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Sample records for frio island state

  1. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations were assessed as part of the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of Tertiary strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Basin onshore and State waters. The Frio Formation, which consists of sand-rich fluvio-deltaic systems, has been one of the largest hydrocarbon producers from the Paleogene in the Gulf of Mexico. The Anahuac Formation, an extensive transgressive marine shale overlying the Frio Formation, contains deltaic and slope sandstones in Louisiana and Texas and carbonate rocks in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In downdip areas of the Frio and Anahuac Formations, traps associated with faulted, rollover anticlines are common. Structural traps commonly occur in combination with stratigraphic traps. Faulted salt domes in the Frio and Anahuac Formations are present in the Houston embayment of Texas and in south Louisiana. In the Frio Formation, stratigraphic traps are found in fluvial, deltaic, barrier-bar, shelf, and strandplain systems. The USGS Tertiary Assessment Team defined a single, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) for the Gulf Coast basin, based on previous studies and geochemical analysis of oils in the Gulf Coast basin. The primary source rocks for oil and gas within Cenozoic petroleum systems, including Frio Formation reservoirs, in the northern, onshore Gulf Coastal region consist of coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene–Eocene), with some contributions from the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene). The Jurassic Smackover Formation and Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation also may have contributed substantial petroleum to Cenozoic reservoirs. Modeling studies of thermal maturity by the USGS Tertiary Assessment Team indicate that downdip portions of the basal Wilcox Group reached sufficient thermal maturity to generate hydrocarbons by early Eocene; this early maturation is the result of rapid sediment accumulation in the early

  2. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources: Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations, United States Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and State waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac Formations were assessed as part of the 2007 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of Tertiary strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Basin onshore and State waters. The Frio Formation, which consists of sand-rich fluvio-deltaic systems, has been one of the largest hydrocarbon producers from the Paleogene in the Gulf of Mexico. The Anahuac Formation, an extensive transgressive marine shale overlying the Frio Formation, contains deltaic and slope sandstones in Louisiana and Texas and carbonate rocks in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In downdip areas of the Frio and Anahuac Formations, traps associated with faulted, rollover anticlines are common. Structural traps commonly occur in combination with stratigraphic traps. Faulted salt domes in the Frio and Anahuac Formations are present in the Houston embayment of Texas and in south Louisiana. In the Frio Formation, stratigraphic traps are found in fluvial, deltaic, barrier-bar, shelf, and strandplain systems. The USGS Tertiary Assessment Team defined a single, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) for the Gulf Coast basin, based on previous studies and geochemical analysis of oils in the Gulf Coast basin. The primary source rocks for oil and gas within Cenozoic petroleum systems, including Frio Formation reservoirs, in the northern, onshore Gulf Coastal region consist of coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene–Eocene), with some contributions from the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene). The Jurassic Smackover Formation and Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation also may have contributed substantial petroleum to Cenozoic reservoirs. Modeling studies of thermal maturity by the USGS Tertiary Assessment Team indicate that downdip portions of the basal Wilcox Group reached sufficient thermal maturity to generate hydrocarbons by early Eocene; this early maturation is the result of rapid sediment accumulation in the early

  3. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... BABESIOSIS § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana...

  4. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the...

  5. Educational Challenge to the Island States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saemala, Francis J.

    1973-01-01

    Argues that educational developments in the South Pacific island communities have been such that education itself has become a war against the people's cultural enrichment, and proposes a possible strategy as an initial step towards reorienting them; the discussion focuses specifically on the Solomon Islands scene. (Author/JM)

  6. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an approximately true color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  7. Groundwater Resource Vulnerability for Small Island Developing States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Holding, S.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater constitutes the majority of naturally-occurring freshwater supply on many small islands. However, in addition to potential impacts of climate change and population growth that may compromise water supply and demand on small islands, Small Island Developing States (SIDS) often lack hydrogeological data for characterizing aquifers and have limited institutional means for managing the groundwater resource. As part of UNESCO-IHP's Transboundary Water Assessment Programme (TWAP), an assessment of groundwater systems on 43 SIDS was undertaken. This SIDS assessment represents the first baseline global assessment of the status of groundwater in SIDS, covering all major island states of the world with an area less than 50,000 km2. As many SIDS comprise multiple islands with different hydrogeologic settings, a representative island from each SIDS was chosen to represent the majority of the population. Data were compiled from publications, accessible datasets and a questionnaire distributed to collect local expertise. A total of 74 variables were defined for each SIDS, according to the level of confidence in the data (i.e. high confidence when based on specific studies and low confidence when inferred). These variables represent the current hydrogeologic conditions for each island and were used to define indicators that characterise vulnerability. Recharge was modelled for both current and future projected climate change for the 2060s using regionally downscaled data for each SIDS to identify islands likely to experience significant stress due to changes in recharge. The assessment results were categorized based on island type to identify trends in hydrogeologic conditions and vulnerability for similar island types. Despite limitations and uncertainty in the data used in the assessment, the results provide a broad assessment of current and future groundwater resource vulnerability for SIDS throughout the world.

  8. 26 CFR 1.932-1 - Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Islands income taxes. 1.932-1 Section 1.932-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....932-1 Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes. (a) Scope—(1) In general. Section... United States and in the United States Virgin Islands (Virgin Islands). (2) Individuals covered....

  9. Sector wide approaches for health in small island states: lessons learned from the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Martiniuk, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Sector Wide Approaches (SWAps) have increasingly been implemented in countries around the world as a mechanism for effective delivery of health sector funding from various sources. Despite the global focus on aid effectiveness, SWAps have been under-examined. In 2007, the Solomon Islands and development partners began discussing a health SWAp making the Solomon Islands one of the first fragile states globally to adopt a SWAp. This paper explores the establishment and implementation of a health SWAp in the Solomon Islands as a specific case study with lessons learned for the region as well as for aid architecture in fragile states more generally. Tensions between donors and the government impeded agreement and early implementation and country ownership of the SWAp idea was muted. Since mid-2009, however, the Solomon Islands SWAp has made strong progress with greater government ownership and with more focus on partnership and harmonisation rather than on funding mechanisms. The SWAp mechanism has been a challenge for the capacity-constrained Solomon Islands health sector and for development partners familiar with other aid modalities, but current momentum suggests that the SWAp will have a positive impact on adherence to agreed aid effectiveness principles. PMID:21736517

  10. Sector wide approaches for health in small island states: lessons learned from the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Martiniuk, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Sector Wide Approaches (SWAps) have increasingly been implemented in countries around the world as a mechanism for effective delivery of health sector funding from various sources. Despite the global focus on aid effectiveness, SWAps have been under-examined. In 2007, the Solomon Islands and development partners began discussing a health SWAp making the Solomon Islands one of the first fragile states globally to adopt a SWAp. This paper explores the establishment and implementation of a health SWAp in the Solomon Islands as a specific case study with lessons learned for the region as well as for aid architecture in fragile states more generally. Tensions between donors and the government impeded agreement and early implementation and country ownership of the SWAp idea was muted. Since mid-2009, however, the Solomon Islands SWAp has made strong progress with greater government ownership and with more focus on partnership and harmonisation rather than on funding mechanisms. The SWAp mechanism has been a challenge for the capacity-constrained Solomon Islands health sector and for development partners familiar with other aid modalities, but current momentum suggests that the SWAp will have a positive impact on adherence to agreed aid effectiveness principles.

  11. 2011 State Teacher Policy Yearbook. Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For five years running, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) has tracked states' teacher policies, preparing a detailed and thorough compendium of teacher policy in the United States on topics related to teacher preparation, licensure, evaluation, career advancement, tenure, compensation, pensions and dismissal. The "2011 State Teacher…

  12. Frio II Brine Pilot: Report on GEOSEQ Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.M.; Freifeld, B.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Doughty, C.; Benson, S.M.

    2007-11-17

    LBNL's GEOSEQ project is a key participant in the Frio IIbrine pilot studying geologic sequestration of CO2. During During theinjection phase of the Frio-II brine pilot, LBNL collected multiple datasets including seismic monitoring, hydrologic monitoring and geochemicalsampling. These data sets are summarized in this report including allCASSM (continuous active source seismic monitoring) travel time data,injection pressure and flow rate data and gaseous sampling and tracerdata. Additional results from aqueous chemistry analysis performed by theU. S. Geological Survey (USGS) are summarized. Post injectionmodification of the flow model for Frio II is shown. Thesemodificationsare intended to facilitate integration with the monitoring data andincorporation of model heterogeneity. Current activities of LBNL's GEOSEQproject related to the Frio II test are shown, including development of anew petrophysical model for improved interpretation of seismic monitoringdata and integration of this data with flow modeling.

  13. 26 CFR 1.932-1 - Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Islands income taxes. 1.932-1 Section 1.932-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes. (a) Scope—(1) In general. Section 932 and this... United States Virgin Islands (Virgin Islands). (2) Individuals covered. This section will apply to...

  14. Resource Use in Small Island States

    PubMed Central

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Richter, Regina; Eisenmenger, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are small open, high-income island economies with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their economy being largely based on the exploitation of one or two key resources for export production. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, the physical economy is dominated by oil and natural gas extraction and petrochemical industries, whereas Iceland's economy for centuries has been based on fisheries. More recently, abundant hydropower and geothermal heat were the basis for the establishment of large export-oriented metal processing industries, which fully depend on imported raw materials and make use of domestic renewable electricity. Both countries are highly dependent on these natural resources and vulnerable to overexploitation and price developments. We show how the export-oriented industries lead to high and growing levels of per capita material and energy use and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from large amounts of processing wastes and energy consumption in production processes. The example of small open economies with an industrial production system focused on few, but abundant, key resources and of comparatively low complexity provides interesting insights of how resource endowment paired with availability or absence of infrastructure and specific institutional arrangements drives domestic resource-use patterns. This also contributes to a better understanding and interpretation of MFA indicators, such as domestic material consumption. PMID:25505367

  15. Fluvial architecture and reservoir compartmentalization in the Oligocene middle Frio Formation of south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R.; Jirik, L.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Seeligson, Stratton, and Agua Dulce fields are being studied as part of a Gas Research Institute/Department of Energy/State of Texas cosponsored program designed to develop and test methodologies and technologies for gas reserve growth in conventional reservoirs in mature gas fields. Over the last four decades, each field has produced approximately 2 tcf of gas from middle Frio reservoirs alone. Recent drilling and workover results and reservoir pressure data, however, point to the possibility of additional reserves. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic studies based on well logs and cores indicate that middle Frio reservoirs are architecturally complex. Deposition on an aggrading coastal plain resulted in a continuum of architectural styles that has important implications for reservoir compartmentalization. The middle Frio is composed of sand-rich channel-fill and splay deposits interstratified with floodplain mudstones, all forming part of the Gueydan fluvial system. Relatively slow aggradation resulted in laterally stacked channel systems; whereas more rapid aggradation resulted in vertically stacked channel systems. Laterally stacked sandstone bodies predominate at Seeligson field, leading to separate but potentially leaky reservoir compartments. By contrast, vertically stacked sandstone bodies predominate at Stratton and Agua Dulce fields, favoring more isolated reservoir compartments. Thus, a high potential for reserve growth through the identification of untapped compartments, poorly drained acreage, and bypassed zones exists for each of these fields, but differences in reservoir architecture must be taken into account as part of exploitation strategies.

  16. Holocene Paleoceanographic Conditions of Cabo Frio Upwelling System (Rio de Janeiro / Brazil). As Inferred by Bulk and Molecular Geochemical Approach From Sedimentary Organic Matter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurgel, M. H.; Sifeddine, A.; Lallier-Vergès, E.; Boussafir, M.; Jacob, J.

    2005-12-01

    The main upwelling areas in Brazil are along its central coast. Among these, the Cabo Frio (23 deg S x 42 deg W) zone has the strongest signal of low sea surface temperature. The Cabo Frio coastal upwelling cell is controlled by three factors: the topography and orientation of the coastline; the position of the Brazilian Current axes, and the wind pattern, the last being the determining factor. Upwelling events in this region are concentrated in the austral spring and summer (September to April). Their occurrence is associated with NE-ENE winds, and they are inhibited when the wind blows from the southern quadrant (atmospheric frontal passages linked to polar advection). This pattern is associated with the seasonal displacements of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) over this region. Better knowledge of the SACZ behaviour over the time is very important to understanding the climatic variability over the South America in the Holocene. A high resolution sampling study is being done on two Kullenberg piston cores collected from the Brazilian continental shelf, 30-35 km southwest from the Cabo Frio island (115 m and 124 m water depth). AMS radiocarbon dating of organic matter from the core bases gives ages of 3,300 BP and 12,600 BP, respectively. We present the results of elemental analysis (TC and TN), Rock-Eval analysis (TOC, HI and OI), sedimentary organic matter petrographic analysis and alkenone sea surface paleo temperatures. Despite coming from an upwelling area, sediments have very low TOC content and show an increase from around 8,000 year with variations modulated by millennial and secular cycles. Sedimentary organic matter is marine type II that, associated with optical analysis, indicates a high-degraded state and a little continental contribution. The range of paleo temperature values are similar to results of other studies carried out in the same system and are coherent with regional Brazilian Current dynamics. These first results identify two

  17. Geoacoustic character, sedimentology and chronology of a cross-shelf Holocene sediment deposit off Cabo Frio, Brazil (southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Ursula; Ayres Neto, Arthur; C. Abuchacra, Rodrigo; Fernandes Barbosa, Cátia; G. Figueiredo, Alberto; C. Gomes, Manoela; Belem, Andre L.; Capilla, Ramsés; S. Albuquerque, Ana Luiza

    2014-08-01

    The Cabo Frio region in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeast coast of Brazil, is characterized by a local coastal upwelling system and converging littoral sediment transport systems that are deflected offshore at Cabo Frio, as a consequence of which a thick cross-shelf sediment deposit has developed over time. To investigate the evolution of this muddy deposit, geophysical, sedimentological and geochemical data from four sediment cores (3.8-4.1 m in length) recovered in water depths between 88 and 141 m were analyzed. The high-resolution seismic data show variable sediment thicknesses ranging from 1 to 20 m, comprising two sedimentary units separated by a high-impedance layer at a depth of about 10 m below the seafloor at the coring sites. According to the available age datings, the upper sedimentary unit is late Pleistocene to Holocene in age, whereas the lower unit (not dated) must, by implication, be entirely Pleistocene in age. The boomer-seismic reflection signal can be divided into three echo-types, namely transparent (inner shelf), stratified (middle shelf) and reflective (outer shelf), each type seemingly related to the local sediment composition. The upper 4 m of the upper sedimentary unit is dominated by silty sediment on the middle shelf, and by upward-fining sediments (silty sand to sandy silt) on the inner and outer shelf. The downcore trends of P-wave velocity, gamma-ray density and acoustic impedance are largely similar, but generally reversed to those of water and organic carbon contents. Total organic carbon contents increase with decreasing mean grain size, periodic fluctuations suggesting temporal changes in the regional hydrodynamics and primary productivity fuelled by the local upwelling system. The reconstruction of sedimentation rates in the course of the Holocene is based on 35 AMS age datings of organic material recovered from variable downcore depths. These range from a maximum of 13.3 cm/decade near the base of the inner shelf core (7

  18. 78 FR 28149 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island... history provisions currently prescribed under the cranberry marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of cranberries grown in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey,...

  19. State Teacher Policy Yearbook: What States Can Do to Retain Effective New Teachers, 2008. Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the Rhode Island edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's 2008 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook". The 2008 "Yearbook" focuses on how state policies impact the retention of effective new teachers. This policy evaluation is broken down into three areas that encompass 15 goals. Broadly, these goals examine the impact of…

  20. Reservoir heterogeneity in the middle Frio Formation: Case studies in Stratton and Agua Dulce fields, Nueces County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Selected middle Frio (Oligocene) reservoirs of Stratton field and the contiguous Agua Dulce field are being studied as part of a Gas Research Institute/Department of Energy/State of Texas cosponsored program designed to improve reserve growth in mature gas fields. Over the past four decades, Stratton has produced 2.0 tcf of gas from 113 middle Frio reservoirs, and Agua Dulce has produced 1.6 tcf from 116 reservoirs. Recent drilling and workover activities, however, suggest the presence of additional untapped or bypassed middle Frio reservoirs. Four reservoirs, the E18/6,020-ft, E21/6,050-ft, E31/6,100-ft, and E41/Bertram, were evaluated over a 13,000-acre tract that includes areas adjacent to both fields. The middle Frio is composed of sand-rich channel-fill and splay deposits interstratified with floodplain mudstones, all forming part of the Gueydan fluvial system. Channel-fill deposits are 30 ({plus minus}15) ft thick and 2,500 ({plus minus}500) ft wide. Splay deposits are up to 30 ft thick proximal to channels and extend as much as 2 mi from channels. Channel-fill and associated splay sandstones are reservoir facies (porosity 20%; permeability = 10s to 100s md); floodplain mudstones and levee sandy mudstones are barriers to flow facies separating individual reservoirs vertically and laterally. The E41/Bertram reservoir is an example of a laterally stacked channel system deposited during relatively slow aggradation. This reservoir includes sand-on-sand contacts and is composed of mostly leaky compartments. The E 18/6,020-ft, E21/6,050-ft, and E31/6,100ft reservoirs are examples of vertically stacked channel systems reflecting higher rates of aggradation. Vertically stacked architectures are more favorable for isolated compartments and therefore are better candidates for infield reserve growth.

  1. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is a red-blue stereo anaglyph generated from images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 430-nanometer filters.

  2. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  3. 26 CFR 1.932-1 - Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Islands income taxes. 1.932-1 Section 1.932-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.932-1 Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes. (a) Scope—(1) In general....

  4. 26 CFR 1.932-1 - Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Islands income taxes. 1.932-1 Section 1.932-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.932-1 Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes. (a) Scope—(1) In general....

  5. 75 FR 5900 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island... procedures for independent growers on the Cranberry Marketing Committee (Committee). The order regulates the handling of cranberries produced in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...

  6. 75 FR 20514 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... on February 5, 2010 (75 FR 5898). Copies of the rule were mailed or sent facsimile to all Committee... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island... handling of cranberries grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New...

  7. Strategies for Post-Primary Education in Small Island Developing States (SIDS): Lessons from Cape Verde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchoarena, David; Da Graca, Patricia Dias; Marquez, Jose Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the context and challenges of small island developing states, focusing particularly on Cape Verde. After a general discussion of the characteristics of small island developing states, several development challenges such as poverty, unemployment and migratory issues specific to Cape Verde are evoked. Despite a period of…

  8. Suicide and Suicidal-Related Behaviors among Indigenous Pacific Islanders in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else, Iwalani; Andrade, Naleen; Nahulu, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review on U.S. Pacific Islander suicide and suicide-related behaviors to extend the knowledge and understanding of suicide and suicide-related behaviors among the indigenous peoples of the state of Hawai'i, the territories of American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Pacific…

  9. The State of Libraries in Solomon Islands in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadalo, Tony

    The purpose of this research project was to examine the current state of libraries in the Solomon Islands with particular attention to the resources available and the services provided. Data was collected through a survey questionnaire, site visits, and informal interviews carried out in the Solomon Islands between July and August 1998. The 20…

  10. 40 CFR 52.2081 - EPA-approved EPA Rhode Island State regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 52.2081, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA-approved EPA Rhode Island State... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island §...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2081 - EPA-approved EPA Rhode Island State regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 52.2081, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-approved EPA Rhode Island State... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island §...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2081 - EPA-approved EPA Rhode Island State regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 52.2081, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-approved EPA Rhode Island State... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island §...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2081 - EPA-approved EPA Rhode Island State regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 52.2081, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA-approved EPA Rhode Island State... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island §...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2081 - EPA-approved EPA Rhode Island State regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 52.2081, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA-approved EPA Rhode Island State... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island §...

  15. Perspective View, New York State, Lake Ontario to Long Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River (at the bottom of the image) and extending to Long Island (at the top), this perspective view shows the varied topography of eastern New York State and parts of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Rhode Island. The high 'bumpy' area in the left foreground is the southern and western Adirondack Mountains, a deeply eroded landscape that includes the oldest rocks in the eastern United States. On the right side are the Catskill Mountains, a part of the Appalachian Mountain chain, where river erosion has produced an intricate pattern of valleys. Between the Adirondacks and Catskills, A wide valley contains the Mohawk River and the Erie Canal. To the northwest (lower right) of the Catskills are the Finger Lakes of central New York . They were carved by the vast glacier that covered this entire area as recently as 18,000 years ago. The Hudson River runs along a straight valley from left center (near Glens Falls), widening out as it approaches New York City at the upper right on the image. The Connecticut River valley has a similar north-south trend further to the east (across the upper left corner of the image). The Berkshire Hills are between the Hudson and Connecticut valleys.

    This image was generated using a single swath of data acquired in 68 seconds by SRTM and an enhanced false-color mosaic of images from the Landsat 5 satellite. Lush vegetation appears green, water appears dark blue, and cities are generally light blue. White clouds occur in the upper left and lower left. Topographic shading in the image was enhanced with false shading derived from the elevation model. Topographic expression is exaggerated 5X.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  16. Perspective View, New York State, Long Island to Lake Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River (at the top of the image) and extending to Long Island (at the bottom), this perspective view shows the varied topography of eastern New York State and parts of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Rhode Island. The high'bumpy' area in the upper right is the southern and western Adirondack Mountains, a deeply eroded landscape that includes the oldest rocks in the eastern United States. On the left side are the Catskill Mountains, a part of the Appalachian Mountain chain, where river erosion has produced an intricate pattern of valleys. Between the Adirondacks and Catskills, a wide valley contains the Mohawk River and the Erie Canal. To the northwest (upper left) of the Catskills are several long, narrow lakes, some of the Finger Lakes of central New York that were carved by the vast glacier that covered this entire area as recently as 18,000 years ago. The Hudson River runs along a straight valley from right center (near Glens Falls), widening out as it approaches New York City at the lower left on the image. The Connecticut River valley has a similar north-south trend further to the east (across the lower right corner of the image). The Berkshire Hills are between the Hudson and Connecticut valleys.

    This image was generated using a single swath of data acquired in 68 seconds by SRTM and an enhanced false-color mosaic of images from the Landsat 5 satellite. Lush vegetation appears green, water appears dark blue, and cities are generally light blue. White clouds occur in the upper right and lower right. Topographic shading in the image was enhanced with false shading derived from the elevation model. Topographic expression is exaggerated 5X.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar

  17. Measuring permanence of CO2 storage in saline formations: The Frio experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hovorka, S.D.; Benson, S.M.; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Sakurai, S.; Daley, T.M.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Holtz, M.H.; Trautz, R.C.; Nance, H.S.; Myer, L.R.; Knauss, K.G.

    2006-01-01

    If CO2 released from fossil fuel during energy production is returned to the subsurface, will it be retained for periods of time significant enough to benefit the atmosphere? Can trapping be assured in saline formations where there is no history of hydrocarbon accumulation? The Frio experiment in Texas was undertaken to provide answers to these questions. One thousand six hundred metric tons of CO2 were injected into the Frio Formation, which underlies large areas of the United States Gulf Coast. Reservoir characterization and numerical modeling were used to design the experiment, as well as to interpret the results through history matching. Closely spaced measurements in space and time were collected to observe the evolution of immiscible and dissolved CO2 during and after injection. The high-permeability, steeply dipping sandstone allowed updip flow of supercritical. CO2 as a result of the density contrast with formation brine and absence of a local structural trap. The front of the CO2 plume moved more quickly than had been mode led. By the end of the 10-day injection, however, the plume geometry in the plane of the observation and injection wells had thickened to a distribution similar to the modeled distribution. As expected, CO2 dissolved rapidly into brine, causing pH to fall and calcite and metals to be dissolved. Postinjection measurements, including time-lapse vertical seismic profiling transects along selected azimuths, cross-well seismic topography, and saturation logs, show that CO2 migration under gravity slowed greatly 2 months after injection, matching model predictions that significant CO2 is trapped as relative permeability decreases. Copyright ?? 2006. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Department of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing efficiency of storage in the subsurface: frio brine pilot experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Doughty, Christine; Holtz, Mark

    2004-06-30

    Can we demonstrate that subsurface storage is an effective method of reducing emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere? The Frio Brine Pilot Experiment is designed to test storage performance of a typical subsurface environment in an area where large-volume sources and sinks are abundant, near Houston, Texas, USA. We employed extensive pre-experiment characterization and modeling to identify significant factors that increase or decrease risk of leakage from the injection zone. We then designed the experiment to focus on those factors, as well as to test for presence or absence of events that are not expected. A fully developed reservoir model of heterogeneous reworked fluvial sandstones of the Frio Formation documents three-dimensional compartmentalization of the injection horizon by faulting associated with salt-dome intrusion and growth. Modeling using the TOUGH2 simulator showed that a significant source of uncertainty for subsurface performance of injected CO2 is residual CO2 saturation during storage. If initial displacement of water during injection is efficient and capillary effects create the expected residual saturation of 30 percent CO2, the volume occupied by the plume will be limited, and long-term storage can be expected even in an open system. If, however, during injection, CO2 moves out from the injection well along high-permeability pathways, it may not contact most pores, and residual saturation will have a smaller effect on storage. Our experiment is therefore designed to monitor plume geometry and CO2 saturation near the injection well and closely spaced observation well. Leakage out of the injection zone as a result of well engineering or other flaws in the seal is also monitored in the sandstone immediately overlying the injection zone and at the surface using multiple techniques. Permitting strategies include cooperation among two State agencies, as well as Federal NEPA assessment, because of the innovative aspects of the experiment.

  19. Distribution of Mosquito Larvae on Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, the Federated States of Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Sota; Toma, Takako; Taulung, Livinson

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of mosquito larvae were carried out in six areas of Kosrae Island, Kosrae State, the Federated States of Micronesia in December 2009 and June 2012. A total of 962 larvae of six species were collected from 106 natural and artificial habitats. They were identified as Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. marshallensis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. annulirostris, and Cx. kusaiensis. This is the first report from Kosrae Island for three of these species—Ae. marshallensis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. annulirostris. The most abundant species was Ae. albopictus, followed by Ae. marshallensis, and these two species were found in all areas. Relatively large numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. kusaiensis were found in five areas. Fewer Cx. annulirostris were found, and only in three areas. Aedes aegypti larvae were collected from a single habitat at Tafunsak in 2009. To prevent the outbreak of dengue fever, environmental management should focus on the destruction, alteration, disposal and recycling of containers that produce larger numbers of adult Aedes mosquitoes. PMID:24478593

  20. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  1. Small Island States Green Energy Initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Khattak, Nasir

    1999-10-15

    This report covers the activities carried out during a one year period from 7/15/99 to 7/15/00 as part of the Small Islands Green Energy Initiative. The three activities were: 1) Energy Ministerial conference in the Caribbean; 2) Training session on renewable energy for utility engineers; and 3) Case studies compilation on renewable energy in the Caribbean.

  2. Schlumberger survey of Maui Island, State of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, M.D.; Lienert, B.R.

    1980-09-01

    The results of 21 Schlumberger resistivity soundings made on the island of Maui are presented. The apparent resistivity data was used to estimate electrical resistivities of basalt saturated with seawater for different parts of the island. The values obtained average around 20 ohm-meters, except in one area, Ukumehame canyon, on the south rift zone of West Maui. In this area, which is the site of a warm (33/sup 0/C) water well, the resistivity interpreted for the seawater saturated basalt layer is close to 4 ohm-meters. Using typical Hawaiian basalt porosity values of 15 to 25% the temperature of the seaweed is estimated to be 95 +- 23/sup 0/C at a depth of 273 to 608 feet.

  3. Geophysical Characterization and Monitoring for the Frio Pilot Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, L. R.; Hovorka, S.; Hoversten, G.; Fouad, K.; Holtz, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Frio Pilot test involves injection of approximately 3000 tons of CO2 into the brine-saturated Frio formation at a depth of approximately 1500 m at a test site located northeast of Houston. The CO2 is injected from a new well drilled for the test while an existing well provides subsurface access for monitoring. Geophysical data for characterization included 3-D surface seismic and well logs, which were available because of the extensive oil and gas exploration and production in the area. Seismic interpretation coupled with petrophysical analyses and other geologic data showed that the test site is located in a small fault block off the flank of a salt dome. The injection interval consists of alternating layers of sand and shale, with sand layer thickness on the order of 10 m, overlain by the 75 m thick Anahuac shale. Well logs in the new well provide data to confirm test site stratigraphy as well as data needed for interpretation of geophysical monitoring measurements. Geophysical monitoring involves time-lapse measurements, incorporating both surface and borehole techniques. Selection of techniques was aided by modeling in which reservoir simulation predicted fluid distributions, which were then input to geophysical models to predict performance of candidate techniques. Interpretation of crosswell seismic with appropriate rock physics models can potentially provide quantitative information on CO2 saturation between boreholes. Vertical seismic profiling will be used to map the areal distribution of the plume. Low resolution but inexpensive streaming potential measurements will also be carried out to sense the advancing CO2 front.

  4. 26 CFR 1.932-1 - Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... income taxes. 1.932-1 Section 1.932-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.932-1 Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes. (a) Scope—(1) In general....

  5. A Description and Evaluation of Vocational Teacher Training Programs in the State of Rhode Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prull, Richard W.; Very, Philip S.

    To evaluate undergraduate vocational teacher preparation programs in the state of Rhode Island, the 117 vocational educational graduates of the four institutions were surveyed to determine their opinions concerning their college experience. Responses from 66 graduates indicated that: (1) State needs are being fulfilled in vocational business…

  6. 77 FR 52595 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... due in order to provide handlers with additional time to submit their report (75 FR 5898). Under that... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island... prescribed under the marketing order that regulates the handling of cranberries grown in the States...

  7. 75 FR 5898 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in the States of... dates prescribed under the marketing order that regulates the handling of cranberries grown in the..., Washington, and Long Island in the State of New York. The order is administered locally by the...

  8. Ground state study of the thin ferromagnetic nano-islands for artificial spin ice arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira Júnior, D. S.; Leonel, S. A. Dias, R. A. Toscano, D. Coura, P. Z. Sato, F.

    2014-09-07

    In this work, we used numerical simulations to study the magnetic ground state of the thin elongated (elliptical) ferromagnetic nano-islands made of Permalloy. In these systems, the effects of demagnetization of dipolar source generate a strong magnetic anisotropy due to particle shape, defining two fundamental magnetic ground state configurations—vortex or type C. To describe the system, we considered a model Hamiltonian in which the magnetic moments interact through exchange and dipolar potentials. We studied the competition between the vortex states and aligned states—type C—as a function of the shape of each elliptical nano-islands and constructed a phase diagram vortex—type C state. Our results show that it is possible to obtain the elongated nano-islands in the C-state with aspect ratios less than 2, which is interesting from the technological point of view because it will be possible to use smaller islands in spin ice arrays. Generally, the experimental spin ice arrangements are made with quite elongated particles with aspect ratio approximately 3 to ensure the C-state.

  9. Indian Ocean Small Island States: Indicators of Dangerous Anthropogenic Influences of Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, W. B.; Heidel, K.; Chung, C.

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on both the climatic and non-climatic stresses that affect Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Indian Ocean. SIDS are independent developing nations that are located in the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans. For this project four SIDS in the Indian Ocean have been studied: Comoros, Seychelles, Mauritius, and the Maldives. A general characteristic of these SIDS is that they have been little studied in the past, they have limited modern infrastructure, and hold the perception that environmental conditions on their islands are worsening at an accelerated pace. These SIDS are all densely populated, with populations per island between 90,000 to 1,200,000. The population growth rate is also high. This study has examined major environmental issues faced by all of these islands, including natural hazards (such as volcanic eruptions,tropical cyclones, and tsunamis), and climate related changes (such as warming, precipitation changes, and sea level rise). Comparisons between impacts of climate change, natural hazards, and population and tourism were made. It was concluded that the Maldives, due to such features as being a very low-lying island group, are now showing effects of climate related changes such as sea level rise, and that in the future it is likely that climatic stresses will compete with population growth as the major stressor on all of the islands.

  10. Features of State Response to Intervention Initiatives in Northeast and Islands Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 083

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocala, Candice; Mello, Daniel; Reedy, Kristin; Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is an approach to instruction, assessment, and intervention that enables early identification of students who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties. The jurisdictions served by the Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands expressed interest in a study of whether and how state education…

  11. Island of Oahu, State of Hawaii, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Island of Oahu, State of Hawaii, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 51st revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 122 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 81 hours. Diamond Head and Pearl Harbor are clearly visible.

  12. In Pursuit of an International Education Destination: Reflections from a University in a Small Island State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehtap-Smadi, Salime; Hashemipour, Majid

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to explain why international students choose to pursue their education in a university in a small island state (North Cyprus--which is suffering under international embargoes, yet has been successful in establishing a global higher education sector. One hundred and eighty-four international students studying at the Eastern…

  13. Adult and Continuing Education in Small and Island States: The Case of Malta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Mayo, Peter

    1996-01-01

    From the experiences of a small island state such as Malta are derived features affecting adult continuing education: (1) emigration; (2) the urgency to retool labor; (3) need for flexible specialization or multifunctionality; (4) ease with which expert status can be assumed; and (5) cosmopolitan character. (SK)

  14. 75 FR 44231 - Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...After carefully weighing the operational and environmental consequences of the Proposed Action, the Department of Defense (DoD) Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia and Republic of Palau (DoD REP), announces his decision to support and conduct current, emerging, and future military training and Research, Development, Test, and......

  15. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Irum F.; Crepaz, Nicole; Song, Ruiguang; Wan, Choi K.; Lin, Lillian S.; Hu, Dale J.; Sy, Francisco S.

    2005-01-01

    Although the percentage of overall AIDS diagnoses remains low among Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the United States compared with other racial/ethnic groups, research on API risk behaviors and health status suggest that the low number of AIDS cases may not provide a full picture of the epidemic and issues faced by this understudied and…

  16. Some Aspects of Contemporary Rural Afroamerican Family Life in the Sea Islands of Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerson, Bamidele Agbasegbe

    1982-01-01

    Provides an ethnographic description of kinship and residential patterns among Blacks in the South Carolina Sea Islands. Indicates how the family structure of this group differs from that of United States mainland Whites and is similar to that of Blacks in Africa, the Caribbean, and the U.S. (MJL)

  17. 75 FR 57188 - Rhode Island: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Fertilizer Rule, 67 FR 48393 (July 24, 2002) and the Burden Reduction Initiative, 71 FR 1686 (April 24, 2006... authorization of the state's requirements regarding EPA's Zinc Fertilizer Rule in a separate final rule... to EPA authorizing Rhode Island for the Zinc Fertilizer Rule. Today's action responds to that...

  18. 75 FR 18394 - Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... action was published in the Federal Register on February 5, 2010 (75 FR 5900). Copies of the rule were... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island... growers on the Cranberry Marketing Committee (Committee). The order regulates the handling of...

  19. 78 FR 51043 - Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... FR 28149). Copies of the rule were mailed or sent via facsimile to all Committee members and... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 929 Cranberries Grown in States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island... prescribed under the cranberry marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of cranberries...

  20. Environmental Education: A Priority for the Sustainable Development of Small Island States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Sir Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of environmental education for small island states and examines some of the prerequisites for its successful development. Discusses the difficulties of developing cross-curricular interdisciplinary educational programmes with the environment as an integrating theme, and reviews of a number of responses to…

  1. Race to the Top. Rhode Island Report. Year 1: School Year 2010-2011. [State-Specific Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This State-specific summary report serves as an assessment of Rhode Island's Year 1 Race to the Top implementation, highlighting successes and accomplishments, identifying challenges, and providing lessons learned from implementation to date. According to the State, in Year 1, Rhode Island greatly increased statewide capacity to begin…

  2. Frio, Yegua objectives of E. Texas 3D seismic

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Houston companies plan to explore deeper formations along the Sabine River on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast. PetroGuard Co. Inc. and Jebco Seismic Inc., Houston, jointly secured a seismic and leasing option from Hankamer family et al. on about 120 sq miles in Newton County, Tex., and Calcasieu Parish, La. PetroGuard, which specializes in oilfield rehabilitation, has production experience in the area. Historic production in the area spans three major geologic trends: Oligocene Frio/Hackberry, downdip and mid-dip Eocene Yegua, and Eocene Wilcox. In the southern part of the area, to be explored first, the trends lie at 9,000--10,000 ft, 10,000--12,000 ft, and 14,000--15,000 ft, respectively. Output Exploration Co., an affiliate of Input/Output Inc., Houston, acquired from PetroGuard and Jebco all exploratory drilling rights in the option area. Output will conduct 3D seismic operations over nearly half the acreage this summer. Data acquisition started late this spring. Output plans to use a combination of a traditional land recording system and I/O`s new RSR 24 bit radio telemetry system because the area spans environments from dry land to swamp.

