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Sample records for frmac mission analysis

  1. FRMAC Mission Analysis: What is it, and why is it useful?

    SciTech Connect

    Rhonda Hopkins

    2008-03-01

    In 2002, the Director of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Nuclear Security Administration, Division of Emergency Response, requested a team of DOE scientists, considered experts in the field of radiological consequence management, assemble and construct a mission analysis upon which the DOE could build its response program and plan for future requirements. The team developed five scenarios upon which to build the data quality objectives (DQOs) that they considered necessary to ensure a comprehensive consequence management response from the DOE perspective. The resulting document was called the Consequence Management Mission Analysis. Based upon the positive reaction to this document and its obvious benefit to the Consequence Management mission, it was decided to expand the scope of the document to cover a mission analysis of the entire Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) mission. The documentation team was expanded to include representatives from all signatories to the National Response Plan who have a role in responding to radiological emergencies. The scope of the FRMAC Mission Analysis includes all federal response resources which are activated to provide rapid support to affected state and local governments in the form of radiological monitoring and dose assessment activities at the incident site. An analysis of the necessary resources was performed to determine the required numbers and types of responders, in addition to the procedures and equipment necessary for performing the monitoring and dose assessment activities from the time the federal assets arrive at the site through the first week of the incident. The five scenarios that were considered were: (1) Nuclear Detonation; (2) Nuclear Reactor Incident or Event Involving Significant Release; (3) Alpha Radiological Dispersal Devise or Failed Improvised Nuclear Device; (4) Beta-Gamma Radiological Dispersal Device; and (5) Psychological Threat.

  2. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Environmental Protection Agency Facility on June 24-26 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mark B.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Fournier, Sean Donovan; Leonard, Elliott J.

    2014-09-01

    From June 24th thru June 26th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response/round robin exercise at the EPA facility in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory (FAL) and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Las Vegas, Nevada. The exercise was designed to allow for immediate delivery of pre-staged, spiked samples to the EPA MERL and the FAL for sample preparation and radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to the FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). In order to conduct a laboratory inter-comparison study, samples were then traded between the two laboratories and re-counted. As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential areas for improvements for FRMAC, FAL and EPA operations. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability opportunities between the FRMAC, FAL and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The areas for potential improvements and interoperability from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA MERL assets.

  3. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC/RAP Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Savannah River Site on June 9-13 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mark B.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Fournier, Sean Donovan; Leonard, Elliott J.

    2014-09-01

    From June 9th thru June 13th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy Radiological Assistance Program (DOE RAP) Region-3 participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response exercise at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC, RAP, and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Montgomery, Alabama. The exercise was designed to allowed members of the DOE RAP Region-3 team to collect soil, water, vegetation and air samples from SRS and submit them through an established FRMAC hotline. Once received and processed through the hotline, FRMAC delivered the samples to the EPA MERL for sample preparation and laboratory radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential improvements in each step of the processes. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability between FRMAC and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The observations and lessons-learned from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA assets.

  4. FRMAC Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, K.

    2010-05-01

    In the event of a major radiological incident, the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) will coordinate the federal agencies that have various statutory responsibilities. The FRMAC is responsible for coordinating all environmental radiological monitoring, sampling, and assessment activities for the response. This manual describes the FRMAC’s response activities in a radiological incident. It also outlines how FRMAC fits in the National Incident Management System (NIMS) under the National Response Framework (NRF) and describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the affected areas. In the event of a potential or existing major radiological incident, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is responsible for establishing and managing the FRMAC during the initial phases.

  5. The future of FRMAC assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Laiche, Thomas P.

    2010-03-01

    FRMAC was born out of circumstances 25 years ago when 17 federal agencies descended on the states with good intention during the Three-Mile Island nuclear power plant incident. At that time it quickly became evident that a better way was needed to support state and local governments in their time of emergency and recovery process. FRMAC's single voice of Federal support coordinates the multiple agencies that respond to a radiological event. Over the years, FRMAC has exercised, evaluated, and honed its ability to quickly respond to the needs of our communities. As the times have changed, FRMAC has expanded its focus from nuclear power plant incidents, to threats of a terrorist radiological dispersal device (RDD), to the unthinkable - an Improvised nuclear device (IND). And just as having the right tools are part of any trade, FRMAC's tool set has and is evolving to meet contemporary challenges - not just to improve the time it takes to collect data and assess the situation, but to provide a quality and comprehensive product that supports a stressed decision maker, responsible for the protection of the public. Innovations in the movement of data and information have changed our everyday lives. So too, FRMAC is capitalizing on industry innovations to improve the flow of information: from the early predictive models, to streamlining the process of getting data out of the field; to improving the time it takes to get assessed products in to the hands of the decision makers. FRMAC is focusing on the future through the digital age of electronic data processing. Public protective action and dose avoidance is the challenge.

  6. Implementation of the National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center(FRMAC) - Emergency Phase

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-04-01

    Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-5 requires all federal departments and agencies to adopt a National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) and use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation programs and activities, as well as in support of those actions taken to assist state and local entities. This system provides a consistent nationwide template to enable federal, state, local, and tribal governments, private-sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work together effectively and efficiently to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity, including acts of catastrophic terrorism. This document identifies the operational concepts of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center's (FRMAC) implementation of the NIMS/ICS response structure under the National Response Plan (NRP). The construct identified here defines the basic response template to be tailored to the incident-specific response requirements. FRMAC's mission to facilitate interagency environmental data management, monitoring, sampling, analysis, and assessment and link this information to the planning and decision staff clearly places the FRMAC in the Planning Section. FRMAC is not a mitigating resource for radiological contamination but is present to conduct radiological impact assessment for public dose avoidance. Field monitoring is a fact-finding mission to support this effort directly. Decisions based on the assessed data will drive public protection and operational requirements. This organizational structure under NIMS is focused by the mission responsibilities and interface requirements following the premise to provide emergency responders with a flexible yet standardized structure for incident response activities. The coordination responsibilities outlined in the NRP are based on the NIMS

  7. Overview of FRMAC Operations. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) operations is to describe the FRMAC response to a major radiological emergency and to describe the subsequent response activities which provide radiological monitoring and assessment outside the immediate boundaries of the radiological emergency site. In the event of a major radiological emergency, Federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological emergency Response Plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the State(s) and a designed Lead Federal Agency (LFA) that all Federal radiological assistance is fully supporting their efforts to protect the public and will provide monitoring and assessment results for their immediate use in decision making. The Federal agencies do not relinquish their statutory responsibilities. However, the mandated Federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities.

  8. Adapting the U.S. Domestic Radiological Emergency Response Process to an Overseas Incident: FRMAC Without the F

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, Daniel J.; Bowman, David R.; Remick, Alan

    2012-05-01

    The earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan led to a radiological release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plan, which in turn resulted in the rapid activation and deployment by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) emergency response teams. These teams and those from other federal agencies are typically coordinated through the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) when responding to radiological incidents in the U.S. FRMAC is the body through which the collection, analysis, and assessment of environmental radiological data are coordinated and products released to decision makers. This article discusses DOE/NNSA’s role in the U.S. response to the Fukushima accident as it implemented its components of FRMAC in a foreign country, coordinated its assets, integrated with its federal partners, and collaborated with the Government of Japan. The technical details of the various data collections and analyses are covered in other articles of this issue.

  9. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) overview of FRMAC operations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the designated Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and the state(s) that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. The mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Operations describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas. These off-site areas may include one or more affected states.

  10. eFRMAC Overview: Data Management and Enabling Technologies for Characterization of a Radiological Release A Case Study: The Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, Daniel J.; Clark, Harvey W.; Essex, James J.; Wagner, Eric C.

    2013-07-01

    The eFRMAC enterprise is a suite of technologies and software developed by the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Emergency Response to coordinate the rapid data collection, management, and analysis required during a radiological emergency. This enables the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center assets to evaluate a radiological or nuclear incident efficiently to facilitate protective actions to protect public health and the environment. This document identifies and describes eFRMAC methods including (1) data acquisition, (2) data management, (3) data analysis, (4) product creation, (5) quality control, and (6) dissemination.

  11. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Overview of FRMAC Operations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This cooperative effort will ensure that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas.

  12. Turbo FRMAC 2016 Version 7.1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, John; Gallagher, Linda K.; Madrid, Gregory J.; Whitener, Dustin Heath; Folz, Wesley; Herman, Joshua James; Schetnan, Richard R.; Watson, Bryan Walker; Clayton, Joe; Harms, Natalia; Gonzales, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    The Turbo FRMAC (TF) software program is the software implementation of the science and methodologies utilized in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The software automates the calculations described in volumes 1 of "The Federal Manual for Assessing Environmental Data during a Radiological Emergency" (2015 version). In the event of the intentional or accidental release of radioactive material, the software is used to guide and govern the response of the Federal, State, Local, and Tribal governments. The manual, upon which the software is based, is unclassified and freely available on the Internet.

  13. FRMAC Interactions During a Radiological or Nuclear Event

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C T

    2011-01-27

    During a radiological or nuclear event of national significance the Federal Radiological Emergency Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) assists federal, state, tribal, and local authorities by providing timely, high-quality predictions, measurements, analyses and assessments to promote efficient and effective emergency response for protection of the public and the environment from the consequences of such an event.

  14. B plant mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-05-24

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ``System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.`` The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline.

  15. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-09-27

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

  16. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system developed by NASA and private industry in the spirit of the NASA Mission. GMAT contains new technology and is a testbed for future technology development. The goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities, businesses, and other government organizations, and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT is a free and open source software system licensed under the NASA Open Source Agreement: free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or further technology development.

  17. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) Mathematical Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system developed by NASA and private industry in the spirit of the NASA Mission. GMAT contains new technology and is a testbed for future technology development.

  18. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    This is a software tutorial and presentation demonstrating the application of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to the critical design phase of NASA missions. The demonstration discusses GMAT basics, then presents a detailed example of GMAT application to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. Other examples include OSIRIS-Rex. This talk is a combination of existing presentations; a GMAT basics and overview, and technical presentations from the TESS and OSIRIS-REx projects on their application of GMAT to critical mission design. The GMAT basics slides are taken from the open source training material. The OSIRIS-REx slides are from a previous conference presentation. The TESS slides are a streamlined version of the CDR package provided by the project with SBU and ITAR data removed by the TESS project.

  19. Pioneer Mars surface penetrator mission. Mission analysis and orbiter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Mars Surface Penetrator mission was designed to provide a capability for multiple and diverse subsurface science measurements at a low cost. Equipment required to adapt the Pioneer Venus spacecraft for the Mars mission is described showing minor modifications to hardware. Analysis and design topics which are similar and/or identical to the Pioneer Venus program are briefly discussed.

  20. GIS Symbology for FRMAC/CMHT Radiological/Nuclear Products

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Aluzzi, F; Foster, K; Pobanz, B; Sher, B

    2008-10-06

    This document is intended to codify, to the extent currently possible, the representation of map products produced for and by the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) and the Consequence Management Home Team (CHMT), particularly those that include model products from the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (NARAC). This is to facilitate consistency between GIS products produced by different members of these teams, which should ease the task of interpreting these products by both team members and those outside the team who may need to use these products during a response. The aspects of symbology being considered are primarily isopleths levels (breakpoints) and colors used to plot NARAC modeled dose or deposition fields on mpas, although some comments will be made about the handling of legend and supporting textual information. Other aspects of symbolizing such products (e.g., transparency) are being left to the individual team members to allow them to adapt to particular organizational needs or requirements that develop during a particular a response or exercise. This document has been written in coordination with the creation of training material in Baskett, et al., 2008. It is not intended as an aid to NARAC product interpretation but to facilitate the work of GIS specialists who deal with these products in map design and in the development of supporting scripts and software that partially or completely automate the integration of NARAC model products with other GIS data. This work was completed as part of the NA-42 Technical Integration Project on GIS Automated Data Processing and Map Production in FY 2008. Other efforts that are part of this work include (a) updating the NARAC shapefile product representation to facilitate the automation work proceed at RSL as part of the same TI effort and (b) to ensure that the NARAC shapefile construct includes all of the necessary legend and other textual data to interpret dispersion

  1. Commerce Lab: Mission analysis. Payload integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the commerce lab mission analysis and payload integration study are discussed. A mission model which accommodates commercial users and provides a basic data base for future mission planning is described. The data bases developed under this study include: (1) user requirements; (2) apparatus capabilities and availabilities; and (3) carrier capabilities. These data bases are synthesized in a trades and analysis phase along with the STS flight opportunities. Optimum missions are identified.

  2. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  3. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  4. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.

  5. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  6. GMAS- GODDARD MISSION ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1994-01-01

    GMAS was designed as a general control framework to satisfy multiple applications in a core-limited and optionally interactive environment. During execution, the system uses and releases memory as needed to provide the user with a system that is only as large or small as the problem demands. Although GMAS was designed for trajectory-related spacecraft mission analysis specifications, the organization of the system software makes GMAS applicable to many computational functions. Any large computer program that can be separated into independent functional areas (load modules) can probably be implemented under GMAS. Because of the program's modular nature, the GMAS system offers software development time savings, core savings and efficiency, stability, and flexibility. The major components of GMAS are the executive module, the dynamic load modules, the dynamic arrays, and the automatic sequence. The GMAS executive module is primarily responsible for interpretation of user control directives and data management. The executive passes control to user-designated dynamic load modules after having prepared user-specified and default data for the utilities. The executive also controls the dynamic assignment and release of core-space for user-specified modules and data areas. The dynamic load modules contain the applications software to be used in specific problem solutions. These load modules may consist of the GMAS library of standard routines along with user developed libraries of routines. Each dynamic load module is a separate group of subroutines which, when loading during GMAS execution, can be executed to solve part of the user problem then deleted from core. Dynamic load module input and output can be transferred through out-of-core files or through user-specified dynamic arrays located in a core area separate from the executive and any dynamic load modules. The dynamic arrays are the primary communications link between load modules. The GMAS automatic sequence allows

  7. Mission Analysis: Giving Commanders What They Need

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Commanders The mission analysis does not reflect the dynamic nature of command personalities and the various manners in which commanders give , receive ...and think about information. Getting to know how the commander gives information, receives information, and thinks about information is a key factor...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Mission Analysis: Giving Commanders What They Need A Monograph by MAJ James M. Loffert U.S

  8. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-09

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  9. Mission analysis flow sequencing optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, M.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation is an extension of a project dealing with the problem of optimal use of ground resources for future space missions. This problem was formulated as a linear programming problem using an indirect approach. Instead of minimizing the inventory level of needed ground resources, the overlapping periods during which the same types of resources are used by various flights are minimized. The model was built upon the assumption that during the time interval under consideration, the costs of various needed resources remain constant. Under other assumptions concerning costs of resources, the objective function, in general, assumes a non-linear form. In this study, one case where the form of the objective function turns out to be quadratic is considered. Also, disadvantages and limitations of the approach used are briefly discussed.

  10. Low-thrust mission risk analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, C. L.; Smith, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized multi-stage failure process simulation procedure is used to evaluate the risk in a solar electric space mission. The procedure uses currently available thrust-subsystem reliability data and performs approximate simulations of the thrust subsystem burn operation, the system failure processes, and the retargetting operations. The application of the method is used to assess the risks in carrying out a 1980 rendezvous mission to Comet Encke. Analysis of the results and evaluation of the effects of various risk factors on the mission show that system component failure rates is the limiting factor in attaining a high mission reliability. But it is also shown that a well-designed trajectory and system operation mode can be used effectively to partially compensate for unreliable thruster performance.

  11. An Analysis of Private School Mission Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a study of private school mission/vision statements using content analysis. Statements from private schools in British Columbia, Canada, that provided instruction to Grade 12 students were analyzed to explore the diversity that lies within the private school sector. The concepts that emerged from the analysis were grouped into five…

  12. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT): Mission, Vision, and Business Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The Goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities businesses and other government organizations; and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT's a free and open source software system; free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or future technology development.

  13. Systems Analysis for a Venus Aerocapture Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Starr, Brett R.; Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kontinos, Dean A.; Chen, Y. K.; Laub, Bernard; Olejniczak, Joseph; Wright, Michael J.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Justus, Carl G.

    2006-01-01

    Previous high level analysis has indicated that significant mass savings may be possible for planetary science missions if aerocapture is employed to place a spacecraft in orbit. In 2001 the In-Space Propulsion program identified aerocapture as one of the top three propulsion technologies for planetary exploration but that higher fidelity analysis was required to verify the favorable results and to determine if any supporting technology gaps exist that would enable or enhance aerocapture missions. A series of three studies has been conducted to assess, from an overall system point of view, the merit of using aerocapture at Titan, Neptune and Venus. These were chosen as representative of a moon with an atmosphere, an outer giant gas planet and an inner planet. The Venus mission, based on desirable science from plans for Solar System Exploration and Principal Investigator proposals, to place a spacecraft in a 300km polar orbit was examined and the details of the study are presented in this paper.

  14. Aerocapture Systems Analysis for a Neptune Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Edquist, Karl T.; Starr, Brett R.; Hollis, Brian R.; Hrinda, Glenn A.; Bailey, Robert W.; Hall, Jeffery L.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Noca, Muriel A.; O'Kongo, N.

    2006-01-01

    A Systems Analysis was completed to determine the feasibility, benefit and risk of an aeroshell aerocapture system for Neptune and to identify technology gaps and technology performance goals. The systems analysis includes the following disciplines: science; mission design; aeroshell configuration; interplanetary navigation analyses; atmosphere modeling; computational fluid dynamics for aerodynamic performance and aeroheating environment; stability analyses; guidance development; atmospheric flight simulation; thermal protection system design; mass properties; structures; spacecraft design and packaging; and mass sensitivities. Results show that aerocapture is feasible and performance is adequate for the Neptune mission. Aerocapture can deliver 1.4 times more mass to Neptune orbit than an all-propulsive system for the same launch vehicle and results in a 3-4 year reduction in trip time compared to all-propulsive systems. Enabling technologies for this mission include TPS manufacturing; and aerothermodynamic methods for determining coupled 3-D convection, radiation and ablation aeroheating rates and loads.

  15. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  16. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael (Editor); Shaw, Tianna

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood/urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions. SUMMARY The NASA Exploration Laboratory Analysis project seeks to develop capability to diagnose anticipated space exploration medical conditions on future manned missions. To achieve

  17. Using the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.; Conway, Darrel J.; Parker, Joel

    2017-01-01

    This is a software tutorial and presentation demonstrating the application of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). These slides will be used to accompany the demonstration. The demonstration discusses GMAT basics, then presents a detailed example of GMAT application to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. This talk is a combination of existing presentations and material; system user guide and technical documentation; a GMAT basics and overview, and technical presentations from the TESS projects on their application of GMAT to critical mission design. The GMAT basics slides are taken from the open source training material. The TESS slides are a streamlined version of the CDR package provided by the project with SBU and ITAR data removed by the TESS project. Slides for navigation and optimal control are borrowed from system documentation and training material.

  18. Commerce Laboratory: Mission analysis payload integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, T. C.

    1984-01-01

    A mission model which will accommodate commercial users and provide a basic data base for further mission planning is reported. The data bases to be developed are: (1) user requirements; (2) apparatus capabilities and availabilities; and (3) carrier capabilities. These data bases are synthesized in a trades and analysis phase along with the STS flight apparatus, and optimum missions will be identified. The completed work is reported. The user requirements data base was expanded to identify within the six scientific disciplines the areas of investigation, investigation categories and status, potential commercial application, interested parties, process, and experiment requirements. The scope of the apparatus data base was expanded to indicate apparatus status as to whether it is ground or flight equipment and, within both categories, whether the apparatus is: (1) existing, (2) under development, (3) planned, or (4) needed. Applications for the apparatus are listed. The methodology is revised in the areas of trades and analysis and mission planning. The carrier capabilities data base was updated and completed.

  19. Data Analysis for the LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2009-01-01

    The LTP (LISA Technology Package) is the core part of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder mission. The main goal of the mission is to study the sources of any disturbances that perturb the motion of the freely-falling test masses from their geodesic trajectories as well as 10 test various technologies needed for LISA. The LTP experiment is designed as a sequence of experimental runs in which the performance of the instrument is studied and characterized under different operating conditions. In order to best optimize subsequent experimental runs, each run must be promptly analysed to ensure that the following ones make best use of the available knowledge of the instrument ' In order to do this, all analyses must be designed and tested in advance of the mission and have sufficient built-in flexibility to account for unexpected results or behaviour. To support this activity, a robust and flexible data analysis software package is also required. This poster presents two of the main components that make up the data analysis effort: the data analysis software and the mock-data challenges used to validate analysis procedures and experiment designs.

  20. Link Analysis in the Mission Planning Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Jessica A.; Cervantes, Benjamin W.; Daugherty, Sarah C.; Arroyo, Felipe; Mago, Divyang

    2011-01-01

    The legacy communications link analysis software currently used at Wallops Flight Facility involves processes that are different for command destruct, radar, and telemetry. There is a clear advantage to developing an easy-to-use tool that combines all the processes in one application. Link Analysis in the Mission Planning Lab (MPL) uses custom software and algorithms integrated with Analytical Graphics Inc. Satellite Toolkit (AGI STK). The MPL link analysis tool uses pre/post-mission data to conduct a dynamic link analysis between ground assets and the launch vehicle. Just as the legacy methods do, the MPL link analysis tool calculates signal strength and signal- to-noise according to the accepted processes for command destruct, radar, and telemetry assets. Graphs and other custom data are generated rapidly in formats for reports and presentations. STK is used for analysis as well as to depict plume angles and antenna gain patterns in 3D. The MPL has developed two interfaces with the STK software (see figure). The first interface is an HTML utility, which was developed in Visual Basic to enhance analysis for plume modeling and to offer a more user friendly, flexible tool. A graphical user interface (GUI) written in MATLAB (see figure upper right-hand corner) is also used to quickly depict link budget information for multiple ground assets. This new method yields a dramatic decrease in the time it takes to provide launch managers with the required link budgets to make critical pre-mission decisions. The software code used for these two custom utilities is a product of NASA's MPL.

  1. Multi-Mission Power Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Mission Power Analysis Tool (MMPAT) Version 2 simulates spacecraft power generation, use, and storage in order to support spacecraft design, mission planning, and spacecraft operations. It can simulate all major aspects of a spacecraft power subsystem. It is parametrically driven to reduce or eliminate the need for a programmer. A user-friendly GUI (graphical user interface) makes it easy to use. Multiple deployments allow use on the desktop, in batch mode, or as a callable library. It includes detailed models of solar arrays, radioisotope thermoelectric generators, nickel-hydrogen and lithium-ion batteries, and various load types. There is built-in flexibility through user-designed state models and table-driven parameters.

  2. Aerocapture Systems Analysis for a Titan Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary K.; Queen, Eric M.; Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Edquist, Karl; Starr, Brett W.; Hollis, Brian R.; Zoby, E. Vincent; Hrinda, Glenn A.; Bailey, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Performance projections for aerocapture show a vehicle mass savings of between 40 and 80%, dependent on destination, for an aerocapture vehicle compared to an all-propulsive chemical vehicle. In addition aerocapture is applicable to multiple planetary exploration destinations of interest to NASA. The 2001 NASA In-Space Propulsion Program (ISP) technology prioritization effort identified aerocapture as one of the top three propulsion technologies for solar system exploration missions. An additional finding was that aerocapture needed a better system definition and that supporting technology gaps needed to be identified. Consequently, the ISP program sponsored an aerocapture systems analysis effort that was completed in 2002. The focus of the effort was on aerocapture at Titan with a rigid aeroshell system. Titan was selected as the initial destination for the study due to potential interest in a follow-on mission to Cassini/Huygens. Aerocapture is feasible, and the performance is adequate, for the Titan mission and it can deliver 2.4 times more mass to Titan than an all-propulsive system for the same launch vehicle.

  3. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA fs Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash ]to ]supply ]gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  4. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  5. Target Analysis for the Twinkle Space Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Malena; Tinetti, Giovanna; Zingales, Tiziano; Twinkle Consortium

    2016-10-01

    Twinkle is a dedicated exoplanet space mission planned for launch in 2019 to observe and characterize the atmospheres of planets around F, G, K, and M type stars. By obtaining high-resolution near-infrared transit spectra (0.5 - 4.5 microns), Twinkle will identify molecules of interest within planetary atmospheres. Twinkle will provide critical data for the characterization of individual exoplanets, leading to an improved understanding of planetary systems as a whole. In this study, we provide an analysis of potential targets for the Twinkle space mission, and we find that the spacecraft will be capable of observing a wide range of planet types, including Earths, Super Earths, Sub Neptunes, Large Neptunes, and Hot Jupiters. We discuss the population distribution of observable targets in terms of planet temperature and radius, host star temperature, and observation time necessary to achieve the desired signal-to-noise ratios. We also include sample Twinkle spectra from a simulated data set, as well as an example retrieval using the TauRex program to retrieve molecules in these simulated spectra. We conclude with a discussion of these results and their implications for the Twinkle mission.

  6. Proposed method to calculate FRMAC intervention levels for the assessment of radiologically contaminated food and comparison of the proposed method to the U.S. FDA's method to calculate derived intervention levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Terrence D.; Hunt, Brian D.

    2014-02-01

    This report reviews the method recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for calculating Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) and identifies potential improvements to the DIL calculation method to support more accurate ingestion pathway analyses and protective action decisions. Further, this report proposes an alternate method for use by the Federal Emergency Radiological Assessment Center (FRMAC) to calculate FRMAC Intervention Levels (FILs). The default approach of the FRMAC during an emergency response is to use the FDA recommended methods. However, FRMAC recommends implementing the FIL method because we believe it to be more technically accurate. FRMAC will only implement the FIL method when approved by the FDA representative on the Federal Advisory Team for Environment, Food, and Health.

  7. Mission analysis of solar powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. W.; Watson, D. A.; Tuttle, R. P.; Hall, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of a real mission scenario on a solar powered airplane configuration which had been developed in previous work were assessed. The mission used was surveillance of crop conditions over a route from Phoenix to Tucson to Tombstone, Arizona. Appendices are attached which address the applicability of existing platforms and payloads to do this mission.

  8. The HSCT mission analysis of waverider designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The grant provided partial support for an investigation of wave rider design and analysis with application to High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) vehicles. Proposed was the development of the necessary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools for the direct simulation of the waverider vehicles, the development of two new wave rider design methods that would provide computational speeds and design flexibilities never before achieved in wave rider design studies, and finally the selection of a candidate waverider-based vehicle and the evaluation of the chosen vehicle for a canonical HSCT mission scenario. This, the final report, reiterates the proposed project objectives in moderate detail, and it outlines the state of completion of each portion of the study, providing references to current and forthcoming publications that resulted from this work.

  9. Going beyond: Target selection and mission analysis of human exploration missions to Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, A. K.; Messerschmid, E.

    2011-12-01

    Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) offer a wide range of possibilities for space exploration, scientific research, and technology demonstration. In particular, manned missions to NEAs provide a unique opportunity to be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and represent the perfect environment to gain experience in deep-space operations, which is an indispensable prerequisite for human missions to Mars. As a starting point for the analysis of such missions, the objectives of this study are to identify target asteroids and evaluate possible transfer trajectories as well as the associated launch windows. The list of accessible asteroids is narrowed down by taking dynamical and structural properties such as size and rotation rate into account. An accessibility model for NEAs is developed allowing pre-selection of asteroid targets for human missions. For this model, a novel approach is taken which assesses the accessibility of a NEA not by considering its orbital parameters separately. Instead, accessibility is determined by evaluating the combination of all orbital parameters only limited by mission duration (less than 365 days) and round-trip Δv (less than 10 km/s). In order to verify the reliability of the model, mission architectures for missions departing from low-Earth orbit are investigated and transfers to 2567 NEAs in the time frame from 2020 to 2040 are simulated. Two hundred and forty asteroids are found to be accessible for human missions under the given boundary conditions and are observed to nicely fit the model developed. Seventy three of these remaining asteroids can be reached with a Δv≤7.5km/s, 15 of which allow mission durations of less than 200 days. One hundred and seventy launch windows strongly varying in duration are found for these 73 asteroids between 2020 and 2040. Launch opportunity analysis shows that several launch windows open every year in the given time frame for missions with

  10. Radiological risk analysis of potential SP-100 space mission scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, B.W.; Weitzberg, A.

    1988-08-19

    This report presents a radiological risk analysis of three representative space mission scenarios utilizing a fission reactor. The mission profiles considered are: a high-altitude mission, launched by a TITAN IV launch vehicle, boosted by chemical upper stages into its operational orbit, a interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) mission, started directly from a shuttle parking orbit, a low-altitude mission, launched by the Shuttle and boosted by a chemical stage to its operational orbit, with subsequent disposal boost after operation. 21 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Simulating Mission Command for Planning and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    leadership, weather, and terrain. Fourthly, it saves time and money spent for the mission by focusing attention on only a small part of the tasks planned...by focusing attention on only a small part of the tasks planned during the mission-planning process. Lastly, the Excel sheets developed in the...Program Evaluation and Review Technique ....................... 20 II. DATA AND SCENARIO

  12. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  13. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) User's Guide (Draft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    4The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system. This document is a draft of the users guide for the tool. Included in the guide is information about Configuring Objects/Resources, Object Fields: Quick Look-up Tables, and Commands and Events.

  14. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Covered here is the second phase of a broad scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 1, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from the Stafford Committee Synthesis Report.

  15. Mission Stream Analysis - Delta Analytic Model. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    demonstrating mission effectiveness. The second tool is the  ( Delta ) Analytic Model, which provides an approach for identifying disparate...requirements into a system’s technical performance and operator workload requirements; and help minimize the “ delta ” between domains across the system’s...mission and system capability requirements into a system’s technical performance and operator workload requirements; and help minimize the “ delta

  16. Analysis of selected deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. S.; Holman, M. L.; Bilsky, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Task 1 of the NEW MOONS (NASA Evaluation With Models of Optimized Nuclear Spacecraft) study is discussed. Included is an introduction to considerations of launch vehicles, spacecraft, spacecraft subsystems, and scientific objectives associated with precursory unmanned missions to Jupiter and thence out of the ecliptic plane, as well as other missions to Jupiter and other outer planets. Necessity for nuclear power systems is indicated. Trajectories are developed using patched conic and n-body computer techniques.

  17. Planning Coverage Campaigns for Mission Design and Analysis: Clasp for the Proposed DESDynI Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell; McLaren, David; Hu, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Mission design and analysis present challenges in that almost all variables are in constant flux, yet the goal is to achieve an acceptable level of performance against a concept of operations, which might also be in flux. To increase responsiveness, our approach is to use automated planning tools that allow for the continual modification of spacecraft, ground system, staffing, and concept of operations while returning metrics that are important to mission evaluation, such as area covered, peak memory usage, and peak data throughput. We have applied this approach to DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice) mission design concept using the CLASP (Compressed Large-scale Activity Scheduler/Planner) planning system [7], but since this adaptation many techniques have changed under the hood for CLASP and the DESDynI mission concept has undergone drastic changes, including that it has been renamed the Earth Radar Mission. Over the past two years, we have run more than fifty simulations with the CLASP-DESDynI adaptation, simulating different mission scenarios with changing parameters including targets, swaths, instrument modes, and data and downlink rates. We describe the evolution of simulations through the DESDynI MCR (Mission Concept Review) and afterwards.

  18. Cost Analysis in a Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felton, Larry; Newhouse, Marilyn; Bornas, Nick; Botts, Dennis; Ijames, Gayleen; Montgomery, Patty; Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single mission-type support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multi-mission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and

  19. Space Station polar orbiting platform - Mission analysis and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Polar Orbiting Platform will be a serviceable spacecraft supporting a range of missions. The planning and analysis of these missions is investigated. The subjects of STS compatibility, rendezvous strategy, and requisite launch windows are addressed. General, as well as, two specific cases are detailed with respect to their incremental velocity requirements.

  20. Single-shell tank retrieval program mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, W.J.

    1998-08-11

    This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997).

  1. Mission analysis report - deactivation facilities at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, D.P.

    1996-09-27

    This document examines the portion of the Hanford Site Cleanup Mission that deals with facility deactivation. How facilities get identified for deactivation, how they enter EM-60 for deactivation, programmatic alternatives to perform facility deactivation, the deactivation process itself, key requirements and objectives associated with the deactivation process, and deactivation planning are discussed.

  2. Space mission scenario development and performance analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Baker, John; Gilbert, John; Hanks, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a new and innovative approach for a rapid spacecraft multi-disciplinary performance analysis using a tool called the Mission Scenario Development Workbench (MSDW). To meet the needs of new classes of space missions, analysis tools with proven models were developed and integrated into a framework to enable rapid trades and analyses between spacecraft designs and operational scenarios during the formulation phase of a mission. Generally speaking, spacecraft resources are highly constrained on deep space missions and this approach makes it possible to maximize the use of existing resources to attain the best possible science return. This approach also has the potential benefit of reducing the risk of costly design changes made later in the design cycle necessary to meet the mission requirements by understanding system design sensitivities early and adding appropriate margins. This paper will describe the approach used by the Mars Science Laboratory Project to accomplish this result.

  3. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Mars Mission Systems Analysis and Requirements Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Chiroux, Robert C.; Thomas, Dan; Crane, Tracie

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the Mars transportation vehicle design concepts developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office. These vehicle design concepts provide an indication of the most demanding and least demanding potential requirements for nuclear thermal propulsion systems for human Mars exploration missions from years 2025 to 2035. Vehicle concept options vary from large "all-up" vehicle configurations that would transport all of the elements for a Mars mission on one vehicle. to "split" mission vehicle configurations that would consist of separate smaller vehicles that would transport cargo elements and human crew elements to Mars separately. Parametric trades and sensitivity studies show NTP stage and engine design options that provide the best balanced set of metrics based on safety, reliability, performance, cost and mission objectives. Trade studies include the sensitivity of vehicle performance to nuclear engine characteristics such as thrust, specific impulse and nuclear reactor type. Tbe associated system requirements are aligned with the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Reference Mars mission as described in the Explorations Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) report. The focused trade studies include a detailed analysis of nuclear engine radiation shield requirements for human missions and analysis of nuclear thermal engine design options for the ESAS reference mission.

  4. A spacecraft-borne gradiometer mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P.; Garza-Robles, R.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed to obtain the orbit- and attitude-determination requirements of a spacecraft-borne gradiometer mission. Results demonstrated that position determination of 300 meters in the along-track and cross-track directions and 50 meters in the radial direction are mission requirements. The optimal orientation of the gradiometer sensing plane is achieved when the spin vector elevation is 0 degrees. The attitude-determination requirements are 5 degrees resolution for spin-vector azimuth and 0.2 degree resolution for spin-vector elevation. When these requirements are met, 3-degree gravity anomalies can be recovered globally with an accuracy of 0.025/mm/sq s (2.5 mgals). The Appendix documents the mathematical procedures for estimating detailed gravity fields from gradiometer data.

  5. Cost Analysis In A Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, M.; Felton, L.; Bornas, N.; Botts, D.; Roth, K.; Ijames, G.; Montgomery, P.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single missiontype support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multimission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and the

  6. Analysis of sleep on Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Kapanka, Heidi; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    The sleep patterns of 58 Space Shuttle crew members are analyzed statistically on the basis of debriefing forms filled out within 3 days postflight. The data are compiled in a table, and photographs of typical sleep conditions on the Shuttle are provided. It is found that sleep disruption is relatively common on Shuttle missions, especially on the first and last days. Sleep medication was used by 19.4 percent of crew on single-shift flights and 50 percent of crew on dual-shift flights.

