labels more than thirty products, spanning office equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation equipment, commercial and residential lighting, home electronics, and major appliances. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with stakeholders. This report presents savings estimates from the use ENERGY STAR labeled products. We present estimates of energy, dollar, and carbon savings achieved by the program in the year 2009, annual forecasts for 2010 and 2011, and cumulative savings estimates for the period 1993 through 2009 and cumulative forecasts for the period 2010 through 2015. Through 2009 the program saved 9.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided the equivalent of 170 million metric tons carbon (MMTC). The forecast for the period 2009-2015 is 11.5 Quads or primary energy saved and 202 MMTC emissions avoided. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 110 MMTC and 231 MMTC (1993 to 2009) and between 130 MMTC and 285 MMTC (2010 to 2015).

  4. The Energy Relationships of Corn Production and Alcohol Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Koevering, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that the production of alcohol from corn be used as a practical application of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations. Discusses the solar energy available for growth, examining the utilization of solar energy by plants. Describes the conversion of corn to alcohol, with suggestions for classroom and laboratory study.…

  5. Energy Star{reg{underscore}sign} label for roof products

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeltz, R.S.; Bretz, S.E.

    1998-07-01

    Home and buildings owners can save up to 40% of cooling energy costs by installing reflective roofs, especially in hot and sunny climates. The increase in exterior albedo and subsequent decrease in heat flow across the building envelope reduces the energy requirements to maintain air-conditioned space. Indirectly, the increase in overall albedo of a community as these roofs are installed in a large fraction of the buildings results in lower ambient air temperature and less need for air conditioning. Another indirect effect is a decrease in smog formation due to lower ambient air temperatures and less air pollution from power plants because of minimized electrical demand and use. The US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy are currently developing the Energy Star Roof Products Program to create a vibrant market for energy-efficient, cost-effective roof materials through the widespread availability of products, clear recognition of the benefits by consumers, and active promotion of products by manufacturers. Several activities, including pilot procurements of room materials, and the development of outreach and training materials, will be performed to assist the transformation of the roofing market toward more energy-efficient products. Using the experiences gained in establishing the Energy Star Roof Products Program as an example, this paper will discuss the barriers to the development of energy-efficient roofing practices, program implementation, and program successes. This paper will further describe the specifics of the Energy Star Roof Products Program, its goals, benefits, activities, and timeframe.

  6. Dementia-friendly neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Six research projects that will improve understanding of dementia are to receive £20 million in funding from the UK government. The projects, which will be overseen by the National Institute for Health Research and the Economic and Social Research Council, include investigations into creating dementia-friendly neighbourhoods; the lifestyle changes that can reduce the risk of developing the condition; training care home staff to support patients who become agitated; improving predictions of the future financial costs of dementia; living well with the condition; and the effects of visual aids on wellbeing and quality of life.

  7. Optimisation of the extraction and purification of chondroitin sulphate from head by-products of Prionace glauca by environmental friendly processes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Antonio; Blanco, María; Fraguas, Javier; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The goal of the present work was to optimise the different environmental friendly processes involved in the extraction and purification of chondroitin sulphate (CS) from Prionace glauca head wastes. The experimental development was based on second order rotatable designs and evaluated by response surface methodology combined with a previous kinetic approach. The sequential stages optimised were: (1) the enzymatic hydrolysis of head cartilage catalysed by alcalase (55.7 °C/pH 8.2); (2) the chemical treatment of enzyme hydrolysates by means of alkaline-hydroalcoholic saline solutions (NaOH: 0.54 M, EtOH: 1.17 v, NaCl: 2.5%) to end the protein hydrolysis and to precipitate and selectively redissolve CS versus the peptidic material and (3) the selective purification and concentration of CS and the concomitant protein permeation of extracts which were obtained from previous treatment using ultrafiltration and diafiltration (UF-DF) technologies at two different cut-offs.

  8. Optimisation of the extraction and purification of chondroitin sulphate from head by-products of Prionace glauca by environmental friendly processes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Antonio; Blanco, María; Fraguas, Javier; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The goal of the present work was to optimise the different environmental friendly processes involved in the extraction and purification of chondroitin sulphate (CS) from Prionace glauca head wastes. The experimental development was based on second order rotatable designs and evaluated by response surface methodology combined with a previous kinetic approach. The sequential stages optimised were: (1) the enzymatic hydrolysis of head cartilage catalysed by alcalase (55.7 °C/pH 8.2); (2) the chemical treatment of enzyme hydrolysates by means of alkaline-hydroalcoholic saline solutions (NaOH: 0.54 M, EtOH: 1.17 v, NaCl: 2.5%) to end the protein hydrolysis and to precipitate and selectively redissolve CS versus the peptidic material and (3) the selective purification and concentration of CS and the concomitant protein permeation of extracts which were obtained from previous treatment using ultrafiltration and diafiltration (UF-DF) technologies at two different cut-offs. PMID:26769501

  9. The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwata, E.

    2012-04-01

    In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

  10. Identifying productive resources in secondary school students' discourse about energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Benedikt

    A growing program of research in science education acknowledges the beginnings of disciplinary reasoning in students' ideas and seeks to inform instruction that responds productively to these disciplinary progenitors in the moment to foster their development into sophisticated scientific practice. This dissertation examines secondary school students' ideas about energy for progenitors of disciplinary knowledge and practice. Previously, researchers argued that students' ideas about energy were constrained by stable and coherent conceptual structures that conflicted with an assumed unified scientific conception and therefore needed to be replaced. These researchers did not attend to the productive elements in students' ideas about energy. To analyze the disciplinary substance in students' ideas, a theoretical perspective was developed that extends Hammer and colleagues' resources framework. This elaboration allows for the identification of disciplinary productive resources---i.e., appropriately activated declarative and procedural pieces of knowledge---in individual students' utterances as well as in the interactions of multiple learners engaged in group learning activities. Using this framework, original interview transcripts from one of the most influential studies of students' ideas about energy (Watts, 1983. Some alternative views of energy. Physics Education, 18/5, 213-217) were analyzed. Disciplinary productive resources regarding the ontology of energy, indicators for energy, and mechanistic reasoning about energy were found to be activated by interviewed students. These valuable aspects were not recognized by the original author. An interpretive analysis of video recorded student-centered discourse in rural Maine middle schools was carried out to find cases of resource activation in classroom discussions. Several cases of disciplinary productive resources regarding the nature of energy and its forms as well as the construction of a mechanistic energy story

  11. Chimpanzees Trust Their Friends.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther

    2016-01-25

    The identification and recruitment of trustworthy partners represents an important adaptive challenge for any species that relies heavily on cooperation [1, 2]. From an evolutionary perspective, trust is difficult to account for as it involves, by definition, a risk of non-reciprocation and defection by cheaters [3, 4]. One solution for this problem is to form close emotional bonds, i.e., friendships, which enable trust even in contexts where cheating would be profitable [5]. Little is known about the evolutionary origins of the human tendency to form close social bonds to overcome the trust problem. Studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), one of our closest living relatives, is one way of identifying these origins. While a growing body of research indicates that at least some of the properties of close human relationships find parallels in the social bonds of chimpanzees [6-10] and that chimpanzees extend favors preferentially toward selected individuals [11-14], it is unclear whether such interactions are based on trust. To fill this gap in knowledge, we observed the social interactions of a group of chimpanzees and established dyadic friendship relations. We then presented chimpanzees with a modified, non-verbal version of the human trust game and found that chimpanzees trust their friends significantly more frequently than their non-friends. These results suggest that trust within closely bonded dyads is not unique to humans but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social relationships of our closest primate relatives. PMID:26776735

  12. Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

  13. Energy transfer of nucleic acid products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Paul M.; Hu, Hsiang-Yun; Khalil, Omar S.

    1995-04-01

    Fluorescence energy transfer was investigated as a homogeneous detection method for the gapped ligase chain reaction (G-LCR). Oligonucleotides of a Chlamydia trachomatic G-LCR probe set were labeled with fluorescein as the donor and Texas Red as the acceptor fluorophore. Amplification and detection of 10 molecules of synthetic target was demonstrated in spiked urine samples.

  14. The integration of physiologically-targeted skin care in the management of atopic dermatitis: focus on the use of a cleanser and moisturizer system incorporating a ceramide precursor, filaggrin degradation products, and specific "skin-barrier-friendly" excipients.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H

    2013-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) may be considered the "poster disease" for exemplifying the significance of abnormalities of the epidermal barrier that occur predominantly within the stratum corneum (SC) and upper epidermis. Specifically, impairments of the SC permeability barrier, antimicrobial barrier, and immunologic barrier contribute markedly to the fundamental pathophysiology of AD. The multiple clinical sequelae associated with epidermal barrier impairments inherent to AD include dry skin, pruritus, increased skin sensitivity to irritants and allergens, eczematous skin changes, staphylococcal skin and anterior nares colonization, and increase in some cutaneous infections (ie, molluscum contagiosum). This article addresses the pathophysiology of AD with clinically relevant correlations, and discusses the scientific basis of a specially designed cleanser and moisturizer system that incorporates ceramide technology and filaggrin degradation products along with other "barrier-friendly" excipients.

  15. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David

    2012-06-01

    This White Paper focuses on the areas and products involved in the above tasks, based on the White Paper - Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2010), here referred to as “White Paper 2010”, which analyzed the energy efficiency status of 21 typical energy-using products in five sectors: household appliances, office equipment, commercial equipment, industrial equipment, and lighting equipment. Table 1 illustrates the detailed product coverage for this year’s paper, noting the addition of three household appliance items (automatic electric rice cooker, AC electric fan, and household induction cooktop) and one industrial sector item (three-phase distribution transformer).

  16. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Water Efficient Energy Production for Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    GTO

    2015-06-01

    Water consumption in geothermal energy development occurs at several stages along the life cycle of the plant, during construction of the wells, piping, and plant; during hydroshearing and testing of the reservoir (for EGS); and during operation of the plant. These stages are highlighted in the illustration above. For more information about actual water use during these stages, please see the back of this sheet..

  18. Energy production and the risk to human health and life

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Current issues in health-risk assessment of energy production and factors in developing countries affecting risk analysis are discussed. Information is presented on the relative risks of coal and nuclear fuel cycles. (JGB)

  19. Net energy analysis of methanol and ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Blanco, H.; Hannon, B.

    1982-03-01

    Methanol (MeOH) and ethanol (EtOH) are industrial alcohols that can be used as liquid fuels. They may be obtained from renewable or non-renewable feedstocks. The production processes and end uses are analyzed in order to assess the potential energy savings introduced by alcohol production from renewable instead of nonrenewable feedstock. Whereas MeOH production from wood brings about energy savings, EtOH production from corn may or may not save energy depending on the end use of the alcohol. If the alcohol is used as a motor fuel, no overall energy savings are found. The economics and total labor requirements of each process are also considered.

  20. The future of bioconversion in energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    Man has used both thermal and bioconversion technologies for his purposes for the majority of recorded history. No doubt the first use of thermal technology was a fire to heat a cave while the first deliberate use of bioconversion occurred some time later when an discovered how to ferment sugar to make alcohol. While man used both the thermal and bioconversion technologies for his purposes, the majority of development was in the thermal technologies. Thermal reactions are quick (occur in fractions of seconds) occur in harsh conditions (elevated temperatures and pressures) and not precise (many products produced). Through history, biconversion was limited to natural plants and chemicals. These might be modified by natural selection, a long and imprecise process, but bioconversion processes while slow, occurred in mild conditions and were very precise. Not until 1948 when Watson defined DNA and life processes did mankind begin to understand and begin to use alter bioconversion technologies for his purpose. Bioconversion is on the brink of great expansion, from the production of drugs, vitamins, and food, to the production of bulk chemicals and fuels. The technology is at hand to speed up the reactions or to identify the active enzyme sites that will permit economic utilization of these emerging techniques.

  1. Biomass and energy productivity of Leucaena under humid subtropical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, A.B.; Prine, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A table shows the amount and energy content of above-ground biomass produced in 1982 and 1983 by the 12 most productive of 62 accessions of Leucanena spp. established in 1979 at the University of Florida. Mean annual biomass production of the 12 accessions was 29.3 and 24.7 Mg/ha, with energy contents of 19,690 and 19,820 J/g, in 1982 and 1983 respectively.

  2. Friends with Benefits: Women Want "Friends", Men Want "Benefits"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinty, Kristen; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.

    2007-01-01

    One-hundred-and-seventy undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 23 item questionnaire designed to assess the prevalence, attitudes, and sex differences of involvement in a "friends with benefits" (FWB) relationship (non romantic friends who also have a sexual relationship). Almost sixty percent of both…

  3. Caffeine: Friend or Foe?

    PubMed

    Doepker, Candace; Lieberman, Harris R; Smith, Andrew Paul; Peck, Jennifer D; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Welsh, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    The debate on the safety of and regulatory approaches for caffeine continues among various stakeholders and regulatory authorities. This decision-making process comes with significant challenges, particularly when considering the complexities of the available scientific data, making the formulation of clear science-based regulatory guidance more difficult. To allow for discussions of a number of key issues, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) convened a panel of subject matter experts for a caffeine-focused session entitled "Caffeine: Friend or Foe?," which was held during the 2015 ILSI Annual Meeting. The panelists' expertise covered topics ranging from the natural occurrence of caffeine in plants and interindividual metabolism of caffeine in humans to specific behavioral, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects related to caffeine consumption. Each presentation highlighted the potential risks, benefits, and challenges that inform whether caffeine exposure warrants concern. This paper aims to summarize the key topics discussed during the session.

  4. Senior friendly health services.

    PubMed

    Hart, Brian; Frank, Christopher; Hoffman, Jennifer; Dickey, Donna; Kristjansson, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    As our population continues to age and to put increasing pressures on the health care system, we need to evolve the system to be sensitive to the unique needs of seniors. There are many examples of innovative, evidence-based strategies that have been shown to improve outcomes for elderly individuals utilizing health services. The association between the physical environment and its negative impact on outcomes for hospitalized geriatric patients is well recognized. The use of strategies such as an audit tool to guide modifications of the physical environment or formal programs such as HELP, are good examples of practical approaches that can be implemented. The challenge today is for leaders in the healthcare system to champion and develop principles and a vision of care that supports implementation of these elder-friendly approaches.

  5. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  6. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Thank you! Over the past 20 months AGU has received a record 22,159 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from four federal agencies (NASA, NOAA, EPA, and USGS). Together their generosity has benefited AGU non-revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000+) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($250-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$249). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are recognized as our most loyal Supporters.

  7. Freud's friend Fliess.

    PubMed

    Young, Annie Riddington

    2002-12-01

    Fliess, an ENT surgeon, was Freud's closest friend and confidant. They both believed that sexual problems were the chief cause of neurosis. Fliess pstulated that reflex nasal neurosis was based on the important physiological connection between the nose and the genitals. He described specific genital spots located on the nasal inferior turbinate. Fliess' second preoccupation was with vital periodicities. He believed that the symptoms of his reflex nasal neurosis followed regular 28-day cycles as does menstruation. He further proposed a male 23-day menstrual cycle, that he centred specifically on the nasal turbinate. Clearly, Fliess' fanciful theories of neurosis based on the turbinates have never held any scientific validity and are presented for their curiosity. This eccentric rhinolaryngologist, however, exerted a profound influence on Freud's conception of human development, that is often undervalued. PMID:12537609

  8. Caffeine: Friend or Foe?

    PubMed

    Doepker, Candace; Lieberman, Harris R; Smith, Andrew Paul; Peck, Jennifer D; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Welsh, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    The debate on the safety of and regulatory approaches for caffeine continues among various stakeholders and regulatory authorities. This decision-making process comes with significant challenges, particularly when considering the complexities of the available scientific data, making the formulation of clear science-based regulatory guidance more difficult. To allow for discussions of a number of key issues, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) convened a panel of subject matter experts for a caffeine-focused session entitled "Caffeine: Friend or Foe?," which was held during the 2015 ILSI Annual Meeting. The panelists' expertise covered topics ranging from the natural occurrence of caffeine in plants and interindividual metabolism of caffeine in humans to specific behavioral, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects related to caffeine consumption. Each presentation highlighted the potential risks, benefits, and challenges that inform whether caffeine exposure warrants concern. This paper aims to summarize the key topics discussed during the session. PMID:26735800

  9. Energy distribution among reaction products. V.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anlauf, K. G.; Horne, D. S.; Macdonald, R. G.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of three reactions, one point of theoretical interest being the predicted correlation between barrier height and barrier location. The H + Br 2 reaction having a lower activation barrier than H + Cl 2, should have an earlier barrier, and hence a greater percentage attractive energy release and higher efficiency of vibrational excitation. Information is developed concerning the effect of isotopic substitution in the pair of reactions H + Cl 2 and D + Cl 2. The 'arrested relaxation' method was used. Essentially, the method involves reacting two diffuse reagent beams in a reaction vessel with background pressure less than 0.001 torr, and with walls cooled by liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

  10. Hypernucleus Production at RHIC and HIRFL-CSR Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Xu, Z.; Chen, J.H., Ma, Y.G., Tang, Z.B.

    2010-09-01

    We calculated the hypertriton production at RHIC-STAR and HIRFL-CSR acceptance, with a multi-phase transport model (AMPT) and a relativistic transport model (ART), respectively. In specific, we calculated the Strangeness Population Factor S{sub 3} = {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H/({sup 3}H{sub e} x {Lambda}/p) at different beam energy. Our results from AGS to RHIC energy indicated that the collision system may change from hadronic phase at AGS energies to partonic phase at RHIC energies. Our calculation at HIRFL-CSR energy supports the proposal to measure hypertriton at HIRFL-CSR.

  11. Biomass energy crop production versus food crop production in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sammuels, G.

    1983-12-01

    The Caribbean countries have traditionally grown sugar cane, coffee and bananas as major agriculture export crops. Food crop production was sufficient in most cases for domestic consumption. In recent years powerful social and economic changes of increasing population, industrial development and higher living standards have placed pressure on local governments to provide food, clothing, shelter and energy. Energy that is mainly supplied by imported oil. Biomass, primarily as sugar cane, can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the problem. Unfortunately, the arable land area for the majority of the countries is limited. Food crop production is needed for local consumption and export. Possible energy crop production to provide local needs will place an increasing demand on arable land. The objective of this paper is to present the scope of food versus energy crop production and a suggested renewable energy crop program to help achieve a balance within the limited land resources of the Caribbean.

  12. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  13. Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

  14. Hydrothermal energy: a source of energy for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Stiger, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    A small scale (1 gal/hr) biomass-to-alcohol still was built at the Raft River Geothermal Site to investigate difficulties in geothermal assisted biomass conversion. The unit was successfully operated, producing 95% (190 proof) ethanol from sugar beet juice. The unit was designed and built in less than eight weeks from surplus equipment using commercially available design information. This small-scale still demonstrated that 95% ethanol can be produced from sugar beet beer containing 8 to 10% alcohol using geothermal energy and present commercial technology. The geothermal resource provided both an energy source and process water. Recently, Bechtel National, Incorporated, of San Francisco, California completed a study to analyze the economic feasibility of producing ethanol from potatoes, wheat, and sugar beets using geothermal resources available in the Raft River Region of Idaho. The study concluded that a 20 million gallon per year facility can be built that will supply alcohol at $1.78 per gallon using geothermal energy. (MHR)

  15. The impact of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    Energy prices moved into the forefront of concern in the mid and late seventies when two oil price shocks drove up energy prices dramatically. The analysis of the subsequent increase in industrial energy efficiency, i.e., decline in energy use per unit of industrial output, has filled volumes of government and private studies. Despite the volumes of analysis, there remains no consensus on the magnitude of the effect of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency or the effect of the change in energy prices on productivity. This paper examines some sources of the controversy to initiate a dialog between policy makers, analysts, and the energy consumers and producers.

  16. Higgs friends and counterfeits at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Patrick J.; Tucker-Smith, David; Weiner, Neal; /New York U., CCPP /New York U. /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2011-04-01

    We consider the possibility of 'Higgs counterfeits' - scalars that can be produced with cross sections comparable to the SM Higgs, and which decay with identical relative observable branching ratios, but which are nonetheless not responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. We also consider a related scenario involving 'Higgs friends,' fields similarly produced through gg fusion processes, which would be discovered through diboson channels WW,ZZ,{gamma}{gamma}, or even {gamma}Z, potentially with larger cross sections times branching ratios than for the Higgs. The discovery of either a Higgs friend or a Higgs counterfeit, rather than directly pointing towards the origin of the weak scale, would indicate the presence of new colored fields necessary for the sizable production cross section (and possibly new colorless but electroweakly charged states as well, in the case of the diboson decays of a Higgs friend). These particles could easily be confused for an ordinary Higgs, perhaps with an additional generation to explain the different cross section, and we emphasize the importance of vector boson fusion as a channel to distinguish a Higgs counterfeit from a true Higgs. Such fields would naturally be expected in scenarios with 'effective Z's,' where heavy states charged under the SM produce effective charges for SM fields under a new gauge force. We discuss the prospects for discovery of Higgs counterfeits, Higgs friends, and associated charged fields at the LHC.

  17. Energy conservation of no-tillage production of corn

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, W.W.; Blevins, R.L.; Murdock, L.W.; Wells, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses the energy requirements for no-tillage production of corn as compared to conventional tillage. Emphasis is on energy conservation through nitrogen fertilizer management. Results with no-tillage research in Kentucky on differences in nitrogen efficiency with no-tillage compared to conventional tillage, use of legumes as cover crops for no-tillage, delayed application of nitrogen fertilizers, and use of a nitrification inhibitor are presented as potential energy conservation practices.

  18. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  19. Your Friends the Quaker Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric W.

    1981-01-01

    The Friends Council on Education is a coordinating organization that provides oversight, special services, and inspiration to 68 Friends schools in the United States and Canada. The functions of the Council and the educational and philosophical goals of Quaker schools are discussed. (MLF)

  20. Understanding Friendship between Critical Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2008-01-01

    This conceptual article discusses the issue of friendship implied by the term "critical friends". Our argument relates to the generalized use of the term "friendship" and the assumptions that it may carry compared with the actuality of the roles played by critical friends. We attempt to build a more precise definition of friendship which we…

  1. Options for Production Staging for a Low Energy Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Berg J. S.

    2011-10-26

    A low energy neutrino factory (LENF) is defined, for the purpose of this report, to accelerate a muon beam to a total energy in the range of 10-14 GeV, and store it in a decay ring directing a resulting neutrino beam to a detector 2200-2300 km distant. The machine should be ultimately capable of producing 10{sup 21} decays toward that detector per year of 10{sup 7} s. We consider such a neutrino factory to be the accelerator defined in the Interim Design Report (IDR) of the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF), modified to remove the final stage of acceleration, possibly modifying the remaining acceleration stages to adjust the final energy, and replacing the decay ring with one designed for the lower energy and shorter baseline. We discuss modifications to that design which would reduce the cost of the machine at the price of a reduction in neutrino production, down to as low as 10{sup 20} decays per year. These modifications will not preclude eventually upgrading the machine to the full production of 10{sup 21} decays per year. The eventual cost of a machine which achieves the full production through a series of lower-production stages should not exceed the cost of a machine which is immediately capable of the full production by more than a small fraction of the cost difference between the full production machine and the lowest production stage.