  3. Estimating the freshwater-lens thickness of atoll islands in the Federated States of Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R. T.; Jenson, J. W.; Taboroši, D.

    2013-03-01

    The water resources of the 32 atolls of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) are under continual threat from El Niño-induced droughts and other natural hazards. With government policies emphasizing sustainable development of atoll-island communities, local managers are in need of tools for predicting changes in the availability of fresh groundwater, which communities depend upon during droughts that incapacitate rain-catchment systems. An application of a recently developed, readily portable algebraic model is demonstrated here, to estimate the freshwater-lens thickness of atoll islands in the FSM, a key component of FSM groundwater resource assessment. Specifically, the model provides estimates of the lens thickness of atoll islands in the FSM during normal and drought conditions. The model was tested for use in the FSM through comparison with available lens data under both average rainfall conditions and intense drought conditions, and then applied to major islands of each atoll within the FSM. Results indicate that out of 105 major islands on FSM atolls, only six would likely retain sufficient groundwater to sustain the local community during an intense drought.

  4. Seismicity map of the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stover, C.W.; Barnhard, L.M.; Reagor, B.G.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    The earthquake data shown on this map and listed in tables 1 and 2 are a list of earthquakes that were originally used in preparing the Seismic Risk Studies in the United States in the United States (Algermissen, 1969) which have been recompiled and updated through 1977.  These data have been reexamined which resulted in some revisions of epicenters and intensities as well as assignment of intensities to earthquakes that previously had none assigned.  Intensity values were updated from new and additional data sources that were not available at the time of original compilation.  Some epicenters were relocated on the basis of new information.  The data shown in table 1 and 2are estimates of the most accurate epicenter, magnitude, and intensity of each earthquake, on the basis of historical and current information.  Some of the aftershocks from large earthquakes are listed but are incomplete in many instances, especially for ones that occurred before seismic instruments were in universal usage.

  5. Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States: year-end update.

    PubMed

    Chasek, P; Goree, L J

    1993-12-21

    A brief description is given of the background behind the Small Island States Global Conference scheduled for March 1994. Preliminary meetings led to the formation of a draft program of action pertaining to climatic change and sea level increases, natural and environmental disasters, freshwater resources, management of wastes, coastal and marine resources, land and energy resources, tourism and biodiversity resources, regional institutions and technical cooperation, and a variety of other topics. Little agreement was reached on implementation, monitoring, and review among member states, which called for additional meetings. The World Coast Conference, held in November 1993, focused on progressive sustainable development and integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). Participants agreed on the necessity to 1) strengthen state's capabilities for ICZM, 2) identify priorities, 3) set up comprehensive and flexible assessment mechanisms, 4) coordinate activities at all levels, and 5) address longterm concerns. Only two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) sent reports on donor activities. Host country meetings were held in Barbados in preparation for the planned 1994 Conference and settlement of logistics. CNN will provide television coverage of the Conference and produce documentaries on small island states. General Assembly highlights included summary statements by Belgium, Vanuatu, Maldives, the Caribbean community, Korea, and Australia members. The Barbados Declaration, which is in process and will be adopted in some form at the 1994 Conference, may incorporate elements from the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. The Ecojournalism workshop scheduled for Jamaica in January 1994 is aiming to instill awareness of the 1994 Conference and small island issues. 157 NGOs have received accreditation for the 1994 Conference, of which 50 are from small island states, 50 from developed countries, and 53 from nonisland developing countries. The NGO Liaison Committee

  6. Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States: year-end update.

    PubMed

    Chasek, P; Goree, L J

    1993-12-21

    A brief description is given of the background behind the Small Island States Global Conference scheduled for March 1994. Preliminary meetings led to the formation of a draft program of action pertaining to climatic change and sea level increases, natural and environmental disasters, freshwater resources, management of wastes, coastal and marine resources, land and energy resources, tourism and biodiversity resources, regional institutions and technical cooperation, and a variety of other topics. Little agreement was reached on implementation, monitoring, and review among member states, which called for additional meetings. The World Coast Conference, held in November 1993, focused on progressive sustainable development and integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). Participants agreed on the necessity to 1) strengthen state's capabilities for ICZM, 2) identify priorities, 3) set up comprehensive and flexible assessment mechanisms, 4) coordinate activities at all levels, and 5) address longterm concerns. Only two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) sent reports on donor activities. Host country meetings were held in Barbados in preparation for the planned 1994 Conference and settlement of logistics. CNN will provide television coverage of the Conference and produce documentaries on small island states. General Assembly highlights included summary statements by Belgium, Vanuatu, Maldives, the Caribbean community, Korea, and Australia members. The Barbados Declaration, which is in process and will be adopted in some form at the 1994 Conference, may incorporate elements from the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. The Ecojournalism workshop scheduled for Jamaica in January 1994 is aiming to instill awareness of the 1994 Conference and small island issues. 157 NGOs have received accreditation for the 1994 Conference, of which 50 are from small island states, 50 from developed countries, and 53 from nonisland developing countries. The NGO Liaison Committee

  7. Race to the Top. Rhode Island Report. Year 2: School Year 2011-2012. [State-Specific Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This State-specific summary report serves as an assessment of Rhode Island's Year 2 Race to the Top implementation, highlighting successes and accomplishments, identifying challenges, and providing lessons learned from implementation from approximately September 2011 through September 2012. In Year 2, Rhode Island Department of Education (RIDE)…

  8. Biogeography of Triatoma sanguisuga (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) on two barrier islands off the coast of Georgia, United States.

    PubMed

    Roden, Ashley E; Champagne, Don E; Forschler, Brian T

    2011-07-01

    Thirty-three Triatoma sanguisuga (LeConte) adults and nymphs were collected during June and July 2009, at five sites on Cumberland Island and two sites on Sapelo Island, Georgia, to assess genetic diversity within and between sites. All but three specimens were found in a peridomestic habitat. The entire length (699 bp) of the cytochrome oxidase II mitochondrial gene was sequenced for each specimen. Twelve haplotypes were identified, nine from Cumberland Island and three from Sapelo Island. No haplotypes were shared between the two islands, indicating there is limited or no movement of gene flow between the islands. Phylogenetic relationships among the haplotypes were determined using both neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses. The phylogenetic trees from both analyses were similar, with no distinct clades on either tree devoted to haplotypes from a single island. A haplotype network structure was determined using nested clade analysis, which produced two haplotype networks, one containing only specimens found on Cumberland Island. The second network included specimens from both islands, with the ancestral haplotype from Sapelo Island. This pilot study is the first to highlight triatomine populations in the southeastern United States using the cytochrome oxidase II mitochondrial gene, and indicates strong population structuring along the Georgia Coast.

  9. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  10. The vulnerability of small island States to sea level rise: the need for holistic strategies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J

    1990-09-01

    There is uncertainty about climate change and its socioenvironmental implications, but the vulnerability of small island states to hazardous events is likely to become increasingly significant. It will not be a normally benign sea that rises but the incidence of storms and cyclones can be assumed to increase with tropical sea-surface temperatures. The proportional socioeconomic impact of tropical cyclone disasters makes these of crucial significance to small islands and small island states. Sea-defences are of little use (and may not be feasible at all) against the damage caused by tropical cyclones and some sea-surges. Social and economic adjustments are also required to parallel erosion control; and disaster preparedness "longstops" must be further developed as a matter of urgency. Apparently small measures must not be displaced by images of ultimate, massive catastrophe; adjustments may serve other functions in society as well. International and bilateral measures are required to take account of migration and"ecological refugees" and national administrations may require modification to take appropriate account of this most crucial of environmental phenomena.

  11. The urban heat island dynamics during heat waves: a study of cities in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Leiqiu

    2016-04-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a common phenomenon describing that metropolitan areas are usually warmer than their rural surroundings. This effect is compounded by extreme heat events, which are a leading cause of weather-related human mortality in many countries worldwide. However, the spatial and diurnal variability of temperature and humidity in urban and adjacent rural areas during extreme heat events is not well measured and therefore not well understood. The recently developed dataset of near-surface air and dew temperature from MODIS atmospheric profiles and the new method for the UHI quantification--urban heat island curve are used to quantify the urban climatic changes during heat waves in cities of the United States. The enhanced and weakened UHIs are observed in various cities. The causes of UHI changes during heat waves are discussed, including climate region, vegetation type and amount, city geolocation, etc.

  12. Reservoir heterogeneity in middle Frio fluvial sandstones: Case studies in Seeligson field, Jim Wells County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, L.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Detailed evaluation of middle Frio (Oligocene) fluvial sandstones reveals a complex architectural style potentially suited to the addition of gas reserves through recognition of poorly drained reservoir compartments and bypassed gas zones. Seeligson field is being studied as part of a Gas Research Institute/US Department of Energy/State of Texas-sponsored program, with the cooperation of Oryx Energy Company and Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Inc. Four reservoirs, Zones 15, 16D, 16E, and 19C, were studied in a 20 mi{sup 2} area within Seeligson field. Collectively, these reservoirs have produced more than 240 bcf of gas from wells within the study area. Detailed electric log correlation of individual reservoirs enabled subdivision of aggregate producing zones into component genetic units. Cross sections, net-sandstone maps, and log-facies maps were prepared to illustrate depositional style, sand-body geometry, and reservoir heterogeneity. Zones 15 and 19C are examples of laterally stacked fluvial architecture. Individual channel-fill sandstones range from 10 to 50 ft thick, and channel widths are approximately 2,500 ft. Crevasse-splay sandstones may extend a few thousand feet from the main channel system. Multiple, overlapping channel and splay deposits commonly form sand-rich belts that result in leaky reservoir compartments that may be incompletely drained. Zones 16D and 16E are examples of vertically stacked fluvial architecture, with discrete, relatively thin and narrow channel and splay sandstones generally encased within floodplain muds. This architectural style is likely to form more isolated reservoir compartments. Although all of these reservoirs are currently considered nearly depleted, low-pressure producers, recent well completions and bottomhole pressure data indicate that untapped or poorly drained compartments are being encountered.

  13. Collaboration: Joint Working by Individual State-Maintained Schools in a New Statutory System in the Maltese Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutajar, Mario; Bezzina, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In October 2005, the Maltese Government embarked on a new phase of its national educational reform, which focuses on state compulsory primary and secondary schooling. A central part of this reform was the creation of state-maintained colleges. By February 2008 all state primary and secondary schools on the Maltese Islands were clustered into ten…

  14. The history of mammal eradications in Hawai`i and the United States associated islands of the Central Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, S.C.; Jacobi, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Many eradications of mammal taxa have been accomplished on United States associated islands of the Central Pacific, beginning in 1910. Commonly eradicated species are rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), rats (Rattus spp.), feral cats (Felis catus), and several feral ungulates from smaller islands and fenced natural areas on larger Hawaiian Islands. Vegetation and avifauna have demonstrated dramatic recovery as a direct result of eradications. Techniques of worldwide significance, including the Judas goat method, were refined during these actions. The land area from which ungulates have been eradicated on large Hawaiian Islands is now greater than the total land area of some smaller Hawaiian Islands. Large multi-tenure islands present the greatest challenge to eradication because of conflicting societal interests regarding introduced mammals, mainly sustained-yield hunting. The difficulty of preventing reinvasion poses a persistent threat after eradication, particularly for feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on multi-tenure islands. Larger areas and more challenging species are now under consideration for eradication. The recovery of endangered Hawaiian birds may depend on the creation of large predator-proof exclosures on some of the larger islands. Large scale eradications of small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) would be beneficial to ground-nesting birds such as nēnē (Branta sandvicensis), but this has been achieved only in small exclosures.

  15. Nucleosome dynamics and maintenance of epigenetic states of CpG islands.

    PubMed

    Sneppen, Kim; Dodd, Ian B

    2016-06-01

    Methylation of mammalian DNA occurs primarily at CG dinucleotides. These CpG sites are located nonrandomly in the genome, tending to occur within high density clusters of CpGs (islands) or within large regions of low CpG density. Cluster methylation tends to be bimodal, being dominantly unmethylated or mostly methylated. For CpG clusters near promoters, low methylation is associated with transcriptional activity, while high methylation is associated with gene silencing. Alternative CpG methylation states are thought to be stable and heritable, conferring localized epigenetic memory that allows transient signals to create long-lived gene expression states. Positive feedback where methylated CpG sites recruit enzymes that methylate nearby CpGs, can produce heritable bistability but does not easily explain that as clusters increase in size or density they change from being primarily methylated to primarily unmethylated. Here, we show that an interaction between the methylation state of a cluster and its occupancy by nucleosomes provides a mechanism to generate these features and explain genome wide systematics of CpG islands.

  16. Nucleosome dynamics and maintenance of epigenetic states of CpG islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneppen, Kim; Dodd, Ian B.

    2016-06-01

    Methylation of mammalian DNA occurs primarily at CG dinucleotides. These CpG sites are located nonrandomly in the genome, tending to occur within high density clusters of CpGs (islands) or within large regions of low CpG density. Cluster methylation tends to be bimodal, being dominantly unmethylated or mostly methylated. For CpG clusters near promoters, low methylation is associated with transcriptional activity, while high methylation is associated with gene silencing. Alternative CpG methylation states are thought to be stable and heritable, conferring localized epigenetic memory that allows transient signals to create long-lived gene expression states. Positive feedback where methylated CpG sites recruit enzymes that methylate nearby CpGs, can produce heritable bistability but does not easily explain that as clusters increase in size or density they change from being primarily methylated to primarily unmethylated. Here, we show that an interaction between the methylation state of a cluster and its occupancy by nucleosomes provides a mechanism to generate these features and explain genome wide systematics of CpG islands.

  17. Nucleosome dynamics and maintenance of epigenetic states of CpG islands.

    PubMed

    Sneppen, Kim; Dodd, Ian B

    2016-06-01

    Methylation of mammalian DNA occurs primarily at CG dinucleotides. These CpG sites are located nonrandomly in the genome, tending to occur within high density clusters of CpGs (islands) or within large regions of low CpG density. Cluster methylation tends to be bimodal, being dominantly unmethylated or mostly methylated. For CpG clusters near promoters, low methylation is associated with transcriptional activity, while high methylation is associated with gene silencing. Alternative CpG methylation states are thought to be stable and heritable, conferring localized epigenetic memory that allows transient signals to create long-lived gene expression states. Positive feedback where methylated CpG sites recruit enzymes that methylate nearby CpGs, can produce heritable bistability but does not easily explain that as clusters increase in size or density they change from being primarily methylated to primarily unmethylated. Here, we show that an interaction between the methylation state of a cluster and its occupancy by nucleosomes provides a mechanism to generate these features and explain genome wide systematics of CpG islands. PMID:27415308

  18. Local measurement of the Eliashberg function of Pb islands: enhancement of electron-phonon coupling by quantum well states.

    PubMed

    Schackert, Michael; Märkl, Tobias; Jandke, Jasmin; Hölzer, Martin; Ostanin, Sergey; Gross, Eberhard K U; Ernst, Arthur; Wulfhekel, Wulf

    2015-01-30

    Inelastic tunneling spectroscopy of Pb islands on Cu(111) obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy below 1 K provides a direct access to the local Eliashberg function of the islands with high energy resolution. The Eliashberg function describes the electron-phonon interaction causing conventional superconductivity. The measured Eliashberg function strongly depends on the local thickness of the Pb nanostructures and shows a sharp maximum when quantum well states of the Pb islands come close to the Fermi energy. Ab initio calculations reveal that this is related to enhanced electron-phonon coupling at these thicknesses. PMID:25679904

  19. Future wave and wind projections for United States and United-States-affiliated Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Shope, James B.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christine A.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in future wave climates in the tropical Pacific Ocean from global climate change are not well understood. Spatially and temporally varying waves dominate coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of the islands throughout the tropical Pacific. Waves also impact coastal infrastructure, natural and cultural resources, and coastal-related economic activities of the islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions were forecast through the year 2100 using wind parameter outputs from four atmosphere-ocean global climate models from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project, Phase 5, for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 that correspond to moderately mitigated and unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. Wind fields from the global climate models were used to drive a global WAVEWATCH-III wave model and generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters for 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific for the years 1976–2005 (historical), 2026–2045 (mid-century projection), and 2085–2100 (end-of-century projection). Although the results show some spatial heterogeneity, overall the December-February extreme significant wave heights, defined as the mean of the top 5 percent of significant wave height time-series data modeled within a specific period, increase from present to mid-century and then decrease toward the end of the century; June-August extreme wave heights increase throughout the century within the Central region of the study area; and September-November wave heights decrease strongly throughout the 21st century, displaying the largest and most widespread decreases of any season. Peak wave periods increase east of the International Date Line during the December-February and June-August seasons under RCP4.5. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, wave periods decrease west of the International Date Line during December-February but increase in the eastern half of the study area. Otherwise, wave periods decrease

  20. Hydrologic hydrochemical characterization of texas frio formation used for deep-well injection of chemical wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitler, Charles W.; Akhter, M. Saleem; Donnelly, Andrew C. A.

    1990-09-01

    Hydrologic hydrochemical investigations were conducted to determine the long-term fate of hazardous chemical waste disposed in the Texas Gulf Coast Tertiary formations by deep-well injection. The study focused on the hydrostatic section of the Frio Formation because it is the host of a very large volume of injected waste and because large data bases of formation pressures and water chemistry are available. Three hydrologic regimes exist within the Frio Formation: a shallow fresh to moderately saline water section in the upper 3,000 4,000 ft (914 1,219 m); an underlying 4,000- to 5,000-ft-thick (1,219- to 1,524-m) section with moderate to high salinities: and a deeper overpressured section with moderate to high salinities. The upper two sections are normally pressured and reflect either freshwater or brine hydrostatic pressure gradients. Geopressured conditions are encountered as shallow as 6,000 ft (1,829 m). The complexity of the hydrologic environment is enhanced due to extensive depressurization in the 4,000- to 8,000-ft-depth (1,219- to 2,438-m) interval, which presumably results from the estimated production of over 10 billion barrels (208 × 106 m3) of oil equivalent and associated brines from the Frio in the past 50 yr. Because of the higher fluid density and general depressurization in the brine hydrostatic section, upward migration of these brines to shallow fresh groundwaters should not occur. Depressured oil and gas fields, however, may become sinks for the injected chemical wastes. Water samples appear to be in approximate oxygen isotopic equilibrium with the rock matrix, suggesting that active recharge of the Frio by continental waters is not occurring. In the northern Texas Gulf Coast region salt dome dissolution is a prime process controlling water chemistry. In the central and southern Frio Formation, brines from the deeper geopressured section may be leaking into the hydrostatic section. The lack of organic acids and the alteration of Frio oils

  1. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Areas quarantined in the...

  2. How State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Support Data-Driven Decisionmaking in Districts and Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 072. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle A.; Brett, Jessica; Kagle, Melissa; Midouhas, Emily; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The report examines the initiatives of state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, and the Virgin Islands) to support data-driven decisionmaking in districts and schools and describes the service providers hired to support this work. Four…

  3. Stabilization of epigenetic states of CpG islands by local cooperation.

    PubMed

    Sormani, Giulia; Haerter, Jan O; Lövkvist, Cecilia; Sneppen, Kim

    2016-06-21

    DNA methylation of CpG sites is an important epigenetic mark in mammals. Active promoters are often associated with unmethylated CpG sites, whereas methylated CpG sites correlate with silenced promoters. Methylation of CpG sites must be generally described as a dynamical process that is mediated by methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1 and DNMT3a/b. However, there are several models of how CpG sites can be protected from methylation and thereby remain unmethylated. In this paper we examine the combination of both: the positive feedbacks of DNA methylation and a short range counterpart which in turn protects-and thereby maintains-the unmethylated state. The emergent dynamics is provided by collaborative, re-enforcing feedbacks in favor of methylated CpG islands and cooperative protection of one CpG site by another in favor of unmethylated CpG sites. Our results suggest that this synthesis of mechanisms provides equally robust maintenance of both the unmethylated and methylated states of CpG islands.

  4. Stabilization of epigenetic states of CpG islands by local cooperation.

    PubMed

    Sormani, Giulia; Haerter, Jan O; Lövkvist, Cecilia; Sneppen, Kim

    2016-06-21

    DNA methylation of CpG sites is an important epigenetic mark in mammals. Active promoters are often associated with unmethylated CpG sites, whereas methylated CpG sites correlate with silenced promoters. Methylation of CpG sites must be generally described as a dynamical process that is mediated by methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1 and DNMT3a/b. However, there are several models of how CpG sites can be protected from methylation and thereby remain unmethylated. In this paper we examine the combination of both: the positive feedbacks of DNA methylation and a short range counterpart which in turn protects-and thereby maintains-the unmethylated state. The emergent dynamics is provided by collaborative, re-enforcing feedbacks in favor of methylated CpG islands and cooperative protection of one CpG site by another in favor of unmethylated CpG sites. Our results suggest that this synthesis of mechanisms provides equally robust maintenance of both the unmethylated and methylated states of CpG islands. PMID:26923344

  5. Heterogeneous stress state of island arc crust in northeastern Japan affected by hot mantle fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibazaki, Bunichiro; Okada, Tomomi; Muto, Jun; Matsumoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Yoshida, Keisuke

    2016-04-01

    By considering a thermal structure based on dense geothermal observations, we model the stress state of the crust beneath the northeastern Japan island arc under a compressional tectonic regime using a finite element method with viscoelasticity and elastoplasticity. We consider a three-layer structure (upper crust, lower crust, and uppermost mantle) to define flow properties. Numerical results show that the brittle-viscous transition becomes shallower beneath the Ou Backbone Range compared with areas near the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Japan Sea. Moreover, several elongate regions with a shallow brittle-viscous transition are oriented transverse to the arc, and these regions correspond to hot fingers (i.e., high-temperature regions in the mantle wedge). The stress level is low in these regions due to viscous deformation. Areas of seismicity roughly correspond to zones of stress accumulation where many intraplate earthquakes occur. Our model produces regions with high uplift rates that largely coincide with regions of high elevation (e.g., the Ou Backbone Range). The stress state, fault development, and uplift around the Ou Backbone Range can all be explained by our model. The results also suggest the existence of low-viscosity regions corresponding to hot fingers in the island arc crust. These low-viscosity regions have possibly affected viscous relaxation processes following the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake.

  6. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands.

    PubMed

    Buden, Donald W; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis "Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842" (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies - Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km(2). Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925-1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most Pteropus phaeocephalus pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5-10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus

  7. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands.

    PubMed

    Buden, Donald W; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis "Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842" (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies - Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km(2). Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925-1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most Pteropus phaeocephalus pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5-10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus

  8. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

    PubMed Central

    Buden, Donald W.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Wiles, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies — Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most Pteropus phaeocephalus pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with

  9. 75 FR 76051 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Northern States Power Company, a Minnesota corporation (NSPM, the licensee) is the..., ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and...

  10. Identification of remaining oil resource potential in the Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone play, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E.; Tyler, N.

    1994-05-01

    The Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion stock tank barrels (BSTB) of oil, yet still contains about 1.2 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil and an even greater amount of residual oil resources (1.5 BSTB). More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced. Interwell-scale geological facies models of Frio fluvial/deltaic reservoirs will be combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to characterize Frio fluvial/deltaic reservoir architecture, flow unit boundaries, and the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Reservoir attribute data were statistically analyzed from oil and gas fields throughout the geographic area covered by the Frio Fluvial/Deltaic Sandstone oil play. General reservoir attributes analyzed in detail included porosity, initial water saturation, residual oil saturation, net pay, reservoir area, and fluid characteristics. Statistical analysis of variance demonstrated no difference between oil reservoir attributes and gas reservoir attributes. Probability functions that describe attribute frequency distributions were determined for use in risk adjusting resource calculations. The oil play was found to contain significant volumes of remaining oil. The volumetric probability distribution between 5- and 95-percent probability for original oil in place ranges from 3.8 to 5.6 BSTB, original mobile oil in place ranges from 2.5 to 3.6 BSTB, and residual oil ranges from 1.5 to 2.3 BSTB. The untapped oil resource may be 10 percent of the original oil in place, or 380 million stock tank barrels.

  11. Regional variations in formation water chemistry: Major and minor elements, Frio Formation fluids, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, G.L. )

    1992-05-01

    Spatial variation of major element content (Na, Ca, and Cl) in formation waters in the Oligocene Frio Formation, Texas, show that mixing occurs vertically and that the chemistry of Ca-rich fluids varies from northern coastal to southern Texas. Relative amounts of major and minor elements (Sr, Mg, and K) in Ca-rich fluids from south Texas differ from those in other areas of Texas and also are different from updip Mesozoic fluids. Such differences seem to preclude the known Mesozoic fluids as a source of Ca in the south Texas Frio Formation fluids, barring complicated, nonuniform water-rock alteration changing the Mesozoic-fluid composition. Approximately coast parallel (and strike parallel) cross sections show that Ca-rich fluids in the Frio are usually found at depth. Some anomalies occur where fluids are present near piercement structures and in a relatively large part of south Texas. In the latter region, Ca-rich fluids exist above the top of geopressure, suggesting that they may have been emplaced before geopressure became widespread (2-3 m.y. ago). Because there are no shallow Ca-rich fluids in the vicinity of major river systems in south Texas, meteoric fluids may have flushed Ca-rich fluids out of the areas near the rivers during past pluvial periods. This process does not preclude the dilution of formation water by clay dehydration reactions, another process that has been proposed to explain deep, dilute formation waters in Gulf basin reservoirs.

  12. Diabetes Among Asians and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders--United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Karen A; Cho, Pyone; Geiss, Linda S

    2015-11-20

    Asians and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) are fast-growing U.S. minority populations at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Although national studies have described diabetes prevalence, incidence, and risk factors among Asians and NHPIs compared with non-Hispanic whites, little is known about state-level diabetes prevalence among these two racial groups, or about how they differ from one another with respect to diabetes risk factors. To examine state-level prevalence of self-reported, physician-diagnosed (diagnosed) diabetes and risk factors among Asians and NHPIs aged ≥18 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2011-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among five states and Guam with sufficient data about NHPIs for analysis, the age-adjusted diabetes prevalence estimate for NHPIs ranged from 13.4% (New York) to 19.1% (California). Among 32 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Guam that had sufficient data about Asians for analysis, diabetes prevalence estimates for Asians ranged from 4.9% (Arizona) to 15.3% (New York). In the five states and Guam with sufficient NHPI data, NHPIs had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes than did Asians, and a higher proportion of NHPIs were overweight or obese and had less than a high school education compared with Asians. Effective interventions and policies might reduce the prevalence of diabetes in these growing, high-risk minority populations. PMID:26583766

  13. Self-management among Patients Living with Diabetes in the United States Virgin Islands

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Maxine A.; Yarandi, Hossein; Nunez-Smith, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    The United States Virgin Islands (USVI) is facing a diabetes epidemic similar to the one on the U.S. mainland, yet little is known regarding the cultural context relevant to self-management in this U.S. territory. We conducted in-home interviews (n = 53) supplemented by self-administered questionnaire and A1c testing with U.S. Virgin Islanders to characterize self-management knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among patients living with diabetes. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) was 7.63 (Range = 5–13); a composite score of traditional self-management behaviors was not associated with A1c. Several recurrent themes emerged from qualitative analysis including: 1) cultural nuances shaped perspectives on self-management, 2) culturally-specific challenges were barriers to effective self-management, 3) medical homes were rarely viewed as the primary source of education and support, and 4) fear largely motivated or stalled self-management practices. This study highlights the need for culturally-tailored measures and interventions to address the specific needs within this population. PMID:21317521

  14. Taxonomy of Cotylea (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from Cabo Frio, southeastern Brazil, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Juliana; Padula, Vinicius; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-01-01

    Polyclads are free-living Platyhelminthes with a simple, dorsoventrally flattened body and a much ramified intestine. In Brazil, 66 species are reported; only three from Rio de Janeiro State (RJ). The main objective of this study is to describe and illustrate coloration pattern, external morphology, reproductive system morphology and, when possible, biological and ecological aspects of species of the suborder Cotylea found in Cabo Frio, RJ. Of the 13 cotylean polyclad species found, Pseudobiceros pardalis, Cycloporus variegatus and Eurylepta aurantiaca are new records from the Brazilian coast and one species is new to science, Pseudoceros juani sp. nov. Feeding observations were made of four species. It is the first time that Lurymare utarum, Cycloporus gabriellae, C. variegatus and E. aurantiaca are illustrated with digital photographs of live specimens and histological preparations. This study increases to 70 the number of Brazilian Polycladida and to 14 the number of species known from Rio de Janeiro State. However, the knowledge about Polycladida in Brazil still has gaps, with great parts of the coast remaining unsampled. 

  15. Use of a United States mid-Pacific Island territory for a Pacific Island Repository System (PIRS): Extended summary

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1987-08-01

    The concept of using a mid-ocean island for a geologic high-level waste repository was investigated. The technical advantages include geographical isolation and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup to repository geological waste isolation. The institutional advantages are reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of international waste repository would allow cost sharing, aid US nonproliferation goals, and assure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. The major uncertainties in this concept are rock conditions at waste disposal depths and costs. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... of the Mariana Islands in 1914 (the first year of World War l) and Germany released the islands to Japan in 1919. Japan received a ... States by the United Nations. The wreckage of a World War II B-29 Superfortress, a four-engine propeller-driven bomber, lies on the north ...

  17. Modification of Electronic Surface States by Graphene Islands on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambrel, Grady; Hollen, Shawna; Tjung, Steven; Santagata, Nancy; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Gupta, Jay

    The interaction of graphene with copper is of interest for graphene applications due to the frequent use of copper in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of graphene. We grew pristine graphene islands on Cu(111) by dissociating ethylene gas in an ultra high vacuum environment. In situ low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to measure the physical and electronic structure of the surface with atomic resolution, enabling us to compare the graphene-covered regions to bare Cu(111). We observed a shift of the Rydberg-like series of images potential states (IPS) to lower energies and a decrease in linewidth in graphene-covered regions, indicating a decrease in local work function and reduced coupling to the copper bulk states. In some cases, the first of these states were split, which may correspond to the dual Rydberg series which has been predicted for graphene. By measuring the dispersion of the Shockley surface state, we found that the band edge and effective mass are influenced by the graphene layer. We will extend these findings [SM Hollen, et al. Phys. Rev B 91, 195425 (2015)] to our study of in situ graphene devices and present preliminary STM and transport data with respect to gate voltage. Funding for this research was provided by the Center for Emergent Materials: an NSF MRSEC under Award Number DMR-0820414.

  18. Structural styles of the Wilcox and Frio growth-fault trends in Texas: Constraints on geopressured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The wide variability in structural styles within the growth-faulted, geopressured trends of the Texas Gulf Coast is illustrated by detailed structural maps of selected areas of the Wilcox and Frio growth-fault trends and quantified by statistical analysis of fault compartment geometries. Structural variability is a key determinant of the size of geopressured aquifers in the deep subsurface. Two major structural styles exist in the Wilcox trend. (1) In southeast and Central Texas, the trend consists of continuous, closely spaced faults that have little associated rollover despite moderate expansion of section; the fault plane flattens little with depth. (2) By contrast, in South Texas a narrow band of growth faults having high expansion and moderate rollover lies above and downdip of a ridge of deformed, overpressured shale but updip of a deep basin formed by withdrawal of overpressured shale. Frio fault systems generally display greater rollover and wider spacing than do Wilcox fault systems; however, the Frio trend displays distinctive features in each study area. Most of the Frio growth faults, however, have a similar geometry, showing substantial rollover, expansion of section, and a moderate flattening of the fault zone with depth, possibly related to a deep decollement surface. The local variability in style is related to the magnitude of Frio sedimentation and progradation and to the presence of thick salt or shale. Finding and developing a large geopressured aquifer require recognition of a favorable combination of sand-body geometry, reservoir quality, and fault compartment size and shape.

  19. The movement of sequestrated CO2 revealed by seismic attenuation spatial and temporal changes in Frio-II site, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous active source seismic measurements (CASSM) were collected in the crosswell geometry during scCO2 injection at the Frio-II brine pilot (Liberty, TX). Previous studies (Daley et.al. 2007, 2011) have demonstrated that spatial-temporal changes in the picked first arrival time after CO2 injection constrain the movement of the CO2 plume in the storage interval. To improve the quantitative constraints on plume saturation using this dataset, we investigate spatial-temporal changes in the seismic attenuation of the first arrivals. The attenuation changes over the injection period (~60 h) are estimated by the amount of the centroid frequency shift computed by the local time-frequency analysis. Our observations include: at receivers above the packer seismic attenuation does not change in a physical trend; at receivers below the packer attenuation sharply increases as the amount of CO2 plume increase at the first few hours and peaks at specific points varying with distributed receivers, which are consistent with observations from time delays of first arrivals. Then, attenuation decreases over the injection time with increased amount of CO2 plume. This bell-shaped attenuation response as a function of time in the experiment is consistent with White's patchy saturation model which predicts an attenuation peak at intermediate CO2 saturations. Our analysis suggests that spatial-temporal attenuation change is an indicator of the movement/saturation of CO2 plume at high saturations, a system state for which seismic measurements are typically only weakly sensitive to.

  20. How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 068

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergert, Leslie F.; Gleason, Sonia Caus; Urbano, Carole

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the report, "How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts." This larger report describes and analyzes how eight state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New…

  1. Stability Behavior and Thermodynamic States of Iron and Manganese in Sandy Soil Aquifer, Manukan Island, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chin Yik; Abdullah, Mohd. Harun; Musta, Baba; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2011-03-15

    A total of 20 soil samples were collected from 10 boreholes constructed in the low lying area, which included ancillary samples taken from the high elevation area. Redox processes were investigated in the soil as well as groundwater in the shallow groundwater aquifer of Manukan Island, Sabah, Malaysia. Groundwater samples (n = 10) from each boreholes were also collected in the low lying area to understand the concentrations and behaviors of Fe and Mn in the dissolved state. This study strives to obtain a general understanding of the stability behaviors on Fe and Mn at the upper unsaturated and the lower-saturated soil horizons in the low lying area of Manukan Island as these elements usually play a major role in the redox chemistry of the shallow groundwater. Thermodynamic calculations using PHREEQC showed that the groundwater samples in the study area are oversaturated with respect to goethite, hematite, Fe(OH){sub 3} and undersaturated with respect to manganite and pyrochroite. Low concentrations of Fe and Mn in the groundwater might be probably due to the lack of minerals of iron and manganese oxides, which exist in the sandy aquifer. In fact, high organic matters that present in the unsaturated horizon are believed to be responsible for the high Mn content in the soil. It was observed that the soil samples collected from high elevation area (BK) comprises considerable amount of Fe in both unsaturated (6675.87 mg/kg) and saturated horizons (31440.49 mg/kg) compared to the low Fe content in the low lying area. Based on the stability diagram, the groundwater composition lies within the stability field for Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+} under suboxic condition and very close to the FeS/Fe{sup 2+} stability boundary. This study also shows that both pH and Eh values comprise a strong negative value thus suggesting that the redox potential is inversely dependent on the changes of pH.

  2. Water-quality reconnaissance of ground water in the inhabited outer islands of Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, 1984-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.; Takasaki, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    A reconnaissance of ground-water quality in 24 inhabited outer islands in Chuuk State was made between January 1984 and October 1985. Most of the islands are part of low-lying coral atolls within the Western, Namonuito, Hall, and Mortlock Island Groups. A total of 648 wells were located and sampled for temperature and specific conductance. A few miscellaneous sites such as taro patches also were sampled. The nitrate concentration was determined for 308 water samples. To develop a relation between specific conductance and chloride concentration, the chloride concentration was determined for 63 water samples. In addition, 21 water samples were analyzed for major and trace constituent ion concentrations. Chloride and nitrate are the primary constituents affecting the potability of ground water in the inhabited outer islands of Chuuk State. The source of chloride in ground water is seawater, whereas nitrate is derived fro plant and animal waste materials. The chloride concentrations in many well waters exceed the World Health Organization guideline for drinking water, particularly in wells near the shoreline or on small islands. In addition, the nitrate concentrations in some well waters exceeded the World Health Organization guideline for drinking water.