  7. Analysis and design of aeroassisted interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.

    An aeroassisted mission uses atmospheric forces to effect a spacecraft delta-V, which could allow for substantial propellant savings. This research focuses on aero-maneuvers useful for interplanetary flight. The aerogravity assist maneuver uses aerodynamic lift to achieve a greater delta-V than with gravity alone. Aerobraking and aerocapture both use aerodynamic drag to supplement or replace propulsive planetary captures. Optimal aerogravity assist trajectories are found, using a combination of analytic and graphical techniques. Simple control schemes are developed to manage angular momentum during aerobraking and to guide a spacecraft to a desired final orbit during aerocapture.

  8. Mission Analysis for the Don Quijote Phase-A Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Juan L.; Sanchez, Mariano; Cornara, Stefania; Carnelli, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The Don Quijote Phase-A study is a definition study funded by ESA and devoted to the analysis of the possibilities to deflect a Near Earth Object (NEO) in the range of 300-800 m diameter. DEIMOS Space S.L. and EADS Astrium have teamed up within this study to form one of the three consortia that have analyzed these aspects for ESA. Target asteroids for the mission are 1989 ML, 2002 AT4 and Apophis. This paper presents the mission analysis activities within the consortium providing: low-thrust interplanetary rendezvous Orbiter trajectories to the target asteroids, ballistic interplanetary trajectories for the Impactor, Orbiter arrival description at the asteroids, Orbiter stable orbits characterization at the asteroid, deflection determination by means of a Radio Science Experiment (RSE) as well as the mission timelines and overall mission scenarios.

  9. Analysis of System Margins on Missions Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David Y.; Landau, Damon; Randolph, Thomas; Timmerman, Paul; Chase, James; Sims, Jon; Kowalkowski, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has conducted a study focused on the analysis of appropriate margins for deep space missions using solar electric propulsion (SEP). The purpose of this study is to understand the links between disparate system margins (power, mass, thermal, etc.) and their impact on overall mission performance and robustness. It is determined that the various sources of uncertainty and risk associated with electric propulsion mission design can be summarized into three relatively independent parameters 1) EP Power Margin, 2) Propellant Margin and 3) Duty Cycle Margin. The overall relationship between these parameters and other major sources of uncertainty is presented. A detailed trajectory analysis is conducted to examine the impact that various assumptions related to power, duty cycle, destination, and thruster performance including missed thrust periods have on overall performance. Recommendations are presented for system margins for deep space missions utilizing solar electric propulsion.

  10. Analysis of tritium mission FMEF/FAA fuel handling accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1997-11-18

    The Fuels Material Examination Facility/Fuel Assembly Area is proposed to be used for fabrication of mixed oxide fuel to support the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) tritium/medical isotope mission. The plutonium isotope mix for the new mission is different than that analyzed in the FMEF safety analysis report. A reanalysis was performed of three representative accidents for the revised plutonium mix to determine the impact on the safety analysis. Current versions computer codes and meterology data files were used for the analysis. The revised accidents were a criticality, an explosion in a glovebox, and a tornado. The analysis concluded that risk guidelines were met with the revised plutonium mix.

  11. Preliminary analysis of space mission applications for electromagnetic launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. A.; Rice, E. E.; Earhart, R. W.; Conlon, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using electromagnetically launched EML payloads propelled from the Earth's surface to LEO, GEO, lunar orbit, or to interplanetary space was assessed. Analyses of the designs of rail accelerators and coaxial magnetic accelerators show that each is capable of launching to space payloads of 800 KG or more. A hybrid launcher in which EML is used for the first 2 KM/sec followed by chemical rocket stages was also tested. A cost estimates study shows that one to two EML launches per day are needed to break even, compared to a four-stage rocket. Development models are discussed for: (1) Earth orbital missions; (2) lunar base supply mission; (3) solar system escape mission; (4) Earth escape missions; (5) suborbital missions; (6) electromagnetic boost missions; and (7) space-based missions. Safety factors, environmental impacts, and EML systems analysis are discussed. Alternate systems examined include electrothermal thrustors, an EML rocket gun; an EML theta gun, and Soviet electromagnetic accelerators.

  12. Object classification and outliers analysis in the forthcoming Gaia mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Arcay, B.; Dafonte, C.; Manteiga, M.; Ulla, A.

    2010-12-01

    Astrophysics is evolving towards the rational optimization of costly observational material by the intelligent exploitation of large astronomical databases from both terrestrial telescopes and spatial mission archives. However, there has been relatively little advance in the development of highly scalable data exploitation and analysis tools needed to generate the scientific returns from these large and expensively obtained datasets. Among the upcoming projects of astronomical instrumentation, Gaia is the next cornerstone ESA mission. The Gaia survey foresees the creation of a data archive and its future exploitation with automated or semi-automated analysis tools. This work reviews some of the work that is being developed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium for the object classification and analysis of outliers in the forthcoming mission.

  13. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Conceptual Design and Mission Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kos, Larry D.; Russell, Tiffany E.

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) is an in-space transportation vehicle, comprised of three main elements, designed to support a long-stay human Mars mission architecture beginning in 2035. The stage conceptual design and the mission analysis discussed here support the current nuclear thermal propulsion going on within partnership activity of NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE). The transportation system consists of three elements: 1) the Core Stage, 2) the In-line Tank, and 3) the Drop Tank. The driving mission case is the piloted flight to Mars in 2037 and will be the main point design shown and discussed. The corresponding Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle (LV) is also presented due to it being a very critical aspect of the NCPS Human Mars Mission architecture due to the strong relationship between LV lift capability and LV volume capacity.

  14. Mission analysis and performance specification studies report, appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program tasks included defining missions, developing distributions of daily travel and composite driving cycles for these missions, providing information necessary to estimate the potential replacement of the existing fleet by hybrids, and estimating acceleration/gradeability performance requirements for safe operation. The data was then utilized to develop mission specifications, define reference vehicles, develop hybrid vehicle performance specifications, and make fuel consumption estimates for the vehicles. The major assumptions which underlie the approach taken to the mission analysis and development of performance specifications are the following: the daily operating range of a hybrid vehicle should not be limited by the stored energy capacity and the performance of such a vehicle should not be strongly dependent on the battery state of charge.

  15. Galileo and Ulysses missions safety analysis and launch readiness status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. Joseph; Turi, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft, which will release probes to explore the Jupiter system, was launched in October, 1989 as the payload on STS-34, and the Ulysses spacecraft, which will fly by Jupiter en route to a polar orbit of the sun, is presently entering system-test activity in preparation for an October, 1990 launch. This paper reviews the Galileo and Ulysses mission objectives and design approaches and presents details of the missions' safety analysis. The processes used to develop the safety analysis are described and the results of safety tests are presented.

  16. Radiation Analysis for the Human Lunar Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Simonsen, L. C.; Shinn, J. L.; Kim, M.; Dubey, R. R.; Jordan, W.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the radiation hazards that are anticipated on an early Human Lunar Return (HLR) mission in support of NASA deep space exploration activities is presented. The HLR mission study emphasized a low cost lunar return to expand human capabilities in exploration, to answer fundamental science questions, and to seek opportunities for commercial development. As such, the radiation issues are cost related because the parasitic shield mass is expensive due to high launch costs. The present analysis examines the shield requirements and their impact on shield design.

  17. Ozone data and mission sampling analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology was developed to analyze discrete data obtained from the global distribution of ozone. Statistical analysis techniques were applied to describe the distribution of data variance in terms of empirical orthogonal functions and components of spherical harmonic models. The effects of uneven data distribution and missing data were considered. Data fill based on the autocorrelation structure of the data is described. Computer coding of the analysis techniques is included.

  18. Mission Analysis, Operations, and Navigation Toolkit Environment (Monte) Version 040

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Monte is a software set designed for use in mission design and spacecraft navigation operations. The system can process measurement data, design optimal trajectories and maneuvers, and do orbit determination, all in one application. For the first time, a single software set can be used for mission design and navigation operations. This eliminates problems due to different models and fidelities used in legacy mission design and navigation software. The unique features of Monte 040 include a blowdown thruster model for GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) with associated pressure models, as well as an updated, optimalsearch capability (COSMIC) that facilitated mission design for ARTEMIS. Existing legacy software lacked the capabilities necessary for these two missions. There is also a mean orbital element propagator and an osculating to mean element converter that allows long-term orbital stability analysis for the first time in compiled code. The optimized trajectory search tool COSMIC allows users to place constraints and controls on their searches without any restrictions. Constraints may be user-defined and depend on trajectory information either forward or backwards in time. In addition, a long-term orbit stability analysis tool (morbiter) existed previously as a set of scripts on top of Monte. Monte is becoming the primary tool for navigation operations, a core competency at JPL. The mission design capabilities in Monte are becoming mature enough for use in project proposals as well as post-phase A mission design. Monte has three distinct advantages over existing software. First, it is being developed in a modern paradigm: object- oriented C++ and Python. Second, the software has been developed as a toolkit, which allows users to customize their own applications and allows the development team to implement requirements quickly, efficiently, and with minimal bugs. Finally, the software is managed in accordance with the CMMI (Capability Maturity Model

  19. HSCT mission analysis of waverider designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the second quarter the development of the two waverider design tools was continued, and the groundwork necessary for the incorporation of waverider technology into the realm of the High Speed Civil Transports (HSCT's) was laid out. Advances in each of these areas is summarized. Work on the WIPAR code included the addition of an upper surface geometry generator and characteristic flow solver and the inclusion of viscous analysis in the performance computations. Details of these changes are given. In the course of the second project quarter, much of the analysis performed during the first quarter was incorporated into a working computer code. To date, utilities were developed for the definition of arbitrary 3-D shock surfaces, the computation of post-shock flow conditions, and the marching of the solution in a roughly cross-stream direction away from the shock surface. These utilities are briefly described. During the second quarter groundwork for the analysis of complete configurations was initiated. This involved the development of computational utilities for the integration of powerplants with the waverider forebodies, and the acquisition of a number of configuration analysis software packages. Work in these areas is discussed.

  20. Analysis of heliographic missions complementary to ISPM. [International Solar Polar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Five concepts were formulated, analyzed, and compared for satisfying heliographic science mission objectives both with and without a concurrent International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Spacecraft. Key astrodynamic constraints and performance factors are known from literature for the Lagrange point mission and the sun-synchronous earth orbit mission, but are set forth in this paper for the three solar orbiting missions concepts considered. Any of these five missions should be doable at modest cost since no strong cost drivers were encountered in the analyses. The mission to be flown depends on mission capability to meet science measurement needs more than on strong economic factors. Each mission offers special advantages for particular measurement emphasis. Based on selected qualitative mission discriminators, an overall 'best mission' was selected and described in some detail.

  1. Phased-mission system analysis using Boolean algebraic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somani, Arun K.; Trivedi, Kishor S.

    1993-01-01

    Most reliability analysis techniques and tools assume that a system is used for a mission consisting of a single phase. However, multiple phases are natural in many missions. The failure rates of components, system configuration, and success criteria may vary from phase to phase. In addition, the duration of a phase may be deterministic or random. Recently, several researchers have addressed the problem of reliability analysis of such systems using a variety of methods. A new technique for phased-mission system reliability analysis based on Boolean algebraic methods is described. Our technique is computationally efficient and is applicable to a large class of systems for which the failure criterion in each phase can be expressed as a fault tree (or an equivalent representation). Our technique avoids state space explosion that commonly plague Markov chain-based analysis. A phase algebra to account for the effects of variable configurations and success criteria from phase to phase was developed. Our technique yields exact (as opposed to approximate) results. The use of our technique was demonstrated by means of an example and present numerical results to show the effects of mission phases on the system reliability.

  2. Impact Cratering Theory and Modeling for the Deep Impact Mission: From Mission Planning to Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, James E.; Melosh, H. Jay; Artemeiva, Natasha A.; Pierazzo, Elisabetta

    2005-03-01

    The cratering event produced by the Deep Impact mission is a unique experimental opportunity, beyond the capability of Earth-based laboratories with regard to the impacting energy, target material, space environment, and extremely low-gravity field. Consequently, impact cratering theory and modeling play an important role in this mission, from initial inception to final data analysis. Experimentally derived impact cratering scaling laws provide us with our best estimates for the crater diameter, depth, and formation time: critical in the mission planning stage for producing the flight plan and instrument specifications. Cratering theory has strongly influenced the impactor design, producing a probe that should produce the largest possible crater on the surface of Tempel 1 under a wide range of scenarios. Numerical hydrocode modeling allows us to estimate the volume and thermodynamic characteristics of the material vaporized in the early stages of the impact. Hydrocode modeling will also aid us in understanding the observed crater excavation process, especially in the area of impacts into porous materials. Finally, experimentally derived ejecta scaling laws and modeling provide us with a means to predict and analyze the observed behavior of the material launched from the comet during crater excavation, and may provide us with a unique means of estimating the magnitude of the comet’s gravity field and by extension the mass and density of comet Tempel 1.

  3. Study 2.6 operations analysis mission characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the current operations concepts of NASA and DoD is presented to determine if alternatives exist which may improve the utilization of resources. The final product is intended to show how sensitive these ground rules and design approaches are relative to the total cost of doing business. The results are comparative in nature, and assess one concept against another as opposed to establishing an absolute cost value for program requirements. An assessment of the mission characteristics is explained to clarify the intent, scope, and direction of this effort to improve the understanding of what is to be accomplished. The characterization of missions is oriented toward grouping missions which may offer potential economic benefits by reducing overall program costs. Program costs include design, development, testing, and engineering, recurring unit costs for logistic vehicles, payload costs. and direct operating costs.

  4. Optimal low thrust geocentric transfer. [mission analysis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelbaum, T. N.; Sackett, L. L.; Malchow, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    A computer code which will rapidly calculate time-optimal low thrust transfers is being developed as a mission analysis tool. The final program will apply to NEP or SEP missions and will include a variety of environmental effects. The current program assumes constant acceleration. The oblateness effect and shadowing may be included. Detailed state and costate equations are given for the thrust effect, oblateness effect, and shadowing. A simple but adequate model yields analytical formulas for power degradation due to the Van Allen radiation belts for SEP missions. The program avoids the classical singularities by the use of equinoctial orbital elements. Kryloff-Bogoliuboff averaging is used to facilitate rapid calculation. Results for selected cases using the current program are given.

  5. Software Construction and Analysis Tools for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA and its international partners will increasingly depend on software-based systems to implement advanced functions for future space missions, such as Martian rovers that autonomously navigate long distances exploring geographic features formed by surface water early in the planet's history. The software-based functions for these missions will need to be robust and highly reliable, raising significant challenges in the context of recent Mars mission failures attributed to software faults. After reviewing these challenges, this paper describes tools that have been developed at NASA Ames that could contribute to meeting these challenges; 1) Program synthesis tools based on automated inference that generate documentation for manual review and annotations for automated certification. 2) Model-checking tools for concurrent object-oriented software that achieve memorability through synergy with program abstraction and static analysis tools.

  6. Photon Sail History, Engineering, and Mission Analysis. Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, Gregory L.; Taylor, Travis; Powell, Conley

    2004-01-01

    This Appendix summarizes the results of a Teledyne Brown Engineering, Inc. report to the In-Space propulsion research group of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that was authored by Taylor et al. in 2003. The subject of this report is the technological maturity, readiness, and capability of the photon solar sail to support space-exploration missions. Technological maturity for solar photon sail concepts is extremely high high for rectangular (or square) solar sail configurations due to the historical development of the rectangular design by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). L'Garde Inc., ILC Dover Inc., DLR, and many other corporations and agencies. However, future missions and mission analysis may prove that the rectangular sail design is not the best architecture for achieving mission goals. Due to the historical focus on rectangular solar sail spacecraft designs, the maturity of other architectures such as hoop-supported disks, multiple small disk arrays, parachute sails, heliogyro sails, perforated sails, multiple vane sails (such as the Planetary Society's Cosmos 1), inflated pillow sails, etc., have not reached a high level of technological readiness. (Some sail architectures are shown in Fig. A.1.) The possibilities of different sail architectures and some possible mission concepts are discussed in this Appendix.

  7. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-05-24

    This report defines the mission for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). It contains summary information regarding the mission analysis which was performed by holding workshops attended by relevant persons involved in the WESF operations. The scope of the WESF mission is to provide storage of Cesium (Cs) and Strontium (Sr) capsules, previously produced at WESF, until every capsule has been removed from the facility either to another storage location, for disposal or for beneficial use by public or private enterprises. Since the disposition of the capsules has not yet been determined, they may be stored at WESF for many years, even decades. The current condition of the WESF facility must be upgraded and maintained to provide for storage which is safe, cost effective, and fully compliant with DOE direction as well as federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Cs capsules produced at WESF were originally released to private enterprises for uses such as the sterilization of medical equipment; but because of the leakage of one capsule, all are being returned. The systems, subsystems, and equipment not required for the storage mission will be available for use by other projects or private enterprises. Beyond the storage of the Cs and Sr capsules, no future mission for the WESF has been identified.

  8. Spacecraft Trajectory Analysis and Mission Planning Simulation (STAMPS) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puckett, Nancy; Pettinger, Kris; Hallstrom,John; Brownfield, Dana; Blinn, Eric; Williams, Frank; Wiuff, Kelli; McCarty, Steve; Ramirez, Daniel; Lamotte, Nicole; Vu, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    STAMPS simulates either three- or six-degree-of-freedom cases for all spacecraft flight phases using translated HAL flight software or generic GN&C models. Single or multiple trajectories can be simulated for use in optimization and dispersion analysis. It includes math models for the vehicle and environment, and currently features a "C" version of shuttle onboard flight software. The STAMPS software is used for mission planning and analysis within ascent/descent, rendezvous, proximity operations, and navigation flight design areas.

  9. Navigation Design and Analysis for the Orion Cislunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Holt, Greg; Gay, Robert; Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the design and analysis of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. It also presents the sensitivity analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the DELTA V performance

  10. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) Architectural Specification. Draft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.; Conway, Darrel, J.

    2007-01-01

    Early in 2002, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) began to identify requirements for the flight dynamics software needed to fly upcoming missions that use formations of spacecraft to collect data. These requirements ranged from low level modeling features to large scale interoperability requirements. In 2003 we began work on a system designed to meet these requirement; this system is GMAT. The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a general purpose flight dynamics modeling tool built on open source principles. The GMAT code is written in C++, and uses modern C++ constructs extensively. GMAT can be run through either a fully functional Graphical User Interface (GUI) or as a command line program with minimal user feedback. The system is built and runs on Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Macintosh OS X platforms. The GMAT GUI is written using wxWidgets, a cross platform library of components that streamlines the development and extension of the user interface Flight dynamics modeling is performed in GMAT by building components that represent the players in the analysis problem that is being modeled. These components interact through the sequential execution of instructions, embodied in the GMAT Mission Sequence. A typical Mission Sequence will model the trajectories of a set of spacecraft evolving over time, calculating relevant parameters during this propagation, and maneuvering individual spacecraft to maintain a set of mission constraints as established by the mission analyst. All of the elements used in GMAT for mission analysis can be viewed in the GMAT GUI or through a custom scripting language. Analysis problems modeled in GMAT are saved as script files, and these files can be read into GMAT. When a script is read into the GMAT GUI, the corresponding user interface elements are constructed in the GMAT GUI. The GMAT system was developed from the ground up to run in a platform agnostic environment. The source code compiles on numerous different platforms, and is

  11. Mission Evaluation Room Intelligent Diagnostic and Analysis System (MIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Falgout, Jane; Barcio, Joseph; Shnurer, Steve; Wadsworth, David; Flores, Louis

    1994-01-01

    The role of Mission Evaluation Room (MER) engineers is to provide engineering support during Space Shuttle missions, for Space Shuttle systems. These engineers are concerned with ensuring that the systems for which they are responsible function reliably, and as intended. The MER is a central facility from which engineers may work, in fulfilling this obligation. Engineers participate in real-time monitoring of shuttle telemetry data and provide a variety of analyses associated with the operation of the shuttle. The Johnson Space Center's Automation and Robotics Division is working to transfer advances in intelligent systems technology to NASA's operational environment. Specifically, the MER Intelligent Diagnostic and Analysis System (MIDAS) project provides MER engineers with software to assist them with monitoring, filtering and analyzing Shuttle telemetry data, during and after Shuttle missions. MIDAS off-loads to computers and software, the tasks of data gathering, filtering, and analysis, and provides the engineers with information which is in a more concise and usable form needed to support decision making and engineering evaluation. Engineers are then able to concentrate on more difficult problems as they arise. This paper describes some, but not all of the applications that have been developed for MER engineers, under the MIDAS Project. The sampling described herewith was selected to show the range of tasks that engineers must perform for mission support, and to show the various levels of automation that have been applied to assist their efforts.

  12. An Analysis of Green Propulsion Applied to NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.; Mulkey, Henry W.; Baca, Caitlin E.

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of green propulsion for five mission classes are examined, including a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) mission (GPM), a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) mission (SDO), a High Earth Orbit (HEO) mission (MMS), a lunar mission (LRO), and a planetary mission (MAVEN). The propellant mass benefits are considered for all five missions, as well as the effects on the tanks, propellant loading, thruster throughput, thermal considerations, and range requirements for both the AF-M315E and LMP-103S propellants.

  13. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  14. Attitude Drift Analysis for the WIND and POLAR Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    The spin axis attitude drift due to environmental torques acting on the Global Geospace Science (GGS) Interplanetary Physics Laboratory (WIND) and the Polar Plasma Laboratory (POLAR) and the subsequent impact on the maneuver planning strategy for each mission is investigated. A brief overview of each mission is presented, including mission objectives, requirements, constraints, and spacecraft design. The environmental torques that act on the spacecraft and the relative importance of each is addressed. Analysis results are presented that provide the basis for recommendations made pre-launch to target the spin axis attitude to minimize attitude trim maneuvers for both spacecraft over their respective mission lives. It is demonstrated that attitude drift is not the dominant factor in maintaining the pointing requirement for each spacecraft. Further it is demonstrated that the WIND pointing cannot be met pas 4 months due to the Sun angle constraint, while the POLAR initial attitude can be chosen such that attitude trim maneuvers are not required during each 6 month viewing period.

  15. Multi-Mission Power Analysis Tool (MMPAT) Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric G.; Chang, George W.; Chen, Fannie C.

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Power Analysis Tool (MMPAT) simulates a spacecraft power subsystem including the power source (solar array and/or radioisotope thermoelectric generator), bus-voltage control, secondary battery (lithium-ion or nickel-hydrogen), thermostatic heaters, and power-consuming equipment. It handles multiple mission types including heliocentric orbiters, planetary orbiters, and surface operations. Being parametrically driven along with its user-programmable features can reduce or even eliminate any need for software modifications when configuring it for a particular spacecraft. It provides multiple levels of fidelity, thereby fulfilling the vast majority of a project s power simulation needs throughout the lifecycle. It can operate in a stand-alone mode with a graphical user interface, in batch mode, or as a library linked with other tools. This software can simulate all major aspects of a spacecraft power subsystem. It is parametrically driven to reduce or eliminate the need for a programmer. Added flexibility is provided through user-designed state models and table-driven parameters. MMPAT is designed to be used by a variety of users, such as power subsystem engineers for sizing power subsystem components; mission planners for adjusting mission scenarios using power profiles generated by the model; system engineers for performing system- level trade studies using the results of the model during the early design phases of a spacecraft; and operations personnel for high-fidelity modeling of the essential power aspect of the planning picture.

  16. Navigation and Dispersion Analysis of the First Orion Exploration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; D'Souza, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to present the Orion EM-1 Linear Covariance Analysis for the DRO mission. The delta V statistics for each maneuver are presented. Included in the memo are several sensitivity analyses: variation in the time of OTC-1 (the first outbound correction maneuver), variation in the accuracy of the trans-Lunar injection, and variation in the length of the optical navigation passes.

  17. NEW EMPLOYEE ON THE JOB - LEO C FRANCISCUS MISSIONS ANALYSIS BRANCH WORKING ON RECOVERABLE BOOSTERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NEW EMPLOYEE ON THE JOB - LEO C FRANCISCUS MISSIONS ANALYSIS BRANCH WORKING ON RECOVERABLE BOOSTERS - PERFORM MISSION ANALYSIS STUDIES - AT PRESENT TIME STUDYING SUBSONIC AND SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION RAM JET ENGINES - ALSO PERFORMING ANALYTICAL STUDIES

  18. Radiation analysis for manned missions to the Jupiter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, G.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis for manned missions targeted to the Jovian system has been performed in the framework of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program on Human Exploration beyond Mars. The missions were targeted to the Jupiter satellite Callisto. The mission analysis has been divided into three main phases, namely the interplanetary cruise, the Jupiter orbital insertion, and the surface landing and exploration phases. The interplanetary phase is based on departure from the Earth-Moon L1 point. Interplanetary trajectories based on the use of different propulsion systems have been considered, with resulting overall cruise phase duration varying between two and five years. The Jupiter-approach and the orbital insertion trajectories are considered in detail, with the spacecraft crossing the Jupiter radiation belts and staying around the landing target. In the surface exploration phase the stay on the Callisto surface is considered. The satellite surface composition has been modeled based on the most recent results from the GALILEO spacecraft. In the transport computations the surface backscattering has been duly taken into account. Particle transport has been performed with the HZETRN heavy ion code for hadrons and with an in-house developed transport code for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons. The obtained doses have been compared to dose exposure limits. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contemporary Impact Analysis Methodology for Planetary Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perino, Scott V.; Bayandor, Javid; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Armand, Sasan C.

    2015-01-01

    Development of an Earth entry vehicle and the methodology created to evaluate the vehicle's impact landing response when returning to Earth is reported. NASA's future Mars Sample Return Mission requires a robust vehicle to return Martian samples back to Earth for analysis. The Earth entry vehicle is a proposed solution to this Mars mission requirement. During Earth reentry, the vehicle slows within the atmosphere and then impacts the ground at its terminal velocity. To protect the Martian samples, a spherical energy absorber called an impact sphere is under development. The impact sphere is composed of hybrid composite and crushable foam elements that endure large plastic deformations during impact and cause a highly nonlinear vehicle response. The developed analysis methodology captures a range of complex structural interactions and much of the failure physics that occurs during impact. Numerical models were created and benchmarked against experimental tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The postimpact structural damage assessment showed close correlation between simulation predictions and experimental results. Acceleration, velocity, displacement, damage modes, and failure mechanisms were all effectively captured. These investigations demonstrate that the Earth entry vehicle has great potential in facilitating future sample return missions.

  20. Radiation analysis for manned missions to the Jupiter system.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, G; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Tripathi, R K; Wilson, J W

    2004-01-01

    An analysis for manned missions targeted to the Jovian system has been performed in the framework of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program on Human Exploration beyond Mars. The missions were targeted to the Jupiter satellite Callisto. The mission analysis has been divided into three main phases, namely the interplanetary cruise, the Jupiter orbital insertion, and the surface landing and exploration phases. The interplanetary phase is based on departure from the Earth-Moon L1 point. Interplanetary trajectories based on the use of different propulsion systems have been considered, with resulting overall cruise phase duration varying between two and five years. The Jupiter-approach and the orbital insertion trajectories are considered in detail, with the spacecraft crossing the Jupiter radiation belts and staying around the landing target. In the surface exploration phase the stay on the Callisto surface is considered. The satellite surface composition has been modeled based on the most recent results from the GALILEO spacecraft. In the transport computations the surface backscattering has been duly taken into account. Particle transport has been performed with the HZETRN heavy ion code for hadrons and with an in-house developed transport code for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons. The obtained doses have been compared to dose exposure limits.

  1. Orbit Determination Covariance Analysis for the Europa Clipper Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionasescu, Rodica; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Valerino, Powtawche; Criddle, Kevin; Buffington, Brent; McElrath, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A new Jovian satellite tour is proposed by NASA, which would include numerous flybys of the moon Europa, and would explore its potential habitability by characterizing the existence of any water within and beneath Europa's ice shell. This paper describes the results of a covariance study that was undertaken on a sample tour to assess the navigational challenges and capabilities of such a mission from an orbit determination (OD) point of view, and to help establish a delta V budget for the maneuvers needed to keep the spacecraft on the reference trajectory. Additional parametric variations from the baseline case were also investigated. The success of the Europa Clipper mission will depend on the science measurements that it will enable. Meeting the requirements of the instruments onboard the spacecraft is an integral part of this analysis.

  2. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part I; Crew Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Human spaceflight Architecture team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single space- ship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper provides the analysis of the interplanetary segments of the three Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions to Mars using the hybrid transportation architecture. The trajectory analysis provides departure and arrival dates and propellant needs for the three crew missions that are used by the campaign analysis team for campaign build-up and logistics aggregation analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the impact of mass growth, departure window, and propulsion system performance on the hybrid transportation architecture. The results and system analysis from this paper contribute to analyses of the other human spaceflight architecture team tasks and feed into the definition of the Evolvable Mars Campaign.

  3. Aeroheating Thermal Analysis Methods for Aerobraking Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Dec, John A.; George, Benjamin E.

    2002-01-01

    Mars missions often employ aerobraking upon arrival at Mars as a low-mass method to gradually reduce the orbit period from a high-altitude, highly elliptical insertion orbit to the final science orbit. Two recent missions that made use of aerobraking were Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey. Both spacecraft had solar arrays as the main aerobraking surface area. Aerobraking produces a high heat load on the solar arrays, which have a large surface area exposed to the airflow and relatively low mass. To accurately model the complex behavior during aerobraking, the thermal analysis must be tightly coupled to the flight mechanics, aerodynamics, and atmospheric modeling efforts being performed during operations. To properly represent the temperatures prior to and during the drag pass, the model must include the orbital solar and planetary heat fluxes. The correlation of the thermal model to flight data allows a validation of the modeling process, as well as information on what processes dominate the thermal behavior. This paper describes the thermal modeling method that was developed for this purpose, as well as correlation for two flight missions, and a discussion of improvements to the methodology.

  4. Trajectory analysis for solar electric propulsion stage /SEPS/ planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dazzo, E. J.; Nagorski, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    This paper summarizes a portion of the planetary mission analysis results of past and present studies conducted by Rockwell International for NASA-MSFC (Contract NAS8-27360) dealing with the feasibility of a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS). The SEPS is envisioned as an upper stage of a transportation system capable of delivering either separable payload spacecraft or attached science packages to various planetary targets. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that, from a payload performance capability standpoint, a common SEP Stage can deliver various payloads to a host of planetary targets including inner and outer planets, asteroids, and comets.

  5. A Framework for the Statistical Analysis of Probability of Mission Success Based on Bayesian Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Mission Success Prediction Capability (MSPC) is a Model-Based Systems Engineering ( MBSE ) approach to mission planning, used for the analysis of complex... MBSE ) approach to mission planning, used for the analysis of complex systems of precision strike (air-to-surface) weapons. This report focuses on...Based Systems Engineering ( MBSE ) approach to mission planning. It focuses on holistically analysing complex systems, more specifically those of

  6. Design and Analysis of RTGs for Solar and Martian Exploration Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1990-05-01

    The paper described the results of design, analysis and spacecraft integration studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for three unmanned space exploration missions. The three missions, consisting of the Mars Rover and Sample Return (MRSR) mission, the Solar Probe mission, and the Mars Global Net work (MGN) mission, are under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA/JPL mission studies are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA), which has commissioned Fairchild Space Company to carry out the required RTG design studies.

  7. Statistical analysis of mission profile parameters of civil transport airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxbaum, O.

    1972-01-01

    The statistical analysis of flight times as well as airplane gross weights and fuel weights of jet-powered civil transport airplanes has shown that the distributions of their frequency of occurrence per flight can be presented approximately in general form. Before, however, these results may be used during the project stage of an airplane for defining a typical mission profile (the parameters of which are assumed to occur, for example, with a probability of 50 percent), the following points have to be taken into account. Because the individual airplanes were rotated during service, the scatter between the distributions of mission profile parameters for airplanes of the same type, which were flown with similar payload, has proven to be very small. Significant deviations from the generalized distributions may occur if an operator uses one airplane preferably on one or two specific routes. Another reason for larger deviations could be that the maintenance services of the operators of the observed airplanes are not representative of other airlines. Although there are indications that this is unlikely, similar information should be obtained from other operators. Such information would improve the reliability of the data.

  8. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Commissioning Phase Orbit Determination Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Lauren R.; Novak, Stefan; Long, Anne; Gramling, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission commissioning phase starts in a 185 km altitude x 12 Earth radii (RE) injection orbit and lasts until the Phase 1 mission orbits and orientation to the Earth-Sun li ne are achieved. During a limited time period in the early part of co mmissioning, five maneuvers are performed to raise the perigee radius to 1.2 R E, with a maneuver every other apogee. The current baseline is for the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility to p rovide MMS orbit determination support during the early commissioning phase using all available two-way range and Doppler tracking from bo th the Deep Space Network and Space Network. This paper summarizes th e results from a linear covariance analysis to determine the type and amount of tracking data required to accurately estimate the spacecraf t state, plan each perigee raising maneuver, and support thruster cal ibration during this phase. The primary focus of this study is the na vigation accuracy required to plan the first and the final perigee ra ising maneuvers. Absolute and relative position and velocity error hi stories are generated for all cases and summarized in terms of the ma ximum root-sum-square consider and measurement noise error contributi ons over the definitive and predictive arcs and at discrete times inc luding the maneuver planning and execution times. Details of the meth odology, orbital characteristics, maneuver timeline, error models, and error sensitivities are provided.

  9. Autonomous Onboard Science Data Analysis for Comet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel Q.; McLaren, David; Chien, Steve A.; Bergman, Larry; Castano, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Lenda, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Coming years will bring several comet rendezvous missions. The Rosetta spacecraft arrives at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. Subsequent rendezvous might include a mission such as the proposed Comet Hopper with multiple surface landings, as well as Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) and Coma Rendezvous and Sample Return (CRSR). These encounters will begin to shed light on a population that, despite several previous flybys, remains mysterious and poorly understood. Scientists still have little direct knowledge of interactions between the nucleus and coma, their variation across different comets or their evolution over time. Activity may change on short timescales so it is challenging to characterize with scripted data acquisition. Here we investigate automatic onboard image analysis that could act faster than round-trip light time to capture unexpected outbursts and plume activity. We describe one edge-based method for detect comet nuclei and plumes, and test the approach on an existing catalog of comet images. Finally, we quantify benefits to specific measurement objectives by simulating a basic plume monitoring campaign.

  10. NASA Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate Mission and Trade Study Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell; Guynn, Mark; Hahn, Andrew; Lepsch, Roger; Mazanek, Dan; Dollyhigh, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Mission analysis, as practiced by the NASA Langley Research Center's Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD), consists of activities used to define, assess, and evaluate a wide spectrum of aerospace systems for given requirements. The missions for these systems encompass a broad range from aviation to space exploration. The customer, who is usually another NASA organization or another government agency, often predefines the mission. Once a mission is defined, the goals and objectives that the system will need to meet are delineated and quantified. A number of alternative systems are then typically developed and assessed relative to these goals and objectives. This is done in order to determine the most favorable design approaches for further refinement. Trade studies are performed in order to understand the impact of a requirement on each system and to select among competing design options. Items varied in trade studies typically include: design variables or design constraints; technology and subsystem options; and operational approaches. The results of trade studies are often used to refine the mission and system requirements. SACD studies have been integral to the decision processes of many organizations for decades. Many recent examples of SACD mission and trade study analyses illustrate their excellence and influence. The SACD-led, Agency-wide effort to analyze a broad range of future human lunar exploration scenarios for NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Mars airplane design study in support of the Aerial Regional-scale Environment Survey of Mars (ARES) mission are two such examples. This paper describes SACD's mission and trade study analysis activities in general and presents the lunar exploration and Mars airplane studies as examples of type of work performed by the SACD.