  2. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  3. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore » that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  4. Follow the ATP: tumor energy production: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Oronsky, Bryan T; Oronsky, Neil; Fanger, Gary R; Parker, Christopher W; Caroen, Scott Z; Lybeck, Michelle; Scicinski, Jan J

    2014-01-01

    As early as the 1920s, the eminent physician and chemist, Otto Warburg, nominated for a second Nobel Prize for his work on fermentation, observed that the core metabolic signature of cancer cells is a high glycolytic flux. Warburg averred that the prime mover of cancer is defective mitochondrial respiration, which drives a switch to an alternative energy source, aerobic glycolysis in lieu of Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS), in an attempt to maintain cellular viability and support critical macromolecular needs. The cell, deprived of mitochondrial ATP production, must reprogram its metabolism as a secondary survival mechanism to maintain sufficient ATP and NADH levels for macromolecule production, membrane integrity and DNA synthesis as well as maintenance of membrane ionic gradients. A time-tested method to identify and disrupt criminal activity is to "follow the money" since the illicit proceeds from crime are required to underwrite it. By analogy, strategies to target cancer involve following and disrupting the flow of ATP and NADH, the energetic and redox "currencies" of the cell, respectively, since the tumor requires high levels of ATP and NADH, not only for metastasis and proliferation, but also, on a more basic level, for survival. Accordingly, four broad ATP reduction strategies to impact and potentially derail cancer energy production are highlighted herein: 1) small molecule energy-restriction mimetic agents (ERMAs) that target various aspects of energy metabolism, 2) reduction of energy 'subsidization' with autophagy inhibitors, 3) acceleration of ATP turnover to increase energy inefficiency, and 4) dietary energy restriction to limit the energy supply.

  5. Bio-based products from solar energy and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Producing bio-based products directly from CO₂ and solar energy is a desirable alternative to the conventional biorefining that relies on biomass feedstocks. The production paradigm is based on an artificial photosynthetic system that converts sunlight to electricity and H₂ via water electrolysis. An autotrophic H₂-oxidizing bacterium fixes CO₂ in dark conditions. The assimilated CO₂ is stored in bacterial cells as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), from which a range of products can be derived. Compared with natural photosynthesis of a fast-growing cyanobacterium, the artificial photosynthetic system has much higher energy efficiency and productivity of bio-based products. The new technology looks promising because of possible cost reduction in feedstock, equipment, and operation.

  6. India's pulp and paper industry: Productivity and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's pulp and paper sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both statistical and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that productivity declined over the observed period from 1973-74 to 1993-94 by 1.1% p.a. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's pulp and paper sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protection afforded by high tariffs on imported paper products and other policies, which allowed inefficient, small plants to enter the market and flourish. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with liberalization of the sector, and tighter environmental controls, the industry is moving towards higher efficiency and productivity. However, the analysis also shows that because these improvements are being hampered by significant financial and other barriers the industry might have a long way to go.

  7. An environmentally friendly method to remove and utilize the highly toxic strychnine in other products based on proton-transfer complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Abdel Majid A.; Refat, Moamen S.; Saad, Hosam A.; Hegab, Mohamed S.

    2015-12-01

    The study of toxic and carcinogenic substances represents one of the most demanding areas in human safety, due to their repercussions for public health. There is great motivation to remove and utilize these substances in other products instead of leaving them contaminate the environment. One potentially toxic compound for humans is strychnine (Sy). In the present study, we attempted to establish a quick, simple, direct and efficient method to remove and utilize discarded Sy in other products based on proton-transfer complexation. First, Sy was reacted with the acido organic acceptors PA, DNBA and CLA. Then, the resultant salts were direct carbonized into carbon materials. Also, this study provides an insight into the structure and morphology of the obtained products by a range of physicochemical techniques, such as UV-visible, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies; XRD; SEM; TEM; and elemental and thermal analyses. Interestingly, the complexation of Sy with the PA or DNBA acceptor leads to a porous carbon material, while its complexation with CLA acceptor forms non-porous carbon product.

  8. Energy production from biomass (Part 2): Conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The use of biomass to provide energy has been fundamental to the development of civilisation. In recent times pressures on the global environment have led to calls for an increased use of renewable energy sources, in lieu of fossil fuels. Biomass is one potential source of renewable energy and the conversion of plant material into a suitable form of energy, usually electricity or as a fuel for an internal combustion engine, can be achieved using a number of different routes, each with specific pros and cons. A brief review of the main conversion processes is presented, with specific regard to the production of a fuel suitable for spark ignition gas engines.

  9. Make a Friend...Be a Friend...Start a Friends of the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothlisberg, Allen P.

    This paper suggests that, in times of economic crisis, libraries may find support by establishing "Friends of the Library" groups, and reports that, with the assistance of Arizona's Northland Pioneer College's (NPC) Department of Library/Media Technology, several such library groups have been established. The success of the Friends of Holbrook…

  10. Cannabinoids: Friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Le Foll, B; Tyndale, R F

    2015-06-01

    This issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics focuses on cannabinoids. Our understanding of these interesting endogenous and synthetic compounds, and their role in the cannabinoid system, has evolved dramatically, in part because of the acquisition of new research tools. Cannabis has been used for centuries by humans for recreational and medicinal purposes, however, there is substantial evidence that cannabis use can expose people to varying complications (e.g., risk of addiction, cognitive impairment), thus, it is important to determine the benefit/risk of cannabis with precision and to implement policy measures based on evidence to maximize the benefits and minimize the harm. Novel cannabinoid drugs are emerging for medicinal use (e.g., dronabinol, nabiximols) and as illicit drugs (e.g., Spice, K2) perpetuating the perception that cannabinoid drugs can be a friend or foe. This special issue will cover these various aspects of cannabinoid pharmacology and therapeutics ranging from basic chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical trial results, to policy and education efforts in this area. PMID:25801347

  11. Cannabinoids: Friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Le Foll, B; Tyndale, R F

    2015-06-01

    This issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics focuses on cannabinoids. Our understanding of these interesting endogenous and synthetic compounds, and their role in the cannabinoid system, has evolved dramatically, in part because of the acquisition of new research tools. Cannabis has been used for centuries by humans for recreational and medicinal purposes, however, there is substantial evidence that cannabis use can expose people to varying complications (e.g., risk of addiction, cognitive impairment), thus, it is important to determine the benefit/risk of cannabis with precision and to implement policy measures based on evidence to maximize the benefits and minimize the harm. Novel cannabinoid drugs are emerging for medicinal use (e.g., dronabinol, nabiximols) and as illicit drugs (e.g., Spice, K2) perpetuating the perception that cannabinoid drugs can be a friend or foe. This special issue will cover these various aspects of cannabinoid pharmacology and therapeutics ranging from basic chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical trial results, to policy and education efforts in this area.

  12. Friends of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten members of Congress have been presented with the Friends of Science Award by the National Coalition for Science and Technology (NCST). The awards, honoring significant contributions to science, engineering, and science education, are made every 2 years at the end of the congressional session. The recipients this year are Sen. Pete V. Domenici (R-N.M.), Rep. Joseph D. Early (D-Mass.), Rep. Bill Frenzel (R-Minn.), Rep. Albert Gore, Jr. (D-Tenn.), Rep. Judd Gregg (R-N.H.), Sen. Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii), Rep. Stan Lundine (D-N.Y.), Sen. Sam Nunn (D-Ga.), Rep. Henry Waxman (D-Calif.), and Rep. Ed Zschau (R-Calif).Except for Sen. Inouye, whose term expires in 1986, all of this year's recipients were up for reelection in the national elections held November 6. All were successful in securing another term in Congress. In addition, Albert Gore was successful in his bid for a Senate seat, filling the vacancy left by the retiring Senate Majority Leader Howard H. Baker (R-Tenn.)

  13. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  14. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened. PMID:20873683

  15. Marginal land-based biomass energy production in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ya; Xie, Jia-Sui; Geng, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fast economic development in China has resulted in a significant increase in energy demand. Coal accounts for 70% of China's primary energy consumption and its combustion has caused many environmental and health problems. Energy security and environmental protection requirements are the main drivers for renewable energy development in China. Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to China: the focus should be on generating bioenergy from ligno-cellulosic feedstock sources. As China cannot afford biomass energy production from its croplands, marginal lands may play an important role in biomass energy production. Although on a small scale, marginal land has already been used for various purposes. It is estimated that some 45 million hm(2) of marginal land could be brought into high potential biomass energy production. For the success of such an initiative, it will likely be necessary to develop multipurpose plants. A case study, carried out on marginal land in Ningnan County, Sichuan Province with per capita cropland of 0.07 ha, indicated that some 380,000 tons of dry biomass could be produced each year from annual pruning of mulberry trees. This study supports the feasibility of producing large quantities of biomass from marginal land sources.

  16. Eco-friendly chitosan production by Syncephalastrum racemosum and application to the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Batista, Anabelle C L; Silva, Marta C Freitas; Batista, Jefferson B; Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2013-01-01

    Due to the existence of new methodologies that have reduced the production costs of microbiological chitosan, this paper puts forward the use of agro-industrial residues in order to produce microbiological chitosan and to apply chitosan as an innovative resource for removing acid orange 7 (AO7) from wastewaters. The best culture conditions were selected by a full 24 factorial design, and the removal of the dye was optimized by a 23 central composite rotational design. The results showed that corn steep liquor (CSL) is an agro-industrial residue that can be advantageously used to produce microbiological chitosan with yields up to 7.8 g/kg of substrate. FT-IR spectra of the product showed typical peak distributions like those of standard chitosan which confirmed the extracted product was chitosan-like. The efficiency of removing low concentrations of AO7 by using microbiological chitosan in distilled water (up to 89.96%) and tap water (up to 80.60%) was significantly higher than the efficiency of the control (chitosan obtained from crustaceans), suggesting that this biopolymer is a better economic alternative for discoloring wastewater where a low concentration of the dye is considered toxic. The high percentage recovery of AO7 from the microbiological chitosan particles used favors this biopolymer as a possible bleaching agent which may be reusable. PMID:23884118

  17. Meson production in two-photon interactions at LHC energies

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, D. T.; Goncalves, V. P.; Sauter, W. K.

    2013-03-25

    The LHC opens a new kinematical regime at high energy, where several questions related to the description of the high-energy regime of the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) remain without satisfactory answers. Some open questions are the search for non-q-bar q resonances, the determination of the spectrum of q-bar q states and the identification of states with anomalous {gamma}{gamma} couplings. A possible way to study these problems is the study of meson production in two-photon interactions. In this contribution we calculate the meson production in two-photon interactions at LHC energies considering proton - proton collisions and estimate the total cross section for the production of the mesons {pi}, a, f, {eta} and {chi}.

  18. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  19. Energy and nutrient cycling in pig production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Peter J.

    United States pig production is centered in Iowa and is a major influence on the economic and ecological condition of that community. A pig production system includes buildings, equipment, production of feed ingredients, feed processing, and nutrient management. Although feed is the largest single input into a pig production system, nearly 30% of the non-solar energy use of a conventional--mechanically ventilated buildings with liquid manure handling--pig production system is associated with constructing and operating the pig facility. Using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs reduces construction resource use and construction costs of pig production systems. The hoop based systems also requires approximately 40% less non-solar energy to operate as the conventional system although hoop barn-based systems may require more feed. The total non-solar energy input associated with one 136 kg pig produced in a conventional farrow-to-finish system in Iowa and fed a typical corn-soybean meal diet that includes synthetic lysine and exogenous phytase is 967.9 MJ. Consuming the non-solar energy results in emissions of 79.8 kg CO2 equivalents. Alternatively producing the same pig in a system using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs requires 939.8 MJ/pig and results in emission of 70.2 kg CO2 equivalents, a reduction of 3 and 12% respectively. Hoop barn-based swine production systems can be managed to use similar or less resources than conventional confinement systems. As we strive to optimally allocate non-solar energy reserves and limited resources, support for examining and improving alternative systems is warranted.

  20. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  1. Energy and rapidity dependence of beauty production at Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Ba, M.M.

    1997-09-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments have measured bb production in pp interactions at {radical}s = 1800 GeV and 630 GeV (the energy at which the previous measurement was performed by the UAl experiment). The Tevatron measurements are used to evaluate, for the first time, the center-of-mass energy and rapidity dependence of b-quark production cross section measured with the same detectors. Preliminary results from these measurements are presented and compared with the next-to-leading order QCD predictions.

  2. Strange particle production at low and intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Simo, I. Ruiz; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2011-11-23

    The weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies of interest for some ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. We develop a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 2 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as Minerva, T2K and NOvA.

  3. Design friendly double patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilada, Emek

    2012-03-01

    Double patterning using 193nm immersion has been adapted as the solution to enable 2x nm technology nodes until the arrival of EUV tools. As a result the past few years have seen a huge effort in creating double patterning friendly design flows. These flows have so far proposed a combination of decomposition rules at cell level and/or at placement level as well as sophisticated decomposition tools with varying density, design iteration and decomposition complexity penalties. What is more, designers have to familiarize themselves with double patterning challenges and decomposition tools. In this paper an alternative approach is presented that allows the development of dense standard cells with minimal impact on design flow due to double patterning. A real case study is done on 20nm node first metal layer where standard cells are designed without considering decomposition restrictions. The resulting layout is carefully studied in order to establish decomposition or color rules that can map the layout into two masks required for double patterning but without the need of complex coloring algorithms. Since the rules are derived from a decomposition unaware design they do not in return impose heavy restrictions on the design at the cell or placement level and show substantial density gains compared to previously proposed methods. Other key advantages are a simplified design flow without complex decomposition tools that can generate a faster time to market solution all at the same time keeping designers isolated from the challenges of the double patterning. The derived design rules highlight process development path required for design driven manufacturing.

  4. Theory of photoelectron production, transport and energy loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    Current understanding of the theory of ionospheric photoelectron production, transport and energy loss is summarized. The various approaches used in the theoretical calculations of photoelectron fluxes appear to be self consistent and sound; improved values for a number of input parameters are needed now in order to achieve significant improvements and more confidence in the results. The major remaining problem in the present day theory of photoelectron transport and energy loss is centered around the calculations of photoelectron transit through the protonosphere.

  5. India's cement industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's cement sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector increased by 0.8% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's cement sector has been biased towards the use of energy and capital, while it has been material and labor saving. The increase in productivity was mainly driven by a period of progress between 1983 and 1991 following partial decontrol of the cement sector in 1982. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian cement sector is moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. However, substantial further energy savings and carbon reduction potentials still exist.

  6. Heavy Meson Production at a Low-Energy Photon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, S

    2004-04-15

    A low-energy {gamma}{gamma} collider has been discussed in the context of a testbed for a {gamma}{gamma} interaction region at the Next Linear Collider(NLC). We consider the production of heavy mesons at such a testbed using Compton-backscattered photons and demonstrate that their production rivals or exceeds those by BELLE, BABAR or LEP where they are produced indirectly via virtual {gamma}{gamma} luminosities.

  7. Conceptual design of cost-effective and environmentally-friendly configurations for fuel ethanol production from sugarcane by knowledge-based process synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the hierarchical decomposition methodology was used to conceptually design the production of fuel ethanol from sugarcane. The decomposition of the process into six levels of analysis was carried out. Several options of technological configurations were assessed in each level considering economic and environmental criteria. The most promising alternatives were chosen rejecting the ones with a least favorable performance. Aspen Plus was employed for simulation of each one of the technological configurations studied. Aspen Icarus was used for economic evaluation of each configuration, and WAR algorithm was utilized for calculation of the environmental criterion. The results obtained showed that the most suitable synthesized flowsheet involves the continuous cultivation of Zymomonas mobilis with cane juice as substrate and including cell recycling and the ethanol dehydration by molecular sieves. The proposed strategy demonstrated to be a powerful tool for conceptual design of biotechnological processes considering both techno-economic and environmental indicators.

  8. Conceptual design of cost-effective and environmentally-friendly configurations for fuel ethanol production from sugarcane by knowledge-based process synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the hierarchical decomposition methodology was used to conceptually design the production of fuel ethanol from sugarcane. The decomposition of the process into six levels of analysis was carried out. Several options of technological configurations were assessed in each level considering economic and environmental criteria. The most promising alternatives were chosen rejecting the ones with a least favorable performance. Aspen Plus was employed for simulation of each one of the technological configurations studied. Aspen Icarus was used for economic evaluation of each configuration, and WAR algorithm was utilized for calculation of the environmental criterion. The results obtained showed that the most suitable synthesized flowsheet involves the continuous cultivation of Zymomonas mobilis with cane juice as substrate and including cell recycling and the ethanol dehydration by molecular sieves. The proposed strategy demonstrated to be a powerful tool for conceptual design of biotechnological processes considering both techno-economic and environmental indicators. PMID:22137752

  9. Environmentally friendly and biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased and environmentally friendly lubricants are finding applications in many areas ranging from hydraulic fluids to grease. They offer excellent biodegradability and very low ecotoxicity; high viscosity index; improved tribological properties; lower volatility and flash points relative to petro...

  10. Conceptualizing age-friendly communities.

    PubMed

    Menec, Verena H; Means, Robin; Keating, Norah; Parkhurst, Graham; Eales, Jacquie

    2011-09-01

    On the political and policy front, interest has increased in making communities more "age-friendly", an ongoing trend since the World Health Organization launched its global Age-Friendly Cities project. We conceptualize age-friendly communities by building on the WHO framework and applying an ecological perspective. We thereby aim to make explicit key assumptions of the interplay between the person and the environment to advance research or policy decisions in this area. Ecological premises (e.g., there must be a fit between the older adult and environmental conditions) suggest the need for a holistic and interdisciplinary research approach. Such an approach is needed because age-friendly domains (the physical environment, housing, the social environment, opportunities for participation, informal and formal community supports and health services, transportation, communication, and information) cannot be treated in isolation from intrapersonal factors, such as age, gender, income, and functional status, and other levels of influence, including the policy environment.

  11. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    PubMed

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  12. Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devault, Travis L.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Martin, James A.; Schmidt, Jason A.; Wes Burger, L.; Patterson, James W.

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  13. Nuclear Energy - Hydrogen Production - Fuel Cell: A Road Towards Future China's Sustainable Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhiwei Zhou

    2006-07-01

    Sustainable development of Chinese economy in 21. century will mainly rely on self-supply of clean energy with indigenous natural resources. The burden of current coal-dominant energy mix and the environmental stress due to energy consumptions has led nuclear power to be an indispensable choice for further expanding electricity generation capacity in China and for reducing greenhouse effect gases emission. The application of nuclear energy in producing substitutive fuels for road transportation vehicles will also be of importance in future China's sustainable energy strategy. This paper illustrates the current status of China's energy supply and the energy demand required for establishing a harmonic and prosperous society in China. In fact China's energy market faces following three major challenges, namely (1) gaps between energy supply and demand; (2) low efficiency in energy utilization, and (3) severe environmental pollution. This study emphasizes that China should implement sustainable energy development policy and pay great attention to the construction of energy saving recycle economy. Based on current forecast, the nuclear energy development in China will encounter a high-speed track. The demand for crude oil will reach 400-450 million tons in 2020 in which Chinese indigenous production will remain 180 million tons. The increase of the expected crude oil will be about 150 million tons on the basis of 117 million tons of imported oil in 2004 with the time span of 15 years. This demand increase of crude oil certainly will influence China's energy supply security and to find the substitution will be a big challenge to Chinese energy industry. This study illustrates an analysis of the market demands to future hydrogen economy of China. Based on current status of technology development of HTGR in China, this study describes a road of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. The possible technology choices in relation to a number of types of nuclear reactors are

  14. Enhanced production of low energy electrons by alpha particle impact.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Keun; Titze, Jasmin; Schöffler, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Waitz, Markus; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Sann, Hendrik; Meckel, Moritz; Stuck, Christian; Lenz, Ute; Odenweller, Matthias; Neumann, Nadine; Schössler, Sven; Ullmann-Pfleger, Klaus; Ulrich, Birte; Fraga, Rui Costa; Petridis, Nikos; Metz, Daniel; Jung, Annika; Grisenti, Robert; Czasch, Achim; Jagutzki, Ottmar; Schmidt, Lothar; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Dörner, Reinhard

    2011-07-19

    Radiation damage to living tissue stems not only from primary ionizing particles but to a substantial fraction from the dissociative attachment of secondary electrons with energies below the ionization threshold. We show that the emission yield of those low energy electrons increases dramatically in ion-atom collisions depending on whether or not the target atoms are isolated or embedded in an environment. Only when the atom that has been ionized and excited by the primary particle impact is in immediate proximity of another atom is a fragmentation route known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) enabled. This leads to the emission of a low energy electron. Over the past decade ICD was explored in several experiments following photoionization. Most recent results show its observation even in water clusters. Here we show the quantitative role of ICD for the production of low energy electrons by ion impact, thus approaching a scenario closer to that of radiation damage by alpha particles: We choose ion energies on the maximum of the Bragg peak where energy is most efficiently deposited in tissue. We compare the electron production after colliding He(+) ions on isolated Ne atoms and on Ne dimers (Ne(2)). In the latter case the Ne atom impacted is surrounded by a most simple environment already opening ICD as a deexcitation channel. As a consequence, we find a dramatically enhanced low energy electron yield. The results suggest that ICD may have a significant influence on cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation.

  15. Energy recovery by production of fuel from citrus wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley Clark, C.

    1982-05-01

    A study to determine how much energy can be recovered from a Florida citrus processing plant was conducted. The production of ethyl alcohol in particular was examined as it is thought to represent the greatest potential for immediate energy recovery. Three-fourths of the energy expended to produce, harvest, process and market a box of fruit was recoverable using existing technology, i.e. 78,500 Btu/ box of fruit recoverable from a total energy expenditure of 107,800 Btu/ box of fruit. Aside from the actual cost benefits of recovering energy in the form of ethanol, the food processor is also helping to reduce the foreign-oil imports by the blending of ethyl alcohol with unleaded gasoline to form gasohol.

  16. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard

    2008-10-31

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2007, the program saved 7.1 Quads of primary energy and avoided 128 MtC equivalent. The forecast shows that the program is expected to save 21.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 375 MtC equivalent over the period 2008-2015. The sensitivity analysis bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 84 MtC and 172 MtC (1993 to 2007) and between 243 MtC and 519 MtC (2008 to 2015).

  17. Mapping water consumption for energy production around the Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Vincent; Moreland, Barbie

    2016-09-01

    World energy demand is projected to increase by more than a third by 2035 and with it the use of water to extract and process fuels and generate electricity. Management of this energy-water nexus requires a clear understanding of the inter-related demands of these resources as well as their regional distribution. Toward this need the fresh water consumed for energy production was mapped for almost 12 000 watersheds distributed across the 21-economies comprising the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Fresh water consumption was estimated for ten different sectors including thermoelectric and hydroelectric power; energy extraction including coal, oil, natural gas, uranium and unconventional oil/gas; energy processing including oil and biofuels; and biofuel feedstock irrigation. These measures of water consumption were put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk. In total 791 watersheds (32%) of the 2511 watersheds where energy related water consumption occurred were also characterized by high to extreme water risk, these watersheds were designated as being at energy-water risk. For six economies watersheds at energy-water risk represented half or more of all basins where energy related water consumption occurred, while four additional economies exceeded 30%.

  18. Latent heat thermal energy storage for lunar oxygen production

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.D.; Alexiades, V.; Jacobs, G.; Naney, M.; Olszewski, M.