  3. State of Rhode Island Department of Administration Office of Library and Information Services. Five-Year State Plan for the Fiscal Years 2008 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Office of Library and Information Services, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for its Five-Year Plan for the years 2008 through 2012, the Rhode Island Office of Library and Information Services has reviewed a variety of information resources, including studies, publications, surveys and stakeholder meetings, to assist in understanding the state, its people, its future and the potential role of libraries. This…

  4. Feldspar diagenesis in the Frio Formation, Brazoria County, Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Land, L.S.; Milliken, K.L.

    1981-07-01

    Tremendous quantities of detrital feldspar have been dissolved or albitized below about 14000 ft (4267 m) in the Frio Formation (Oligocene), Chocolate Bayou Field, Brazoria County, Texas. Some sandstones no longer contain any unmodified detrital feldspar grains. Material transfer involved in these reactions is immense, affecting at least 15% of the rock volume. Thus, albitization has important implications for several other diagenetic processes that involve feldspars or their components. These processes include formation of secondary porosity, precipitation of quartz and carbonate cements, and the evolution of Na-Ca-Cl formation water.

  5. 40 CFR 282.89 - Rhode Island State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....C. 6991c and Part 281 of 40 CFR. EPA approved the Rhode Island program on January 11, 1993, and the... stringent, in accordance with Section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island...

  6. 40 CFR 282.89 - Rhode Island State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....C. 6991c and Part 281 of 40 CFR. EPA approved the Rhode Island program on January 11, 1993, and the... stringent, in accordance with Section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island...

  7. 40 CFR 282.89 - Rhode Island State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....C. 6991c and Part 281 of 40 CFR. EPA approved the Rhode Island program on January 11, 1993, and the... stringent, in accordance with Section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rhode Island...

  8. 40 CFR 282.89 - Rhode Island State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....C. 6991c and Part 281 of 40 CFR. EPA approved the Rhode Island program on January 11, 1993, and the... stringent, in accordance with Section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island...

  9. 40 CFR 282.89 - Rhode Island State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....C. 6991c and Part 281 of 40 CFR. EPA approved the Rhode Island program on January 11, 1993, and the... stringent, in accordance with Section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island...

  10. 77 FR 64414 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; United States Virgin Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Islands regional haze FIP, the reader is referred to the June 25, 2012 proposal (77 FR 37842). EPA's... submit on January 15, 2009 (74 FR 2392), determining that the U.S. Virgin Islands failed to submit a SIP..., 2012 proposal (77 FR 37842). Air modeling ranks construction and road dust as the two...

  11. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 12, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olcott, Perry G.

    1995-01-01

    The State of New York and the six New England States of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island compose Segment 12 of this Atlas (fig. 1). The seven States have a total land area of about 116,000 square miles (table 1); all but a small area in southwestern New York has been glaciated. Population in the States of Segment 12 totals about 30,408,000 (table 1) and is concentrated in southern and eastern Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and especially New York (fig. 1). The northern part of the segment and the mountainous areas of New York and much of New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine are sparsely populated. The percentage of population supplied from ground-water sources during 1980 was 54 to 60 percent in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont (table 1). Nearly all rural, domestic, and small-community water systems obtain water from wells that are, in comparison with other sources, the safest and the least expensive to install and maintain. Where water demand is great-in the urban areas of New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island-sophisticated reservoir, pipeline, and purification systems are economically feasible and are needed to meet demands. Surface water is the principal source of supply in these four States, and ground water was used to supply only 24 to 35 percent of their population during 1980 (table 1).

  12. Communicating astronomy in a small island state: The unique role of the Mauritius Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddul-Hauzaree, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Mauritius Radio Telescope (MRT) is a 2 km x 1 km T-shaped aperture synthesis array that can generate radio images of the southern sky at 151.6 MHz. The sky surveyed can be in the declination range of -70o to -10o. It is located at Bras d'Eau, northeast of Mauritius at latitude 20oS and longitude 60oE. The MRT is a joint project of the University of Mauritius, the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and the Raman Research Institute. One of the main objectives of the MRT is to generate public interest in astronomy. Thus, it is involved in a wide range of onsite outreach activities for young school children. More mature students visiting the telescope learn about sky observation with a radio telescope, get to explore some sets of data, interact with the scientific personnel, get the opportunity to have hands-on experience with image manipulation and can ask a lot of questions on astronomy. This poster gives an overview of the Mauritius Radio Telescope and the attempts of MRT ito communicate astronomy to students as a process and not just as a vast expanse of knowledge. The challenges and dilemmas faced by MRT in conveying astronomy to the general public in a small island state are investigated and presented.

  13. Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

  14. Difficult decisions: Migration from Small Island Developing States under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelman, Ilan

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of climate change on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are leading to discussions regarding decision-making about the potential need to migrate. Despite the situation being well-documented, with many SIDS aiming to raise the topic to prominence and to take action for themselves, limited support and interest has been forthcoming from external sources. This paper presents, analyzes, and critiques a decision-making flowchart to support actions for SIDS dealing with climate change-linked migration. The flowchart contributes to identifying the pertinent topics to consider and the potential support needed to implement decision-making. The flowchart has significant limitations and there are topics which it cannot resolve. On-the-ground considerations include who decides, finances, implements, monitors, and enforces each decision. Additionally, views within communities differ, hence mechanisms are needed for dealing with differences, while issues to address include moral and legal blame for any climate change-linked migration, the ultimate goal of the decision-making process, the wider role of migration in SIDS communities and the right to judge decision-making and decisions. The conclusions summarize the paper, emphasizing the importance of considering contexts beyond climate change and multiple SIDS voices.

  15. Salinity variations and chemical compositions of waters in the Frio Formation, Texas Gulf Coast. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.A.; Garrett, C.M. Jr.; Posey, J.S.; Han, J.H.; Jirik, L.A.

    1981-11-01

    Waters produced from sandstone reservoirs of the deep Frio Formation exhibit spatial variations in chemical composition that roughly coincide with the major tectonic elements (Houston and Rio Grande Embayments, San Marcos Arch) and corresponding depositional systems (Houston and Norias deltas, Greta-Carancahua barrier/strandplain system) that were respectively active along the upper, lower, and middle Texas Coast during Frio deposition. Within an area, salinities are usually depth dependent, and primary trends closely correspond to pore pressure gradients and thermal gradients. Where data are available (mainly in Brazoria County) the increases in TDS and calcium with depth coincide with the zone of albitization, smectite-illite transition, and calcite decrease in shales. Waters have fairly uniform salinities when produced from the same sandstone reservoir within a fault block or adjacent fault blocks with minor displacement. In contrast, stratigraphically equivalent sandstones separated by faults with large displacement usually yield waters with substantially different salinities owing to the markedly different thermal and pressure gradients across the faults that act as barriers to fluid movement.

  16. How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 068

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergert, Leslie F.; Gleason, Sonia Caus; Urbano, Carole

    2009-01-01

    This report describes and analyzes how eight state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, and Vermont) identify and support low-performing schools and districts under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Data collection for the report…

  17. An inventory of state natural resources information systems. [including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinko, E. A. (Principal Investigator); Caron, L. M.; Stewart, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Data bases and information systems developed and maintained by state agencies to support planning and management of environmental and nutural resources were inventoried for all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands. The information obtained is assembled into a computerized data base catalog which is throughly cross-referecence. Retrieval is possible by code, state, data base name, data base acronym, agency, computer, GIS capability, language, specialized software, data category name, geograhic reference, data sources, and level of reliability. The 324 automated data bases identified are described.

  18. Principal Aquifers of the 48 Conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    This map layer contains the shallowest principal aquifers of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, portrayed as polygons. The map layer was developed as part of the effort to produce the maps published at 1:2,500,000 in the printed series "Ground Water Atlas of the United States". The published maps contain base and cultural features not included in these data. This is a replacement for the July 1998 map layer called Principal Aquifers of the 48 Conterminous United States.

  19. Hydrogeochemistry Of A Modern Dolomite-Forming Lagoon System, Cabo Frio-RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, N. F.; Walter, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    Two hypersaline, dolomite-forming lagoons near Cabo Frio, Brazil, and associated ground- and surface waters were sampled in a comparative sediment and fluid geochemical (solutes, stable isotopes) investigation. Although microbial mediation via sulfate reducers has been invoked to explain dolomite formation in these lagoons, we showed that dolomites are associated with sulfide oxidation (Moreira et al., 2004). Sulfide oxidation is thought to promote dolomite formation by causing undersaturation for competing carbonate phases such as Mg-calcite. Herein, we consider the larger hydrogeologic and temporal setting to further elucidate hydrogeochemical and geochemical constraints on rates and mechanisms of dolomite formation in the two lagoons. The lagoons, Brejo do Espinho (BE) and Lagoa Vermelha (LV), are shallow marginal marine systems flanked by quartz sand dunes separating them from Atlantic open seawater to the south and from Araruama lagoon, a large, hypersaline water body, to the north. In both lagoons, about 1 m of high Mg-calcite and dolomite mud has accumulated over the last 5,000 years on an underlying aquifer composed of highly permeable, quartz-rich coquinas. BE has a proximal relation to recharge from Araruama lagoon, while LV is more closely associated with meteoric recharge from lacustrine and riverine systems. BE is shallower, at 0.5 m water depth, than LV (2 m), permitting BE waters to remain oxic. Oxygen isotope values and chloride mass balances of pore waters and of fluids sampled from shallow ground water wells identify the different water and solute sources the lagoons. BE overlying brines and pore waters appear to be produced by evapoconcentration of Araruama source brines and meteoric precipitation. In contrast, LV derives from evapoconcentrated seawater mixed with regional lake and ground water sources. We envision a scenario in which dense, Mg-SO4-rich brines from Araruama migrate along a permeable flowpath in limited contact with the atmosphere

  20. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    PubMed

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling. PMID:26116009

  1. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    PubMed

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling.

  2. Building Inclusive School-to-Work Systems. State Profiles: Colorado, Maryland, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadsey, Janis; Leach, Lynda; Shelden, Debra

    This report contains profiles of eight states (Colorado, Maryland, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont) that describe the states' efforts to include youth with disabilities in School-to-Work efforts. Data were gathered on each of the states through written records of state resources and grants, web site information,…

  3. Nearshore benthic habitat GIS for the Channel Islands National Sanctuary and southern California State Fisheries Reserves. Volume 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Nasby, Nicole M.; Reid, Jane A.; Waltenberger, Ben; Lee, Kristen M.

    2003-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports diverse marine life that is commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the white abalone. Agencies of the state of California and the United States have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources. Data from sidescan sonar, bathymetry, video and dive observations, and physical samples are consolidated in a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS provides researchers and policymakers a view of the relationship among data sets to assist scienctific research and to help with economic and social policy-making decisions regarding this protected environment.

  4. Coevolution of topography, hydrology, soil development, and vegetation in sky islands of the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Breshears, D. D.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.; Kurc, S. A.; Schaap, M. G.; Swetnam, T.; Troch, P. A.; University Of Arizona Czo

    2010-12-01

    , in turn, promote greater biomass in a positive feedback. To test this hypothesis, we developed a landscape evolution model that couples soil development, the partitioning of rainfall into runoff, infiltration, and evapotranspiration, vegetation growth, and geomorphic processes (colluvial and fluvial transport) over geologic time scales. Numerical experiments with this model can be run for a range of input data for climate, tectonics, and rock type. Across a climate gradient similar to that of the sky islands of the southwestern U.S., the model self-organizes into states similar to those observed in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno ranges, i.e. higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water storage potential, lower relief, and lower valley density at higher elevations/north-facing slopes. The model exhibits similar nonlinear relationships among landscape variables across the elevation/climate gradient, lending support to the hypothesis that positive feedback mechanisms contribute to the observed nonlinearity.

  5. Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell, R.; Shelander, D.; Lee, M.; Latham, T.; Collett, T.; Guerin, G.; Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.; Goldberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    A unique set of high-quality downhole shallow subsurface well log data combined with industry standard 3D seismic data from the Alaminos Canyon area has enabled the first detailed description of a concentrated gas hydrate accumulation within sand in the Gulf of Mexico. The gas hydrate occurs within very fine grained, immature volcaniclastic sands of the Oligocene Frio sand. Analysis of well data acquired from the Alaminos Canyon Block 818 #1 ("Tigershark") well shows a total gas hydrate occurrence 13??m thick, with inferred gas hydrate saturation as high as 80% of sediment pore space. Average porosity in the reservoir is estimated from log data at approximately 42%. Permeability in the absence of gas hydrates, as revealed from the analysis of core samples retrieved from the well, ranges from 600 to 1500 millidarcies. The 3-D seismic data reveals a strong reflector consistent with significant increase in acoustic velocities that correlates with the top of the gas-hydrate-bearing sand. This reflector extends across an area of approximately 0.8??km2 and delineates the minimal probable extent of the gas hydrate accumulation. The base of the inferred gas-hydrate zone also correlates well with a very strong seismic reflector that indicates transition into units of significantly reduced acoustic velocity. Seismic inversion analyses indicate uniformly high gas-hydrate saturations throughout the region where the Frio sand exists within the gas hydrate stability zone. Numerical modeling of the potential production of natural gas from the interpreted accumulation indicates serious challenges for depressurization-based production in settings with strong potential pressure support from extensive underlying aquifers.

  6. Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, R.D.; Shelander, D.; Lee, M.; Latham, T.; Collett, T.; Guerin, G.; Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.; Goldberg, D.

    2009-07-15

    A unique set of high-quality downhole shallow subsurface well log data combined with industry standard 3D seismic data from the Alaminos Canyon area has enabled the first detailed description of a concentrated gas hydrate accumulation within sand in the Gulf of Mexico. The gas hydrate occurs within very fine grained, immature volcaniclastic sands of the Oligocene Frio sand. Analysis of well data acquired from the Alaminos Canyon Block 818 No.1 ('Tigershark') well shows a total gas hydrate occurrence 13 m thick, with inferred gas hydrate saturation as high as 80% of sediment pore space. Average porosity in the reservoir is estimated from log data at approximately 42%. Permeability in the absence of gas hydrates, as revealed from the analysis of core samples retrieved from the well, ranges from 600 to 1500 millidarcies. The 3-D seismic data reveals a strong reflector consistent with significant increase in acoustic velocities that correlates with the top of the gas-hydrate-bearing sand. This reflector extends across an area of approximately 0.8 km{sup 2} and delineates the minimal probable extent of the gas hydrate accumulation. The base of the inferred gas-hydrate zone also correlates well with a very strong seismic reflector that indicates transition into units of significantly reduced acoustic velocity. Seismic inversion analyses indicate uniformly high gas-hydrate saturations throughout the region where the Frio sand exists within the gas hydrate stability zone. Numerical modeling of the potential production of natural gas from the interpreted accumulation indicates serious challenges for depressurization-based production in settings with strong potential pressure support from extensive underlying aquifers.

  7. 77 FR 65417 - Northern States Power Company (Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Storage Installation); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) in the above-captioned Prairie Island... Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  8. 77 FR 37842 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; United States Virgin Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... finding of failure to submit on January 15, 2009 (74 FR 2392), determining that the U.S. Virgin Islands... by many sources and activities which are located across a broad geographic area and emit fine... July 1, 1999, EPA promulgated the Regional Haze Rule (RHR) (64 FR 35714, July 1, 1999). The...

  9. Race to the Top. Rhode Island. State-Reported APR: Year One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes Rhode Island's progress in implementing a comprehensive and coherent approach to education reform from the time of application through June 30, 2011. In particular, this report highlights key accomplishments over the reporting period in the four reform areas: standards and assessments, data systems to support instruction,…

  10. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  11. Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese, and United States nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L. ); Schultz, V. ); Schultz, S.C. )

    1991-04-01

    A considerable literature exists on the Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese and their atolls; however, this literature consists of a large number of governmental documents that are relatively unknown and difficult to locate. This is particularly true of the documents of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and those related to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands. Because a comprehensive bibliography on the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the Marshallese and their atolls does not exist, the preparation of a bibliography that includes sufficient information to locate all types of reports seems justified. Primary sources of information in preparing this bibliography were bibliographies on Oceania, citations in published papers, CIS Index and Abstracts, Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Research Abstracts, numerous bibliographies on radiation ecology, and suggestions by many individuals whom we contacted. One goal in this bibliography is to include complete documentation of the source of congressional reports and other government-related publications. In addition, page numbers for material in this bibliography are provided in parentheses when the subject matter of a book or document is not restricted to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands.

  12. The influence of vegetation on the hydrodynamics and geomorphology of a tree island in Everglades National Park (Florida, United States)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Pamela L.; Engel, Victor C.; Ross, Michael S.; Price, René M.

    2013-01-01

    Transpiration-driven nutrient accumulation has been identified as a potential mechanism governing the creation and maintenance of wetland vegetation patterning. This process may contribute to the formation of nutrient-rich tree islands within the expansive oligotrophic marshes of the Everglades (Florida, United States). This study presents hydrogeochemical data indicating that tree root water uptake is a primary driver of groundwater ion accumulation across one of these islands. Sap flow, soil moisture, water level, water chemistry, and rainfall were measured to identify the relationships between climate, transpiration, and groundwater uptake by phreatophytes and to examine the effect this uptake has on groundwater chemistry and mineral formation in three woody plant communities of differing elevations. During the dry season, trees relied more on groundwater for transpiration, which led to a depressed water table and the advective movement of groundwater and dissolved ions, including phosphorus, from the surrounding marsh towards the centre of the island. Ion exclusion during root water uptake led to elevated concentrations of all major dissolved ions in the tree island groundwater compared with the adjacent marsh. Groundwater was predominately supersaturated with respect to aragonite and calcite in the lower-elevation woody communities, indicating the potential for soil formation. Elevated groundwater phosphorous concentrations detected in the highest-elevation woody community were associated with the leaching of inorganic sediments (i.e. hydroxyapatite) in the vadose zone. Understanding the complex feedback mechanisms regulating plant/groundwater/surface water interactions, nutrient dynamics, and potential soil formation is necessary to manage and restore patterned wetlands such as the Everglades.

  13. Final state of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island Mine

    SciTech Connect

    MOLECKE,MARTIN A.

    2000-02-01

    This report documents the decommissioning and abandonment activities at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site, Iberia Parish, Louisiana, that were concluded in 1999. These activities required about six years of intense operational, engineering, geotechnical, and management support efforts, following initiation of site abandonment plans in 1994. The Weeks Island SPR mine stored about 72.5 million bbl of crude oil following oil fill in 1980--1982, until November 1995, when the DOE initiated oil drawdown procedures, with brine refill and oil skimming, and numerous plugging and sealing activities. About 98% of the crude oil was recovered and transferred to other SPR facilities in Louisiana and Texas; a small amount was also sold. This document summarizes recent pre- and post-closure: conditions of surface features at the site, including the sinkholes, the freeze wall, surface subsidence measurements and predictions; conditions within the SPR mine, including oil recovery, brine filling, and the Markel Wet Drift; risk assessment evaluations relevant to the decommissioning and long-term potential environmental impacts; continuing environmental monitoring activities at the site; and, an overview on the background and history of the Weeks Island SPR facility.

  14. Stereo Pair of Height as Color & Shaded Relief, New York State, Lake Ontario to Long Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River (at the top of the image) and extending to Long Island (at the bottom) this image shows the varied topography of eastern New York State and parts of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The high 'bumpy' area in the middle to top right is the southern and western Adirondack Mountains, a deeply eroded landscape that includes the oldest exposed rocks in the eastern U.S.

    On the left side is the Catskill Mountains, a part of the Appalachian Mountain chain, where river erosion has produced an intricate pattern of valleys. Between the Adirondacks and Catskills is a wide valley that contains the Mohawk River and the Erie Canal. On the northwest (top) of the Catskills are several long, narrow lakes, some of the Finger Lakes of central New York that were carved by the vast glacier that covered this entire image as recently as 18,000 years ago.

    The Hudson River runs along a straight valley from right center (near Glens Falls), widening out as it approaches New York City at the lower left on the image. The Connecticut River valley has a similar north-south trend further to the east (across the lower right corner of the image). The Berkshires are between the Hudson and Connecticut valleys. Closer to the coast are the more deeply eroded rocks of the area around New York City, where several resistant rock units form topographic ridges.

    This image product is derived from a preliminary SRTM elevation model, processed with preliminary navigation information from the Space Shuttle. Broad scale and fine detail distortions in the model seen here will be corrected in the final elevation model.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by first creating and combining a shaded relief image and a height as color image, both of which were derived from the elevation model. Large water bodies were then masked, and the result was then draped back over the elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then

  15. Anaglyph of Shaded Relief New York State, Lake Ontario to Long Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River (at the top of the image) and extending to Long Island (at the bottom) this image shows the varied topography of eastern New York State and parts of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The high 'bumpy' area in the middle to top right is the southern and western Adirondack Mountains, a deeply eroded landscape that includes the oldest exposed rocks in the eastern U.S.

    On the left side is the Catskill Mountains, a part of the Appalachian Mountain chain, where river erosion has produced an intricate pattern of valleys. Between the Adirondacks and Catskills is a wide valley that contains the Mohawk River and the Erie Canal. On the northwest (top) of the Catskills are several long, narrow lakes, some of the Finger Lakes of central New York that were carved by the vast glacier that covered this entire region as recently as 18,000 years ago.

    The Hudson River runs along a straight valley from right center (near Glens Falls), widening out as it approaches New York City at the lower left on the image. The Connecticut River valley has a similar north-south trend further to the east (across the lower right corner of the image). The Berkshires are between the Hudson and Connecticut valleys. Closer to the coast are the more deeply eroded rocks of the area around New York City, where several resistant rock units form topographic ridges.

    This image product is derived from a preliminary SRTM elevation model, processed with preliminary navigation information from the Space Shuttle. Broad scale and fine detail distortions in the model seen here will be corrected in the final elevation model.

    This anaglyph was generated by first creating a shaded relief image from the elevation data, masking the large water bodies, and draping the result back over the elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically

  16. Blueprint for Change in Rhode Island: State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" provided a comprehensive review of states' policies that impact the teaching profession. As a companion to last year's comprehensive state-by-state analysis, the 2010 edition provides each state with an individualized "Blueprint for Change," building off last year's "Yearbook" goals and recommendations.…

  17. The Frio Brine Pilot Experiment Managing CO2 Sequestration in a Brine Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, S.

    2005-12-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Frio Brine Pilot Experiment was begun in 2002. The increase in greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), is thought to be a major cause of climate change. Sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers below and separate from fresh water is considered a promising method of reducing CO2 emissions. The objectives of the experiment are to (1) demonstrate CO2 can be injected into a brine formation safely; (2) measure subsurface distribution of injected CO2; (3) test the validity of conceptual, hydrologic, and geochemical models, and (4) develop experience necessary for larger scale CO2 injection experiments. The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) is the leading institution on the project and is collaborating with many national laboratories and private institutes. BEG reviewed many saline formations in the US to identify candidates for CO2 storage. The Frio Formation was selected as a target that could serve a large part of the Gulf Coast and site was selected for a brine storage pilot experiment in the South Liberty field, Dayton, Texas. Most wells were drilled in the 1950's, and the fluvial sandstone of the upper Frio Formation in the Oligocene is our target, at a depth of 5,000 ft. An existing well was used as the observation well. A new injection well was drilled 100 ft away, and 30 ft downdip from the observation well. Conventional cores were cut, and analysis indicated 32 to 35 percent porosity and 2,500 md permeability. Detailed core description was valuable as better characterization resulted in design improvements. A bed bisecting the interval originally thought to be a significant barrier to flow is a sandy siltstone having a permeability of about 100 md. As a result, the upper part of the sandstone was perforated. Because of changes in porosity, permeability, and the perforation zone, input for the simulation model was updated and the model was rerun to estimate timing of

  18. Geology and water-resources reconnaissance of Lenger Island, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, S.S.; Spengler, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Lenger is a small (less than 0.2 square miles) volcanic island located within the lagoon of Pohnpei Island. Ground water on Lenger moves as shallow subsurface flow through weathered bedrock slopes into low-lying areas near the coast before discharging into the surrounding lagoon. Estimated ground-water recharge to the island from rainfall is 506,000 gallons per day on the basis of a mean annual rainfall of 140 inches. The basal part of Lenger is composed of a relatively low- permeability post-shield-building lava flow. This flow is overlain by a more permeable conglomerate of stream deposits which is in turn overlain by a relatively low-permeability columnar-jointed lava flow. The limited land mass and relatively low-permeability lava flows that form the bedrock of Lenger are not favorable to the formation of well-defined drainage basins or large basal ground-water bodies. Numerous springs and seeps discharge shallow subsurface flow at the contact between water-bearing weathered bedrock and underlying less-permeable bedrock. Because the amount of water stored in these shallow subsurface ground-water bodies is limited, springflow and seepflow rates are directly related to rainfall. Barbosa Pond, the largest surface-water body on Lenger, contained 162,000 gallons of water on June 19, 1991. On June 20, 1991, springflow into the pond increased from 0.6 gallons per minute during base-flow conditions to 21 gallons per minute during a 4-hour period of rain that totaled 0.74 inches. The water from Barbosa Pond contains iron and manganese in concentrations that may cause problems in a water-supply system. Small-scale development of ground water, such as was done at Barbosa Pond by the Japanese, is possible by tapping water stored in colluvial talus deposits that flank the base of Mosher hill. The source of water in these deposits is from seeps and springs that have low base flows; however, additional quantities of water could be obtained from these deposits by widening or

  19. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. PMID:23313379

  20. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga.

  1. Geopressured Geothermal Resource and Recoverable Energy Estimate for the Wilcox and Frio Formations, Texas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2011-10-01

    An estimate of the total and recoverable geopressured geothermal resource of the fairways in the Wilcox and Frio formations is made using the current data available. The flow rate of water and methane for wells located in the geopressured geothermal fairways is simulated over a 20-year period utilizing the TOUGH2 Reservoir Simulator and research data. The model incorporates relative permeability, capillary pressure, rock compressibility, and leakage from the bounding shale layers. The simulations show that permeability, porosity, pressure, sandstone thickness, well spacing, and gas saturation in the sandstone have a significant impact on the percent of energy recovered. The results also predict lower average well production flow rates and a significantly higher production of natural gas relative to water than in previous studies done from 1975 to 1980. Previous studies underestimate the amount of methane produced with hot brine. Based on the work completed in this study, multiphase flow processes and reservoir boundary conditions greatly influence the total quantity of the fluid produced as well as the ratio of gas and water in the produced fluid.

  2. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  3. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  4. Solid-state track recorder neutron dosimetry in the Three-Mile Island Unit-2 reactor cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J. H.; Ruddy, F. H.; Preston, C. C.; McElroy, W. N.

    1985-04-01

    Solid state track recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry was conducted in the Three Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) reactor cavity (i.e., the annular gap between the pressure vessel and the biological shield) for nondestructive assessment of the fuel distribution. Two axial stringers were deployed in the annular gap with 17 SSTR dosimeters located on each stringer. SSTR experimental results reveal that neutron streaming, upward from the bottom of the reactor cavity region, dominates the observed neutron intensity. These absolute thermal neutron flux observations are consistent with the presence a significant amount of fuel debris lying at the bottom of the reactor vessel. A conservative lower bound estimated from these SSTR data implies that there are at least 2 tonnes of fuels, which is roughly 4 fuel assemblies, at the bottom of the vessel. The existence of significant neutron streaming also explains the high count rate observed with the source range monitors (SRMs) that are located in the TMI-2 reactor cavity.

  5. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Hydrogeology and ground-water resources of Pingelap Island, Pingelap Atoll, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The lens of fresh ground water on Pingelap Island, Pingelap Atoll contains about 384 million gallons of potable water. Recharge to the freshwater lens is estimated to be 230,000 gallons per day on the basis of an average annual rainfall of 160 inches. The long-term average sustainable yield is estimated to be about 69,000 gallons per day. The estimated demand for water is about 50,000 gallons per day. Shallow-vertical-tube wells or horizontal-infiltration wells could be used to develop the freshwater lens. The effect of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the chloride concentration of water from a network of shallow-water-table wells and deep driven wells. The ground-water resource on Pingelap can be used in conjunction with individual rainwater-catchment systems: rainwater can be used for drinking and cooking, and ground water can be used for sanitary uses. When rainwater-catchment systems fail during extended dry periods, ground water would be available to meet the total demand.

  7. Hydrogeology and ground-water resources of Ngatik Island, Sapwuahfik Atoll, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The lens of fresh ground water on Ngatik Island contains about 509 million gallons of potable water. Recharge to the freshwater lens is estimated to be 990,000 gallons per day on the basis of an estimated mean annual rainfall of 160 inches. The long-term average sustainable yield is estimated to be about 280,000 gallons per day. The estimated demand for water is about 30,000 gallons per day. Shallow-vertical-tube-wells or horizontal-infiltration wells could be used to develop the freshwater lens. The effect of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the chloride concentration of water from a network of shallow-water-table wells and deep driven wells. The ground-water resource on Ngatik can be used in conjunction with individual rainwater-catchment systems: rainwater can be used for drinking and cooking and ground water can be used for sanitary purposes. When rainwater- catchment systems fail during extended dry periods, ground water would be available to meet the total demand.

  8. Hydrogeology and ground-water resources of Kahlap Island, Mwoakilloa Atoll, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The lens of fresh ground water on Kahlap Island contains about 21.3 million gallons of potable water. Recharge to the freshwater lens is estimated to be 125,000 gallons per day on the basis of a mean annual rainfall of 120 inches. The long-term average sustainable yield is estimated to be about 17,300 gallons per day. The estimated demand for water is about 13,500 gallons per day. Shallow-vertical-tube wells or horizontal- infiltration wells could be used to develop the freshwater lens. The effect of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the chloride concentration of water from a network of shallow- water-table and deep driven wells. The ground- water resource on Kahlap can be used in conjunc- tion with individual rainwater-catchment systems: rainwater can be used for drinking and cooking, and ground water can be used for sanitary uses. When rainwater-catchment systems fail during extended dry periods, ground water would be available to meet the total demand.

  9. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  10. Modern sedimentary environments on the Rhode Island inner shelf, off the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Needell, S. W.; O'Hara, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    Analyses of side-scan sonar records along with previously published bathymetric, textural and subbottom data reveal the sedimentary environments on the inner Continental Shelf south of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. The bottom topography in this area is characterized by a broad central depression bordered by shallow, irregular sea floor on the north and east and by a discontinuous, curvilinear ridge on the south and west. Four distinct environments were identified: 1. (1) Pre-Mesozoic coastal rocks are exposed on the sea floor at isolated locations near the shore (waterdepths <32 m). These exposures have pronounced, irregular topographic relief and produce blotchy patterns on side-scan sonographs. 2. (2) Glacial moraine deposits form the discontinuous offshore ridge. These deposits have hummocky sea-floor relief, are covered by lag gravel and boudlers, and appear as predominantly black (strongly reflective) patterns on the side-scan records. 3. (3) Over most of the shallow, irregular bottom in the northeast, on the flanks of the morainal ridge, and atop bathymetric highs, the sea floor is characterized as a mosaic of light and dark patches and lineations. The dark (more reflective) zones are areas of coarse sands and megaripples (wavelengths = 0.8-1.2 m that either have no detectable relief or are slightly depressed relative to surrounding (light) areas of finer-grained sands. 4. (4) Smooth beds that produce nearly featureless patterns on the sonographs occupy the broad central bathymetric depression as well as smaller depressions north and east of Block Island. Within the broad depression, sonographs having practically no shading indicate a central zone of modern sandy silt, whereas records having moderate tonality define a peripheral belt of silty sand. The sedimentary environments that are outlined range from erosional or non-depositional (bedrock, glacial moraine) to depositional (featureless beds), and include areas that may reflect a combination of erosional

  11. Steady-state 226Ra/ 230Th disequilibrium in mantle minerals: Implications for melt transport rates in island arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feineman, Maureen D.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2003-10-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of the 238U decay series isotopes ( 234U, 230Th, 226Ra) have been used to estimate the rates at which magma is generated and transported in the mantle. The usual assumption is that solid mantle minerals are in radioactive equilibrium prior to melting. However, if one or more of the nuclides in the chain is strongly concentrated by a minor mineral, and if the diffusivity of that nuclide is large enough, steady-state radioactive disequilibrium can result in the solid phase. It can be inferred from available data that radium is strongly concentrated in minor hydroxyl-bearing mantle minerals (phlogopite and amphibole) relative to Th, and Ra diffusion in clinopyroxene is fast relative to the typical grain diameter at ca. 1100°C. Consequently, we show with simple analytical models that a steady-state Ra deficiency in clinopyroxene (cpx), accompanied by a complementary steady-state Ra excess in neighboring phlogopite (phlog) or amphibole (amph), is likely to be the normal situation in hydrous mantle peridotite with average clinopyroxene grain radii of ca. 1 mm. The steady state ( 226Ra/ 230Th) (parentheses indicating activity ratio) in the hydrous mineral is limited roughly by the mass ratio with clinopyroxene (i.e. cpx/phlog or cpx/amph) and could be as high as 10-100. The exceptionally high ( 226Ra/ 230Th) of some island arc lavas could therefore be a result of preferential contribution of phlogopite or amphibole during partial melting of hydrous mantle. This effect may ease time constraints for source-to-surface melt migration at island arcs. Incipient melting of hydrous minerals from channel walls during melt transport and/or late-stage incorporation of phlogopite or amphibole into arc magmas may also contribute to generating high ( 226Ra/ 230Th). Steady-state ( 226Ra/ 230Th) disequilibrium due to diffusive loss of 226Ra from clinopyroxene is also important for melt/solid and fluid/solid partitioning, and must be incorporated into

  12. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (Map of the US with the states that have significant Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations according to the Census Bureau) HI - ...

  13. Sea state observation in island-sheltered nearshore zone based on in situ intermediate-water wave measurements and NCEP/CFSR wind data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dora, G. Udhaba; Kumar, V. Sanil

    2015-05-01

    In this study, wind-seas, swells, and the coastal wind pattern are examined to interpret the temporal diversity of the sea state in the island-sheltered nearshore zone off Karwar on the west coast of India. The sea state is analyzed based on the sea swell energy ratio (SSER) criteria and inverse wave age (IWA) criteria. The SSER is estimated following a one dimensional spectral split of in situ intermediate-water waves measured by deploying a directional waverider buoy. The IWA is estimated based on the measured waves and the National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) wind data followed by validation with the autonomous weather station (AWS) wind data. Additionally, wave transformation in and around offshore islands is examined using the wind wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The NCEP/CFSR wind data exhibited sea breezes as well as land breezes, and also revealed good correlation to the AWS wind data during sea breeze events. Observation revealed that the SSER criteria is more practical than the IWA criteria for interpreting the sea state in the nearshore zone, where the diversity of the sea states depend significantly on the variation of coexisting wind-seas and swell proportions. The SWAN model revealed that wave propagation and transformation in the island-sheltered nearshore zone is influenced considerably by the direction of the offshore waves to the associated island(s), where the simulated wave characteristics in the SWAN model are found more reliable based on the parametric boundary condition. Further, the study revealed that modeling is a necessary task apart from a single point observation to understand surface wave propagation and transformation in an island-sheltered nearshore zone.

  14. Seismic stratigraphy of Long Island platform, United States Atlantic Continental Margin

    SciTech Connect

    Jowett, R.A.; Hutchinson, D.R.

    1987-09-01

    Approximately 2000 km of single- and multichannel seismic reflection profiles collected over the Long Island platform on the US Atlantic continental margin show that the basement beneath the platform was rifted prior to the separation of Africa from North America and that it subsided after the separation. Postrift sediment thicknesses range from less than 1 km in the northwest part of the platform to several kilometers in the southeast, near the Atlantis and Nantucket rift basins. Flanking the platform are the Georges Bank basin to the east and Baltimore Canyon Trough to the south, where sedimentary rocks are 10-15 km thick. Nine major unconformities have been delineated in analysis of the seismic profiles. The most conspicuous unconformities are correlated with the end of rifting and the upper surfaces of the Bathonian, Tithonian, Albian, Turonian-Coniacian, Maestrichtian, upper Eocene, mid-Oligocene, and mid-Miocene sections. Ages are determined by tracing reflectors and unconformities to the COST (Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test), AMCOR (Atlantic Margin Coring Project), and coastal wells. Several of these unconformities coincide with pronounced fluctuations in the Vail curve of relative sea level.