  11. Cluster: Mission Overview and End-of-Life Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallaschke, S.; Munoz, I.; Rodriquez-Canabal, J.; Sieg, D.; Yde, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Cluster mission is part of the scientific programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) and its purpose is the analysis of the Earth's magnetosphere. The Cluster project consists of four satellites. The selected polar orbit has a shape of 4.0 and 19.2 Re which is required for performing measurements near the cusp and the tail of the magnetosphere. When crossing these regions the satellites form a constellation which in most of the cases so far has been a regular tetrahedron. The satellite operations are carried out by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) at Darmstadt, Germany. The paper outlines the future orbit evolution and the envisaged operations from a Flight Dynamics point of view. In addition a brief summary of the LEOP and routine operations is included beforehand.

  12. Inadvertent Earth Reentry Breakup Analysis for the New Horizons Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Lisa M.; Salama, Ahmed; Ivanov, Mark; McRonald, Angus

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons (NH) spacecraft was launched in January 2006 aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle, in a mission to explore Pluto, its moons, and other bodies in the Kuiper Belt. The NH spacecraft is powered by a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) which encases multiple General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Thus, a pre-launch vehicle breakup analysis for an inadvertent atmospheric reentry in the event of a launch failure was required to assess aerospace nuclear safety and for launch contingency planning. This paper addresses potential accidental Earth reentries analyzed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) which may arise during the ascent to parking orbit, resulting in a suborbital reentry, as well as a departure from parking orbit, resulting in an orbital reentry.

  13. Input Range Testing for the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This document contains a test plan for testing input values to the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). The plan includes four primary types of information, which rigorously define all tests that should be performed to validate that GMAT will accept allowable inputs and deny disallowed inputs. The first is a complete list of all allowed object fields in GMAT. The second type of information, is test input to be attempted for each field. The third type of information is allowable input values for all objects fields in GMAT. The final piece of information is how GMAT should respond to both valid and invalid information. It is VERY important to note that the tests below must be performed for both the Graphical User Interface and the script!! The examples are illustrated using a scripting perspective, because it is simpler to write up. However, the test must be performed for both interfaces to GMAT.

  14. Analysis of Roll Steering for Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pederson, Dylan, M.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey, S.

    2012-01-01

    in the velocity direction. Roll steering is particularly attractive for a recently proposed mission that involves a spiral trajectory from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (E-M L1). During the spiral, the spacecraft will spend over 300 days experiencing the full spectrum of near-earth environments and solar array pointing conditions. An extensive study of the application of SEP (and roll steering) to this spiral mission is included, highlighting the ultimate goal of reduced vehicle cost and mass. Tools used for this analysis include the Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (Refs. 1 and 2) (SPACE) electrical power systems code, and SEP trajectory simulation tools developed at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  15. Mission analysis and guidance, navigation, and control design for rendezvous and docking phase of advanced reentry vehicle mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strippoli, L.; Colmenarejo, P.; Strauch, H.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV) belongs to the family of vehicles designed to perform rendezvous and docking (RvD) with the International space station (ISS) [1]. Differently from its predecessor ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle), the ARV will transport a reentry capsule, equipped with a heatshield and able to bring back cargo, experiments, or, as a possible future development, even crew, being this latter scenario very attracting in view of the Space Shuttle retirement. GMV, as subcontractor of EADS-Astrium Germany, is in charge of the RvD and departure mission analysis and GNC (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) design of ARV mission. This paper will present the main outcomes of the study.

  16. Mission Assurance Analysis of Theater Ballistic Missile Defense Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    requirement to prioritize and justify funding requests has essentially become an exercise in mission assurance. This study addresses the Theater Ballistic...remove, or add a process/system essentially becomes an exercise in mission assurance. In addition, technology is continually changing the battlespace...which area(s) or component(s) would contribute most to increasing mission success (Arena, 2007). This tool provided statistically significant data and

  17. Commerce Lab: Mission analysis and payload integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The needs of an aggressive commercial microgravity program are identified, space missions are defined, and infrastructural issues are identified and analyzed. A commercial laboratory, commerce lab, is conceived to be one or more an array of carriers which would fly aboard the space shuttle and accommodate microgravity science experiment payloads. Commerce lab is seen as a logical transition between currently planned space shuttle missions and future microgravity missions centered around the space station.

  18. Mission-based Scenario Research: Experimental Design And Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    loudspeakers. One of the pre-recorded voices was a simulated tactical operating commander ( TOC ) who provided the mission directives a Commander would...expect on a patrol mission. One of the experimenters also operated a soundboard with controls to activate pre-recorded TOC responses, facilitating...simulated interactions between the TOC and Commander; for example, one button allowed the TOC to respond “Roger” when the Commander called in mission

  19. The Mission Planning Lab: A Visualization and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Sarah C.; Cervantes, Benjamin W.

    2009-01-01

    Simulation and visualization are powerful decision making tools that are time-saving and cost-effective. Space missions pose testing and e valuation challenges that can be overcome through modeling, simulatio n, and visualization of mission parameters. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) capi talizes on the benefits of modeling, simulation, and visualization to ols through a project initiative called The Mission Planning Lab (MPL ).

  20. Aerocapture Performance Analysis for a Neptune-Triton Exploration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Westhelle, Carlos H.; Masciarelli, James P.

    2004-01-01

    A systems analysis has been conducted for a Neptune-Triton Exploration Mission in which aerocapture is used to capture a spacecraft at Neptune. Aerocapture uses aerodynamic drag instead of propulsion to decelerate from the interplanetary approach trajectory to a captured orbit during a single pass through the atmosphere. After capture, propulsion is used to move the spacecraft from the initial captured orbit to the desired science orbit. A preliminary assessment identified that a spacecraft with a lift to drag ratio of 0.8 was required for aerocapture. Performance analyses of the 0.8 L/D vehicle were performed using a high fidelity flight simulation within a Monte Carlo executive to determine mission success statistics. The simulation was the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) modified to include Neptune specific atmospheric and planet models, spacecraft aerodynamic characteristics, and interplanetary trajectory models. To these were added autonomous guidance and pseudo flight controller models. The Monte Carlo analyses incorporated approach trajectory delivery errors, aerodynamic characteristics uncertainties, and atmospheric density variations. Monte Carlo analyses were performed for a reference set of uncertainties and sets of uncertainties modified to produce increased and reduced atmospheric variability. For the reference uncertainties, the 0.8 L/D flatbottom ellipsled vehicle achieves 100% successful capture and has a 99.87 probability of attaining the science orbit with a 360 m/s V budget for apoapsis and periapsis adjustment. Monte Carlo analyses were also performed for a guidance system that modulates both bank angle and angle of attack with the reference set of uncertainties. An alpha and bank modulation guidance system reduces the 99.87 percentile DELTA V 173 m/s (48%) to 187 m/s for the reference set of uncertainties.

  1. MIRACAL: A mission radiation calculation program for analysis of lunar and interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, John E.; Striepe, Scott A.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1992-01-01

    A computational procedure and data base are developed for manned space exploration missions for which estimates are made for the energetic particle fluences encountered and the resulting dose equivalent incurred. The data base includes the following options: statistical or continuum model for ordinary solar proton events, selection of up to six large proton flare spectra, and galactic cosmic ray fluxes for elemental nuclei of charge numbers 1 through 92. The program requires an input trajectory definition information and specifications of optional parameters, which include desired spectral data and nominal shield thickness. The procedure may be implemented as an independent program or as a subroutine in trajectory codes. This code should be most useful in mission optimization and selection studies for which radiation exposure is of special importance.

  2. Postflight analysis for Delta Program Mission no. 113: COS-B Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    On 8 August 1975, the COS-B spacecraft was launched successfully from the Western Test Range (Delta Program Mission No. 113). The launch vehicle was a three stage Extended Long Tank Delta DSV-3P-11B vehicle. Postflight analyses performed in connection with flight are presented. Vehicle trajectory, stage performance, vehicle reliability and the propulsion, guidance, flight control, electronics, mechanical and structural systems are evaluated.

  3. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 5: Mission, capture and operations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The current baseline mission model consists of the DOD Option B prepared for space transportation system mission analysis and a NASA model prepared for the integrated operations /payloads/ fleet analysis. Changes from the previous mission model are discussed, and additional benefits of the reusable space shuttle system are identified. The methodology and assumptions used in the capture analysis are described, and satellite and launch vehicle traffic models for the current and low cost expendable launch vehicle systems and the reusable space shuttle system are presented. The areas of fleet sizing, limitations and abort modes, system ground support requirements, and ground support systems assessment are covered. Current and extended launch azimuth limitations used for both ETR and WTR are presented for the current and low cost expendable vehicles and also the reusable space shuttle system. The results of a survey of launch support capability for the launch vehicle fleets are reported.

  4. VMPLOT: A versatile analysis tool for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucher, Allen W.

    1993-01-01

    VMPLOT is a versatile analysis tool designed by the Magellan Spacecraft Team to graphically display engineering data used to support mission operations. While there is nothing revolutionary or innovative about graphical data analysis tools, VMPLOT has some distinguishing features that set it apart from other custom or commercially available software packages. These features include the ability to utilize time in a Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) or Spacecraft Clock (SCLK) format as an enumerated data type, the ability to automatically scale both axes based on the data to be displayed (including time), the ability to combine data from different files, and the ability to utilize the program either interactively or in batch mode, thereby enhancing automation. Another important feature of VMPLOT not visible to the user is the software engineering philosophies utilized. A layered approach was used to isolate program functionality to different layers. This was done to increase program portability to different platforms and to ease maintenance and enhancements due to changing requirements. The functionality of the unique features of VMPLOT as well as highlighting the algorithms that make these features possible are described. The software engineering philosophies used in the creation of the software tool are also summarized.

  5. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control.

  6. Generalized Analysis Tools for Multi-Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanteur, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Analysis tools for multi-spacecraft missions like CLUSTER or MMS have been designed since the end of the 90's to estimate gradients of fields or to characterize discontinuities crossed by a cluster of spacecraft. Different approaches have been presented and discussed in the book "Analysis Methods for Multi-Spacecraft Data" published as Scientific Report 001 of the International Space Science Institute in Bern, Switzerland (G. Paschmann and P. Daly Eds., 1998). On one hand the approach using methods of least squares has the advantage to apply to any number of spacecraft [1] but is not convenient to perform analytical computation especially when considering the error analysis. On the other hand the barycentric approach is powerful as it provides simple analytical formulas involving the reciprocal vectors of the tetrahedron [2] but appears limited to clusters of four spacecraft. Moreover the barycentric approach allows to derive theoretical formulas for errors affecting the estimators built from the reciprocal vectors [2,3,4]. Following a first generalization of reciprocal vectors proposed by Vogt et al [4] and despite the present lack of projects with more than four spacecraft we present generalized reciprocal vectors for a cluster made of any number of spacecraft : each spacecraft is given a positive or nul weight. The non-coplanarity of at least four spacecraft with strictly positive weights is a necessary and sufficient condition for this analysis to be enabled. Weights given to spacecraft allow to minimize the influence of some spacecraft if its location or the quality of its data are not appropriate, or simply to extract subsets of spacecraft from the cluster. Estimators presented in [2] are generalized within this new frame except for the error analysis which is still under investigation. References [1] Harvey, C. C.: Spatial Gradients and the Volumetric Tensor, in: Analysis Methods for Multi-Spacecraft Data, G. Paschmann and P. Daly (eds.), pp. 307-322, ISSI

  7. Electric Propulsion Requirements and Mission Analysis Under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, Leonard a.; Pencil, Eric J.; Dankanich, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology Project (ISPT) is currently NASA's sole investment in electric propulsion technologies. This project is managed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the NASA Headquarters Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The objective of the electric propulsion project area is to develop near-term and midterm electric propulsion technologies to enhance or enable future NASA science missions while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Systems analysis activities sponsored by ISPT seek to identify future mission applications in order to quantify mission requirements, as well as develop analytical capability in order to facilitate greater understanding and application of electric propulsion and other propulsion technologies in the ISPT portfolio. These analyses guide technology investments by informing decisions and defining metrics for technology development to meet identified mission requirements. This paper discusses the missions currently being studied for electric propulsion by the ISPT project, and presents the results of recent electric propulsion (EP) mission trades. Recent ISPT systems analysis activities include: an initiative to standardize life qualification methods for various electric propulsion systems in order to retire perceived risk to proposed EP missions; mission analysis to identify EP requirements from Discovery, New Frontiers, and Flagship classes of missions; and an evaluation of system requirements for radioisotope-powered electric propulsion. Progress and early results of these activities is discussed where available.

  8. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  9. Abort Region Determinator (ARD) module feasibility report. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, B. G.; Joyner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed performance evaluation of the Abort Region Determinator (ARD) module design was provided in support of OFT-1 ascent and OFT-1 intact launch aborts. The evaluation method used compared ARD results against results obtained using the full-up Space Vehicle Dynamic Simulations program under the same conditions. Results were presented for each of the three major ARD math models: (1) the ascent numerical integrator; (2) the mass model, and (3) the second stage predictor as well as the total ARD module. These results demonstrate that the baselined ARD module meets all design objectives for mission control center orbital flight test launch/abort support.

  10. Planetary Protection Trajectory Analysis for the Juno Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Try; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Kowalkowski, Theresa D.

    2008-01-01

    Juno is an orbiter mission expected to launch in 2011 to Jupiter. Juno's science orbit is a highly eccentric orbit with a period of about 11 days and a nominal duration of one year. Initially, the equatorial crossing near apojove occurs outside Callisto's orbit, but as the mission evolves the apsidal rotation causes this distance to move much closer to Jupiter. This motion could lead to potential impacts with the Galilean satellites as the ascending node crosses the satellite orbits. In this paper, we describe the method to estimate impact probabilities with the satellites and investigate ways of reducing the probabilities for the Juno mission.

  11. Mission Analysis and Orbit Control of Interferometric Wheel Formation Flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourcade, J.

    Flying satellite in formation requires maintaining the specific relative geometry of the spacecraft with high precision. This requirement raises new problem of orbit control. This paper presents the results of the mission analysis of a low Earth observation system, the interferometric wheel, patented by CNES. This wheel is made up of three receiving spacecraft, which follow an emitting Earth observation radar satellite. The first part of this paper presents trades off which were performed to choose orbital elements of the formation flying which fulfils all constraints. The second part presents orbit positioning strategies including reconfiguration of the wheel to change its size. The last part describes the station keeping of the formation. Two kinds of constraints are imposed by the interferometric system : a constraint on the distance between the wheel and the radar satellite, and constraints on the distance between the wheel satellites. The first constraint is fulfilled with a classical chemical station keeping strategy. The second one is fulfilled using pure passive actuators. Due to the high stability of the relative eccentricity of the formation, only the relative semi major axis had to be controlled. Differential drag due to differential attitude motion was used to control relative altitude. An autonomous orbit controller was developed and tested. The final accuracy is a relative station keeping better than few meters for a wheel size of one kilometer.

  12. Titan Flagship Mission 3-Degree-of-Freedom Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Powell, R. W.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    2008-01-01

    A NASA flagship mission to Titan, the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon in the solar system with a significant atmosphere, has been designed that uses three separate spacecraft, each requiring significant interaction with the atmosphere. The first vehicle is a Titan lander for lower-atmosphere and surface science. The second is an aerial vehicle for aerial science at approximately 10 km altitude with an expected lifetime of one year. This spacecraft will use the natural winds of Titan to cover a large area over its lifetime. The third vehicle is a Titan orbiter that will interact with the atmosphere in two respects. The first atmospheric interaction is the orbital insertion maneuver that will be accomplished using aerocapture, during which time the hyperbolic approach of 6.5 km/s will be reduced to 1.6 km/s over 41 minutes with an exit periapsis altitude of 130 km. The second atmospheric interaction occurs after a propulsive maneuver has raised the periapsis after aerocapture to 1170 km, where the atmosphere will be sampled over several months. This is the first phase of aerosampling that covers southern latitudes. After a 3.3-year circular science phase at an altitude of 1700 km, a second phase of additional aerosampling is performed sampling northern latitudes. The atmospheric trajectory analysis for these three spacecraft will be discussed throughout this paper.

  13. Verification and Validation of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.; Qureshi, Rizwan H.; Cooley, D. Steven; Parker, Joel J. K.; Grubb, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the processes and results of Verification and Validation (V&V) efforts for the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). We describe the test program and environments, the tools used for independent test data, and comparison results. The V&V effort produced approximately 13,000 test scripts that are run as part of the nightly buildtest process. In addition, we created approximately 3000 automated GUI tests that are run every two weeks. Presenting all test results are beyond the scope of a single paper. Here we present high-level test results in most areas, and detailed test results for key areas. The final product of the V&V effort presented in this paper was GMAT version R2013a, the first Gold release of the software with completely updated documentation and greatly improved quality. Release R2013a was the staging release for flight qualification performed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) ultimately resulting in GMAT version R2013b.

  14. Asteroid approach covariance analysis for the Clementine mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionasescu, Rodica; Sonnabend, David

    1993-01-01

    The Clementine mission is designed to test Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) technology, the Brilliant Pebbles and Brilliant Eyes sensors, by mapping the moon surface and flying by the asteroid Geographos. The capability of two of the instruments available on board the spacecraft, the lidar (laser radar) and the UV/Visible camera is used in the covariance analysis to obtain the spacecraft delivery uncertainties at the asteroid. These uncertainties are due primarily to asteroid ephemeris uncertainties. On board optical navigation reduces the uncertainty in the knowledge of the spacecraft position in the direction perpendicular to the incoming asymptote to a one-sigma value of under 1 km, at the closest approach distance of 100 km. The uncertainty in the knowledge of the encounter time is about 0.1 seconds for a flyby velocity of 10.85 km/s. The magnitude of these uncertainties is due largely to Center Finding Errors (CFE). These systematic errors represent the accuracy expected in locating the center of the asteroid in the optical navigation images, in the absence of a topographic model for the asteroid. The direction of the incoming asymptote cannot be estimated accurately until minutes before the asteroid flyby, and correcting for it would require autonomous navigation. Orbit determination errors dominate over maneuver execution errors, and the final delivery accuracy attained is basically the orbit determination uncertainty before the final maneuver.

  15. SMART: A Propositional Logic-Based Trade Analysis and Risk Assessment Tool for a Complex Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Nicholas, Austin; Alibay, Farah; Parrish, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new trade analysis software called the Space Mission Architecture and Risk Analysis Tool (SMART). This tool supports a high-level system trade study on a complex mission, such as a potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, in an intuitive and quantitative manner. In a complex mission, a common approach to increase the probability of success is to have redundancy and prepare backups. Quantitatively evaluating the utility of adding redundancy to a system is important but not straightforward, particularly when the failure of parallel subsystems are correlated.

  16. A preliminary analysis of advanced life support systems for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Nishioka, Kenji

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the key parameters of the manned mission to Mars and presents some top-level requirements, issues, and constraints associated with a manned Mars mission that impact the life support system (LSS). Results are presented of a preliminary analysis for advanced LSSs based on physical/chemical reclamation processes, using as a baseline for the analysis the mission profile of a Split-Sprint class mission for an arrival date at Mars in the year 2009. Special attention is given to the potential cost savings as measured by reducing Mars spacecraft mass in LEO.

  17. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A broad scoped and systematic study was made of space transfer concepts for human Lunar and Mars missions. Relevant space transportation studies were initiated to lead to further detailed activities in the following study period.

  18. Systems Analysis of Life Support for Long-Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan E.; Maxwell, Sabrina; Ewert, Michael K.; Hanford, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    Work defining advanced life support (ALS) technologies and evaluating their applicability to various long-duration missions has continued. Time-dependent and time-invariant costs have been estimated for a variety of life support technology options, including International Space Station (ISS) environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) technologies and improved options under development by the ALS Project. These advanced options include physicochemical (PC) and bioregenerative (BIO) technologies, and may in the future include in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) in an attempt to reduce both logistics costs and dependence on supply from Earth. PC and bioregenerative technologies both provide possibilities for reducing mission equivalent system mass (ESM). PC technologies are most advantageous for missions of up to several years in length, while bioregenerative options are most appropriate for longer missions. ISRU can be synergistic with both PC and bioregenerative options.

  19. Thermal Stability Analysis for a Heliocentric Gravitational Radiation Detection Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W.; McElroy, P.; Miyake, R.; Bender, P.; Stebbins, R.; Supper, W.

    1994-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is designed for detailed studies of low-frequency gravitational radiation. The mission is currently a candidate for ESA's post-Horizon 2000 program. Thermal noise affects the measurement in at least two ways. Thermal variation of the length of the optical cavity to which the lasers are stabilized introduces phase variations in the interferometer signal, which have to be corrected for by using data from the two arms separately.

  20. Planning Coverage Campaigns for Mission Design and Analysis: CLASP for DESDynl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Russell L.; McLaren, David A.; Hu, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Mission design and analysis presents challenges in that almost all variables are in constant flux, yet the goal is to achieve an acceptable level of performance against a concept of operations, which might also be in flux. To increase responsiveness, automated planning tools are used that allow for the continual modification of spacecraft, ground system, staffing, and concept of operations, while returning metrics that are important to mission evaluation, such as area covered, peak memory usage, and peak data throughput. This approach was applied to the DESDynl mission design using the CLASP planning system, but since this adaptation, many techniques have changed under the hood for CLASP, and the DESDynl mission concept has undergone drastic changes. The software produces mission evaluation products, such as memory highwater marks, coverage percentages, given a mission design in the form of coverage targets, concept of operations, spacecraft parameters, and orbital parameters. It tries to overcome the lack of fidelity and timeliness of mission requirements coverage analysis during mission design. Previous techniques primarily use Excel in ad hoc fashion to approximate key factors in mission performance, often falling victim to overgeneralizations necessary in such an adaptation. The new program allows designers to faithfully represent their mission designs quickly, and get more accurate results just as quickly.

  1. Design and Analysis of RTGs for CRAF and Cassini Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Noravian, Heros; Sankarankandath

    1990-11-30

    This report consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the development of novel analytical methods needed to predict the BOM performance and the subsequent performance degradation of the mutually obstructed RTGs for the CRAF and Cassini missions. Part II applies those methods to the two missions, presents the resultant predictions, and discusses their programmatic implications. The results indicate that JPL's original power demand goals could have been met with two standard GPHS RTGs for each mission. But subsequently JPL significantly increased both the power level and the mission duration for both missions, so that they can no longer by met by two standard RTGs. The resultant power gap must be closed either by reducing JPL's power demand (e.g., by decreasing contingency reserves) and/or by increasing the power system's output. One way under active consideration which more than meets the system power goal would be the addition of a third RTG for each mission. However, the author concluded that it may be possible to meet or closely approach the CRAF power demand goals with just two RTGs by relatively modest modification of their design and/or operating conditions. To explore that possibility, the effect of various modifications - either singly or in combination - was analyzed by Fairchild. The results indicate that modest modifications can meet or come very close to meeting the CRAF power goals with just two RTGs. Elimination of the third RTG would yield substantial cost and schedule savings. There are three copies in the file.

  2. A Common Methodology for Safety and Reliability Analysis for Space Reactor Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Michael V.

    2006-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the methodology of probabilistic risk management (PRM) has the capability to integrate both safety and reliability analyses for space nuclear missions. Practiced within a decision analysis framework, the concept of risk and the overall methodology of PRM are not dependent on whether the outcome affects mission success or mission safety. This paper presents the methodology by means of simplified examples.

  3. A Common Methodology for Safety and Reliability Analysis for Space Reactor Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Michael V.

    2006-01-20

    The thesis of this paper is that the methodology of probabilistic risk management (PRM) has the capability to integrate both safety and reliability analyses for space nuclear missions. Practiced within a decision analysis framework, the concept of risk and the overall methodology of PRM are not dependent on whether the outcome affects mission success or mission safety. This paper presents the methodology by means of simplified exampl0008.

  4. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) Acceptance Test Plan [Draft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, Edwin; Hughes, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The information presented in this Acceptance Test Plan document shows the current status of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). GMAT is a software system developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in collaboration with the private sector. The GMAT development team continuously performs acceptance tests in order to verify that the software continues to operate properly after updates are made. The GMAT Development team consists of NASA/GSFC Code 583 software developers, NASA/GSFC Code 595 analysts, and contractors of varying professions. GMAT was developed to provide a development approach that maintains involvement from the private sector and academia, encourages collaborative funding from multiple government agencies and the private sector, and promotes the transfer of technology from government funded research to the private sector. GMAT contains many capabilities, such as integrated formation flying modeling and MATLAB compatibility. The propagation capabilities in GMAT allow for fully coupled dynamics modeling of multiple spacecraft, in any flight regime. Other capabilities in GMAT inclucle: user definable coordinate systems, 3-D graphics in any coordinate system GMAT can calculate, 2-D plots, branch commands, solvers, optimizers, GMAT functions, planetary ephemeris sources including DE405, DE200, SLP and analytic models, script events, impulsive and finite maneuver models, and many more. GMAT runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux platforms. Both the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the GMAT engine were built and tested on all of the mentioned platforms. GMAT was designed for intuitive use from both the GUI and with an importable script language similar to that of MATLAB.

  5. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 1: Summary and mission analysis (tasks 2 and 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloetscher, F.

    1975-01-01

    The histroy, potential mission application, and designs of lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles are researched and evaluated. Missions are identified to which airship vehicles are potentially suited. Results of the mission analysis are combined with the findings of a parametric analysis to formulate the mission/vehicle combinations recommended for further study. Current transportation systems are surveyed and potential areas of competition are identified as well as potential missions resulting from limitations of these systems. Potential areas of military usage are included.

  6. Launch and Assembly Reliability Analysis for Human Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cates, Grant; Gelito, Justin; Stromgren, Chel; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2012-01-01

    NASA's future human space exploration strategy includes single and multi-launch missions to various destinations including cis-lunar space, near Earth objects such as asteroids, and ultimately Mars. Each campaign is being defined by Design Reference Missions (DRMs). Many of these missions are complex, requiring multiple launches and assembly of vehicles in orbit. Certain missions also have constrained departure windows to the destination. These factors raise concerns regarding the reliability of launching and assembling all required elements in time to support planned departure. This paper describes an integrated methodology for analyzing launch and assembly reliability in any single DRM or set of DRMs starting with flight hardware manufacturing and ending with final departure to the destination. A discrete event simulation is built for each DRM that includes the pertinent risk factors including, but not limited to: manufacturing completion; ground transportation; ground processing; launch countdown; ascent; rendezvous and docking, assembly, and orbital operations leading up to trans-destination-injection. Each reliability factor can be selectively activated or deactivated so that the most critical risk factors can be identified. This enables NASA to prioritize mitigation actions so as to improve mission success.

  7. Mission operations data analysis tools for Mars Observer guidance and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.

    1994-01-01

    Mission operations for the Mars Observer (MO) Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were supported by a variety of ground data processing software and analysis tools. Some of these tools were generic to multimission spacecraft mission operations, some were specific to the MO spacecraft, and others were custom tailored to the operation and control of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS). The focus of this paper is on the data analysis tools for the AACS. Four different categories of analysis tools are presented; with details offered for specific tools. Valuable experience was gained from the use of these tools and through their development. These tools formed the backbone and enhanced the efficiency of the AACS Unit in the Mission Operations Spacecraft Team. These same tools, and extensions thereof, have been adopted by the Galileo mission operations, and are being designed into Cassini and other future spacecraft mission operations.

  8. Trajectory analysis and performance for SEP Comet Encke missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, C. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A summary of the performance of Solar Electric Propulsion spacecraft for Comet Encke missions for the 1980, 1984 and 1987 mission opportunities is presented together with a description of the spacecraft trajectory for each opportunity. Included is data for rendezvous trajectories for all three opportunities and data for a slow flyby mission during the 1980 opportunity. A range of propulsion system input powers of 10 to 20 kW are considered together with a constant spacecraft power requirement of 400 watts. The performance presented in this paper is indicative of that using 30 cm Mercury electron bombardment thrusters that are currently being developed. Performance is given in terms of final spacecraft mass and is thus independent of any particular spacecraft design concept.

  9. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 2: Mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space environment studies, astrophysics, Earth environment, life sciences, and material sciences are discussed. Commercial communication, materials processing, and Earth observation missions are addressed. Technology development, space operations, scenarios of operational capability, mission requirements, and benefits analysis results for space-produced gallium arsenide crystals, direct broadcasting satellite systems, and a high inclination space station are covered.

  10. Using a Mixed Methods Content Analysis to Analyze Mission Statements from Colleges of Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A mixed method design was used to conduct a content analysis of the mission statements of colleges of engineering to map inductively derived codes with the EC 2000 outcomes and to test if any of the codes were significantly associated with institutions with reasonably strong representation of women. Most institution's (25 of 48) mission statement…

  11. Ground-Based Navigation and Dispersion Analysis for the Orion Exploration Mission 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D' Souza, Christopher; Holt, Greg; Zanetti, Renato; Wood, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Orion Exploration Mission 1 Linear Covariance Analysis for the DRO mission using ground-based navigation. The Delta V statistics for each maneuver are presented. In particular, the statistics of the lunar encounters and the Entry Interface are presented.

  12. Manned maneuvering unit mission definition study. Volume 2: Appendices to the MMU applications analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information used in identifying representative Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) from the many Automated and Sortie Payloads and orbiter subsystems is presented. Representative missions were selected to represent typical MMU applications across all payloads and orbiter subsystems. Data analysis sheets are provided with other applicable information. Calculations used in defining MMU general performance and control requirements to satisfy eleven space missions are included.

  13. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John L.; Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    path for wavelengths near H I Ly alpha is capable of observing the entire UVCS wavelength range. Since December 1998, the O VI Channel has been used for all UVCS observations. Although the H I Ly alpha Channel and detector are still operational, increases in the dark count up to about 5 x 10(exp -4) counts/sec/pixel and an increase in high voltage current to within a factor of two of the maximum used in the laboratory before flight led to the decision to not use that detector at the present time. There is no significant decrease in the scientific capability of UVCS owing to the O VI channel redundant optical path. UVCS data, data analysis software, calibration files and the mission log are available from the SOHO archive and SAO. All UVCS data is now available to scientists and the general public via the SOHO Data Archive and SAO within three months of the observations. UVCS has resulted in 46 scientific papers in 2002. There were numerous presentations at scientific meetings. All requests for observation time by qualified outside users have been granted.

  14. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Kohl, John L.

    2004-01-01

    Channel with its redundant optical path for wavelengths near H I Lyalpha is capable of observing the entire UVCS wavelength range. The regions of the detector currently being used require different grating angles for direct OVI observations and redundant path H I Lyalpha observations, and so those can no longer be observed simultaneously. Since December 1998, the 0 VI Channel has been used for all UVCS observations. Although the H I Lyalpha Channel and detector are still operational, increases in the dark count up to about 5x10(exp 4) counts/sec/pixel and an increase in high voltage current to within a factor of two of the maximum used in the laboratory before flight led to the decision to not use that detector after 1998. The visible light channel functioned nominally during the reporting period. UVCS data, data analysis software, calibration files and the mission log are available from the SOHO archive and SAO. All UVCS data are now available within three months of the observations to scientists and the general public via the SOHO Data Archive and SAO. UVCS has resulted in 33 scientific papers in 2003. There were numerous presentations at scientific meetings. UVCS Education and Public Outreach activities involved nine members of the UVCS team. During the reporting period, there were over a dozen events directed at students and teachers, museum audiences, and public audiences via the mass media, internet and educational literature.

  15. Rendezvous radar requirements analysis for mission 3B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, W. L.; Jones, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented verifying the compatibility of currently proposed rendezvous radar measurement accuracies with Mission 3B rendezvous requirements. In addition, data presented indicate a potential for increasing the acceptable time lag between termination of thrusting and availability of accurate measurement data. Additional investigation is recommended to define any acceptable time lag above the current proposed value. Finally, Mission 3B rendezvous performance is shown to be sensitive to variations in the relative downrange position dispersions at insertion. It is therefore recommended that insertion relative state dispersions used in studies of 3B rendezvous be reviewed when results of 3B ascent dispersion studies are available.

  16. Community College Mission Influence on Culture: An Organizational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Gerome

    2013-01-01

    Strong agreement of mission and culture has been found in more effective colleges (Fjortoft & Smart, 1994). For leaders, the culture of an organization provides the context for which decisions about organizational change processes can be made (Malm, 2008). The purpose of this study was to explore the culture present within a community college…

  17. Subsystem radiation susceptibility analysis for deep-space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. S.; Poch, W.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Bilsky, H. W.; Carroll, D.

    1971-01-01

    Scientific, unmanned spacecraft on mission to Jupiter and beyond will be subjected to nuclear radiation from the natural environment and onboard nuclear power sources which may be harmful to subsystems. This report postulates these environments and discusses practical considerations to ensure confidence that the spacecraft's materials and subsystems will withstand the effects of anticipated radiation. Degradation mechanisms are discussed.

  18. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John L.; Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of UVCS is to obtain detailed empirical descriptions of the extended solar corona as it evolves over the solar cycle and to use these descriptions to identify and understand the physical processes responsible for coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and the phenomena that establish the plasma properties of the solar wind as measured by "in situ" solar wind instruments. This report covers the period from 15 November 1998 to 14 March 2001. During that time, UVCS observations have consisted of three types: 1) standard synoptic observations comprising, primarily, the H I Lycc line profile and the O VI 103.2 and 103.7 nm intensity over a range of heights from 1.5 to about 3.0 solar radii and covering 360 degrees about the sun, 2) sit and stare watches for CMEs, and 3) special observations designed by the UVCS Lead Observer of the Week for a specific scientific purpose. The special observations are often coordinated with those of other space-based and ground based instruments and they often are part of SOHO joint observation programs and campaigns. Lead observers have included UVCS Co-Investigators, Guest Investigators, scientists from the solar physics community and several graduate and undergraduate level students. UVCS has continued to successfully meet its goal of using powerful spectroscopic diagnostic techniques to obtain a much more detailed description of coronal structures than existed before the SOHO mission. The new descriptions of coronal structures from UVCS have inspired a large number of theoretical studies aimed at identifying the physical processes responsible for solar wind acceleration in coronal holes and streamers. UVCS has proven to be a very stable instrument. Stellar observations have demonstrated its stability and the analysis of coordinated observations with Spartan 201 have verified the accuracy of the absolute calibration and spectral resolution at H I Ly (alpha) line profile. UVCS has

  19. Expert diagnostics system as a part of analysis software for power mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jennifer A.; Bahrami, Khosrow A.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of interplanetary spacecraft at JPL has become an increasingly complex activity. This complexity is due to advanced spacecraft designs and ambitious mission objectives which lead to operations requirements that are more demanding than those of any previous mission. For this reason, several productivity enhancement measures are underway at JPL within mission operations, particularly in the spacecraft analysis area. These measures aimed at spacecraft analysis include: the development of a multi-mission, multi-subsystem operations environment; the introduction of automated tools into this environment; and the development of an expert diagnostics system. This paper discusses an effort to integrate the above mentioned productivity enhancement measures. A prototype was developed that integrates an expert diagnostics system into a multi-mission, multi-subsystem operations environment using the Galileo Power / Pyro Subsystem as a testbed. This prototype will be discussed in addition to background information associated with it.