    1992-08-01

    A necessary component of a solar-based lunar oxygen production system is a thermal energy storage module. We discuss some of the heat transfer and phase change problems associated with the design and operation of such a module based on the latent heat of melting of lunar rock. 12 refs.

  19. Latent heat thermal energy storage for lunar oxygen production

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.D. , Omer ); Alexiades, V.; Jacobs, G.; Naney, M.; Olszewski, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A necessary component of a solar-based lunar oxygen production system is a thermal energy storage module. We discuss some of the heat transfer and phase change problems associated with the design and operation of such a module based on the latent heat of melting of lunar rock. 12 refs.

  20. Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

    2013-10-01

    The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

  1. ENTROPY PRODUCTION AT HIGH ENERGY AND mu B.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.

    2006-07-03

    The systematics of bulk entropy production in experimental data on Ai-A, p + y and e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at high energies and large {mu}{sub B} is discussed. It is proposed that scenarios with very early thermalization, such as Landau's hydrodynamical model, capture several essential features of the experimental results. It is also pointed out that the dynamics of systems which reach the hydrodynamic regime give similar multiplicities and angular distributions as those calculated in weak-coupling approximations (e.g. pQCD) over a wide range of beam energies. Finally, it is shown that the dynamics of baryon stopping are relevant to the physics of total entropy production, explaining why A+A and e{sup +}e{sup -} multiplicities are different at low beam energies.

  2. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  3. Determining production policies for crops to maximize net energy return

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, H.E.; Frisby, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    In this simulation study, energy consumption in production of corn, soybeans, wheat and alfalfa was evaluated under different levels of production constraints. A synthetic farm located in central Missouri was developed using data from previous studies. Only 150 hectares of the total cropland (350 ha) were irrigated using sprinkler irrigation. A linear programming model was used to select the crops and their respective areas. A first solution for a selected set of initial conditions resulted in partial utilization of total available cropland because of constraints reaching their upper limits. By a series of additional runs, suggested policies for full utilization of cropland and effects of policy changes on net energy return of the farm were determined. It was discovered that the initial conditions of the farm could be revised to increase the net energy return by 30 percent.

  4. Energy baseline and energy efficiency resource opportunities for the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucchi, R.P.; Richman, E.E.; Parker, G.B.

    1993-08-01

    This report provides recommendations to improve the energy use efficiency at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin. The assessment focuses upon the four largest buildings and central heating plant at the facility comprising a total of approximately 287,000 square feet. The analysis is comprehensive in nature, intended primarily to determine what if any energy efficiency improvements are warranted based upon the potential for cost-effective energy savings. Because of this breadth, not all opportunities are developed in detail; however, baseline energy consumption data and energy savings concepts are described to provide a foundation for detailed investigation and project design where warranted.

  5. Thermodynamic laws, economic methods and the productive power of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Ayres, Robert U.; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Energy plays only a minor role in orthodox theories of economic growth, because standard economic equilibrium conditions say that the output elasticity of a production factor, which measures the factor's productive power, is equal to the factor's share in total factor cost. Having commanded only a tiny cost share of about 5 percent so far, energy is often neglected altogether. On the other hand, energy conversion in the machines of the capital stock has been the basis of industrial growth. How can the physically obvious economic importance of energy be reconciled with the conditions for economic equilibrium, which result from the maximization of profit or overall welfare? We show that these equilibrium conditions no longer yield the equality of cost shares and output elasticities, if the optimization calculus takes technological constraints on the combinations of capital, labor, and energy into account. New econometric analyses of economic growth in Germany, Japan, and the USA yield output elasticities that are for energy much larger and for labor much smaller than their cost shares. Social consequences are discussed.

  6. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.; Koltai, Rita; McGowan, Terry

    2013-12-31

    This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.

  7. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced.

  8. Energy consumption evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Mario Daniel; Guigou, Mairan; Lareo, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    The energy consumption for different operative conditions and configurations of the bioethanol production industrial process from an experimental variety of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) K 9807.1 was evaluated. A process simulation model was developed using SuperPro Designer® software. The model was based on experimental data gathered from our laboratory experiments and technology and equipment suppliers. The effects of the dry matter ratio of sweet potato to water, the fermentation efficiency, and sweet potato sugar content, on the energy consumption (steam and electricity) were respectively evaluated. All factors were significant. The best ratio of dry matter to total water to work with fresh sweet potato was 0.2 kg dry sweet potato/kg water, as for greater ratios was not found a significant reduction in energy consumption. Also, the drying of the sweet potato previous its processing was studied. It presented an energy consumption greater than the energetic content of the bioethanol produced. PMID:23567705

  9. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  10. Light element production by low energy nuclei from massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangioni-Flam, E.; Casse, M.; Ramaty, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Orion complex is a source of gamma rays attributed to the de-excitation of fast carbon and oxygen nuclei excited through interactions with ambient hydrogen and helium. This has consequences for the production and evolution of light isotopes in the Galaxy, as massive stars appear as prolific sources of C-O rich low energy nuclei. The different stages of massive star evolution are considered in relation to the acceleration of nuclei to moderate energies. It is concluded that the low energy nuclear component originating from massive stars plays a larger role than the usual Galactic cosmic rays in shaping the evolution of Li-6, Be-9, B-10 and B-11, especially in the early Galactic evolution. The enhancement of the B-11/B-10 ratio observed in meteorites and in the interstellar medium is attributed to the interaction of low energy carbon nuclei with ambient H and to a lesser degree, to neutrino spallation.

  11. 78 FR 70549 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC for Project No. 14539-000 and Western...

  12. 78 FR 62350 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC for Project No. 14539-000 and Western...

  13. 75 FR 80487 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII; FFP Missouri 15, LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII; FFP Missouri 15, LLC; Notice Announcing.... 14, near Hampton, Illinois.\\1\\ The applications ] were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVIII,...

  14. Radiative neutralino production in low energy supersymmetric models

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Rahul; Sharma, Chandradew; Pandita, P. N.

    2008-06-01

    We study the production of the lightest neutralinos in the radiative process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{chi}-tilde{sub 1}{sup 0}{chi}-tilde{sub 1}{sup 0}{gamma} in low energy supersymmetric models for the International Linear Collider energies. This includes the minimal supersymmetric standard model as well as its extension with an additional chiral Higgs singlet superfield, the nonminimal supersymmetric standard model. We compare and contrast the dependence of the signal cross section on the parameters of the neutralino sector of the minimal and nonminimal supersymmetric standard model. We also consider the background to this process coming from the standard model process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{nu}{nu}{gamma}, as well as from the radiative production of the scalar partners of the neutrinos (sneutrinos) e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{nu}-tilde{nu}-tilde*{gamma}, which can be a background to the radiative neutralino production when the sneutrinos decay invisibly. In low energy supersymmetric models radiative production of the lightest neutralinos may be the only channel to study supersymmetric partners of the standard model particles at the first stage of a linear collider, since heavier neutralinos, charginos, and sleptons may be too heavy to be pair produced at a e{sup +}e{sup -} machine with {radical}(s)=500 GeV.

  15. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk.

  16. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk. PMID:27474987

  17. 75 FR 73064 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI; Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI; Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC; Notice of Competing... 19, 2010. On May 18, 2010, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI, and Allegheny 7 Hydro, LLC filed applications... Allegheny River Lock & Dam No. 7 Projects Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLI's project (Project No....

  18. 78 FR 34092 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice of Competing... Competing Applications Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC and FFP Project 121, LLC filed preliminary permit... 8:30 a.m. on the next regular business day. See id. at 385.2001(a)(2). Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  19. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use

    SciTech Connect

    National Academies,; Lee, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Despite the many benefits of energy, most of which are reflected in energy market prices, the production, distribution, and use of energy causes negative effects. Many of these negative effects are not reflected in energy market prices. When market failures like this occur, there may be a case for government interventions in the form of regulations, taxes, fees, tradable permits, or other instruments that will motivate recognition of these external or hidden costs. The Hidden Costs of Energy defines and evaluates key external costs and benefits that are associated with the production, distribution, and use of energy, but are not reflected in market prices. The damage estimates presented are substantial and reflect damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation, motor vehicle transportation, and heat generation. The book also considers other effects not quantified in dollar amounts, such as damages from climate change, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to national security. While not a comprehensive guide to policy, this analysis indicates that major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity generating mix could substantially reduce the damages of external effects. A first step in minimizing the adverse consequences of new energy technologies is to better understand these external effects and damages. The Hidden Costs of Energy will therefore be a vital informational tool for government policy makers, scientists, and economists in even the earliest stages of research and development on energy technologies.

  20. QCD Resummation for Heavy Quarkonium Production in High Energy Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kang Zhongbo; Qiu Jianwei

    2008-10-13

    Using e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}J/{psi}+X as a case study, we explicitly demonstrate that the perturbatively calculated cross section for heavy quarkonium production in terms of the NRQCD factorization formalism has large logarithms as the collision energy s>>M, the heavy quarkonium mass. We propose a modified factorization formalism for the cross section, which systematically resums the large logarithms of the perturbatively calculated coefficient functions. The modified factorization formalism is perturbatively more stable and reliable for a much wider range of collision energies.

  1. Product suitable for the storage and conveyance of thermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Babin, L.; Clausse, D.

    1981-09-01

    This invention concerns the storage and conveyance of thermal energy at low temperature, by using the latent heat produced by a substance during changes of state. This substance consists of a salt producing considerable latent heat during change of state, such as NA/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 10 H/sub 2/O, combined closely with a nucleating agent such as borax and dispersed in an oil to which an emulsifying agent has been added. This product is particularly suitable for storage of solar energy at low temperature and for heating of enclosed areas.

  2. Invitations to the Matter-Energy Cycle. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about matter and energy which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  3. What Does It Mean to Be a Friendly Outsider? Critical Reflection on Finding a Role as an Action Researcher with Communities Developing Renewable Energy Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jennifer; Convery, Ian; Simmons, Eunice; Weatherall, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a reflective account exploring the value of using action research in a relatively new context in the United Kingdom; the development of community renewable-energy projects. There is a strong rationale for using action research in this setting due to the synergies between the principles and practice of action research and localised…

  4. Equal velocity rule in heavy hadron production at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazoe, T. ); Inazawa, H.; Morii, T. )

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a production mechanism of heavy particles in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilations is studied on a field theoretical basis using the bound state wave functions. The requirement that wave functions of hadrons overlap maximally with each other leads to the conclusion that the model predicts a 2-jet structure in a one-loop diagram and heavy hadrons in a jet have an equal velocity. Heavy particle production cross sections and their characteristic energy distributions are calculated for some typical reactions.

  5. Reduction of environmental and energy footprint of microalgal biodiesel production through material and energy integration.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Raja; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin

    2012-03-01

    The life cycle impacts were assessed for an integrated microalgal biodiesel production system that facilitates energy- and nutrient- recovery through anaerobic digestion, and utilizes glycerol generated within the facility for additional heterotrophic biodiesel production. Results show that when external fossil energy inputs are lowered through process integration, the energy demand, global warming potential (GWP), and process water demand decrease significantly and become less sensitive to algal lipid content. When substitution allocation is used to assign additional credit for avoidance of fossil energy use (through utilization of recycled nutrients and biogas), GWP and water demand can, in fact, increase with increase in lipid content. Relative to stand-alone algal biofuel facilities, energy demand can be lowered by 3-14 GJ per ton of biodiesel through process integration. GWP of biodiesel from the integrated system can be lowered by up to 71% compared to petroleum fuel. Evaporative water loss was the primary water demand driver.

  6. NASA, the Fisherman's Friend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Every angler has his secrets, whether it be an old family recipe for stink bait, a midnight worm-hunting ritual, or the most coveted of all, the no-fail fishing hole. Most of these secrets are lore and legend, passed through generations, and coveted more than the family s best tableware. Each of these kernels of wisdom promises the fisherman a bite at the end of the line, but very few are rooted in fact and science. There is one, though.... NASA partnered with a company on the bayous of Mississippi and Louisiana to use satellite data to create a marine information system, a space-age fish finder. This product provides up-to-date information about the location of a variety of fish, including yellowfin tuna, bluefish, blue marlin, white marlin, sailfish, blackfin tuna, little tunny, and swordfish. The system shows peaked catch rates, and may be the only true fish-finding product on the market.

  7. Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-02

    Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year.

  8. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  9. National voluntary laboratory accreditation program: Energy efficient lighting products. Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Galowin, L.S.; Hall, W.; Rossiter, W.J.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to set out procedures and technical requirements for the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) accreditation of laboratories which perform test methods covered by the Energy Efficient Lighting (EEL) Products program. It complements and supplements the NVLAP programmatic procedures and general requirements found in NIST Handbook 150 (PB94-178225). The interpretive comments and additional requirements contained in this handbook make the general NVLAP criteria specifically applicable to the EEL program.

  10. Graphical methods for determining the maximum energy product of magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmaier, H. H.; Henig, E.-Th.

    1990-08-01

    The graphical construction in which an optimum load line B = ( {B r}/{H o}) H , Hc < 0, defines the maximum energy product of a permanent magnet, is rigorously correct when B( H) in the second quadrant fits the branch of a single hyperbola. It fails as an approximation for some magnets with square ( B - μ0H) vs. H loops, and alternative procedures for dealing with such magnets are described.

  11. Number-ratio fluctuations in high-energy particle production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, P.; Haslum, E.; Stenlund, E.

    2009-09-01

    In this article we will discuss the previously proposed quantity νdyn [C. Pruneau, S. Gavin, and S. Voloshin, Phys. Rev. C 66, 044904 (2002)], as a measure of the number-ratio fluctuations in high-energy particle production. We will show that νdyn has pleasing mathematical properties making it ideal for the purpose. We will demonstrate its relation to two-particle correlations and how this measure can be generalized to higher-order correlations.

  12. Number-ratio fluctuations in high-energy particle production

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, P.; Haslum, E.; Stenlund, E.

    2009-09-15

    In this article we will discuss the previously proposed quantity {nu}{sub dyn}[C. Pruneau, S. Gavin, and S. Voloshin, Phys. Rev. C 66, 044904 (2002)], as a measure of the number-ratio fluctuations in high-energy particle production. We will show that {nu}{sub dyn} has pleasing mathematical properties making it ideal for the purpose. We will demonstrate its relation to two-particle correlations and how this measure can be generalized to higher-order correlations.

  13. Product energy distributions and energy partitioning in O atom reactions on surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Bret; Kori, Moris

    1987-01-01

    Surface reactions involving O atoms are likely to be highly exoergic, with different consequences if energy is channeled mostly to product molecules or surface modes. Thus the surface may become a source of excited species which can react elsewhere, or a sink for localized heat deposition which may disrupt the surface. The vibrational energy distribution of the product molecule contains strong clues about the flow of released energy. Two instructive examples of energy partitioning at surfaces are the Pt catalyzed oxidations: (1) C(ads) + O(ads) yields CO* (T is greater than 1000 K); and (2) CO(ads) + O(gas) yields CO2* (T is approx. 300 K). The infrared emission spectra of the excited product molecules were recorded and the vibrational population distributions were determined. In reaction 1, energy appeared to be statistically partitioned between the product CO and several Pt atoms. In reaction 2, partitioning was non-statistical; the CO2 asymmetric stretch distribution was inverted. In gas reactions these results would indicate a long lived and short lived activated complex. The requirement that Pt be heated in O atoms to promote reaction of atomic O and CO at room temperature is specifically addressed. Finally, the fraction of released energy that is deposited in the catalyst is estimated.

  14. "Friends" Raping Friends. Could It Happen to You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jean O'Gorman; Sandler, Bernice R.

    This publication concerning rape committed by acquaintances and "friends" is designed to provide information and support for college students. The early warning signs and how to react to potential "acquaintance" or "date" rape are addressed. Consideration is given to why this type of rape occurs and information is provided on how to avoid date…

  15. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Muenster, M.; Meibom, P.

    2010-12-15

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO{sub 2} quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO{sub 2} quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  16. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    PubMed

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  17. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    PubMed

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. PMID:20471819

  18. The production of herbaceous feedstocks for renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This document describes the use of a selected group of herbaceous plants as energy feedstocks. Twelve herbaceous crops were selected for study based on their above average yields; their composition, which can increase their value for fuel and other applications; and their ability to produce in a variety of soils and climates. Six of the twelve are carbohydrate crops (sugarcane, sweet sorghum, sweet-stemmed grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, and fodder beet), and six are lignocellulosic crops (kenaf, napiergrass, alfalfa, reed canarygrass, common reed, and water hyacinth). The contribution that herbaceous crops can make to the total US energy supply is discussed. Each candidate crop is characterized in terms of chemical composition, storage, processing, products, and uses. Growth characteristics and production practices in terms of geographic range, yield potential, and cultural requirements are described. Barriers to private sector development of herbaceous energy crops are listed and how R and D programs could be directed to overcome these roadblocks. The areas considered are feedstock selection and production, harvesting and transport, and processing and conversion.

  19. Space-time dependence between energy sources and climate related energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Tøfte, Lena; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    The European Renewable Energy Directive adopted in 2009 focuses on achieving a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU overall energy mix by 2020. A major part of renewable energy production is related to climate, called "climate related energy" (CRE) production. CRE production systems (wind, solar, and hydropower) are characterized by a large degree of intermittency and variability on both short and long time scales due to the natural variability of climate variables. The main strategies to handle the variability of CRE production include energy-storage, -transport, -diversity and -information (smart grids). The three first strategies aim to smooth out the intermittency and variability of CRE production in time and space whereas the last strategy aims to provide a more optimal interaction between energy production and demand, i.e. to smooth out the residual load (the difference between demand and production). In order to increase the CRE share in the electricity system, it is essential to understand the space-time co-variability between the weather variables and CRE production under both current and future climates. This study presents a review of the literature that searches to tackle these problems. It reveals that the majority of studies deals with either a single CRE source or with the combination of two CREs, mostly wind and solar. This may be due to the fact that the most advanced countries in terms of wind equipment have also very little hydropower potential (Denmark, Ireland or UK, for instance). Hydropower is characterized by both a large storage capacity and flexibility in electricity production, and has therefore a large potential for both balancing and storing energy from wind- and solar-power. Several studies look at how to better connect regions with large share of hydropower (e.g., Scandinavia and the Alps) to regions with high shares of wind- and solar-power (e.g., green battery North-Sea net). Considering time scales, various studies consider wind

  20. Anaerobic digestion for energy production and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Lettinga, G.; Haandel, A.C. Vaan

    1993-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion is the decomposition of complex molecules into simpler substances by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion processes can be employed for resource conservation, for the production of biogas and other useful end products from biomass, and for environmental protection through waste and wastewater treatment. Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater-treatment processes can effectively remove organic pollutants from wastewater at a cost far below that of conventional aerobic processes. These anaerobic wastewater treatment processes can also be profitably applied for the generation of biogas from energy crops such as sugarcane. In fact, these methods might even be an attractive alternative for the alcohol fermentation extensively employed in Brazil for the production of fuel alcohol from sugarcane. The potential of modern anaerobic processes for this purpose has not yet been widely recognized. This paper describes the principles and use of these processes and demonstrates their prospects for producing energy from sugarcane (1) by treating vinasse, the wastewater generated during the production of ethanol from sugarcane, and (2) as a direct method for producing biogas from sugarcane juice.

  1. Apparatus for recovering energy and useful products from plantain wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Quame, B.A.

    1983-08-16

    Energy and useful products are recovered from plantain wastes in a self-contained waste treatment plant wherein the raw material waste is charged into a boiler where the same is combusted to produce flue gases containing several organic compounds and dry ash containing residue mineral salts. The flue gas heats water in a water reservoir to generate steam which drives a turbine generator to produce electricity, the flue gas then being collected and at least partially condensed to form a pyroligneous acid solution from which alcohols and the like can be recovered. The dry ash containing residue mineral salt is mixed with other minerals or reagents with the resulting mass being supplied into continuously stirred fusion furnace situated within the boiler to which heat is supplied by the flue gas to produce commercially useful products, such as zeolites, dolomite or other related products.

  2. Neutral strange particle production in high energy neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wolin, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    In a high energy neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering experiment in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber filled with a Neon-Hydrogen mixture, production of the neutral strange particles K, Lambda, and anti-Lambda is observed. Global rates of neutral strange particle production, rates versus event kinematical variables, and strange particle kinematical distributions are presented. Absorption, rescattering, etc. of Lambda particles by the Ne nucleus is shown to be negligible within the statistical significance of the data. Production of both charged states the strange resonance Sigma(1385) is observed. These results are extensively compared to the predictions of the Lund model. The Lund model is found to reproduce the data well in most instances. The transverse momentum distribution for neutral K particles has a tail at high transverse momentum, in disagreement with the exponential decrease predicted by the model. Lambda particles are produced with higher average momentum and anti-Lambda's with lower average momentum than is predicted.

  3. Charged hadron production in the upsilon energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The author has examined the production of charged hadrons in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation in the upsilon energy region and has attempted to use this information to study the similarities and differences in the fragementation of quark and gluon jets. Major differences in charged hadron production for continuum (q anti-q) and upsilon(1S) (ggg) events include charged particle multiplicities (higher for upsilon data) and greatly enhanced production of baryons on the resonance. Global event characteristics (e.g., event shape) have been studied in hopes of providing some insight as to the basis for these differences. Comparisons have been made between the data and Monte Carlo simulations of q anti-q and ggg events using the LUND model and the Field phase space parton model. Agreements and disagreements between the data and the model are discussed.

  4. High energy resummation in dihadron production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiberto, Francesco G.; Ivanov, Dmitry Yu.; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    We propose to study at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the inclusive production of a pair of hadrons (a "dihadron" system) in a kinematics where two detected hadrons with high transverse momenta are separated by a large interval of rapidity. This process has much in common with the widely discussed Mueller-Navelet jet production and can also be used to access the dynamics of hard proton-parton interactions in the Regge limit. For both processes large contributions enhanced by logarithms of energy can be resummed in perturbation theory within the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) formalism with next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The experimental study of dihadron production would provide an additional clear channel to test the BFKL dynamics. We present here the first theoretical predictions for cross sections and azimuthal angle correlations of the dihadrons produced with LHC kinematics.

  5. Improved product energy intensity benchmarking metrics for thermally concentrated food products.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael E; Arnold, Craig S; Lettieri, David J; Hutchins, Margot J; Masanet, Eric

    2014-10-21

    Product energy intensity (PEI) metrics allow industry and policymakers to quantify manufacturing energy requirements on a product-output basis. However, complexities can arise for benchmarking of thermally concentrated products, particularly in the food processing industry, due to differences in outlet composition, feed material composition, and processing technology. This study analyzes tomato paste as a typical, high-volume concentrated product using a thermodynamics-based model. Results show that PEI for tomato pastes and purees varies from 1200 to 9700 kJ/kg over the range of 8%-40% outlet solids concentration for a 3-effect evaporator, and 980-7000 kJ/kg for a 5-effect evaporator. Further, the PEI for producing paste at 31% outlet solids concentration in a 3-effect evaporator varies from 13,000 kJ/kg at 3% feed solids concentration to 5900 kJ/kg at 6%; for a 5-effect evaporator, the variation is from 9200 kJ/kg at 3%, to 4300 kJ/kg at 6%. Methods to compare the PEI of different product concentrations on a standard basis are evaluated. This paper also presents methods to develop PEI benchmark values for multiple plants. These results focus on the case of a tomato paste processing facility, but can be extended to other products and industries that utilize thermal concentration.