  15. The Economic Impact of Brown University on the City of Providence and on the State of Rhode Island. [1979-80].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEnany, Gina S.

    The impact of Brown University on the economic base of Providence, Rhode Island and on the state was studied. Data are based on 1978 university and public records and results of a 1976 university survey, adjusted by Consumer Price Indexes. A set of mathematical models was used to measure effects of the university on three major sections of the…

  16. Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates by State and Race/Ethnicity, 1992-2022. Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 7th edition of this publication provides updated projections of high school graduates for each year and each state (plus the District of Columbia) through 2022. The profile breaks down the projections by major racial and ethnic groups: (1) American Indian/Alaska Native; (2) Asian/Pacific Islander; (3) Black, non-Hispanic; (4) Hispanic; and (5)…

  17. A Census of Children's Residential Institutions in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, 1966: Volume 4 - Institutions for Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappenfort, Donnell M., Comp.; Kilpatrick, Dee Morgan, Comp.

    The tables of statistics on residential institutions for emotionally disturbed children which constitute the volume are based on data assembled through the National Survey of Residential Child Care Facilities, covering all institutions in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands known to have been operating in September 1965. Tabular…

  18. How State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Support Data-Driven Decisionmaking in Districts and Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 072

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle A.; Brett, Jessica; Kagle, Melissa; Midouhas, Emily; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The report examines the initiatives of state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region to support data-driven decisionmaking in districts and schools and describes the service providers hired to support this work. Four components of data-driven decisionmaking initiatives are identified: (1) Centralized data system/warehouse; (2) Tools…

  19. Climate Variability and Change and Their Potential Health Effects in Small Island States: Information for Adaptation Planning in the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Lewis, Nancy D.; Corvalan, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Small island states are likely the countries most vulnerable to climate variability and long-term climate change. Climate models suggest that small island states will experience warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall, soil moisture budgets, prevailing winds (speed and direction), and patterns of wave action. El Niño events likely will strengthen short-term and interannual climate variations. In addition, global mean sea level is projected to increase by 0.09–0.88 m by 2100, with variable effects on regional and local sea level. To better understand the potential human health consequences of these projected changes, a series of workshops and a conference organized by the World Health Organization, in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, addressed the following issues: the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive diseases in small island states, the potential future health impacts of climate variability and change, the interventions currently used to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive diseases, additional interventions that are needed to adapt to current and future health impacts, and the health implications of climate variability and change in other sectors. Information on these issues is synthesized and key recommendations are identified for improving the capacity of the health sector to anticipate and prepare for climate variability and change in small island states. PMID:17185291

  20. Climate variability and change and their potential health effects in small island states: information for adaptation planning in the health sector.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie L; Lewis, Nancy D; Corvalan, Carlos

    2006-12-01

    Small island states are likely the countries most vulnerable to climate variability and longterm climate change. Climate models suggest that small island states will experience warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall, soil moisture budgets, prevailing winds (speed and direction), and patterns of wave action. El Niño events likely will strengthen shortterm and interannual climate variations. In addition, global mean sea level is projected to increase by 0.09-0.88 m by 2100, with variable effects on regional and local sea level. To better understand the potential human health consequences of these projected changes, a series of workshops and a conference organized by the World Health Organization, in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, addressed the following issues: the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive diseases in small island states, the potential future health impacts of climate variability and change, the interventions currently used to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive diseases, additional interventions that are needed to adapt to current and future health impacts, and the health implications of climate variability and change in other sectors. Information on these issues is synthesized and key recommendations are identified for improving the capacity of the health sector to anticipate and prepare for climate variability and change in small island states.

  1. 9 CFR 72.2 - Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors of said disease in the Northern...

  2. Mineral dissolution and precipitation during CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot: Geochemical modeling and uncertainty analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ilgen, A. G.; Cygan, R. T.

    2015-12-07

    During the Frio-I Brine Pilot CO2 injection experiment in 2004, distinct geochemical changes in response to the injection of 1600 tons of CO2 were recorded in samples collected from the monitoring well. Previous geochemical modeling studies have considered dissolution of calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, or release of adsorbed iron, as the most likely sources of the increased ion concentrations. We explore in this modeling study possible alternative sources of the increasing calcium and iron, based on the data from the detailed petrographic characterization of the Upper Frio Formation “C”. Particularly, we evaluate whether dissolution of pyrite and oligoclase (anorthitemore » component) can account for the observed geochemical changes. Due to kinetic limitations, dissolution of pyrite and anorthite cannot account for the increased iron and calcium concentrations on the time scale of the field test (10 days). However, dissolution of these minerals is contributing to carbonate and clay mineral precipitation on the longer time scales (1000 years). The one-dimensional reactive transport model predicts carbonate minerals, dolomite and ankerite, as well as clay minerals kaolinite, nontronite and montmorillonite, will precipitate in the Frio Formation “C” sandstone as the system progresses towards chemical equilibrium during a 1000-year period. Cumulative uncertainties associated with using different thermodynamic databases, activity correction models (Pitzer vs. B-dot), and extrapolating to reservoir temperature, are manifested in the difference in the predicted mineral phases. Furthermore, these models are consistent with regards to the total volume of mineral precipitation and porosity values which are predicted to within 0.002%.« less

  3. Understanding the variations in the vegetation of Cabo Frio, Southeastern coast of Brazil, during the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macario, K.; Coe, H. H.; Gomes, J.; Oliveira, F.; Gomes, P.; Carvalho, C.; Linares, R.; Alves, E.; Santos, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Southeast was formerly occupied by Atlantic forest before the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century, when deforestation slowly started to take place. To understand the variations in the vegetation of Cabo Frio during the Quaternary, and possibly identify when they roughly took place, we make use of soil phytolith identification (as proxy), stable isotopes analyses and 14C dating of soil profiles. Nowadays, those are helpful tools to reveal the palaeoenvironmental secrets hidden below-ground. The soil profile studied, which was divided in 4 horizons ranging from 10 and 115 cm in depth, was collected in the surroundings of Cabo Frio, in the Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern coast of Brazil. Its total organic carbon (TOC) varied from 0.42 to 1.11% (for the different horizons), when its δ13C values ranged from -18.81 (topsoil) to -23.72‰ (~ 80cm deep). Phytolith D/P index varied from 0.1 to 0.21. Due to the low carbon content within soil horizons, soil organic matter (SOM) fractions were chosen for isotopic analyses. Mostly of the 14C-SOM analyses were performed in a newer 14C facility, which runs a NEC 250 kV Single Stage Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system, the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Fluminense Federal University (LAC-UFF) located in Niteroi, RJ. In brief, before measurements could be performed, the soil samples were treated with HCl 1.0M to remove carbonates, then combusted in sealed evacuated pre-baked tubes, cryogenically clean and converted to graphite (as decribed in Xu et al. 2007). In order to verify the distribution of 14C ages of different chemical soil fractions (Pessenda et al. 2001), a refractory C fraction (humin) was extracted from the topsoil horizon, and also converted to graphite following established protocols (Santos et al. 2007a,b). Due to its very low carbon mass (<<50mgC), this graphite target was processed and measured at the Keck-CCAMS Facility at University of California, Irvine. (UCI), which runs a modified NEC

  4. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L.

    1996-02-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

  5. Secondary natural gas recovery in mature fluvial sandstone reservoirs, Frio Formation, Agua Dulce Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.A.; Levey, R.A. ); Vidal, J.M. ); Sippel, M.A. ); Ballard, J.R. ); Coover, D.M. Jr. ); Bloxsom, W.E. )

    1993-09-01

    An approach that integrates detailed geologic, engineering, and petrophysical analyses combined with improved well-log analytical techniques can be used by independent oil and gas companies of successful infield exploration in mature Gulf Coast fields that larger companies may consider uneconomic. In a secondary gas recovery project conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology and funded by the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy, a potential incremental natural gas resource of 7.7 bcf, of which 4.0 bcf may be technically recoverable, was identified in a 490-ac lease in Agua Dulce field. Five wells in this lease had previously produced 13.7 bcf from Frio reservoirs at depths of 4600-6200 ft. The pay zones occur in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones offset by faults associated with the Vicksburg fault zone. The compartments may each contain up to 1.0 bcf of gas resources with estimates based on previous completions and the recent infield drilling experience of Pintas Creek Oil Company. Uncontacted gas resources occur in thin (typically less than 10 ft) bypassed zones that can be identified through a computed log evaluation that integrates open-hole logs, wireline pressure tests, fluid samples, and cores. At Agua Dulce field, such analysis identified at 4-ft bypassed zone uphole from previously produced reservoirs. This reservoir contained original reservoir pressure and flowed at rates exceeding 1 mmcf/d. The expected ultimate recovery is 0.4 bcf. Methodologies developed in the evaluation of Agua Dulce field can be successfully applied to other mature gas fields in the south Texas Gulf Coast. For example, Stratton and McFaddin are two fields in which the secondary gas recovery project has demonstrated the existence of thin, potentially bypassed zones that can yield significant incremental gas resources, extending the economic life of these fields.

  6. Natural disaster vulnerability and human-induced pressure assessment in small islands developing states: A case study in the Union of the Comoros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak, S.; Meddeb, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Comoros Islands are part of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) located in the Indian Ocean. SIDS are islands and low-lying coastal nations that face common barriers to sustainable development, including limited resources, poor economic resilience, and vulnerability to sea level rise and natural disasters. The Comoros Archipelago is made up of four islands but the present study was conducted on three islands, namely Mwali (Mohéli), Ngazidja (Grande Comore) and Dzwani (Anjouan) that are aligned in the Mozambique Channel and spread over a surface area of 1862 km2. These islands are exposed to natural disaster coupled with human-induced pressure on natural resources. The major natural disaster vulnerability has been identified by the National AdaptationProgramme of Action (NAPA, 2006) as climate change, whose likely adverse impacts on the Comoros Islands are: i) changes in rainfall patterns; ii) increases in temperature; iii) salinization of coastal aquifers as a result of salt water intrusion due to sea level rise; and iv) increased frequency of severe weather conditions (such as tropical cyclones, droughts, heavy rainfall and flooding). In addition, existing practices related to natural resources management (primarily land, forest and water management) are very poor and this failure is increasingly threatening water and food security, resulting in a decline of economic growth and standards of living within the Comoros. Human-induced pressure combined with climate change impact is the inherent vulnerabilities of these islands. The government of the Union of the Comoros is aware of the alarming nature of climate change impact and has put in place several projects aiming at implementing adaptation measures in order to help increase the resilience of the vulnerable population in the face of this threat. These projects involve strengthening institutions, policy and regulations so as to improve the management of natural resources, among other measures. The

  7. Competition between normal and intruder states inside the 'island of inversion'

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Vandana; Tabor, S. L.; Bender, P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lee, Sangjin; Perry, M.; Pepper, K.; Volya, A.; Mantica, P. F.; Utsuno, Y.; Cook, J.; Pereira, J.; Weisshaar, D.; Otsuka, T.; Pinter, J. S.; Stoker, J.

    2007-08-15

    The {beta}{sup -} decay of the exotic {sup 30}Ne (N=20) is reported. For the first time, the low-energy level structure of the N=19, {sup 30}Na (T{sub Z}=4), is obtained from {beta}-delayed {gamma} spectroscopy using fragment-{beta}-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidences. The level structure clearly displays ''inversion,'' i.e., intruder states with mainly 2p2h configurations displacing the normal states to higher excitation energies. The good agreement in excitation energies and the weak and electromagnetic decay patterns with Monte Carlo shell model calculations with the SDPF-M interaction in the sdpf valence space confirms the small d{sub 3/2}-f{sub 7/2} shell gap. The relative position of the normal dominant and intruder dominant excited states provides valuable information to understand better the N=20 shell gap.

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Stuart T.; Midwinter, Robyn G.; Coupland, Lucy A.; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S.; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Chong, Beng H.; Parish, Christopher R.; Stocker, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119+-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119+-erythroid cells in the spleen, although α4β1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes. PMID:25682599

  9. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state's health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta. PMID:27683658

  10. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state's health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta.

  11. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  12. Sensitivity of Barnes Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, to climate state and internal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, A.; Flowers, G. E.; Miller, G. H.; Rabus, B. T.; Van Wychen, W.; Gardner, A. S.; Copland, L.

    2016-08-01

    Barnes Ice Cap is a remnant of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered much of northern North America during the Last Glacial Maximum. Barnes reached a quasi-equilibrium state ~2000 years ago and has remained similar in size since then, with a small increase during the Little Ice Age. In this study, we combine historical observations (1960-1980) with more recent satellite and airborne data (1995-2010) to drive a mass balance model coupled to a transient thermomechanical model with an adaptive mesh geometry. The model is used to characterize the current state of the ice cap and to investigate its stability as a function of climate and its own internal dynamics. On millennial time scales we show that ice flow is influenced by adjustment of an unsteady shape, by gently sloping bedrock, and by contrasting viscosities between the Pleistocene and Holocene ice. On shorter time scales, Barnes is affected by surge activity. Sensitivity tests reveal that Barnes experienced climate conditions which enabled its stability 2000 to 3000 years ago but will disappear under current climate conditions in the next millennium.

  13. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buttigieg, Sandra C.; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state’s health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta.

  14. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buttigieg, Sandra C.; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state’s health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta. PMID:27683658

  15. Solid-state track recorder neutron dosimetry in the Three-Mile Island Unit-2 reactor cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.; Preston, C.C.; McElroy, W.N.

    1985-04-01

    Solid-state track recorder (SSTR) neutron dosimetry has been conducted in the Three-Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) reactor cavity (i.e., the annular gap between the pressure vessel and the biological shield) for nondestructive assessment of the fuel distribution. Two axial stringers were deployed in the annular gap with 17 SSTR dosimeters located on each stringer. SSTR experimental results reveal that neutron streaming, upward from the bottom of the reactor cavity region, dominates the observed neutron intensity. These absolute thermal neutron flux observations are consistent with the presence of a significant amount of fuel debris lying at the bottom of the reactor vessel. A conservative lower bound estimated from these SSTR data implies that there are at least 2 tonnes of fuel, which is roughly 4 fuel assemblies, at the bottom of the vessel. The existence of significant neutron streaming also explains the high count rate observed with the source range monitors (SRMs) that are located in the TMI-2 reactor cavity.

  16. Fault Scarp Detection Beneath Dense Vegetation Cover: Airborne Lidar Mapping of the Seattle Fault Zone, Bainbridge Island, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David J.; Berghoff, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of a commercial airborne laser mapping industry is paying major dividends in an assessment of earthquake hazards in the Puget Lowland of Washington State. Geophysical observations and historical seismicity indicate the presence of active upper-crustal faults in the Puget Lowland, placing the major population centers of Seattle and Tacoma at significant risk. However, until recently the surface trace of these faults had never been identified, neither on the ground nor from remote sensing, due to cover by the dense vegetation of the Pacific Northwest temperate rainforests and extremely thick Pleistocene glacial deposits. A pilot lidar mapping project of Bainbridge Island in the Puget Sound, contracted by the Kitsap Public Utility District (KPUD) and conducted by Airborne Laser Mapping in late 1996, spectacularly revealed geomorphic features associated with fault strands within the Seattle fault zone. The features include a previously unrecognized fault scarp, an uplifted marine wave-cut platform, and tilted sedimentary strata. The United States Geologic Survey (USGS) is now conducting trenching studies across the fault scarp to establish ages, displacements, and recurrence intervals of recent earthquakes on this active fault. The success of this pilot study has inspired the formation of a consortium of federal and local organizations to extend this work to a 2350 square kilometer (580,000 acre) region of the Puget Lowland, covering nearly the entire extent (approx. 85 km) of the Seattle fault. The consortium includes NASA, the USGS, and four local groups consisting of KPUD, Kitsap County, the City of Seattle, and the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). The consortium has selected Terrapoint, a commercial lidar mapping vendor, to acquire the data.

  17. Unraveling the heat island effect observed in urban groundwater bodies - Definition of a potential natural state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epting, Jannis; Huggenberger, Peter

    2013-09-01

    A superposition of several thermal processes leads to an elevation of groundwater temperatures of up to 9 °C above the natural state in the city of Basel, Switzerland. The urban thermal groundwater regime is influenced by: (1) urbanization and annual heating periods; (2) thermal groundwater use; (3) seasonal trends; (4) river-groundwater interaction; and (5) climate change and consequences thereof. The combination of short- and long-term data analysis, including conventional and high-resolution multilevel groundwater temperature monitoring, as well as 3D numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport modeling allowed quantifying the thermal influences on the investigated urban groundwater body. Results facilitate to describe the “present state” of the urban thermal groundwater regime and to derive a “potential natural state” of the investigated groundwater body. The study originated from a request of the executive council to provide a basis for cost estimates of infrastructure adaptation measures necessary to mitigate the impact of climate change. It is shown that the principal trigger for the observed thermal development is not climate change but that local and regional anthropogenic factors are dominating. Although in urban areas, groundwater is increasingly used for cooling purposes; the geothermal potential, resulting from elevated groundwater temperatures, is generally not exploited. The presented approach provides a basis for the setup of combined and thermally balanced heating and cooling systems.

  18. PIALA '95. Preservation of Culture through Archives and Libraries. Papers from the Annual Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (5th, Colonia, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia, November 6-10, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.

    The annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives addressed various topics of interest to librarians, archivists, and educators in the Pacific Islands. The proceedings include welcoming remarks by 2 Yap state government officials and PIALA President Herbert Del Rosario; a keynote address by Dr. Marcia J.…

  19. Exploring the implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in four small island developing states of the Pacific: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erik; de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine what variables influence the implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in small island developing states of the Pacific and how they affect its success or failure. To explore how barriers can be overcome and opportunities utilised to ensure an effective FCTC implementation in the Pacific Islands. Design A mixed methods, multiple case study consisting of primarily qualitative data in the form of semistructured interviews, document analysis and opportunistic observation. Setting Field visits were undertaken to collect data in the Cook Islands, Vanuatu, Palau and Nauru. The key informants were interviewed in the major cities or islands of each respective country: Rarotonga, Port Vila, Koror and Nauru. Participants Purposive sampling was used to select 39 informants, whose roles were associated with FCTC implementation. Most of the participants worked in health-oriented positions in the government and non-government organisations. Results Each country made a significant progress towards FCTC implementation. Overall, strong policy content, public support and limited pro-tobacco coalition activity were conducive to FCTC implementation, but the challenges were evident in the form of limited capacity, limited antitobacco coalition activity and limited political commitment outside the ministries of health in each country. Conclusions Further efforts are needed for full FCTC implementation, through building capacity and using resources effectively, growing commitment to FCTC beyond the health sector, fostering growth in antitobacco coalition activity, exploiting the limited pro-tobacco activity that may be present and garnering public support for tobacco control. These lessons may be particularly important for other small island developing states in the Pacific and developing countries elsewhere. PMID:24327364

  20. The nature of the island and banana states in atoll sources and a unified model for low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, M. J.; Gibiec, A.; Bałucińska-Church, M.

    2014-03-01

    We propose an explanation of the island and banana states and the relation between atoll and Z-track sources, constituting a unified model for low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB). We find a dramatic transition at a luminosity of 1-2 × 1037 erg s-1 above which the high-energy cut-off ECO of the Comptonized emission in all sources is low at a few keV. There is thermal equilibrium between the neutron star at ˜2 keV and the Comptonizing accretion disc corona (ADC) causing the low ECO in the banana state of atolls and all states of the Z-track sources. Below this luminosity, ECO increases towards 100 keV causing the hardness of the island state. Thermal equilibrium is lost, the ADC becoming much hotter than the neutron star via an additional coronal heating mechanism. This suggests a unified model of LMXB: the banana state is a basic state with the mass accretion rate dot{M} increasing, corresponding to the normal branch of Z-track sources. The island state has high ADC temperature, this state not existing in the Z-sources with luminosities much greater than the critical value. The Z-track sources have an additional flaring branch consistent with unstable nuclear burning on the neutron star at high dot{M}. This burning regime does not exist at low dot{M} so this branch is not seen in atolls (except GX atolls). The horizontal branch in Z-track sources has a strong increase in radiation pressure disrupting the inner disc and launching relativistic jets.

  1. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students? Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper profiles Rhode Island's test score trends through 2008-09. In 2006, the mean scale score on the state 4th grade reading test was 445 for non-Title I students and 435 for Title I students. In 2009, the mean scale score in 4th grade reading was 448 for non-Title I students and 440 for Title I students. Between 2006 and 2009, the mean…

  3. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  4. Population clustering and clonal structure evidence the relict state of Ulmus minor Mill. in the Balearic Islands.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Valbuena-Carabaña, M; Ennos, R; Gil, L

    2014-07-01

    Field elm (Ulmus minor) is a riparian tree that grows in rare, small populations scattered along temporary watercourses in the Balearic Islands, nowadays mostly covered with Mediterranean vegetation. Agriculture and farming on the fertile land along the periodically flooded plains have reduced the elm populations to sparse tree lines along the creek beds. The presence of field elm in this very anthropic landscape has led some authors to consider it as an introduced species in the Balearics. However, pollen data suggest these elms may be the remains of larger populations experiencing continuous population shrinkage during the Holocene, and hence be native to the isles. In this paper, we apply genetic markers to assess whether field elm is or is not indigenous to the Balearic Islands. We compare the genetic variation in nine nuclear microsatellites of six Balearic populations (three in each of the largest islands, Majorca and Minorca) with that of three natural Iberian populations located in two regions, one geologically (Baetic mountains, SE Iberia) and another historically (Catalonia, NE Iberia) related to the islands. Principal coordinates analysis and Bayesian clustering methods reveal a strong genetic differentiation of the Balearic populations from the Iberian ones, and even among islands, which support their native origin. Genotypic variation in the islands is very low and clonal reproduction is very high compared with the mainland, as it is frequently observed in populations of clonal species where sexual reproduction is limited. We discuss the practical implications of these findings for the conservation of elm genetic resources of these findings.

  5. Potential Environmental Impacts of CO2 Storage in Sedimentary Basins: Results From the Frio Brine Test, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharaka, Y. K.; Cole, D. R.; Hovorka, S. D.; Phelps, T. J.; Nance, S.

    2006-12-01

    Deep saline aquifers in sedimentary basins, including depleted petroleum reservoirs, provide advantageous locations close to major anthropogenic sources of CO2 and potential capacity for the storage of huge volumes of this greenhouse gas. To investigate the potential for the long-term storage of CO2 in such aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick "C" sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional saline aquifer in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained before CO2 injection from the injection well and an observation well 30 m updip showed a Na-Ca-Cl type brine with 93,000 mg/L TDS at near saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions; gas analyses show CH4 comprised ~95% of dissolved gas, but CO2 was low at 0.3%. Following CO2 breakthrough, 51 h after injection, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5 to 5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100 to 3000 mg/L as HCO3) and in Fe (30 to 1100 mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, Sr, DIC, and CH4. These data coupled with geochemical modeling indicate rapid dissolution of minerals, especially calcite and iron oxyhydroxides caused by lowered pH (~3.0 initially) of the brine in contact with the injected supercritical CO2. These geochemical parameters, together with perfluorocarbon tracer gases (PFTs) proved effective in mapping the distribution and interactions of the injected CO2 in the Frio "C". They are being used to track the migration of the injected CO2 into the local shallow groundwater and into the overlying Frio "B", comprised of a 4-m-thick sandstone bed and separated from the "C" by ~15 m of shale, muddy sandstone and siltstone beds. Results obtained to date from the four monitoring groundwater wells perforated (26-29 m) in the Beaumont aquifer show some temporal chemical changes. These changes, however, are tentatively attributed to natural variations and recharge events caused by the construction of a mud pit at the site, and not to leakage

  6. Population genomic analysis uncovers African and European admixture in Drosophila melanogaster populations from the south-eastern United States and Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joyce Y; Zubair, Asif; Salomon, Matthew P; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Campo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is postulated to have colonized North America in the past several 100 years in two waves. Flies from Europe colonized the east coast United States while flies from Africa inhabited the Caribbean, which if true, make the south-east US and Caribbean Islands a secondary contact zone for African and European D. melanogaster. This scenario has been proposed based on phenotypes and limited genetic data. In our study, we have sequenced individual whole genomes of flies from populations in the south-east US and Caribbean Islands and examined these populations in conjunction with population sequences from the west coast US, Africa, and Europe. We find that west coast US populations are closely related to the European population, likely reflecting a rapid westward expansion upon first settlements into North America. We also find genomic evidence of African and European admixture in south-east US and Caribbean populations, with a clinal pattern of decreasing proportions of African ancestry with higher latitude. Our genomic analysis of D. melanogaster populations from the south-east US and Caribbean Islands provides more evidence for the Caribbean Islands as the source of previously reported novel African alleles found in other east coast US populations. We also find the border between the south-east US and the Caribbean island to be the admixture hot zone where distinctly African-like Caribbean flies become genomically more similar to European-like south-east US flies. Our findings have important implications for previous studies examining the generation of east coast US clines via selection.

  7. Fluvial architecture and reservoir heterogeneity of middle Frio sandstones, Seeligson field, Jim Wells and Kleberg Counties, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, L.A.; Kerr, D.R.; Zinke, S.G.; Finley, R.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Evaluation of fluvial Frio reservoirs in south Texas reveals a complex architectural style potentially suited to the addition of incremental gas reserves through recognition of untapped compartments or bypassed gas zones. Seeligson field is being studied as part of a GRI/DOE/Texas-sponsored program, in cooperation with Oryx Energy Company and Mobil Exploration and Production U.S., Inc., and is designed to develop technologies and methodologies for increasing gas reserves from conventional reservoirs in mature fields. Seeligson field, discovered in 1937, has produced 2.2 tcf of gas from more than 50 middle Frio reservoirs. Cross sections as well as net sand and log facies maps illustrate depositional style, sandstone geometry, and reservoir heterogeneities. Far-offset vertical seismic profiles show laterally discontinuous reflections corresponding to the reservoirs. Lenticular lateral-bar sandstones dominate channel-fill deposits that together are commonly less than 50 ft thick, forming belts of sandstone approximately 2,500 ft wide. Crevasse-splay deposits commonly extend a few thousand feet beyond the channel system. Sand-rich channel-fill deposits are flanked by levee and overbank mudstones, isolating the reservoirs in narrow, dip-elongate trends. Deposition on an aggrading coastal plain resulted in a pattern of laterally stacked sandstone bodies that are widespread across the study area. Alternating periods of more rapid aggradation resulted in deposition of vertically stacked sandstones with limited areal distribution. Facies architecture of both depositional styles has implications for reservoir compartmentalization. Reservoir compartments within a laterally stacked system may be leaky, resulting from sandstone contact from producing wells along depositional axes. This effect is a major factor controlling incremental recovery. Reservoirs in vertically stacked systems should be better isolated.

  8. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic reservoirs of South Texas. Technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Dutton, S.

    1994-06-30

    Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being applied to selected reservoirs in the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) trend of South Texas in order to maximize the economic producibility of resources in this mature oil play. More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have already been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced unless advanced characterization techniques are applied to define untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool reservoirs as suitable targets for near-term recovery methods. This project is developing interwell-scale geological facies models and assessing engineering attributes of Frio fluvial-deltaic reservoirs in selected fields in order to characterize reservoir architecture, flow unit boundaries, and the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. The results of these studies will lead directly to the identification of specific opportunities to exploit these heterogeneous reservoirs for incremental recovery by recompletion and strategic infill drilling. Work during the second project quarter of 1994 focused on continuation of Phase 2 tasks associated with characterizing stratigraphic heterogeneity in selected Frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs. Playwide reservoir assessment continued as reservoir engineering data from fields throughout the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone trend were grouped within stratigraphic sub-intervals in order to characterize general reservoir heterogeneity, evaluate production behavior, and assess remaining resource potential in middle Frio, lower Frio, and upper Vicksburg reservoir sandstones.

  9. Population clustering and clonal structure evidence the relict state of Ulmus minor Mill. in the Balearic Islands

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Valbuena-Carabaña, M; Ennos, R; Gil, L

    2014-01-01

    Field elm (Ulmus minor) is a riparian tree that grows in rare, small populations scattered along temporary watercourses in the Balearic Islands, nowadays mostly covered with Mediterranean vegetation. Agriculture and farming on the fertile land along the periodically flooded plains have reduced the elm populations to sparse tree lines along the creek beds. The presence of field elm in this very anthropic landscape has led some authors to consider it as an introduced species in the Balearics. However, pollen data suggest these elms may be the remains of larger populations experiencing continuous population shrinkage during the Holocene, and hence be native to the isles. In this paper, we apply genetic markers to assess whether field elm is or is not indigenous to the Balearic Islands. We compare the genetic variation in nine nuclear microsatellites of six Balearic populations (three in each of the largest islands, Majorca and Minorca) with that of three natural Iberian populations located in two regions, one geologically (Baetic mountains, SE Iberia) and another historically (Catalonia, NE Iberia) related to the islands. Principal coordinates analysis and Bayesian clustering methods reveal a strong genetic differentiation of the Balearic populations from the Iberian ones, and even among islands, which support their native origin. Genotypic variation in the islands is very low and clonal reproduction is very high compared with the mainland, as it is frequently observed in populations of clonal species where sexual reproduction is limited. We discuss the practical implications of these findings for the conservation of elm genetic resources of these findings. PMID:24619184

  10. Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese, and United States nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, V. ); Schultz, S.C. ); Robison, W.L. )

    1991-05-01

    A considerable literature exists on the Bikini, Enewetak, and Rongelap Marshallese and their atolls; however, this literature consists of a large number of governmental documents that are relatively unknown and difficult to locate. This is particularly true of the documents of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and those related to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands. Because a comprehensive bibliography on the impact of nuclear weapons testing on the Marshallese and their atolls does not exist, the preparation of a bibliography that includes sufficient information to locate all types of reports seems justified. This document is the bibliography.

  11. 75 FR 44292 - Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...-AA90) published in the Federal Register on April 26, 1991 (56 FR 18997); and (C) The Nuclear Energy... contrary to the rationale for rulemaking, as discussed in 56 FR 18997. On October 26 and December 2, 2009... Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Issuance of...

  12. Overview of Asian and Pacific Islanders in the United States and California: A Series of Community Voices Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ro, Marguerite

    This report presents data on Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs), focusing on California. It discusses: who APIAs are; nativity and citizenship; residence (nearly all APIAs reside in metropolitan areas, particularly California); educational attainment (because of the model minority myth about Asians, APIA children are deprived of…

  13. Substance use and dependence among Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asian ethnic groups in the United States: contrasting multiple-race and single-race prevalence rates from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Joseph T; Wang, Cynthia; Price, Rumi Kato

    2010-01-01

    The percentage of multiracial youth appears to be increasing in the United States. However, little has been disseminated about problem behaviors among multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians on a national level. Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the authors compared multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, while disaggregating by ethnic subgroups, with single-race individuals within respective Asian ethnic subgroups and Caucasians for prevalence of alcohol/drug use and dependence. For multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, high rates of alcohol dependence were observed compared with both single-race Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, and Asian subgroups and single-race Caucasians; for some multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, high rates of drug dependence were also observed.

  14. The Development of Urban Heat Islands in the Southeast Region of the United States in the Winter Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Jan

    The study of the urban heat island has gained increased importance due to its relation to global warming. The effect of urbanization and land use changes in general on thermometer readings can bias long-term records resulting in a false global warming signal. Therefore, understanding the urban heat island phenomenon is important for an assessment of the global warming magnitude. A modeling approach has been chosen since it can overcome some restrictions of "conventional" methods (in situ and satellite observations), such as limited spatial and temporal resolution and topography effects. Models can provide better resolution and extend our understanding of the underlying physics of urban heat island development. In order to demonstrate this concept, the city of Atlanta was selected for numerical simulation under clear sky conditions on 6-7 and 25-26 February 1988. A mesoscale model developed by Pielke (1974) was employed in the numerical simulation. The first step was determination of the soil thermal inertia and moisture availability using AVHRR satellite-derived skin surface temperatures in a technique developed by Carlson et al. (1981). The thermal inertia exhibited elevated values over the city in both cases. The moisture availability field showed a larger degree of variability. The case of 25-26 February 1988 exhibited lower values of moisture availability in the city as compared to the rural surroundings, which is considered to be a typical situation. However, the case of 6-7 February 1988 showed extremely high moisture availability in the city. A possible explanation can be found in the cumulative rainfall, which shows a positive correlation between 14 -day cumulative rainfall amount and the moisture availability. A technique proposed by Hjelmfelt (1982) was used to simulate the urban effect. The urban heat island itself was investigated in terms of the skin surface and 2-m height temperatures. The horizontal and temporal evolution of these variables was

  15. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Reservoirs of South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H.; Knox, P.R.

    1995-07-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone Play of South Texas is one example of a mature play where reservoirs are being abandoned at high rates, potentially leaving behind significant unrecovered resources in untapped and incompletely drained reservoirs. Nearly 1 billion barrels of oil have been produced from Frio reservoirs since the 1940`s, yet more than 1.6 BSTB of unrecovered mobile oil is estimated to remain in the play. Frio reservoirs of the South Texas Gulf Coast are being studied to better characterize interwell stratigraphic heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic depositional systems and determine controls on locations and volumes of unrecovered oil. Engineering data from fields throughout the play trend were evaluated to characterize variability exhibited by these heterogeneous reservoirs and were used as the basis for resource calculations to demonstrate a large additional oil potential remaining within the play. Study areas within two separate fields have been selected in which to apply advanced reservoir characterization techniques. Stratigraphic log correlations, reservoir mapping, core analyses, and evaluation of production data from each field study area have been used to characterize reservoir variability present within a single field. Differences in sandstone depositional styles and production behavior were assessed to identify zones with significant stratigraphic heterogeneity and a high potential for containing unproduced oil. Detailed studies of selected reservoir zones within these two fields are currently in progress.

  16. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  17. LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John R.

    1987-01-01

    During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

  18. Preliminary Use of Uric Acid as a Biomarker for Wading Birds on Everglades Tree Islands, Florida, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bates, Anne L.; Orem, William H.; Newman, Susan; Gawlik, Dale E.; Lerch, Harry E.; Corum, Margo D.; Van Winkle, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of organic biomarkers and concentrations of phosphorus in soil cores can potentially be used as proxies for historic population densities of wading birds on tree islands in the Florida Everglades. This report focuses on establishing a link between the organic biomarker uric acid found in wading bird guano and the high phosphorus concentrations in tree island soils in the Florida Everglades. Uric acid was determined in soil core sections, in surface samples, and in bird guano by using a method of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) developed for this purpose. Preliminary results show an overall correlation between uric acid and total phosphorus in three soil cores, with a general trend of decreasing concentrations of both uric acid and phosphorus with depth. However, we have also found no uric acid in a soil core having high concentrations of phosphorus. We believe that this result may be explained by different geochemical circumstances at that site.

  19. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. The Malta Primary Literacy Value-Added Project: A Template For Value-Added in Small Island States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Dougal; Mifsud, Charles; Morrison, Jo; Grech, Rowena; Rudd, Peter; Hanson, John

    2005-01-01

    The Malta Primary Literacy Value-Added study was the outcome of a process of testing and matching at ages 9-10, the pupils in Maltese primary schools who were tested three years earlier, at ages 6-7. All primary schools in the island took part at both stages. Pupils were tested in both Maltese and English at both ages. In addition extensive data…

  1. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, December 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-05-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for nine sites located at the Barter Island radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the 14 sites located at the Barter Island installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, nine sites are recommended for no further action.

  2. The state of permafrost surrounding "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (Deception Island, Antarctica): Studying the possible degradation due to the infrastructures heating effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio, Cayetana; Ángel de Pablo, MIguel; Ramos, MIguel; Molina, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost degradation is one of the effects of the global warming. Many studies reveal the increase of active layer and reduction on permafrost table thickness, also in Antarctica. However, these trends on permafrost can be accelerated by the human activities, as the heating produced by the Antarctic stations infrastructures when they are not properly isolated from the ground. In Deception island, South Shetland Archipelago, we started 3 years ago a monitoring program at the 26 years old "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS), It is focused on charactering the state of permafrost, since in the coastal scarps at tens of meters from the station an increase on erosion had been detected. Although the main cause of the erosion of this coastal volcanoclastic materials is the 2 meters thick icefield which forms during the winter in the inner sea of this volcanic island, we want to detect any possible contribution to the coastal erosion caused by the permafrost degradation related to the SAS presence. We present our preliminary analysis based on three years of continuous ground temperature data, monitored at a shallow borehole (70 cm deep) in the SAS edge, together with the active layer thickness measured around the station and their vicinities in two thawing seasons. We complete this study with the analysis of the continuous temperature data taken inside the SAS and the air and ground temperatures below the station, acquired during the last Antarctic Campaign (December 2014-February 2015). These preliminary results are fundamental 1) to discard any contribution from the SAS presence, and to help to improve its thermal isolation, 2) to help improve our knowledge about the thermal state of permafrost in the area, and 3) to help to understand the causes of the coastal erosion in the volcanic Deception Island.