  20. New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-08

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

  1. Analysis and Optimization of the Recovered ESA Huygens Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeminejad, Bobby

    2002-06-01

    The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini - Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. A recently discovered design flaw in the Huygens radio receiver onboard Cassini led to a significantly different mission geometry, redesigned and implemented by both the ESA Huygens and NASA Cassini project teams. A numerical integration of the Orbiter trajectory and the Huygens descent profile with simplified assumptions for Probe attitude and correlated aerodynamic aspects offered the opportunity to re-calculate key mission parameters, which depend on the relative geometry and motion of the bodies. This was a crucial step to assess whether science-imposed constraints were not violated. A review of existing Titan wind and atmosphere models and their physical background led to a subsequent parametric study of their impact on the supersonic entry phase, the parachute descent and finally the bodyfixed landing coordinates of the Probe. In addition to the deterministic (nominal) Probe trajectory, it is important to quantify the influence of various uncertainties that enter into the equations of motion on the results (e.g., state vectors, physical parameters of the environment and the Probe itself). This was done by propagating the system covariance matrix together with the nominal state vectors. A sophisticated Monte Carlo technique developed to save up computation time was then used to determine statistical percentiles of the key parameters. The Probe Orbiter link geometry was characterized by evaluating the link budget and received frequency at receiver level. In this calculation the spin of the Probe and the asymmetric gain pattern of the transmitting antennas was taken into account. The results were then used in a mathematical model that describes the tracking capability of the receiver symbol synchronizer. This allowed the loss of data during the mission to be quantified. A subsequent parametric study of different sets of mission parameters with the

  2. NASA's Decadal Planning Team Mars Mission Analysis Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2007-02-01

    In June 1999 the NASA Administrator chartered an internal NASA task force, termed the Decadal Planning Team, to create new integrated vision and strategy for space exploration. The efforts of the Decadal Planning Team evolved into the Agency-wide team known as the NASA Exploration Team (NEXT). This team was also instructed to identify technology roadmaps to enable the science-driven exploration vision, established a cross-Enterprise, cross-Center systems engineering team with emphasis focused on revolutionary not evolutionary approaches. The strategy of the DPT and NEXT teams was to "Go Anywhere, Anytime" by conquering key exploration hurdles of space transportation, crew health and safety, human/robotic partnerships, affordable abundant power, and advanced space systems performance. Early emphasis was placed on revolutionary exploration concepts such as rail gun and electromagnetic launchers, propellant depots, retrograde trajectories, nano structures, and gas core nuclear rockets to name a few. Many of these revolutionary concepts turned out to be either not feasible for human exploration missions or well beyond expected technology readiness for near-term implementation. During the DPT and NEXT study cycles, several architectures were analyzed including missions to the Earth-Sun Libration Point (L2), the Earth-Moon Gateway and L1, the lunar surface, Mars (both short and long stays), one-year round trip Mars, and near-Earth asteroids. Common emphasis of these studies included utilization of the Earth-Moon Libration Point (L1) as a staging point for exploration activities, current (Shuttle) and near-term launch capabilities (EELV), advanced propulsion, and robust space power. Although there was much emphasis placed on utilization of existing launch capabilities, the team concluded that missions in near-Earth space are only marginally feasible and human missions to Mars were not feasible without a heavy lift launch capability. In addition, the team concluded that

  3. NASA's Decadal Planning Team Mars Mission Analysis Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    In June 1999 the NASA Administrator chartered an internal NASA task force, termed the Decadal Planning Team, to create new integrated vision and strategy for space exploration. The efforts of the Decadal Planning Team evolved into the Agency-wide team known as the NASA Exploration Team (NEXT). This team was also instructed to identify technology roadmaps to enable the science-driven exploration vision, established a cross-Enterprise, cross-Center systems engineering team with emphasis focused on revolutionary not evolutionary approaches. The strategy of the DPT and NEXT teams was to "Go Anywhere, Anytime" by conquering key exploration hurdles of space transportation, crew health and safety, human/robotic partnerships, affordable abundant power, and advanced space systems performance. Early emphasis was placed on revolutionary exploration concepts such as rail gun and electromagnetic launchers, propellant depots, retrograde trajectories, nano structures, and gas core nuclear rockets to name a few. Many of these revolutionary concepts turned out to be either not feasible for human exploration missions or well beyond expected technology readiness for near-term implementation. During the DPT and NEXT study cycles, several architectures were analyzed including missions to the Earth-Sun Libration Point (L2), the Earth-Moon Gateway and L1, the lunar surface, Mars (both short and long stays), one-year round trip Mars, and near-Earth asteroids. Common emphasis of these studies included utilization of the Earth-Moon Libration Point (L1) as a staging point for exploration activities, current (Shuttle) and near-term launch capabilities (EELV), advanced propulsion, and robust space power. Although there was much emphasis placed on utilization of existing launch capabilities, the team concluded that missions in near-Earth space are only marginally feasible and human missions to Mars were not feasible without a heavy lift launch capability. In addition, the team concluded that

  4. Design and Analysis of a Formation Flying System for the Cross-Scale Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornara, Stefania; Bastante, Juan C.; Jubineau, Franck

    2007-01-01

    The ESA-funded "Cross-Scale Technology Reference Study has been carried out with the primary aim to identify and analyse a mission concept for the investigation of fundamental space plasma processes that involve dynamical non-linear coupling across multiple length scales. To fulfill this scientific mission goal, a constellation of spacecraft is required, flying in loose formations around the Earth and sampling three characteristic plasma scale distances simultaneously, with at least two satellites per scale: electron kinetic (10 km), ion kinetic (100-2000 km), magnetospheric fluid (3000-15000 km). The key Cross-Scale mission drivers identified are the number of S/C, the space segment configuration, the reference orbit design, the transfer and deployment strategy, the inter-satellite localization and synchronization process and the mission operations. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the mission design and analysis for the Cross-Scale concept and outlines a technically feasible mission architecture for a multi-dimensional investigation of space plasma phenomena. The main effort has been devoted to apply a thorough mission-level trade-off approach and to accomplish an exhaustive analysis, so as to allow the characterization of a wide range of mission requirements and design solutions.

  5. Mission analysis data for inclined geosynchronous orbits, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, O. F., Jr.; Wang, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    Data needed for preliminary design of inclined geosynchronous missions are provided. The inertial and Earth fixed coordinate systems are described, as well as orbit parameters and elements. The complete family of geosynchronous orbits is discussed. It is shown that circular inclined geosynchronous orbits comprise only one set in this family. The major orbit perturbation and their separate effects on the geosynchronous orbit are discussed. Detailed information on the orbit perturbation of inclined circular geosynchronous orbits is given, with emphasis on time history data of certain orbital elements. Orbit maintenance delta velocity (V) requirements to counteract the major orbit perturbations are determined in order to provide order of magnitude estimates and to show the effects of orbit inclination on delta V. Some of the considerations in mission design for a multisatellite system, such as a halo orbit constellation, are discussed.

  6. Star tracker constraint violations digital capability description and analysis results. Mission planning, mission analysis, and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poston, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of star tracker constraint violation analyses performed with the digital computer program Shuttle Attitude and Pointing Time Line Processor (SAPT) are presented. Results are typical of those utilized to provide the information required to update Baseline Reference Mission Attitude and Pointing Time Lines. Descriptions of SAPT modifications implemented to perform these analyses are also presented.

  7. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis on the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment for a baseline habitat with specific alternatives for the baseline.

  8. An analysis of surgical cases in a Nigerian mission hospital.

    PubMed

    WARD, R V

    1963-08-24

    Approximately 315 major surgical cases were treated in one year in a one-doctor 80-bed mission hospital in Nigeria. The hospital serves a population of 137,000. One hundred and forty-three of the cases were herniorrhaphies: 19 of these cases were strangulated, of which seven required bowel resection. A case of a strangulated inguinal hernia containing uterus, Fallopian tubes and ovaries is reported. Other interesting surgical cases are also discussed.

  9. Assistant for Specifying Quality Software (ASQS) Mission Area Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    the Assistant for Specifying Quality Software (ASQS), an expert system developed by Dynamics Research Corporation (DRC). 1.0 Background Software quality... Corporation for the Software.Test Handbook. RADC-TR-84-53. Vol II and reflects the mission responsibilities of the Air Force product divisions. This...this report, but will be included in the ASQS Software Product Specification being developed by Dynamics Research Corporation . All rules in the ASQS

  10. Comprehensive analysis of airborne contaminants from recent Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. L.; Boyd, J. F.; Covington, P. A.; Leano, H. J.; Pierson, D. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle experiences unique air contamination problems because of microgravity and the closed environment. Contaminant build-up in the closed atmosphere and the lack of a gravitational settling mechanism have produced some concern in previous missions about the amount of solid and volatile airborne contaminants in the Orbiter and Spacelab. Degradation of air quality in the Orbiter/Spacelab environment, through processes such as chemical contamination, high solid-particulate levels, and high microbial levels, may affect crew performance and health. A comprehensive assessment of the Shuttle air quality was undertaken during STS-40 and STS-42 missions, in which a variety of air sampling and monitoring techniques were employed to determine the contaminant load by characterizing and quantitating airborne contaminants. Data were collected on the airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds, microorganisms, and particulate matter collected on Orbiter/Spacelab air filters. The results showed that STS-40/42 Orbiter/Spacelab air was toxicologically safe to breathe, except during STS-40 when the Orbiter Refrigerator/Freezer unit was releasing noxious gases in the middeck. On STS-40, the levels of airborne bacteria appeared to increase as the mission progressed; however, this trend was not observed for the STS-42 mission. Particulate matter in the Orbiter/Spacelab air filters was chemically analyzed in order to determine the source of particles. Only small amounts of rat hair and food bar (STS-40) and traces of soiless medium (STS-42) were detected in the Spacelab air filters, indicating that containment for Spacelab experiments was effective.

  11. DAWN Mission Bus and Waveguide Venting Analysis Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cragg, Clinton H.; Kichak, Robert A.; Sutter, James K.; Holder, Donald; Jeng, Frank; Ruitberg, Arthur; Sank, Victor

    2007-01-01

    A concern was raised regarding the time after launch when the DAWN Mission Communications Subsystem, which contains a 100 Watt X-Band Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA) with a high voltage ((approximately 7 Kilo Volt (KV)) Electronic Power Converter (EPC), will be powered on for the first post-launch downlink. This activation is planned to be approximately one hour after launch. Orbital Sciences (the DAWN Mission spacecraft contractor) typically requires a 24-hour wait period prior to high voltage initiation for Earth-orbiting Science and GEO spacecraft. The concern relates to the issue of corona and/or radio frequency (RF) breakdown of the TWTA ((high voltage direct current (DC) and RF)), and of the microwave components (high voltage RF) in the presence of partial atmospheric pressures or outgassing constituents. In particular, generally the diplexer and circulator are susceptible to RF breakdown in the corona region due to the presence of small physical gaps (( 2.5 millimeter (mm)) between conductors that carry an RF voltage. The NESC concurred the DAWN Mission communication system is safe for activation.

  12. Shuttle PRCS plume contamination analysis for Astro-2 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Francis C.; Greene, Cindy

    1993-01-01

    The Astro-2 mission scheduled for Jan. 1995 flight is co-manifested with the Spartan experiment. The Astro instrument array consists of several telescopes operating in the UV spectrum. To obtain the desired 300 observations with the telescope array in a shorter time than the Astro-1 mission, it will be necessary to use the primary reaction control system (PRCS) rather than just the Vernier reaction control system. The high mass flow rate of the PRCS engines cause considerable concern about contamination due to PRCS plume return flux. Performance of these instruments depends heavily on the environment they encounter. The ability of the optical system to detect a remote signal depends not only on the intensity of the incoming signal, but also on the ensuing transmission loss through the optical train of the instrument. Performance of these instruments is thus dependent on the properties of the optical surface and the medium through which it propagates. The on-orbit contamination environment will have a strong influence on the performance of these instruments. The finding of a two-month study of the molecular contamination environment of the Astro-2 instruments due to PRCS thruster plumes during the planned Astro-2 mission are summarized.

  13. Simulation and analysis of a geopotential research mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Lisa K.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for the determination of the initial conditions for the two satellites that will satisfy Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) requirements are investigated. For certain gravitational recovery techniques, the satellites must remain close to a specified separation distance and their groundtracks must repeat after a specified interval of time. Since the objective of the GRM mission is to improve the gravity model, any pre-mission orbit predicted using existing gravity models will be in error. A technique has been developed to eliminate the drift between the two satellites caused by gravitational modeling errors and return them to repeating groundtracks. The concept of frozen orbits, which minimize altitude variations over given latitudes, was investigated. Finally, the effects of temporal perturbations on the relative range-rate signal were studied. At the proposed altitude of 160 km, the range-rate signal produced by perturbations other than the static geopotential field are dominated by the luni-solar effect. This study demonstrates that the combined effects of all the temporal perturbations does not prevent the orbit from being frozen or the satellites from obtaining a repeating groundtrack to within a specified closure distance.

  14. Monte Carlo Analysis as a Trajectory Design Driver for the TESS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, Craig; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen; Dichmann, Donald; Parker, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.

  15. Analysis of data of "Clementine" and "KAGUYA" missions and "ULCN" and "KSC-1162" catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Y. A.; Valeev, S. G.; Mikeev, R. R.; Andreev, A. O.; Varaksina, N. Y.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper an analysis of data coordinate systems from selenographic catalogues and space missions was carried out. The lunar macrorelief models were made on basis of the software package ASNI USTU using method of the spherical harmonic expansion. These models accurately describe the global features of the lunar figure. To construct these models the following sources of topographic information were used: "Clementine" and "KАGUYА" (Selena, Japan mission) missions, "KSC-1162" (Kazan selenocentric catalogue), "Kiev" (selenodesic catalogue), "SAI" (Chuikova (1975)), "Bills, Ferrari", "ULCN" (The Unified Lunar Control Network 2005). Direct comparison hypsometric information "KSС-1162" catalogue data with "Clementine" mission was carried out. These researches confirmed a good agreement of the hypsometric information of compared systems. The normalized coefficients were obtained on basis of the hypsometric information expansion for eight sources. The displacement of the lunar center of mass (LCM) relatively to the lunar center of figure (LCF) was obtained by using topographic data selenodetical catalogues and space missions.

  16. Monte Carlo Analysis as a Trajectory Design Driver for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, Craig; Parker, Joel; Dichmann, Don; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.

  17. Monte Carlo Analysis of the Commissioning Phase Maneuvers of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jessica L.; Bhat, Ramachandra S.; You, Tung-Han

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will perform soil moisture content and freeze/thaw state observations from a low-Earth orbit. The observatory is scheduled to launch in October 2014 and will perform observations from a near-polar, frozen, and sun-synchronous Science Orbit for a 3-year data collection mission. At launch, the observatory is delivered to an Injection Orbit that is biased below the Science Orbit; the spacecraft will maneuver to the Science Orbit during the mission Commissioning Phase. The delta V needed to maneuver from the Injection Orbit to the Science Orbit is computed statistically via a Monte Carlo simulation; the 99th percentile delta V (delta V99) is carried as a line item in the mission delta V budget. This paper details the simulation and analysis performed to compute this figure and the delta V99 computed per current mission parameters.

  18. Maximizing Science Return on Astrobiology and Planetary Missions Using Integrated Liquid-Handling Chemical Analysis Systems - A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, P. A.; Mora, M. F.; Creamer, J. S.; Kehl, F.

    2016-10-01

    Our team has been developing all components required for liquid-based analysis on planetary missions. Here we summarize our progress in this area, and highlight enhancements to science return on NASA missions that these technologies could provide.

  19. Low-thrust trajectory analysis for the geosynchronous mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasper, T. P.

    1973-01-01

    Methodology employed in development of a computer program designed to analyze optimal low-thrust trajectories is described, and application of the program to a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) geosynchronous mission is discussed. To avoid the zero inclination and eccentricity singularities which plague many small-force perturbation techniques, a special set of state variables (equinoctial) is used. Adjoint equations are derived for the minimum time problem and are also free from the singularities. Solutions to the state and adjoint equations are obtained by both orbit averaging and precision numerical integration; an evaluation of these approaches is made.

  20. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Turnaround requirements for the manned orbital transfer vehicle (MOTV) baseline and alternate concepts with and without a space operations center (SOC) are defined. Manned orbital transfer vehicle maintenance, refurbishment, resupply, and refueling are considered as well as the most effective combination of ground based and space based turnaround activities. Ground and flight operations requirements for abort are identified as well as low cost approaches to space and ground operations through maintenance and missions sensitivity studies. The recommended turnaround mix shows that space basing MOTV at SOC with periodic return to ground for overhaul results in minimum recurring costs. A pressurized hangar at SOC reduces labor costs by approximately 50%.

  1. Commerce lab: Mission analysis and payload integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Conceived as one or more arrays of carriers which would fly aboard space shuttle, Commerce Lab can provide a point of focus for implementing a series of shuttle flights, co-sponsored by NASA and U.S. domestic concerns, for performing materials processing in research and pre-commercial investigations. As an orbiting facility for testing, developing, and implementing hardware and procedures, Commerce Lab can enhance space station development and hasten space platform production capability. Tasks considered include: (1) synthesis of user requirements and identification of common element and voids; (2) definition of performance and infrastructure requirement and alternative approaches; and (3) carrier, mission model, and infrastructure development.

  2. Solar maximum mission panel jettison analysis remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    A study is presented of the development of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) configurations for jettison of the solar panels on the Solar Maximum Mission/Multimission Satellite. A valid RMS maneuver between jettison configurations was developed. Arm and longeron loads and effector excursions due to the solar panel jettison were determined to see if they were within acceptable limits. These loads and end effector excursions were analyzed under two RMS modes, servos active in position hold submode, and in the brakes on mode.

  3. Polar Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis in the Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Hoffman, Robert A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This Summary of Research is being submitted to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in fulfillment of the final reporting requirement under Grant NAG5-7943, which terminated on March 31, 2002. The following contains a summary of the significant accomplishments of the Polar Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) team during the period of the grant, April 1, 1999 through March 31, 2002, and a listing of all of the publications that resulted from work carried out under the grant. Also included below is a listing of the numerous public outreach activities that took place during the period of the grant in which the Polar mission and Polar PWI science were discussed.

  4. Proximity operations analysis: Retrieval of the solar maximum mission observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yglesias, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Retrieval of the solar maximum mission (SMM) observatory is feasible in terms of orbiter primary reaction control system (PRCS) plume disturbance of the SMM, orbiter propellant consumed, and flight time required. Man-in-loop simulations will be required to validate these operational techniques before the verification process is complete. Candidate approach and flyaround techniques were developed that allow the orbiter to attain the proper alinement with the SMM for clear access to the grapple fixture (GF) prior grappling. Because the SMM has very little control authority (approximately 14.8 pound-foot-seconds in two axes and rate-damped in the third) it is necessary to inhibit all +Z (upfiring) PRCS jets on the orbiter to avoid tumbling the SMM. A profile involving a V-bar approach and an out-of-plane flyaround appears to be the best choice and is recommended at this time. The flyaround technique consists of alining the +X-axes of the two vehicles parallel with each other and then flying the orbiter around the SMM until the GF is in view. The out-of-plane flyaround technique is applicable to any inertially stabilized payload, and, the entire final approach profile could be considered as standard for most retrieval missions.

  5. User's guide to the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program (MAESTRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutzky, D.; Schafer, J.

    1973-01-01

    The MAESTRO system is a mission analysis tool designed to present to the user information necessary to make the various decisions required in the design and execution of a spaceflight mission. The system was designed so that it can be used in both the pre-launch mission planning phase of a mission and during the flight as an in-flight decision making tool. A description of each of the following modes is presented: (1) trajectory propagation mode; (2) retro-fire determination mode; (3) midcourse analysis determination mode; (4) Monte Carlo mode; (5) verification mode; (6) orbit stability mode; and (7) post injection trim mode. A description of the inputs necessary to run the program mode is given along with a sample case.

  6. Post flight analysis of NASA standard star trackers recovered from the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    1985-01-01

    The flight hardware returned after the Solar Maximum Mission Repair Mission was analyzed to determine the effects of 4 years in space. The NASA Standard Star Tracker would be a good candidate for such analysis because it is moderately complex and had a very elaborate calibration during the acceptance procedure. However, the recovery process extensively damaged the cathode of the image dissector detector making proper operation of the tracker and a comparison with preflight characteristics impossible. Otherwise, the tracker functioned nominally during testing.

  7. Space construction system analysis study: Project systems and missions descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Three project systems are defined and summarized. The systems are: (1) a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Development Flight Test Vehicle configured for fabrication and compatible with solar electric propulsion orbit transfer; (2) an Advanced Communications Platform configured for space fabrication and compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion; and (3) the same Platform, configured to be space erectable but still compatible with low thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion. These project systems are intended to serve as configuration models for use in detailed analyses of space construction techniques and processes. They represent feasible concepts for real projects; real in the sense that they are realistic contenders on the list of candidate missions currently projected for the national space program. Thus, they represent reasonable configurations upon which to base early studies of alternative space construction processes.

  8. Multi-Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid; Glaab, Louis; Winski, Richard G.; Maddock, Robert W.; Emmett, Anjie L.; Munk, Michelle M.; Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steve; Aliaga, Jose; Zarchi, Kerry; Mangini, Nancy; Perino, Scott; Bayandor, Javid; Liles, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This report describes an integrated system for Multi-mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE). The system in its current form is capable of performing system analysis and design for an Earth entry vehicle suitable for sample return missions. The system includes geometry, mass sizing, impact analysis, structural analysis, flight mechanics, TPS, and a web portal for user access. The report includes details of M-SAPE modules and provides sample results. Current M-SAPE vehicle design concept is based on Mars sample return (MSR) Earth entry vehicle design, which is driven by minimizing risk associated with sample containment (no parachute and passive aerodynamic stability). By M-SAPE exploiting a common design concept, any sample return mission, particularly MSR, will benefit from significant risk and development cost reductions. The design provides a platform by which technologies and design elements can be evaluated rapidly prior to any costly investment commitment.

  9. A Systematic Comprehensive Computational Model for Stake Estimation in Mission Assurance: Applying Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) to Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Grimaila, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we presented a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security breakdowns. In this paper, we discuss how this infrastructure can be used in the subject domain of mission assurance as defined as the full life-cycle engineering process to identify and mitigate design, production, test, and field support deficiencies of mission success. We address the opportunity to apply the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) to Carnegie Mellon University and Software Engineering Institute s Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP) in this context.

  10. Hayabusa Re-Entry: Trajectory Analysis and Observation Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Alan M.; Winter, Michael W.; Allen, Gary A.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Antimisiaris, Manny E.; Albers, James; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On June 13th, 2010, the Hayabusa sample return capsule successfully re-entered Earth s atmosphere over the Woomera Prohibited Area in southern Australia in its quest to return fragments from the asteroid 1998 SF36 Itokawa . The sample return capsule entered at a super-orbital velocity of 12.04 km/sec (inertial), making it the second fastest human-made object to traverse the atmosphere. The NASA DC-8 airborne observatory was utilized as an instrument platform to record the luminous portion of the sample return capsule re-entry (60 sec) with a variety of on-board spectroscopic imaging instruments. The predicted sample return capsule s entry state information at 200 km altitude was propagated through the atmosphere to generate aerothermodynamic and trajectory data used for initial observation flight path design and planning. The DC- 8 flight path was designed by considering safety, optimal sample return capsule viewing geometry and aircraft capabilities in concert with key aerothermodynamic events along the predicted trajectory. Subsequent entry state vector updates provided by the Deep Space Network team at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory were analyzed after the planned trajectory correction maneuvers to further refine the DC-8 observation flight path. Primary and alternate observation flight paths were generated during the mission planning phase which required coordination with Australian authorities for pre-mission approval. The final observation flight path was chosen based upon trade-offs between optimal viewing requirements, ground based observer locations (to facilitate post-flight trajectory reconstruction), predicted weather in the Woomera Prohibited Area and constraints imposed by flight path filing deadlines. To facilitate sample return capsule tracking by the instrument operators, a series of two racetrack flight path patterns were performed prior to the observation leg so the instruments could be pointed towards the region in the star background where

  11. A cost and risk analysis of human exploration missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrihew, Steven Carl

    1997-11-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) initiated a renewal of America's space exploration efforts which had come to an end following the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. SEI was a massive proposed program which was to culminate in a permanent human settlement on the Moon and a base for humans on Mars. Russian space agencies have also proposed human exploration missions, culminating in the 1991 signing of a joint exploration agreement between the former Soviet Union and the United States. However, these mission proposals soon floundered as total cost estimates approached $400 billion, exceeding the financial resources of any one nation. The loss of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986 illustrated another significant hurdle for any proposed mission--a risk averse public and government. The objective of this research has been the development of techniques to estimate cost and risk of preliminary designs for the human exploration of Mars in order to address the fundamental questions, "How much does it cost?" and, "What is its chance of success?" A systems engineering approach to the quantitative analysis of mission cost and risk is presented here. We demonstrate that a quantitative determination of cost and risk for a mission design, including the identification of cost and risk drivers: (1) enables accurate comparisons to be made between alternative mission designs; (2) provides the necessary insight to improve baseline mission designs; and (3) assists in selecting a best design. Our analysis incorporates probabilistic methods in order to model accurately uncertainty in modeling input parameters and in available data. The risk analysis builds on the techniques of the nuclear power industry (fault trees and event trees), modifying and extending available tools where required in order to incorporate mission design information more effectively. Aerospace parametric cost models are similarly modified to enable probabilistic cost modeling. Comparisons with historical values of

  12. The Challenges of Searching, Finding, Reading, Understanding and Using Mars Mission Datasets for Science Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the problems that non-mission researchers have in accessing data to use in their analysis of Mars. The increasing complexity of Mars datasets results in custom software development by instrument teams that is often the only means to visualize and analyze the data. The solutions to the problem are to continue efforts toward synergizing data from multiple missions and making the data, s/w, derived products available in standardized, easily-accessible formats, encourage release of "lite" versions of mission-related software prior to end-of-mission, and planetary image data should be systematically processed in a coordinated way and made available in an easily accessed form. The recommendations of Mars Environmental GIS Workshop are reviewed.

  13. ExoMars Mission Analysis and Design - Launch, Cruise and Arrival Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Juan L.; Cacciatore, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    ExoMars is ESA s next mission to planet Mars. The probe is aimed for launch either in 2013 or in 2016. The project is currently undergoing Phase B1 studies under ESA management and Thales Alenia Space Italia project leadership. In that context, DEIMOS Space is responsible for the Mission Analysis and Design for the interplanetary and the entry, descent and landing (EDL) activities. The present mission baseline is based on an Ariane 5 or Proton M launch in 2013 of a spacecraft Composite bearing a Carrier Module (CM) and a Descent Module (DM). A back-up option is proposed in 2016. This paper presents the current status of the interplanetary mission design from launch up to the start of the EDL phase.

  14. Low-thrust mission risk analysis, with application to a 1980 rendezvous with the comet Encke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, C. L.; Smith, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized failure process simulation procedure is used to evaluate the risk in a solar electric space mission. The procedure uses currently available thrust-subsystem reliability data and performs approximate simulations of the thrust sybsystem burn operation, the system failure processes, and the retargeting operations. The method is applied to assess the risks in carrying out a 1980 rendezvous mission to the comet Encke. Analysis of the results and evaluation of the effects of various risk factors on the mission show that system component failure rates are the limiting factors in attaining a high mission relability. It is also shown that a well-designed trajectory and system operation mode can be used effectively to partially compensate for unreliable thruster performance.

  15. Launch Window Analysis for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor W.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will fly four spinning spacecraft in formation in highly elliptical orbits to study the magnetosphere of the Earth. This paper describes the development of an MMS launch window tool that uses the orbitaveraged Variation of Parameter equations as the basis for a semi-analytic quantification of the dominant oblateness and lunisolar perturbation effects on the MMS orbit. This approach, coupled with a geometric interpretation of all of the MMS science and engineering constraints, allows a scan of 180(sup 2) = 32,400 different (RAAN, AOP) pairs to be carried out for a specified launch day in less than 10 s on a typical modern laptop. The resulting plot indicates the regions in (RAAN, AOP) space where each constraint is satisfied or violated: their intersection gives, in an easily interpreted graphical manner, the final solution space for the day considered. This tool, SWM76, is now used to provide launch conditions to the full fidelity (but far slower) MMS simulation code: very good agreement has been observed between the two methods.

  16. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  17. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  18. Early Mission Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for Low-Earth Orbiting Missions using TDRSS Differenced One-way Doppler Tracking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    Differencing multiple, simultaneous Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) one-way Doppler passes can yield metric tracking data usable for orbit determination for (low-cost) spacecraft which do not have TDRSS transponders or local oscillators stable enough to allow the one-way TDRSS Doppler tracking data to be used for early mission orbit determination. Orbit determination error analysis results are provided for low Earth orbiting spacecraft for various early mission tracking scenarios.

  19. Development Roadmap of an Evolvable and Extensible Multi-Mission Telecom Planning and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Tung, Ramona H.; Lee, Charles H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development roadmap and discuss the various challenges of an evolvable and extensible multi-mission telecom planning and analysis framework. Our long-term goal is to develop a set of powerful flexible telecommunications analysis tools that can be easily adapted to different missions while maintain the common Deep Space Communication requirements. The ability of re-using the DSN ground models and the common software utilities in our adaptations has contributed significantly to our development efforts measured in terms of consistency, accuracy, and minimal effort redundancy, which can translate into shorter development time and major cost savings for the individual missions. In our roadmap, we will address the design principles, technical achievements and the associated challenges for following telecom analysis tools (i) Telecom Forecaster Predictor - TFP (ii) Unified Telecom Predictor - UTP (iii) Generalized Telecom Predictor - GTP (iv) Generic TFP (v) Web-based TFP (vi) Application Program Interface - API (vii) Mars Relay Network Planning Tool - MRNPT.

  20. Class, Capital, and Competing Academic Discourse: A Critical Analysis of the Mission/s of American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Amy Elizabeth; Reeves, Todd D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we critically analyze institutional mission statements as discursive texts replete with symbolic meaning, as we believe these texts reveal a great deal about the ways in which higher education remains increasingly stratified. We argue that beneath the generalized rhetoric of institutional mission statements, lie powerful messages…

  1. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 1: Analytical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, P. E.; Shults, G. L.; Boain, R. J.; Huling, K. R.; Wilson, T.

    1974-01-01

    The mission analysis program for solar electric propulsion (MAPSEP) is comprised of the basic modes: TOPSEP (trajectory generation), GODSEP (linear error analysis), and SIMSEP (simulation). The program is designed to analyze any low thrust mission with respect to trajectory performance, guidance and navigation, and to provide system related requirements for the purpose of vehicle design. The MAPSEP organization is described along with all models and algorithms. Topics discussed include: trajectory and error covariance propagation methods, orbit determination processes, thrust modeling, and trajectory correction (guidance) schemes.

  2. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS (thermal protection system) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-39. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-39, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  3. Mission Command Analysis Using Monte Carlo Tree Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    Modeling, Virtual Environments, and Simulation NPS Naval Postgraduate School TRAC Training and Doctrine Command Analysis Center TRAC- MRO Training and...Background In the fall of 2012, the Training and Doctrine Command Analysis Center (TRAC) Methods and Research Office (TRAC- MRO ) sponsored the Training and...Sponsor: Mr. Paul Works, TRAC Research Director, MRO . • Project Lead: MAJ Chris Marks (TRAC-MTRY). • Supporting Analyst: LTC John Alt (TRAC-MTRY

  4. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-108

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2005-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  5. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-110

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2005-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  6. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2005-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  7. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-104

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2005-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  8. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-109

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2005-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  9. OSIRIS-REx Touch-And-Go (TAG) Mission Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin; Sutter, Brian; May, Alex; Williams, Ken; Barbee, Brent W.; Beckman, Mark; Williams, Bobby

    2013-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 in late 2018. After several months in formation with and orbit about the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx will fly a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid s surface to obtain a regolith sample. This paper describes the mission design of the TAG sequence and the propulsive maneuvers required to achieve the trajectory. This paper also shows preliminary results of orbit covariance analysis and Monte-Carlo analysis that demonstrate the ability to arrive at a targeted location on the surface of RQ36 within a 25 meter radius with 98.3% confidence.

  10. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Rockwell International-Downey are also included to provide an integrated assessment of each Shuttle mission.

  11. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-56

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley; Rivera, Jorge E.; Speece, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The Debris Team developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Photo/Video Analysis, reports from JSC, MSFC, and Rockwell International--Downey are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  12. An optimized end-to-end process for the analysis of agile earth observation satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, M.; Müller, T.; Levenhagen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Agile earth observation satellite missions are becoming more and more important due to their capability to perform fast reorientation maneuvers with 3 degrees of freedom to capture different target areas along the orbital path, thus increasing the observed area and complexity of scans. The design of an agile earth observation satellite mission is a non-trivial task due to the fact that a trade-off between observed area and complexity of the scans on the one hand and degree of agility available and thus performance of the attitude control devices on the other hand has to be done. Additionally, the designed mission has to be evaluated in a realistic environment also taking into account the specific characteristics of the chosen actuators. In the present work, several methods are combined to provide an integrated analysis of agile earth observation satellite missions starting from the definition of a desired ground scan scenario, going via the creation of a guidance profile to a realistic simulation and ending at the verification of the feasibility by detailed closed-loop simulation. Regarding its technical implementation at Astrium GmbH, well-proven tools for the different tasks of the analysis are incorporated and well defined interfaces for those tools are specified, allowing a high degree of automatism and thus saving time and minimizing errors. This results in a complete end-to-end process for the design, analysis and verification of agile earth observation satellite missions. This process is demonstrated by means of an example analysis using control moment gyros for a high agility mission.

  13. Objectives for Mars Orbital Missions in the 2020s: Report from a MEPAG Science Analysis Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, R. W.; Campbell, B. A.; Diniega, S.; Lock, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Headquarters is looking at possible missions to Mars to follow the proposed 2020 Mars rover mission currently in development. One option being considered is a multi-functional orbiter, launched in the early 2020's, whose capabilities could address objectives in the following areas: • Replenishment of the telecommunications and reconnaissance infrastructure presently provided by the aging Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiters; • Scientific and technical progress on the NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey priorities, updated MEPAG Goals, and/or follow-up of new discoveries; • Location and quantification of in situ resources for utilization by future robotic and human surface-based missions; and • Data needed to address Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), again for possible human missions. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) was asked to prepare an analysis of possible science objectives and remote sensing capabilities that could be implemented by such a multi-purpose Mars orbiter launched in the 2022/24 timeframe. MEPAG conducted this analysis through formation of a Next Orbiter Science Analysis Group (NEX-SAG), which was chartered jointly by the NASA Science and Human Exploration Directorates. The SAG was asked to conduct this study within a range of mission capabilities, including the possible first use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) in the Mars system. SEP could provide additional power enabling new payload components and possible changes in orbit (e.g., orbital inclination change) that permit different mission observational campaigns (e.g., polar and non-polar). Special attention was paid towards identifying synergies between science investigations, reconnaissance, and resource/SKG needs. We will present the findings and conclusions of this NEX-SAG regarding possible objectives for the next NASA Orbiter to Mars.

  14. Lunar mission safety and rescue: Hazards analysis and safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of the hazards analysis which was concerned only with hazards to personnel and not with loss of equipment or property. Hazards characterization includes the definition of a hazard, the hazard levels, and the hazard groups. The analysis methodology is described in detail. The methodology was used to prepare the top level functional flow diagrams, to perform the first level hazards assessment, and to develop a list of conditions and situations requiring individual hazard studies. The 39 individual hazard study results are presented in total.

  15. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  16. JSC Safety and Mission Assurance Data Analysis Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelant, Henk

    2010-01-01

    These slides describe the data analysis methods that are used to determine inputs for probabilistic risk models supporting the Space Shuttle Program. Other applications can follow a similar path probably using different data sources. Statistical approaches are different and not addressed here. Topics included here: 1) Prior Distribution; 2) Likelihood Data; 3) Bayesian Updating; and 4) Uncertainty and Error. Note: This is a high-level discussion and is not intended to be a tutorial.

  17. The SMART Theory and Modeling Team: An Integrated Element of Mission Development and Science Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, J.; Denton, Richard E.; Drake, J.; Gombosi, T.; Hoshino, M.; Matthaeus, B.; Sibeck, D.

    2005-01-01

    to SMART needs during mission development and science analysis. In this presentation, we will present an overview of SMART theory and modeling team activities. In particular, we will provide examples of science objectives derived from state-of-the art models, and of recent research results that continue to be utilized in SMART mission development.

  18. The SMART Theory and Modeling Team: an Integrated Element of Mission Development and Science Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Denton, R.; Drake, J.; Gombosi, T.; Hoshino, M.; Matthaeus, B.; Sibeck, D.