  6. Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students' friends matter?

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends. PMID:27194659

  7. Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students' friends matter?

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends.

  8. 75 FR 13217 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Classifying Products as Covered Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Consent Decree. In a memorandum for the Secretary of Energy, dated February 5, 2009 (74 FR 6537, Feb. 9... residential water heaters. 65 FR 59589, 59595, 59600 (October 5, 2000); 66 FR 4474, 4477, 4478 (January 17... Register on May 4, 2006. (71 FR 26275) ] IV. Procedural Requirements A. Review Under Executive Order...

  9. Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

  10. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David

    2012-06-01

    2011 is the first year of the 12th Five-Year Plan and, as such, it is a crucial year to push forward the work of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Important large-scale energy conservation policies issued in 2011 include Outline of the 12th Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of The People’s Republic of China (the “Plan”) and Notice of the State Council on Issuing the Comprehensive Work Proposal for Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period (GF (2011) No. 26) (the “Proposal”). These two policies have established strategic objectives for energy conservation during the 12th Five-Year Plan in China, and they have also identified the key tasks and direction of energy efficiency programs for energy-using products.

  11. Experiences of a grid connected solar array energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagymássy, Zoltán; Vántus, András

    2015-04-01

    Solar energy possibilities of Hungary are higher than in Central Europe generally. The Institute for Land Utilisation, Technology and Regional Development of the University of Debrecen installed a photovoltaic (PV) system. The PV system is structured into 3 subsystems (fields). The first subsystem has 24 pieces of Kyocera KC 120 W type modules, the second subsystem has 72 pieces of Siemens ST 40W, and the remaining has 72 pieces of Dunasolar DS 40W In order to be operable independently of each other three inverter modules (SB 2500) had been installed. The recorder can be connected directly to a desktop PC. Operating and meteorological dates are recorded by MS Excel every 15 minutes. The power plant is connected to a weather station, which contents a PT 100 type temperature and humidity combined measuring instrument, a CM 11 pyranometer, and a wind speed measuring instrument. The produced DC, and AC power, together with the produced energy are as well, and the efficiency can be determined for each used PV technology. The measured operating and meteorological dates are collected by Sunny Boy Control, produced by the SMA. The energy productions of the subsystems are measured continually and the subsystems are measured separately. As an expected, the produced energy of polycrystalline -Si PV module and monocrystalline -Si PV was higher than amorphous-Si PV module. It is well known that energy analysis is more suitable for energy balance when we design a system. The air temperature and the temperature of the panels and the global irradiation conditions were measured. In summertime the panel temperature reaches 60-80 degrees in a sunny day. The panel temperatures are in a spring sunny day approximately 30-40 degrees. It can be concluded that the global irradiation is a major impact feature to influence the amount of energy produced. The efficiency depends on several parameters (spectral distribution of the incoming light, temperature values, etc.). The energy efficiency

  12. Particle Production by Tidal Forces, and the Energy - Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacand, Christophe Maurice Jean-Baptiste

    The quantum production of spinless particles, < n_{k}(t)>, and of energy-momentum-stress, < T^{{a}{b}}(P) >, by the tidal forces of classical curved space-time are investigated in this thesis. In a first part we consider the test case of 1+1 dimensions. Our computations are finite step by step, the predicted evolution of the energy-momentum tensor < T^{ a b} > and of the spectral energy density e_{k}< n_{k }> are consistent with each other throughout curved space-time, < T^ { a b}> is covariantly conserved and has the standard trace anomaly R/24 pi for massless particles. The two chiralities, right-goers versus left-goers, are decoupled, the total < T^{{a} {b}}> is the sum of the chiral parts. We apply our methods to four problems: (1) The Rindler problem. (2) An inhomogeneous patch of curvature produces a burst of energy-momentum and of particles. (3) We compute the quantum production of energy density and pressure for a quantum field in external Friedmann-Robertson -Walker space-times in 1+1 dimensions. (4) We consider the gravitational field of a collapsing shell of classical matter in 3+1 dimensions, and we compute the production of Hawking radiation everywhere inside a linear wave guide in the radial direction. In a second part, we compute the energy density and pressures from a quantum scalar field propagating in the external field of a (3+1)-dimensional, spherically symmetric, static geometry with flat spatial sections. We consider only the (l = 0)-sector of the scalar field. The initial state of the quantum field is the gauge invariant vacuum on one of these hypersurface. Our computations are finite step by step. For the pressures we use the covariant conservation of T^{mu nu} and its four-dimensional trace. We apply our results to the case of the gravitational potential due to an homogeneous spherical body. At late times, i.e. when all switch-on effects are far away from the body, the results are that a static cloud of energy and pressure is formed inside

  13. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. PMID:27118736

  14. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency.

  15. Free Our Friends in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stidham, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Many secrets can be told by the physical surroundings of library media centers. Whether the center is kid-friendly is one of the first obvious tell-tale signs. When a library center has Arthur & D.W., Clifford, Pooh & Eeyore, shells, special rocks, etc. hidden by the circulation center or in the back in boxes, it's time to revolt. The movie Free…

  16. Patients, friends, and relationship boundaries.

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, J. T.; Smith, L. F.; Brown, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    When patient and physician are close friends, both professional and personal relationships can suffer. Jointly exploring and setting explicit boundaries can help avoid conflict and maintain these valuable relationships. This is particularly important when the physician practises in a small community where such concurrent relationships are unavoidable. PMID:8292931

  17. Energy Production from Solar Power Satellites - The Hydrogen Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, P.; Weindorf, W.; Zerta, M.

    2004-12-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to give an overview on the concept of a hydrogen economy, in which hydrogen (H2) is envisaged as energy carrier for power, heat and transportation purposes. The motivations for a transition to a hydrogen economy are discussed. Furthermore, the potential role of solar power satellites (SPS) for the production of renewable hydrogen is presented. SPS-to-H2 systems are discussed alongside with other hydrogen production vectors regarding the parameters cost, efficiency and specific CO2 emissions. From the discussions therein, it can be concluded that hydrogen and fuel cells are promising technologies which offer economical opportunities, customer benefits and which are environmentally sound provided that they are based on renewable hydrogen in the mid to long- term future. Solar power satellite systems could generate renewable hydrogen at potentially high capacity factors ('firm power') provided that cost and performance targets are met. In terms of production costs, SPS systems could then be competitive. However, the major hurdle to economic viability is space transportation. Regarding the specific energy effort to generate hydrogen for transportation purposes including grey energies, SPS could be in the lower range of other renewable and fossil primary energies. Here, results are sensitive towards the system architecture as well as space transportation. Life-cycle emissions attributed to SPS-to-H2 systems could not be derived. The certainty of the result would be low as details in the system design remain subject to further in-depth investigations. Not discussed are general important issues such as economic, political and environmental risks which certainly influence further development of SPS.

  18. STAR - H2 : the secure transportable autonomous reactor for hydrogen production and desalinization.

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D.C.; Doctor, R.; Peddicord, K.L.

    2002-02-26

    The Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor for Hydrogen production is a modular fast reactor intended for the mid 21st century energy market wherein electricity and hydrogen are employed as complementary energy carriers and nuclear energy contributes to sustainable energy supply based on full transuranic recycle in a passively safe, environmentally friendly and proliferation-resistant manner suitable for widespread worldwide deployment.

  19. Coastal eutrophication in Europe caused by production of energy crops.

    PubMed

    van Wijnen, Jikke; Ivens, Wilfried P M F; Kroeze, Carolien; Löhr, Ansje J

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, the use of biodiesel may increase rapidly in the coming decades as a result of policies aiming to increase the use of renewable fuels. Therefore, the production of biofuels from energy crops is expected to increase as well as the use of fertilisers to grow these crops. Since fertilisers are an important cause of eutrophication, the use of biodiesel may have an effect on the water quality in rivers and coastal seas. In this study we explored the possible effects of increased biodiesel use on coastal eutrophication in European seas in the year 2050. To this end, we defined a number of illustrative scenarios in which the biodiesel production increases to about 10-30% of the current diesel use. The scenarios differ with respect to the assumptions on where the energy crops are cultivated: either on land that is currently used for agriculture, or on land used for other purposes. We analysed these scenarios with the Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model. We used an existing Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenario for 2050, Global Orchestration (GO2050), as a baseline. In this baseline scenario the amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) exported by European rivers to coastal seas decreases between 2000 and 2050 as a result of environmental and agricultural policies. In our scenarios with increased biodiesel production the river export of N and P increases between 2000 and 2050, indicating that energy crop production may more than counterbalance this decrease. Largest increases in nutrient export were calculated for the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Differences in nutrient export among river basins are large. PMID:25536176

  20. Coastal eutrophication in Europe caused by production of energy crops.

    PubMed

    van Wijnen, Jikke; Ivens, Wilfried P M F; Kroeze, Carolien; Löhr, Ansje J

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, the use of biodiesel may increase rapidly in the coming decades as a result of policies aiming to increase the use of renewable fuels. Therefore, the production of biofuels from energy crops is expected to increase as well as the use of fertilisers to grow these crops. Since fertilisers are an important cause of eutrophication, the use of biodiesel may have an effect on the water quality in rivers and coastal seas. In this study we explored the possible effects of increased biodiesel use on coastal eutrophication in European seas in the year 2050. To this end, we defined a number of illustrative scenarios in which the biodiesel production increases to about 10-30% of the current diesel use. The scenarios differ with respect to the assumptions on where the energy crops are cultivated: either on land that is currently used for agriculture, or on land used for other purposes. We analysed these scenarios with the Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model. We used an existing Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenario for 2050, Global Orchestration (GO2050), as a baseline. In this baseline scenario the amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) exported by European rivers to coastal seas decreases between 2000 and 2050 as a result of environmental and agricultural policies. In our scenarios with increased biodiesel production the river export of N and P increases between 2000 and 2050, indicating that energy crop production may more than counterbalance this decrease. Largest increases in nutrient export were calculated for the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Differences in nutrient export among river basins are large.

  1. Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ribbing, C

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Thermal Engineering Research Institute (Värmeforsk) initiated an applied research program "Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes", in 2002. The program aims at increasing knowledge on the by-products of energy production and their application. The goal of formulating technical and environmental guidelines and assessments is a major point of the program, which is supported by about forty authorities and private organisations. The programme has been divided into four areas: recycling of ashes to forests, geotechnical applications, use in landfilling, and environmental aspects and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progress is shown: *Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth. *A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilisation of ashes in construction. *A handbook for using non-coal fly ashes in unpaved roads. *Technical and environmental assessments of MSWI bottom ashes in road construction. *Development of the use of ashes with municipal wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills and mine tailings. *Use of ashes from bio-fuels in concrete and replacement of cement in stoop mining. *A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as a hazardous or non-hazardous compound. The Ash Programme has also made it possible to increase knowledge on ashes as valuable materials, on quality assurance and on markets for recovered materials.

  2. Production and Transfer of Energy and Information in Hamiltonian Systems

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, Chris G.; Bianco-Martinez, Ezequiel; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2014-01-01

    We present novel results that relate energy and information transfer with sensitivity to initial conditions in chaotic multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We show the relation among Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and upper bounds for the Mutual Information Rate calculated in the Hamiltonian phase space and on bi-dimensional subspaces. Our main result is that the net amount of transfer from kinetic to potential energy per unit of time is a power-law of the upper bound for the Mutual Information Rate between kinetic and potential energies, and also a power-law of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Therefore, transfer of energy is related with both transfer and production of information. However, the power-law nature of this relation means that a small increment of energy transferred leads to a relatively much larger increase of the information exchanged. Then, we propose an “experimental” implementation of a 1-dimensional communication channel based on a Hamiltonian system, and calculate the actual rate with which information is exchanged between the first and last particle of the channel. Finally, a relation between our results and important quantities of thermodynamics is presented. PMID:24586891

  3. 76 FR 40285 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ..., U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies... Product AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of.... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue,...

  4. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  5. ENSO's Effects on the Wind Energy Production of South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, B. R.

    2005-12-01

    An aging infrastructure, environmental concerns, and growing demand threaten to undermine the reliability and long-term sustainability of the current fossil fuel electricity supply and transmission system. It is widely agreed that renewable energy sources will become increasingly important in the evolution to a next generation electric grid. In this study we investigated the use and value of climate information in determining the location and performance of wind power turbines in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Fifty years of hourly wind speed data were used to evaluate the possible influence of seasonal and interannual climate variability on wind power production at four location in South Dakota. The El Nino Southern Oscillation is a documented source of climate variability in the Northern Great Plains. Our results documented a dominant El Nino influence on the probability of a lull in wind speed, with a stronger influence in the eastern half of the state. Information on wind speed lulls in important to the wind energy industry because these are periods when no energy is being produced. All of the locaitons also showed a slight decrease in power production potential during El Nino events. Our preliminary results confirmed that information on climate variability and change can be of significant use and value to future wind power planning, siting, and performance.

  6. Renewable energy from Cyanobacteria: energy production optimization by metabolic pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Naira; Van der Kooy, Frank; Van de Rhee, Miranda D; Voshol, Gerben P; Verpoorte, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The need to develop and improve sustainable energy resources is of eminent importance due to the finite nature of our fossil fuels. This review paper deals with a third generation renewable energy resource which does not compete with our food resources, cyanobacteria. We discuss the current state of the art in developing different types of bioenergy (ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, etc.) from cyanobacteria. The major important biochemical pathways in cyanobacteria are highlighted, and the possibility to influence these pathways to improve the production of specific types of energy forms the major part of this review.

  7. Halogen-free bis(imidazolium)/bis(ammonium)-di[bis(salicylato)borate] ionic liquids as energy-efficient and environmentally friendly lubricant additives.

    PubMed

    Gusain, Rashi; Gupta, Piyush; Saran, Sandeep; Khatri, Om P

    2014-09-10

    Bis(imidazolium)- and bis(ammonium)-di[bis(salicylato)borate] ionic liquids with variable alkyl chain and cyclic ring structures, were synthesized and then evaluated them as potential lubricant additives. The copper strip test results revealed noncorrosive properties of these ionic liquids. Introduction of halogen content in bis(imidazolium) ionic liquid by replacement of bis(salicylato)borate (BScB) anion with hexafluorophosphate (PF6(-)), severely corroded the copper strip. Thermogravimetric results showed that bis(imidazolium) ionic liquids exhibited higher thermal stability than bis(ammonium) ionic liquids owing to compact structure provided by imidazolium rings, higher intermolecular interactions, smaller free volume and low steric hindrance. The lubrication properties of these ionic liquids as additives to synthetic lubricant poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG 200) were evaluated for steel balls. Results showed that bis(ammonium)- and bis(imidazolium)-(BScB)2 ionic liquids as additives significantly reduced both friction coefficient and wear of PEG 200. The structure of cations, particularly the variation in substituted alkyl chain length monitored the degree of reduction in friction and wear. The excellent lubrication properties were attributed to the formation of adsorbed tribo-thin film and tribochemical product during the tribo-contact. Being halogen-, phosphorus-, and sulfur-free, these ionic liquids (a) protects contact surfaces from tribo-corrosive events, (b) reduces the friction and wear, and (c) keep environment green and clean.

  8. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…

  9. Future electricity production methods. Part 1: Nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nifenecker, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The global warming challenge aims at stabilizing the concentrations of Green House Gas (GHG) in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most effective of the anthropogenic GHG and is essentially produced by consumption of fossil fuels. Electricity production is the dominant cause of CO2 emissions. It is, therefore, crucial that the share of 'carbon less' electricity production techniques increases at a fast pace. This is the more so, that 'clean' electricity would be useful to displace 'dirty' techniques in other fields such as heat production and transportation. Here we examine the extent to which nuclear energy could be operational in providing 'clean' electricity. A nuclear intensive scenario is shown to give the possibility to divide CO2 emissions by a factor of 2 worldwide, within 50 years. However, the corresponding sharp increase in nuclear power will put a heavy burden on uranium reserves and will necessitate the development of breeding reactors as soon as possible. A review of present and future reactors is given with special attention to the safety issues. The delicate question of nuclear fuel cycle is discussed concerning uranium reserves and management of used fuels. It is shown that dealing with nuclear wastes is more a socio-political problem than a technical one. The third difficult question associated with the development of nuclear energy is the proliferation risk. It is advocated that, while this is, indeed, a very important question, it is only weakly related to nuclear power development. Finally, the possibilities of nuclear fusion are discussed and it is asserted that, under no circumstances, could nuclear fusion give a significant contribution to the solution of the energy problem before 50 years, too late for dealing with the global warming challenge.

  10. Friends of the National Library of Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Friends of the National Library of Medicine Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... Paul G. Rogers Chairman, Friends of the National Library of Medicine and former member of the U.S. ...

  11. Hypertriton and light nuclei production at Lambda-production subthreshold energy in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Zu, Z.; Chen, J.H., Ma, Y.G., Cai, X-Z, Ma, G.L., Zhong, C.

    2011-08-01

    High-energy heavy-ion collisions produce abundant hyperons and nucleons. A dynamical coalescence model coupled with the ART model is employed to study the production probabilities of light clusters, deuteron (d), triton (t), helion ({sup 3}He), and hypertriton ({sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H) at subthreshold energy of Aproduction ({approx} 1 GeV per nucleon). We study the dependence on the reaction system size of the coalescence penalty factor per additional nucleon and entropy per nucleon. The Strangeness Population Factor (S{sub 3} = {sup 3}{sub {Lambda}}H/({sup 3}He x {Lambda}/p)) shows an extra suppression of hypertriton comparing to light clusters of the same mass number. This model predicts a hypertriton production cross-section of a few {mu}b in {sup 36}Ar+{sup 36}Ar, {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca and {sup 56}Ni+{sup 56}Ni in 1 A GeV reactions. The production rate is as high as a few hypertritons per million collisions, which shows that the fixed-target heavy-ion collisions at CSR (Lanzhou/China) at {Lambda} subthreshold energy are suitable for breaking new ground in hypernuclear physics.

  12. Status of photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen and electrical energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Walker, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency for conversion of electromagnetic energy to chemical and electrical energy utilizing semiconductor single crystals as photoanodes in electrochemical cells was investigated. Efficiencies as high as 20 percent were achieved for the conversion of 330 nm radiation to chemical energy in the form of hydrogen by the photoelectrolysis of water in a SrTiO3 based cell. The SrTiO3 photoanodes were shown to be stable in 9.5 M NaOH solutions for periods up to 48 hours. Efficiencies of 9 percent were measured for the conversion of broadband visible radiation to hydrogen using n-type GaAs crystals as photoanodes. Crystals of GaAs coated with 500 nm of gold, silver, or tin for surface passivation show no significant change in efficiency. By suppressing the production of hydrogen in a CdSe-based photogalvanic cell, an efficiency of 9 percent was obtained in conversion of 633 nm light to electrical energy. A CdS-based photogalvanic cell produced a conversion efficiency of 5 percent for 500 nm radiation.

  13. Heavy quarkonium production at collider energies: Factorization and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Qing; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Sterman, George

    2014-08-01

    We present a perturbative QCD factorization formalism for inclusive production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum, pT at collider energies, including both leading power (LP) and next-to-leading power (NLP) behavior in pT. We demonstrate that both LP and NLP contributions can be factorized in terms of perturbatively calculable short-distance partonic coefficient functions and universal nonperturbative fragmentation functions, and derive the evolution equations that are implied by the factorization. We identify projection operators for all channels of the factorized LP and NLP infrared safe short-distance partonic hard parts, and corresponding operator definitions of fragmentation functions. For the NLP, we focus on the contributions involving the production of a heavy quark pair, a necessary condition for producing a heavy quarkonium. We evaluate the first nontrivial order of evolution kernels for all relevant fragmentation functions, and discuss the role of NLP contributions.

  14. Comparison of Module Performance Characterization Methods for Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Marion, W.; King, D.; Boyson, W.; Kratochvil, J.

    2000-12-04

    This report compares the two methods of determining the performance of PV modules. The methods translate module performance characterized in a laboratory to actual or reference conditions using slightly different approaches. The accuracy of both methods is compared for both hourly and daily energy production over a year of data recorded at NREL in Golden, CO. The comparison of the two methods will be presented for five different PV module technologies: multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si), dual-junction amorphous silicon (a-Si/a-Si:Ge), triple-junction amorphous silicon (a-Si/a-Si/a-Si:Ge), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium diselenide (CIGSS).

  15. Researchers fine-tune production of energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, D.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Renewable energy sources, plant materials that can be processed into liquid fuels, are becoming increasingly important as fossil fuel sources dwindle and environmental impacts of releasing fossilized carbon into the atmosphere become more evident. But which plant species provide the most material and can be grown on land not used to produce food, feed, and fiber Switchgrass exceeds all other herbaceous species we have tested in production of biomass on marginal sites in the Virginia Piedmont reports David J. Parrish, Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, VA) professor of crop and soil environmental sciences. In a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at Virginia Tech, graduate student Steven Nagle, Parrish, professor Dale Wolf, and associate professor W.L. Daniels are comparing the biomass productivity of switchgrass, weeping lovegrass, and tall fescue. Since 1985, the crops - selected for their marginal crop value - have been grown on 12 sites in the Virginia Piedmont. Planting was done using no-till procedures that slice but do not turn the soil, because the sites are subject to erosion. The two warm-season grasses are harvested once a year, the fescue twice. Switchgrass has been the most productive on clay soils, and lovegrass on sandy soil. In a second DOE-sponsored study - this one by graduate student Preston Sullivan, Parish, Wolf, Daniels, and Nagle - the Virginia Tech researchers have begun to investigate planting winter-annual legumes in with switchgrass as a source of nitrogen to reduce cost of production, and as a means to increase biomass. In the fall of 1988, crimson clover, arrowleaf clover, and hairy vetch were planted into the switchgrass stubble. Other plots of switchgrass are being provided with various levels of nitrogen fertilizer to compare those yields with legume-planted plots. Crimson clover had provided the most fall growth, but by mid-May 1989, the hairy vetch had produced a dense webbing of biomass over the new switchgrass.

  16. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Proliferation Risks of Magneetic Fusion Energy: Clandestine Production, Covert Production and Breakout

    SciTech Connect

    A. Glaser and R.J. Goldston

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to weapon-usable materials can be divided into three main categories: (1) clandestine production of weapon-usable material in an undeclared facility, (2) covert production of such material inn a declared facility, and (3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper we address each of these categories of risks from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if the fusion system is designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards.

  18. Proliferation risks of magnetic fusion energy: clandestine production, covert production and breakout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, A.; Goldston, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to weapon-usable materials can be divided into three main categories: (1) clandestine production of weapon-usable material in an undeclared facility, (2) covert production of such material in a declared facility and (3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper, we address each of these categories of risks from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if the fusion system is designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards.

  19. 77 FR 9222 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ..., Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...

  20. 77 FR 16217 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...

  1. 77 FR 16216 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVI, LLC; Notice of Intent To File...

  2. 77 FR 60971 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Hydro Friends Fund XLII, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered...

  3. 77 FR 68765 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings...

  4. 77 FR 67352 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Friends Fund XLII, LLC, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559; (877... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted...

  5. 77 FR 64971 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Waiver, in Part, of Prefiling Consultation Required...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Waiver, in Part, of...