  3. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. Biowaste separate collection and composting in a Small Island Developing State: The case study of São Tomé and Principe, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Vaz, João M; Ferreira, José S; Dias-Ferreira, Celia

    2015-12-01

    São Tomé and Principe archipelago in West Africa is a Small Island Developing State facing acute waste management problems. This article describes the implementation of selective collection of biowaste combined with composting in São Tomé, as a case-study of an innovative action in the framework of a Small Island Developing State. Collection was designed to gather 225 t y(-1), targeting non-domestic biowaste producers, namely local businesses, municipal markets and municipal green waste. A municipal composting plant was built using basic facilities and windrow composting. The total investment amounted to €50,000, mainly supported by external aid. Biowaste producers reacted very positively, source segregating enthusiastically. Irregular service - collection collapsed each time the old vehicle was repaired - together with political disengagement and unmotivated work force were the major constrains. Biowaste was intermittently delivered to the composting plant and yielded 2 t of compost from July to December 2013 and 10 t during 2014. Compost was sold as organic fertiliser to a touristic resource, to small farmers and to gardeners, at a market price slightly below production costs, meaning the process is not economically sustainable without support. Nevertheless, biowaste is one of the few waste fractions (other than glass) that can be turned into a product that has both market value and a real demand, showing the enormous potential of composting source-separated biowaste in this part of the world. PMID:26526021

  5. Biowaste separate collection and composting in a Small Island Developing State: The case study of São Tomé and Principe, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Vaz, João M; Ferreira, José S; Dias-Ferreira, Celia

    2015-12-01

    São Tomé and Principe archipelago in West Africa is a Small Island Developing State facing acute waste management problems. This article describes the implementation of selective collection of biowaste combined with composting in São Tomé, as a case-study of an innovative action in the framework of a Small Island Developing State. Collection was designed to gather 225 t y(-1), targeting non-domestic biowaste producers, namely local businesses, municipal markets and municipal green waste. A municipal composting plant was built using basic facilities and windrow composting. The total investment amounted to €50,000, mainly supported by external aid. Biowaste producers reacted very positively, source segregating enthusiastically. Irregular service - collection collapsed each time the old vehicle was repaired - together with political disengagement and unmotivated work force were the major constrains. Biowaste was intermittently delivered to the composting plant and yielded 2 t of compost from July to December 2013 and 10 t during 2014. Compost was sold as organic fertiliser to a touristic resource, to small farmers and to gardeners, at a market price slightly below production costs, meaning the process is not economically sustainable without support. Nevertheless, biowaste is one of the few waste fractions (other than glass) that can be turned into a product that has both market value and a real demand, showing the enormous potential of composting source-separated biowaste in this part of the world.

  6. Accommodation-based controls on fluvial-deltaic reservoir compartmentalization: Examples from the Oligocene Frio Formation, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate prediction of compartment architecture and intracompartment heterogeneity is necessary to locate and recover the estimated 15 billion barrels of mobile oil remaining in U.S. fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs. To improve this prediction, facies-specific relationships between accommodation trends and sand-body architecture that were established by outcrop studies in the western interior were Successfully applied in a study of Oligocene Frio Formation reservoirs along the Vicksburg Fault Zone of South Texas. Compartment architecture and internal heterogeneity were determined for mature upper and lower delta-plain reservoirs within two 4th-order genetic units to document reserve growth potential. In lower delta-plain settings, low-accommodation conditions at the base of genetic units produce narrow distributary channels that feed many small mouth bars, whereas high-accommodation conditions near the top of genetic units yield broader distributaries arid an expansive wave-dominated delta front. In proximal upper delta-plain settings, low accommodation produces few narrow fluvial channels that are commonly internally trough cross-strata predominate, with the finer grained silty upper point-bar deposits being removed by successive scour events during which base level has not risen substantially. In contrast, high accommodation yields many broad internally heterogeneous channels in which high and erosion of fine-grained channel-top facies. This study documents the profound effect that accommodation conditions can have suiting production behavior. Similar studies in other settings are needed to identify these relationships for the entire spectrum of depositional systems.

  7. Accommodation-based controls on fluvial-deltaic reservoir compartmentalization: Examples from the Oligocene Frio Formation, south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, P.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Accurate prediction of compartment architecture and intracompartment heterogeneity is necessary to locate and recover the estimated 15 billion barrels of mobile oil remaining in U.S. fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs. To improve this prediction, facies-specific relationships between accommodation trends and sand-body architecture that were established by outcrop studies in the western interior were Successfully applied in a study of Oligocene Frio Formation reservoirs along the Vicksburg Fault Zone of South Texas. Compartment architecture and internal heterogeneity were determined for mature upper and lower delta-plain reservoirs within two 4th-order genetic units to document reserve growth potential. In lower delta-plain settings, low-accommodation conditions at the base of genetic units produce narrow distributary channels that feed many small mouth bars, whereas high-accommodation conditions near the top of genetic units yield broader distributaries arid an expansive wave-dominated delta front. In proximal upper delta-plain settings, low accommodation produces few narrow fluvial channels that are commonly internally trough cross-strata predominate, with the finer grained silty upper point-bar deposits being removed by successive scour events during which base level has not risen substantially. In contrast, high accommodation yields many broad internally heterogeneous channels in which high and erosion of fine-grained channel-top facies. This study documents the profound effect that accommodation conditions can have suiting production behavior. Similar studies in other settings are needed to identify these relationships for the entire spectrum of depositional systems.

  8. Gas-water-rock interactions in sedimentary basins: CO2 sequestration in the Frio Formation, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Cole, D.R.; Thordsen, J.J.; Kakouros, E.; Nance, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary aquifers, 1600??ton of CO2 were injected at ???1500 m depth into a 24-m sandstone section of the Frio Formation - a regional reservoir in the US Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before, during and after CO2 injection show a Na-Ca-Cl type brine with 93,000??mg/L TDS and near saturation of CH4 at reservoir conditions. As injected CO2 gas reached the observation well, results showed sharp drops in pH (6.5 to 5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100 to 3000??mg/L as HCO3) and Fe (30 to 1100??mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O and DIC. Geochemical modeling indicates that brine pH would have dropped lower, but for buffering by dissolution of calcite and Fe oxyhydroxides. Post-injection results show the brine gradually returning to its pre-injection composition. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Constraining the reservoir model of an injected CO2 plume with crosswell CASSM at the Frio-II brine plot

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Doughty, C.A.

    2011-02-15

    Crosswell CASSM (continuous active-source seismic monitoring) data was acquired as part of the Frio-II brine pilot CO{sub 2} injection experiment. To gain insight into the CO{sub 2} plume evolution, we have integrated the 3D multiphase flow modeling code TOUGH2 with seismic simulation codes via a petrophysical model that predicts seismic velocity for a given CO{sub 2} saturation. Results of forward seismic modeling based on the CO{sub 2} saturation distribution produced by an initial TOUGH2 model compare poorly with the CASSM data, indicating that the initial flow model did not capture the actual CO{sub 2} plume dynamics. Updates to the TOUGH2 model required to better match the CASSM field data indicate vertical flow near the injection well, with increased horizontal plume growth occurring at the top of the reservoir sand. The CASSM continuous delay time data are ideal for constraining the modeled spatiotemporal evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume and allow improvement in reservoir model and estimation of CO{sub 2} plume properties.

  10. Frio sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface along the Texas Gulf Coast: their potential for production of geopressured geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bebout, D.G.; Loucks, R.G.; Gregory, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed geological, geophysical, and engineering studies conducted on the Frio Formation have delineated a geothermal test well site in the Austin Bayou Prospect which extends over an area of 60 square miles. A total of 800 to 900 feet of sandstone will occur between the depths of 13,500 and 16,500 feet. At leat 30 percent of the sand will have core permeabilities of 20 to 60 millidarcys. Temperature at the top of the sandstone section will be 300/sup 0/F. Water, produced at a rate of 20,000 to 40,000 barrels per day, will probably have to be disposed of by injection into shallower sandstone reservoirs. More than 10 billion barrels of water are in place in these sandstone reservoirs of the Austin Bayou Prospect; there should be approximately 400 billion cubic feet of methane in solution in this water. Only 10 percent of the water and methane (1 billion barrels of water and 40 billion cubic feet of methane) will be produced without reinjection of the waste water into the producing formation. Reservoir simulation studies indicate that 90 percent of the methane can be produced with reinjection. 106 figures.

  11. Vertical electric field induced suppression of fine structure splitting of excited state excitons in a single GaAs/AlGaAs island quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Ghali, Mohsen; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-09-21

    We report experimentally on fine structure splitting (FSS) of various excitonic transitions in single GaAs island quantum dots, formed by a monolayer thickness fluctuation in the narrow GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well, and embedded in an n-i-Schottky diode device. By applying a forward vertical electric field (F) between the top metallic contact and the sample substrate, we observed an in-plane polarization rotation of both the ground and the excited state excitons with increasing the electric field. The polarization rotations were accompanied with a strong decrease in the FSS of the ground as well as the excited state excitons with the field, until the FSS vanished as F approached 30 kV/cm.

  12. 19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  13. 15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  14. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  15. Penny ice cap cores, baffin island, canada, and the wisconsinan foxe dome connection: two states of hudson bay ice cover

    PubMed

    Fisher; Koerner; Bourgeois; Zielinski; Wake; Hammer; Clausen; Gundestrup; Johnsen; Goto-Azuma; Hondoh; Blake; Gerasimoff

    1998-01-30

    Ice cores from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, provide continuous Holocene records of oxygen isotopic composition (delta18O, proxy for temperature) and atmospheric impurities. A time scale was established with the use of altered seasonal variations, some volcanic horizons, and the age for the end of the Wisconsin ice age determined from the GRIP and GISP2 ice cores. There is pre-Holocene ice near the bed. The change in delta18O since the last glacial maximum (LGM) is at least 12.5 per mil, compared with an expected value of 7 per mil, suggesting that LGM ice originated at the much higher elevations of the then existing Foxe Dome and Foxe Ridge of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The LGM delta18O values suggest thick ice frozen to the bed of Hudson Bay.

  16. Penny ice cap cores, baffin island, canada, and the wisconsinan foxe dome connection: two states of hudson bay ice cover

    PubMed

    Fisher; Koerner; Bourgeois; Zielinski; Wake; Hammer; Clausen; Gundestrup; Johnsen; Goto-Azuma; Hondoh; Blake; Gerasimoff

    1998-01-30

    Ice cores from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, provide continuous Holocene records of oxygen isotopic composition (delta18O, proxy for temperature) and atmospheric impurities. A time scale was established with the use of altered seasonal variations, some volcanic horizons, and the age for the end of the Wisconsin ice age determined from the GRIP and GISP2 ice cores. There is pre-Holocene ice near the bed. The change in delta18O since the last glacial maximum (LGM) is at least 12.5 per mil, compared with an expected value of 7 per mil, suggesting that LGM ice originated at the much higher elevations of the then existing Foxe Dome and Foxe Ridge of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The LGM delta18O values suggest thick ice frozen to the bed of Hudson Bay. PMID:9445472

  17. Acculturative Heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C.

    2014-01-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a five class solution: Class 1: “Separated” (12.91%), Class 2: “Partial Bilingual/Bicultural” (30.06%), Class 3: “English Dominant/Asian Oriented” (12.29%), Class 4:”Full Bilingual/Bicultural” (19.42%) and Class 5: “Assimilated” (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the two classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the “Assimilated” class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. PMID:26167805

  18. Acculturative heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM mental and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C

    2015-07-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a 5-class solution: Class 1: Separated (12.91%), Class 2: Partial Bilingual/Bicultural (30.06%), Class 3: English Dominant/Asian Oriented (12.29%), Class 4: Full Bilingual/Bicultural (19.42%) and Class 5: Assimilated (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the 2 classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the Assimilated class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement.

  19. 9 CFR 72.2 - Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in... Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Island of Guam: Restrictions on movement of cattle. 72.2...) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.2 Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the...

  20. 9 CFR 72.2 - Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in... Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Island of Guam: Restrictions on movement of cattle. 72.2...) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.2 Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the...

  1. 9 CFR 72.2 - Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in... Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Island of Guam: Restrictions on movement of cattle. 72.2...) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.2 Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the...

  2. Preliminary Reactive Geochemical Transport Modeling Study on Changes in Water Chemistry Induced by CO2 Injection at Frio Pilot Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.; Benson, S.

    2006-12-01

    A total of 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into the Frio ~{!0~}C~{!1~} sandstone layer at a depth of 1500 m over a period of 10 days. The pilot, located near Dayton, Texas, employed one injection well and one observation well, separated laterally by about 30 m. Each well was perforated over 6 m in the upper portion of the 23-m thick sandstone. Fluid samples were taken from both wells before, during, and after the injection. Following CO2 breakthrough, observations indicate drops in pH (6.5 to 5.7), pronounced increases in concentrations of HCO3- (100 to 3000 mg/L), in Fe (30 to 1100), and dissolved organic carbon. Numerical modeling was used in this study to understand changes of aqueous HCO3- and Fe caused by CO2 injection. The general multiphase reactive geochemical transport simulator TOUGHREACT was used, which includes new fluid property module ECO2N with an accurate description of the thermophysical properties of mixtures of water, brine, and CO2 at conditions of interest for CO2 storage. A calibrated 1-D radial well flow model was employed for the present reactive geochemical transport simulations. Mineral composition used was taken from literatures relevant to Frio sandstone. Increases in HCO3- concentration were well reproduced by an initial simulation. Several scenarios were used to capture increases in Fe concentration including (1) dissolution of carbonate minerals, (2) dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides, (3) de-sorption of previously coated Fe. Future modeling, laboratory and field investigations are proposed to better understand the CO2-brine-mineral interactions at the Frio site. Results from this study could have broad implication for subsurface storage of CO2 and potential water quality impacts.

  3. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO2 in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO2 was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO2 injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO2 injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO2 breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO3- and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO2 plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO2 concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO2 could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic reservoirs of South Texas. Annual report, October 1992--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.E.; Holtz, M.H.; Knox, P.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 Bbbl of oil, yet still contains about 1.6 Bbbl of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced unless advanced characterization techniques are applied to define untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool reservoirs as suitable targets for near-term recovery. Interwell-scale geological fades models of Frio fluvial-deltaic reservoirs will be combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to characterize Frio fluvial-deltaic reservoir architecture and flow unit boundaries and to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. These results will help identify specific opportunities to exploit these heterogeneous reservoirs for incremental recovery by recompletion and strategic infill drilling. Preliminary syntheses of reservoir log, core, and production data were undertaken to identify individual reservoirs with the greatest additional resource potential to target for detailed reservoir characterization studies. Representative logs for each field were selected to characterize overall depositional style and illustrate reservoir zones and associated production. Core analysis data from both fields were tabulated, summarized, and evaluated by reservoir to Identify and assess reservoir variability within the field. Production histories for individual reservoirs were reconstructed using available completion data. On the basis of these preliminary investigations and a general assessment of reserve growth potential of reservoirs within each field area, reservoir Intervals from Rincon and T-C-B fields have been targeted for detailed characterization studies.

  5. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  6. Mineral dissolution and precipitation during CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot: Geochemical modeling and uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgen, A. G.; Cygan, R. T.

    2015-12-07

    During the Frio-I Brine Pilot CO2 injection experiment in 2004, distinct geochemical changes in response to the injection of 1600 tons of CO2 were recorded in samples collected from the monitoring well. Previous geochemical modeling studies have considered dissolution of calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, or release of adsorbed iron, as the most likely sources of the increased ion concentrations. We explore in this modeling study possible alternative sources of the increasing calcium and iron, based on the data from the detailed petrographic characterization of the Upper Frio Formation “C”. Particularly, we evaluate whether dissolution of pyrite and oligoclase (anorthite component) can account for the observed geochemical changes. Due to kinetic limitations, dissolution of pyrite and anorthite cannot account for the increased iron and calcium concentrations on the time scale of the field test (10 days). However, dissolution of these minerals is contributing to carbonate and clay mineral precipitation on the longer time scales (1000 years). The one-dimensional reactive transport model predicts carbonate minerals, dolomite and ankerite, as well as clay minerals kaolinite, nontronite and montmorillonite, will precipitate in the Frio Formation “C” sandstone as the system progresses towards chemical equilibrium during a 1000-year period. Cumulative uncertainties associated with using different thermodynamic databases, activity correction models (Pitzer vs. B-dot), and extrapolating to reservoir temperature, are manifested in the difference in the predicted mineral phases. Furthermore, these models are consistent with regards to the total volume of mineral precipitation and porosity values which are predicted to within 0.002%.

  7. Spatial patterns of chemical contamination (metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs/PCDFS) in sediments of a non-industrialized but densely populated coral atoll/small island state (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross J

    2011-06-01

    There is a recognized dearth of standard environmental quality data in the wider Caribbean area, especially on coral atolls/small island states. Extensive surveys of sediment contamination (n=109 samples) in Bermuda revealed a wide spectrum of environmental quality. Zinc and especially copper levels were elevated at some locations, associated with boating (antifouling paints and boatyard discharges). Mercury contamination was surprisingly prevalent, with total levels as high as 12mg kg(-1)DW, although methyl mercury levels were quite low. PAH, PCB and PCDD/PCDF contamination was detected a several hotspots associated with road run-off, a marine landfill, and a former US Naval annexe. NOAA sediment quality guidelines were exceeded at several locations, indicating biological effects are possible, or at some locations probable. Overall, and despite lack of industrialization, anthropogenic chemicals in sediments of the atoll presented a risk to benthic biodiversity at a number of hotspots suggesting a need for sediment management strategies. PMID:21549399

  8. Large genetic differentiation and low variation in vector competence for dengue and yellow fever viruses of Aedes albopictus from Brazil, the United States, and the Cayman Islands.

    PubMed

    Lourenço de Oliveira, Ricardo; Vazeille, Marie; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2003-07-01

    We conducted a population genetic analysis of Aedes albopictus collected from 20 sites in Brazil, the United States (Florida, Georgia, and Illinois), and the Cayman Islands. Using isoenzyme analysis, we examined genetic diversity and patterns of gene flow. High genetic differentiation was found among Brazilian samples, and between them and North American samples. Regression analysis of genetic differentiation according to geographic distances indicated that Ae. albopictus samples from Florida were genetically isolated by distance. Infection rates with dengue and yellow fever viruses showed greater differences between two Brazilian samples than between the two North American samples or between a Brazilian sample and a North American sample. Introductions and establishments of new Ae. albopictus populations in the Americas are still in progress, shaping population genetic composition and potentially modifying both dengue and yellow fever transmission patterns.

  9. Fluid movement and diagenesis in fine-grained geopressured sediments of Frio Formation (Oligocene), Kaplan field, southwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.A.; Ferrell, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    Investigation of structure, temperature, pressure, salinity, and core samples at Kaplan field yields information on diagenesis of fine-grained sandstones deposited in an outer shelf/upper slope depositional environment The shallow occurrence of geopressure is related to structure and a high shale/sand ratio. Low isothermal surfaces in the down fault blocks accompanied by anomalous high temperatures in the upthrown blocks indicate vertical leakage of fluids along growth faults from underlying geopressured aquifers. The Frio Formation core samples from 16,700 to 19,600 ft (5090 to 5974 m) of depth, representing channel and channel-edge turbidite sandstones, were examined petrographically and by SEM. The arkosic composition of late stage diagenesis sandstones at Kaplan field suggests an original arkose or lithic arkose composition (classification of McBride). Nonferroan calcite cementation, chlorite rims and cement, and quartz overgrowths characterize early diagenesis. At a middle stage of diagenesis secondary porosity is developed by dissolution of unstable grains and calcite cement. Samples flushed by geopressured waters from greater depth show kaolinite pore-fill and quartz over-growths, chlorite (polytype IIb) and illite cement, and feldspar overgrowths in the late diagenetic stage. The low permeability of sandstones with extensive early chlorite cement (channel-edge sandstones) precludes development of extensive secondary porosity. In contrast, sandstones with little early chlorite cement develop and maintain secondary porosity through the late diagenetic stage. Restriction of fluid movement by early chlorite cement has ramifications for migration of hydrocarbons or geothermal waters, and for gas production at Kaplan field.

  10. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  11. Simulation of streamflow, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge in the Lower Frio River watershed, south Texas, 1961-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizarraga, Joy S.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District; the City of Corpus Christi; the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority; the San Antonio River Authority; and the San Antonio Water System, configured, calibrated, and tested a watershed model for a study area consisting of about 5,490 mi2 of the Frio River watershed in south Texas. The purpose of the model is to contribute to the understanding of watershed processes and hydrologic conditions in the lower Frio River watershed. The model simulates streamflow, evapotranspiration (ET), and groundwater recharge by using a numerical representation of physical characteristics of the landscape, and meteorological and streamflow data. Additional time-series inputs to the model include wastewater-treatment-plant discharges, surface-water withdrawals, and estimated groundwater inflow from Leona Springs. Model simulations of streamflow, ET, and groundwater recharge were done for various periods of record depending upon available measured data for input and comparison, starting as early as 1961. Because of the large size of the study area, the lower Frio River watershed was divided into 12 subwatersheds; separate Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN models were developed for each subwatershed. Simulation of the overall study area involved running simulations in downstream order. Output from the model was summarized by subwatershed, point locations, reservoir reaches, and the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer outcrop. Four long-term U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations and two short-term streamflow-gaging stations were used for streamflow model calibration and testing with data from 1991-2008. Calibration was based on data from 2000-08, and testing was based on data from 1991-99. Choke Canyon Reservoir stage data from 1992-2008 and monthly evaporation estimates from 1999-2008 also were used for model calibration. Additionally, 2006-08 ET data from a U.S. Geological Survey

  12. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  13. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  14. Natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) on Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, T L; Figueiredo, F B; Almeida, A B; Benigno, C V; Pontes, C S; Souza, M B

    2014-08-01

    Immature phlebotomine sand flies develop in soils with essential and ideal characteristics for their life cycle, such as organic matter, humidity, temperature and low levels of light. Information regarding the potential breeding places of these dipterans is fundamental to understand the epidemiology and ecology of leishmaniasis, in addition to its importance to control them. In the present study, we aimed to find natural breeding sites of sand flies on Marambaia Island with the aid of emergence traps and direct search of immature forms using the flotation technique with saturated sugar solution in organic substrates of the region. Both methods were effective, with a total of 42 specimens of six different species - including some species that participate in the transmission cycle of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis - collected by the emergence traps, and five immature forms obtained by floatation technique. However, further studies are still necessary, mainly with respect to the ecology and biology of immature sandfly stages, so that control measures focused on breeding sites can produce positive sustainable results in natural environments.

  15. Novel Human Embryonic Stem Cell Regulators Identified by Conserved and Distinct CpG Island Methylation State

    PubMed Central

    Pells, Steve; Koutsouraki, Eirini; Morfopoulou, Sofia; Valencia-Cadavid, Sara; Tomlinson, Simon R.; Kalathur, Ravi; Futschik, Matthias E.; De Sousa, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) undergo epigenetic changes in vitro which may compromise function, so an epigenetic pluripotency “signature” would be invaluable for line validation. We assessed Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine Island (CGI) methylation in hESCs by genomic DNA hybridisation to a CGI array, and saw substantial variation in CGI methylation between lines. Comparison of hESC CGI methylation profiles to corresponding somatic tissue data and hESC mRNA expression profiles identified a conserved hESC-specific methylation pattern associated with expressed genes. Transcriptional repressors and activators were over-represented amongst genes whose associated CGIs were methylated or unmethylated specifically in hESCs, respectively. Knockdown of candidate transcriptional regulators (HMGA1, GLIS2, PFDN5) induced differentiation in hESCs, whereas ectopic expression in fibroblasts modulated iPSC colony formation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed interaction between the candidates and the core pluripotency transcription factor network. We thus identify novel pluripotency genes on the basis of a conserved and distinct epigenetic configuration in human stem cells. PMID:26151932

  16. Diagnosis of dengue in Sri Lanka: improvements to the existing state of the art in the island.

    PubMed

    Senaratne, Thamarasi N; Noordeen, Faseeha

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito borne virus infection which is endemic to the tropical regions of the world. In Sri Lanka, the first sero-positive case was reported in the 1960s; since then the island has experienced several outbreaks of DF/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). The disease is more prevalent in some parts of the country where rapid urbanisation has taken place. Diagnosis of DF/DHF is mainly done using the clinical features only due to the unavailability of laboratory diagnosis in many parts of the country and this might lead to over or under diagnosis of the disease. A rational diagnostic approach which combines the history and clinical profiles together with specific virological laboratory data would help in the correct identification of the disease. Furthermore, a feasible algorithm for the laboratory diagnosis of dengue will help to confirm the cases with a high level of clinical suspicion. This would then facilitate the notification of correctly identified cases to the public health authorities to assess the dengue burden. The scope of this review is to improve the existing laboratory diagnosis of DF/DHF by proposing a feasible algorithm to implement in Sri Lanka that would enable better detection of cases.

  17. Natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) on Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, T L; Figueiredo, F B; Almeida, A B; Benigno, C V; Pontes, C S; Souza, M B

    2014-08-01

    Immature phlebotomine sand flies develop in soils with essential and ideal characteristics for their life cycle, such as organic matter, humidity, temperature and low levels of light. Information regarding the potential breeding places of these dipterans is fundamental to understand the epidemiology and ecology of leishmaniasis, in addition to its importance to control them. In the present study, we aimed to find natural breeding sites of sand flies on Marambaia Island with the aid of emergence traps and direct search of immature forms using the flotation technique with saturated sugar solution in organic substrates of the region. Both methods were effective, with a total of 42 specimens of six different species - including some species that participate in the transmission cycle of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis - collected by the emergence traps, and five immature forms obtained by floatation technique. However, further studies are still necessary, mainly with respect to the ecology and biology of immature sandfly stages, so that control measures focused on breeding sites can produce positive sustainable results in natural environments. PMID:24742903

  18. Discover the Hidden Jewels in Your Library and Sharing the Wealth through Collaboration. Selected Papers from PIALA 2011, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (21st, Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, November 14-17, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 21st annual conference was held in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, November 14-17, 2011. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2011 Planning…

  19. Pacific Visions: Finding, Selecting, and Using Resources for Your Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Selected Papers from PIALA 2009, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (19th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 19th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2009 Planning…

  20. Cancer Incidence Trends Among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in the United States, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of annual population estimates for disaggregated Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) populations limits the ability to examine cancer incidence rates and trends to understand the cancer burdens among NHOPIs. Methods Utilizing 1990 and 2000 population census data, we estimated the annual populations by age and sex for Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Guamanians/Chamorros for 1990–2008 in regions covered by 13 of the National Cancer Institute’s SEER registries. Cancer diagnoses during 1990–2008 from these registries were used to calculate the age-adjusted (2000 US Standard) incidence rates by sex, calendar year/period, and cancer type for each population. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Results Statistically significant declining trends were found in Native Hawaiians, in men for lung and stomach cancers (APC = –2.3%; 95% CI = –3.3 to –1.3; and APC = –3.8%; 95% CI = –6.0 to –1.6, respectively), and in women for breast cancer (APC = –4.1%; 95% CI = –5.7 to –2.5) since 1998 and lung cancer (APC = –6.4%; 95% CI = –10.7 to –1.8) since 2001. Rising incidence trends were experienced by Samoans, especially by Samoan women for breast (APC = 2.7%; 95% CI = 0.9 to 4.5) and uterus (APC = 7.3%; 95% CI = 6.2 to 8.4) cancers. With limited data, Guamanians/Chamorros demonstrated lower, but increasing, incidence rates than other NHOPIs. Conclusions Population-based cancer incidence rates for disaggregated NHOPI populations help identify disparities in cancer burden and provide valuable information to improve cancer control efforts among NHOPIs. PMID:23878354

  1. The hermit crab Calcinus tibicen lives commensally on Millepora spp. in St. John, United States Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Edmunds, P. J.

    2013-03-01

    The present work describes an association between the hermit crab Calcinus tibicen and milleporine hydrocorals on shallow reefs (<6-m depth) in St. John, US Virgin Islands. In one bay, most colonies of Millepora spp. were occupied by C. tibicen in 2010 (62 %) and 2011 (50 %). In 2011, the association was common along 23 km of the coast of St. John, as well as at several locations around St. Thomas. On average, a colony of Millepora spp. harbored 4 C. tibicen within its branches, but more crabs were found on bigger colonies. During the day, large numbers of C. tibicen were found on Millepora spp., and these crabs frequently (>88 % of trials) returned to the same colony of Millepora spp. when removed and placed on adjacent surfaces. Of the C. tibicen found on Millepora spp. during the day, 48 % left their colonies at night, but most subsequently returned to the same colony as shown by the high site fidelity of tagged crabs (51 % over 5 days). A Y-maze experiment conducted in the laboratory suggested that C. tibicen could detect (and move toward) Millepora spp. on a spatial scale of about 30 cm and under a flow speed of about 5 cm s-1. When tethered on algal turf or sand, 45 % of C. tibicen disappeared over 7 days and presumably were eaten, whereas 15 % disappeared when tethered on Millepora spp. These results demonstrate that the association between C. tibicen and Millepora spp. is temporally stable and widespread, and suggest that hermit crabs seek Millepora spp. to secure a daytime refuge from predators. In the absence of negative fitness consequences for Millepora spp., but demonstrable benefits to C. tibicen, we propose that the Calcinus- Millepora association is commensal.

  2. Preliminary Integrated Geologic Map Databases for the United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Horton, John D.; Foose, Michael P.; Mueller, Julia A.L.; Hon, Rudi

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for regional and national scale digital geologic maps that have standardized information about geologic age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. Although two digital geologic maps (Schruben and others, 1994; Reed and Bush, 2004) of the United States currently exist, their scales (1:2,500,000 and 1:5,000,000) are too general for many regional applications. Most states have digital geologic maps at scales of about 1:500,000, but the databases are not comparably structured and, thus, it is difficult to use the digital database for more than one state at a time. This report describes the result for a seven state region of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to produce a series of integrated and standardized state geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. In 1997, the United States Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program initiated the National Surveys and Analysis (NSA) Project to develop national digital databases. One primary activity of this project was to compile a national digital geologic map database, utilizing state geologic maps, to support studies in the range of 1:250,000- to 1:1,000,000-scale. To accomplish this, state databases were prepared using a common standard for the database structure, fields, attribution, and data dictionaries. For Alaska and Hawaii new state maps are being prepared and the preliminary work for Alaska is being released as a series of 1:250,000 scale quadrangle reports. This document provides background information and documentation for the integrated geologic map databases of this report. This report is one of a series of such reports releasing preliminary standardized geologic map databases for the United States. The data products of the

  3. Deformation kinematics along oblique convergent plate boundary zones in the western United States, Japanese Islands, and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen-Tu, Bingming

    Horizontal velocity gradient tensor field in the western U.S is estimated using moment tensors of earthquakes between 1850 to 1995. The velocity vectors obtained from the integration of the seismic strain rates across the entire plate boundary lie within 5° of the NUVEL-1A Pacific-North American plate motion direction. The magnitude of the earthquake-related velocity is 62% of the NUVEL-1A total Pacific-North American plate motion. The total velocity obtained from the Quaternary fault slip rate data across the entire plate boundary is within 2 mm/yr of the NUVEL-1A predicted Pacific (PA)-North American (NA) plate motion velocity, but directions are 6° anticlockwise of directions given by NUVEL-1A. The total velocity obtained from inversion of recent geodetic data is 2°--3° anticlockwise from the NUVEL-1A NA-PA velocity, but the difference between the two is not significant at the 95% confidence level. Relative motions within the deforming Japanese Islands with respect to the Sea of Japan are determined using earthquake records over the last 414 years, slip rates on Quaternary faults, and angular change rates obtained from triangulation in the last century. The directions of the principal strain axes obtained from seismic, geological, and geodetic data are in general agreement with each other, with the maximum shortening axis oriented in a WNW direction. Intraplate deformation in southwestern Japan determined from the seismic data accommodates a velocity of 5.5 +/- 2 (1sigma) mm/yr in a direction parallel to the Nankai trough, which is about 25% of the plate motion velocity component parallel to the Nankai trough between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. A comparison of shear strain rates, principal strain rates, and velocity fields determined from geodetic data with those calculated from the elastic dislocation models involving interplate motion at the Japan trench indicates that the geodetic strain field in northern Honshu is primarily elastic strain

  4. Determining changes in the state of stress associated with an earthquake via combined focal mechanism and moment tensor analysis: Application to the 2013 Awaji Island earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Katao, Hiroshi; Iio, Yoshihisa

    2015-05-01

    One approach that can be used to evaluate the potential for an earthquake occurrence is the detection of the stress concentration at an earthquake fault. While the stress fields for pre- and post-seismic event stages differ, this change cannot provide information regarding the potential for an earthquake. Here, we propose a detection method for states of stress that uses focal mechanism data from microearthquakes. The state of stress can be defined both by the background stress and by a moment tensor equivalent to the stress concentration. We applied this method to actual focal mechanism data from the 2013 Awaji Island earthquake (M6.3), Japan, and the results showed the presence of stress concentration around the earthquake fault before the mainshock. In addition, the regional differential stress was shown to be about 13 MPa. The magnitude of the obtained stress concentration in the focal area and the high dip angle of the mainshock fault imply that the faulting occurred in the crust where it was overpressurized to a level near the lithostatic pressure.

  5. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  6. Libraries, Archives, and Museums Helping Create Futures: Building on Culture, Knowledge, and Information through Collaboration and Resource Sharing. Selected Papers from PIALA 2010, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (20th, Weno, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, November 15-19, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 20th annual conference was held in Weno, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, November 15-19, 2010. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2010…

  7. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... ocean are visible. The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are ...

  8. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  9. Strategies for reservoir characterization and identification of incremental recovery opportunities in mature reservoirs in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic sandstones, south Texas: An example from Rincon Field, Starr County. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, L.; Holtz, M.; Hentz, T.

    1995-11-01

    Fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs in the United States are being abandoned at high rates, yet they still contain more than 34 billion barrels of unrecovered oil. The mature Oligocene-age fluvial-deltaic reservoirs of the Frio Formation along the Vicksburg Fault Zone in South Texas are typical of this class in that, after more than three decades of production, they still contain 61 percent of the original mobile oil in place, or 1.6 billion barrels. This resource represents a tremendous target for advanced reservoir characterization studies that integrate geological and engineering analysis to locate untapped and incompletely drained reservoir compartments isolated by stratigraphic heterogeneities. The D and E reservoir intervals of Rincon field, Starr County, South Texas, were selected for detailed study to demonstrate the ability of advanced characterization techniques to identify reservoir compartmentalization and locate specific infield reserve-growth opportunities. Reservoir architecture, determined through high-frequency genetic stratigraphy and facies analysis, was integrated with production history and facies-based petrophysical analysis of individual flow units to identify recompletion and geologically targeted infill drilling opportunities. Estimates of original oil in place versus cumulative production in D and E reservoirs suggest that potential reserve growth exceeds 4.5 million barrels. Comparison of reservoir architecture and the distribution of completions in each flow unit indicates a large number of reserve-growth opportunities. Potential reserves can be assigned to each opportunity by constructing an Sooh map of remaining mobile oil, which is the difference between original oil in place and the volumes drained by past completions.