    2005-12-01

    to SMART needs during mission development and science analysis. In this presentation, we will present an overview of SMART theory and modeling team activities. In particular, we will provide examples of science objectives derived from state-of-the art models, and of recent research results that continue to be utilized in SMART mission development.

  19. An Analysis of the Mission and Vision Statements on the Strategic Plans of Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdem, Guven

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the mission and vision statements on the strategic plans of higher education institutions. The sample of the study consisted of 72 public universities. Strategic plans of the universities were accessed over the internet, and the data collected were analyzed using content analysis. The findings show that statements on…

  20. SSRPT (SSR Pointer Trackeer) for Cassini Mission Operations - A Ground Data Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E.

    1998-01-01

    Tracking the resources of the two redundant Solid State Recorders (SSR) is a necessary routine for Cassini spacecraft mission operations. Instead of relying on a full-fledged spacecraft hardware/software simulator to track and predict the SSR recording and playback pointer positions, a stand-alone SSR Pointer Tracker tool was developed as part of JPL's Multimission Spacecraft Analysis system.

  1. Early development of Science Opportunity Analysis tools for the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Vallat, Claire; Altobelli, Nicolas; Frew, David; Llorente, Rosario; Costa, Marc; Almeida, Miguel; Witasse, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    JUICE is the first large mission in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE will survey the Jovian system with a special focus on three of the Galilean Moons: Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.The mission has recently been adopted and big efforts are being made by the Science Operations Center (SOC) at the European Space and Astronomy Centre (ESAC) in Madrid for the development of tools to provide the necessary support to the Science Working Team (SWT) for science opportunity analysis and early assessment of science operation scenarios. This contribution will outline some of the tools being developed within ESA and in collaboration with the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at JPL.The Mission Analysis and Payload Planning Support (MAPPS) is developed by ESA and has been used by most of ESA's planetary missions to generate and validate science observation timelines for the simulation of payload and spacecraft operations. MAPPS has the capability to compute and display all the necessary geometrical information such as the distances, illumination angles and projected field-of-view of an imaging instrument on the surface of the given body and a preliminary setup is already in place for the early assessment of JUICE science operations.NAIF provides valuable SPICE support to the JUICE mission and several tools are being developed to compute and visualize science opportunities. In particular the WebGeoCalc and Cosmographia systems are provided by NAIF to compute time windows and create animations of the observation geometry available via traditional SPICE data files, such as planet orbits, spacecraft trajectory, spacecraft orientation, instrument field-of-view "cones" and instrument footprints. Other software tools are being developed by ESA and other collaborating partners to support the science opportunity analysis for all missions, like the SOLab (Science Operations Laboratory) or new interfaces for observation definitions and

  2. Mars Mission Analysis Trades Based on Legacy and Future Nuclear Propulsion Options

    SciTech Connect

    Joyner, Russell; Lentati, Andrea; Cichon, Jaclyn

    2007-01-30

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of mission-based system trades when using a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system for Solar System exploration. The results are based on comparing reactor designs that use a ceramic-metallic (CERMET), graphite matrix, graphite composite matrix, or carbide matrix fuel element designs. The composite graphite matrix and CERMET designs have been examined for providing power as well as propulsion. Approaches to the design of the NTP to be discussed will include an examination of graphite, composite, carbide, and CERMET core designs and the attributes of each in regards to performance and power generation capability. The focus is on NTP approaches based on tested fuel materials within a prismatic fuel form per the Argonne National Laboratory testing and the ROVER/NERVA program. NTP concepts have been examined for several years at Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne for use as the primary propulsion for human missions beyond earth. Recently, an approach was taken to examine the design trades between specific NTP concepts; NERVA-based (UC)C-Graphite, (UC,ZrC)C-Composite, (U,Zr)C-Solid Carbide and UO2-W CERMET. Using Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne's multidisciplinary design analysis capability, a detailed mission and vehicle model has been used to examine how several of these NTP designs impact a human Mars mission. Trends for the propulsion system mass as a function of power level (i.e. thrust size) for the graphite-carbide and CERMET designs were established and correlated against data created over the past forty years. These were used for the mission trade study. The resulting mission trades presented in this paper used a comprehensive modeling approach that captures the mission, vehicle subsystems, and NTP sizing.

  3. Mars Mission Analysis Trades Based on Legacy and Future Nuclear Propulsion Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyner, Russell; Lentati, Andrea; Cichon, Jaclyn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of mission-based system trades when using a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system for Solar System exploration. The results are based on comparing reactor designs that use a ceramic-metallic (CERMET), graphite matrix, graphite composite matrix, or carbide matrix fuel element designs. The composite graphite matrix and CERMET designs have been examined for providing power as well as propulsion. Approaches to the design of the NTP to be discussed will include an examination of graphite, composite, carbide, and CERMET core designs and the attributes of each in regards to performance and power generation capability. The focus is on NTP approaches based on tested fuel materials within a prismatic fuel form per the Argonne National Laboratory testing and the ROVER/NERVA program. NTP concepts have been examined for several years at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for use as the primary propulsion for human missions beyond earth. Recently, an approach was taken to examine the design trades between specific NTP concepts; NERVA-based (UC)C-Graphite, (UC,ZrC)C-Composite, (U,Zr)C-Solid Carbide and UO2-W CERMET. Using Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's multidisciplinary design analysis capability, a detailed mission and vehicle model has been used to examine how several of these NTP designs impact a human Mars mission. Trends for the propulsion system mass as a function of power level (i.e. thrust size) for the graphite-carbide and CERMET designs were established and correlated against data created over the past forty years. These were used for the mission trade study. The resulting mission trades presented in this paper used a comprehensive modeling approach that captures the mission, vehicle subsystems, and NTP sizing.

  4. Navigation accuracy analysis for the Halley flyby phase of a dual comet mission using ion drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, L. J.; Hast, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    A dual comet (Halley Flyby/Tempel 2 Rendezvous) mission, making use of the solar electric propulsion system, is under consideration for a 1985 launch. This paper presents navigation accuracy analysis results for the Halley flyby phase of this mission. Orbit determination and guidance accuracies are presented for the baseline navigation strategy, along with the results of a number of sensitivity studies involving parameters such as data frequencies, data accuracies, ion drive thrust vector errors, comet ephemeris uncertainties, time lags associated with data processing and command sequence generation, probe release time, and navigation coast arc duration.

  5. Spectrofluorometric analysis of amino acid mixtures: Implications for future space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hoi S.; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient detection of organic molecules is fundamental for the success of future life detection missions. Spectrofluorometric analysis is one of the many techniques that may be used to detect organic molecules in extraterrestrial settings. A particularly important class of organic molecules to target is the amino acids on which all terrestrial life depends. This study aims to identify the optimum fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for 17 amino acid standards to examine the effects of amino acid concentrations, mixtures and fluorescence quenching. The results and interpretations can guide the design and operation of life detection protocols on future space missions.

  6. Navigation and performance analysis of a Mars surface sample return /MSSR/ mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satin, A. L.; Asnin, S. K.

    1974-01-01

    A Viking-derived MSSR mission involves a rendezvous in Mars orbit between the sample-carrying Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and a modified Viking Orbiter spacecraft. Conditions for the automatic terminal rendezvous phase are established by an initial earth-controlled phase which uses very accurate relative state information obtained by multi-vehicle interferometric tracking data. A navigation analysis has demonstrated sufficient performance and control capability to satisfy those conditions prior to terminal rendezvous. Specific performance constraints for the mission are developed, leading to a sizing of vehicle weight requirements and trades applicable to a 1981 MSSR, launched by a single Titan IIIE/Centaur.

  7. Programmer's manual for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program (MAESTRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutzky, D.; Bjorkman, W. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program known as MAESTRO is described. MAESTRO is an all FORTRAN, block style, computer program designed to perform various mission control tasks. This manual is a guide to MAESTRO, providing individuals the capability of modifying the program to suit their needs. Descriptions are presented of each of the subroutines descriptions consist of input/output description, theory, subroutine description, and a flow chart where applicable. The programmer's manual also contains a detailed description of the common blocks, a subroutine cross reference map, and a general description of the program structure.

  8. Analysis of reentry into the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) for the LifeSat mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hametz, M.; Roszman, L.; Snow, F.; Cooley, J.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates the reentry of the LifeSat vehicles into the WSMR. The LifeSat mission consists of two reusable reentry satellites, each carrying a removable payload module, which scientists will use to study long-term effects of microgravity, Van Allen belt radiation, and galactic cosmic rays on living organisms. A series of missions is planned for both low-Earth circular orbits and highly elliptic orbits. To recover the payload module with the specimens intact, a soft parachute landing and recovery at the WSMR is planned. This analysis examines operational issues surrounding the reentry scenario to assess the feasibility of the reentry.

  9. Orbit Determination Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.

  10. An Analytic Approximation to Very High Specific Impulse and Specific Power Interplanetary Space Mission Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig Hamilton

    1995-01-01

    A simple, analytic approximation is derived to calculate trip time and performance for propulsion systems of very high specific impulse (50,000 to 200,000 seconds) and very high specific power (10 to 1000 kW/kg) for human interplanetary space missions. The approach assumed field-free space, constant thrust/constant specific power, and near straight line (radial) trajectories between the planets. Closed form, one dimensional equations of motion for two-burn rendezvous and four-burn round trip missions are derived as a function of specific impulse, specific power, and propellant mass ratio. The equations are coupled to an optimizing parameter that maximizes performance and minimizes trip time. Data generated for hypothetical one-way and round trip human missions to Jupiter were found to be within 1% and 6% accuracy of integrated solutions respectively, verifying that for these systems, credible analysis does not require computationally intensive numerical techniques.

  11. Evolution of Safety Analysis to Support New Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrasher, Chard W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle as a key component of the Constellation program which will provide safe and reliable transportation to the International Space Station, back to the moon, and later to Mars. The risks and costs of the Ares I must be significantly lowered, as compared to other manned launch vehicles, to enable the continuation of space exploration. It is essential that safety be significantly improved, and cost-effectively incorporated into the design process. This paper justifies early and effective safety analysis of complex space systems. Interactions and dependences between design, logistics, modeling, reliability, and safety engineers will be discussed to illustrate methods to lower cost, reduce design cycles and lessen the likelihood of catastrophic events.

  12. Biostereometric analysis of body form - The second manned Skylab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittle, M. W.; Herron, R. E.; Cuzzi, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Results of biostereometric analyses of the body form of the Skylab 3 crew before and after flight. The Cartesian coordinates of numerous points on the body surface were derived by stereophotogrammetry, and mathematical analysis of the coordinate description allowed computation of the surface area and volume of the body, the volume of body segments, and the area and shape of cross sections. The weight loss in all three crew members was accompanied by a loss in volume distributed between the trunk and legs, with the legs showing the greatest proportional loss. The observed loss of volume apparently resulted from a combined loss of fluid in the abdomen and legs, of muscle in the legs and paraspinal region, and of fat in the abdomen and buttocks.

  13. Earth recovery mode analysis for a Martian sample return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis has concerned itself with evaluating alternative methods of recovering a sample module from a trans-earth trajectory originating in the vicinity of Mars. The major modes evaluated are: (1) direct atmospheric entry from trans-earth trajectory; (2) earth orbit insertion by retropropulsion; and (3) atmospheric braking to a capture orbit. In addition, the question of guided vs. unguided entry vehicles was considered, as well as alternative methods of recovery after orbit insertion for modes (2) and (3). A summary of results and conclusions is presented. Analytical results for aerodynamic and propulsive maneuvering vehicles are discussed. System performance requirements and alternatives for inertial systems implementation are also discussed. Orbital recovery operations and further studies required to resolve the recovery mode issue are described.

  14. Preliminary radar systems analysis for Venus orbiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburg, R. K.; Spadoni, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    A short, preliminary analysis is presented of the problems involved in mapping the surface of Venus with radar from an orbiting spacecraft. Two types of radar, the noncoherent sidelooking and the focused synthetic aperture systems, are sized to fulfill two assumed levels of Venus exploration. The two exploration levels, regional and local, assumed for this study are based on previous Astro Sciences work (Klopp 1969). The regional level is defined as 1 to 3 kilometer spatial and 0.5 to 1 km vertical resolution of 100 percent 0 of the planet's surface. The local level is defined as 100 to 200 meter spatial and 50-10 m vertical resolution of about 100 percent of the surfAce (based on the regional survey). A 10cm operating frequency was chosen for both radar systems in order to minimize the antenna size and maximize the apparent radar cross section of the surface.

  15. Human exploration of near earth asteroids: Mission analysis for chemical and electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Jonathan F. C.; Zimmer, Aline K.; Reijneveld, Johannes P. J.; Dunlop, Kathryn L.; Takahashi, Yu; Tardivel, Simon; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a mission analysis comparison of human missions to asteroids using two distinct architectures. The objective is to determine if either architecture can reduce launch mass with respect to the other, while not sacrificing other performance metrics such as mission duration. One architecture relies on chemical propulsion, the traditional workhorse of space exploration. The second combines chemical and electric propulsion into a hybrid architecture that attempts to utilize the strengths of each, namely the short flight times of chemical propulsion and the propellant efficiency of electric propulsion. The architectures are thoroughly detailed, and accessibility of the known asteroid population is determined for both. The most accessible asteroids are discussed in detail. Aspects such as mission abort scenarios and vehicle reusability are also discussed. Ultimately, it is determined that launch mass can be greatly reduced with the hybrid architecture, without a notable increase in mission duration. This demonstrates that significant performance improvements can be introduced to the next step of human space exploration with realistic electric propulsion system capabilities. This leads to immediate cost savings for human exploration and simultaneously opens a path of technology development that leads to technologies enabling access to even further destinations in the future.

  16. Tools of the Future: How Decision Tree Analysis Will Impact Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterstatter, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    The universe is infinitely complex; however, the human mind has a finite capacity. The multitude of possible variables, metrics, and procedures in mission planning are far too many to address exhaustively. This is unfortunate because, in general, considering more possibilities leads to more accurate and more powerful results. To compensate, we can get more insightful results by employing our greatest tool, the computer. The power of the computer will be utilized through a technology that considers every possibility, decision tree analysis. Although decision trees have been used in many other fields, this is innovative for space mission planning. Because this is a new strategy, no existing software is able to completely accommodate all of the requirements. This was determined through extensive research and testing of current technologies. It was necessary to create original software, for which a short-term model was finished this summer. The model was built into Microsoft Excel to take advantage of the familiar graphical interface for user input, computation, and viewing output. Macros were written to automate the process of tree construction, optimization, and presentation. The results are useful and promising. If this tool is successfully implemented in mission planning, our reliance on old-fashioned heuristics, an error-prone shortcut for handling complexity, will be reduced. The computer algorithms involved in decision trees will revolutionize mission planning. The planning will be faster and smarter, leading to optimized missions with the potential for more valuable data.

  17. An independent assessment of the technical feasibility of the Mars One mission plan - Updated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Sydney; Owens, Andrew; Ho, Koki; Schreiner, Samuel; de Weck, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the Mars One program has gained significant publicity for its plans to colonize the red planet. Beginning in 2025, the program plans to land four people on Mars every 26 months via a series of one-way missions, using exclusively existing technology. This one-way approach has frequently been cited as a key enabler of accelerating the first crewed landing on Mars. While the Mars One program has received considerable attention, little has been published in the technical literature regarding the formulation of its mission architecture. In light of this, we perform an independent analysis of the technical feasibility of the Mars One mission plan, focusing on the architecture of the life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) systems, and their impact on sparing and space logistics. To perform this analysis, we adopt an iterative analysis approach in which we model and simulate the mission architecture, assess its feasibility, implement any applicable modifications while attempting to remain within the constraints set forth by Mars One, and then resimulate and reanalyze the revised version of the mission architecture. Where required information regarding the Mars One mission architecture is not available, we assume numerical values derived from standard spaceflight design handbooks and documents. Through four iterations of this process, our analysis finds that the Mars One mission plan, as publicly described, is not feasible. This conclusion is obtained from analyses based on mission assumptions derived from and constrained by statements made by Mars One, and is the result of the following findings: (1) several technologies including ISRU, life support, and entry, descent, and landing (EDL) are not currently "existing, validated and available" as claimed by Mars One; (2) the crop growth area described by Mars One is insufficient to feed their crew; (3) increasing the crop growth area to provide sufficient food for the crew leads to atmospheric

  18. Complexity analysis of the cost effectiveness of PI-led NASA science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, J.; Cowdin, M.; Mize, T.; Kellogg, R.; Bearden, D.

    For the last 20 years, NASA has allowed Principal Investigators (PIs) to manage the development of many unmanned space projects. Advocates of PI-led projects believe that a PI-led implementation can result in a project being developed at lower cost and shorter schedule than other implementation modes. This paper seeks to test this hypothesis by comparing the actual costs of NASA and other comparable projects developed under different implementation modes. The Aerospace Corporation's Complexity-Based Risk Assessment (CoBRA) analysis tool is used to normalize the projects such that the cost can be compared for equivalent project complexities. The data is examined both by complexity and by launch year. Cost growth will also be examined for any correlation with implementation mode. Defined in many NASA Announcements of Opportunity (AOs), a PI-led project is characterized by a central, single person with full responsibility for assembling a team and for the project's scientific integrity and the implementation and integrity of all other aspects of the mission, while operating under a cost cap. PIs have larger degrees of freedom to achieve the stated goals within NASA guidelines and oversight. This study leverages the definitions and results of previous National Research Council studies of PI-led projects. Aerospace has defined a complexity index, derived from mission performance, mass, power, and technology choices, to arrive at a broad representation of missions for purposes of comparison. Over a decade of research has established a correlation between mission complexity and spacecraft development cost and schedule. This complexity analysis, CoBRA, is applied to compare a PI-led set of New Frontiers, Discovery, Explorers, and Earth System Science Pathfinder missions to the overall NASA mission dataset. This reveals the complexity trends against development costs, cost growth, and development era.

  19. USV test flight by stratospheric balloon: Preliminary mission analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardillo, A.; Musso, I.; Ibba, R.; Cosentino, O.

    The Unmanned Space Vehicle test flights will use a 7 m 1300 kg aircraft. The first three launches will take place at the Italian Space Agency ASI base in Trapani Milo, Sicily, through a stratospheric balloon that will drop the aircraft at a predefined height. After free fall acceleration to transonic velocities, the parachute deployment will allow a safe splash down in the central Mediterranean Sea. The goal of this article is to show the preliminary analysis results for the first USV flight. We carried out a statistical study for the year 2000 2003, evaluating the typical summer and winter launch windows of the Trapani Milo base. First, in the center Mediterranean, we define safe recovery areas. They cannot be reached during the balloon ascending phase so, after a sufficiently long floating part able to catch the open sea, the balloon will go down to the release height (24 km). The simulation foresees a 400,000 m3 balloon and 3 valves for the altitude transfer. A safe splash down must occur far enough from the nearest coast: the minimum distance is considered around 25 km. The vehicle should be released at a distance, from the nearest coast, greater than this minimum amount plus the USV model maximum horizontal translation, during its own trajectory from balloon separation to splash down. In this way we define safe release areas for some possible translations. Winter stratospheric winds are less stable. The winter average flight duration is 7 h and it is probably too long for the diurnal recovery requirement and its scheduled procedures. Comparing past stratospheric balloons flights and trajectories computed using measured meteorological data (analysis), with their predictions made using forecast models and soundings, we obtain the standard deviation of the trajectory forecast uncertainty at the balloon aircraft separation. Two cases are taken into account: predictions made 24 and 6 h before the launch. Assuming a Gaussian latitudinal uncertainty distribution for

  20. Generalized covariance analysis for partially autonomous deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boone, Jack N.

    1991-01-01

    A new covariance analysis method is presented that is suitable for the evaluation of multiple impulsive controllers acting on some stochastic process x. The method accommodates batch and sequential estimators with equal ease and accounts for time-delay effects in a natural manner. The formalism is developed in terms of a generalized state vector that is formed from the system state vector x, augmented by various fixed epoch estimates, and a data vector formed from discrete time observations of the system. Recursions are developed for time transition, measurement incorporation, and impulsive control updating of the generalized covariance matrix. Means of limiting the dimensional growth of the generalized state vector via the processes of estimator epoch adjustment and measurement vector deflation are described and the application of numerically stable matrix factorization methods to the generalized covariance recursions is outlined. The method is applied to the Magellan spacecraft to demonstrate the capability of ground-based optimal estimation and control of gyro/star scanner misalignment.

  1. Analysis of Chemical, REP, and SEP missions to the Trojan asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Oh, David; Yen, Chen-Wan

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies suggest significant benefits from using 1st and 2nd generation Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) as a power source for electric propulsion (EP) missions to the outer planets. This study focuses on trajectories to the Trojan asteroids. A high level analysis is performed with chemical trajectories to determine potential canidates for REP trajectory optimization. Extensive analysis of direct trajectories using REP is performed on these candidates. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) trajectories are also considered for comparison against REP trajectories.

  2. The initial design of LAPAN's IR micro bolometer using mission analysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustanul, A.; Irwan, P.; M. T., Andi; Firman, B.

    2016-11-01

    As new player in Infra Red (IR) sector, uncooled, small, and lightweight IR Micro Bolometer has been chosen as one of payloads for LAPAN's next micro satellite project. Driven the desire to create our own IR Micro Bolometer, mission analysis design procedure has been applied. After tracing all possible missions, the Planck's and Wien's Law for black body, Temperature Responsivity (TR), and sub-pixel response had been utilized in order to determine the appropriate spectral radiance. The 3.8 - 4 μm wavelength were available to detect wild fire (forest fire) and active volcanoes, two major problems faced by Indonesia. In order to strengthen and broaden the result, iteration process had been used throughout the process. The analysis, then, were continued by calculating Ground pixel size, IFOV pixel, swath width, and focus length. Meanwhile, regarding of resolution, at least it is 400 m. The further procedure covered the integrated of optical design, wherein we combined among optical design software, Zemax, with mechanical analysis software (structure and thermal analysis), such as Nastran and Thermal Desktop / Sinda Fluint. The integration process was intended to produce high performance optical system of our IR Micro Bolometer that can be used under extreme environment. The results of all those analysis, either in graphs or in measurement, show that the initial design of LAPAN'S IR Micro Bolometer meets the determined requirement. However, it needs the further evaluation (iteration). This paper describes the initial design of LAPAN's IR Micro Bolometer using mission analysis process

  3. Analysis of TRMM Microphysical Measurements: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    SPEC Incorporated participated in three of the four TRMM field campaigns (TEFLUN-A, TEFLUN-B and KWAJEX), installing and operating a cloud particle imager (CPI) and a high volume precipitation spectrometer (HVPS) on the SPEC Learjet in TEFLUN-A, the University of North Dakota Citation in TEFLUN-B and KWAJEX, and a CPI on the NASA DC-8 in KWAJEX. This report presents and discusses new software tools and algorithms that were developed to analyze microphysical data collected during these field campaigns, as well as scientific interpretations of the data themselves. Software algorithms were developed to improve the analysis of microphysical measurements collected by the TRMM aircraft during the field campaigns. Particular attention was paid to developing and/or improving algorithms used to compute particle size distributions and ice water content. Software was also developed in support of production of the TRMM Common Microphysical Product (CMP) data files. CMP data files for TEFLUN-A field campaign were produced and submitted to the DAAC. Typical microphysical properties of convective and stratiform regions from TEFLUN-A and KWAJEX clouds were produced. In general, it was found that in the upper cloud region near -20 to -25 C, stratiform clouds contain very high (greater than 1 per cubic centimeter) concentrations of small ice particles, which are suspected to be a residual from homogeneous freezing and sedimentation of small drops in a convective updraft. In the upper cloud region near -20 to -25 C, convective clouds contain aggregates, which are not found lower in the cloud. Stratiform clouds contain aggregates at all levels, with the majority in the lowest levels. Convective cloud regions contain much higher LWC and drop concentrations than stratiform regions at all levels, and higher LWC in the middle and upper regions. Stratiform clouds contain higher IWC than convective clouds only at the lowest level. Irregular shaped ice particles are found in very high

  4. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John L.

    1998-01-01

    December event displayed factor of 500 intensity increases in H I Lyman lines and bright emissions in cool ion lines like C III 977 A indicating that the origin of some of the gas was a prominence. UVCS also observed two comets, several stars and interplanetary hydrogen. In the current reporting period, the initial results were published and detailed analyses including self consistent empirical models were developed. The research results were reported, published or submitted/accepted for publication. New observations were made to uncover additional information about the surprising results of the first year and other new observations revealed more surprises. A UVCS Tutorial was developed to familiarize potential users of UVCS data with the data products, analysis techniques and coronal models needed to analyze the data.

  5. Application of State Analysis and Goal-Based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the behavior of states and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  6. The design and realisation of the IXV Mission Analysis and Flight Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haya-Ramos, Rodrigo; Blanco, Gonzalo; Pontijas, Irene; Bonetti, Davide; Freixa, Jordi; Parigini, Cristina; Bassano, Edmondo; Carducci, Riccardo; Sudars, Martins; Denaro, Angelo; Angelini, Roberto; Mancuso, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is a suborbital re-entry demonstrator successfully launched in February 2015 focusing on the in-flight demonstration of a lifting body system with active aerodynamic control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the Mission Analysis and Flight Mechanics of the IXV vehicle, which comprises computation of the End-to-End (launch to splashdown) design trajectories, characterisation of the Entry Corridor, assessment of the Mission Performances through Monte Carlo campaigns, contribution to the aerodynamic database, analysis of the Visibility and link budget from Ground Stations and GPS, support to safety analyses (off nominal footprints), specification of the Centre of Gravity box, selection of the Angle of Attack trim line to be flown and characterisation of the Flying Qualities performances. An initial analysis and comparison with the raw flight data obtained during the flight will be discussed and first lessons learned derived.

  7. Mission specification for three generic mission classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mission specifications for three generic mission classes are generated to provide a baseline for definition and analysis of data acquisition platform system concepts. The mission specifications define compatible groupings of sensors that satisfy specific earth resources and environmental mission objectives. The driving force behind the definition of sensor groupings is mission need; platform and space transportation system constraints are of secondary importance. The three generic mission classes are: (1) low earth orbit sun-synchronous; (2) geosynchronous; and (3) non-sun-synchronous, nongeosynchronous. These missions are chosen to provide a variety of sensor complements and implementation concepts. Each mission specification relates mission categories, mission objectives, measured parameters, and candidate sensors to orbits and coverage, operations compatibility, and platform fleet size.

  8. An Efficient Approach for the Reliability Analysis of Phased-Mission Systems with Dependent Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xing, Liudong; Meshkat, Leila; Donahue, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the reliability analysis of phased-mission systems with common-cause failures in this paper. Phased-mission systems (PMS) are systems supporting missions characterized by multiple, consecutive, and nonoverlapping phases of operation. System components may be subject to different stresses as well as different reliability requirements throughout the course of the mission. As a result, component behavior and relationships may need to be modeled differently from phase to phase when performing a system-level reliability analysis. This consideration poses unique challenges to existing analysis methods. The challenges increase when common-cause failures (CCF) are incorporated in the model. CCF are multiple dependent component failures within a system that are a direct result of a shared root cause, such as sabotage, flood, earthquake, power outage, or human errors. It has been shown by many reliability studies that CCF tend to increase a system's joint failure probabilities and thus contribute significantly to the overall unreliability of systems subject to CCF.We propose a separable phase-modular approach to the reliability analysis of phased-mission systems with dependent common-cause failures as one way to meet the above challenges in an efficient and elegant manner. Our methodology is twofold: first, we separate the effects of CCF from the PMS analysis using the total probability theorem and the common-cause event space developed based on the elementary common-causes; next, we apply an efficient phase-modular approach to analyze the reliability of the PMS. The phase-modular approach employs both combinatorial binary decision diagram and Markov-chain solution methods as appropriate. We provide an example of a reliability analysis of a PMS with both static and dynamic phases as well as CCF as an illustration of our proposed approach. The example is based on information extracted from a Mars orbiter project. The reliability model for this orbiter considers

  9. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  10. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2: Book 1, Accident model document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    The Accident Model Document (AMD) is the second volume of the three volume Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Galileo outer planetary space science mission. This mission employs Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) as the prime electrical power sources for the spacecraft. Galileo will be launched into Earth orbit using the Space Shuttle and will use the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster to place the spacecraft into an Earth escape trajectory. The RTG's employ silicon-germanium thermoelectric couples to produce electricity from the heat energy that results from the decay of the radioisotope fuel, Plutonium-238, used in the RTG heat source. The heat source configuration used in the RTG's is termed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), and the RTG's are designated GPHS-RTGs. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel as well as by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The FSAR presents the results of a rigorous safety assessment, including substantial analyses and testing, of the launch and deployment of the RTGs for the Galileo mission. This AMD is a summary of the potential accident and failure sequences which might result in fuel release, the analysis and testing methods employed, and the predicted source terms. Each source term consists of a quantity of fuel released, the location of release and the physical characteristics of the fuel released. Each source term has an associated probability of occurrence. 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. A Comprehensive Structural Dynamic Analysis Approach for Multi Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perino, Scott; Bayandor, Javid; Siddens, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The anticipated NASA Mars Sample Return Mission (MSR) requires a simple and reliable method in which to return collected Martian samples back to earth for scientific analysis. The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is NASA's proposed solution to this MSR requirement. Key aspects of the MMEEV are its reliable and passive operation, energy absorbing foam-composite structure, and modular impact sphere (IS) design. To aid in the development of an EEV design that can be modified for various missions requirements, two fully parametric finite element models were developed. The first model was developed in an explicit finite element code and was designed to evaluate the impact response of the vehicle and payload during the final stage of the vehicle's return to earth. The second model was developed in an explicit code and was designed to evaluate the static and dynamic structural response of the vehicle during launch and reentry. In contrast to most other FE models, built through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) pre-processor, the current model was developed using a coding technique that allows the analyst to quickly change nearly all aspects of the model including: geometric dimensions, material properties, load and boundary conditions, mesh properties, and analysis controls. Using the developed design tool, a full range of proposed designs can quickly be analyzed numerically and thus the design trade space for the EEV can be fully understood. An engineer can then quickly reach the best design for a specific mission and also adapt and optimize the general design for different missions.

  12. Sun Incidence Angle Analysis of KOMPSAT-2 Payload during Normal Mission Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eung-Hyun; Yong, Ki-Lyuk; Lee, Sang-Ryool

    2000-12-01

    KOMPSAT-2 will carry MSC (Multi-Spectral Camera) which provides 1m resolution panchromatic and 4m resolution multi-spectral images at the altitude of 685km sun-synchronous mission orbit. The mission operation of KOMSPAT-2 is to provide the earth observation using MSC with nadir pointing. KOMPSAT-2 will also have the capability of roll/pitch tilt maneuver using reaction wheel of satellite as required. In order to protect MSC from thermal distortion as well as direct sunlight, MSC shall be operated within the constraint of sun incidence angle. It is expected that the sunlight will not violate the constraint of sun incidence angle for normal mission operations without roll/pitch maneuver. However, during roll/pitch tilt operations, optical module of MSC may be damaged by the sunlight. This study analyzed sun incidence angle of payload using KOMPSAT-2 AOCS (Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem) Design and Performance Analysis Software for KOMPSAT-2 normal mission operations.

  13. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    The General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) will be used as the prime source of electric power for the spacecraft on the Galileo mission. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel and by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The purpose of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is to present the analyses and results of the latest evaluation of the nuclear safety potential of the GPHS-RTG as employed in the Galileo mission. This evaluation is an extension of earlier work that addressed the planned 1986 launch using the Space Shuttle Vehicle with the Centaur as the upper stage. This extended evaluation represents the launch by the Space Shuttle/IUS vehicle. The IUS stage has been selected as the vehicle to be used to boost the Galileo spacecraft into the Earth escape trajectory after the parking orbit is attained.

  14. Preliminary Radiation Analysis of the Total Ionizing Dose for the Resource Prospector Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Tylka, Allan J.; Atwell, William

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) is a collaborative project between multiple centers and institutions to search for volatiles at the polar regions of the Moon as a potential resource for oxygen and propellant production. The mission is rated Class D and will be the first In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) demonstration on the lunar surface and at the lunar poles. Given that this mission is rated Class D, the project is considering using commercial off the shelf (COTS) electronics parts to reduce cost. However, COTS parts can be more susceptible to space radiation than typical aerospace electronic parts and carry some additional risk. Thus, prior to parts selection, having a better understanding of the radiation environment can assist designers in the parts selection process. The focus of this paper is to provide a preliminary analysis of the radiation environment from launch, through landing on the surface, and some surface stay as an initial step in determining worst case mission doses to assist designers in screening out electronic parts that would not meet the potential dose levels experienced on this mission.

  15. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-33R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    A debris/ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-33R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-33R, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  16. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1990-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS (Thermal Protection System) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-36. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-36, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  17. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-38

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for the Space Shuttle Mission STS-38. Debris inspection of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-38, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  18. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Lin, Jill D.

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-73. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-73 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  19. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-74

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Lin, Jill D.

    1996-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-74. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-74 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  20. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for shuttle mission STS-44

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    A debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for space shuttle mission STS-44. Debris inspection of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after the launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of mission STS-44 are documented, along with their overall effect on the space shuttle program.

  1. Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-61. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-61, and the resulting effect on the space shuttle program.

  2. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle mission STS-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley; Rivera, Jorge E.; Speece, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-60. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-60, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  3. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-42

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS (Thermal Protection System) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-42. Debris inspection of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flighr anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions are documented along with photographic analysis of Mission STS-42, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  4. Debris/ice/tps Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-96. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-96 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  5. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1998-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-90. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system-conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-90 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  6. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-84. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cyrogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-84 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  7. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-68

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jorge E.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley; Speece, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-68. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report-documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-68, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  8. Debris/ice/tps Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-79

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D.

    1996-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-79. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-79 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  9. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-66. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer program nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-66, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  10. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jorge E.; Kelly, J. David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-102. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch were analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or inflight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice /thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-102 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  11. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-80

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-80. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission Space Transportation System (STS-80) and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  12. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    2000-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-99. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-99 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  13. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jorge E.; Kelly, J. David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-97. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch were analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris /ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-97 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  14. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-106

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Kelley, J. David (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-106. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-106 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  15. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-95. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-95 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  16. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speece, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-98. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-98 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  17. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-93. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis findings of Space Shuttle mission STS-93 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  18. Debris/ice/tps Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jill D.; Katnik, Gregory N.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-83. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-83 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  19. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2004-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-100. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The report documents the debris/ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-100 and the resulting effect of the Space Shuttle Program.

  20. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-112

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2002-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-112. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The report documents the debris/ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-112 and the resulting effect of the Space Shuttle Program.

  1. Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-67. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection (TPS) conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-67, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  2. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    2000-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-103. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-103 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  3. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-71

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-71. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-71 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  4. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-89

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1998-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-89. Debris inspections of the flight element and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection systems conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-89 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  5. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-88. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-88 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  6. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-87

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1998-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-87. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the-use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-87 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  7. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1998-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-91. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-91 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  8. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-59. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by an on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/ thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-59, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  9. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-69

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-69. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system condition and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-69 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  10. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    2000-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-101. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-101 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  11. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-78

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-78. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-78 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  12. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-55

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1993-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-55. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/Frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-55, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  13. Re-Entry Mission Analysis of the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, D.; Haya Ramos, R.; Strauch, H.; Bottacini, M.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of the DEIMOS Space S.L.U. Re-entry Mission Analysis activities obtained in the frame of the Phase A up to PRR milestone of the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) ESA project leaded by ASTRIUM. Results presented show how the trajectory and the vehicle design are strictly related and how a feasible and robust solution can be efficiently obtained by considering since the beginning several constraints limiting the design. The process implemented combines the design of key vehicle and trajectory parameters. Once the vehicle design parameters and the conditions at the EIP are fixed, the Mission Analysis is completed by the definition of the optimal trajectory from the deorbiting to the EIP that allow the correct targeting of the EIP conditions but also a safe separation of the different modules and the correct targeting of the desired landing site.