  6. For Professors, "Friending" Can Be Fraught

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    People connect on Facebook by asking to "friend" one another. A typical user lists at least 100 such connections, while newbies are informed, "You don't have any friends yet." A humbling statement. It might make one want to find some. But friending students can be even dicier than befriending them. In the real world, casual professors may ask…

  7. 75 FR 63851 - Draft Friends Organizations Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Friends Organizations Policy AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... effectiveness in achieving the Service's mission through partnerships with Friends organizations (volunteer/advocate). Today, Friends organizations play a vital role in helping to fulfill the Service's mission...

  8. Eco-nomics. Despite a tough economy, many CIOs are incorporating eco-friendly initiatives into their strategies.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2009-07-01

    * Several health systems have adopted environmentally friendly practices like computer recycling programs, energy-efficient lighting, carpooling programs, and building design components that limit water usage. * Vendors are offering more energy-efficient products like virtualization software and switching equipment. * ClOs are reducing power usage and costs by consolidating servers, installing more efficient chilling systems, and implementing policies to power down desktops that aren't in use. * Green IT can be a difficult conceptto sell to CEOs and hospital boards unless it goes hand-in-hand with cost savings. PMID:19645180

  9. Eco-nomics. Despite a tough economy, many CIOs are incorporating eco-friendly initiatives into their strategies.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2009-07-01

    * Several health systems have adopted environmentally friendly practices like computer recycling programs, energy-efficient lighting, carpooling programs, and building design components that limit water usage. * Vendors are offering more energy-efficient products like virtualization software and switching equipment. * ClOs are reducing power usage and costs by consolidating servers, installing more efficient chilling systems, and implementing policies to power down desktops that aren't in use. * Green IT can be a difficult conceptto sell to CEOs and hospital boards unless it goes hand-in-hand with cost savings.

  10. Teaching and Learning "False Friends": A Review of Some Useful Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Maria Luisa Roca

    2011-01-01

    False friends are words in two languages that are similar in form but different in meaning (e.g. English "library" "place for reading and borrowing books" vs Spanish "libreria" "bookshop"). From the point of view of EFL teaching and learning, false friends are important because they lead us to errors in L2 production and comprehension (e.g. "I am…

  11. Classroom Friends and Very Best Friends: A Short-Term Longitudinal Analysis of Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChristian, Chrystal L.; Ray, Glen E.; Tidwell, Pamela S.; LoBello, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Second-, third-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children evaluated relationship qualities of a self-nominated friend and a self-nominated very best friend over a 6-month school year period. Results demonstrated that 76% of the friend relationships and 50% of the very best friend relationships were maintained over the course of the study. Children in…

  12. Wind turbine power production and annual energy production depend on atmospheric stability and turbulence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Clifton, Andrew; Poulos, Gregory S.; Schreck, Scott J.

    2016-06-17

    Here, by using detailed upwind and nacelle-based measurements from a General Electric [GE] 1.5 sle model with a 77 m rotor diameter, we calculated power curves and annual energy production (AEP) and explored their sensitivity to different atmospheric parameters. This work provides guidelines for the use of stability and turbulence filters in segregating power curves to gain a clearer picture of the power performance of a turbine. The wind measurements upwind of the turbine include anemometers mounted on a 135 m meteorological tower and lidar vertical profiles. We calculated power curves for different regimes based on turbulence parameters such as turbulence intensity (TI)more » and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), as well as atmospheric stability parameters such as Bulk Richardson number (RB). AEP was also calculated with and without these atmospheric filters and differences between these calculations are highlighted in this article. The power curves for different TI and TKE regimes revealed that, at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), increased TI and TKE undermined power production at wind speeds near rated, but increased power production at lower wind speeds. Similarly, power curves for different RB regimes revealed that periods of stable conditions produced more power at wind speeds near rated and periods of unstable conditions produced more power at lower wind speeds. AEP results suggest that calculations done without filtering for these atmospheric regimes may be overestimating the AEP. Because of statistically significant differences between power curves and AEP calculated with these turbulence and stability filters for this turbine at this site, we suggest implementing an additional step in analyzing power performance data to take atmospheric stability and turbulence across the rotor disk into account.« less

  13. 76 FR 13169 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision... Residential Clothes Washer Test Procedure AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Michael G. Raymond, U.S. Department of Energy, Building...

  14. Energy Product Options for Eucalyptus Species Grown as Short Rotation Woody Crops

    PubMed Central

    Rockwood, Donald L.; Rudie, Alan W.; Ralph, Sally A.; Zhu, J.Y.; Winandy, Jerrold E.

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are native to Australia but grown extensively worldwide as short rotation hardwoods for a variety of products and as ornamentals. We describe their general importance with specific emphasis on existing and emerging markets as energy products and the potential to maximize their productivity as short rotation woody crops. Using experience in Florida USA and similar locations, we document their current energy applications and assess their productivity as short-term and likely long-term energy and related products. PMID:19325808

  15. Energy efficiency, low-carbon energy production, and economic growth in CIS countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazim, A.; Kochetkova, O.; Azimzhamov, I.; Shvagrukova, E.; Dmitrieva, N.

    2016-09-01

    The paper studies the peculiarities of energy efficiency increase in national economy and decrease of carbon dioxide emission for CIS countries. The conditions that allow achieving parameters of sustainable development are determined according to indexes of GDP energy intensity and carbon intensity. Focusing on the indexes of GDP energy intensity and carbon intensity dynamics as well as on carbon intensity of energy production, a real movement towards implementation of program conditions presented by international organizations is analyzed, namely, economic conversion to the model of sustainable development. The examples demonstrate both the presence of significant differences between 12 countries and the lack of fatality in these differences. At determining dependencies linear models are preferred to non-linear ones, with the explanation of reasons in each particular case. Attention to success of these countries may help to understand the advantages of conversion to the model of sustainable development and also it helps to decrease demands in terms of costs for this conversion.

  16. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing. Final report, Task 13

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R&D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining.

  17. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    National Research Council

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Department of the Treasury to arrange for a review by the National Academy of Sciences to define and evaluate the health, environmental, security, and infrastructural external costs and benefits associated with the production and consumption of energy--costs and benefits that are not or may not be fully incorporated into the market price of energy, into the federal tax or fee, or into other applicable revenue measures related to production and consumption of energy. In response, the National Research Council established the Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption, which prepared the report summarized in this chapter. The report estimates dollar values for several major components of these costs. The damages the committee was able to quantify were an estimated $120 billion in the U.S. in 2005, a number that reflects primarily health damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation and motor vehicle transportation. The figure does not include damages from climate change, harm to ecosystems, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to national security, which the report examines but does not monetize.

  18. Energy production from biosolids: A cattle feedlot demonstration system

    SciTech Connect

    Fedler, C.B.; Parker, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    About 5 million head of cattle are produced annually from about 200 feedlots in the Texas High Plains with about 3.5 million head standing. Annually, the 3.5 million head of cattle produce about 28 millions metric tons of were manure (88% water). If anaerobically digested, the manure would yield about 1.4 million m{sup 3} of biogas, or about 4.4 million kWh daily. With cogeneration and nutrient recovery, the sum of the revenue sources in over $500 million annually and does no include the value of water or other byproducts such as fish and plants that could be produced from an integrated system. A demonstration unit to treat the waste from a 1000-head cattle and a 280 sow farrow-to-finish swine operation is constructed. This system employs a 6 m deep anaerobic pit for production and capture of biogas integrated with a facultative pond, a shallow pond for production of aquatic plants, and a pond for production of fish or other aquatic species. The resulting related agribusinesses would not only produce additional revenues, but would also produce energy, improve the environment though extraction of nitrogen compounds, capture of gaseous emissions, reduction of odor, and creation of wildlife habitat in consturcted wetlants.

  19. 75 FR 27770 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    .... Applicant Contact: Wayne F. Krouse, Chairman & CEO, Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 5090 Richmond Ave., 390... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII; Notice of Preliminary...

  20. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  1. Dark fermentation on biohydrogen production: Pure culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Show, Kuan-Yeow; Su, Ay

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of literature reports on the pure hydrogen-producers under anaerobic environment. Challenges and perspective of biohydrogen production with pure cultures are also outlined.

  2. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  3. Explosive Products EOS: Adjustment for detonation speed and energy release

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-05

    Propagating detonation waves exhibit a curvature effect in which the detonation speed decreases with increasing front curvature. The curvature effect is due to the width of the wave profile. Numerically, the wave profile depends on resolution. With coarse resolution, the wave width is too large and results in a curvature effect that is too large. Consequently, the detonation speed decreases as the cell size is increased. We propose a modification to the products equation of state (EOS) to compensate for the effect of numerical resolution; i.e., to increase the CJ pressure in order that a simulation propagates a detonation wave with a speed that is on average correct. The EOS modification also adjusts the release isentrope to correct the energy release.

  4. Energy efficient electrolyzer for the production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Folser, G.R.; Hardman, C.C.

    1982-11-02

    Disclosed is an energy efficient electrolyzer for the production of hydrogen. The electrolyzer consists of an inner container, a plurality of electrolytic cells within the container and means for passing electric current in series through the electrolytic cells. Each cell consists of the anode half of one inert impervious conducting bipolar plate, in contact with an inert conductive anode bed of large surface area separated from the facing cathode half of another inert impervious conducting bipolar plate by a porous insulating separator. The anode is impregnated with an anolyte of about 10 to about 60% aqueous sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide and the cathode is bathed in a catholyte of about 10 to about 60% aqueous sulfuric acid. The anode is preferably carbon pellets which have been obtained from vegetable matter and which contain about 1 to about 5% platinum

  5. Patient information leaflets: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Pines, A

    2015-10-01

    Every registered medication has an information insert in its package. This patient leaflet provides information on the product, which includes clinical pharmacology, recommended dose, mode of administration, how supplied, and a large section contains warnings and contraindications, adverse reactions, and precautions. Most of the prescribers do not read the patient information leaflets and do not discuss it with the users, whereas some patients do read it thoroughly. This may create worries and uncertainties resulting in reduced compliance to treatment. With easy access of patients to information on drugs that they use, mainly through the electronic media, it is very important that the text and contents of these patient leaflets are simple to understand and readable. Although information from official health agencies is superior to net-based sources, the patient information leaflets should be improved and become more user-friendly and less frightening. PMID:25668438

  6. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  7. Impaired mitochondrial energy production: the basis of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Alan W C; Sander, Josemir W

    2011-10-01

    Twenty to thirty percent of people who develop epilepsy continue to have seizures despite antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. The introduction of many new AEDs in the last two decades does not appear to have reduced substantially the proportion of people who are pharmacoresistant and continue to have seizures. Currently there are two main mechanisms suggested for pharmacoresistance in people with epilepsy: the transporter and target hypothesis. There are inadequacies in both these hypotheses and alternatives should be considered. There is accumulating evidence from animal studies, human physiological measurements and imaging studies that there is impaired mitochondrial energy production in the epileptogenic zone. Impaired mitochondrial function and lower bioenergetic state is associated with higher extracellular glutamate and increased neuronal hyperexcitability. Conversely, the ketogenic diet effective in reducing seizures, has been shown in animal studies to be associated with up-regulation of mitochondrial genes and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. A human imaging study has also shown improved cerebral energy metabolism in people on a ketogenic diet. Hence, the hypothesis is that the likelihood of seizures occurring results mainly from the interplay of three factors: the seizuregenic potential of the epileptic focus, the efficacy of AEDs and the efficiency of mitochondrial function. This hypothesis can be tested by comparing mitochondrial function in people with epilepsy who are pharmacoresistant with those who have become seizure free. The implication of the hypothesis is that the management of epilepsy should take account of the many drugs, toxins, nutrition and lifestyle factors that are known to affect mitochondrial function.

  8. Chloroplast quality control - balancing energy production and stress.

    PubMed

    Woodson, Jesse D

    2016-10-01

    Contents 36 I. 36 II. 37 III. 37 IV. 38 V. 39 VI. 40 VII. 40 40 References 40 SUMMARY: All organisms require the ability to sense their surroundings and adapt. Such capabilities allow them to thrive in a wide range of habitats. This is especially true for plants, which are sessile and have to be genetically equipped to withstand every change in their environment. Plants and other eukaryotes use their energy-producing organelles (i.e. mitochondria and chloroplasts) as such sensors. In response to a changing cellular or external environment, these organelles can emit 'retrograde' signals that alter gene expression and/or cell physiology. This signaling is important in plants, fungi, and animals and impacts diverse cellular functions including photosynthesis, energy production/storage, stress responses, growth, cell death, ageing, and tumor progression. Originally, chloroplast retrograde signals in plants were known to lead to the reprogramming of nuclear transcription. New research, however, has pointed to additional posttranslational mechanisms that lead to chloroplast regulation and turnover in response to stress. Such mechanisms involve singlet oxygen, ubiquitination, the 26S proteasome, and cellular degradation machinery. PMID:27533783

  9. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  10. Production of desalinated water using ocean thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.

    This paper describes an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) desalination plant that consists of a multistage flash evaporator (MSF), a closed-cycle OTEC power plant, and an appropriate seawater system depending if the desalination plant is land based or floating. OTEC desalination plants of this type are preferred because the production of desalinated water far exceeds that obtained from other OTEC plant types employing the same size seawater system. The focus of the paper is on the multistage flash evaporator. The similarities and differences between conventional MSF and OTEC multistage flash evaporators (OTEC-MSF) are first described. Then the details of the OTEC-MSF evaporator design are discussed and preliminary correlations are recommended for the three major elements: the flash chamber, the moisture removal device, and the condenser. Recent advances such as enhanced condenser tubes, condensers of the compact type, and corrugated-plate moisture separators are introduced into the design. Comparisons of the water production capability, evaporator shell volume, and material cost are then presented for state-of-the-art and the new design concepts.

  11. Production of desalinated water using ocean thermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) desalination plant that consists of a multistage flash evaporator (MSF), a closed-cycle OTEC power plant, and an appropriate seawater system depending if the desalination plant is land based or floating. OTEC desalination plants of this type are preferred because the production of desalinated water far exceeds that obtained from other OTEC plant types employing the same size seawater system. The focus of the paper is on the multistage flash evaporator. The similarities and differences between conventional MSF and OTEC multistage flash evaporators (OTEC-MSF) are first described. Then the details of the OTEC-MSF evaporator design are discussed and preliminary correlations are recommended for the three major elements: the flash chamber, the moisture removal device, and the condenser. Recent advances such as enhanced condenser tubes, condensers of the compact type, and corrugated-plate moisture separators are introduced into the design. Comparisons of the water production capability, evaporator shell volume, and material cost are then presented for state-of-the-art and the new design concepts. 20 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Estimation of PV energy production based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, G.

    2015-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is an attractive source of power for systems without connection to power grid. Because of seasonal variations of solar radiation, design of such a power system requires careful analysis in order to provide required reliability. In this paper we present results of three-year measurements of experimental PV system located in Poland and based on polycrystalline silicon module. Irradiation values calculated from results of ground measurements have been compared with data from solar radiation databases employ calculations from of satellite observations. Good convergence level of both data sources has been shown, especially during summer. When satellite data from the same time period is available, yearly and monthly production of PV energy can be calculated with 2% and 5% accuracy, respectively. However, monthly production during winter seems to be overestimated, especially in January. Results of this work may be helpful in forecasting performance of similar PV systems in Central Europe and allow to make more precise forecasts of PV system performance than based only on tables with long time averaged values.

  13. Buy Energy-Efficient Products: A Guide for Federal Purchasers and Specifiers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-03

    Efficient product purchases can really add up. In a single year, they could save the Federal Government almost a half billion dollars worth of energy. Every day, Federal employees and contractors make product choices. With each choice comes an opportunity to capture ongoing savings through the purchase of energy-efficient products. By purchasing products that exceed required efficiency levels, you save the government even more energy and money.

  14. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  15. 76 FR 56678 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC... Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC43 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Public Meeting and...

  16. 75 FR 19953 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field Energy Consumption... support characterization of energy consumption for current and future DOE energy conservation standard rulemakings. The use of tested energy consumption data is not sufficient due to the potentially wide range...

  17. Methane production and energy evaluation of a farm scaled biogas plant in cold climate area.

    PubMed

    Fjørtoft, Kristian; Morken, John; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the specific methane production and the energy balance at a small farm scaled mesophilic biogas plant in a cold climate area. The main substrate was dairy cow slurry. Fish silage was used as co-substrate for two of the three test periods. Energy production, substrate volumes and thermal and electric energy consumption was monitored. Methane production depended mainly on type and amount of substrates, while energy consumption depended mainly on the ambient temperature. During summer the main thermal energy consumption was caused by heating of new substrates, while covering for thermal energy losses from digester and pipes required most thermal energy during winter. Fish silage gave a total energy production of 1623 k Wh/m(3), while the dairy cow slurry produced 79 k Wh/m(3) slurry. Total energy demand at the plant varied between 26.9% and 88.2% of the energy produced. PMID:25033326

  18. Methane production and energy evaluation of a farm scaled biogas plant in cold climate area.

    PubMed

    Fjørtoft, Kristian; Morken, John; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the specific methane production and the energy balance at a small farm scaled mesophilic biogas plant in a cold climate area. The main substrate was dairy cow slurry. Fish silage was used as co-substrate for two of the three test periods. Energy production, substrate volumes and thermal and electric energy consumption was monitored. Methane production depended mainly on type and amount of substrates, while energy consumption depended mainly on the ambient temperature. During summer the main thermal energy consumption was caused by heating of new substrates, while covering for thermal energy losses from digester and pipes required most thermal energy during winter. Fish silage gave a total energy production of 1623 k Wh/m(3), while the dairy cow slurry produced 79 k Wh/m(3) slurry. Total energy demand at the plant varied between 26.9% and 88.2% of the energy produced.

  19. 77 FR 9231 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXVIII; FFP Project 59, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXVIII; FFP Project 59, LLC; Notice Announcing... County and Garrard County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXVIII...

  20. 77 FR 9230 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII; FFP Project 52, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII; FFP Project 52, LLC; Notice Announcing... and Faulkner County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII...

  1. 77 FR 12281 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing... and Owen County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV for Project...

  2. 76 FR 67720 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV--Project No. 14136-000 2. Riverbank Hydro No....

  3. 77 FR 9232 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV; FFP Project 58, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV; FFP Project 58, LLC; Notice Announcing... County and Woodford County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV...

  4. 77 FR 9230 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Project 53, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Project 53, LLC; Notice Announcing... Sumter counties, Alabama. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII for Project...

  5. 77 FR 13316 - FFP Project 91, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 91, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund.... 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC: Project No. 14279-000. 3. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III: Project...

  6. 77 FR 9231 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing... County and Owen County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV for...

  7. 76 FR 3626 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIX; FFP Missouri 14, LLC; Notice Announcing... the Savannah River, near Augusta, Georgia.\\1\\ The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends...

  8. 77 FR 9231 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Project 56, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Project 56, LLC; Notice Announcing... and Owen County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL for Project...

  9. 77 FR 9232 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing... County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII for Project No....

  10. 77 FR 9232 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Project 57, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Project 57, LLC; Notice Announcing... County, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV for Project No....

  11. 77 FR 9230 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV; FFP Project 2, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV; FFP Project 2, LLC; Notice Announcing... County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV for Project No....

  12. 77 FR 12279 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIV FFP Project 51, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIV FFP Project 51, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIV, Project No. 14179-000. 2. FFP Project 51,...

  13. 76 FR 67172 - Riverbank Hydro No. 8 LLC Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLIV FFP Project 51 LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 8 LLC Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLIV FFP Project 51 LLC... on May 3, 2011, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XLIV (Lock Hydro) and FFP Project 51 LLC (FFP 51) filed.... Krouse, Hydro Green Energy, 5090 Richmond Avenue 390, Houston, TX 77056. (877) 556-6566 x 709. FFP...

  14. 77 FR 14775 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV, FFP Project 2, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV, FFP Project 2, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLV Project No. 14180-000. 2. FFP Project 2,...

  15. 78 FR 49509 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; FFP Project 121, LLC; Notice Announcing... Virginia and Jefferson County, Ohio. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC...

  16. 77 FR 23241 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License... Friends Fund XXX, LLC. e. Name of Project: New Cumberland Locks and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location... XXX, c/o Hydro Green Energy, LLC, 900 Oakmont Lane, Suite 310, Westmont, IL 60559; (877) 556-6566...

  17. 78 FR 12304 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for...). h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Mark R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC, c/o Hydro...

  18. 77 FR 12280 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Project 56, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL; FFP Project 56, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XL, Project No. 14189-000. 2. FFP Project 56,...

  19. 77 FR 12280 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Project 57, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV; FFP Project 57, LLC;Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, Project No. 14186-000. 2. FFP Project 57,...

  20. 77 FR 13318 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV, FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV, FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV: Project No. 14185-000. 2. FFP...

  1. 77 FR 12281 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Project 53, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII; FFP Project 53, LLC; Notice Announcing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLIII, Project No. 14181-000. 2....

  2. 77 FR 12279 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII; FFP Project 1, LLC; Notice Announcing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII, Project No. 14184-000. 2....

  3. 77 FR 12280 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLI; FFP Project 54, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLI; FFP Project 54, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. FFP Project 54, LLC, Project No. 14192-000. 2. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund...

  4. 77 FR 12279 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII FFP Project 52, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII FFP Project 52, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII, Project No. 14178-000. 2. FFP Project 52,...

  5. 77 FR 12281 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV; FFP Project 58, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV; FFP Project 58, LLC; Notice Announcing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV, Project No. 14187-000. 2....

  6. Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Montgomery, Eliza; Kolody, Mark; Curran, Jerry; Back, Teddy; Balles, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings and Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) project is to identify, test, and develop qualification criteria for the use of environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and CPCs for flight hardware and ground support equipment. This document is the Final Report for Phase I evaluations, which included physical property, corrosion resistance, and NASA spaceport environment compatibility testing and analysis of fifteen CPC types. The CPCs consisted of ten different oily film CPCs and five different wax or grease CPC types. Physical property testing encompassed measuring various properties of the bulk CPCs, while corrosion resistance testing directly measured the ability of each CPC material to protect various metals against corrosion. The NASA spaceport environment compatibility testing included common tests required by NASA-STD-6001, "Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion". At the end of Phase I, CPC materials were down-selected for inclusion in the next test phases. This final report includes all data and analysis of results obtained by following the experimental test plan that was developed as part of the project. Highlights of the results are summarized by test criteria type.

  7. Process energy comparison for the production and harvesting of algal biomass as a biofuel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Weschler, Matthew K; Barr, William J; Harper, Willie F; Landis, Amy E

    2014-02-01

    Harvesting and drying are often described as the most energy intensive stages of microalgal biofuel production. This study analyzes two cultivation and eleven harvest technologies for the production of microalgae biomass with and without the use of drying. These technologies were combined to form 122 different production scenarios. The results of this study present a calculation methodology and optimization of total energy demand for the production of algal biomass for biofuel production. The energetic interaction between unit processes and total process energy demand are compared for each scenario. Energy requirements are shown to be highly dependent on final mass concentration, with thermal drying being the largest energy consumer. Scenarios that omit thermal drying in favor of lipid extraction from wet biomass show the most promise for energy efficient biofuel production. Scenarios which used open ponds for cultivation, followed by settling and membrane filtration were the most energy efficient.

  8. Energy and materials flows in the production of olefins and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Shen, S.Y.