  10. Potential environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: Geochemical results from the Frio-I Brine Pilot test, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Hovorka, S.D.; Seay, Nance H.; Cole, D.R.; Phelps, T.J.; Knauss, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in general, and deep saline aquifers in particular, are being investigated as possible repositories for large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes. To investigate the potential for the long-term storage of CO2 in such aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick "C" sandstone unit of the Frio Formation, a regional aquifer in the US Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained before CO2 injection from the injection well and an observation well 30 m updip showed a Na-Ca-Cl type brine with ???93,000 mg/L TDS at saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions; gas analyses showed that CH4 comprised ???95% of dissolved gas, but CO2 was low at 0.3%. Following CO2 breakthrough, 51 h after injection, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5-5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100-3000 mg/L as HCO3) and in Fe (30-1100 mg/L), a slug of very high DOC values, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, DIC, and CH4. These data, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicate corrosion of pipe and well casing as well as rapid dissolution of minerals, especially calcite and iron oxyhydroxides, both caused by lowered pH (initially ???3.0 at subsurface conditions) of the brine in contact with supercritical CO2. These geochemical parameters, together with perfluorocarbon tracer gases (PFTs), were used to monitor migration of the injected CO2 into the overlying Frio "B", composed of a 4-m-thick sandstone and separated from the "C" by ???15 m of shale and siltstone beds. Results obtained from the Frio "B" 6 months after injection gave chemical and isotopic markers that show significant CO2 (2.9% compared with 0.3% CO2 in dissolved gas) migration into the "B" sandstone. Results of samples collected 15 months after injection, however, are ambiguous, and can be interpreted to show no additional injected CO2 in the "B" sandstone. The presence of injected CO2 may

  11. [Species, dynamics and population composition of phthirapteran in free-range chickens (Gallus gallus L.) in São Luis Island, State of Maranhão].

    PubMed

    Guerra, Rita de M S N de C; Chaves, Elba P; Passos, Tarsila M G; Santos, Ana C G Dos

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify the phthirapteran species, to determine the prevalence according to the anatomical region of the body and to know the dynamics and composition of the population of these ectoparasites in free-range chicken in São Luis Island, state of Maranhão. Inspection was performed in 40 chickens and feathers were collected from the head, neck, wing, thigh, dorsal and ventral regions and cloacae. The phthirapteran species identified were: Menopon gallinae L., Menacanthus stramineus Nitzsch, Menacanthus pallidulus Neumann, Menacanthus cornutus Schommer (Menoponidae), and Lipeurus caponis L., Goniodes dissimilis Denny and Goniocotes gallinae De Geer (Philopteridae). L. caponis was collected from all regions sampled, including the head, which was the least infested region. The dorsum was the most infested, especially in the dry period of the year and where the greater parasitic diversity was observed, the wing and the head were the least infested regions. Considering the dynamics and the composition of the population the phthirapteran presented a prevalence of 85% of the sampled chickens, the mean intensity of infestation was 45.3 varying from <1 to 453. The egg stage was superior to the others life stages followed by nymphs and female adults, independent of the phthirapteran species.

  12. [Non-industrial labor, internal conditions and repetitive strain injury: a case study in a shellfish-rearing community on Maré Island, State of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares de; Cardim, Adryanna

    2011-08-01

    Non-industrial labor is still widespread in Brazil. An appropriate approach ought to consider different social specificities from those of salaried-work relations. The scope was to examine non-industrial work practices, specifically those of extractive shellfishing, and their relation to health conditions in a small-scale fishing community. It focused on the cadences and time contingencies, as well as other working conditions, related to the development of ailments such as repetitive strain injury -RSI. A qualitative-ethnographic study was conducted between 2005 and 2007 in a community of 800 inhabitants, located on Maré Island in the state of Bahia. In a population consisting of fishing households, thirty families were interviewed, observed at work and - in cases of suspected RSI -referred to a specialized health service. The seriousness of the working conditions became evident, especially with respect to RSI. By way of illustration, an average frequency of 10,200 repetitive movements per hour were verified in extractive shellfishing, while the official Brazilian norm (NR17) for a keyboarder establishes a maximum of 8,000 movements per hour. This suggests that women shellfishers ought to be included in repetitive strain injury risk groups.

  13. Structure and stress state of Hawaiian island basalts penetrated by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project deep core hole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Wilkens, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP), an exploratory hole was drilled in 1993 to a depth of 1056 meters below sea level (mbsl) and a deeper hole was drilled to 3098 mbsl in 1999. A set of geophysical well logs was obtained in the deeper hole that provides fundamental information regarding the structure and the state of stress that exist within a volcanic shield. The acoustic televiewer generates digital, magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall, and inspection of this log yields a continuous record of fracture orientation with depth and also with age to 540 ka. The data depict a clockwise rotation in fracture strike through the surficial Mauna Loa basalts that settles to a constant heading in the underlying Mauna Kea rocks. This behavior reflects the depositional slope directions of lavas and the locations of volcanic sources relative to the drill site. The deviation log delineates the trajectory of the well bore in three-dimensional space. This path closely follows changes in fracture orientation with depth as the drill bit is generally prodded perpendicular to fracture strike during the drilling process. Stress-induced breakouts observed in the televiewer log identify the orientations ot the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to be north-south and east-west, respectively. This stress state is attributed to the combination of a sharp break in onshore-offshore slope that reduces stress east-west and the emergence of Kilauea that increases stress north-south. Breakouts are extensive and appear over approximately 30% of the open hole. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Cross sectoral impacts on water availability at +2 °C and +3 °C for east Mediterranean island states: The case of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, A. G.; Grillakis, M. G.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Jacob, D.

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble pan-European projections under a 2 °C global warming relative to the preindustrial period reveal a more intense warming in south Eastern Europe by up to +3 °C, thus indicating that impacts of climate change will be disproportionately high for certain regions. The Mediterranean is projected as one of the most vulnerable areas to climatic and anthropogenic changes with decreasing rainfall trends and a continuous gradual warming causing a progressive decline of average stream flow. Many Mediterranean regions are currently experiencing high to severe water stress induced by human and climate drivers. Changes in average climate conditions will increase this stress notably because of a 10-30% decline in freshwater resources. For small island states, where accessibility to freshwater resources is limited the impact will be more pronounced. Here we use a generalized cross-sectoral framework to assess the impact of climatic and socioeconomic futures on the water resources of an Eastern Mediterranean island. A set of representative regional climate models simulations from the EURO-CORDEX initiative driven by different RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 GCMs are used to form a comparable set of results and a useful basis for the assessment of uncertainties related to impacts of 2° warming and above. A generalized framework of a cross-sectoral water resources analysis was developed in collaboration with the local water authority exploring and costing adaptation measures associated with a set of socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Transient hydrological modeling was performed to describe the projected hydro-climatological regime and water availability for each warming level. The robust signal of less precipitation and higher temperatures that is projected by climate simulations results to a severe decrease of local water resources which can be mitigated by a number of actions. Awareness of the practical implications of plausible hydro-climatic and socio-economic scenarios in the

  15. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  16. 75 FR 22873 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00007 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 04/08/2010. Incident: Severe storms and... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Rhode Island, dated 04/08/2010, is hereby amended...

  17. 76 FR 60850 - Rhode Island; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of an ] emergency for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-3334-EM), dated August 27, 2011, and related... determined that the emergency conditions in the State of Rhode Island resulting from Hurricane...

  18. 77 FR 69915 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Assistance Only for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/03/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of RHODE ISLAND, dated 11/03/2012, is hereby amended...

  19. 77 FR 68797 - Rhode Island; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of an emergency for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-3355-EM), dated October 29, 2012, and related... determined that the emergency conditions in certain areas of the State of Rhode Island resulting...

  20. 78 FR 23278 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4107-DR), dated March 22, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in the State of Rhode Island resulting from...

  1. 75 FR 18516 - Rhode Island; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of an emergency for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-3311-EM), dated March 30, 2010, and related... conditions in certain areas of the State of Rhode Island resulting from severe storms and flooding...

  2. 75 FR 18521 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated March 29, 2010, and... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode Island resulting...

  3. Albitization of plagioclase crystals in the Stevens sandstone (Miocene), San Joaquin Basin, California, and the Frio Formation (Oligocene), Gulf Coast, Texas. A TEM/AEM study

    SciTech Connect

    Hirt, W.G. ); Wenk, H.R. ); Boles, J.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy (CTEM) and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) studies of partially albitized plagioclase crystals taken from drill cores from the Stevens sandstone (Miocene), San Joaquin, California, and the Frio Formation (Oligocene), Gulf Coast, Texas, reveal that replacement of Ca-rich plagioclase cores by nearly pure albite (Ab[sub 96]-Ab[sub 100]) occurs along submicroscopic ([minus]15 nm wide) en echelon (001) and (110) cleavages. The cleavages are the result of changes in the localized stress regime created by dissolution of adjacent phases. Photomicrographs show albite-lined brittle cleavage crosscutting albitized semibrittle fractures. Such crosscutting relationships can be explained by a reduction in effective stress associated with the albitization process. On a macroscopic scale, this reduction in effective stress implies that the transition from hydrostatic to lithostatic pressure is discontinuous. 30 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  5. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone reservoirs of South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, P.R.; Holtz, M.H.; McRae, L.E.

    1996-09-01

    Domestic fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs contain more than 30 Billion barrels (Bbbl) of remaining oil, more than any other type of reservoir, approximately one-third of which is in danger of permanent loss through premature field abandonments. The U.S. Department of Energy has placed its highest priority on increasing near-term recovery from FDD reservoirs in order to prevent abandonment of this important strategic resource. To aid in this effort, the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, began a 46-month project in October, 1992, to develop and demonstrate advanced methods of reservoir characterization that would more accurately locate remaining volumes of mobile oil that could then be recovered by recompleting existing wells or drilling geologically targeted infill. wells. Reservoirs in two fields within the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) oil play of South Texas, a mature play which still contains 1.6 Bbbl of mobile oil after producing 1 Bbbl over four decades, were selected as laboratories for developing and testing reservoir characterization techniques. Advanced methods in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, and engineering were integrated to (1) identify probable reservoir architecture and heterogeneity, (2) determine past fluid-flow history, (3) integrate fluid-flow history with reservoir architecture to identify untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool compartments, and (4) identify specific opportunities for near-term reserve growth. To facilitate the success of operators in applying these methods in the Frio play, geologic and reservoir engineering characteristics of all major reservoirs in the play were documented and statistically analyzed. A quantitative quick-look methodology was developed to prioritize reservoirs in terms of reserve-growth potential.

  6. [Evaluation of immunity against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and dengue in the human population of San Carlos, the Almirante Padilla Island Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela. 1996].

    PubMed

    Valero, N; Añez, F; Larreal, Y; Arias, J; Rodríguez, Z; Espina, L M

    2001-09-01

    The Insular Municipality of Almirante Padilla, historically, has been affected by Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) epidemics, that have occurred cyclically in the Paez, Mara and Almirante Padilla Municipalities of the State of Zulia. During the last epidemic outbreak (1995), the studies reported a great number of cases of VEE in humans, based on epidemiologic-clinical diagnosis; occupying this municipality, the first place in the attack rate by the virus. At the same time, Dengue has been defined as an endemic illness affecting different regions, whose etiologic agent has previously circulated in the studied zone. In order to evaluate the immunity acquired against these viruses, a serological study was conducted in San Carlos Island. Two hundred and ten blood samples were obtained at random, among individuals of an age range between < 1 and 69 years, with and without antecedents of viral illness symptomatology at the moment of the epidemic outbreak, occurred in 1995. The samples were classified according to sex and age, and analyzed through the test of ELISA for specific IgG antibodies against the VEE and Dengue viruses. From the total of the samples processed, 116 (55.2%) were positive for VEE, affecting uniformly all age-groups with a slight masculine predominance. Likewise, 88 cases (41.9%) were determined positive for Dengue virus, affecting mainly the group ranging from 10 to 19 years. These results let us suggest that the epidemic outbreak occurred in 1995 at the Almirante Padilla Insular Municipality, had a double nature with both viruses being involved in the etiology of febrile cases.

  7. A Downstream CpG Island Controls Transcript Initiation and Elongation and the Methylation State of the Imprinted Airn Macro ncRNA Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Koerner, Martha V.; Pauler, Florian M.; Hudson, Quanah J.; Santoro, Federica; Sawicka, Anna; Guenzl, Philipp M.; Stricker, Stefan H.; Schichl, Yvonne M.; Latos, Paulina A.; Klement, Ruth M.; Warczok, Katarzyna E.; Wojciechowski, Jacek; Seiser, Christian; Kralovics, Robert; Barlow, Denise P.

    2012-01-01

    A CpG island (CGI) lies at the 5′ end of the Airn macro non-protein-coding (nc) RNA that represses the flanking Igf2r promoter in cis on paternally inherited chromosomes. In addition to being modified on maternally inherited chromosomes by a DNA methylation imprint, the Airn CGI shows two unusual organization features: its position immediately downstream of the Airn promoter and transcription start site and a series of tandem direct repeats (TDRs) occupying its second half. The physical separation of the Airn promoter from the CGI provides a model to investigate if the CGI plays distinct transcriptional and epigenetic roles. We used homologous recombination to generate embryonic stem cells carrying deletions at the endogenous locus of the entire CGI or just the TDRs. The deleted Airn alleles were analyzed by using an ES cell imprinting model that recapitulates the onset of Igf2r imprinted expression in embryonic development or by using knock-out mice. The results show that the CGI is required for efficient Airn initiation and to maintain the unmethylated state of the Airn promoter, which are both necessary for Igf2r repression on the paternal chromosome. The TDRs occupying the second half of the CGI play a minor role in Airn transcriptional elongation or processivity, but are essential for methylation on the maternal Airn promoter that is necessary for Igf2r to be expressed from this chromosome. Together the data indicate the existence of a class of regulatory CGIs in the mammalian genome that act downstream of the promoter and transcription start. PMID:22396659

  8. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  9. Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The island of Kauai, of the Hawaiian Island archipelago (22.0N, 159.5W) peeks out from scattered cloud cover. The island's volcanic origins are easily seen by the distinctive lava flow topography and lush vegetation.

  10. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic reservoirs of south Texas. Technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Levey, R.A.

    1996-07-11

    Advanced reservoir characterization techniques have been applied to selected reservoirs in the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) trend of South Texas in order to maximize the economic producibility of resources in this mature oil play. More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have already been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced unless advanced characterization techniques are applied to define untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool reservoirs as suitable targets for near-term recovery methods. This project has developed interwell-scale geological facies models and has assessed engineering attributes of Frio fluvial-deltaic reservoirs in selected fields in order to characterize reservoir architecture, flow unit boundaries, and the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Results of these studies led to the identification of specific opportunities to exploit these heterogeneous reservoirs for incremental recovery by recompletion and strategic infill drilling.

  11. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  12. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  13. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  14. A signature for turbulence driven magnetic islands

    SciTech Connect

    Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S.; Poyé, A.; Yagi, M.; Garbet, X.; Sen, A.

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of magnetic islands arising from tearing instabilities that are driven by an interchange turbulence. We find that such islands possess a specific signature that permits an identification of their origin. We demonstrate that the persistence of a small scale turbulence maintains a mean pressure profile, whose characteristics makes it possible to discriminate between turbulence driven islands from those arising due to an unfavourable plasma current density gradient. We also find that the island poloidal turnover time, in the steady state, is independent of the levels of the interchange and tearing energy sources. Finally, we show that a mixing length approach is adequate to make theoretical predictions concerning island flattening in the island rotation frame.

  15. 27. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, CA. 1895 Photocopy of photograph (Massachusetts State Archives, Environmental Affairs, MDC, Construction, 313 V 193 1-5 Box 8, Deer Island Pumping Station) - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. The horse and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartlett, K.; Alm, S.R.; LeBrun, R.; Ginsberg, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Tabanidae of Rhode Island were surveyed using Rhode Island canopy traps placed at 20 locations in the state during the summers of 1999 and 2000. In total, 5,120 flies were collected, which included 55 species in the genera Chrysops, Hybomitra, Tabanus, Merycomyia, and Stonemyia. Distributional and ecological information is provided for each species in Rhode Island.

  17. 30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section... INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface...

  18. 30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section... INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface...

  19. 75 FR 17178 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island.... Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Rhode Island: Bristol. Connecticut: New London,...

  20. 78 FR 4967 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/ 14/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident Period: 10/26/2012 through... the President's major disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island, dated 11/14/2012 is...

  1. 36 CFR 7.20 - Fire Island National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire Island National Seashore... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.20 Fire Island National Seashore. (a... in lands owned by the United States which are on the island, outside the authorized boundaries of...

  2. 30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section... INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface...

  3. 77 FR 70203 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island...): Rhode Island: Kent. Connecticut: New London. Massachusetts: Bristol. The Interest Rates are: Percent...

  4. 30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section... INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface...

  5. 30 CFR 939.700 - Rhode Island Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island Federal program. 939.700 Section... INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.700 Rhode Island Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface...

  6. 75 FR 18554 - Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster Number RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 03/ 29/2010. Incident: Severe storms and flooding. Incident... INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island, dated...

  7. 76 FR 61131 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00008 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Rhode Island dated 09... Island: Bristol, Kent. Connecticut: Windham. Massachusetts: Bristol, Norfolk, Worcester. The...

  8. New plant records from Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; Bio, Keali'i F.

    2012-01-01

    The following plant records from the island of Hawai'i include 2 new state records, 6 new island records, 3 new records of naturalized species previously known to be present on the island, and 1 range extension of an orchid recently reported as naturalized. All cited voucher specimens are deposited at BISH.

  9. The Long Island Pine Barrens: A Curriculum & Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long Island Pine Barrens Society, NY.

    The Long Island Pine Barrens is Long Island's premier ecosystem. It overlies the greatest quantity of the purest drinking water remaining on Long Island and boasts the greatest diversity of plants and animals in New York State. This curriculum guide provides background and suggested inquiry-based in-class and field trip experiences to use with…

  10. Lifelines for the Isolated: The Supply, Training and Professional Support of Educational Personnel in Multi-Island Situations. Educational Development in the Small States of the Commonwealth Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, John

    A 1987 meeting in Fuji that examined the supply, training, and professional support of educational personnel in multi-island situations led to development of a directory of innovative practices relevant to any situation of isolation. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of countries in the Caribbean, Indian Ocean, and South Pacific. Findings are…

  11. Climate change and size evolution in an island rodent species: new perspectives on the island rule.

    PubMed

    Millien, Virginie; Damuth, John

    2004-06-01

    As stated by the island rule, small mammals evolve toward gigantism on islands. In addition they are known to evolve faster than their mainland counterparts. Body size in island mammals may also be influenced by geographical climatic gradients or climatic change through time. We tested the relative effects of climate change and isolation on the size of the Japanese rodent Apodemus speciosus and calculated evolutionary rates of body size change since the last glacial maximum (LGM). Currently A. speciosus populations conform both to Bergmann's rule, with an increase in body size with latitude, and to the island rule, with larger body sizes on small islands. We also found that fossil representatives of A. speciosus are larger than their extant relatives. Our estimated evolutionary rates since the LGM show that body size evolution on the smaller islands has been less than half as rapid as on Honshu, the mainland-type large island of Japan. We conclude that island populations exhibit larger body sizes today not because they have evolved toward gigantism, but because their evolution toward a smaller size, due to climate warming since the LGM, has been decelerated by the island effect. These combined results suggest that evolution in Quaternary island small mammals may not have been as fast as expected by the island effect because of the counteracting effect of climate change during this period.

  12. Climate change and size evolution in an island rodent species: new perspectives on the island rule.

    PubMed

    Millien, Virginie; Damuth, John

    2004-06-01

    As stated by the island rule, small mammals evolve toward gigantism on islands. In addition they are known to evolve faster than their mainland counterparts. Body size in island mammals may also be influenced by geographical climatic gradients or climatic change through time. We tested the relative effects of climate change and isolation on the size of the Japanese rodent Apodemus speciosus and calculated evolutionary rates of body size change since the last glacial maximum (LGM). Currently A. speciosus populations conform both to Bergmann's rule, with an increase in body size with latitude, and to the island rule, with larger body sizes on small islands. We also found that fossil representatives of A. speciosus are larger than their extant relatives. Our estimated evolutionary rates since the LGM show that body size evolution on the smaller islands has been less than half as rapid as on Honshu, the mainland-type large island of Japan. We conclude that island populations exhibit larger body sizes today not because they have evolved toward gigantism, but because their evolution toward a smaller size, due to climate warming since the LGM, has been decelerated by the island effect. These combined results suggest that evolution in Quaternary island small mammals may not have been as fast as expected by the island effect because of the counteracting effect of climate change during this period. PMID:15266983

  13. 77 FR 32394 - Safety Zones: Catawba Island Club Fire Works, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH; Racing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones: Catawba Island Club Fire Works, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH; Racing for Recovery, Lake Erie, Sterling State Park, Monroe, MI; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier, South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS....

  14. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  15. Incrimination of Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli Farner as an Epidemic Vector of Chikungunya Virus on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Harry M.; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Yug, Laurence; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Marfel, Maria; Hancock, W. Thane

    2015-01-01

    Two species of Aedes (Stegomyia) were collected in response to the first chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak on Yap Island: the native species Ae. hensilli Farner and the introduced species Ae. aegypti (L.). Fourteen CHIKV-positive mosquito pools were detected. Six pools were composed of female Ae. hensilli, six pools were composed of female Ae. aegypti, one pool was composed of male Ae. hensilli, and one pool contained female specimens identified as Ae. (Stg.) spp. Infection rates were not significantly different between female Ae. hensilli and Ae. aegypti. The occurrence of human cases in all areas of Yap Island and the greater number of sites that yielded virus from Ae. hensilli combined with the ubiquitous distribution of this species incriminate Ae. hensilli as the most important vector of CHIKV during the outbreak. Phylogenic analysis shows that virus strains on Yap are members of the Asia lineage and closely related to strains currently circulating in the Caribbean. PMID:25404070

  16. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    PubMed Central

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

  17. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  18. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic reservoirs of South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.

    1993-03-31

    During this second project quarter, screening of South Texas fields within the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone/Vicksburg Fault Zone oil play was completed. Fields were to identify reservoirs that have a large remaining oil resource, are in danger of premature abandonment, and have geological and production data in sufficient quantity and of suitable quality to facilitate advanced reservoir characterization studies (subtask 1). Two fields have been selected for inclusion in this study: Tijerina-Canales-Blucher (T.C.B.) Field, located in the northern portion of the trend in Jim Wells County, and Rincon Field, located to the south in Starr County. Current plans are to incorporate data from both fields in our reservoir characterization and targeted resource addition studies. Project members met with operators of both fields to review available geologic and production field data and discuss our research plans. The collection of detailed geologic and production data required for the initial reservoir characterization studies (subtask 2) is currently underway. Details outlining specifics of project accomplishments for this quarter are provided.

  19. Potential environmental issues of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers: geochemical results from the Frio-I brine pilot test, Texas, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Dr. Yousif; Thordsen, Dr. James; Hovorka, Dr. Susan; Nance, Dr. H Seay; Cole, David R; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Knauss, Dr. Kevin; Chialvo, Ariel A

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in general and deep saline aquifers in particular, are being investigated as possible repositories for large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes. To investigate the potential for the long-term storage of CO2 in such saline aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick C sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional aquifer in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained before CO2 injection from the injection well and an observation well 30 m up dip showed a Na-Ca-Cl type brine with ~93,000 mg/L TDS at saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions; gas analyses show CH4 comprised ~95% of dissolved gas, but CO2 was low at 0.3%. Following CO2 breakthrough, 51 h after injection, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5 to 5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100 to 3000 mg/L as HCO3) and in Fe (30 to 1100 mg/L), a slug of very high DOC values, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, DIC, and CH4. These data coupled with geochemical modeling indicate rapid dissolution of minerals, especially calcite and iron oxyhydroxides caused by lowered pH (initially ~3.0 at subsurface conditions) of the brine in contact with supercritical CO2.

  20. Child Poverty in Rhode Island: Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    Noting that Rhode Island has seen a significant increase in child poverty over the last decade in the context of a national decline, this Kids Count issue brief presents an in-depth examination of the economic well-being of children in the state. The brief notes that the highest rates of Rhode Island childhood poverty are among families with young…

  1. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... deploying instruments aboard several ships, aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized ... These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 during Terra orbit ...

  2. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  3. Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This cloudy view of the Hawaiian Islands (21.0N, 157.5W) demonstrates the phenomena of island water wakes and, to a lesser extent, cloud wakes as well. The islands form an obstruction to the ocean current flow and in effect create an observable turbulence in the water on the backside of the islands. The same effect can be observed in clouds as they leave wind blown wisps or streamers around obstacles in their path.

  4. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  5. Henderson Island, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Henderson Island (24.5S, 128.5W) Pacific Ocean southeast of the Tuamotu Archipelago, is a good example of the many barren islands that but for lack of a source of water could be another lush tropical paradise. The crew of HMS Bounty, in searching for a refuge, sailed past this island but rejected it in favor of nearby Pitcairn Island because of the lack of resources and water.

  6. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  8. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  9. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during ... sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. ...

  10. Geology and petrology of the Hormuz dolomite, Infra-Cambrian: Implications for the formation of the salt-cored Halul and Shraouh islands, Offshore, State of Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Sobhi; Al-Saad, Hamad; Alsayigh, Abudlrazak; Weidlich, Oliver

    2008-08-01

    Geological investigations of the Halul and the Shraouh islands, offshore Qatar, indicate that most of their calcareous rocks, which display abundant stromatolitic bedding, belong to the Infra-Cambrian Hormuz Series. Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical analyses show that these calcareous rocks consist dominantly of dolomite and have formed in a reducing depositional environment. Faint laminations and small streaks of organic matter furnish evidence for the involvement of algal mats in their genesis and indicate their formation in an intertidal to supratidal setting. The Halul and Shraouh dolomites experienced extensive recrystallization and sulfatization during the emplacement of the Halul and Shraouh salt domes that form the cores of the islands. During mobilization and ascent of the salt, the dolomite recrystallized, and its Sr initial ratios were abnormally enhanced by the incorporation of 87Sr from a source, which is more radiogenic than the attendant seawater at the time of the dolomite formation near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Geochemical analysis show that Si, Al, Ti Zr, and % of insoluble residue are highly correlative, suggesting the presence of detrital minerals such as rutile and zircon. A paleosabkha model may well agree with this chemical signature. However, the Infra-Cambrian age of the Hormuz rocks and the presence of stromatolitic layers containing organic materials in the studied rocks, suggest that organogenic dolomitization could be an alternative dolomitization model.

  11. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  12. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Reservoirs of South Texas. [Quarterly] technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Levey, R.A.

    1995-06-30

    Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being applied to selected reservoirs in the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone (Vicksburg Fault Zone) trend of South Texas in order to maximize the economic producibility of resources in this mature oil play. More than half of the reservoirs in this depositionally complex play have already been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced unless advanced characterization techniques are applied to define untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool reservoirs as suitable targets for near-term recovery methods. This project is developing interwell-scale geological facies models and assessing engineering attributes of Frio fluvial-deltaic reservoirs in selected fields in order to characterize reservoir architecture, flow unit boundaries, and the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. The results of these studies will lead directly to the identification of specific opportunities to exploit these heterogeneous reservoirs for incremental recovery by recompletion and strategic infill drilling. Project work during the second quarter of 1995 consisted of (1) documentation of Phase II tasks associated with the delineation of untapped and incompletely drained reservoir compartments and new pool reservoirs in selected Frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone intervals in Rincon and Tijerina-Canales-Blucher (T-C-B) fields, as well as (2) tasks related to the transfer of the technologies to industry that aided in delineation. Text and figures have been prepared to support the geological-based compartment architecture and petrophysical analysis is being undertaken to provide a volumetric assessment of remaining resources and recoverable reserves. Petrophysical work during this period has focused on Rincon field reservoirs because of the availability of core material for special core analysis.

  13. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio fluvial-deltaic reservoirs of South Texas. Technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Levey, R.A.

    1995-10-10

    Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being applied to selected reservoirs in the Frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone trend in order to maximize the economic producibility of resources in this mature oil play. More than half of the reservoirs in this play have already been abandoned, and large volumes of oil may remain unproduced unless advanced characterization techniques are applied to define untapped, incompletely drained, and new pool reservoirs as suitable targets for near-term recovery methods. This project is developing interwell-scale geological facies models and assessing engineering attributes of reservoirs in selected fields in order to characterize reservoir architecture, flow unit boundaries, and the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume of unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Phase 1 consisted of reservoir selection and initial framework characterization. Phase 2 involved advanced characterization to delineate incremental resource opportunities. Subtasks included volumetric assessments of untapped and incompletely drained oil along with an analysis of specific targets for recompletion and strategic infill drilling. The third phase of the project consists of documentation of Phase 2 results, technology transfer, and the extrapolation of specific results from reservoirs in this study to other heterogeneous fluvial-deltaic reservoirs within and beyond the Frio play in South Texas. Project work during this quarter consisted of (1) documentation of Phase 2 tasks associated with the delineation of untapped and incompletely drained reservoir compartments and new pool reservoirs in selected Frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone intervals in Rincon and Tijerina-Canales-Blucher fields, as well as (2) Phase 3 tasks related to the transfer of the technologies to industry that aided in delineation.

  14. Gas-water-rock interactions in Frio Formation following CO2 injection: Implications for the storage of greenhouse gases in sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Cole, D.R.; Hovorka, S.D.; Gunter, W.D.; Knauss, K.G.; Freifeld, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional brine and oil reservoir in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before CO2 injection showed a Na-Ca-Cl-type brine with 93,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) at near saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions. Following CO2 breakthrough, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5-5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100-3000 mg/L as HCO3) and Fe (30-1100 mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and CH4. Geochemical modeling indicates that brine pH would have dropped lower but for the buffering by dissolution of carbonate and iron oxyhydroxides. This rapid dissolution of carbonate and other minerals could ultimately create pathways in the rock seals or well cements for CO2 and brine leakage. Dissolution of minerals, especially iron oxyhydroxides, could mobilize toxic trace metals and, where residual oil or suitable organics are present, the injected CO2 could also mobilize toxic organic compounds. Environmental impacts could be major if large brine volumes with mobilized toxic metals and organics migrated into potable groundwater. The ??18O values for brine and CO2 samples indicate that supercritical CO2 comprises ???50% of pore-fluid volume ???6 mo after the end of injection. Postinjection sampling, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicates that the brine gradually will return to its preinjection composition. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  15. 76 FR 61730 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4027-DR), dated September 3, 2011, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode...

  16. 75 FR 3981 - National Angel Island Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Island Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation One hundred years ago, the Angel Island Immigration Station in San Francisco Bay opened for the first time, and an...

  17. 77 FR 69648 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated November 3, 2012, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode...

  18. 78 FR 28619 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ...: Bruce Jacobson, DFO, Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, 15 State Street, Suite 1100, Boston, MA 02109; telephone (617) 223-8669; email Bruce_Jacobson@nps.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This... Official (DFO) for the Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council, Bruce Jacobson, by mail at State...

  19. A compilation of subsea energy and mineral resources of the United States including its possessions and Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holser, A.F.; Rowland, R.W.; Goud, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The United States has not resolved most of its Continental Shelf boundaries with other states.  The lines on this map are only approximate, and they do no necessarily reflect the positions or views of the United States with respect to those boundaries.  Sources of data for the boundaries and the resource information shown on the map are enumerated below.

  20. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Age Group- United States, 2013 Asian or Pacific Islander Females by Age Group- United States, 2013 ... by Age Group- United States, 2011 Asian or Pacific Islander Females by Age Group- United States, 2011 ...

  1. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    . It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the streamlined islands, the current-like flutes are parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesis that catastrophic floods broke forth in this region, known as Ares Vallis. Ares Vallis is the region where Pathfinder landed to help understand the possible history of water on Mars. Geologists want to understand not only if there was a catastrophic flood, but why it happened. Both orbiters and landers can add to the information on hand, but some Earth examples might provide clues as well. On our planet, some glacial valleys have had major catastrophic floods that were caused by the sudden outburst and drainage of glacial lakes. The Channeled Scabland in Washington state is great Earthly example of a place where the sudden failure of a glacier ice dam spewed out water, leaving a system of large, dry channels with flutes similar to the ones seen in this image. Did something similar happen to cause this outburst on Mars? Hopefully, future studies of THEMIS and other images will help us understand the answer.

  2. Venereal diseases in the islands of the North Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    Apart from the Japanese islands, and those of Karabati (lately Gilbert Islands), which lie just north of the equator, the islands of the northern Pacific Ocean are either American owned or otherwise administered. Even the Japanese islands were controlled by the USA for varying numbers of years after the second world war. Venereal disease statistics from Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Gilbert Islands have been collated by the South Pacific Commission and will be presented in a second paper. Those from the Hawaiian Islands (the fiftieth state of the USA) are published by the United States Public Health Service and include those from Honolulu, the capital. While the rates per 100 000 for both syphilis and gonorrhoea are lower than those for the USA as a whole, the trends since 1970 have been less satisfactory in the state of Hawaii than for the whole of the United States. While the disturbing increasing incidence of primary and secondary syphilis was checked in 1977, that of gonorrhoea has continued to rise. The number of cases of gonorrhoea also increased in Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but there has been a recent fall from earlier peak figures. The pattern of venereal disease in the most developed Pacific islands is thus gradually approaching what may be expected elsewhere in modern western society and it would seem logical to expect that this trend will continue. PMID:6893564

  3. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem ... in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol is their ...

  4. 75 FR 20598 - Public Buildings Service; Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, CA; Transfer of Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Public Buildings Service; Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, CA; Transfer of... identified as Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, California to the State of...

  5. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Federated States of Micronesia; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federated States of Micronesia, a sovereign nation and U.S.-associated state in the western Pacific Ocean. The Federated States of Micronesia’s electricity rates for residential customers exceed $0.48 U.S. dollars (USD)/per kilowatt-hour (kWh), nearly four times the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  6. Phage-Like Streptococcus pyogenes Chromosomal Islands (SpyCI) and Mutator Phenotypes: Control by Growth State and Rescue by a SpyCI-Encoded Promoter.

    PubMed

    Scott, Julie; Nguyen, Scott V; King, Catherine J; Hendrickson, Christina; McShan, W Michael

    2012-01-01

    We recently showed that a prophage-like Streptococcus pyogenes chromosomal island (SpyCI) controls DNA mismatch repair and other repair functions in M1 genome strain SF370 by dynamic excision and reintegration into the 5' end of mutL in response to growth, causing the cell to alternate between a wild type and mutator phenotype. Nine of the 16 completed S. pyogenes genomes contain related SpyCI integrated into the identical attachment site in mutL, and in this study we examined a number of these strains to determine whether they also had a mutator phenotype as in SF370. With the exception of M5 genome strain Manfredo, all demonstrated a mutator phenotype as compared to SpyCI-free strain NZ131. The integrase gene (int) in the SpyCIM5 contains a deletion that rendered it inactive, and this deletion predicts that Manfredo would have a pronounced mutator phenotype. Remarkably, this was found not to be the case, but rather a cryptic promoter within the int ORF was identified that ensured constitutive expression of mutL and the downstream genes encoded on the same mRNA, providing a striking example of rescue of gene function following decay of a mobile genetic element. The frequent occurrence of SpyCI in the group A streptococci may facilitate bacterial survival by conferring an inducible mutator phenotype that promotes adaptation in the face of environmental challenges or host immunity.

  7. Asian American and Pacific Islander Military Veterans in the United States: Health Service Use and Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Whealin, Julia M.; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We (1) compared use of various health services nationally between Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) veterans and veterans of other racial/ethnic groups and (2) specifically compared perceived barriers and stigma related to mental health services. Methods. Using bivariate and multivariable statistics, we analyzed a population-weighted sample of 8315 veterans from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans and a random sample of 567 recent veterans from Hawaii. Results. A total of 1.5% of veterans were AA/PI compared with 0.4% a decade ago. Compared with other veterans, AA/PI veterans reported higher socioeconomic status and better mental health, although these findings may be specific to AA veterans. Adjusting for sociodemographic and health differences, we found no differences in health service use or perceived barriers or stigma related to mental health services. Conclusions. AA/PIs are a small but fast-growing racial/ethnic group within the veteran population that deserves attention. Although veteran status may be protective against some barriers to mental health care found in the general AA/PI population, efforts to reduce barriers to health care among veterans should be continued. PMID:25100419

  8. 29. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, CA. 1909. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: COAL WHARF, 1895 PUMPING STATION, 1909 ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, INTAKE AND DISCHARGE PIPES ON WOODEN TRESTLE, RESIDENCE, AND UNKNOWN STRUCTURE Photocopy of photograph (Massachusetts State Archives, Environmental Affairs, MDC, Construction, 313 V 193 1-5 Box 8, Deer Island Pumping Station - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 20 CFR 625.30 - Appeal Procedures for Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 625.30 Section 625.30 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. (a) Designation..., Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Trust Territory of the...