  14. Re-Entry Mission Analysis Of The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Davide; Haya Ramos, Rodrigo; Strauch, Hans; Bottacini, Massimiliano

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the DEIMOS Space S.L.U. Re-entry Mission Analysis activities obtained in the frame of the Phase A up to PRR milestone of the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) ESA project leaded by ASTRIUM. Results presented show how the trajectory and the vehicle design are strictly related and how a feasible and robust solution can be efficiently obtained by considering since the beginning several constraints limiting the design. The process implemented combines the design of key vehicle and trajectory parameters. Once the vehicle design parameters and the conditions at the EIP are fixed, the Mission Analysis is completed by the definition of the optimal trajectory from the de- orbiting to the EIP that allow the correct targeting of the EIP conditions but also a safe separation of the different modules and the correct targeting of the desired landing site.

  15. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-72

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Lin, Jill D.

    1996-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-72. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-72 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  16. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle mission STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. Bradley; Rivera, Jorge E.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Speece, Robert F.; Rosado, Pedro J.

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-58. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The ice/debris/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-58, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  17. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-54

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1993-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-54. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-54, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  18. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1993-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-53. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/Frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-53, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  19. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-28R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-28R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/Frost conditions on the External Tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-28R is documented along with their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  20. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1990-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-41. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. Documented here are the debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-41, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  1. Space Trajectory Error Analysis Program (STEAP) for halo orbit missions. Volume 2: Programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, D. V.; Carney, P. C.; Underwood, J. W.; Vogt, E. D.

    1974-01-01

    The six month effort was responsible for the development, test, conversion, and documentation of computer software for the mission analysis of missions to halo orbits about libration points in the earth-sun system. The software consisting of two programs called NOMNAL and ERRAN is part of the Space Trajectories Error Analysis Programs. The program NOMNAL targets a transfer trajectory from earth on a given launch date to a specified halo orbit on a required arrival date. Either impulsive or finite thrust insertion maneuvers into halo orbit are permitted by the program. The transfer trajectory is consistent with a realistic launch profile input by the user. The second program ERRAN conducts error analyses of the targeted transfer trajectory. Measurements including range, doppler, star-planet angles, and apparent planet diameter are processed in a Kalman-Schmidt filter to determine the trajectory knowledge uncertainty.

  2. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for shuttle mission STS-35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, James Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A debris/ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-35. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after the launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, monographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. Documented here are the debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-35, and the overall effect of these conditions on the Space Shuttle Program.

  3. Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-77

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, GregoryN.; Lin, Jill D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-77. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-77 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  4. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-48

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-48. Debris inspection of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-48 are documented, along with their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  5. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jill D.

    1996-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-75. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-75 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  6. Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-76

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jill D.

    1996-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-76. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-76 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  7. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-86. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-86 and the resulting affect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  8. Debris/ice/tps Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-81. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-81 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  9. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Barry C.; Lin, Jill D.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-94. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-94 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  10. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-92

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    2000-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-92. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-92 and the resulting effect, if any, on the Space Shuttle Program.

  11. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-65. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-65, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  12. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-51

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1993-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-51. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-51 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  13. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-46. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-46, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  14. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-57

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1993-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-57. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-57, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  15. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    A debris/ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-47. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-52, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  16. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley; Katnik, Gregory N.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-50. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-50, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  17. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-49

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    A debris/ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-49. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. Debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-49, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program are discussed.

  18. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle mission STS-47

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    A debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-47. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-47, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  19. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-70

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-70. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-70 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  20. Data Analysis Technologies to Reduce Risk in Future Gravitational-Wave Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littenberg, Tyson

    The existence of gravitational waves has at last been confirmed by the LIGO/Virgo discovery of a binary black hole merger, heralding the beginning of a new fields of research in observational astronomy, astrophysics, and relativity research. the LISA Pathfinder mission has begun collecting science data, paving the way for space-based gravitational wave measurement. Gravitational wave science will reach its full potential with a space-based observatory able to access mHz frequencies. The proposed work will investigate how develop crucial data analysis infrastructure for a future space mission. The three key themes of the proposal are (i) to incorporate lessons learned from LISA Pathfinder into our understanding of a GW observatories performance, (ii) develop data analysis mcethods for inter-spacecraft ranging critical to achieving the measurement precision needed for GW detection, and (iii) explore how known sources in the mHz band can be used as calibration sources.

  1. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-34. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-34, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  2. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-37. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or inflight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-37 are documented, along with their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  3. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-63. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, monographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-63, and the resulting effect on the space shuttle program.

  4. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for shuttle mission STS-31R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1990-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-31R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-31R, is presented along with their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  5. Analysis and testing of gyroscope performance for the Gravity Probe B relativity mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Yoshimi

    2000-11-01

    This dissertation describes the analysis and experimental testing of the performance of electrostatically suspended vacuum gyroscopes (ESVG) designed for the Gravity Probe B Relativity Experiment (GP-B). The GP-B mission is a satellite-based gyroscope experiment currently under joint development by NASA and Stanford University. It is designed to test two predictions of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity: the geodetic effect and the frame-dragging effect. They are predicted to be 6.6 and 0.042 arc-sec/year, respectively, for a planned circular polar orbit. The primary goal of the GP-B mission is to measure the geodetic effect to better than 0.01%, and the frame-dragging effect to better than 1%. In order to achieve this goal, the non-relativistic drift rate of the gyroscope must be less than 0.3 milli-arc-sec/year. Presented is the analysis of the part of the Newtonian torque on the gyroscope rotor that is due to the electrostatic support, estimation of the science-mission drift rate, and experimental validation of the theoretical torque modeling. The analysis of the electrostatic torque indicates that the torque depends on both the close-to-perfect rotor shape with very minor manufacturing asphericity, and the voltage applied to the electrodes. To estimate the science-mission drift rate, we used the measured asphericity of an existing rotor that was below flight quality. Throughout the analysis, the estimated drift rate of the gyroscope induced by the non-relativistic effect was less than the maximum allowed drift rate of 0.3 milli-arc-sec/year for this effect. This result is gratifying because the actual flight rotors will exhibit a much lower non-relativistic drift rate. In the laboratory, parameters that characterize the electrostatic torque were measured by changing the voltages applied to the electrodes and the position of the gyroscope rotor in its housing cavity. The results match well with the theoretical expectations, confirming the validity of the

  6. Dispersion analysis for baseline reference mission 3A using powered explicit guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    A dispersion analysis considering 3 sigma uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for baseline reference mission 3A. Powered explicit guidance (PEG) was used to develop closed loop steering commands for this dispersion analysis. The nominal profile for the dispersion analysis is identical to the nominal profile of Reference 1 ascent trajectory with the exception that generalized linear tangent (GLT) guidance is used in Reference 1. Nominal trajectory differences which result from using PEG instead of GLT were determined and dispersion data were developed using PEG for comparison with similar data developed using GLT guidance.

  7. Navigation Design and Analysis for the Orion Earth-Moon Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DSouza, Christopher; Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the design of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. The unmodeled accelerations and their characterization are detailed. It also presents the analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the delta-V performance.

  8. NSEG, a segmented mission analysis program for low and high speed aircraft. Volume 1: Theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Rozendaal, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid mission analysis code based on the use of approximate flight path equations of motion is presented. Equation form varies with the segment type, for example, accelerations, climbs, cruises, descents, and decelerations. Realistic and detailed characteristics were specified in tabular form. The code also contains extensive flight envelope performance mapping capabilities. Approximate take off and landing analyses were performed. At high speeds, centrifugal lift effects were accounted for. Extensive turbojet and ramjet engine scaling procedures were incorporated in the code.

  9. Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During Perigee Raise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachura, Daniel A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Carpenter, J. R.; Wright, Cinnamon A.

    2014-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will provide orbit determination and prediction support for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission during the missions commissioning period. The spacecraft will launch into a highly elliptical Earth orbit in 2015. Starting approximately four days after launch, a series of five large perigee-raising maneuvers will be executed near apogee on a nearly every-other-orbit cadence. This perigee-raise operations concept requires a high-accuracy estimate of the orbital state within one orbit following the maneuver for performance evaluation and a high-accuracy orbit prediction to correctly plan and execute the next maneuver in the sequence. During early mission design, a linear covariance analysis method was used to study orbit determination and prediction accuracy for this perigee-raising campaign. This paper provides a higher fidelity Monte Carlo analysis using the operational COTS extended Kalman filter implementation that was performed to validate the linear covariance analysis estimates and to better characterize orbit determination performance for actively maneuvering spacecraft in a highly elliptical orbit. The study finds that the COTS extended Kalman filter tool converges on accurate definitive orbit solutions quickly, but prediction accuracy through orbits with very low altitude perigees is degraded by the unpredictability of atmospheric density variation.

  10. Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During Perigee Raise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachura, Daniel A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Wright, Cinnamon A.

    2014-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will provide orbit determination and prediction support for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission during the mission's commissioning period. The spacecraft will launch into a highly elliptical Earth orbit in 2015. Starting approximately four days after launch, a series of five large perigee-raising maneuvers will be executed near apogee on a nearly every-other-orbit cadence. This perigee-raise operations concept requires a high-accuracy estimate of the orbital state within one orbit following the maneuver for performance evaluation and a high-accuracy orbit prediction to correctly plan and execute the next maneuver in the sequence. During early mission design, a linear covariance analysis method was used to study orbit determination and prediction accuracy for this perigee-raising campaign. This paper provides a higher fidelity Monte Carlo analysis using the operational COTS extended Kalman filter implementation that was performed to validate the linear covariance analysis estimates and to better characterize orbit determination performance for actively maneuvering spacecraft in a highly elliptical orbit. The study finds that the COTS extended Kalman filter tool converges on accurate definitive orbit solutions quickly, but prediction accuracy through orbits with very low altitude perigees is degraded by the unpredictability of atmospheric density variation.

  11. Space shuttle engineering and operations support: Dispersion analysis for the first orbital flight test (OFT-1) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    A dispersion analysis considering 3-sigma uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for the first orbital flight test (OFT-1) mission. The dispersion analysis is based on the nominal trajectory for the OFT-1 reference flight profile. The analysis was performed to determine state vector and performance dispersions (or variations) which result from the indicated 3-sigma uncertainties. The dispersions are determined at major mission events and fixed times from liftoff (time slices). The dispersion results are used to evaluate the capability of the vehicle to perform the mission within a 3-sigma level of confidence and to determine flight performance reserves.

  12. Thermal Analysis of Step 2 GPHS for Next Generation Radioisotope Power Source Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantano, David R.; Hill, Dennis H.

    2005-02-01

    The Step 2 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a slightly larger and more robust version of the heritage GPHS modules flown on previous Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) missions like Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini. The Step 2 GPHS is to be used in future small radioisotope power sources, such as the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) and the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). New features include an additional central web of Fine Weave Pierced Fabric (FWPF) graphite in the aeroshell between the two Graphite Impact Shells (GIS) to improve accidental reentry and impact survivability and an additional 0.1-inch of thickness to the aeroshell broad faces to improve ablation protection. This paper details the creation of the thermal model using Thermal Desktop and AutoCAD interfaces and provides comparisons of the model to results of previous thermal analysis models of the heritage GPHS. The results of the analysis show an anticipated decrease in total thermal gradient from the aeroshell to the iridium clads compared to the heritage results. In addition, the Step 2 thermal model is investigated under typical SRG110 boundary conditions, with cover gas and gravity environments included where applicable, to provide preliminary guidance for design of the generator. Results show that the temperatures of the components inside the GPHS remain within accepted design limits during all envisioned mission phases.

  13. Comparing Different Analysis Approaches for the GRACE Follow-On Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.

    2016-03-01

    The NASA-DLR GRACE Follow-On Mission (GFO) is scheduled for launch in 2017. It will continue the measurements of the GRACE Mission, which has very successfully monitored changes in the Earth's mass distribution since 2002. Some reductions in measurement noise sources are expected, but some empirical parameter correction method will still need to be used to partially correct for satellite acceleration noise. In studies of possible future gravity missions after GFO, quite different assumptions have been made about the length of the data arcs used in the analysis and the nature and numbers of empirical parameters to be estimated. In this talk, the advantages of comparing the different approaches in simulations by analyzing the results along the satellite orbits and at altitude will be discussed. The usual approach is to combine the data arcs over 10 to 30 day periods before solutions for changes in the mass distribution are solved for. But then, the changes in the mass distribution between the times of the different arcs will affect the results. The along track approach is particularly suitable for a suggested analysis method called the ocean calibration approach, where most of the weight in correcting for acceleration noise is given to data collected over the equatorial oceans.

  14. Computer Analysis of Spectrum Anomaly in 32-GHz Traveling-Wave Tube for Cassini Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, James A., Jr.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kory, Carol L.

    1999-01-01

    Computer modeling of the 32-GHz traveling-wave tube (TWT) for the Cassini Mission was conducted to explain the anomaly observed in the spectrum analysis of one of the flight-model tubes. The analysis indicated that the effect, manifested as a weak signal in the neighborhood of 35 GHz, was an intermodulation product of the 32-GHz drive signal with a 66.9-GHz oscillation induced by coupling to the second harmonic'signal. The oscillation occurred only at low- radiofrequency (RF) drive power levels that are not expected during the Cassini Mission. The conclusion was that the anomaly was caused by a generic defect inadvertently incorporated in the geometric design of the slow-wave circuit and that it would not change as the TWT aged. The most probable effect of aging on tube performance would be a reduction in the electron beam current. The computer modeling indicated that although not likely to occur within the mission lifetime, a reduction in beam current would reduce or eliminate the anomaly but would do so at the cost of reduced RF output power.

  15. NSEG: A segmented mission analysis program for low and high speed aircraft. Volume 3: Demonstration problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Rozendaal, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    Program NSEG is a rapid mission analysis code based on the use of approximate flight path equations of motion. Equation form varies with the segment type, for example, accelerations, climbs, cruises, descents, and decelerations. Realistic and detailed vehicle characteristics are specified in tabular form. In addition to its mission performance calculation capabilities, the code also contains extensive flight envelope performance mapping capabilities. For example, rate-of-climb, turn rates, and energy maneuverability parameter values may be mapped in the Mach-altitude plane. Approximate take off and landing analyses are also performed. At high speeds, centrifugal lift effects are accounted for. Extensive turbojet and ramjet engine scaling procedures are incorporated in the code.

  16. Supporting Meteorological Field Experiment Missions and Postmission Analysis with Satellite Digital Data and Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Digital satellite remote-sensing imagery and derived products can greatly aid field project success in terms of both real-time logistics and...supporting scientific hypotheses. Supporting Meteorological Field experiMent MiSSionS and poStMiSSion analySiS with Satellite digital data and productS...and Postmission Analysis with Satellite Digital Data and Products 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  17. Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

  18. The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT): A New Resource for Supporting Debris Orbit Determination, Tracking and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jah, Moriba; Huges, Steven; Wilkins, Matthew; Kelecy, Tom

    2009-03-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) was initially developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as a high accuracy orbital analysis tool to support a variety of space missions. A formal agreement has recently been established between NASA and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to further develop GMAT to include orbit determination (OD) capabilities. A variety of estimation strategies and dynamic models will be included in the new version of GMAT. GMAT will accommodate orbit determination, tracking and analysis of orbital debris through a combination of model, processing and implementation requirements. The GMAT processing architecture natively supports parallel processing such that allow it can efficiently accommodate the OD and tracking of numerous objects resulting from breakups. A full first release of the augmented GMAT capability is anticipated in September 2009 and it will be available for community use at no charge.

  19. Wintering and breeding bird monitoring data analysis 2010-2013: San Antonio Missions National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Following guidance issued within the Avian Inventory and Monitoring in National Parks of the Gulf Coast Network: Gulf Coast Network Avian Monitoring Plan, 40 point locations were established and monitored within San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. During three breeding seasons (May – Jun) and winters (Dec – Feb) between 2010 and 2013, birds were monitored at 20 or 30 of these point locations via time-distance point counts (breeding) or area searches (winter). To ensure data from all 40 random locations were included in analyses, monitoring data from two consecutive years were combined. As a result, some points were monitored twice during the period of analysis. Even so, I have treated each survey as an independent monitoring event, thereby assuming each visit to be equally representative of the bird community for the entirety of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. When translating avian densities to park-wide populations, I used an area of 334 ha to represent San Antonio Missions National Historical Park including the Rancho de las Cabras unit.

  20. Mission Life Thermal Analysis and Environment Correlation for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Matthew B.; Peabody, Hume

    2012-01-01

    Standard thermal analysis practices include stacking worst-case conditions including environmental heat loads, thermo-optical properties and orbital beta angles. This results in the design being driven by a few bounding thermal cases, although those cases may only represent a very small portion of the actual mission life. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Branch developed a procedure to predict the flight temperatures over the entire mission life, assuming a known beta angle progression, variation in the thermal environment, and a degradation rate in the coatings. This was applied to the Global Precipitation Measurement core spacecraft. In order to assess the validity of this process, this work applies the similar process to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. A flight-correlated thermal model was exercised to give predictions of the thermal performance over the mission life. These results were then compared against flight data from the first two years of the spacecraft s use. This is used to validate the process and to suggest possible improvements for future analyses.

  1. Mars Impact Probability Analysis for the Hayabusa-2 NEO Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Yuichi; Yano, Hajime; Chujo, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Yukio

    This paper reports an analysis result of the Mars impact probability of the Hayabusa-2 ,mission to comply with the COSPAR planetary protection requirements. Hayabusa-2 is a round-trip mission to the near-earth asteroid “1999 JU3”, and is being developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. 1999 JU3 is a C-type asteroid, which is believed to contain organics and hydrated minerals. Thus, it is expected that its successful sample return may provide fundamental information regarding the origin and evolution of terrestrial planets as well as the origin of water and organics delivered to the Earth. The spacecraft is currently in the final assembly phase to be ready for launch at the end of 2014 by Japanese H-IIA launch vehicle from the Tanegashima Space Centre. The spacecraft is planned to reach the asteroid 1999 JU3 in the middle of 2018 and perform the proximity operation for 1.5 years. Three touchdowns for surface sample collection and one artificial crater formation experiment by a kinetic impactor (SCI: Small Carry-on Impactor aboard the mothership) are planned during this proximity operation. The collected samples will be finally brought back to the Earth by a re-entry capsule at the end of 2020. In 2012, the Hayabusa-2 project requested the COSPAR Planetary Protection Panel to recommend both outbound and inbound planetary protection requirements to the 1999 JU3 sample return mission. After careful consideration with respect to the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy at the Alpbach Colloquium, the Hayabusa-2 mission was considered the outbound Category-II, in condition of “avoiding impact with Mars under all mission scenarios”, and the inbound Category-V(B) as “unrestricted Earth return” for the 1999 JU3 samples. This agreement also concurred with the recommendation of the NASA Advisory Council’s Planetary Protection Subcommittee. Therefore this paper aims at reporting the result of the last outstanding condition for completing the COSPAR

  2. Acquisition and Analysis of NASA Ames Sunphotometer Measurements during SAGE III Validation Campaigns and other Tropospheric and Stratospheric Research Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC2-1251 provided funding from April 2001 through December 2003 for Mr. John Livingston of SRI International to collaborate with NASA Ames Research Center scientists and engineers in the acquisition and analysis of airborne sunphotometer measurements during various atmospheric field studies. Mr. Livingston participated in instrument calibrations at Mauna Loa Observatory, pre-mission hardware and software preparations, acquisition and analysis of sunphotometer measurements during the missions, and post-mission analysis of data and reporting of scientific findings. The atmospheric field missions included the spring 2001 Intensive of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the Asian Dust Above Monterey-2003 (ADAM-2003) experiment, and the winter 2003 Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II).

  3. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A debris, ice, Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis for Space Shuttle Mission STS-40 was conducted. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice and frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice and debris sources and to evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies.

  4. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-43

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, James Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A debris/ice Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Station Mission STS-43. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank (ET) were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and to evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies.

  5. Demonstration of the Subjective Transfer Function Approach Applied to Air-Force-Wide Mission Area Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    V AA113 677 RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA F/0 11/1A DA EMONSTRATION OF THE SUBJECTIVE TRANSFER FUNCTION APPROACH APPL--ETC(U) FES l2S C T VEIT, M CALLERO ...S .J ROSE F�-62-CvOO18 UNLSIIDRAN/N1831-A NLEmhmhhhm MURN AAsAMYT dC4 Clairic. T. Volt. Nouti Callero , -. HBarbara J. Rose February 1982 N...FORCE-WIDE MISSION AREA ANALYSIS Clairice T. Veit, Monti Callero . Barbara J. Rose February 1982 N- 1831-AF Prepared For The United States Air Force SANTA

  6. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  7. Analysis of the flight dynamics of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) off-sun scientific pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitone, D. S.; Klein, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms are presented which were created and implemented by the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) attitude operations team to support large-angle spacecraft pointing at scientific objectives. The mission objective of the post-repair SMM satellite was to study solar phenomena. However, because the scientific instruments, such as the Coronagraph/Polarimeter (CP) and the Hard X ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS), were able to view objects other than the Sun, attitude operations support for attitude pointing at large angles from the nominal solar-pointing attitudes was required. Subsequently, attitude support for SMM was provided for scientific objectives such as Comet Halley, Supernova 1987A, Cygnus X-1, and the Crab Nebula. In addition, the analysis was extended to include the reverse problem, computing the right ascension and declination of a body given the off-Sun angles. This analysis led to the computation of the orbits of seven new solar comets seen in the field-of-view (FOV) of the CP. The activities necessary to meet these large-angle attitude-pointing sequences, such as slew sequence planning, viewing-period prediction, and tracking-bias computation are described. Analysis is presented for the computation of maneuvers and pointing parameters relative to the SMM-unique, Sun-centered reference frame. Finally, science data and independent attitude solutions are used to evaluate the large-angle pointing performance.

  8. Application of State Analysis and Goal-based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, John Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the system behavior in terms of state variables and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper first describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  9. Analysis of the flight dynamics of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) off-sun scientific pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitone, D. S.; Klein, J. R.; Twambly, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Algorithms are presented which were created and implemented by the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) attitude operations team to support large-angle spacecraft pointing at scientific objectives. The mission objective of the post-repair SMM satellite was to study solar phenomena. However, because the scientific instruments, such as the Coronagraph/Polarimeter (CP) and the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS), were able to view objects other than the Sun, attitude operations support for attitude pointing at large angles from the nominal solar-pointing attitudes was required. Subsequently, attitude support for SMM was provided for scientific objectives such as Comet Halley, Supernova 1987A, Cygnus X-1, and the Crab Nebula. In addition, the analysis was extended to include the reverse problem, computing the right ascension and declination of a body given the off-Sun angles. This analysis led to the computation of the orbits of seven new solar comets seen in the field-of-view (FOV) of the CP. The activities necessary to meet these large-angle attitude-pointing sequences, such as slew sequence planning, viewing-period prediction, and tracking-bias computation are described. Analysis is presented for the computation of maneuvers and pointing parameters relative to the SMM-unique, Sun-centered reference frame. Finally, science data and independent attitude solutions are used to evaluate the larg-angle pointing performance.

  10. Mechanism design and dynamic analysis of a large-scale spatial deployable structure for space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanling; Lin, Qiuhong; Wang, Xingze; Li, Lin; Cong, Qiang; Pan, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The deployable structure is critical to the overall success of the space mission. This paper introduces a large-scale spatial deployable structure (SDS), which is developed to deploy and support the payload panels in a precise configuration once on the track. And segmental researching in the design, kinematics and dynamics analysis of SDS's prototyping system are presented. Geometric construction method and Bar-groups method are adopted to analysis the dimensions and coordinates of the SDS, which finally construct an well-determined mathematical model to raise the productivity and efficiency during optimization and analysis work. Be reasoned with the large-scale of the truss structures, flexible multibody dynamic simulations are developed, which present much more authentic stress transfer and kinematics behaviors. According to the deployment experiments of SDS's prototyping system, the correctness and validity of the flexible multibody simulation work are well proved.

  11. Curation and Analysis of Samples from Comet Wild-2 Returned by NASA's Stardust Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Walker, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Stardust mission returned the first direct samples of a cometary coma from comet 81P/Wild-2 in 2006. Intact capture of samples encountered at 6 km/s was enabled by the use of aerogel, an ultralow dense silica polymer. Approximately 1000 particles were captured, with micron and submicron materials distributed along mm scale length tracks. This sample collection method and the fine scale of the samples posed new challenges to the curation and cosmochemistry communities. Sample curation involved extensive, detailed photo-documentation and delicate micro-surgery to remove particles without loss from the aerogel tracks. This work had to be performed in highly clean facility to minimize the potential of contamination. JSC Curation provided samples ranging from entire tracks to micrometer-sized particles to external investigators. From the analysis perspective, distinguishing cometary materials from aerogel and identifying the potential alteration from the capture process were essential. Here, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved to be the key technique that would make this possible. Based on TEM work by ourselves and others, a variety of surprising findings were reported, such as the observation of high temperature phases resembling those found in meteorites, rarely intact presolar grains and scarce organic grains and submicrometer silicates. An important lesson from this experience is that curation and analysis teams must work closely together to understand the requirements and challenges of each task. The Stardust Mission also has laid important foundation to future sample returns including OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa II and future cometary nucleus sample return missions.

  12. Space Trajectory Error Analysis Program (STEAP) for halo orbit missions. Volume 1: Analytic and user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, D. V.; Carney, P. C.; Underwood, J. W.; Vogt, E. D.

    1974-01-01

    Development, test, conversion, and documentation of computer software for the mission analysis of missions to halo orbits about libration points in the earth-sun system is reported. The software consisting of two programs called NOMNAL and ERRAN is part of the Space Trajectories Error Analysis Programs (STEAP). The program NOMNAL targets a transfer trajectory from Earth on a given launch date to a specified halo orbit on a required arrival date. Either impulsive or finite thrust insertion maneuvers into halo orbit are permitted by the program. The transfer trajectory is consistent with a realistic launch profile input by the user. The second program ERRAN conducts error analyses of the targeted transfer trajectory. Measurements including range, doppler, star-planet angles, and apparent planet diameter are processed in a Kalman-Schmidt filter to determine the trajectory knowledge uncertainty. Execution errors at injection, midcourse correction and orbit insertion maneuvers are analyzed along with the navigation uncertainty to determine trajectory control uncertainties and fuel-sizing requirements. The program is also capable of generalized covariance analyses.

  13. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 1, Reference design document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume I, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes II and III. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume I which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

  14. The CarbonSat Earth Explorer 8 candidate mission: Error analysis for carbon dioxide and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Reuter, Maximilian; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Meijer, Yasjka; Sierk, Bernd; Caron, Jerome; Loescher, Armin; Ingmann, Paul; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    CarbonSat is one of two candidate missions for ESA's Earth Explorer 8 (EE8) satellite to be launched around 2022. The main goal of CarbonSat is to advance our knowledge on the natural and man-made sources and sinks of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) on various temporal and spatial scales (e.g., regional, city and point source scale), as well as related climate feedbacks. CarbonSat will be the first satellite mission optimised to detect emission hot spots of CO2 (e.g., cities, industrialised areas, power plants) and CH4 (e.g., oil and gas fields) and to quantify their emissions. Furthermore, CarbonSat will deliver a number of important by-products such as Vegetation Chlorophyll Fluorescence (VCF, also called Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF)) at 755 nm. These applications require appropriate retrieval algorithms which are currently being optimized and used for error analysis. The status of this error analysis will be presented based on the latest version of the CO2 and CH4 retrieval algorithm and taking the current instrument specification into account. An overview will be presented focusing on nadir observations over land. Focus will be on specific issues such as errors of the CO2 and CH4 products due to residual polarization related errors and errors related to inhomogeneous ground scenes.

  15. Spacecraft Autonomy and Automation: A Comparative Analysis of Strategies for Cost Effective Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Nathaniel, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of satellite operations over the last 40 years has drastically changed. October 4, 1957 (during the cold war) the Soviet Union launched the world's first spacecraft into orbit. The Sputnik satellite orbited Earth for three months and catapulted the United States into a race for dominance in space. A year after Sputnik, President Dwight Eisenhower formed the National Space and Aeronautics Administration (NASA). With a team of scientists and engineers, NASA successfully launched Explorer 1, the first US satellite to orbit Earth. During these early years, massive amounts of ground support equipment and operators were required to successfully operate spacecraft vehicles. Today, budget reductions and technological advances have forced new approaches to spacecraft operations. These approaches require increasingly complex, on board spacecraft systems, that enable autonomous operations, resulting in more cost-effective mission operations. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, considered world class in satellite development and operations, has developed and operated over 200 satellites during its 40 years of existence. NASA Goddard is adopting several new millennium initiatives that lower operational costs through the spacecraft autonomy and automation. This paper examines NASA's approach to spacecraft autonomy and ground system automation through a comparative analysis of satellite missions for Hubble Space Telescope-HST, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous-NEAR, and Solar Heliospheric Observatory-SoHO, with emphasis on cost reduction methods, risk analysis and anomalies and strategies employed for mitigating risk.

  16. Analysis of Surface Charging for a Candidate Solar Sail Mission Using Nascap-2k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.; Davis, Victoria; Mandell, Myron; Gardner, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a solar sail in the solar wind environment and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies are critical solar sail mission design task. Spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for lifetime and reliability issues of sail propulsion systems. To that end, surface charging calculations of a candidate 150-meter-class solar sail spacecraft for the 0.5 AU solar polar and 1.0 AU L1 solar wind environments are performed. A model of the spacecraft with candidate materials having appropriate electrical properties is constructed using Object Toolkit. The spacecraft charging analysis is performed using Nascap-2k, the NASA/AFRL sponsored spacecraft charging analysis tool. Nominal and atypical solar wind environments appropriate for the 0.5 AU and 1.0 AU missions are used to establish current collection of solar wind ions and electrons. Finally, a geostationary orbit environment case is included to demonstrate a bounding example of extreme (negative) charging of a solar sail spacecraft. Results from the charging analyses demonstrate that minimal differential potentials (and resulting threat of electrostatic discharge) occur when the spacecraft is constructed entirely of conducting materials, as anticipated from standard guidelines for mitigation of spacecraft charging issues. Examples with dielectric materials exposed to the space environment exhibit differential potentials ranging from a few volts to extreme potentials in the kilovolt range.

  17. Analysis of Surface Charging for a Candidate Solar Sail Mission Using NASCAP-2K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph L.; Davis, V. A.; Mandell, Myron; Gardner, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of the electromagnetic interaction for a solar sail in the solar wind environment and identification of viable charging mitigation strategies are critical solar sail mission design tasks. Spacecraft charging has important implications both for science applications and for lifetime and reliability issues of sail propulsion systems. To that end, surface charging calculations of a candidate 150-meter-class solar sail spacecraft for the 0.5 AU solar polar and 1.9 AU LI solar wind environments are performed. A model of the spacecraft with candidate materials having appropriate electrical properties is constructed using Object Toolkit. The spacecraft charging analysis is performed using Nascap-2k. the NASA/AFRL sponsored spacecraft charging analysis tool. Nominal and atypical solar wind environments appropriate for the 0.5 AU and 1.0 AU missions are used to establish current collection of solar wind ions and electrons. Finally, a geostationary orbit environment case is included to demonstrate a bounding example of extreme (negative) charging of a solar sail spacecraft. Results from the charging analyses demonstrate that minimal differential potentials (and resulting threat of electrostatic discharge) occur when the spacecraft is constructed entirely of conducting materials, as anticipated from standard guidelines for mitigation of spacecraft charging issues. Examples with dielectric materials exposed to the space environment exhibit differential potentials ranging from a few volts to extreme potentials in the kilovolt range.

  18. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  19. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study leading to the preliminary design of a five passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis are presented. The study methodology is described. Vehicle characterizations, the mission description, characterization, and impact on potential sales, and the rationale for the selection of the reference internal combustion engine vehicle are presented. Conclusions and recommendations of the mission analysis and performance specification report are included.

  20. Surface Lander Missions to Mars: Support via Analysis of the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.; Bridger, Alison F.C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    We have characterized the near-surface martian wind environment as calculated with a set of numerical simulations carried out with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (Mars GCM). These wind environments are intended to offer future spacecraft missions to the martian surface a data base from which to choose those locations which meet the mission's criteria for minimal near surface winds to enable a successful landing. We also became involved in the development and testing of the wind sensor which is currently onboard the Mars-bound Pathfinder lander. We began this effort with a comparison of Mars GCM produced winds with those measured by the Viking landers during their descent through the martian atmosphere and their surface wind measurements during the 3+ martian year lifetime of the mission. Unexpected technical difficulties in implementing the sophisticated Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme of Haberle et al. (1993) within the Mars GCM precluded our carrying out this investigation with the desired improvement to the model's treatment of the PBL. Thus, our results from this effort are not as conclusive as we had anticipated. As it turns out, similar difficulties have been experienced by other Mars modelling groups in attempting to implement very similar PBL routines into their GCMs (Mars General Circulation Model Intercomparison Workshop, held at Oxford University, United Kingdom, July 22-24, 1996; organized by J. Murphy, J. Hollingsworth, M. Joshi). These problems, which arise due to the nature of the time stepping in each of the models, are near to being resolved at the present. The model discussions which follow herein are based upon results using the existing, less sophisticated PBL routine. We fully anticipate implementing the tools we have developed in the present effort to investigate GCM results with the new PBL scheme implemented, and thereafter producing the technical document detailing results from the analysis tools developed during this

  1. Preliminary Analysis of ISS Maintenance History and Implications for Supportability of Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Kevin J.; Robbins, William W.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) enables the study of supportability issues associated with long-duration human spaceflight. The ISS is a large, complex spacecraft that must be maintained by its crew. In contrast to the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle, but similar to spacecraft that will be component elements of future missions beyond low-Earth orbit, ISS does not return to the ground for servicing and provisioning of spares is severely constrained by transportation limits. Although significant technical support is provided by ground personnel, all hands-on maintenance tasks are performed by the crew. It is expected that future missions to distant destinations will be further limited by lack of resupply opportunities and will, eventually, become largely independent of ground support. ISS provides an opportunity to begin learning lessons that will enable future missions to be successful. Data accumulated over the first several years of ISS operations have been analyzed to gain a better understanding of maintenance-related workload. This analysis addresses both preventive and corrective maintenance and includes all U.S segment core systems. Systems and tasks that are major contributors to workload are identified. As further experience accrues, lessons will be learned that will influence future system designs so that they require less maintenance and, when maintenance is required, it can be performed more efficiently. By heeding the lessons of ISS it will be possible to identify system designs that should be more robust and point towards advances in both technology and design that will offer the greatest return on investment.

  2. Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Near Subsurface Electromagnetic Techniques and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, A.; Samson, C.; Holladay, J. S.; Cloutis, E. A.; Ernst, R. E.

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Canadian Space Agency's Mars Methane Analogue Mission, a micro-rover mission, an Electromagnetic Induction Sounder (EMIS) was used with the goal of demonstrating its value as a potential science instrument onboard future rovers.

  3. Reliability analysis in the Office of Safety, Environmental, and Mission Assurance (OSEMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffmann, Paul J.