    1980-08-01

    Production of olefins and their derivatives uses almost 3.5% of the oil and gas consumed annually in the United States. It is estimated that their production requires an input energy of 2 Q, which is 50% of the energy used in the production of all petrochemicals. Substantial amounts of this energy could be recovered through recycling. For example, recycling of a single plastic product, polyester soft drink bottles, could have recovered about 0.014 Q in 1979. (About 1.4 Q is used to produce plastic derivatives of olefins). Petrochemical processes use fuels as feedstocks, as well as for process energy, and a portion of this energy is not foregone and can be recovered through combustion of the products. The energy foregone in the production of ethylene is estimated to be 7800 Btu/lb. The energy foregone in plastics production ranges from 12,100 Btu/lb for the new linear low-density polyethylene to 77,200 Btu/lb for nylon 66, which is about 60% of the total energy input for that product. Further investigation of the following areas could yield both material and energy savings in the olefins industry: (1) recycling of petrochemical products to recover energy in addition to that recoverable through combustion, (2) impact of feedstock substitution on utilization of available national resources, and (3) effective use of the heat embodied in process steam. This steam accounts for a major fraction of the industry's energy input.

  9. Enteric bacteria: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Batt, R M; Rutgers, H C; Sancak, A A

    1996-06-01

    The normal gastrointestinal tract contains an enormous number of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria which normally enjoy a symbiotic relationship with the host but can have adverse effects with local and systemic consequences. The small intestine constitutes a zone of transition between the sparsely populated stomach and the luxuriant bacterial flora of the colon. Regulation of the intestinal flora depends on complex interactions between many factors including secretion of gastric acid, intestinal motility, biliary and pancreatic secretions, local immunity, the surface glycocalyx and mucus layer, and diet. Microbial interactions are also important, and can involve alterations in redox potential, substrate depletion and production of substances such as bacteriocins that inhibit bacterial growth. The beneficial effect of the normal enteric flora include the competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic organisms, and the production of nutrients such as short-chain fatty acids (which represent an important energy source for the colonic mucosa) and vitamins. Detrimental effects of the enteric flora include competition for calories and essential nutrients, particularly by bacteria located in the small intestine, and a capacity to damage the mucosa, in some circumstances causing or contributing to inflammatory bowel disease. These problems can be accentuated by interference with the physiological regulation of intraluminal bacteria allowing overgrowth by a normal resident, or colonisation by transient pathogens. The pathophysiological consequences may involve direct damage to the intestinal mucosa, and bacterial metabolism of intraluminal constituents, for example forming deconjugated bile acids and hydroxylated fatty acids which stimulate fluid secretion. Additional problems arise if there is interference with the mucosal barrier since this can result in increased passage of bacteria and bacterial products stimulating mucosal inflammation, while bacterial translocation

  10. 75 FR 56795 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... impact the water or energy characteristics of a product. For example, DOE could add a sampling provision... systematically enforce applicable energy and water conservation standards for covered products and covered equipment and provide for more accurate, comprehensive information about the energy and water...

  11. 75 FR 62127 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ..., discussed below. Whirlpool claims that water softeners can prevent consumer behaviors that consume... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision... for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles.'' 42 U.S.C. 6291-6309. Part A includes definitions,...

  12. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Aden, Nathaniel; Chunxia, Zhang; Xiuping, Li; Fangqin, Shangguan

    2011-06-15

    Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steel produced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order to develop a common framework for comparing steel industry energy use. This study uses a bottom-up, physical-based method to compare the energy intensity of China and U.S. crude steel production in 2006. This year was chosen in order to maximize the availability of comparable steel-sector data. However, data published in China and the U.S. are not always consistent in terms of analytical scope, conversion factors, and information on adoption of energy-saving technologies. This study is primarily based on published annual data from the China Iron & Steel Association and National Bureau of Statistics in China and the Energy Information Agency in the U.S. This report found that the energy intensity of steel production is lower in the United States than China primarily due to structural differences in the steel industry in these two countries. In order to understand the differences in energy intensity of steel production in both countries, this report identified key determinants of sector energy use in both countries. Five determinants analyzed in this report include: share of electric arc furnaces in total steel production, sector penetration of energy-efficiency technologies, scale of production equipment, fuel shares in the iron and steel

  13. Sell Energy-Efficient Products: A Guide to Selling to the U.S. Government

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Government spends $500 billion on goods and services every year and $20 billion on energy. For many product types, the U.S. Government is the single largest purchaser. Manufacturers and vendors can increase their sales potential by helping Federal purchasers meet their energy-efficient product purchasing requirements. This guide explains how to sell products to the government.

  14. Requirement of the single base insertion at the 3' end of the env-related gene of Friend spleen focus-forming virus for pathogenic activity and its effect on localization of the glycoprotein product (gp55).

    PubMed Central

    Amanuma, H; Watanabe, N; Nishi, M; Ikawa, Y

    1989-01-01

    In order to obtain evidence for the essential role of the single base insertion occurring at the 3' end of the env-related gene of Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) encoding the leukemogenic glycoprotein (gp55) a mutant SFFV genome was constructed in which the segment of the gp55 gene of the polycythemia-inducing strain of SFFV containing the single base insertion and the 6-base-pair duplication was replaced by the corresponding sequence of the Friend murine leukemia virus env gene. The mutant SFFV-Friend murine leukemia virus complex did not induce symptoms of the erythroproliferative disease in adult DBA/2 mice. During passage through newborn DBA/2 mice, the mutant virus complex invariably gave rise to weakly pathogenic variant SFFVs. All of the variant SFFVs induced in adult DBA/2 mice a transient mild splenomegaly associated with normal or slightly low hematocrit value, and they produced gp55 with a molecular weight similar to that of gp55 of the wild-type SFFV. For the two isolates of variant SFFV, the 3' portion of the viral DNA intermediate containing the 3' portion of the gp55 gene was molecularly cloned. Nucleotide sequences of these biologically active cloned DNAs were determined and showed that the variant SFFV genomes arose from the mutant SFFV genome by regaining the single base insertion, indicating that the single base insertion is essential for the biological activity of gp55. Evidence is presented indicating that the single base insertion which causes a loss of the cytoplasmic domain of the env-related protein is not related to the localization of the further-glycosylated form of gp55 in the plasma membrane but is involved with the release of gp55 from cells. Images PMID:2552155

  15. AET's new energy-efficient facility gears up for production

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, A.

    1993-01-01

    American Energy Technologies, Inc. (AET), a company based just north of Green Cove Springs, Florida, has become the largest manufacturer of solar thermal products in the U.S. Phase 1 of the construction of AET's new manufacturing facility, which commenced in October 1992, was completed in April 1993. It houses high-output tooling designed by AET to ensure affordable, high-quality solar thermal hardware which is rated among the most efficient in the world today. The AET facility has integrated a number of energy-efficient design considerations and conservation measures. The passive-solar design of the building minimizes direct solar gain in the summer and maximizes tropical winds for passive cooling. Strategically placed native landscaping requires minimal maintenance, thus reducing water consumption, and provides natural shading for the offices. The exterior walls are constructed of Poly Steel hollow-core styrofoam forms filled with pumped concrete. This design provides an insulation rate of R-22, a wind load of 160 mph, and a two-hour fire rating. The light-colored office and the plant's exterior skin assist in reducing the cooling load with the protection of Lomit, a spray-applied radiant barrier manufactured by SOLEC Corporation, which coats the office roof decks. Climate control for the manufacturing area is provided by an AET solar heating system which works in tandem with two LPG Amana Command Aire 80s for back up. Office space heating is supplied by a warm forced-air system by US Solar Corporation which utilizes a 320-square-foot solar array with a 1,000-gallon storage tank. Circulation is powered by a Siemens Solar Pro photovoltaic array and the thermal system also provides solar hot water for the manufacturing process.

  16. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... new range for instantaneous electric water heaters based on data submitted by industry. \\10\\ 77 FR... CFR Part 305 Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Energy Labeling Rule) AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission'')....

  17. Development of an Eco-Friendly Electrical Discharge Machine (E-EDM) Using TRIZ Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreebalaji, V. S.; Saravanan, R.

    Electrical Discharge Machine (EDM) is one of the non-traditional machining processes. EDM process is based on thermoelectric energy between the work and an electrode. A pulse discharge occurs in a small gap between the work piece and the electrode and removes the unwanted material from the parent metal through melting and vaporization. The electrode and the work piece must have an electrical conductivity in order to generate the spark. Dielectric fluid acts as a spark conductor, concentrating the energy to a very narrow region. There are various types of products can be produced and finished using EDM such as Moulds, Dies, Parts of Aerodynamics, Automotives and Surgical components. This research work reveals how an Eco friendly EDM (E-EDM) can be modeled to replace die electric fluid and introducing ozonised oxygen in to EDM to eliminate harmful effects generated while machining by using dielectric, to make pollution free machining environment through a new design of EEDM using TRIZ (a Russian acronym for Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) approach, since Eco friendly design is the need of the hour.

  18. Transmutation of Isotopes --- Ecological and Energy Production Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudowski, Waclaw

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes principles of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Wastes (ATW) and gives some flavour of the most important topics which are today under investigations in many countries. An assessment of the potential impact of ATW on a future of nuclear energy is also given. Nuclear reactors based on self-sustained fission reactions --- after spectacular development in fifties and sixties, that resulted in deployment of over 400 power reactors --- are wrestling today more with public acceptance than with irresolvable technological problems. In a whole spectrum of reasons which resulted in today's opposition against nuclear power few of them are very relevant for the nuclear physics community and they arose from the fact that development of nuclear power had been handed over to the nuclear engineers and technicians with some generically unresolved problems, which should have been solved properly by nuclear scientists. In a certain degree of simplification one can say, that most of the problems originate from very specific features of a fission phenomenon: self-sustained chain reaction in fissile materials and very strong radioactivity of fission products and very long half-life of some of the fission and activation products. And just this enormous concentration of radioactive fission products in the reactor core is the main problem of managing nuclear reactors: it requires unconditional guarantee for the reactor core integrity in order to avoid radioactive contamination of the environment; it creates problems to handle decay heat in the reactor core and finally it makes handling and/or disposal of spent fuel almost a philosophical issue, due to unimaginable long time scales of radioactive decay of some isotopes. A lot can be done to improve the design of conventional nuclear reactors (like Light Water Reactors); new, better reactors can be designed but it seems today very improbable to expect any radical change in the public perception of conventional

  19. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinne, A.; Morrison, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Photovoltaics is subject of an extensive technology assessment in terms of its net energy potential as an alternate energy source. Reduction of quartzite pebbles, refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building are evaluated for energy expenditure compared to direct, indirect, and overhead energies.

  20. Solar and wind energy utilization in broiler production

    SciTech Connect

    Brinsfield, R.B.; Yaramanoglu, M.; Wheaton, F.

    1984-01-01

    Available solar and wind energy and both the electrical and thermal energy demand of a typical broiler facility were mathematically modeled based on 10 years of weather data for Salisbury, Maryland. The available energy was then compared with the broiler facility demands as a means of sizing solar and wind energy collection equipment to meet the demands.

  1. Friends don't let friends eat cookies: effects of restrictive eating norms on consumption among friends.

    PubMed

    Howland, Maryhope; Hunger, Jeffrey M; Mann, Traci

    2012-10-01

    Social norms are thought to be a strong influence over eating, but this hypothesis has only been experimentally tested with groups of strangers, and correlational studies using actual friends lack important controls. We manipulate an eating norm in the laboratory and explore its influence within established friendships. In two studies we randomly assigned groups of three friends to a restrictive norm condition, in which two of the friends were secretly instructed to restrict their intake of appetizing foods, or a control condition, in which the friends were not instructed to restrict their eating. The third friend's consumption was measured while eating with the other two friends and while eating alone. In both studies, participants consumed less food when eating with friends who had been given restricting instructions compared to those who had not been given those instructions. In Study 2, participants who ate with restricting friends also continued to restrict their eating when alone. Experimentally manipulating social norms within established friendships is possible, and these norms can influence consumption in those social groups and carry over into non-social eating situations. These findings may suggest mechanisms through which eating behaviors may spread through social networks, as well as an environmental factor that may be amenable to change.

  2. Dementia-friendly design resource.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Although estimates suggest that, on average, some 30 per cent of all patients in general acute medical wards may have some form of dementia, Stirling University's Dementia Services Development Centre (DSDC), one of the leading international knowledge centres working to improve the lives of dementia sufferers, says progress in designing healthcare facilities that address such patients' needs has been 'patchy at best'. With the number of individuals living with dementia expected to double in the next 25 years, the DSDC has recently worked with Edinburgh-based architects, Burnett Pollock Associates, to develop an online resource that clearly illustrates, via 15 simulated 'dementia-friendly' healthcare 'spaces', some of the key principles to consider when designing effectively for this fast-growing group. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, attended the launch of the so-called 'Virtual Hospital'.

  3. Dementia-friendly design resource.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Although estimates suggest that, on average, some 30 per cent of all patients in general acute medical wards may have some form of dementia, Stirling University's Dementia Services Development Centre (DSDC), one of the leading international knowledge centres working to improve the lives of dementia sufferers, says progress in designing healthcare facilities that address such patients' needs has been 'patchy at best'. With the number of individuals living with dementia expected to double in the next 25 years, the DSDC has recently worked with Edinburgh-based architects, Burnett Pollock Associates, to develop an online resource that clearly illustrates, via 15 simulated 'dementia-friendly' healthcare 'spaces', some of the key principles to consider when designing effectively for this fast-growing group. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, attended the launch of the so-called 'Virtual Hospital'. PMID:24620491

  4. Synchronous identification of friendly targets

    SciTech Connect

    Telle, John M.; Roger, Stutz A.

    1998-01-01

    A synchronous communication targeting system for use in battle. The present invention includes a transceiver having a stabilizing oscillator, a synchronous amplifier and an omnidirectional receiver, all in electrical communication with each other. A remotely located beacon is attached to a blackbody radiation source and has an amplitude modulator in electrical communication with a optical source. The beacon's amplitude modulator is set so that the optical source transmits radiation frequency at approximately the same or lower amplitude than that of the blackbody radiation source to which the beacon is attached. The receiver from the transceiver is adapted to receive frequencies approximately at or below blackbody radiation signals and sends such signals to the synchronous amplifier. The synchronous amplifier then rectifies and amplifies those signals which correspond to the predetermined frequency to therefore identify whether the blackbody radiation source is friendly or not.

  5. Good Agreements Make Good Friends

    PubMed Central

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Santos, Francisco C.; Lenaerts, Tom

    2013-01-01

    When starting a new collaborative endeavor, it pays to establish upfront how strongly your partner commits to the common goal and what compensation can be expected in case the collaboration is violated. Diverse examples in biological and social contexts have demonstrated the pervasiveness of making prior agreements on posterior compensations, suggesting that this behavior could have been shaped by natural selection. Here, we analyze the evolutionary relevance of such a commitment strategy and relate it to the costly punishment strategy, where no prior agreements are made. We show that when the cost of arranging a commitment deal lies within certain limits, substantial levels of cooperation can be achieved. Moreover, these levels are higher than that achieved by simple costly punishment, especially when one insists on sharing the arrangement cost. Not only do we show that good agreements make good friends, agreements based on shared costs result in even better outcomes. PMID:24045873

  6. Full PWA Report: An Assessment of Energy, Waste, and Productivity Improvements for North Star Steel Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    North Star Steel's Wilton, Iowa plant (NSSI) was awarded a subcontract through a competitive process to use Department of Energy/OIT funding to examine potential processes and technologies that could save energy, reduce waste, and increase productivity.

  7. A Summary of Environmentally Friendly Turbine Design Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Odeh, Mufeed

    1999-07-01

    The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program (AHTS) was created in 1994 by the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Hydropower Research Foundation. The Program’s main goal is to develop “environmentally friendly” hydropower turbines. The Program’s first accomplishment was the development of conceptual designs of new environmentally friendly turbines. In order to do so, two contractors were competitively selected. The ARL/NREC team of engineers and biologists provided a conceptual design for a new turbine runner*. The new runner has the potential to generate hydroelectricity at close to 90% efficiency. The Voith team produced new fish-friendly design criteria for Kaplan and Francis turbines that can be incorporated in units during rehabilitation projects or in new hydroelectric facilities**. These include the use of advanced plant operation, minimum gap runners, placement of wicket gates behind stay vanes, among others. The Voith team will also provide design criteria on aerating Francis turbines to increase dissolved oxygen content. Detailed reviews of the available literature on fish mortality studies, causation of injuries to fish, and available biological design criteria that would assist in the design of fish-friendly turbines were performed. This review identified a need for more biological studies in order to develop performance criteria to assist turbine manufacturers in designing a more fish-friendly turbine.

  8. 77 FR 49701 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... to estimating the FFC energy and emission impacts of alternative energy conservation standards levels... / Friday, August 17, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 430 and 431 RIN 1904-AC24 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and...

  9. Energy Productivity: Key to Environmental Protection and Economic Progress. Worldwatch Paper 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, William U.

    This report examines various topics and issues related to worldwide energy productivity and energy conservation. Following an introduction, these issues are considered in 6 sections focusing on: (1) energy demand projections (with data on 1982 energy consumption in selected countries); (2) continued industrial efficiency gains (including data on…

  10. Bioethanol production from dedicated energy crops and residues in Arkansas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, one of the major technological goals is cost-effective lignocellulosic ethanol production from biomass feedstocks. Lignocellulosic biomass of five dedicated energy crops and two crops residues were tested for bioethanol production using cellulose solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation...

  11. Old Friends and New Friends: Their Presence at Substance-Use Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesner, Jeff; Fassetta, Erica

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to test whether the presence of new friends at moments of substance-use initiation differs across substances, and whether individuals tend to initiate substance use, across different substances, either with a new friend or with an old friend. Participants were 419 Italian high school students (41% female). Results showed…

  12. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations;

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    DOE Industrial Technologies Program case study describes the savings possible if Commonwealth Aluminum (now Aleris Rolled Products) makes improvements noted in energy assessments at two aluminum mills.

  13. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    DOE Industrial Technologies Program case study describes the savings possible if Commonwealth Aluminum (now Aleris Rolled Products) makes improvements noted in energy assessments at two aluminum mills.

  14. Application of advanced methods for the prognosis of production energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, R.; Witczak, P.; Staiger, B.; Spindler, C.; Hertel, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper, based on a current research project, describes the application of advanced methods that are frequently used in fault-tolerance control and addresses the issue of the prognosis of energy efficiency. Today, the energy a product requires during its operation is the subject of many activities in research and development. However, the energy necessary for the production of goods is very often not analysed in comparable depth. In the field of electronics, studies come to the conclusion that about 80% of the total energy used by a product is from its production [1]. The energy consumption in production is determined very early in the product development process by designers and engineers, for example through selection of raw materials, explicit and implicit requirements concerning the manufacturing and assembly processes, or through decisions concerning the product architecture. Today, developers and engineers have at their disposal manifold design and simulation tools which can help to predict the energy consumption during operation relatively accurately. In contrast, tools with the objective to predict the energy consumption in production and disposal are not available. This paper aims to present an explorative study of the use of methods such as Fuzzy Logic to predict the production energy consumption early in the product development process.

  15. "Supergreen" Renewables: Integration of Mineral Weathering Into Renewable Energy Production for Air CO2 Removal and Storage as Ocean Alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.; Carroll, S.; Ren, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    Excess planetary CO2 and accompanying ocean acidification are naturally mitigated on geologic time scales via mineral weathering. Here, CO2 acidifies the hydrosphere, which then slowly reacts with silicate and carbonate minerals to produce dissolved bicarbonates that are ultimately delivered to the ocean. This alkalinity not only provides long-term sequestration of the excess atmospheric carbon, but it also chemically counters the effects of ocean acidification by stabilizing or raising pH and carbonate saturation state, thus helping rebalance ocean chemistry and preserving marine ecosystems. Recent research has demonstrated ways of greatly accelerating this process by its integration into energy systems. Specifically, it has been shown (1) that some 80% of the CO2 in a waste gas stream can be spontaneously converted to stable, seawater mineral bicarbonate in the presence of a common carbonate mineral - limestone. This can allow removal of CO2 from biomass combustion and bio-energy production while generating beneficial ocean alkalinity, providing a potentially cheaper and more environmentally friendly negative-CO2-emissions alternative to BECCS. It has also been demonstrated that strong acids anodically produced in a standard saline water electrolysis cell in the formation of H2 can be reacted with carbonate or silicate minerals to generate strong base solutions. These solutions are highly absorptive of air CO2, converting it to mineral bicarbonate in solution. When such electrochemical cells are powered by non-fossil energy (e.g. electricity from wind, solar, tidal, biomass, geothermal, etc. energy sources), the system generates H2 that is strongly CO2-emissions-negative, while producing beneficial marine alkalinity (2-4). The preceding systems therefore point the way toward renewable energy production that, when tightly coupled to geochemical mitigation of CO2 and formation of natural ocean "antacids", forms a high capacity, negative-CO2-emissions, "supergreen

  16. The Good Friends Volunteer Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Richard

    This evaluation report relates data pertaining to the 1975-76 school year. The Good Friends Volunteer Program was established in 1974. During the 1975-76 school year, over 3,000 volunteers in 110 schools participated in the Good Friends program. Duties included giving individual attention to students; enriching programs in such areas as music,…

  17. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  18. An assessment of energy use efficiency and sensitivity analysis of inputs in rice paddy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Rafiee, S.; Jafari, A.; Keyhani, A.

    2012-04-01

    This research studies the energy balance between the inputs and the output and estimation of inputs sensitivity for paddy production in Golestan province, Iran. The sensitivity of energy inputs was estimated using the marginal physical productivity (MPP) method and partial regression coefficients on rice yield. The results indicated that total energy inputs were found to be 29668 MJ ha-1. The results showed that among energy inputs, the share of chemical fertilizers was highest with 39% followed by water for irrigation with 32%. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were found to be 2.5 and 0.2 ¬kg MJ-1, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicates that highest MPP was for machinery energy, followed by human labour energy. The MPP estimated for biocides energy was found negative, indicating that biocides energy consumption is high in paddy production. It is suggested that specific policy is to be taken to increase yield by raising partial productivity of energy inputs without depending on mainly non-renewable energy sources such as chemical fertilizers and biocides that create environmental risk problems. Keywords:Energy input, Sensitivity analysis, Chemical fertilizers, Paddy

  19. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

  20. Energy balance of biofuel production from biological conversion of crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valéro, Jose R

    2016-04-01

    Crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, has gained significant attention as a carbon source for biofuel production. This study evaluated the energy balance of biodiesel, hydrogen, biogas, and ethanol production from 3.48 million L of crude glycerol (80% w/v). The conversion efficiency (energy output divided by energy invested) was 1.16, 0.22, 0.27, and 0.40 for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, biogas, and ethanol respectively. It was found that the use of crude glycerol for biodiesel production was an energy gain process, with a positive energy balance and conversion efficiency of greater than 1. The energy balance revealed a net energy gain of 5226 GJ per 1 million kg biodiesel produced. Production of hydrogen, biogas and ethanol from crude glycerol were energy loss processes. Therefore, the conversion of crude glycerol to lipids and subsequently to biodiesel is suggested to be a better option compared to hydrogen, biogas, or ethanol production with respect to energy balance.