  10. Voyaging from the Past, to the Present, and into the Future: Knowing Your Heritage. Selected Papers from PIALA 2003, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (13th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 4-6, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 13th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 4-6, 2003. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2003 Planning &…

  11. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  12. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  13. Nonmedical stimulant use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals aged 12-34 years in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S; Brady, Kathleen T; Blazer, Dan G; Hoyle, Rick H

    2014-12-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12-34 years in the 2005-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, "Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin" was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; "got them from a friend/relative for free" and "bought them from a friends/relative" were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18-25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations.

  14. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  15. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  16. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  17. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  18. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  19. Freshwater Fish Assemblage Patterns in Rhode Island Streams and Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in fish assemblages in streams and rivers can inform watershed and water management, yet these patterns are not well characterized for the U.S. state of Rhode Island. Here we relate freshwater fish data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Managemen...

  20. 77 FR 67857 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/03/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident Period:...

  1. 75 FR 19666 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00007 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated 04/08/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding....

  2. 78 FR 21492 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00012 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4107-DR), dated 03/22/2013. Incident: Severe winter storm and...

  3. New England After 3 PM: Spotlight on Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report, the third installment in the "New England After 3 PM" series, discusses after-school programs and support in Rhode Island. The Afterschool Alliance worked with the Rhode Island Afterschool Plus Alliance to survey mayors and other officials in each of the state's 39 cities and towns. The survey, distributed via the Internet in April…

  4. Money and Education: A Guide to Rhode Island School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Donald; Sinkin, Judy G.

    This handbook is one in a series prepared for use at workshops designed to help teachers, administrators, and legislators understand and deal with the intricacies of school finance equalization plans in their states. Rhode Island's education finance plan is discussed in this particular book. Chapter 1 discusses how Rhode Island's plan undertakes…

  5. The Urban Heat Island Phenomenon and Potential Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Gorsevski, Virginia; Russell, Camille; Quattrochi, Dale; Luvall, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    A survey of urban heat island research is provided to describe how heat islands develop, urban landscape and meteorological characteristics that facilitate development, use of aircraft remote sensing data, and why heat islands are of interest to planners, elected officials, and the public. The roles of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal agencies, national laboratories and universities, state and local governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOS) in studying the urban heat island effect and developing mitigation strategies are explored. Barriers that hamper mitigation efforts and case studies in Atlanta and Salt Lake City are discussed.

  6. Generalized model of island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David A; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical. PMID:25974525

  7. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  8. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR 329, contiguous to the area... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida restricted areas. 334.515 Section...

  9. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR 329, contiguous to the area... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida restricted areas. 334.515 Section...

  10. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR 329, contiguous to the area... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida restricted areas. 334.515 Section...

  11. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR 329, contiguous to the area... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida restricted areas. 334.515 Section...

  12. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... encompass all navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR 329, contiguous to the area... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida restricted areas. 334.515 Section...

  13. Resurrection of the Island Rule: Human-Driven Extinctions Have Obscured a Basic Evolutionary Pattern.

    PubMed

    Faurby, Søren; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-06-01

    Islands are or have been occupied by unusual species, such as dwarf proboscideans and giant rodents. The discussion of the classical but controversial island rule-which states that mammalian body sizes converge on intermediate sizes on islands-has been stimulated by these unusual species. In this study, we use an unprecedented global data set of the distributions and body sizes of late Quaternary mammal species and a novel analytical method to analyze body size evolution on islands. The analyses produced strong support for the island rule. Islands have suffered massive human-driven losses of species, and we found that the support for the island rule was substantially stronger when the many late Quaternary extinct species were also considered (particularly the tendency for dwarfing in large taxa). The decisive support for the island rule in this study confirms that evolution plays out in a markedly different way on islands and that human impact may obscure even fundamental evolutionary patterns. PMID:27172600

  14. Authigenic pyrite formation and re-oxidation as an indicator of an unsteady-state redox sedimentary environment: Evidence from the intertidal mangrove sediments of Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hai; Yao, Suping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Two cores of intertidal mangrove sediments from the Tanmen and Qinglan Harbors on Hainan Island, China, were investigated for their geochemical characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, iron and sulfur and the pyrite morphology and framboidal pyrite size distribution. A modified sequential iron extraction procedure revealed extremely high FeHR/FeT ratios (0.81±0.07, n=28). The pyrite results determined by the nitric acid digestion and chromium reduction method show a strong correlation (r=0.91, n=28), indicating that most of the chromium-reducible sulfur is pyrite, whereas the proportion of elemental sulfur is minor. The organic carbon concentrations and the atomic C/N ratios demonstrate that the organic carbon in the mangrove sediments is derived predominantly from higher plants. The chromium-reducible sulfur (CRS) values show a good linear logarithmic correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC), indicating that the process of sulfate reduction increases rapidly with the concentration of TOC at Qinglan Harbor (QL), which has low TOC contents (<5 wt%). In contrast, sulfate reduction increases slowly with high TOC (>5 wt%) at Tanmen Harbor (TM). These data suggest that pyrite formation at the QL site is controlled by the TOC contents, whereas at the TM site, the primary factor controlling the pyritization process is the supply rate of sulfate. Both sites have significantly high sulfate contents (average 1.67±0.45 wt% and 0.80±0.32 wt% at Tanmen and Qinglan, respectively), which are isotopically depleted in 34S (average -6.15±7.17‰ and -6.72±7.33‰ at Tanmen and Qinglan, respectively) suggesting that the sulfate is mainly from the reoxidation of reduced sulfides (mainly pyrite) instead of seawater sulfate during burial. The distributions of pyrite textures suggest that the pyrite in the mangrove swamps is formed mainly as framboids and only a few pyrite crystals are formed directly as euhedral crystals. The high mean diameters and standard deviations (7.0±4

  15. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  16. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... State of Alaska. (b) Restrictions. Subsistence fishing within the Annette Islands Reserve shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 245.4 - Exceptions for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 245... REDUCED PRICE MEALS AND FREE MILK IN SCHOOLS § 245.4 Exceptions for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Because the State agencies of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands provide free meals or milk to...

  18. 77 FR 56231 - Minor Boundary Revision at Virgin Islands National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Virgin Islands National Park AGENCY: National Park Service....S.C. 4601- 9(c)(1)(ii), the boundary of the Virgin Islands National Park is modified to include an... States. The land is located at Estate Haulover on the east end of the Island of St. John,...

  19. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... State of Alaska. (b) Restrictions. Subsistence fishing within the Annette Islands Reserve shall be...

  20. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... State of Alaska. (b) Restrictions. Subsistence fishing within the Annette Islands Reserve shall be...

  1. 78 FR 56607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Regulations; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY,'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 31454). We received no... Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard amends the..., mile 152.7, between Troy and Green Island, New York. The owner of the bridge, New York State...

  2. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... State of Alaska. (b) Restrictions. Subsistence fishing within the Annette Islands Reserve shall be...

  3. 75 FR 62438 - U.S. Virgin Islands Disaster #VI-00003

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION U.S. Virgin Islands Disaster VI-00003 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... for the State of U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1939-DR), dated 09/28/2010. Incident: Hurricane Earl... disaster: Primary Counties: Saint Croix, Saint John, Saint Thomas, including Water Island. The...

  4. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... State of Alaska. (b) Restrictions. Subsistence fishing within the Annette Islands Reserve shall be...

  5. 78 FR 70005 - Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island, California; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island... Nicolas Island, California. Naval Base Ventura County is requesting the Corps modify the existing... unchanged. San Nicolas Island is wholly owned by the United States and operated by the U.S. Navy as part...

  6. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  7. Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the reconnaissance geologic map of the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO Exportfiles/ and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

  8. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These two Kids Count brief reports discuss issues related to the well-being of Rhode Island children. The first report identifies ways to measure the impact of state and federal welfare reform proposals on children who receive benefits through Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Potential measures of success for welfare reform include…

  9. Lost island found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An abandoned ll-by-5-km kidney-shaped chunk of freshwater ice, used as a research station for 25 years, was rediscovered after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) lost track of the island for 6 months. The recent find may foreshadow another loss, however: The island is drifting through the Greenland Sea and into the North Atlantic where it should melt within several months and d u m p its cargo of oil drums, equipment, and a wrecked plane into the ocean.Known as Fletcher's Ice Island—after Joseph O. Fletcher, a member of the first team of researchers to inhabit the island and a recently retired NOAA climate researcher—the ice chunk has already melted to a third of its original 49 m thickness. A pilot flying over the area to measure annual pollution buildup in the Arctic located the drifting island 242 km from the North Pole near the International Date Line.

  10. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  11. Islands, resettlement and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Jon; O'Neill, Saffron J.

    2012-01-01

    Resettlement of people living on islands in anticipation of climate impacts risks maladaptation, but some forms of population movement carry fewer risks and larger rewards in terms of adapting to climate change.

  12. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  13. 22 CFR 46.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 46.6 Section 46.6 Foreign... the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United... Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or an outlying possession of the United States shall comply...

  14. 22 CFR 46.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 46.6 Section 46.6 Foreign... the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United... Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or an outlying possession of the United States shall comply...

  15. 5. ISLAND ROAD BRIDGE. COLWYN, DELAWARE CO., PA. Sec. 1101, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ISLAND ROAD BRIDGE. COLWYN, DELAWARE CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 5.58. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Photovoltaic applications for remote-island needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, D. A.; Larson, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Electric power supply options available to many of the central and south Pacific island governments are severely constrained by remoteness, limited infrastructures, a corrosive natural environment, and the high delivered costs of many conventional energy sources. Photovoltaic energy systems offer a currently available, practical, and cost-effective source of electricity for many stand-alone applications in remote areas of the Pacific. Photovoltaic system definitions and cost analyses are provided for selected applications in the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Territory of American Samoa.

  17. Self-regulated oscillation of transport and topology of magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Evans, T. E.; Inagaki, S.; Austin, M. E.; Shafer, M. W.; Ohdachi, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Itoh, S. -I.; Itoh, K.

    2015-11-04

    The coupling between the transport and magnetic topology is an important issue because the structure of magnetic islands, embedded in a toroidal equilibrium field, depends on the nature of the transport at the edge of the islands. Measurements of modulated heat pulse propagation in the DIII-D tokamak have revealed the existence of self-regulated oscillations in the radial energy transport into magnetic islands that are indicative of bifurcations in the island structure and transport near the q = 2 surface. Large amplitude heat pulses are seen in one state followed by small amplitude pulses later in the discharge resulting in amore » repeating cycle of island states. These two states are interpreted as a bifurcation of magnetic island with high and low heat pulse accessibility. In conclusion, this report describes the discovery of a bifurcation in the coupled dynamics between the transport and topology of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas.« less

  18. Self-regulated oscillation of transport and topology of magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Evans, T. E.; Inagaki, S.; Austin, M. E.; Shafer, M. W.; Ohdachi, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2015-01-01

    The coupling between the transport and magnetic topology is an important issue because the structure of magnetic islands, embedded in a toroidal equilibrium field, depends on the nature of the transport at the edge of the islands. Measurements of modulated heat pulse propagation in the DIII-D tokamak have revealed the existence of self-regulated oscillations in the radial energy transport into magnetic islands that are indicative of bifurcations in the island structure and transport near the q = 2 surface. Large amplitude heat pulses are seen in one state followed by small amplitude pulses later in the discharge resulting in a repeating cycle of island states. These two states are interpreted as a bifurcation of magnetic island with high and low heat pulse accessibility. This report describes the discovery of a bifurcation in the coupled dynamics between the transport and topology of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas. PMID:26530273

  19. Self-regulated oscillation of transport and topology of magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Evans, T. E.; Inagaki, S.; Austin, M. E.; Shafer, M. W.; Ohdachi, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Itoh, S. -I.; Itoh, K.

    2015-11-04

    The coupling between the transport and magnetic topology is an important issue because the structure of magnetic islands, embedded in a toroidal equilibrium field, depends on the nature of the transport at the edge of the islands. Measurements of modulated heat pulse propagation in the DIII-D tokamak have revealed the existence of self-regulated oscillations in the radial energy transport into magnetic islands that are indicative of bifurcations in the island structure and transport near the q = 2 surface. Large amplitude heat pulses are seen in one state followed by small amplitude pulses later in the discharge resulting in a repeating cycle of island states. These two states are interpreted as a bifurcation of magnetic island with high and low heat pulse accessibility. In conclusion, this report describes the discovery of a bifurcation in the coupled dynamics between the transport and topology of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas.

  20. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of 137Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <<0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered. PMID:27274073

  1. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  2. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered. PMID:27274073

  3. Healing of magnetic islands in stellarators by plasma flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegna, C. C.

    2011-10-01

    Recent experiments from the Large Helical Device (LHD) demonstrate a correlation between the ``healing'' of vacuum magnetic islands in stellarators and changes in the plasma flow. In the LHD experiments, external 3-D coils are intentionally applied to produce magnetic islands in the vacuum configuration. With plasma, both island growth and healing is seen with the two disparate plasma responses distinguished by a sharp boundary in a parameter space defined by the plasma β and collisionality at the rational surface. While island growth is observed at low β and high collisionality, at sufficiently high β and/or low collisionality, the plasma abruptly changes to a configuration with no island. A model explaining this phenomenon is developed reminiscent of ``mode locking/unlocking'' theory of tokamak physics. The theory describes transitions between two asymptotic solutions, a state with a large nonrotating island and a state where rotation shielding suppresses island formation. Transitions between these two states are governed by coupled torque balance and island evolution equations. In conventional stellarators, neoclassical damping physics plays an important role in establishing the flow profiles. The balance of neoclassical damping and cross-field viscosity produces a radial boundary layer for the plasma rotation profile outside the separatrix of a locked magnetic island. The width of this boundary layer decreases as the plasma becomes less collisional. This has the consequence of enhancing the viscous torque at low collisionality making healing magnetic islands occur more readily in high temperature conventional stellarators. The analytic theory produces a critical β for healing [βcrit ~(ν*) 1 / 4 ] that is in qualitative agreement with LHD observations. Research supported by U. S. DoE under grant nos. DE-FG02-99ER54546 and DE-SC0006103.

  4. Effects of the exxon valdez oil spill on fork-tailed storm-petrels breeding in the Barren Islands, Alaska. Bird study number 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, M.; Byrd, G.V.

    1993-04-01

    We evaluated fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) at East Amatuli Island, Barren Islands, the largest storm-petrel breeding colony within the trajectory of the oil slick, to determine whether there was evidence of adverse effects, following the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill. Although we were unable to measure all possible indicators, we found insufficient evidence to conclude that there were significant adverse impacts to breeding storm-petrels in 1989.

  5. Wave forecasting and longshore sediment transport gradients along a transgressive barrier island: Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Schindler, Jennifer K.

    2009-12-01

    Louisiana barrier islands, such as the chain surrounding the southeast region of the state, are experiencing rapid loss of land area, shoreline erosion, and landward migration due to transgression and in-place drowning, and the landfall of several major hurricanes in the last decade. Observations of migration rates and overall impacts to these barrier islands are poorly understood since they do not respond in a traditional way, such as barrier rollover. This paper aims to verify how wave energy and potential longshore sediment transport trends have influenced the recent evolution of the Chandeleur Islands, by direct comparison with recent observations of migration and erosion trends. The Chandeleur Islands are characterized by a bidirectional transport system, with material moving from the central arc to the flanks. The longshore sediment transport along the barrier islands was calculated after propagation and transformation of waves to breaking (generated using observed winds), and through the use of a common longshore sediment transport formula. Seasonal variations in wind climate produced changes in the transport trends and gradients that agree with migration and rotation patterns observed for this barrier island system. Results suggest that wind dominance produces seasonal oscillations that cause an imbalance in the resulting transport gradients that over time are responsible for higher rates of transport in the northward direction. These results and data from other works verify the evolutionary model previously suggested, and qualitatively confirm the recent observations in asymmetric shoreline erosion.

  6. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  7. Delineation of tidal scour through marine geophysical techniques at Sloop Channel and Goose Creek bridges, Jones Beach State Park, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony; Reynolds, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Inspection of the Goose Creek Bridge in southeastern Nassau County in April 1998 by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) indicated a separation of bridge piers from the road bed as a result of pier instability due to apparent seabed scouring by tidal currents. This prompted a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey with the NYSDOT to delineate the extent of tidal scour at this bridge and at the Sloop Channel Bridge, about 0.5 mile to the south, through several marine- geophysical techniques. These techniques included use of a narrow-beam, 200-kilohertz, research-grade fathometer, a global positioning system accurate to within 3 feet, a 3.5 to 7-kilohertz seismic-reflection profiler, and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The ADCP was used only at the Sloop Channel Bridge; the other techniques were used at both bridges. Results indicate extensive tidal scour at both bridges. The fathometer data indicate two major scour holes nearly parallel to the Sloop Channel Bridge -- one along the east side, and one along the west side (bridge is oriented north-south). The scour-hole depths are as much as 47 feet below sea level and average more than 40 feet below sea level; these scour holes also appear to have begun to connect beneath the bridge. The deepest scour is at the north end of the bridge beneath the westernmost piers. The east-west symmetry of scour at Sloop Channel Bridge suggests that flood and ebb tides produce extensive scour. The thickness of sediment that has settled within scour holes could not be interpreted from fathometer data alone because fathometer frequencies cannot penetrate beneath the sea-floor surface. The lower frequencies used in seismic-reflection profiling can penetrate the sea floor and underlying sediments, and indicate the amount of infilling of scour holes, the extent of riprap under the bridge, and the assemblages of clay, sand, and silt beneath the sea floor. The seismic- reflection surveys detected 2

  8. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  9. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  10. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

  11. Nonlinear stability of magnetic islands in a rotating helical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.; Toda, S.; Narushima, Y.; Yagi, M.

    2012-12-15

    Coexistence of the forced magnetic reconnection by a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) and the curvature-driven tearing mode is investigated in a helical (stellarator) plasma rotated by helical trapped particle-induced neoclassical flows. A set of Rutherford-type equations of rotating magnetic islands and a poloidal flow evolution equation is revisited. Using the model, analytical expressions of criteria of spontaneous shrinkage (self-healing) of magnetic islands and sudden growth of locked magnetic islands (penetration of RMP) are obtained, where nonlinear saturation states of islands show bifurcation structures and hysteresis characteristics. Considering radial profile of poloidal flows across magnetic islands, it is found that the self-healing is driven by neoclassical viscosity even in the absence of micro-turbulence-induced anomalous viscosity. Effects of unfavorable curvature in stellarators are found to modify the critical values. The scalings of criteria are consistent with low-{beta} experiments in the large helical device.

  12. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated).

  13. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  14. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Selected Steps Communities, United States, 2007 and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Pacific Island United States Territories, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Frederic E., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "MMWR" contains the following studies: (1) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Selected Steps…

  15. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens on São Luis island, Maranhão state, Brazil, with a new genotype described.

    PubMed

    Sousa, I C; Pena, H F J; Santos, L S; Gennari, S M; Costa, F N

    2016-06-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with worldwide distribution that infects warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans. Toxoplasma is considered to be monospecific, but three classical clonal lineages (Types I-III) have been described, especially for isolates from North America and Europe. However, recently, several studies have shown that many isolates, particularly from South America, are different from the classic types and highly diverse, with the presence of specific clonal lineages and non-archetypal genotypes. In order to isolate and genotypically characterize T. gondii, 60 free-range naturally infected chickens (Gallus domesticus) from four municipalities on São Luis island, state of Maranhão, Brazil, were first serologically screened for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by means of the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT≥1:16). Heart and brain samples from seropositive chickens were bioassayed in mice. The isolates obtained from bioassaying were genotyped by means of PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) using 11 markers and by microsatellites (MS) using 15 markers. The frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies in the chickens examined was 25.0% (15/60). Five isolates of T. gondii were obtained and named TgCkBrMA1 to 5. Four genotypes were described. One of them is reported for the first time. No classic clonal lineages of types I, II or III were found, but the Brazilian clonal lineage BrI was identified. MS analysis revealed five genotypes. The results corroborate studies already developed in other regions of Brazil, thus indicating that T. gondii has high genetic diversity in Brazil.

  16. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  17. Island custom blocking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.J. )

    1988-03-01

    The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The cookie cutter is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author.

  18. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  19. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (<150 years) historic records, which means that to understand their tsunami hazard and risk researchers must study evidence for prehistoric events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Weather and Climate Monitoring Protocol, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, Kathryn; Power, Paula; Dye, Linda; Rudolph, Rocky

    2008-01-01

    Weather and climate are strong drivers of population dynamics, plant and animal spatial distributions, community interactions, and ecosystem states. Information on local weather and climate is crucial in interpreting trends and patterns in the natural environment for resource management, research, and visitor enjoyment. This document describes the weather and climate monitoring program at the Channel Islands National Park (fig. 1), initiated in the 1990s. Manual and automated stations, which continue to evolve as technology changes, are being used for this program. The document reviews the history of weather data collection on each of the five Channel Islands National Park islands, presents program administrative structure, and provides an overview of procedures for data collection, archival, retrieval, and reporting. This program overview is accompanied by the 'Channel Islands National Park Remote Automated Weather Station Field Handbook' and the 'Channel Islands National Park Ranger Weather Station Field Handbook'. These Handbooks are maintained separately at the Channel Island National Park as 'live documents' that are updated as needed to provide a current working manual of weather and climate monitoring procedures. They are available on request from the Weather Program Manager (Channel Islands National Park, 1901 Spinnaker Dr., Ventura, CA 93001; 805.658.5700). The two Field Handbooks describe in detail protocols for managing the four remote automated weather stations (RAWS) and the seven manual Ranger Weather Stations on the islands, including standard operating procedures for equipment maintenance and calibration; manufacturer operating manuals; data retrieval and archiving; metada collection and archival; and local, agency, and vendor contracts.

  1. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  3. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... supplies were discovered on the island in 1964, but their origin could not be determined. Seals in the area were declared to be ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  4. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  5. Modernisation, migration and nutritional health of Pacific Island populations.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of obesity and fatness across the second part of the 20th century has been documented for a number of Pacific Island populations. While dietary change and reduced physical activity levels associated with economic modernisation have been identified as the key factors fuelling the emergence of obesity, it is argued here that increasing numbers of Pacific Island migrants in the United States, New Zealand, France and Australia have provided the basis for the acceleration of the modernisation process by way of remittances, and the transmission of ideas of economic opportunity and change. Potential for migration for the Pacific Island nations is estimated from available data on population growth, total fertility rates and total mortality rates. Pacific Islander migrants form approximately one quarter of the total global Pacific Islander population, the majority of whom are from Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and the Federated States of Micronesia. Per capita energy and fats and meat intake for the period 1961 to 2000 is described for five Pacific Island nations, showing that, in general, energy intakes have increased, as have the energy densities of the diets consumed. Thus the increase in mean body mass index observed in Pacific Islanders in the second half of the twentieth century can in general be attributed to dietary change associated with greater food and energy intake, and with increased consumption of fatty foods and meat, most of which are imports.

  6. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  7. Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A.

    2006-02-15

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  8. Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A; Shaing, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  9. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  10. "Go local" island food network: using email networking to promote island foods for their health, biodiversity, and other "CHEEF" benefits.

    PubMed

    Englberger, L; Lorens, A; Pretrick, M E; Spegal, R; Falcam, I

    2010-04-01

    Dietary- and lifestyle-related diseases are problems of epidemic proportion in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Public health resources to help prevent nutrition-related problems are limited. There is also concern about biodiversity, neglect of traditional staple foods, and threatened loss of traditional knowledge. A "Go Local" campaign was initiated to increase production and consumption of locally grown foods, for their Culture, Health, Environment, Economics, and Food security ("CHEEF") benefits. To provide updates and discuss local island food topics, the Island Food Community of Pohnpei launched an interagency email network in 2003. Interested members' email addresses were recorded in distribution lists, weekly/bi-weekly emails were sent and from these messages, a database was organized to record email topic details. An analysis of all emails up to July 2009 showed that membership had expanded to over 600 listed people from all FSM states, other Pacific Island countries and beyond. Information was shared on topics ranging from scientific findings of carotenoid content in local island food cultivars, to discussions on how daily habits related to island food use can be improved. Over 200 men and women, aged 22 to 80 years, contributed items, some indicating that they had shared emails to a further network at their workplace or community. In conclusion, this email network is a simple, cost-effective method to share information, create awareness, and mobilize island food promotion efforts with potential for providing health, biodiversity and other benefits of island foods to populations in the FSM and other countries.

  11. The potential for sea-level-rise-induced barrier island loss: Insights from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Laura J.; Patsch, Kiki; List, Jeffrey H.; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2014-01-01

    As sea level rises and hurricanes become more intense, barrier islands around the world become increasingly vulnerable to conversion from self-sustaining migrating landforms to submerging or subaqueous sand bodies. To explore the mechanism by which such state changes occur and to assess the factors leading to island disintegration, we develop a suite of numerical simulations for the Chandeleur Islands in Louisiana, U.S.A., which appear to be on the verge of this transition. Our results suggest that the Chandeleurs are likely poised to change state, leading to their demise, within decades depending on future storm history. Contributing factors include high rates of relative sea level rise, limited sediment supply, muddy substrate, current island position relative to former Mississippi River distributary channels, and the effects of changes in island morphology on sediment transport pathways. Although deltaic barrier islands are most sensitive to disintegration because of their muddy substrate, the importance of relative sea level rise rate in determining the timing of threshold crossing suggests that the conceptual models for deltaic barrier island formation and disintegration may apply more broadly in the future.

  12. Educational Technology and the World Wide Web in the Pacific Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iding, Marie; Skouge, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes technology issues that educators, teacher educators and students in the Pacific Islands confront, specifically in American Samoa (a U.S. territory) and Chuuk (one of the Federated States of Micronesia). It will also briefly mention issues relevant to Yap and Kosrae (two other states in Micronesia), and the Marshall Islands.…

  13. 77 FR 30214 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Rhode Island; Regional Haze

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ...) for the State of Rhode Island. See 77 FR 11798. The NPR proposed approval of the Rhode Island State...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory...

  14. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, January 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-01-08

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  15. A Survey of Rhode Island School Superintendents on the Status of Gifted and Talented Education in Their Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Dennis C.; Patty, Lin Murray

    In 1996, the Rhode Island State Advisory Committee for Gifted and Talented Education surveyed 34 Rhode Island school superintendents on the status of gifted and talented education in their districts. Findings from the survey indicate: (1) Rhode Island school districts are serving about 4.5 percent of the student population; (2) there were…

  16. Eugene Island Block 330 Field - development and production history. [Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.L.; Dupuy, H.J. Jr.; Holland, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Eugene Island Block 330 Field is currently the largest oil producing field in federally owned offshore waters of the United States. The field is located about 272 kilometers southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana. This paper discusses the total geological complex and then follows the development and production history of the primary block: Eugene Island Block 330. A discussion of the sand control and safety features used in the offshore is also included. 1 ref.

  17. Contrasting styles of Hurricane Irene washover sedimentation on three east coast barrier islands: Cape Lookout, North Carolina; Assateague Island, Virginia; and Fire Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. F. L.

    2015-02-01

    Storm surge and wind-driven waves generated by Hurricane Irene, which made landfall on the U.S. east coast on August 27 2011, resulted in overwash of sandy barrier islands from North Carolina to New York State. Overwash has significant impacts on barrier island geomorphology: it represents a sediment pathway into island interiors, a component of island sediment budgets, and can cause considerable aggradation of backshore surfaces, important for potentially offsetting the effects of rising sea level. This study describes the morphology, texture and microfossil content of Hurricane Irene washover deposits at three contrasting barrier island sites: Cape Lookout, North Carolina, Assateague Island, Virginia and Fire Island, New York. At all three sites, run-up overwash occurred, wherein waves were sufficient to overtop parts of the beach system and transport sediment inland. However, at Fire Island, overwash was restricted by a higher elevational threshold to low spots in the beach system coinciding with pre-existing breaches in foredunes. The result was the formation of isolated, thinner, low-volume washover fans. At Assateague Island and Cape Lookout, lower elevational thresholds allowed waves to overtop longer continuous sections of beach systems, resulting in the formation of laterally-continuous, thicker, larger-volume washover terraces. Overall, the deposits lacked consistent trends in thickness and texture (such as thinning and fining inland, reflecting a progressive reduction in overwash competence). Thickness and texture of the deposits were both spatially variable and probably reflect infilling of low points on the former surface and the influence of beach and foredune sediment sources. All the washover deposits were essentially barren of foraminiferal microfossils, supporting the textural evidence that the adjacent beach and foredunes were the predominant sediment sources.

  18. FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  20. American Dissertations on Foreign Education: A Bibliography with Abstracts. Volume XVII. Pacific: American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Micronesia), Tubuai (French Polynesia), Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin, Ed.; Parker, Betty June, Ed.

    The editors attempt to examine and abstract all locatable doctoral dissertations completed in the United States, Canada, and some European countries that pertain to the Pacific area. Specifically, these dissertations deal with American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific…

  1. Libraries, Archives and Museums: What's in Them for Us? PIALA '98. Selected Papers from the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (8th, Tofol, Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, November 17-20, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.

    This proceedings contains papers from the 1998 annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives (PIALA). After welcoming remarks from Henry Robert and Isabel Rungrad, the following papers are included: "Sharing Our Successes, Discussing Our Future: A Survey of Pacific Collections Activities--Report from the University…

  2. New Beginnings: The Library as an Information and Resource Basket. Selected Papers from PIALA 2008: Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (18th, Colonia, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia, November 17-21, 2001)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horie, Ruth H., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2008 Planning Committee, the Officers and Executive Board, and Acknowledgements, followed by the Schedule of Events and a…

  3. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in Frio Fluvial-Deltaic reservoirs of South Texas. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.

    1993-03-31

    During this second project quarter, screening of South Texas fields within the Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone/Vicksburg Fault Zone oil play was completed. Fields were to identify reservoirs that have a large remaining oil resource, are in danger of premature abandonment, and have geological and production data in sufficient quantity and of suitable quality to facilitate advanced reservoir characterization studies (subtask 1). Two fields have been selected for inclusion in this study: Tijerina-Canales-Blucher (T.C.B.) Field, located in the northern portion of the trend in Jim Wells County, and Rincon Field, located to the south in Starr County. Current plans are to incorporate data from both fields in our reservoir characterization and targeted resource addition studies. Project members met with operators of both fields to review available geologic and production field data and discuss our research plans. The collection of detailed geologic and production data required for the initial reservoir characterization studies (subtask 2) is currently underway. Details outlining specifics of project accomplishments for this quarter are provided.

  4. Interactions between barrier islands and backbarrier marshes affect island system response to sea level rise: Insights from a coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, David; Moore, Laura J.; Duran Vinent, Orencio; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Mariotti, Giulio

    2014-09-01

    Interactions between backbarrier marshes and barrier islands will likely play an important role in determining how low-lying coastal systems respond to sea level rise and changes in storminess in the future. To assess the role of couplings between marshes and barrier islands under changing conditions, we develop and apply a coupled barrier island-marsh model (GEOMBEST+) to assess the impact of overwash deposition on backbarrier marsh morphology and of marsh morphology on rates of island migration. Our model results suggest that backbarrier marsh width is in a constant state of change until either the backbarrier basin becomes completely filled or backbarrier marsh deposits have completely eroded away. Results also suggest that overwash deposition is an important source of sediment, which allows existing narrow marshes to be maintained in a long-lasting alternate state (~500 m wide in the Virginia Barrier Islands) within a range of conditions under which they would otherwise disappear. The existence of a narrow marsh state is supported by observations of backbarrier marshes along the eastern shore of Virginia. Additional results suggest that marshes reduce accommodation in the backbarrier bay, which, in turn, decreases island migration rate. As climate change results in sea level rise, and the increased potential for intense hurricanes resulting in overwash, it is likely that these couplings will become increasingly important in determining future system behavior.

  5. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  6. Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three main volcanoes make up the island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W): the older volcanoes Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the recent Kilauea seen venting steam. This color infrared image is one of a pair (see STS052-77-002) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. Color film presents an image as it appears to the human eye whereas color infrared imagery reduces atmospheric haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red.

  7. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    PubMed

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  8. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  9. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  10. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  11. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  12. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  13. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have ... being told they had asthma, 2014 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ ...

  14. Current-driven complex dynamics of single-layer epitaxial islands on substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    We study theoretically the current-driven dynamics of isolated single-layer epitaxial islands on crystalline substrates, which provides important guidance toward surface nanopatterning approaches based on the current-driven assembly of such islands. We develop and validate a fully nonlinear model for the islands' driven morphological evolution on elastic substrates of face-centered cubic crystals in the regime where diffusional mass transport is limited to the island edge. For islands on <110>-, <100>-, and <111>-oriented substrate surfaces, we report a transition in the asymptotic states reached by such driven island dynamics from steady to oscillatory, mediated by Hopf bifurcation. We characterize the bifurcation and explore the dependence of the stable time-periodic state beyond the Hopf point on the misorientation angle between the applied electric field and fast edge diffusion directions, the strength of the edge diffusional anisotropy, and the island size. For islands larger than a critical size, depending on the orientation of the substrate surface, we observe fingering and necking instabilities in the island morphology. We carry out a comprehensive numerical simulation study and explore the complexity of the driven island dynamics with the variation of the problem parameters.

  15. Multicenter pediatric emergency medicine research and Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Chun, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    Multicenter clinical research studies are often needed to address issues of generalizability, conditions with low incidence, adequate statistical power, and potential study bias. While pediatric research networks began work in the 1950s, and Rhode Island physicians have contributed to many of these studies, pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) collaboratives are relative newcomers. Since the mid-1990s, Rhode Island pediatricians have contributed to multicenter studies of diabetic ketoacidosis, bronchiolitis, asthma, quality of PEM care, meningitis, brief interventions for substance use disorders, point-of-care ultrasound, and pre-hospital triage protocols. In 2011, Rhode Island Hospital joined the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network, the first federally funded pediatric emergency medicine network of its kind. Its mission is to perform high quality, high impact PEM research. Since joining the network, Rhode Island Hospital has quickly become a productive and valued member of the network, portending a bright future for multicenter PEM research in the Ocean State. PMID:24400311

  16. Frictional transition from superlubric islands to pinned monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierno, Matteo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Paolicelli, Guido; di Bona, Alessandro; Valeri, Sergio; Guerra, Roberto; Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-08-01

    The inertial sliding of physisorbed submonolayer islands on crystal surfaces contains unexpected information on the exceptionally smooth sliding state associated with incommensurate superlubricity and on the mechanisms of its disappearance. Here, in a joint quartz crystal microbalance and molecular dynamics simulation case study of Xe on Cu(111), we show how superlubricity emerges in the large size limit of naturally incommensurate Xe islands. As coverage approaches a full monolayer, theory also predicts an abrupt adhesion-driven two-dimensional density compression on the order of several per cent, implying a hysteretic jump from superlubric free islands to a pressurized commensurate immobile monolayer. This scenario is fully supported by the quartz crystal microbalance data, which show remarkably large slip times with increasing submonolayer coverage, signalling superlubricity, followed by a dramatic drop to zero for the dense commensurate monolayer. Careful analysis of this variety of island sliding phenomena will be essential in future applications of friction at crystal/adsorbate interfaces.

  17. Multicenter pediatric emergency medicine research and Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Chun, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    Multicenter clinical research studies are often needed to address issues of generalizability, conditions with low incidence, adequate statistical power, and potential study bias. While pediatric research networks began work in the 1950s, and Rhode Island physicians have contributed to many of these studies, pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) collaboratives are relative newcomers. Since the mid-1990s, Rhode Island pediatricians have contributed to multicenter studies of diabetic ketoacidosis, bronchiolitis, asthma, quality of PEM care, meningitis, brief interventions for substance use disorders, point-of-care ultrasound, and pre-hospital triage protocols. In 2011, Rhode Island Hospital joined the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network, the first federally funded pediatric emergency medicine network of its kind. Its mission is to perform high quality, high impact PEM research. Since joining the network, Rhode Island Hospital has quickly become a productive and valued member of the network, portending a bright future for multicenter PEM research in the Ocean State.