    1994-01-01

    The technical personnel in the SEMA office are working to provide the highest degree of value-added activities to their support of the NASA Langley Research Center mission. Management perceives that reliability analysis tools and an understanding of a comprehensive systems approach to reliability will be a foundation of this change process. Since the office is involved in a broad range of activities supporting space mission projects and operating activities (such as wind tunnels and facilities), it was not clear what reliability tools the office should be familiar with and how these tools could serve as a flexible knowledge base for organizational growth. Interviews and discussions with the office personnel (both technicians and engineers) revealed that job responsibilities ranged from incoming inspection to component or system analysis to safety and risk. It was apparent that a broad base in applied probability and reliability along with tools for practical application was required by the office. A series of ten class sessions with a duration of two hours each was organized and scheduled. Hand-out materials were developed and practical examples based on the type of work performed by the office personnel were included. Topics covered were: Reliability Systems - a broad system oriented approach to reliability; Probability Distributions - discrete and continuous distributions; Sampling and Confidence Intervals - random sampling and sampling plans; Data Analysis and Estimation - Model selection and parameter estimates; and Reliability Tools - block diagrams, fault trees, event trees, FMEA. In the future, this information will be used to review and assess existing equipment and processes from a reliability system perspective. An analysis of incoming materials sampling plans was also completed. This study looked at the issues associated with Mil Std 105 and changes for a zero defect acceptance sampling plan.

  4. Reliability analysis in the Office of Safety, Environmental, and Mission Assurance (OSEMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Paul J.

    1994-12-01

    The technical personnel in the SEMA office are working to provide the highest degree of value-added activities to their support of the NASA Langley Research Center mission. Management perceives that reliability analysis tools and an understanding of a comprehensive systems approach to reliability will be a foundation of this change process. Since the office is involved in a broad range of activities supporting space mission projects and operating activities (such as wind tunnels and facilities), it was not clear what reliability tools the office should be familiar with and how these tools could serve as a flexible knowledge base for organizational growth. Interviews and discussions with the office personnel (both technicians and engineers) revealed that job responsibilities ranged from incoming inspection to component or system analysis to safety and risk. It was apparent that a broad base in applied probability and reliability along with tools for practical application was required by the office. A series of ten class sessions with a duration of two hours each was organized and scheduled. Hand-out materials were developed and practical examples based on the type of work performed by the office personnel were included. Topics covered were: Reliability Systems - a broad system oriented approach to reliability; Probability Distributions - discrete and continuous distributions; Sampling and Confidence Intervals - random sampling and sampling plans; Data Analysis and Estimation - Model selection and parameter estimates; and Reliability Tools - block diagrams, fault trees, event trees, FMEA. In the future, this information will be used to review and assess existing equipment and processes from a reliability system perspective. An analysis of incoming materials sampling plans was also completed. This study looked at the issues associated with Mil Std 105 and changes for a zero defect acceptance sampling plan.

  5. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study add-on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, S. W.; Johnson, W. T.; Schoen, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    An MOTV mission model was constructed in order to establish the baseline condition for SOC basing. A mission model to reflect satellite servicing was extended. Yearly traffic was projected. Driver missions were categorized. Cost trades and sensitivity to traffic rates were performed and service equipment needs were identified.

  6. Design of cycler trajectories and analysis of solar influences on radioactive decay rates during space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Blake A.

    investigated to determine if they can be used to find new cycler trajectories, as well as those previously discovered. First order approximations to the relative motion equations are unfruitful for Earth-Mars cyclers because the variation in radial distance from the Sun is too large. However, using optimization techniques, cycling trajectories are found for the Earth-Mars, Earth-Ceres, and Mars-Ceres systems. Experiments showing a seasonal variation of the nuclear decay rates of a number of different nuclei and decay anomalies--- apparently related to solar flares and solar rotation--- have suggested that the Sun may somehow be influencing nuclear decay processes. Recently, there have been searches for such an effect in 238Pu nuclei contained in the radioisotope thermoelectric generators on board the Cassini spacecraft. In this work, that analysis is modified and extended to obtain constraints on anomalous decays of 238Pu over a wider range of models, but these limits cannot be applied to other nuclei if the anomaly is composition-dependent. It is also shown that it may require very high sensitivity for terrestrial experiments to discriminate among some models if such a decay anomaly exists, motivating the consideration of future spacecraft experiments which would require less precision. A mission on which such an experiment could be run is proposed. The proposed mission will take various isotopes on a spacecraft that has a large variation in radial distance and return them to Earth. Two different types of trajectories are considered: one with intermediate Venus flybys and one that injects directly into an Earth-resonant orbit. It is shown that each of these types of trajectories have their relative merits with regards to the scientific objective. The suitability of the upcoming Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter missions to perform this experiment is also investigated.

  7. Mission Analysis for LEO Microwave Power-Beaming Station in Orbital Launch of Microwave Lightcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Dickenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mission analysis study has been performed for a 1 km diameter, rechargeable satellite solar power station (SPS) designed to boost 20m diameter, 2400 kg Micr,oWave Lightcraft (MWLC) into low earth orbit (LEO) Positioned in a 476 km daily-repeating oi.bit, the 35 GHz microwave power station is configured like a spinning, thin-film bicycle wheel covered by 30% efficient sola cells on one side and billions of solid state microwave transmitter elements on the other, At the rim of this wheel are two superconducting magnets that can stor,e 2000 G.J of energy from the 320 MW, solar array over a period of several orbits. In preparation for launch, the entire station rotates to coarsely point at the Lightcraft, and then phases up using fine-pointing information sent from a beacon on-board the Lightcraft. Upon demand, the station transmits a 10 gigawatt microwave beam to lift the MWLC from the earth surface into LEO in a flight of several minutes duration. The mission analysis study was comprised of two parts: a) Power station assessment; and b) Analysis of MWLC dynamics during the ascent to orbit including the power-beaming relationships. The power station portion addressed eight critical issues: 1) Drag force vs. station orbital altitude; 2) Solar pressure force on the station; 3) Station orbital lifetime; 4) Feasibility of geo-magnetic re-boost; 5) Beta angle (i..e., sola1 alignment) and power station effective area relationship; 6) Power station percent time in sun vs, mission elapsed time; 7) Station beta angle vs.. charge time; 8) Stresses in station structures.. The launch dynamics portion examined four issues: 1) Ascent mission/trajecto1y profile; 2) MWLC/power-station mission geometry; 3) MWLC thrust angle vs. time; 4) Power station pitch rate during power beaming. Results indicate that approximately 0 58 N of drag force acts upon the station when rotated edge-on to project the minimum frontal area of 5000 sq m. An ion engine or perhaps an electrodynamic

  8. Analysis of a spacecraft life support system for a Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Czupalla, M; Aponte, V; Chappell, S; Klaus, D

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a trade study conducted as part of the Fall 2002 semester Spacecraft Life Support System Design course (ASEN 5116) in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at the University of Colorado. It presents an analysis of current life support system technologies and a preliminary design of an integrated system for supporting humans during transit to and on the surface of the planet Mars. This effort was based on the NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM) for the human exploration of Mars [NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM) for Mars, Addendum 3.0, from the world wide web: http://exploration.jsc.nasa.gov/marsref/contents.html.]. The integrated design was broken into four subsystems: Water Management, Atmosphere Management, Waste Processing, and Food Supply. The process started with the derivation of top-level requirements from the DRM. Additional system and subsystem level assumptions were added where clarification was needed. Candidate technologies were identified and characterized based on performance factors. Trade studies were then conducted for each subsystem. The resulting technologies were integrated into an overall design solution using mass flow relationships. The system level trade study yielded two different configurations--one for the transit to Mars and another for the surface habitat, which included in situ resource utilization. Equivalent System Mass analyses were used to compare each design against an open-loop (non-regenerable) baseline system.

  9. Analysis of Data in Accordance with Space Flight Mission Environmental Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shei, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Assurance Program sets forth standards to ensure that all flight hardware is compatible with the environments that will be encountered during a spacecraft mission. It outlines the design, test and analysis, and risk control standards for the mission and certifies that it will survive in any external or self-induced environments that the spacecraft may experience. The Environmental Requirements Document (ERD) is the most important document in the Environmental Assurance Program, providing the design and test requirements for the project's flight system, subsystems, assemblies, and instruments. This summer's project was to assist Environmental Requirements Engineers (ERE's) in completing the Environmental Assurance Program Summary Report for both the Juno Project and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project. The Summary Report is a document summarizing the environmental tests and analyses of each spacecraft at both the assembly and system level. It compiles a source of all relevant information such as waivers and Problem/Failure Reports (PFRs) into a single report for easy reference of how well the spacecraft met the requirements of the project.

  10. Analysis of earth albedo effect on sun sensor measurements based on theoretical model and mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasoveanu, Dan; Sedlak, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of flight data from previous missions indicates that anomalous Sun sensor readings could be caused by Earth albedo interference. A previous Sun sensor study presented a detailed mathematical model of this effect. The model can be used to study the effect of both diffusive and specular reflections and to improve Sun angle determination based on perturbed Sun sensor measurements, satellite position, and an approximate knowledge of attitude. The model predicts that diffuse reflected light can cause errors of up to 10 degrees in Coarse Sun Sensor (CSS) measurements and 5 to 10 arc sec in Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) measurements, depending on spacecraft orbit and attitude. The accuracy of these sensors is affected as long as part of the illuminated Earth surface is present in the sensor field of view. Digital Sun Sensors (DSS) respond in a different manner to the Earth albedo interference. Most of the time DSS measurements are not affected, but for brief periods of time the Earth albedo can cause errors which are a multiple of the sensor least significant bit and may exceed one degree. This paper compares model predictions with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) CSS measurements in order to validate and refine the model. Methods of reducing and mitigating the impact of Earth albedo are discussed. ne CSS sensor errors are roughly proportional to the Earth albedo coefficient. Photocells that are sensitive only to ultraviolet emissions would reduce the effective Earth albedo by up to a thousand times, virtually eliminating all errors caused by Earth albedo interference.

  11. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo mission: Volume 3 (Book 1), Nuclear risk analysis document: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-13

    It is the purpose of the NRAD to provide an analysis of the range of potential consequences of accidents which have been identified that are associated with the launching and deployment of the Galileo mission spacecraft. The specific consequences analyzed are those associated with the possible release of radioactive material (fuel) of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). They are in terms of radiation doses to people and areas of deposition of radioactive material. These consequence analyses can be used in several ways. One way is to identify the potential range of consequences which might have to be dealt with if there were to be an accident with a release of fuel, so as to assure that, given such an accident, the health and safety of the public will be reasonably protected. Another use of the information, in conjunction with accident and release probabilities, is to estimate the risks associated with the mission. That is, most space launches occur without incident. Given an accident, the most probable result relative to the RTGs is complete containment of the radioactive material. Only a small fraction of accidents might result in a release of fuel and subsequent radiological consequences. The combination of probability with consequence is risk, which can be compared to other human and societal risks to assure that no undue risks are implied by undertaking the mission. 4 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo mission: Volume 3 (Book 2), Nuclear risk analysis document: Appendices: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-25

    It is the purpose of the NRAD to provide an analysis of the range of potential consequences of accidents which have been identified that are associated with the launching and deployment of the Galileo mission spacecraft. The specific consequences analyzed are those associated with the possible release of radioactive material (fuel) of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). They are in terms of radiation doses to people and areas of deposition of radioactive material. These consequence analyses can be used in several ways. One way is to identify the potential range of consequences which might have to be dealt with if there were to be an accident with a release of fuel, so as to assure that, given such an accident, the health and safety of the public will be reasonably protected. Another use of the information, in conjunction with accident and release probabilities, is to estimate the risks associated with the mission. That is, most space launches occur without incident. Given an accident, the most probable result relative to the RTGs is complete containment of the radioactive material. Only a small fraction of accidents might result in a release of fuel and subsequent radiological consequences. The combination of probability with consequence is risk, which can be compared to other human and societal risks to assure that no undue risks are implied by undertaking the mission. Book 2 contains eight appendices.

  13. In Situ Monitoring of Crystal Growth Using MEPHISTO, Mission STS 87-Program USMP-4: Experimental Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, Reza; Chen, F.; Mileham, J. R.; deGroh, H., III; Timchenko, V.; Leonardi, E.; deVahlDavis, G.; Coriell, S.; Cambon, G.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the In situ Monitoring of Crystal Growth Using MEPHISTO (Material por l'Etude des Phenomenes Interessant de la Solidification sur Terre et en Orbite) experiment on USMP-4. The report includes microstructural and compositional data obtained during the first year of the post flight analysis, as well as numerical simulation of the flight experiment. Additional analyses are being continued and will be reported in the near future. The experiments utilized MEPHISTO hardware to study the solidification and melting behavior of bismuth alloyed with 1 at% tin. The experiments involved repeated melting and solidification of three samples, each approximately 90 cm long and 6mm in diameter. Half of each sample also included a 2 mm. diameter growth capillary, to assist in the formation of single grain inside. One sample provided the Seebeck voltage generated during melting and freezing processes. Another one provided temperature data and Peltier pulsed demarcation of the interface shape for post flight analysis. The third sample provided resistance and velocity measurements, as well as additional thermal data. The third sample was also quenched at the end of the mission to preserve the interface composition for post flight determination. A total of more than 45cm of directionally solidified alloy were directionally solidified at the end of the flight for post mission structural and compositional characterization. Metallurgical analysis of the samples has shown that the interfacial kinetics play a key role in controlling the morphological stability of faceted alloys. Substantial differences were observed in the Seebeck signal between the ground-based experiments and the space-based experiments. The temperature gradient in the liquid for the ground-based experiments was also significantly lower than the temperature gradient in the liquid for the space-based experiments. Both of these observations indicate significant influence of liquid

  14. Expert assessments and content analysis of crew communication during ISS missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupova, Anna

    During the last seven years, we have analyzed the communication patterns between ISS crewmembers and mission control personnel and identified a number of different communication styles between these two groups (Gushin et al, 2005). In this paper, we will report on an external validity check we conducted that compares our findings with those of another study using the same research material. For many years the group of psychologists at the Medical Center of Space Flight Control (TCUMOKO) at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow has been analyzing audio communication sessions of Russian space crews with the ground-based Mission Control during long-duration spaceflight conditions. We compared week by week texts of the standard weekly monitoring reports made by the TsUP psychological group and audiocommunication of space crews with mission control centers. Expert assessments of the crewmembers' psychological state are made by IBMP psychoneurologists on the basis of daily schedule fulfillment, video and audio materials, and psychophysiological data from board. The second approach was based on the crew-ground communication analysis. For both population of messages we applied two corresponding schemas of content analysis. All statements made in communication sessions and weekly reports were divided into three groups in terms of their communication function (Lomov, 1981): 1) informative function (e.g., demands for information, requests, professional slang); 2) socio-regulatory function (e.g., rational consent or discord, operational complaint, refusal to cooperate); and 3) affective (emotional) function (e.g., encouragement, sympathy, emotional consent or discord). Number of statements of the audiocommunication sessions correlated with corresponding functions (informative, regulatory, affective) of communication in weekly monitioring reports made by experts. Crewmembers verbal behavior expresses its psycho-emotional state which is formulated by expert

  15. Orbiter/carrier separation for the ALT free flight no. 1 reference trajectories. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Details of the generation of the separation trajectories are discussed. The analysis culminated in definition of separation trajectories between physical separation and orbiter/carrier vortex clearance. Specifications, assumptions and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories are presented. Results of the analytical approach are evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized. Supporting references are listed.

  16. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  17. Fault tree analysis: NiH2 aerospace cells for LEO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Glenn C.; Rash, Donald E., Jr.

    1992-02-01

    The Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is one of several reliability analyses or assessments applied to battery cells to be utilized in typical Electric Power Subsystems for spacecraft in low Earth orbit missions. FTA is generally the process of reviewing and analytically examining a system or equipment in such a way as to emphasize the lower level fault occurrences which directly or indirectly contribute to the major fault or top level event. This qualitative FTA addresses the potential of occurrence for five specific top level events: hydrogen leakage through either discrete leakage paths or through pressure vessel rupture; and four distinct modes of performance degradation - high charge voltage, suppressed discharge voltage, loss of capacity, and high pressure.

  18. Fault tree analysis: NiH2 aerospace cells for LEO mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Glenn C.; Rash, Donald E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is one of several reliability analyses or assessments applied to battery cells to be utilized in typical Electric Power Subsystems for spacecraft in low Earth orbit missions. FTA is generally the process of reviewing and analytically examining a system or equipment in such a way as to emphasize the lower level fault occurrences which directly or indirectly contribute to the major fault or top level event. This qualitative FTA addresses the potential of occurrence for five specific top level events: hydrogen leakage through either discrete leakage paths or through pressure vessel rupture; and four distinct modes of performance degradation - high charge voltage, suppressed discharge voltage, loss of capacity, and high pressure.

  19. A Preliminary Analysis of Cometary Dust in the 1st Year of the NEOWISE Restarted Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Bauer, James M.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph R.; Nugent, Carolyn R.; Sonnett, Sarah; Cutri, Roc; Stevenson, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    As some of the most pristine objects in the Solar System, comets present an opportunity to understand the mechanics and chemistry of the planetary formation era. By studying a large number of comets in different dynamical classes, we can better understand the ensemble properties of the different classes, and begin to characterize the evolution that may have occurred since their formation.In late 2013, the WISE spacecraft was brought out of hibernation, and renamed NEOWISE with a renewed goal to detect and characterize small bodies using its 3.4 and 4.6-micron bands. Survey operations began in December 2013 [1], and the first year of data was publicly released in March 2015 [2]. During the course of the first year of the restarted mission, over 60 comets were serendipitously detected by NEOWISE at heliocentric distances between ~1-7.5 AU, including 3 newly discovered comets. The comets detected were split roughly evenly between short-period and long-period comets, and many displayed extended dust structures. Several of the comets were detected multiple times over the course of the year, and some were also seen during the prime WISE mission. This long baseline allows for an intriguing analysis of long-term cometary behavior.NEOWISE has sampled the behavior of these comet dynamical sub-types over the thermal infrared and near-infrared reflected-light regimes, where effects from different particle size ranges of dust may dominate the morphologies and observed fluxes. We present a preliminary analysis of the cometary dust seen in these data, including dynamical models to constrain the sizes and ages of the dust particles. We discuss how these results compare to those obtained for the comets seen in the 12 and 22-micron WISE prime mission data.Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science

  20. OPTIMA: advanced methods for the analysis, integration, and optimization of PRISMA mission products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzi, Donatella; Pippi, Ivan; Aiazzi, Bruno; Baronti, Stefano; Carlà, Roberto; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Raimondi, Valentina; Santurri, Leonardo; Selva, Massimo; Alparone, Luciano; Garzelli, Andrea; Lopinto, Ettore; Ananasso, Cristina; Barducci, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    PRISMA is an Earth observation system that combines a hyperspectral sensor with a panchromatic, medium-resolution camera. OPTIMA is one of the five independent scientific research projects funded by the Italian Space Agency in the framework of PRISMA mission for the development of added-value algorithms and advanced applications. The main goal of OPTIMA is to increase and to strengthen the applications of PRISMA through the implementation of advanced methodologies for the analysis, integration and optimization of level 1 and 2 products. The project is comprehensive of several working packages: data simulation, data quality, data optimization, data processing and integration and, finally, evaluation of some applications related to natural hazards. Several algorithms implemented during the project employ high-speed autonomous procedures for the elaboration of the upcoming images acquired by PRISMA. To assess the performances of the developed algorithms and products, an end-to-end simulator of the instrument has been implemented. Data quality analysis has been completed by introducing noise modeling. Stand-alone procedures of radiometric and atmospheric corrections have been developed, allowing the retrieval of at-ground spectral reflectance maps. Specific studies about image enhancement, restoration and pan-sharpening have been carried out for providing added-value data. Regarding the mission capability of monitoring environmental processes and disasters, different techniques for estimating surface humidity and for analyzing burned areas have been investigated. Finally, calibration and validation activities utilizing the CAL/VAL test site managed by CNR-IFAC and located inside the Regional Park of San Rossore (Pisa), Italy have been considered.

  1. Uncertainty analysis for multivariate state estimation in safety-critical and mission-critical maintenance applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zavaljevski, N.; Gross, K. C.

    2000-04-03

    The Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and applied for real time surveillance applications for the purposes of signal validation, sensor operability validation, equipment health monitoring, incipient component fault annunciation, and process anomaly identification. Although MSET was originally developed for applications in the commercial nuclear industry, it has recently been spun off for applications in fields such as aerospace, manufacturing, transportation, robotics, and ship propulsion. Notwithstanding these types of successful applications of MSET in industry, it is necessary for safety-critical and mission-critical applications of MSET to have reliability analysis methods, including a propagation-of-uncertainty tool, which is needed to support safety evaluations in a variety of industries, and technical-specification-change requests in the case of the nuclear industry. For these and related applications, a general purpose uncertainty analysis tool for MSET has been developed that uses Monte Carlo simulation with Latin Hypercube Sampling. For any new application of MSET, the uncertainty analysis tool developed here may be used to investigate quantitative propagation-of-uncertainty behavior for all sensors under surveillance. In addition to supporting safety analysis of surveillance systems that are based on MSET, the tool developed here can be employed in parametric studies to support system designers in evaluating the relative value of adding new sensors to an engineering system during early design stages or for equipment or facility upgrades.

  2. Short-Arc Analysis of Intersatellite Tracking Data in a Gravity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlands, David D.; Ray, Richard D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A technique for the analysis of low-low intersatellite range-rate data in a gravity mapping mission is explored. The technique is based on standard tracking data analysis for orbit determination but uses a spherical coordinate representation of the 12 epoch state parameters describing the baseline between the two satellites. This representation of the state parameters is exploited to allow the intersatellite range-rate analysis to benefit from information provided by other tracking data types without large simultaneous multiple data type solutions. The technique appears especially valuable for estimating gravity from short arcs (e.g., less than 15 minutes) of data. Gravity recovery simulations which use short arcs are compared with those using arcs a day in length. For a high-inclination orbit, the short-arc analysis recovers low-order gravity coefficients remarkably well, although higher order terms, especially sectorial terms, are less accurate. Simulations suggest that either long or short arcs of GRACE data are likely to improve parts of the geopotential spectrum by orders of magnitude.

  3. Multi-Agent Modeling and Simulation Approach for Design and Analysis of MER Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seah, Chin; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A space mission operations system is a complex network of human organizations, information and deep-space network systems and spacecraft hardware. As in other organizations, one of the problems in mission operations is managing the relationship of the mission information systems related to how people actually work (practices). Brahms, a multi-agent modeling and simulation tool, was used to model and simulate NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission work practice. The objective was to investigate the value of work practice modeling for mission operations design. From spring 2002 until winter 2003, a Brahms modeler participated in mission systems design sessions and operations testing for the MER mission held at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). He observed how designers interacted with the Brahms tool. This paper discussed mission system designers' reactions to the simulation output during model validation and the presentation of generated work procedures. This project spurred JPL's interest in the Brahms model, but it was never included as part of the formal mission design process. We discuss why this occurred. Subsequently, we used the MER model to develop a future mission operations concept. Team members were reluctant to use the MER model, even though it appeared to be highly relevant to their effort. We describe some of the tool issues we encountered.

  4. Hayabusa Recovery, Curation and Preliminary Sample Analysis: Lessons Learned from Recent Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    I describe lessons learned from my participation on the Hayabusa Mission, which returned regolith grains from asteroid Itokawa in 2010 [1], comparing this with the recently returned Stardust Spacecraft, which sampled the Jupiter Family comet Wild 2. Spacecraft Recovery Operations: The mission Science and Curation teams must actively participate in planning, testing and implementing spacecraft recovery operations. The crash of the Genesis spacecraft underscored the importance of thinking through multiple contingency scenarios and practicing field recovery for these potential circumstances. Having the contingency supplies on-hand was critical, and at least one full year of planning for Stardust and Hayabusa recovery operations was necessary. Care must be taken to coordinate recovery operations with local organizations and inform relevant government bodies well in advance. Recovery plans for both Stardust and Hayabusa had to be adjusted for unexpectedly wet landing site conditions. Documentation of every step of spacecraft recovery and deintegration was necessary, and collection and analysis of launch and landing site soils was critical. We found the operation of the Woomera Text Range (South Australia) to be excellent in the case of Hayabusa, and in many respects this site is superior to the Utah Test and Training Range (used for Stardust) in the USA. Recovery operations for all recovered spacecraft suffered from the lack of a hermetic seal for the samples. Mission engineers should be pushed to provide hermetic seals for returned samples. Sample Curation Issues: More than two full years were required to prepare curation facilities for Stardust and Hayabusa. Despite this seemingly adequate lead time, major changes to curation procedures were required once the actual state of the returned samples became apparent. Sample databases must be fully implemented before sample return for Stardust we did not adequately think through all of the possible sub sampling and

  5. Orbit Determination (OD) Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission and for the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    The Triana spacecraft was designed to be launched by the Space Shuttle. The nominal Triana mission orbit will be a Sun-Earth L1 libration point orbit. Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination (OD) error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana mission from the first correction maneuver through approximately launch plus 6 months. Results are also presented for the science data collection phase of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission concept with momentum unloading thrust perturbations during the tracking arc. The Triana analysis includes extensive analysis of an initial short arc orbit determination solution and results using both Deep Space Network (DSN) and commercial Universal Space Network (USN) statistics. These results could be utilized in support of future Sun-Earth libration point missions.

  6. Autonomous image data reduction by analysis and interpretation. [for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberlein, Susan; Yates, Gigi; Ritter, Niles

    1988-01-01

    Image data is a critical component of the scientific information acquired by space missions. Compression of image data is required due to the limited bandwidth of the data transmission channel and limited memory space on the acquisition vehicle. This need becomes more pressing when dealing with multispectral data where each pixel may comprise 300 or more bytes. An autonomous, real time, on-board image analysis system for an exploratory vehicle such as a Mars Rover is developed. The completed system will be capable of interpreting image data to produce reduced representations of the image, and of making decisions regarding the importance of data based on current scientific goals. Data from multiple sources, including stereo images, color images, and multispectral data, are fused into single image representations. Analysis techniques emphasize artificial neural networks. Clusters are described by their outlines and class values. These analysis and compression techniques are coupled with decision-making capacity for determining importance of each image region. Areas determined to be noise or uninteresting can be discarded in favor of more important areas. Thus limited resources for data storage and transmission are allocated to the most significant images.

  7. Simplified Phased-Mission System Analysis for Systems with Independent Component Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somani, Arun K.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate analysis of reliability of system requires that it accounts for all major variations in system's operation. Most reliability analyses assume that the system configuration, success criteria, and component behavior remain the same. However, multiple phases are natural. We present a new computationally efficient technique for analysis of phased-mission systems where the operational states of a system can be described by combinations of components states (such as fault trees or assertions). Moreover, individual components may be repaired, if failed, as part of system operation but repairs are independent of the system state. For repairable systems Markov analysis techniques are used but they suffer from state space explosion. That limits the size of system that can be analyzed and it is expensive in computation. We avoid the state space explosion. The phase algebra is used to account for the effects of variable configurations, repairs, and success criteria from phase to phase. Our technique yields exact (as opposed to approximate) results. We demonstrate our technique by means of several examples and present numerical results to show the effects of phases and repairs on the system reliability/availability.

  8. Development of a method for optimal maneuver analysis of complex space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, S. F., Jr.; Jezewski, D. J.; Dawkins, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    A system that allows mission planners to find optimal multiple-burn space trajectories easily is described. Previously developed methods with different gravity assumptions perform the optimization function. The power of these programs is extended by a method of costate estimation. A penalty function method of constraining coast arc times to be positive is included. The capability of the method is demonstrated by finding the optimal control for three different space missions. These include a shuttle abort-once-around mission and two- and three-burn geosynchronous satellite-placement missions.

  9. TAL Performance and Mission Analysis in a CDL Capacitor Powered Direct-Drive Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrbud, Ivana; Rose, M. Frank; Oleson, Steve R.; Jenkins, Rhonald M.

    1999-01-01

    The goals of this research are (1) to prove the concept feasibility of a direct-drive electric propulsion system, and (2) to evaluate the performance and characteristics of a Russian TAL (Thruster with Anode Layer) operating in a long-pulse mode, powered by a capacitor-based power source developed at Space Power Institute. The TAL, designated D-55, is characterized by an external acceleration zone and is powered by a unique chemical double layer (CDL) capacitor bank with a capacitance of 4 F at a charge voltage of 400 V. Performance testing of this power supply on the TAL was conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, OH. Direct thrust measurements of the TAL were obtained at CDL power levels ranging from 450 to 1750 W. The specific impulse encompassed a range from 1150 s to 2200 s, yielding thruster system efficiencies between 50 and 60%. Preliminary mission analysis of the CDL direct-drive concept and other electric propulsion options was performed for the ORACLE spacecraft in 6am/6pm and 12am/12pm, 300 km sun-synchronous orbits. The direct-drive option was competitive with the other systems by increasing available net mass between 5 and 42% and reducing two-year system wet mass between 18 and 63%. Overall, the electric propulsion power requirements for the satellite solar array were reduced between 57 and 91% depending oil the orbit evaluated The direct-drive, CDL capacitor-based concept in electric propulsion thus promises to be a highly-efficient, viable alternative for satellite operations in specific near-Earth missions.

  10. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  11. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 6: Lunar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's two Office of Space Flight (Code M) Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) contractors supported development of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) lunar transportation concepts. This work treated lunar SEI missions as the far end of a more near-term STV program, most of whose missions were satellite delivery and servicing requirements derived from Civil Needs Data Base (CNDB) projections. Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) began to address the complete design of a lunar transportation system. The following challenges were addressed: (1) the geometry of aerobraking; (2) accommodation of mixed payloads; (3) cryogenic propellant transfer in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO); (4) fully re-usable design; and (5) growth capability. The leveled requirements, derived requirements, and assumptions applied to the lunar transportation system design are discussed. The mission operations section includes data on mission analysis studies and performance parametrics as well as the operating modes and performance evaluations which include the STCAEM recommendations. Element descriptions for the lunar transportation family included are a listing of the lunar transfer vehicle/lunar excursion vehicle (LTV/LEV) components; trade studies and mass analyses of the transfer and excursion modules; advanced crew recovery vehicle (ACRV) (modified crew recovery vehicle (MCRV)) modifications required to fulfill lunar operations; the aerobrake shape and L/D to be used; and some costing methods and results. Commonality and evolution issues are also discussed.

  12. Feasibility analysis of XSOLANTRA: A mission concept to detect exoplanets with an array of CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banazadeh, P.; Lazio, J.; Jones, D.; Scharf, D. P.; Fowler, W.; Aladangady, C.

    Seeking “ nearby habitable worlds” was one of three science themes identified in the Astronomy Decadal Survey. Hundreds of extrasolar planets are known, but magnetic fields are likely required for these planets to be habitable. As of today, no direct constraints on the magnetic field characteristics of extrasolar planets exist. The ExtraSolar Observing Low-frequency Array of Nano Satellites for Radio Astronomy (XSOLANTRA), formerly known as XSOLARA is a feasibility study of a student designed, built, and tested micro-satellite mission to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) around Earth. XSOLANTRA will look at the Electron Cyclotron Maser Emission generated by the interaction between stellar wind and a planetary magnetosphere from which interior composition and atmospheric shielding can be inferred. The science instrument for XSOLANTRA is the entire array of fourteen CubeSats operating together as an interferometer. The fourteen CubeSats will be stacked on a SHuttle Expendable Rocket for Payload Augmentation (SHERPA) vehicle as a payload and will be deployed once arrived at DRO. A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate that a CubeSat mission with cost of no more than $60 million is capable of detecting extrasolar planets. The study showed that a CubeSat mission within these constraints is possible; however, some questions still remain unanswered. This paper summarizes the mission concept starting from the science requirements, key mission design decisions, component level feasibility analysis and management and cost analysis.

  13. NASA Johnson Space Center's Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science (PSAMS) Laboratory: A National Facility for Planetary Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.

  14. High-Performance Data Analysis Tools for Sun-Earth Connection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The data analysis tool of choice for many Sun-Earth Connection missions is the Interactive Data Language (IDL) by ITT VIS. The increasing amount of data produced by these missions and the increasing complexity of image processing algorithms requires access to higher computing power. Parallel computing is a cost-effective way to increase the speed of computation, but algorithms oftentimes have to be modified to take advantage of parallel systems. Enhancing IDL to work on clusters gives scientists access to increased performance in a familiar programming environment. The goal of this project was to enable IDL applications to benefit from both computing clusters as well as graphics processing units (GPUs) for accelerating data analysis tasks. The tool suite developed in this project enables scientists now to solve demanding data analysis problems in IDL that previously required specialized software, and it allows them to be solved orders of magnitude faster than on conventional PCs. The tool suite consists of three components: (1) TaskDL, a software tool that simplifies the creation and management of task farms, collections of tasks that can be processed independently and require only small amounts of data communication; (2) mpiDL, a tool that allows IDL developers to use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) inside IDL for problems that require large amounts of data to be exchanged among multiple processors; and (3) GPULib, a tool that simplifies the use of GPUs as mathematical coprocessors from within IDL. mpiDL is unique in its support for the full MPI standard and its support of a broad range of MPI implementations. GPULib is unique in enabling users to take advantage of an inexpensive piece of hardware, possibly already installed in their computer, and achieve orders of magnitude faster execution time for numerically complex algorithms. TaskDL enables the simple setup and management of task farms on compute clusters. The products developed in this project have the

  15. Determining the Best-Fit FPGA for a Space Mission: An Analysis of Cost, SEU Sensitivity,and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the selection of the optimum Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) for space missions. Included in this review is a discussion on differentiating amongst various FPGAs, cost analysis of the various options, the investigation of radiation effects, an expansion of the evaluation criteria, and the application of the evaluation criteria to the selection process.

  16. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV & V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA IV&V was established in 1993 to improve safety and cost-effectiveness of mission critical software. Since its inception the tools and strategies employed by IV&V have evolved. This paper examines how lessons learned from the Phoenix project were developed and applied to the GRAIL project. Shortly after selection, the GRAIL project initiated a review of the issues documented by IV&V for Phoenix. The motivation was twofold: the learn as much as possible about the types of issues that arose from the flight software product line slated for use on GRAIL, and to identify opportunities for improving the effectiveness of IV&V on GRAIL. The IV&V Facility provided a database dump containing 893 issues. These were categorized into 16 bins, and then analyzed according to whether the project responded by changing the affected artifacts or using as-is. The results of this analysis were compared to a similar assessment of post-launch anomalies documented by the project. Results of the analysis were discussed with the IV&V team assigned to GRAIL. These discussions led to changes in the way both the project and IV&V approached the IV&V task, and improved the efficiency of the activity.

  17. Mission analysis and performance comparison for an Advanced Solar Photon Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachwald, Bernd; Wurm, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The so-called "compound solar sail", also known as "Solar Photon Thruster" (SPT), is a design concept, for which the two basic functions of the solar sail, namely light collection and thrust direction, are uncoupled. In this paper, we introduce a novel SPT concept, termed the Advanced Solar Photon Thruster (ASPT), which does not suffer from the simplified assumptions that have been made for the analysis of compound solar sails in previous studies. After having presented the equations that describe the force on the ASPT and after having performed a detailed design analysis, the performance of the ASPT with respect to the conventional flat solar sail (FSS) is investigated for three interplanetary mission scenarios: an Earth-Venus rendezvous, where the solar sail has to spiral towards the Sun, an Earth-Mars rendezvous, where the solar sail has to spiral away from the Sun, and an Earth-NEA rendezvous (to near-Earth asteroid 1996FG3), where a large change in orbital eccentricity is required. The investigated solar sails have realistic near-term characteristic accelerations between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/s 2. Our results show that an SPT is not superior to the flat solar sail unless very idealistic assumptions are made.

  18. Astronomy sortie missions definition study. Volume 3, book 1: Design analysis and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study to define the astronomy sortie missions was conducted. The design analyses and tradeoff studies conducted for candidate concepts are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) system and subsystem requirements, (2) space shuttle interfaces, (3) infrared telescope development, and (4) experiments to be conducted during the mission.