  1. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for U.S. EPA Energy Star Labeled Products: Expanded Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard

    2009-09-24

    This report provides a top-level summary of national savings achieved by the Energy Star voluntary product labeling program. To best quantify and analyze savings for all products, we developed a bottom-up product-based model. Each Energy Star product type is characterized by product-specific inputs that result in a product savings estimate. Our results show that through 2007, U.S. EPA Energy Star labeled products saved 5.5 Quads of primary energy and avoided 100 MtC of emissions. Although Energy Star-labeled products encompass over forty product types, only five of those product types accounted for 65percent of all Energy Star carbon reductions achieved to date, including (listed in order of savings magnitude)monitors, printers, residential light fixtures, televisions, and furnaces. The forecast shows that U.S. EPA?s program is expected to save 12.2 Quads of primary energy and avoid 215 MtC of emissions over the period of 2008?2015.

  2. Electric energy costs and firm productivity in the countries of the Pacific Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Anamaria

    This paper explores the relation between energy as an input of production and firm-level productivity for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, all country members of the Pacific Alliance economic bloc. The empirical literature, has explored the impact of infrastructure on productivity; however there is limited analysis on the impact of particular infrastructure variables, such as energy, on productivity at the firm level in Latin America. Therefore, this study conducts a quantitative assessment of the responsiveness of productivity to energy cost and quality for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. For this, the empirical strategy is to estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function using the World Bank's Enterprise Survey to obtain comparable measures of output and inputs of production. This approach provides estimates of input factor elasticities for all of the factors of production including energy. The results indicate that electric energy costs explain cross-country differences in firm level productivity. For the particular case of Colombia, the country exhibits the lowest capital and labor productivity of the PA, and firm output is highly responsive to changes in energy use. As a result, the evidence suggests that policies reducing electric energy costs are an efficient alternative to increase firm performance, particularly in the case of Colombia.

  3. Friends Don’t Let Friends Eat Cookies: Effects of Restrictive Eating Norms on Consumption Among Friends

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Maryhope; Hunger, Jeffrey; Mann, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Social norms are thought to be a strong influence over eating, but this hypothesis has only been experimentally tested with groups of strangers, and correlational studies using actual friends lack important controls. We manipulate an eating norm in the laboratory and explore its influence within established friendships. In two studies we randomly assigned groups of three friends to a restrictive norm condition, in which two of the friends were secretly instructed to restrict their intake of appetizing foods, or a control condition, in which the friends were not instructed to restrict their eating. The third friend’s consumption was measured while eating with the other two friends and while eating alone. In both studies, participants consumed less food when eating with friends who had been given restricting instructions compared to those who had not been given those instructions. In Study 2, participants who ate with restricting friends also continued to restrict their eating when alone. Experimentally manipulating social norms within established friendships is possible, and these norms can influence consumption in those social groups and carry over into non-social eating situations. These findings may suggest mechanisms through which eating behaviors may spread through social networks, as well as an environmental factor that may be amenable to change. PMID:22771755

  4. Optimal control strategies for hydrogen production when coupling solid oxide electrolysers with intermittent renewable energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qiong; Adjiman, Claire S.; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2014-12-01

    The penetration of intermittent renewable energies requires the development of energy storage technologies. High temperature electrolysis using solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs) as a potential energy storage technology, provides the prospect of a cost-effective and energy efficient route to clean hydrogen production. The development of optimal control strategies when SOEC systems are coupled with intermittent renewable energies is discussed. Hydrogen production is examined in relation to energy consumption. Control strategies considered include maximizing hydrogen production, minimizing SOEC energy consumption and minimizing compressor energy consumption. Optimal control trajectories of the operating variables over a given period of time show feasible control for the chosen situations. Temperature control of the SOEC stack is ensured via constraints on the overall temperature difference across the cell and the local temperature gradient within the SOEC stack, to link materials properties with system performance; these constraints are successfully managed. The relative merits of the optimal control strategies are analyzed.

  5. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N). This...

  6. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Text: Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N)...

  7. In vitro hydrogen production--using energy from the sun.

    PubMed

    Krassen, Henning; Ott, Sascha; Heberle, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Using solar energy to produce molecular hydrogen is a promising way to supply the civilization with clean energy. Nature provides the key components to collect solar energy as well as to reduce protons, scientists have developed mimics of these enzymatic centers and also found new ways to catalyze the same reactions. This perspective article surveys the different components and in particular the various coupling possibilities of a light sensitizer and catalyst. Pros and cons are discussed.

  8. In vitro hydrogen production--using energy from the sun.

    PubMed

    Krassen, Henning; Ott, Sascha; Heberle, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Using solar energy to produce molecular hydrogen is a promising way to supply the civilization with clean energy. Nature provides the key components to collect solar energy as well as to reduce protons, scientists have developed mimics of these enzymatic centers and also found new ways to catalyze the same reactions. This perspective article surveys the different components and in particular the various coupling possibilities of a light sensitizer and catalyst. Pros and cons are discussed. PMID:21103567

  9. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Morrison, A.; Anderson, J.; Clifford, A.; Lafky, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing photovoltaic solar array modules by the use of energy obtained from similar or identical photovoltaic sources are presented. The primary objective of this investigation was the characterization of the energy requirements of current and developing technologies which comprise the photovoltaic field. For cross-checking the energies of prevailing technologies data were also used and the wide-range assessment of alternative technologies included different refinement methods, various ways of producing light sheets, semicrystalline cells, etc. Energy data are utilized to model the behavior of a future solar breeder plant under various operational conditions.

  10. QCD Processes and Hadron Production in High Energy ELECTRON(+) - Annihilation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Philip Nicholas

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. A study is presented of general features of the reaction e^+e^- to hadrons. The data are interpreted in terms of current models of the underlying QCD and hadronisation processes. These models are outlined in detail and their predictions are compared with most of the available experimental data collected between 12.0 and 46.8 GeV mean centre of mass energies. The model arbitrary parameters were optimised to give a generally good description of the global properties of the large hadronic event sample accumulated by the TASSO detector at 35 GeV: The Lund O(alpha_sp {s}{2}) model describes properties in the event plane very well, but is deficient in the properties transverse to this plane. The Webber LLA model gives a good description of the transverse observables, but overestimates those quantities in the plane. The Lund LLA + O( alpha_{s}) model provides a good representation of the transverse properties but underestimates some quantities in the plane, though the discrepancy is much smaller than for the LLA model. The evolution of the observables as a function of c.m. energy between 12.0 and 41.5 GeV is generally well described, the Lund LLA + O(alpha_ {s}) model representing the data best. It is concluded that this model is successful in reproducing accurately most features of the data because it includes QCD calculations of both hard and multiple soft gluon emission processes. The model predictions are extended up to W = 200 GeV, where the two parton cascade models give similar predictions of the event properties which differ significantly from those of the O(alpha_sp{s} {2}) model. Top quark production is simulated at W = 200 GeV for a top mass of 60 GeV/c^2 and the distributions of thrust, aplanarity, p_ {Tin}, p_{Tout} and rapidity are found to be most sensitive to its presence. The data at 35 GeV are also analysed in terms of explicit multijet final states and compared with the QCD

  11. Production of charm mesons by high-energy neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Shipbaugh, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The charmed mesons ED{sup *{plus minus}}, D{sup 0}, and D{sub s}{sup {plus minus}} have been observed in neutron-nucleus collisions at the FNAL Tevatron. A sample of 134 {plus minus} 19 events was investigated in the decay mode D{sup *{plus minus}} {yields} D{sup 0} {pi}{sup {plus minus}} with the subsequent decay mode D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup {minus}}. The cross section per nucleon for D{sup *}{plus minus}, at most probable energy {radical}s = 35 GeV, was measured to be: d{sigma}(xf)/dxf {center dot} BR = 2.11 {plus minus} .43({plus minus}63){mu}b/nucleon for 0.0 < x{sub f} < 0.14 (x{sub f} = .07). The branching ratio (BR) is defined as: BR {identical to} BR(D{sup *} {yields} D{sub {pi}}) {times} BR(D {yields} K{sup +}K{sup {minus}}). The dependence of the cross section per nucleus on number of nucleons in the target was fit to a form A{sup {alpha}} and it was found that {alpha} = .96 {plus minus} .17. A sample of 64 {plus minus} 16 D{sub s}{sup {plus minus}} events was investigated for the decay D{sub s}{sup {plus minus}} {yields} {phi}{pi}{sup {plus minus}}. The differential cross section for D{sub s}{sup {plus minus}} production averaged over the particle and antiparticle states is: BR {center dot} {1/2} d{sigma}D{sub s}{sup +}/dxf + d{sigma}(D{sub s}{sup {minus}}/dxf) = 2.8 {plus minus} 0.80 {plus minus} .86 {mu}b/nucleon at x{sub f} = 0.175 where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. The branching fraction is defined as BR {identical to} BR(D{sub s} {yields} {phi}{pi}), and a linear A dependence was assumed.

  12. Production of charm mesons by high energy neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Shipbaugh, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The charmed mesons D/sup /plus minus//, D/sup 0/, and D/sub s//sup /plus minus//, have been observed in neutron-nucleus collisions at the FNAL Tevatron. A sample of 134 /plus minus/ 19 events as investigated in the decay D/sup /plus minus// /yields/ D/sup 0//pi//sup /plus minus// with the subsequent decay mode D/sup 0/ /yields/ K/sup +/K/sup /minus//. The cross section per nucleon for D/sup /plus minus//, at most probable energy /radical/s = 35 GeV, was measured to be 2.11 /plus minus/ .43 (plusreverse arrowminus/.63)/mu/b/nucleon for 0.0 < x/sub f/ < 0.14 (/bar x//sub f/ = .07). The branching ratio (BR) is defined as: BR /identicalreverse arrowto/ Br(D /yields/ D/pi/) /times/ BR(D /yields/ K/sup +/K/sup /minus//). The dependence of the cross section per nucleus on number of nucleons in target was fit to a form A /sup /alpha// and it was found that /alpha/ = .96 /plusreverse arrowminus/ .17. A sample of 64 /plusreverse arrowminus/ 16 D/sub s//sup /plus minus// events was investigates for the decay D/sub s//sup /plus minus// /yields/ /phi//pi//sup /plus minus//. The differential cross section for D/sub s//sup /plus minus// production averaged over the particle and antiparticle states is: BR.(1/2)(d/sigma/(D/sub s//sup +/)/dx/sub f/ + d/sigma/(D/sub s//sup /minus//) = 2.85 /plusreverse arrowminus/ 0.80 /plusreverse arrowminus/ .86 /mu/b/nucleon at x/sub f/ = 0.175 where the first errors is statistical and the second error is systematic. The branching fraction is defined as BR /equivalentreverse arrowto/ BR(D/sub s/ /yields/ /phi//pi/), and a linear A dependence was assumed. An estimate of relative cross section is: 0.19 /plusreverse arrowminus/ 0.09 at x/sub f/ = 0. 36 refs., 43 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Sustainability and Energy Development: Influences of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Options on Water Use in Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    D. Craig Cooper; Gerald Sehlke

    2012-01-01

    Climate change mitigation strategies cannot be evaluated solely in terms of energy cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Maintaining GHGs at a 'safe' level will require fundamental change in the way we approach energy production, and a number of environmental, economic, and societal factors will come into play. Water is an essential component of energy production, and water resource constraints (e.g., insufficient supplies and competing ecological and anthropogenic needs) will limit our options for producing energy and for reducing GHG emissions. This study evaluates these potential constraints from a global perspective by revisiting the 'climate wedges' proposal of Pacala and Sokolow [1], and evaluating the potential water impacts of the 'wedges' associated with energy production. Results indicate that there is a range of water impacts, with some options reducing water demand while others increase water demand. Mitigation options that improve energy conversion and end-use efficiency have the greatest potential for reducing water resources impacts. These options provide 'win-win-win' scenarios for reducing GHG emissions, lowering energy costs and reducing water demand. Thet may merit higher priority than alternative options that emphasize deploying new low-carbon energy facilities or modifying existing facilities with energy intensive GHG mitigation technologies to reduce GHG emissions. While the latter can reduce GHG emissions, they will typically increase energy costs and water impacts.

  14. Energy requirements for metals production: comparison between ocean nodules and land-based resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A methodology was developed to compare the energy requirements of technologies for production of metals from ocean nodules with production of same metals from land based ores using conventional processes. The energy requirements for production of copper, nickel, cobalt, and manganese from ocean nodules are based on an ocean mining operation of 3 million tons per year of dry nodules. A linear relationship exists between the amount of nodules processed and the total energy so that the energy can be easily converted to other processing rates if desired.

  15. 77 FR 12280 - Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro 20, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro... tiebreaker. Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII, Project No. 14138-000. 2. Qualified Hydro 20, LLC, Project No. 14135-000. 3. Riverbank Hydro No. 1,...

  16. 77 FR 9230 - Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro 20, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; Qualified Hydro... on the Tombigbee River, in Monroe County, Mississippi. The applications were filed by Riverbank Hydro No. 1, LLC for Project No. 14131-000, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII for Project No. 14138- 000,...

  17. 77 FR 10741 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII, BOST2, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 21, LLC, FFP Project 96, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII, BOST2, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 21, LLC..., in Greene and Hale counties, Alabama. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XII for Project No. 14260-000, BOST2, LLC for Project No. 14264-000, Riverbank Hydro No. 21, LLC for Project...

  18. 77 FR 13317 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro 21, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro... tiebreaker. Based on the drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI: Project No. 14137-000. 2. Qualified Hydro 21, LLC: Project No. 14134-000. 3. Riverbank Hydro No. 2,...

  19. 76 FR 4892 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, FFP Missouri 3, LLC, Allegheny 3 Hydro, LLC, Three Rivers Hydro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, FFP Missouri 3, LLC, Allegheny 3 Hydro, LLC, Three Rivers Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing January 20, 2011. On May 18, 2010..., Pennsylvania.\\1\\ The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIX, for Project No. 13740-000,...

  20. 76 FR 74779 - SV Hydro LLC; Coffeeville LLC; FFP Project 99 LLC; Lock Hydro Friends Fund XIV; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission SV Hydro LLC; Coffeeville LLC; FFP Project 99 LLC; Lock Hydro Friends Fund..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On October 3, 2011, SV Hydro LLC (SV Hydro), Coffeeville LLC (Coffeeville), FFP Project 99 LLC (FFP 99), and Lock Hydro Friends Fund XIV (Lock Hydro)...

  1. 76 FR 65720 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice Announcing..., Minnesota, and Buffalo County, Wisconsin.\\1\\ The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV for Project No. 14136 and Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC, for Project No. 14139. \\1\\ The applications...

  2. 77 FR 13317 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 25, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for Preliminary Permit...+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII: Project No. 14261-000. 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 25, LLC: Project No....

  3. 77 FR 11530 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro 21, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Qualified Hydro... by Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC for Project No. 14130-000, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI for Project No. 14137-000, and Qualified Hydro 21, LLC for Project No. 14134-000. \\1\\ Under the...

  4. 77 FR 9916 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC; Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI; Notice... Lincoln County and Jefferson County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by Riverbank Hydro No. 2, LLC for Project No. 14130-000 and Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI for Project No. 14137-000. \\1\\ Under...

  5. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII, FFP Project 92, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 24, LLC; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII, FFP Project 92, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 24... Madison Counties, Kentucky. The applications were filed by Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund VIII for Project No. 14262-000, FFP Project 92, LLC for Project No. 14276-000, and Riverbank Hydro No. 24, LLC for Project...

  6. PARTON SATURATION, PRODUCTION, AND EQUILIBRATION IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    SciTech Connect

    VENUGOPALAN,R.

    1999-03-20

    Deeply inelastic scattering of electrons off nuclei can determine whether parton distributions saturate at HERA energies. If so, this phenomenon will also tell us a great deal about how particles are produced, and whether they equilibrate, in high energy nuclear collisions.

  7. Factors that promote renewable energy production in U.S. states: A fixed effect estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwokeji, Ekwuniru Chika

    2011-12-01

    The unsustainability of conventional energy sources and its environmental destructions are well-known; the sustainability of renewable energy and its environmental benefits are also well-documented. The United States in common with many other countries is increasingly focused on developing renewable energy. At first, the pursuit of this strategy in U.S. was seen more as a way to reduce dependence on oil importation. With increased awareness of environmental challenges resulting from the consumption and production of conventional energy, an additional strategy for the continued interest in renewable energy development in the United States was as a result of its potential to ameliorate environmental problems. The U.S. government are utilizing policy measures and dedicating funding to encourage the development of renewable energy technologies. Beside government policies, there are contextual factors that also affect renewable energy production. These include, but not limited to population growth, energy demand, economic growth, and public acceptance. Given the pressing need to develop a sustainable energy, this study embarks on an outcome assessment of the nature of relationship of renewable energy policy incentives, and selected contextual factors on renewable energy production in the United States. The policy incentive evaluated in this study is the Renewable Energy Production Incentive program. The contextual factors evaluated in this study are energy consumption, population growth, employment, and poverty. Understanding the contextual factors within which policies are placed is essential to defining the most appropriate policy features. The methodological approach to the study is quantitative, using panel data from 1976 to 2007. The study tested two hypotheses using fixed effect estimation with robust standard error as a statistical model. Statistical analyses reveal several interesting results which lend support that besides policy incentives, contextual factors

  8. Energy inputs and outputs of fuel-alcohol production. Appendices A and B. Ethanol from grain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Estimates are developed of present energy requirements for producing five grains (corn, grain, sorghum, winter wheat, barley and oats) and of energy requirements for increasing production of two of these grains (corn and grain sorghum). Brief discussions are also included of the overall potential for increasing crop land and for increasing grain production for conversion to ethanol. The energy and materials consumption of both wet and dry milling technologies are considered for the conversion of grain to ethanol.

  9. 76 FR 12421 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... be recertified as a new basic model if modifications impact the energy or water characteristics by a... systematically the applicable energy and water conservation standards for covered products and covered equipment and provide for more accurate, comprehensive information about the energy and water...

  10. 48 CFR 970.2307 - Contracting for Environmentally Preferable and Energy-Efficient Products and Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307 Contracting for Environmentally Preferable and Energy-Efficient... Environmentally Preferable and Energy-Efficient Products and Services. 970.2307 Section 970.2307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT...

  11. 76 FR 69147 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination To Treat Non-Compressor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... CONTACT: Mr. Lucas Adin, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...: (202) 287-1317. Email: Lucas.Adin@ee.doe.gov . In the Office of General Counsel, contact Mr. Michael... refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers (collectively, refrigeration products). See 76 FR 57516...

  12. High protein diet maintains glucose production during exercise-induced energy deficit: a controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP) to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metaboli...

  13. Energy star product specification development framework: Using data and analysis to make program decisions

    SciTech Connect

    McWhinney, Marla; Fanara, Andrew; Clark, Robin; Hershberg, Craig; Schmeltz, Rachel; Roberson, Judy

    2003-09-12

    The Product Development Team (PD) in the US Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR Labeling Program fuels the long-term market transformation process by delivering new specifications. PD's goal is to expand the reach and visibility of ENERGY STAR as well as the market for new energy-efficient products. Since 2000, PD has launched nine new ENERGY STAR specifications and continues to evaluate new program opportunities. To evaluate the ENERGY STAR carbon savings potential for a diverse group of products, PD prepared a framework for developing new and updating existing specifications that rationalizes new product opportunities and draws upon the expertise and resources of other stakeholders, including manufacturers, utilities, environmental groups and other government agencies. By systematically reviewing the potential of proposed product areas, PD makes informed decisions as to whether or not to proceed with developing a specification. In support of this strategy, PD ensures that new product specifications are consistent with the ENERGY STAR guidelines and that these guidelines are effectively communicated to stakeholders during the product development process. To date, the framework has been successful in providing consistent guidance on collecting the necessary information on which to base sound program decisions. Through the application of this framework, PD increasingly recognizes that each industry has unique market and product characteristics that can require reconciliation with the ENERGY STAR guidelines. The new framework allows PD to identify where reconciliation is needed to justify program decisions.

  14. Future U.S. water consumption : The role of energy production.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates how meeting domestic energy production targets for both fossil and renewable fuels may affect future water demand. It combines projections of energy production developed by the U.S. Department of Energy with estimates of water consumption on a per-unit basis (water-consumption coefficients) for coal, oil, gas, and biofuels production, to estimate and compare the domestic freshwater consumed. Although total domestic freshwater consumption is expected to increase by nearly 7% between 2005 and 2030, water consumed for energy production is expected to increase by nearly 70%, and water consumed for biofuels (biodiesel and ethanol) production is expected to increase by almost 250%. By 2030, water consumed in the production of biofuels is projected to account for nearly half of the total amount of water consumed in the production of all energy fuels. Most of this is for irrigation, and the West North Central Region is projected to consume most of this water in 2030. These findings identify an important potential future conflict between renewable energy production and water availability that warrants further investigation and action to ensure that future domestic energy demand can be met in an economically efficient and environmentally sustainable manner.

  15. Isomer Research: Energy Release Validation, Production, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J A; Rundberg, B

    2003-04-10

    The goal of this applied nuclear isomer research program is the search for, discovery of, and practical application of a new type of high energy density material (HEDM). Nuclear isomers could yield an energy source with a specific energy as much as a hundred thousand times as great as that of chemical fuels. There would be enormous payoffs to the Department of Energy and to the country as a whole if such energy sources could be identified and applied to a range of civilian and defense applications. Despite the potential payoff, efforts in applied isomer research have been rather limited and sporadic. Basic research on nuclear isomers dates back to their discovery in 1935 with occasional hints to tantalize interest in HEDM. In most cases, these hints were refuted following careful examination by other groups. The isomer research area is rich with possibilities: we prioritized several areas likely to be the most rewarding and fruitful for initial experimental investigation because these areas directly bear on important issues: Can the energy stored in nuclear isomers be released on demand? Is the size of the atomic-nuclear mixing matrix element large enough to be useful? Under what circumstances? Can we initiate quantal collective release of isomeric energy from a Moessbauer crystal?

  16. View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, Benjamin Carr Farm in distance through the trees - Friends' Burial Ground, Eldred & Beacon Avenues, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Other Petroleum Products Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The other petroleum product consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. consumption forecasts for 6 petroleum product categories: asphalt and road oil, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, refinery still gas, unfinished oils, and other miscvellaneous products

  18. 75 FR 66360 - Transportation and Energy Products and Services Trade Mission; Doha, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... exceed five percent.\\1\\ U.S. business opportunities also exist in alternative energy products and... likely increase the need for alternative energy products and services. \\1\\ World Trade Organization... to opportunities in the energy sector in Qatar involve alternative energy products and...

  19. Energy and precious fuels requirements of fuel alcohol production. Volume 2, appendices A and B: Ethanol from grain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinblatt, H.; Reddy, T. S.; Turhollow, A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Energy currently used in grain production, the effect of ethanol production on agricultural energy consumption, energy credits for ethanol by-products, and land availability and the potential for obtaining ethanol from grain are discussed. Dry milling, wet milling, sensitivity analysis, potential for reduced energy consumption are also discussed.

  20. Combined cycle energy production: Overview of worldwide utilization and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, M.

    1982-06-01

    The worldwide distribution of combined cycle generators using simple recuperation, supercharged boilers, post combustion, and parallel combustion and complex cycles is summarized. Clean energy, fuel oil, coal, fluidized bed, and gasification based processes are discussed. With clean energy systems, up to 46% efficiency is achieved using a single recuperation - double evaporation cycle. Using gas turbine output to feed a higher power steam turbine is also economically attractive, but no one system is an obvious choice. Around 100 combined generators are now operating.

  1. "The Friendly Clergy": Characteristics and Referral.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.; McNally, Christopher J.