  18. Magnitude 8.1 Earthquake off the Solomon Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On April 1, 2007, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake rattled the Solomon Islands, 2,145 kilometers (1,330 miles) northeast of Brisbane, Australia. Centered less than ten kilometers beneath the Earth's surface, the earthquake displaced enough water in the ocean above to trigger a small tsunami. Though officials were still assessing damage to remote island communities on April 3, Reuters reported that the earthquake and the tsunami killed an estimated 22 people and left as many as 5,409 homeless. The most serious damage occurred on the island of Gizo, northwest of the earthquake epicenter, where the tsunami damaged the hospital, schools, and hundreds of houses, said Reuters. This image, captured by the Landsat-7 satellite, shows the location of the earthquake epicenter in relation to the nearest islands in the Solomon Island group. Gizo is beyond the left edge of the image, but its triangular fringing coral reefs are shown in the upper left corner. Though dense rain forest hides volcanic features from view, the very shape of the islands testifies to the geologic activity of the region. The circular Kolombangara Island is the tip of a dormant volcano, and other circular volcanic peaks are visible in the image. The image also shows that the Solomon Islands run on a northwest-southeast axis parallel to the edge of the Pacific plate, the section of the Earth's crust that carries the Pacific Ocean and its islands. The earthquake occurred along the plate boundary, where the Australia/Woodlark/Solomon Sea plates slide beneath the denser Pacific plate. Friction between the sinking (subducting) plates and the overriding Pacific plate led to the large earthquake on April 1, said the United States Geological Survey (USGS) summary of the earthquake. Large earthquakes are common in the region, though the section of the plate that produced the April 1 earthquake had not caused any quakes of magnitude 7 or larger since the early 20th century, said the USGS.

  19. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  20. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  1. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  2. Imaging quantum Hall Coulomb islands inside a quantum ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Frederico; Hackens, Benoit; Faniel, Sebastien; Bayot, Vincent; Pala, Marco; Sellier, Hermann; Huant, Serge; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wallart, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    In the quantum Hall regime near integer filling factors, electrons are transmitted through edge states confined at the borders of the device. In mesoscopic samples, however, edge states may be sufficiently close to allow electrons to tunnel, or to be transmitted through localized states (``Coulomb islands''). Here, we use the biased tip of a low temperature scanning gate microscope to alter tunneling through quantum Hall Coulomb islands localized inside a quantum ring patterned in an InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure. Simultaneously, we map the quantum ring resistance and observe different sets of concentric resistance fringes, due to charging/discharging of each Coulomb island. Tuning the magnetic field and the tip voltage, we reveal the rich and complex behaviour of these fringes.

  3. Methane gas recovery underway in Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The Rhode Island Solid Waste Management Corp. (RISWMC) launched the first phase of its multi-million dollar methane gas recovery program at the Central Landfill in late January by lighting a flare. Eight gas recovery wells, drilled to an average depth of 45 feet, are connected to the flare, which will burn gas at the rate of 400 CFM to help control odor problems at the 154-acre landfill site, where 4,000 tons of trash from 31 Rhode Island communities are disposed of daily. RISWMC plans to convert the gas into enough electricity to serve the average needs of 18,000 homes in the state by February, 1989. An additional 33 wells are being drilled and will be connected to a second larger flare unit (2600 CFM), which will begin operating in July. Eventually, there will be a total of 71 recovery wells, and an electrical generation facility will be built.

  4. Coastal hazards and groundwater salinization on low coral islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, James P.; Chui, T. F. May

    2016-04-01

    Remote oceanic communities living on low-lying coral islands (atolls) without surface water rely for their survival on the continuing viability of fragile groundwater resources. These exist in the form of fresh groundwater lenses (FGLs) that develop naturally within the porous coral sand and gravel substrate. Coastal hazards such as inundation by high-energy waves driven by storms and continuing sea-level rise (SLR) are among many possible threats to viable FGL size and quality on atolls. Yet, not much is known about the combined effects of wave washover during powerful storms and SLR on different sizes of coral island, nor conversely how island size influences lens resilience against damage. This study investigates FGL damage by salinization (and resilience) caused by such coastal hazards using a modelling approach. Numerical modelling is carried out to generate steady-state FGL configurations at three chosen island sizes (400, 600 and 800 m widths). Steady-state solutions reveal how FGL dimensions are related in a non-linear manner to coral island size, such that smaller islands develop much more restricted lenses than larger islands. A 40 cm SLR scenario is then imposed. This is followed by transient simulations to examine storm-induced wave washover and subsequent FGL responses to saline damage over a 1 year period. Smaller FGLs display greater potential for disturbance by SLR, while larger and more robust FGLs tend to show more resilience. Further results produce a somewhat counterintuitive finding: in the post-SLR condition, FGL vulnerability to washover salinization may actually be reduced, owing to the thinner layer of unsaturated substrate lying above the water table into which saline water can infiltrate during a storm event. Nonetheless, combined washover and SLR impacts imply overall that advancing groundwater salinization may lead to some coral islands becoming uninhabitable long before they are completely submerged by sea-level rise, thereby calling

  5. A structural, petrographic, and isotopic study of the Rapid River area and selected mafic complexes in the northwestern United States: Implications for the evolution of an abrupt island arc-continent boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Aliberti, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The east side of the Columbia embayment is characterized by an unusually sharp island arc-continent boundary. Detailed mapping, strain analysis, and petrography of three structural levels along portion of this boundary, the Rapid River area, are discussed. From lowest to highest these are the Wallowa terrane, the Rapid River plate (RRP), and the Pollock Mountain plate (PMP). Mineral lineation data indicate that the RRP and the PMP were transported west-northwestward along steeply rooted thrust systems. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic studies of three mafic and ultramafic complexes around the periphery of the Columbia embayment indicate that each formed from a separate source area, all within an oceanic environment. Structural, petrographic, and isotopic data support an evolution of the island arc-continent boundary in west-central Idaho characterized by three stages: (1) Initial collision of the amalgamated island arc terrane with the continental margin and the removal of a wedge of material northward along both left- and right-lateral strike-slip faults; (2) Strike-slip faults at the tail end of the wedge merge along a zone of occlusion (ZOO). The strain accommodated by northward removal of the wedge is transferred to compression along this zone resulting in intracontinental subduction and uplift; (3) Thermal weakening of the crust by increased magmatic activity resulted in several tens of kilometers of rapid uplift of material out of the ZOO along steeply rooted thrust faults.

  6. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  7. Mode locking and island suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations in Rutherford regime

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wenlong; Zhu, Ping

    2015-03-15

    We demonstrate in theory that tearing mode locking and magnetic island suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can correspond to different states of a same dynamic system governed by the torque balance and the nonlinear island evolution in the Rutherford regime. In particular, mode locking corresponds to the exact steady state of this system. A new exact analytic solution has been obtained for such a steady state, which quantifies the dependence of the locked mode island width on RMP amplitude in different plasma regimes. Furthermore, two different branches of mode locking have been revealed with the new analytic solution and the branch with suppressed island width turns out to be unstable in general. On the other hand, the system also admits stable states of island suppression achieved through the RMP modulation of tearing mode rotational frequency. When the RMP amplitude is above a certain threshold, the island suppression is transient until the tearing mode eventually gets locked. When the RMP amplitude is below the mode locking threshold, the island can be suppressed in a steady state on time-average, along with transient oscillations in rotational frequency and island width due to the absence of mode locking.

  8. IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Chiu, Terry A; Laird, Matthew R; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2013-07-01

    IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate methods are available in integrated form via IslandViewer: IslandPath-DIMOB, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. IslandViewer GI predictions are precomputed for all complete microbial genomes from National Center for Biotechnology Information, with an option to upload other genomes and/or perform customized analyses using different settings. Here, we report recent changes to the IslandViewer framework that have vastly improved its efficiency in handling an increasing number of users, plus better facilitate custom genome analyses. Users may also now overlay additional annotations such as virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and pathogen-associated genes on top of current GI predictions. Comparisons of GIs between user-selected genomes are now facilitated through a highly requested side-by-side viewer. IslandViewer improvements aim to provide a more flexible interface, coupled with additional highly relevant annotation information, to aid analysis of GIs in diverse microbial species.

  9. Eddies around Guam, an island in the Mariana Islands group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, E.; Richmond, R. H.; Davis, G.; Deleersnijder, E.; Leben, R. R.

    2003-06-01

    Near-surface currents around Guam, a 35 km long, slab-shaped island in the Mariana Islands group, were estimated from current meters, satellite-derived surface topography, and a numerical model. A dominant northwestward-flowing North Equatorial Current prevailed from June to December 2000, with speeds typically 0.1-0.2 m s -1, generating unsteady eddies in the lee of Guam. A number of transient eddies off the tips of the island were apparent, the smallest eddies were at the scale of local topographic features such as headlands and embayments, while other eddies were island size. In addition to eddies off the tips of the island, a large (200 km in diameter) cyclonic oceanic eddy was advected eastward past Guam during the last 2 weeks of August 2000. Centered on Guam for a few days, this eddy formed elsewhere and impinged on the island generating anticlockwise currents around the island of up to 0.5 m s -1. It is suggested that these eddies are sufficiently energetic to return fish and coral eggs and larvae to their natal reefs in Guam, thereby enabling self-seeding of coral reefs in Guam. The numerical model also predicts that large (up to 30 m amplitude) island-generated internal waves may occur around Guam; however, no observations are presently available to support this prediction.

  10. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  11. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  12. Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The three main volcanoes which make up the island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W) include the older large shield volcanoes Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the more recent Kilauea. The rift zones of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are delineated by the black lava flows whereas the smaler Kilauea can be seen venting steam. This color image is one of a pair (see STS052-95-037) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film.

  13. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  14. Fire Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).

  15. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Mui, Ming

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  16. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  17. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American adults are less likely ... Disease Death Rates per 100,000 (2013) Asians/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asians/Pacific Islanders /Non- ...

  18. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander adults are 10% less likely to ever ... to non-Hispanic white adults. In 2014, Asian/Pacific Islander adults aged 65 years and older were ...

  19. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Diabetes Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans, in general, have the same ... However, there are differences within the Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander population. From a national survey, Native Hawaiians/ ...

  20. Carabid beetle diversity and distribution in Boston Harbor Islands national park area (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Robert L.; Rykken, Jessica; Farrell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As part of an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in Boston Harbor Islands national park area, an inventory of carabid beetles on 13 islands was conducted. Intensive sampling on ten of the islands, using an assortment of passive traps and limited hand collecting, resulted in the capture of 6,194 specimens, comprising 128 species. Among these species were seven new state records for Massachusetts (Acupalpus nanellus, Amara aulica, Amara bifrons, Apenes lucidulus, Bradycellus tantillus, Harpalus rubripes and Laemostenus terricola terricola—the last also a new country record; in passing we report also new state records for Harpalus rubripes from New York and Pennsylvania, Amara ovata from Pennsylvania, and the first mainland New York records for Asaphidion curtum). For most islands, there was a clear relationship between species richness and island area. Two islands, however, Calf and Grape, had far more species than their relatively small size would predict. Freshwater marshes on these islands, along with a suite of hygrophilous species, suggested that habitat diversity plays an important role in island species richness. Introduced species (18) comprised 14.0% of the total observed species richness, compared to 5.5% (17 out of 306 species) documented for Rhode Island. We surmise that the higher proportion of introduced species on the islands is, in part, due to a higher proportion of disturbed and open habitats as well as high rates of human traffic. We predict that more active sampling in specialized habitats would bring the total carabid fauna of the Boston Harbor Islands closer to that of Rhode Island or eastern Massachusetts in richness and composition; however, isolation, human disturbance and traffic, and limited habitat diversity all contribute to reducing the species pool on the islands relative to that on the mainland. PMID:22371673

  1. Preliminary Seismic Tomography of Deception Island Volcano, South Shetland Islands (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, D.; Barclay, A. H.; Ben Zvi, T.; Wilcock, W.; Ibáñez, J. M.; Almendros, J.

    2005-12-01

    Deception Island, 62°59' S, 60°41' W, is an active volcano located in Bransfield Strait between the Antarctic Peninsula and the main South Shetland Islands. The volcano has a basal diameter of ~30 km and rises ~1500 m from the seafloor to a maximum height of over 500 m above sea level. The 15-km-diameter emerged island is horseshoe-shaped with a flooded inner bay that is accessible to the ocean through a 500-m-wide passage. The island is composed of volcanic rocks which date from <0.75 Ma to historical eruptions (1842, 1967, 1969 and 1970). The volcano lies in a complicated tectonic setting on the South Shetland block and its origin is poorly understood. The island is situated north of the main axis of the Bransfield Strait, a tensional structure interpreted as an active back-arc basin, but its geochemistry and seismic activity appear to be influenced by arc volcanism that once strongly affected the South Shetland Islands.In January 2005 an extensive seismic survey took place in and around the island, with the participation of researchers from Spain, the United States, Italy, Ireland, Mexico, Argentina and Germany. The main objective of the experiment was to collect a high quality data set that could be used to obtain two and three-dimensional P-wave tomographic images of the volcano. A total of 119 land seismic stations and 14 ocean bottom seismometers were deployed for two rounds of shooting and recorded more than 5000 airgun shots that were distributed within the caldera and around the island. The initial dataset used for the three-dimensional seismic tomography comprises more than 90000 P-wave travel times that were determined using both automatic and manual first-arrival picking procedures. The inversion code makes use of accurate ray tracing procedure and comprehensive topography's information.A preliminary three-dimensional P-wave inversion of the automatically-picked travel times resolves structure down to 4 km depth. The tomographic image is

  2. Neoproterozoic granitoids on Wrangel Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sergeev, S. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Based on geochronological U-Pb studies, the age of Wrangel Island granitoids was estimated as Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian). Some granitoids contain zircons with inherited cores with an estimated age of 1010, 1170, 1200, and >2600 Ma, assuming the presence of ancient (Neoarchean-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the Wrangel Island foundation and their involvement in partial melting under granitoid magma formation.

  3. Rhode Island Medical Society v. Whitehouse.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island, on 30 August 1999, enjoined enforcement of Rhode Island's partial-birth abortion ban act. The act defined partial-birth abortion as "an abortion in which the person performing the abortion vaginally delivers a living human fetus before killing the infant and completing the delivery." The act also provided that a physician could perform an aborton on a viable fetus if necessary to save the mother's life only if "no other medical procedure would suffice for that purpose." The United States District Court found Rhode Island's statute to be constitutionally flawed in four respects. First, the court ruled that the definition of partial-birth abortion was unconstitutionally vague within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution since it implicitly banned the legally protected D & E procedure along with the impermissible D & X procedure. Secondly, following the United States Supreme Court precedent, the court invalidated the statute because it lacked a provision that would permit a partial-birth abortion to preserve the mother's health. Thirdly, the court concluded that the section of the statute permitting a partial-birth abortion to save the mother's life was inadequate. Finally, the court found that the statute placed an undue burden on a woman's right to an abortion within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. Its provision for a civil action against an abortion provider by the father of a fetus or by a minor's parents could involve third parties in the abortion decision against a woman's will. PMID:15584139

  4. Rhode Island Medical Society v. Whitehouse.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island, on 30 August 1999, enjoined enforcement of Rhode Island's partial-birth abortion ban act. The act defined partial-birth abortion as "an abortion in which the person performing the abortion vaginally delivers a living human fetus before killing the infant and completing the delivery." The act also provided that a physician could perform an aborton on a viable fetus if necessary to save the mother's life only if "no other medical procedure would suffice for that purpose." The United States District Court found Rhode Island's statute to be constitutionally flawed in four respects. First, the court ruled that the definition of partial-birth abortion was unconstitutionally vague within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution since it implicitly banned the legally protected D & E procedure along with the impermissible D & X procedure. Secondly, following the United States Supreme Court precedent, the court invalidated the statute because it lacked a provision that would permit a partial-birth abortion to preserve the mother's health. Thirdly, the court concluded that the section of the statute permitting a partial-birth abortion to save the mother's life was inadequate. Finally, the court found that the statute placed an undue burden on a woman's right to an abortion within the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. Its provision for a civil action against an abortion provider by the father of a fetus or by a minor's parents could involve third parties in the abortion decision against a woman's will.

  5. Roentgenologic aspects of bone islands.

    PubMed

    Onitsuka, H

    1977-06-01

    A review of radiographs of 143 Adult Health Study and 46 non-sample subjects made over a period of 23 years established sites, sizes, ages at detection, and prevalence of 209 bone islands in 189 subjects. Except for 18 new bone islands, all appeared during the period of observation. Twenty-six of them changed: of these, 21 enlarged, 4 became smaller, and 1 disappeared. There was no association with atomic bomb radiation dose. Bone islands were more frequent in the pelvis and femora but often occurred in the ribs. Five bone islands in adolescents enlarged proportionally to bone growth, suggesting that they often participate metabolically in the normal osseous system. Bone islands must be differentiated from osteoblastic metastases.

  6. Linking the Modern and Recent Record of Cabo Frio Upwelling with Local Climate and Biogeochemical Processes in Hypersaline Coastal Lagoons, Região dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Nascimento, G. S.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Belem, A. L.; Carreira, R.; Eglinton, T. I.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2015-12-01

    A unique marine and lagoonal system along the coast east of Rio de Janeiro is being investigated to understand the impact of climatic variability on the South Atlantic carbon cycle and biomineralisation processes involved in carbonate precipitation in the hypersaline coastal lagoons. The region is dominated by a semi-arid microclimate attributed to the local coastal upwelling phenomenon near Cabo Frio. The intensity of the upwelling affects the hydrology of the annual water and biogeochemical cycles in the lagoons, as well as biogeochemical signals of environmental change recorded in both onshore and offshore sediments. Preliminary results of δ18O and δD values of water samples collected monthly in Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho from 2011 to 2014 show lower values for waters corresponding to the wet season, reflecting increased input of meteoric water. The higher values for waters collected during the dry season reflect the greater amount of evaporation with increased seasonal aridity. Radiocarbon dating of Holocene marine and lagoonal cores indicates that Mg-carbonate precipitation in the lagoons is associated with high evaporation. Modern field observations for the last 3 years suggest that the amount of carbonate precipitation is correlated with evaporitic conditions associated with the upwelling phenomenon. A calibration study of hydrogen isotopic fractionation in the modern lagoons is underway to define a relationship between δDlipid of suspended particles and δDwater of associated water. This isotopic relationship will be applied to material obtained in cores from the lagoons. Offshore cores will be studied using well-tested paleotemperature proxies to evaluate the intensity of the upwelling during the Holocene. In summary, linking the coastal upwelling with the lagoonal hydrology has the potential to furnish important insights about the relationship between the local climate and paleoceanographic circulation associated with the regional carbon cycle.

  7. Islands at bay: Rising seas, eroding islands, and waterbird habitat loss in Chesapeake Bay (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Brinker, D.F.; Watts, B.D.; Costanzo, G.R.; Morton, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Like many resources in the Chesapeake Bay region of the U. S., many waterbird nesting populations have suffered over the past three to four decades. In this study, historic information for the entire Bay and recent results from the Tangier Sound region were evaluated to illustrate patterns of island erosion and habitat loss for 19 breeding species of waterbirds. Aerial imagery and field data collected in the nesting season were the primary sources of data. From 1993/1994 to 2007/2008, a group of 15 islands in Tangier Sound, Virginia were reduced by 21% in area, as most of their small dunes and associated vegetation and forest cover were lost to increased washovers. Concurrently, nesting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) declined by 66%, wading birds (herons-egrets) by 51%, gulls by 72%, common terns (Sterna hirundo) by 96% and black skimmers (Rynchops niger) by about 70% in this complex. The declines noted at the larger Bay-wide scale suggest that this study area maybe symptomatic of a systemic limitation of nesting habitat for these species. The island losses noted in the Chesapeake have also been noted in other Atlantic U. S. coastal states. Stabilization and/or restoration of at least some of the rapidly eroding islands at key coastal areas are critical to help sustain waterbird communities. ?? 2010 US Government.

  8. A Comparative Study of Information and Communications Technology Policy in Primary Education in Two Small Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Kay

    2006-01-01

    Research into small island states emerged during the period of decolonisation with comparative case studies making a valuable contribution. This study was undertaken to evaluate information and communications technology (ICT) policies in primary education in Malta and Jamaica and to consider the influence of small island status on policy and its…

  9. A Standards-Based Guide for Social Studies Programs in Rhode Island Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis, Ed.; Fogle, Faith, Ed.

    The Rhode Island state social studies curriculum for history, geography, civics, economics, and the behavioral sciences should promote civic responsibility and active civic participation. Rhode Island recommends that teachers and administrators use national social studies content standards rather than support the development of their own state…

  10. Freshwater Fish Assemblage Patterns in Rhode Island Streams and Rivers (ESA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Patterns in fish assemblages in streams and rivers can inform watershed and water management, yet these patterns are not well characterized for the U.S. state of Rhode Island. Here we relate freshwater fish data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Managemen...

  11. Challenges of a Small Center--Lopez Children's Center, Lopez Island, Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Jane; Brummel, Sherry; Holz, Connie; Lett, Shanley; Martin, Kiki; McLeland, Jules; White, Carole

    2011-01-01

    Lopez Island is located in the archipelago of San Juan Islands off the northwest coast of Washington State. Breathtaking mountain vistas, sparkling shorelines, forests, and pastoral landscapes filled with sheep and orchards attract many tourists to San Juan County each year. This isolated community can only be reached by traveling on ferries,…

  12. 76 FR 25515 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... American dream for centuries. Generations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have helped develop and... Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation This month, our Nation celebrates the contributions and accomplishments of Asian Americans and...

  13. U.S. Virgin Islands 1983-84 School Statistical Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romain, Louise

    The 1984 edition of the United States Virgin Islands School Statistical Summary presents narratives, 48 tables, and 7 graphic illustrations of education in public and private elementary and secondary schools during the 1983-84 school year. Tables provide data on the U.S. Virgin Islands demography and economy, enrollment and average daily…

  14. Verification of a magnetic island in gyro-kinetics by comparison with analytic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zarzoso, D. Casson, F. J.; Poli, E.; Hornsby, W. A.; Peeters, A. G.

    2015-02-15

    A rotating magnetic island is imposed in the gyrokinetic code GKW, when finite differences are used for the radial direction, in order to develop the predictions of analytic tearing mode theory and understand its limitations. The implementation is verified against analytics in sheared slab geometry with three numerical tests that are suggested as benchmark cases for every code that imposes a magnetic island. The convergence requirements to properly resolve physics around the island separatrix are investigated. In the slab geometry, at low magnetic shear, binormal flows inside the island can drive Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities which prevent the formation of the steady state for which the analytic theory is formulated.

  15. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  16. The effect of magnetic islands on Ion Temperature Gradient turbulence driven transport

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, P.; Hariri, F.; Ottaviani, M.

    2015-04-15

    In this work, we address the question of the influence of magnetic islands on the perpendicular transport due to steady-state ITG turbulence on the energy transport time scale. We demonstrate that turbulence can cross the separatrix and enhance the perpendicular transport across magnetic islands. As the perpendicular transport in the interior of the island sets the critical island size needed for growth of neoclassical tearing modes, this increased transport leads to a critical island size larger than that predicted from considering collisional conductivities, but smaller than that using anomalous effective conductivities. We find that on Bohm time scales, the turbulence is able to re-establish the temperature gradient across the island for islands widths w ≲ λ{sub turb}, the turbulence correlation length. The reduction in the island flattening is estimated by comparison with simulations retaining only the perpendicular temperature and no turbulence. At intermediate island widths, comparable to λ{sub turb}, turbulence is able to maintain finite temperature gradients across the island.

  17. A Contracting Island Mechanism for Electron Acceleration during Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, James; Swisdak, M.; Che, H.; Shay, M. A.

    2007-05-01

    A Fermi-like model for energetic electron production during magnetic reconnection is described that explains key observations in the magnetosphere and solar corona [1]. Magnetic reconnection with a guide field leads to the growth and dynamics of multiple magnetic islands rather than a single large x-line. Above a critical energy electron acceleration is dominated by the Fermi-like reflection of electrons within the resulting magnetic islands rather than by the parallel electric fields associated with the x-line. Particles trapped within islands gain energy as they reflect from ends of contracting magnetic islands. The pressure from energetic electrons rises rapidly until the rate of electron energy gain balances the rate of magnetic energy release, establishing for the first time a link between the energy gain of electrons and the released magnetic energy. The energetic particle pressure therefore throttles the rate of reconnection. A transport equation for the distribution of energetic particles, including their feedback on island contraction, is obtained by averaging over the particle interaction with many islands. The steady state solutions in reconnection geometry result from convective losses balancing the Fermi drive. At high energy distribution functions take the form of a powerlaw whose spectral index depends only on the initial electron β, lower (higher) β producing harder (softer) spectra. The spectral index matches that seen in recent Wind spacecraft observations in the magnetotail. Harder spectra are predicted for the low β conditions of the solar corona. 1. Drake et al., Nature 443, 553, 2006.

  18. A contracting island model of electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, J. F.; Che, H.; Swisdak, M.; Shay, M. A.

    2006-10-01

    A Fermi-like model for energetic electron production during magnetic reconnection is described that explains key observations in the magnetosphere and solar corona [1]. Magnetic reconnection with a guide field leads to the growth and dynamics of multiple magnetic islands rather than a single large x-line [2]. Above a critical energy electron acceleration is dominated by the Fermi-like reflection of electrons within the resulting magnetic islands rather than by the parallel electric fields associated with the x-line. Particles trapped within islands gain energy as they reflect from ends of contracting magnetic islands. The pressure from energetic electrons rises rapidly until the rate of electron energy gain balances the rate of magnetic energy release. A Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of energetic particles, including their feedback on island contraction, is obtained by averaging over the particle interaction with many islands. The steady state solutions in reconnection geometry result from convective losses balancing the Fermi drive. At high energy the electron distribution functions take the form of powerlaws whose spectral index depends on the initial electron β, lower (higher) β producing harder (softer) spectra.1. Drake et al., Nature, in press.2. Drake et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L13105, 2006.

  19. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A.-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  20. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  1. Benthic substrate classification map: Gulf Islands National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James; Twichell, Dave; Rose, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 hurricane season was devastating for the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Hurricane Katrina caused significant degradation of the barrier islands that compose the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS). Because of the ability of coastal barrier islands to help mitigate hurricane damage to the mainland, restoring these habitats prior to the onset of future storms will help protect the islands themselves and the surrounding habitats. During Hurricane Katrina, coastal barrier islands reduced storm surge by approximately 10 percent and moderated wave heights (Wamsley and others, 2009). Islands protected the mainland by preventing ocean waves from maintaining their size as they approached the mainland. In addition to storm protection, it is advantageous to restore these islands to preserve the cultural heritage present there (for example, Fort Massachusetts) and because of the influence that these islands have on marine ecology. For example, these islands help maintain a salinity regime favorable to oysters in the Mississippi Sound and provide critical habitats for many migratory birds and endangered species such as sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, and Dermochelys coriacea), Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi), and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2009a). As land manager for the GUIS, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with the State of Mississippi and the Mobile District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide a set of recommendations to the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) that will guide restoration planning. The final set of recommendations includes directly renourishing both West Ship Island (to protect Fort Massachusetts) and East Ship Island (to restore the French Warehouse archaeological site); filling Camille Cut to recreate a continuous Ship Island; and restoring natural regional sediment transport processes by placing sand in the littoral zone just east of Petit Bois

  2. Landsat TM-based analysis of land area and vegetation cover change on six selected Alabama and Mississippi barrier islands (1984-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstanley, Hunter Clark

    Cat Island, West Ship Island, East Ship Island, Horn Island, Petit Bois Island, and Dauphin Island are located 10-20 kilometers south of the Mississippi and Alabama coastlines. These six barrier islands serve as an important shield to southern areas of Mississippi and Alabama from tropical cyclone (hurricane) impacts such as storm surge and destructive waves. The islands are also home to a delicate ecosystem of many different types of flora and fauna. Over the course of the past three decades, all six islands have been subjected to several hurricane events. This, coupled with the natural state of the erosion, has led to the islands losing total land area and vegetation. This thesis research focuses on quantifying the vegetation loss and total land area loss on Cat Island, West Ship Island, East Ship Island, Horn Island, Petit Bois Island, and Dauphin Island during the time period from 1984 to 2011. A special focus is given to impacts of Hurricanes Georges, Ivan, Katrina, Gustav, and Ike which affected the northern Gulf Coast in 1998, 2004, 2005, and 2008, respectively. This research utilizes Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper Imagery. Supervised classifications and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analyses are performed on each scene to analyze the total land area and vegetation cover of each island. The results of this research show the total extent of land and vegetation loss on each island from 1984 to 2011, and which islands are most vulnerable to erosion and vegetation loss. The results also reveal how all five hurricanes affected each individual island.

  3. Geophysics of the Canary Islands: Results of Spain's Exclusive Economic Zone Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Acosta, Juan

    This book contains the results of a 9 year (1995-2004) investigation of the Canary Islands Exclusive Economic Zone, using state of the art technology. The main result areas are: A multibeam survey demonstrating the magnitude of catastrophic failures of the Canary Islands A comparison of the morphology of the Canary Islands with Hawaii The significance of hydrothermal activity in the Canary Channel associated with Mesozoic salt diapirs An analysis of the morphology and structure of the offshore extension of the Anaga massif in Tenerife island A detailed description of the archipelago gravity field and magnetic field of the Canary Islands All in all the wealth of new data and ideas presented in this collection of papers has rarely been equaled in an investigation of an oceanic island group.

  4. System Impact Study of the Eastern Grid of Sumba Island, Indonesia: Steady-State and Dynamic System Modeling for the Integration of One and Two 850-kW Wind Turbine Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Oswal, R.; Jain, P.; Muljadi, Eduard; Hirsch, Brian; Castermans, B.; Chandra, J.; Raharjo, S.; Hardison, R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to study the impact of integrating one and two 850-kW wind turbine generators into the eastern power system network of Sumba Island, Indonesia. A model was created for the 20-kV distribution network as it existed in the first quarter of 2015 with a peak load of 5.682 MW. Detailed data were collected for each element of the network. Load flow, short-circuit, and transient analyses were performed using DIgSILENT PowerFactory 15.2.1.

  5. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  6. Space Radar Image of Reunion Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the volcanic island of Reunion, about 700 km (434 miles) east of Madagascar in the southwest Indian Ocean. The southern half of the island is dominated by the active volcano, Piton de la Fournaise. This is one of the world's most active volcanoes, with more than 100 eruptions in the last 300 years. The most recent activity occurred in the vicinity of Dolomieu Crater, shown in the lower center of the image within a horseshoe-shaped collapse zone. Recent lava flows appear in shades of red, purple and orange. Light green areas are heavily vegetated forest, while much of the purple area near the coast is farmland. The radar illumination is from the left side of the image and dramatically emphasizes the precipitous cliffs at the edges of the central canyons of the island. These canyons are remnants from the collapse of formerly active parts of the volcanoes that built the island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The image is centered at 21.2 degrees south latitude, 55.6 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 50 km by 80 km (31 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper right. Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  7. Risk assessment Barter Island radar installation, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-05

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIS) during the summer of 1993. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Barter Island Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) United States Air Force 1994a. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessment. The primary contaminants of concern at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks. The general location of the Barter Island radar installation is shown in Figure 1-1. The 14 sites investigated and the types of samples collected at each site are presented in Table 1-1. The purpose of the risk assessment is to evaluate the human and ecological health risks that may be associated with chemicals released to the environment at the 14 sites investigated during the RIs. The risk assessment characterizes the probability that measured concentrations of hazardous chemical substances will cause adverse effects in humans or the environment in the absence of remediation. The risk assessment will be used to determine if remediation (site cleanup) is necessary and also to rank sites for remedial action. Additionally, it will be used as a model for the risk assessment to be performed at the other DEW Line installations (Bullen Point, Oliktok Point, Point Lonely, Barrow Point, Wainwright, and Point Lay) and the Cape Lisburne radar installation. pg18. JMD.

  8. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar

  10. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  11. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Brian B; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-09-15

    The South China Sea is currently in a state of intense geopolitical conflict, with six countries claiming sovereignty over some or all of the area. Recently, several countries have carried out island building projects in the Spratly Islands, converting portions of coral reefs into artificial islands. Aerial photography and high resolution satellites can capture snapshots of this construction, but such data are lacking in temporal resolution and spatial scope. In contrast, lower resolution satellite sensors with regular repeat sampling allow for more rigorous assessment and monitoring of changes to the reefs and surrounding areas. Using Landsat-8 data at ≥15-m resolution, we estimated that over 15 km(2) of submerged coral reef area was converted to artificial islands between June 2013 and December 2015, mostly by China. MODIS data at ≥250-m resolution were used to locate previously underreported island building activities, as well as to assess resulting in-water turbidity plumes. The combined spatial extent of observed turbidity plumes for island building activities at Mischief, Subi, and Fiery Cross Reefs was over 4,300 km(2), although nearly 40% of this area was only affected once. Together, these activities represent widespread damage to coral ecosystems through physical burial as well as indirect turbidity effects.

  13. Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-09-01

    The South China Sea is currently in a state of intense geopolitical conflict, with six countries claiming sovereignty over some or all of the area. Recently, several countries have carried out island building projects in the Spratly Islands, converting portions of coral reefs into artificial islands. Aerial photography and high resolution satellites can capture snapshots of this construction, but such data are lacking in temporal resolution and spatial scope. In contrast, lower resolution satellite sensors with regular repeat sampling allow for more rigorous assessment and monitoring of changes to the reefs and surrounding areas. Using Landsat-8 data at ≥15-m resolution, we estimated that over 15 km2 of submerged coral reef area was converted to artificial islands between June 2013 and December 2015, mostly by China. MODIS data at ≥250-m resolution were used to locate previously underreported island building activities, as well as to assess resulting in-water turbidity plumes. The combined spatial extent of observed turbidity plumes for island building activities at Mischief, Subi, and Fiery Cross Reefs was over 4,300 km2, although nearly 40% of this area was only affected once. Together, these activities represent widespread damage to coral ecosystems through physical burial as well as indirect turbidity effects.

  14. Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    The South China Sea is currently in a state of intense geopolitical conflict, with six countries claiming sovereignty over some or all of the area. Recently, several countries have carried out island building projects in the Spratly Islands, converting portions of coral reefs into artificial islands. Aerial photography and high resolution satellites can capture snapshots of this construction, but such data are lacking in temporal resolution and spatial scope. In contrast, lower resolution satellite sensors with regular repeat sampling allow for more rigorous assessment and monitoring of changes to the reefs and surrounding areas. Using Landsat-8 data at ≥15-m resolution, we estimated that over 15 km2 of submerged coral reef area was converted to artificial islands between June 2013 and December 2015, mostly by China. MODIS data at ≥250-m resolution were used to locate previously underreported island building activities, as well as to assess resulting in-water turbidity plumes. The combined spatial extent of observed turbidity plumes for island building activities at Mischief, Subi, and Fiery Cross Reefs was over 4,300 km2, although nearly 40% of this area was only affected once. Together, these activities represent widespread damage to coral ecosystems through physical burial as well as indirect turbidity effects. PMID:27628096

  15. Island building in the South China Sea: detection of turbidity plumes and artificial islands using Landsat and MODIS data.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Brian B; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    The South China Sea is currently in a state of intense geopolitical conflict, with six countries claiming sovereignty over some or all of the area. Recently, several countries have carried out island building projects in the Spratly Islands, converting portions of coral reefs into artificial islands. Aerial photography and high resolution satellites can capture snapshots of this construction, but such data are lacking in temporal resolution and spatial scope. In contrast, lower resolution satellite sensors with regular repeat sampling allow for more rigorous assessment and monitoring of changes to the reefs and surrounding areas. Using Landsat-8 data at ≥15-m resolution, we estimated that over 15 km(2) of submerged coral reef area was converted to artificial islands between June 2013 and December 2015, mostly by China. MODIS data at ≥250-m resolution were used to locate previously underreported island building activities, as well as to assess resulting in-water turbidity plumes. The combined spatial extent of observed turbidity plumes for island building activities at Mischief, Subi, and Fiery Cross Reefs was over 4,300 km(2), although nearly 40% of this area was only affected once. Together, these activities represent widespread damage to coral ecosystems through physical burial as well as indirect turbidity effects. PMID:27628096

  16. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  17. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  18. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  19. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  20. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits. PMID:26376473