    1998-01-01

    Among the recommendations possible in assessment of clients' religious beliefs is that of referral to the "friendly clergy." Delineates guidelines for referral as well as ideal characteristics of that spiritual profession. (Author)

  2. Making friends for hydro: Providing recreational opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, J.M. )

    1991-07-01

    One northeastern U.S. utility has been forming friendly ties with the public, offering recreation amenities at its hydro projects. As a result, the company has a strong base of public support as it enters relicensing.

  3. Environmentally friendly preparation of metal nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter summarizes the “state of the art” in the exploitation of various environmentally-friendly synthesis approaches, reaction precursors and conditions to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for a vast variety of purposes.

  4. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  5. Development of Energy Models for Production Systems and Processes to Inform Environmentally Benign Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Elsayed, Nancy

    Between 2008 and 2035 global energy demand is expected to grow by 53%. While most industry-level analyses of manufacturing in the United States (U.S.) have traditionally focused on high energy consumers such as the petroleum, chemical, paper, primary metal, and food sectors, the remaining sectors account for the majority of establishments in the U.S. Specifically, of the establishments participating in the Energy Information Administration's Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey in 2006, the non-energy intensive" sectors still consumed 4*109 GJ of energy, i.e., one-quarter of the energy consumed by the manufacturing sectors, which is enough to power 98 million homes for a year. The increasing use of renewable energy sources and the introduction of energy-efficient technologies in manufacturing operations support the advancement towards a cleaner future, but having a good understanding of how the systems and processes function can reduce the environmental burden even further. To facilitate this, methods are developed to model the energy of manufacturing across three hierarchical levels: production equipment, factory operations, and industry; these methods are used to accurately assess the current state and provide effective recommendations to further reduce energy consumption. First, the energy consumption of production equipment is characterized to provide machine operators and product designers with viable methods to estimate the environmental impact of the manufacturing phase of a product. The energy model of production equipment is tested and found to have an average accuracy of 97% for a product requiring machining with a variable material removal rate profile. However, changing the use of production equipment alone will not result in an optimal solution since machines are part of a larger system. Which machines to use, how to schedule production runs while accounting for idle time, the design of the factory layout to facilitate production, and even the

  6. Quantify the energy and environmental benefits of implementing energy-efficiency measures in China’s iron and steel production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Ding; Chen, Wenying; Xu, Tengfang

    2015-08-21

    As one of the most energy-, emission- and pollution-intensive industries, iron and steel production is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate GHG emissions and to improve air quality, lacking full understanding of the costs and benefits has created barriers against implementing these measures widely. This paper sets out to advance the understanding by addressing the knowledge gap in costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures in iron and steel production. Specifically, we build a new evaluation framework to quantify energy benefits andmore » environmental benefits (i.e., CO2 emission reduction, air-pollutants emission reduction and water savings) associated with 36 energy-efficiency measures. Results show that inclusion of benefits from CO2 and air-pollutants emission reduction affects the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures significantly, while impacts from water-savings benefits are moderate but notable when compared to the effects by considering energy benefits alone. The new information resulted from this study should be used to augment future programs and efforts in reducing energy use and environmental impacts associated with steel production.« less

  7. Quantify the energy and environmental benefits of implementing energy-efficiency measures in China’s iron and steel production

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ding; Chen, Wenying; Xu, Tengfang

    2015-08-21

    As one of the most energy-, emission- and pollution-intensive industries, iron and steel production is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate GHG emissions and to improve air quality, lacking full understanding of the costs and benefits has created barriers against implementing these measures widely. This paper sets out to advance the understanding by addressing the knowledge gap in costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures in iron and steel production. Specifically, we build a new evaluation framework to quantify energy benefits and environmental benefits (i.e., CO2 emission reduction, air-pollutants emission reduction and water savings) associated with 36 energy-efficiency measures. Results show that inclusion of benefits from CO2 and air-pollutants emission reduction affects the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures significantly, while impacts from water-savings benefits are moderate but notable when compared to the effects by considering energy benefits alone. The new information resulted from this study should be used to augment future programs and efforts in reducing energy use and environmental impacts associated with steel production.

  8. Green nanotechnology of trends in future energy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kelvii Wei

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that current fossil fuel usage is unsustainable and associated with greenhouse gas production. The amount of the world's primary energy supply provided by renewable energy technologies is required urgently. Therefore, the relevant technologies such as hydrogen fuel, solar cell, biotechnology based on nanotechnology and the relevant patents for exploiting the future energy for the friendly environment are reviewed. At the same time, it is pointed out that the significantly feasible world's eco-energy for the foreseeable future should not only be realized, but also methods for using the current energy and their by-products more efficiently should be found correspondingly to ensure the minimal environmental impact.

  9. Production of D*+ (2010) mesons by high-energy neutrinos from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Asratian, A.E.; Aderholz, M.; Ammosov, V.V.; Barth, M.; Bingham, H.H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.C.; Ermolov, P.F.; Erofeeva, I.N.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Gapienko, G.S.; Guy, J.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Ivanilov, A.A.; Jain, V.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, M.D.; Kafka, T.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Brussels U., IIHE /CERN /Panjab U. /Fermilab /Hawaii U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /IIT, Chicago /Imperial Coll., London /Moscow, ITEP /Jammu U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Moscow State U. /Oxford U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /Stevens Tech. /Tufts U.

    1997-08-01

    Charged vector D*{sup +}(2010) meson production is studied in a high energy neutrino bubble chamber experiment with mean neutrino energy of 141 GeV. The D*{sup +} are produced in (5.6 {+-} 1.8)% of the neutrino charged current interactions, indicating a steep increase of cross section with energy. The mean fractional hadronic energy of the D*{sup +} meson is 0.55 {+-} 0.06.

  10. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management. PMID:26260540

  11. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management.

  12. Energy and materials flows in the production of liquid and gaseous oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    Liquid and gaseous oxygen is produced in an energy-intensive air separation processo that also generates nitrogen. More than 65% of the cost of oxygen is attributable to energy costs. Energy use and materials flows are analyzed for various air separation methods. Effective approaches to energy and material conservation in air separation plants include efficient removal of contaminants (carbon dioxide and water), centralization of air products user-industries so that large air separation plants are cost-effective and the energy use in transportation is minimized, and increased production of nitrogen. Air separation plants can produce more than three times more nitrogen than oxygen, but present markets demand, at most, only 1.5 times more. Full utlization of liquid and gaseous nitrogen should be encouraged, so that the wasted separation energy is minimized. There are potential markets for nitrogen in, for example, cryogenic separation of metallic and plastic wastes, cryogenic particle size reduction, and production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  13. Life-cycle energy and environmental analysis of bioethanol production from cassava in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Papong, Seksan; Malakul, Pomthong

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the life-cycle energy and environmental assessment was conducted for bioethanol production from cassava in Thailand. The scope covered all stages in the life cycle of bioethanol production including cultivating, chip processing, transportation and bioethanol conversion. The input-output data were collected at plantation sites and ethanol plants which included materials usage, energy consumption, and all emissions. From the energy analysis, the results show that cassava-based bioethanol has a negative net energy value with an energy ratio was less than 1, indicating a net energy loss. For the environmental performance, the results show that throughout the life cycle of bioethanol, the conversion stage contributes most to the environmental impacts which is due to the use of coal for power and steam production in the bioethanol plants. It is suggested that a partial substitution of coal with biogas produced from existing wastewater treatment could lead to a significant reduction in the environmental impact.

  14. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-01

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  15. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-28

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  16. Large energy product enhancement in perpendicularly coupled MnBi/CoFe magnetic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, T. R.; Fang, L.; Fackler, S.; Maruyama, S.; Zhang, X. H.; Wang, L. L.; Rana, T.; Manchanda, P.; Kashyap, A.; Janicka, K.; Wysocki, A. L.; N'Diaye, A. T.; Arenholz, E.; Borchers, J. A.; Kirby, B. J.; Maranville, B. B.; Sun, K. W.; Kramer, M. J.; Antropov, V. P.; Johnson, D. D.; Skomski, R.; Cui, J.; Takeuchi, I.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate substantial enhancement in the energy product of MnBi-based magnets by forming robust ferromagnetic exchange coupling between a MnBi layer and a thin CoFe layer in a unique perpendicular coupling configuration, which provides increased resistance to magnetization reversal. The measured nominal energy product of 172 kJ /m3 at room temperature is the largest value experimentally attained for permanent magnets free of expensive raw materials. Our finding shows that exchange-coupled MnBi/CoFe magnets are a viable option for pursuing rare-earth-free magnets with energy products approaching those containing rare-earth elements.

  17. Production, Delivery and Application of Vibration Energy in Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abundo, Paolo; Trombetta, Chiara; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola

    2011-02-01

    In Rehabilitation Medicine therapeutic application of vibration energy in specific clinical treatments and in sport rehabilitation is being affirmed more and more.Vibration exposure can have positive or negative effects on the human body depending on the features and time of the characterizing wave. The human body is constantly subjected to different kinds of vibrations, inducing bones and muscles to actively modify their structure and metabolism in order to fulfill the required functions. Like every other machine, the body supports only certain vibration energy levels over which long term impairments can be recognized. As shown in literature anyway, short periods of vibration exposure and specific frequency values can determine positive adjustments.

  18. Development of the accelerator-driven energy production concept

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, F.; Beard, C.; Bowman, C.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) offers a means of generating nuclear energy in a clean, safe way that can be attractive to the general public. However, there are issues associated with the energy story (both at the system level and technical detail) that have to be seriously addressed before the scientific community, the public, and potential industrial sponsors can be compellingly convinced of its cost/benefit.

  19. A comparative analysis of environmental impacts of non-fossil energy production methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The widespread proliferation of other then fossil based energy production methods is a development, which inevitable comes in the next future. It is proven that the photovoltaic conversion or the use of heat of Sun radiation, the water energy, the utilization of the wind, the biomass production, the use of geothermal energy can all produce big amounts of energy for human use. In addition, the nuclear energy from fission is a technology, which has already long history and is widely used. However, these all, like the fossil energy sources, have great impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, the comparison of the environmental effects of these alternative energy sources is not easy. The effects are of considerable different natures and their spatial and the time distributions vary on large scales. The present work overviews the principles and the methodological prerequisites of performing a comparative analysis of the environmental effects for the non-fossil energy production methods. After establishing the basic principles for comparison, we shall go through all the non-fossil energy sources and analyze the most important environmental impacts of each energy production method. In conclusion, the comparison of the environmental effects will be discussed.

  20. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  1. NASA Products to Enhance Energy Utility Load Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lough, G.; Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.; Fungard, Y.; Jedlovec, G.; Stackhouse, P.; Homer, R.; Biley, S.

    2012-01-01

    Existing energy load forecasting tools rely upon historical load and forecasted weather to predict load within energy company service areas. The shortcomings of load forecasts are often the result of weather forecasts that are not at a fine enough spatial or temporal resolution to capture local-scale weather events. This project aims to improve the performance of load forecasting tools through the integration of high-resolution, weather-related NASA Earth Science Data, such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. Three companies are participating in operational testing one natural gas company, and two electric providers. Operational results comparing load forecasts with and without NASA weather forecasts have been generated since March 2010. We have worked with end users at the three companies to refine selection of weather forecast information and optimize load forecast model performance. The project will conclude in 2012 with transitioning documented improvements from the inclusion of NASA forecasts for sustained use by energy utilities nationwide in a variety of load forecasting tools. In addition, Battelle has consulted with energy companies nationwide to document their information needs for long-term planning, in light of climate change and regulatory impacts.

  2. Photon and dilepton production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sakaguchi, Takao

    2015-05-07

    The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high energy heavy ion collisions, obtained particularly at RHIC and LHC are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.

  3. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Morrison, A.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of potential changes and alternative technologies which could impact the photovoltaic manufacturing process is presented. Topics discussed include: a multiple wire saw, ribbon growth techniques, silicon casting, and a computer model for a large-scale solar power plant. Emphasis is placed on reducing the energy demands of the manufacturing process.

  4. Identifying Productive Resources in Secondary School Students' Discourse about Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrer, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    A growing program of research in science education acknowledges the beginnings of disciplinary reasoning in students' ideas and seeks to inform instruction that responds productively to these disciplinary progenitors in the moment to foster their development into sophisticated scientific practice. This dissertation examines secondary school…

  5. Post-processing, energy production use of sugarcane bagasse ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is a multi-processed by-product produced from the milling of sugarcane. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sugar, water, and other impurities from the sugarcane delivered to the mill. Louisiana produces an estimated 3 million tons of bagasse each...

  6. Post-processing, energy production use of sugarcane bagasse ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is a multi-process by-product produced from the milling of sugarcane. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sugar, water, and other impurities from the sugarcane delivered to the mill. Louisiana produces an estimated 2.7 mt of bagasse each year. In ...

  7. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Citrus Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeanne A.; Becker, William J.

    This unit of instruction on citrus production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients…

  8. A geospatial assessment of the relationship between reef flat community calcium carbonate production and wave energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamylton, S. M.; Pescud, A.; Leon, J. X.; Callaghan, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The ability of benthic communities inhabiting coral reefs to produce calcium carbonate underpins the development of reef platforms and associated sedimentary landforms, as well as the fixation of inorganic carbon and buffering of diurnal pH fluctuations in ocean surface waters. Quantification of the relationship between reef flat community calcium carbonate production and wave energy provides an empirical basis for understanding and managing this functionally important process. This study employs geospatial techniques across the reef platform at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, to (1) map the distribution and estimate the total magnitude of reef community carbonate production and (2) empirically ascertain the influence of wave energy on community carbonate production. A World-View-2 satellite image and a field data set of 364 ground referencing points are employed, along with data on physical reef characteristics (e.g. bathymetry, rugosity) to map and validate the spatial distribution of the four major community carbonate producers (live coral, carbonate sand, green calcareous macroalgae and encrusting calcified algae) across the reef platform. Carbonate production is estimated for the complete reef platform from the composition of these community components. A synoptic model of wave energy is developed using the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) two-dimensional model for the entire reef platform. The relationship between locally derived measures of carbonate production and wave energy is evaluated at both the global scale and local scale along spatial gradients of wave energy traversing the reef platform. A wave energy threshold is identified, below which carbonate production levels appear to increase with wave energy and above which mechanical forcing reduces community production. This implies an optimal set of hydrodynamic conditions characterized by wave energy levels of approximately 300 J m-2, providing an empirical basis for management of potential changes

  9. The Energy General Store, sunscreen production and sales: A business plan for Tucson Urban League

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R.; Goldberg, A.; Johnson, C.; Robinson, M.

    1987-06-01

    The Tucson Urban League, in an effort to reduce its dependence on federal grants for the operation of community programs, proposes to establish a profit-making component of the agency which has been named Park Avenue Enterprises. Initially, Park Avenue Enterprises will consist of three divisions: Wood Unlimited, Weatherization-Home Repair, and The Energy General Store. Wood Unlimited will market, fabricate, and install wood products including cabinets, pallets, crates, and other custom items. The Weatherization-Home Repair division of PAE will be labor intensive and designed to provide unique energy-saving services. Finally, The Energy General Store division of PAE will provide goods and services conducive to principles of energy conservation: sunscreens, low-flow showerheads, energy-efficient light bulbs, toilet tank insert, and other conservation items. The Energy General Store is also planned to be a resource for information and ideas in energy and water conservation. This plan will use sunscreen production and marketing as its focus.

  10. Energy use in pig production: an examination of current Iowa systems.

    PubMed

    Lammers, P J; Kenealy, M D; Kliebenstein, J B; Harmon, J D; Helmers, M J; Honeyman, M S

    2012-03-01

    This paper compares energy use for different pig production systems in Iowa, a leader in US swine production. Pig production systems include not only the growth and performance of the pigs, but also the supporting infrastructure of pig production. This supporting infrastructure includes swine housing, facility management, feedstuff provision, swine diets, and manure management. Six different facility type × diet formulation × cropping sequence scenarios were modeled and compared. The baseline system examined produces 15,600 pigs annually using confinement facilities and a corn-soybean cropping sequence. Diet formulations for the baseline system were corn-soybean meal diets that included the synthetic AA l-lysine and exogenous phytase. The baseline system represents the majority of current US pork production in the Upper Midwest, where most US swine are produced. This system was found to require 744.6 MJ per 136-kg market pig. An alternative system that uses bedded hoop barns for grow-finish pigs and gestating sows would require 3% less (720.8 MJ) energy per 136-kg market pig. When swine production systems were assessed, diet type and feed ingredient processing were the major influences on energy use, accounting for 61 and 79% of total energy in conventional and hoop barn-based systems, respectively. Improving feed efficiency and better matching the diet formulation with the thermal environment and genetic potential are thus key aspects of reducing energy use by pig production, particularly in a hoop barn-based system. The most energy-intensive aspect of provisioning pig feed is the production of synthetic N for crop production; thus, effectively recycling manure nutrients to cropland is another important avenue for future research. Almost 25% of energy use by a conventional farrow-to-finish pig production system is attributable to operation of the swine buildings. Developing strategies to minimize energy use for heating and ventilation of swine buildings while

  11. Energy and precious fuels requirements of fuel alcohol production. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, H.; Lawrence, M.F.; Jenkins, D.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, energy requirements for producing alcohol fuels are estimated and are compared to the energy content of the alcohol produced. The comparisons are developed for three alcohol production alternatives: ethanol from grain, methanol from cellulose, and methanol from coal. In the analysis, alcohol fuel and all nonrenewable fuels are valued on the basis of their higher heating value (in Btu), while byproducts and grain and cellulose feedstocks are valued on the basis of the effect their production would have on the consumption of nonrenewable fuels. The effects of changes in agricultural production were analyzed on the basis of their effects on overall agricultural energy consumption (not on average energy consumption associated with present production). All three alcohol production alternatives were found to be effective means of increasing supplies of liquid fuels. The cellulose-to-methanol alternative, however, produces more energy than it consumes. (The favorable energy balance for this feedstock results largely from the use of cellulose as a boiler fuel as well as a feedstock.) The grain-to-ethanol alternative yields a slightly negative energy balance, while the coal-to-methanol alternative (which uses a nonrenewable fuel as both feedstock and boiler fuel) results in a substantially negative energy balance. The report is presented in four volumes. Volume I (NASA CR-168090) contains the main body of the report, and the other three volumes contain appendices.

  12. Renewable Energy Production and Urban Remediation: Modeling the biogeochemical cycle at contaminated urban brownfields and the potential for renewable energy production and mitigation of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Brownfields or urban sites that have been contaminated as a result of historic practices are present throughout the world. In the United States alone, the National Research Council has estimated that there are approximately 300,000 to 400,000 sites which have been contaminated by improper use and disposal of chemicals (NRC 1993). The land available at these sites is estimated at several million acres; however, the presence of high levels of contamination in the soil and groundwater makes it difficult to utilize these sites for traditional purposes such as agriculture. Further, the time required to remediate these contaminants to regulated levels is in the order of decades, which often results in long-term economic consequences for the areas near these sites. There has been significant interest in developing these sites as potential sources of renewable energy production in order to increase the economic viability of these sites and to provide alternative land resources for renewable energy production (EPA 2012). Solar energy, wind energy, and bioenergy from lignocellulosic biomass production have been identified as the main sources of renewable energy that can be produced at these locations. However, the environmental impacts of such a policy and the implications for greenhouse gas emissions, particularly resulting from changes in land-use impacting the biogeochemical cycle at these sites, have not been studied extensively to date. This study uses the biogeochemical process-based model DNDC to simulate carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions and methane emissions from typical urban brownfield systems in the United States, when renewable energy systems are deployed. Photovoltaic solar energy and lignocellulosic biomass energy systems are evaluated here. Plants modeled include those most widely used for both bioenergy and remediation such as woody trees. Model sensitivity to soil conditions, contaminant levels and local weather data and the resulting impacts on

  13. Micro-scale energy valorization of grape marcs in winery production plants.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of winery organic waste, with reference to two Italian red and white grapes (i.e. Nero Buono and Greco) by-products was investigated. The study was carried out to verify the possibility to reduce the production impact in a green-waste-management-chain-perspective. The possibility to efficiently utilize wine-related-by-products for energy production at a micro-scale (i.e. small-medium scale winery production plant) was also verified. Results showed as a good correlation can be established between the percentage of COD removal and the biogas production, as the winery can produce, from its waste methanization, about 7800 kW h year(-1) electrical and 8900 kW h year(-1) thermal. A critical evaluation was performed about the possibility to utilize the proposed approach to realize an optimal biomass waste management and an energetic valorization in a local-energy-production-perspective. PMID:25529134

  14. Energy straggling of low-energy ion beam in a charge exchange cell for negative ion production

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, S.; Sasao, M.; Sugawara, H.; Tanaka, N.; Kisaki, M.; Okamoto, A.; Shinto, K.; Kitajima, S.; Nishiura, M.; Wada, M.

    2008-02-15

    Energy straggling in a charge exchange cell, which is frequently used for negative ion production, was studied experimentally and compared with the results of theoretical evaluation. The change of the energy spectrum of a He{sup +} beam due to charge exchange processes in argon gas was measured in the energy range of 2-6 keV. Energy straggling by multiple collisions is expressed by the energy loss formula due to inelastic and elastic processes. The impact parameter is related to the elastic scattering angle, and the geometry of the charge exchange cell and other components of the beam transportation system determines the maximum acceptable scattering angle. The energy spread was evaluated taking the integral limit over the impact parameter into consideration. The theoretical results showed good agreement with those of actual measurement.

  15. How to Make Financial Aid "Freshman-Friendly"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Susan L.; Johnson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultimately, making financial aid "freshman friendly" also makes financial aid "sophomore friendly," "junior friendly," and "senior friendly." Indiana University has in place an Office of Enrollment Management (OEM) model that includes focused financial aid packaging strategies complemented by unique contact services and communication interventions…

  16. Energy recovery from solid waste. [production engineering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, C.; Huang, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A recent group study on the problem of solid waste disposal provided a decision making model for a community to use in determining the future for its solid waste. The model is a combination of the following factors: technology, legal, social, political, economic and environmental. An assessment of local or community needs determines what form of energy recovery is desirable. A market for low pressure steam or hot water would direct a community to recover energy from solid waste by incineration to generate steam. A fuel gas could be produced by a process known as pyrolysis if there is a local market for a low heating value gaseous fuel. Solid waste can also be used directly as a fuel supplemental to coal in a steam generator. An evaluation of these various processes is made.

  17. Making Friends with the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshelwood, Emily

    2003-01-01

    A renewable energy project in South Wales was enriched by elements of the sustainable livelihood approach: people centered, holistic, and dynamic. The approach shifted the focus from technology to people and from product to process; it combined micro and macro issues. (SK)

  18. Angular correlations in gluon production at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2011-02-01

    We present a general, model independent argument demonstrating that gluons produced in high energy hadronic collision are necessarily correlated in rapidity and also in the emission angle. The strength of the correlation depends on the process and on the structure/model of the colliding particles. In particular we argue that it is strongly affected (and underestimated) by factorized approximations frequently used to quantify the effect.

  19. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  20. Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation and energy production - microalgae as a main subject

    SciTech Connect

    Asada, Yasuo

    1993-12-31

    Research activities for application of microalgal photosynthesis to CO{sub 2} fixation in Japan are overviewed. Presenter`s studies on energy (hydrogen gas) production by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and photosynthetic bacteria are also introduced.