  19. An Informational Analysis and Communications Squadron Survey of Cyberspace Mission Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Definition/Problem Statement ......................................................................... 5 Development of Tools...of Installation POC ......................................................................................... 31 5 . Status of I-NOSC Mission... 5 mitigate threats that could negatively impact the success of a given mission. Readers of this paper should keep in mind that all references to

  20. Framing Hostilities: Analysis of Mission Statements from Segregated Chicana/o Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study examined discourses used in mission statements from segregated Chicana/o and White schools. The words and phrases used in segregated Chicana/o school mission statements produce negatively oriented frames that make transparent low expectations and negative attitudes compared to those used in segregated White schools. These frames become…

  1. A Content Analysis of Mission Statements of Our Top 50 Schools of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holosko, Michael J.; Winkel, Munir; Crandall, Catherine; Briggs, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Organizational mission statements of institutions in higher education have been called into question with respect to their relevance and purpose. This study investigated mission statements of the top 50 "U.S. News & World Report" (2012) ranked schools of social work for their clarity and brevity, content, and relationship to the…

  2. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 10: Aerocapture for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcockson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    A manned expedition to Mars has been under consideration as a potential mission for the early 21st century. The necessarily large vehicle requirements have sparked interest in aerocapture as a means of reducing propellant usage. This volume summarizes the work performed to establish concepts and feasibility of such a mission which makes maximum use of aeroassist maneuvers.

  3. NSEG: A segmented mission analysis program for low and high speed aircraft. Volume 2: Program users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Rozendaal, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid mission analysis code based on the use of approximate flight path equations of motion is described. Equation form varies with the segment type, for example, accelerations, climbs, cruises, descents, and decelerations. Realistic and detailed vehicle characteristics are specified in tabular form. In addition to its mission performance calculation capabilities, the code also contains extensive flight envelop performance mapping capabilities. Approximate take off and landing analyses can be performed. At high speeds, centrifugal lift effects are taken into account. Extensive turbojet and ramjet engine scaling procedures are incorporated in the code.

  4. An Extended Mission to Multiple Asteroid Flybys after Lunar Exploration: Design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qiao; Pingyuan, Cui; Hutao, Cui

    Asteroids are key objects for the research of the origin and evolution of the solar system, because they relatively well conserve their past, as they are often said to be the fossil from the early phase of the solar system. Human have carried out many small celestial body missions (such as DS-I, NEAR, Stardust, Deep impact, etc) and gained a plenty of valuable experience. With many new asteroid or comet missions in various stages of development (Dawn, ROSETTA, Hayabusa-II), the situation regarding our understanding of these bodies can improve in the future. With the success of "Chang-Er" program for lunar exploration and the development of "Ying-Huo" program for Mars exploration, it will provide the great opportunity for Chinese development of the deep space exploration. Following up the "Chang-Er" and "Ying-Huo" program, two promising scenarios have been discussed. One of them is a multiple asteroid rendezvous and sample return mission aiming at several spectral known Near-Earth asteroids. The other is a multiple asteroid flyby mission which is an extended "Chang-Er" mission for lunar exploration. Here, an extended mission to multiple asteroid flybys after lunar exploration is proposed and discussed. We investigated feasible mission scenarios. According to the constraints of the mission, we search and present the optimal rendezvous and flyby opportunities for potential asteroids. The preliminary design results of the proposed missions will be reported. Finally, we analyze the trajectory characteristics and gave some key parameters, which would have a direct impact on communication system, power system, thermal control system of spacecraft and the optical instrument for science mission etc.

  5. Mission engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrus, Paul; Fatig, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's projects are facing new challenges with respect to the cost effective development and operation of spaceflight missions. Challenges, such as cost limits, compression of schedules, rapidly changing technology, and increasing mission complexity are making the mission development process more dynamic. A concept of 'Mission Engineering' as a means of addressing these challenges is proposed. It is an end-to-end, multimission development methodology that seeks to integrate the development processes between the space, ground, science, and operations segments of a mission. It thereby promotes more mission-oriented system solutions, within and across missions.

  6. Lessons learned - MO&DA at JPL. [Mission Operations and Data Analysis cost reduction of planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The issues of how to avoid future surprise growth in Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MO&DA) costs and how to minimize total MO&DA costs for planetary missions are discussed within the context of JPL mission operations support. It is argued that there is no simple, single solution: the entire Project life-cycle must be addressed. It is concluded that cost models that can predict both MO&DA cost as well as Ground System development costs are needed. The first year MO&DA budget plotted against the total of ground and flight systems developments is shown. In order to better recognize changes and control costs in general, a modified funding line item breakdown is recommended to distinguish between development costs (prelaunch and postlaunch) and MO&DA costs.

  7. A computer technique for detailed analysis of mission radius and maneuverability characteristics of fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, W. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A computer technique to determine the mission radius and maneuverability characteristics of combat aircraft was developed. The technique was used to determine critical operational requirements and the areas in which research programs would be expected to yield the most beneficial results. In turn, the results of research efforts were evaluated in terms of aircraft performance on selected mission segments and for complete mission profiles. Extensive use of the technique in evaluation studies indicates that the calculated performance is essentially the same as that obtained by the proprietary programs in use throughout the aircraft industry.

  8. Economic analysis of standard interface modules for use with the multi-mission spacecraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary technical and economic feasibility study was made of the use of Standardized Interstate Modules (SIM) to perform electual interfacing functions that were historically incorporated into sensors. Sensor interface functions that are capable of standardization from the set of missions planned for the NASA Multi-Mission Spacecraft (MMS) in the 1981 to 1985 time period were identified. The cost savings that could be achieved through the replacement of nonstandard sensor interface flight hardware that might be used in these missions with SIM were examined.

  9. An Analysis of the Risk from UAS Missions in the National Airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Armand

    As Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are integrated into the national airspace, we must be careful to ensure that the hazard rate to human bystanders is sufficiently small. The first source of risk to bystanders involves midair collisions between UAS and other aircraft. The second source of risk concerns risks due to ground impact, both the bystander hazard rate due to aircraft impacting the ground as well as the dependence of crash rate on location. Here, we present first-order models adapted from the literature which estimate the risk due to these various scenarios. Model verification is then achieved through extensive analysis of historic civil aviation accidents. From this, we gain two major insights. First of all, we show that UAS already achieve manned levels of safety with respect to midair collisions. This is because general aviation aircraft routinely operate in conditions where see-and-avoid is used but is not effective. Secondly, we find that the risk due to ground collision of UAS is sufficiently small to allow operations over the majority of the United States. The models presented here are powerful tools that can be used by a general audience to objectively assess the risks associated with various missions in the national airspace.

  10. Preliminary internal straylight analysis of the METIS instrument for the Solar Orbiter ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verroi, Enrico; Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero; Fineschi, Silvano; Antonucci, Ester

    2012-09-01

    METIS, the multi element telescope for imaging and spectroscopy, is a solar coronagraph foreseen for the Solar Orbiter mission. METIS is conceived to observe the solar corona from a near-sun orbit in three different spectral bands: in the HeII EUV narrow band at 30.4 nm, in the HI UV narrow band at 121.6 nm, and in the visible light band (500 - 650 nm). The visible light from the corona is ten million times fainter than the light emitted by the solar disk, so a very stringent light suppression design is needed for the visible channel. METIS adopts an “inverted occulted” configuration, where the disk light is shielded by an annular shape occulter, after which an annular aspherical mirror M1 collects the signal coming from the corona. The disk light heading through M1 is back-rejected by a suitable spherical mirror M0. This paper presents the stray light analysis for this new-concept configuration, performed with a ray tracing simulation, to insure the opto-mechanical design grants a stray light level below the limit of 10-9 times the coronal signal intensity. A model of the optics and of the mechanical parts of the telescope has been realized with ASAP (Breault Research TM); by means of a Montecarlo ray tracing, the effect of stray light on VIS and UVEUV channels has been simulated.

  11. Future dedicated Venus-SGG flight mission: Accuracy assessment and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Houtse; Zhong, Min; Yun, Meijuan

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates principally on the systematic requirements analysis for the future dedicated Venus-SGG (spacecraft gravity gradiometry) flight mission in China in respect of the matching measurement accuracies of the spacecraft-based scientific instruments and the orbital parameters of the spacecraft. Firstly, we created and proved the single and combined analytical error models of the cumulative Venusian geoid height influenced by the gravity gradient error of the spacecraft-borne atom-interferometer gravity gradiometer (AIGG) and the orbital position error and orbital velocity error tracked by the deep space network (DSN) on the Earth station. Secondly, the ultra-high-precision spacecraft-borne AIGG is propitious to making a significant contribution to globally mapping the Venusian gravitational field and modeling the geoid with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution through weighing the advantages and disadvantages among the electrostatically suspended gravity gradiometer, the superconducting gravity gradiometer and the AIGG. Finally, the future dedicated Venus-SGG spacecraft had better adopt the optimal matching accuracy indices consisting of 3 × 10-13/s2 in gravity gradient, 10 m in orbital position and 8 × 10-4 m/s in orbital velocity and the preferred orbital parameters comprising an orbital altitude of 300 ± 50 km, an observation time of 60 months and a sampling interval of 1 s.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of ISS Maintenance History and Implications for Supportability of Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. Kevin; Robbins, William W.

    2004-02-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) enables the study of supportability issues associated with long-duration human spaceflight. The ISS is a large, complex spacecraft that must be maintained by its crew. In contrast to the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle, but similar to spacecraft that will be component elements of future missions beyond low-Earth orbit, ISS does not return to the ground for servicing and provisioning of spares is severely constrained by transportation limits. Although significant technical support is provided by ground personnel, all hands-on maintenance tasks are performed by the crew. Data accumulated over the first several years of ISS operations have been analyzed to gain a better understanding of maintenance-related workload. This analysis addresses both preventive and corrective maintenance and includes all U.S segment core systems. Systems and tasks that are major contributors to workload are identified. As further experience accrues, lessons will be learned that will influence future system designs so that they require less maintenance and, when maintenance is required, it can be performed more efficiently. By heeding the lessons of ISS it will be possible to identify system designs that should be more robust and point towards advances in both technology and design that will offer the greatest return on investment.

  13. Mission SL-4 (AS 208/CM 118/IMU 34)G and N error analysis (Skylab 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfant, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    Data on the gyro and navigation system performance and operation for the command module are presented. Each reported failure was analyzed with respect to its likelihood of occurence in flight and its impact on the mission.

  14. An orbital radar mapper of Venus in the 1980's - Mission design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnin, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    A reasonable approach to the examination of Venus topography, obscured for photographic imaging, is available in the application of airborne radar mapping systems to an orbiter mission about the planet. Extrapolating the improving capabilities of earth-based radar study of Venus into the 1980's suggests that only a non-uniform, poorly resolved surface profile will be possible relative to the potential for 100% coverage at 100 meter resolution with an orbital radar. The intent of this paper is to define mission opportunities favorable for a Venus orbital mapper during the 1980's, to examine orbit design problem associated with mapping radar systems, to establish what flexibility exists for an adaptive mapping strategy, to contribute to the sizing of particular spacecraft systems, to suggest a reference mission design and demonstrate mission feasibility.

  15. Analysis and control of macro - and microorganisms interactions for missions of different duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, L.; Pechurkin, N.

    In developing different t pes of life support systems for use in space or extremey environments Earth, researchers should pay attention to the functional state and stability of such systems. Special attention has been given to the interactions between macro- and microorganisms. Microorganisms are considered the most suitable indicators of a system's health and its component links. We can divide all space missions into types by which the behavior of man microbe interactions may be categorized: short missions and long ones. For short missions sanitary and hygiene procedures can be used to control the microflora of open and / or physico -chemical systems of life support. F r more prolonged missions hygieneo provisions may become inadequate and opportunistic infection occur rapidly. In general we should understand that the task of maintaining the heals of human being under conditions of stress is not only a question of sanitation and hygiene, but also a problem of the ecological balance within the habitat.

  16. Error Analysis of Stereophotoclinometry in Support of the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Eric; Gaskell, Robert W.; Weirich, John R.

    2015-11-01

    Stereophotoclinometry has been used on numerous planetary bodies to derive the shape model, most recently 67P-Churyumov-Gerasimenko (Jorda, et al., 2014), the Earth (Palmer, et al., 2014) and Vesta (Gaskell, 2012). SPC is planned to create the ultra-high resolution topography for the upcoming mission OSIRIS-REx that will sample the asteroid Bennu, arriving in 2018. This shape model will be used both for scientific analysis as well as operational navigation, to include providing the topography that will ensure a safe collection of the surface.We present the initial results of error analysis of SPC, with specific focus on how both systematic and non-systematic error propagate through SPC into the shape model. For this testing, we have created a notional global truth model at 5cm and a single region at 2.5mm ground sample distance. These truth models were used to create images using GSFC's software Freespace. Then these images were used by SPC to form a derived shape model with a ground sample distance of 5cm.We will report on both the absolute and relative error that the derived shape model has compared to the original truth model as well as other empirical and theoretical measurement of errors within SPC.Jorda, L. et al (2014) "The Shape of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta/Osiris Images", AGU Fall Meeting, #P41C-3943. Gaskell, R (2012) "SPC Shape and Topography of Vesta from DAWN Imaging Data", DSP Meeting #44, #209.03. Palmer, L. Sykes, M. V. Gaskll, R.W. (2014) "Mercator — Autonomous Navigation Using Panoramas", LPCS 45, #1777.

  17. Effects of Space Missions on the Human Immune System: A Meta-Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Barger, L. K.; Baldini, F.; Huff, D.

    1995-01-01

    Future spaceflight will require travelers to spend ever-increasing periods of time in microgravity. Optimal functioning of the immune system is of paramount importance for the health and performance of these travelers. A meta-analysis statistical procedure was used to analyze immune system data from crew members in United States and Soviet space missions from 8.5 to 140 days duration between 1968 and 1985. Ten immunological parameters (immunoglobulins A, G, M, D, white blood cell (WBC) count, number of lymphocytes, percent total lymphocytes, percent B lymphocytes, percent T lymphocytes, and lymphocyte reactivity to mitogen) were investigated using multifactorial, repeated measure analysis of variance. With the preflight level set at 100, WBC count increased to 154 +/- 14% (mean +/- SE; p less than or equal to 0.05) immediately after flight; there was a decrease in lymphocyte count (83 +/- 4%; p less than or equal to 0.05) and percent of total lymphocytes (69 +/- 1%; p less than or equal to 0.05) immediately after flight, with reduction in RNA synthesis to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) to 51 +/- 21% (p less than or equal to 0.05) and DNA synthesis to PHA to 61 +/- 8% (p less than or equal to 0.05) at the first postflight measurement. Thus, some cellular immunological functions are decreased significantly following spaceflight. More data are needed on astronauts' age, aerobic power output, and parameters of their exercise training program to determine if these immune system responses are due solely to microgravity exposure or perhaps to some other aspect of spaceflight.

  18. System-level Analysis of Food Moisture Content Requirements for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Perchonok, Michele H.

    2004-01-01

    In order to ensure that adequate water resources are available during a mission, any net water loss from the habitat must be balanced with an equivalent amount of required makeup water. Makeup water may come from a variety of sources, including water in shipped tanks, water stored in prepackaged food, product water from fuel cells, and in-situ water resources. This paper specifically addresses the issue of storing required makeup water in prepackaged food versus storing the water in shipped tanks for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission, one of the Advanced Life Support Reference Missions. In this paper, water mass balances have been performed for the Dual Lander Transit Mission, to determine the necessary requirement of makeup water under nominal operation (i.e. no consideration of contingency needs), on a daily basis. Contingency issues are briefly discussed with respect to impacts on makeup water storage (shipped tanks versus storage in prepackaged food). The Dual Lander Transit Mission was selected for study because it has been considered by the Johnson Space Center Exploration Office in enough detail to define a reasonable set of scenario options for nominal system operation and contingencies. This study also illustrates the concept that there are multiple, reasonable life support system scenarios for any one particular mission. Thus, the need for a particular commodity can depend upon many variables in the system. In this study, we examine the need for makeup water as it depends upon the configuration of the rest of the life support system.

  19. Preliminary analysis of long-range aircraft designs for future heavy airlift missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Murphy, R.; Barlow, A.

    1976-01-01

    A computerized design study of very large cargo aircraft for the future heavy airlift mission was conducted using the Aircraft Synthesis program (ACSYNT). The study was requested by the Air Force under an agreement whereby Ames provides computerized design support to the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. This effort is part of an overall Air Force program to study advanced technology large aircraft systems. Included in the Air Force large aircraft program are investigations of missions such as heavy airlift, airborne missile launch, battle platform, command and control, and aerial tanker. The Ames studies concentrated on large cargo aircraft of conventional design with payloads from 250,000 to 350,000 lb. Range missions up to 6500 n.mi. and radius missions up to 3600 n.mi. have been considered. Takeoff and landing distances between 7,000 and 10,000 ft are important constraints on the configuration concepts. The results indicate that a configuration employing conventional technology in all disciplinary areas weighs approximately 2 million pounds to accomplish either a 6500-n.mi. range mission or a 3600-n.mi. radius mission with a 350,000-lb payload.

  20. An interplanetary mission to Neptune System I: Analysis of trajectories to Neptune using gravity assists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solórzano, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Prado, A.

    At the present time the search for the knowledge of our Solar System continues effective So in July 1st 2004 the international Cassini-Huygens Mission spacecraft entered into orbit around the planet Saturn and in January 2005 send data from the Huygens probe which is studing Saturn s largest moon Titan On January 19 2006 occurred the launch of the New Horizons spacecraft to Pluto and Charon NASA s Solar System Exploration theme listed a Neptune mission as one of its top priorities for the mid-term 2008-2013 The gravity assist is a proven technique in interplanetary exploration as exemplified by the missions Voyager Galileo Cassini etc Here a mission to Neptune for the mid-term 2008-2020 is proposed with the goal of studiyng several schemes for the mission A direct transfer to Neptune is considered and also Venus Earth Jupiter and Saturn gravity assists are used for the transfer to Neptune which represent new contributions for a possible real mission We show several schemes with and without braking near Neptune in order to find a good compromise between the Delta V and time of flight to Neptune Besides taking advantage of asteroid flyby opportunities when the spacecraft passes through the asteroid belt To incorporta as asteroid flyby we first need to optimize a trajectory to Neptune with planetary flybys and then search for asteroids that pass close to this trajectory to finally reoptimize the trajectory including one or more asteroid flybys

  1. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-18

    APPLICATIONS A useful model of mission mapping is presented in Figure 2. Users and defenders of a network typically have several disjoint types of... Mapping user processes to network capabilities reveals the broader impact of information in the logs, and improves risk analysis by identifying...The final stage of mission mapping connects the user processes with the missions they support. This mapping is critical both for prioritization of

  2. Analysis of landing site attributes for future missions targeting the rim of the lunar South Pole Aitken basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koebel, David; Bonerba, Michele; Behrenwaldt, Daniel; Wieser, Matthias; Borowy, Carsten

    2012-11-01

    For the South polar lunar region between -85 and -90° Latitude an updated analyses of the solar illumination and ground station visibility conditions has been performed in the frame of a feasibility study for an ESA Lunar Lander mission. The analyses are based on the refined lunar digital elevation model provided by the Japanese Kaguya/Selene mission, originating from its LASER altimeter instrument. For the South polar region maps of integral solar illumination are presented for a mission epoch in 2016. The analysis modelling was validated with the help of a Kaguya High Definition video. The solar illumination is driving for the power subsystems of any robotic lander craft or manned lunar outpost, in case they rely on conventional photovoltaic power generation with battery buffering of shadowed periods. In addition the visibility of the terrain from a terrestrial ESA ground station was analysed. The results are presented as an integral ground contact duration map, being crucial for the operations of any lunar outpost. Considering these two quality criteria, several possible landing sites for a future lunar mission have been pre-selected. For these sites a detailed analysis of quasi-continuous illumination conditions is presented. This includes magnified maps of the pre-selected areas, showing any location's longest illumination intervals that are allowed to be interrupted by shadows with limited duration only. As a final quality criterion, the terrain topology has been analysed for its impact on the landing trajectory. From a trade-off between the three quality criteria the connecting ridge between the Shackleton and the de Gerlache was determined to provide the most favourable landing site quality. This site is located at 89°28' South, 136°40' West, and 1947 m altitude, and features and integral illumination of 85.7%. With battery energy to sustain shadows of 120 h, total mission duration of 9.37 sidereal months can be guaranteed.

  3. A probabilistic analysis of the implications of instrument failures on ESA's Swarm mission for its individual satellite orbit deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    On launch, one of Swarm's absolute scalar magnetometers (ASMs) failed to function, leaving an asymmetrical arrangement of redundant spares on different spacecrafts. A decision was required concerning the deployment of individual satellites into the low-orbit pair or the higher "lonely" orbit. I analyse the probabilities for successful operation of two of the science components of the Swarm mission in terms of a classical probabilistic failure analysis, with a view to concluding a favourable assignment for the satellite with the single working ASM. I concentrate on the following two science aspects: the east-west gradiometer aspect of the lower pair of satellites and the constellation aspect, which requires a working ASM in each of the two orbital planes. I use the so-called "expert solicitation" probabilities for instrument failure solicited from Mission Advisory Group (MAG) members. My conclusion from the analysis is that it is better to have redundancy of ASMs in the lonely satellite orbit. Although the opposite scenario, having redundancy (and thus four ASMs) in the lower orbit, increases the chance of a working gradiometer late in the mission; it does so at the expense of a likely constellation. Although the results are presented based on actual MAG members' probabilities, the results are rather generic, excepting the case when the probability of individual ASM failure is very small; in this case, any arrangement will ensure a successful mission since there is essentially no failure expected at all. Since the very design of the lower pair is to enable common mode rejection of external signals, it is likely that its work can be successfully achieved during the first 5 years of the mission.

  4. Soil Analysis Micro-Mission Concepts Derived from the MSP 2001 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Meloy, T. P.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M. G.; Frant, M. A.; Grannan, S. M.; Fuerstenau, S. D.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Marshall, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatic environment, and arrays of material patches to study abrasion and adhesion. Heritage will be all-important for low cost micro-missions, and adaptations of instruments developed for the Pathfinder, '98 and '01 Landers should be strong contenders for '03 flights. This talk has three objectives: (1) Familiarize the audience with MECA instrument capabilities; (2) present concepts for stand-alone and/or mobile versions of MECA instruments; and (3) broaden the context of the MECA instruments from human exploration to a comprehensive scientific survey of Mars. Due to time limitations, emphasis will be on the chemistry and microscopy experiments. Ion-selective electrodes and related sensors in MECA's wet-chemistry laboratory will evaluate total dissolved solids, redox potential, pH, and the concentration of many soluble ions and gases in wet Martian soil. These electrodes can detect potentially dangerous heavy-metal ions, emitted pathogenic gases, and the soil's corrosive potential, and experiments will include cyclic voltammetry and anodic stripping. For experiments beyond 2001, enhancements could allow multiple use of the cells (for mobile experiments) and reagent addition (for quantitative mineralogical and exobiological analysis). MECA's microscopy station combines optical and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) in an actively focused, controlled illumination environment to image particles from millimeters to nanometers in size. Careful selection of substrates allows controlled experiments in adhesion, abrasion, hardness, aggregation, magnetic and other properties. Special tools allow primitive manipulation (brushing and scraping) of samples

  5. Mariner Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

  6. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-64 on 9 August 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. Bradley; Bowen, Barry C.; Rivera, Jorge E.; Speece, Robert F.; Katnik, Gregory N.

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-64. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-64, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  7. Comparative analysis of recent satellite missions for multi-temporal SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovenga, Fabio; Refice, Alberto; Belmonte, Antonella; Pasquariello, Guido

    2016-10-01

    Multi-temporal InSAR (MTI) applications pose challenges related to the availability of coherent scattering from the ground surface, the complexity of the ground deformations, the atmospheric artifacts, the visibility problems related to the ground elevation. Nowadays, several satellite missions are available providing interferometric SAR data at different wavelengths, spatial resolutions, and revisit time. A new interesting opportunity is provided by Sentinel-1 mission, which has a spatial resolution comparable to previous ESA C-band missions, and revisit times reduced to up to 6 days. It is envisioned that, by offering regular, global-scale coverage, improved temporal resolution and freely available imagery, Sentinel-1 will guarantee an increasing use of MTI for ground displacement investigations. According to these different SAR space-borne missions, the present work discusses current and future opportunities of MTI applications to ground instability monitoring. Issues related to coherent target detection and mean velocity precision will be addressed through a simple theoretical model assuming backscattering mechanisms related to point scatterers. The paper also presents an example of multi-sensor ground instability investigation over the site of Marina di Lesina, Southern Italy, a village lying over a gypsum diapir, where a hydration process, involving the underlying anhydride, causes a smooth uplift pattern affecting the entire village area, and the formation of scattered sinkholes. More than 20 years of MTI SAR data have been used, coming from both legacy ERS and ENVISAT missions, and last-generation Radarsat-2, COSMO-SkyMed, and Sentinel-1A sensors.

  8. Flight test evaluation and analysis of the l-39c albartros for the light attack mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Mitchell J.

    Aircraft test and evaluation is a key component of aircraft development and design verification. Developmental flight test, an early look into aircraft functionality and mission suitability, is conducted early in the aircraft lifecycle to mitigate cost, schedule, and performance risks. This thesis details the ground and flight test of the L-39C "Albatros" for the light attack mission. The L-39C was evaluated as a light attack aircraft to determine aircraft performance, handling qualities, and human-machine interface to support specification validation and document mission utility. The specifications and scenario were generated by instructors at the United States Naval Test Pilot School (USNTPS) as part of the Engineering Test Pilot curriculum. Classical flight test techniques were used to elicit open loop aircraft response and performance characterization. Additionally, various mission representative maneuvers were executed to aid in identification of deficiencies in aircraft handling qualities. This work is adapted from the author's work at the USNTPS and presents data associated with the capstone exercise of the USNTPS Experimental Test Pilot syllabus. The results of this thesis clearly illustrate the suitability of the L-39C for the light attack mission.

  9. Sonic boom results for a nominal mission 3B. Space Shuttle engineering and operations support, engineering systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results obtained in the analysis of the effects of sonic boom overpressures at ground level for a nominal Mission 3B with the current baseline guidance are reported. These results are in the form of ground level overpressures generated along the groundtrack out to lateral cutoff from Mach 3.0-1.10 at 0.10 (tenth) Mach intervals. Preliminary trajectory constraints which will reduce excess sonic boom overpressures to approximately 2.0 PSF are included.

  10. Performance analysis of satellite constellations for the next generation of gravity missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, J.; Flechtner, F.; Löcher, A.; Kusche, J.

    2011-12-01

    The GOCE and GRACE gravity missions have dramatically improved the knowledge of the Earth's static and time-variable gravity field due to their highly precise on-board instrumentation. This resulted in new information about the mass distribution and transport within or around the Earth system to be used in solid Earth geophysics, oceanography and sea level studies, hydrology, ice mass budget investigations and geodesy. GFZ Potsdam and IGG Bonn, with partners from German industry and universities, have conducted several studies in order to develop a concept for a future gravity mission based on low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking, but realized with laser metrology. In our poster we summarize the performance of different mission scenarios through full-scale simulations and their capacity to reach the science objectives.

  11. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document. Volume 1: Major trades. Book 2: Draft final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) an artificial gravity assessment study; (2) Mars mission transport vehicle (MTV)/Mars excursion vehicle (MEV) mission scenarios; (3) aerobrake issues; (4) equipment life and self-check; (5) earth-to-orbit (ETO) heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) definition trades; and (6) risk analysis.

  12. Analysis, optimization, and assessment of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design for an illustrative space mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Mukunda, M.; Or, C.; Summers, G.

    1995-01-05

    A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPVs are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that---when fully developed---they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source`s mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system`s specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV`s current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g., RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 {degree}C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low-mass generators. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Analysis, Optimization, and Assessment of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic System Design for an Illustrative Space Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Summers, G.

    1994-06-28

    A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPV's are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that - when fully developed - they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source's mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system's specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV's current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g. RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 degrees C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low mass generators. Another copy is in the Energy Systems files.

  14. Analysis of the Phoenix Mission's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) Relative Humidity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E.; Martinez, G.; Renno, N. O.; Tamppari, L.; Zent, A.

    2015-12-01

    With funding from NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program, we plan to enhance the scientific return of the Phoenix mission by producing and archiving high-level relative humidity (RH) data from the measurements made by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP). Values of temperature and RH covered in the pre-flight calibration [1] overlap only partially with the environmental conditions found at the Phoenix landing site [2,3]. In particular, there is no overlap at dawn, when temperatures are the lowest and the expected RH is the highest [4] and in the middle of the day, when temperatures are relatively high and the expected RH is very low [5]. Here we plan to produce high-level RH data by calibrating an Engineering Model of the TECP in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber (MMEC). The MMEC is capable of simulating the entire range of environmental conditions found at the Phoenix landing site. The MMEC is a cylindrical chamber with internal diameter of 64 cm and length of 160 cm. It is capable of simulating temperatures ranging from 145 to 500 K, CO2 pressures ranging from 10 to 105 Pa, and relative humidity ranging from nearly 0 to 100% [6]. The analysis of high-level RH data has the potential to shed light on the formation of liquid brines at Mars' polar latitudes, where it is most likely to occur [7]. In addition, the RH sensor aboard Curiosity is similar to that on the TECP [8], allowing a direct comparison of the near-surface RH measurements at these two different locations on the surface of Mars. REFERENCES: [1] Zent, A. P., et al, 2009, JGR (1991-2012) 114.E3. [2] Tamppari, L. K., et al. 2010, JGR, 115, E00E17. [3] Davy, R., et al., 2010, JGR, 115, E00E13. [4] Whiteway, J., et al., 2009, Science, 325, 68-70. [5] Savijärvi, H., and A. Määttänen, 2010, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 136, 1497-1505. [6] Fischer, E., et al., 2014, GRL, 41, 4456-4462. [7] Martínez, G., and Rennó, N., 2013, Space Sci. Rev., 175, 29-51. [8] Harri, A-M., et al., 2014, JGR 119

  15. [Sequels of labial-alveolar-velopalatine clefts observed in charity missions. Analysis and management].

    PubMed

    Saboye, J; Chancholle, A-R

    2007-09-01

    A lot of children with cleft lip and palate are not operated in the developing world, due to a lack of surgeons, hospitals, or simply because the condition is not considered as a priority. Charity missions give the opportunity to repair these malformations. Non-operated cleft lip and palate are the first problem, but our surgery may cause growth disturbances and sometimes a second operation is needed, more difficult than the first one in mission conditions. Repairing a cleft palate needs to be adapted to the type of cleft but also to the age of the child, a velopalatine pharyngoplasty can be performed in some cases.

  16. Potential Discriminating Metrics of Cognitive Task Performance in Mission Command. Working Group 4 - Analysis of Human Decision-Making in a Networked Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Potential Discriminating Metrics of Cognitive Task Performance in Mission Command Working Group 4 - Analysis of Human Decision...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) TRADOC Analysis Center,Fort Leavenworth,KS,66027 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Cognitive Task Performance in MC Agenda • Background. • Methods. • Implications for MC Analysis . UNCLASSIFIED The Cognition Problem for Mission

  17. Launch and Assembly Reliability Analysis for Mars Human Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cates, Grant R.; Stromgren, Chel; Cirillo, William M.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s long-range goal is focused upon human exploration of Mars. Missions to Mars will require campaigns of multiple launches to assemble Mars Transfer Vehicles in Earth orbit. Launch campaigns are subject to delays, launch vehicles can fail to place their payloads into the required orbit, and spacecraft may fail during the assembly process or while loitering prior to the Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) burn. Additionally, missions to Mars have constrained departure windows lasting approximately sixty days that repeat approximately every two years. Ensuring high reliability of launching and assembling all required elements in time to support the TMI window will be a key enabler to mission success. This paper describes an integrated methodology for analyzing and improving the reliability of the launch and assembly campaign phase. A discrete event simulation involves several pertinent risk factors including, but not limited to: manufacturing completion; transportation; ground processing; launch countdown; ascent; rendezvous and docking, assembly, and orbital operations leading up to TMI. The model accommodates varying numbers of launches, including the potential for spare launches. Having a spare launch capability provides significant improvement to mission success.

  18. Astronomy sortie missions definition study. Volume 3, book 2: Appendix: Design analysis and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Backup or supporting data for the design analyses and trade studies which defined the astronomy sortie missions are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) configuration of space shuttle orbiter, (2) electronic subsystems, (3) electric power requirements, and (4) payload requirements. Mathematical models are developed to illustrate the orbital rendezvous capabilities.

  19. Commerce Lab: Mission analysis payload integration study. Appendix A: Data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The development of Commerce Lab is detailed. Its objectives are to support the space program in these areas: (1) the expedition of space commercialization; (2) the advancement of microgravity science and applications; and (3) as a precursor to future missions in the space program. Ways and means of involving private industry and academia in this commercialization is outlined.

  20. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 3: Program manual for earth orbital MAPSEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A revised user's manual for the computer program MAPSEP is presented. Major changes from the interplanetary version of MAPSEP are summarized. The changes are intended to provide a basic capability to analyze anticipated solar electric missions, and a foundation for future more complex, modifications. For Vol. III, N75-16589.

  1. Democratic versus Capitalistic: A Case Study Analysis of One Community College Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burruss, Jennifer R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the mission of a community college regarding a change from democratic to capitalistic. A case study methodology was employed by converging on one North Carolina community college. Data were gathered by conducting 4 individual interviews, 3 focus groups, and document analyses. Documents examined included…

  2. Managing Risk for Cassini During Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MOandDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona M.

    2002-01-01

    A Risk Management Process has been tailored for Cassini that not only satisfies the requirements of NASA and JPL, but also allows the Program to proactively identify and assess risks that threaten mission objectives. Cassini Risk Management is a team effort that involves both management and engineering staff. The process is managed and facilitated by the Mission Assurance Manager (MAM), but requires regular interactions with Program Staff and team members to instill the risk management philosophy into the day to day mission operations. While Risk Management is well defined for projects in the development phase, it is a relatively new concept for Mission Operations. The Cassini team has embraced this process and has begun using it in an effective, proactive manner, to ensure mission success. It is hoped that the Cassini Risk Management Process will form the basis by which risk management is conducted during MO&DA on future projects. proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully implemented a Risk Management Process for mission operations, The initial SRL has been developed and input into he online tool. The Risk Management webbased system has been rolled out for use by the flight team and risk owners we working proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully

  3. Parametric Analysis of Life Support Systems for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path program.

  4. Parametric Analysis of Life Support Systems for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.

    2010-01-01

    Having adopted a flexible path approach to space exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra- vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path

  5. ICESat Laser Altimeter Pointing, Ranging and Timing Calibration from Integrated Residual Analysis: A Summary of Early Mission Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutchke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David D.; Harding, David J.; Bufton, Jack L.; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Williams, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    On January 12, 2003 the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was successfUlly placed into orbit. The ICESat mission carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which consists of three near-infrared lasers that operate at 40 short pulses per second. The instrument has collected precise elevation measurements of the ice sheets, sea ice roughness and thickness, ocean and land surface elevations and surface reflectivity. The accurate geolocation of GLAS's surface returns, the spots from which the laser energy reflects on the Earth's surface, is a critical issue in the scientific application of these data Pointing, ranging, timing and orbit errors must be compensated to accurately geolocate the laser altimeter surface returns. Towards this end, the laser range observations can be fully exploited in an integrated residual analysis to accurately calibrate these geolocation/instrument parameters. Early mission ICESat data have been simultaneously processed as direct altimetry from ocean sweeps along with dynamic crossovers resulting in a preliminary calibration of laser pointing, ranging and timing. The calibration methodology and early mission analysis results are summarized in this paper along with future calibration activities

  6. A Risk-Constrained Multi-Stage Decision Making Approach to the Architectural Analysis of Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Pavone, Marco; Balaram, J. (Bob)

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel risk-constrained multi-stage decision making approach to the architectural analysis of planetary rover missions. In particular, focusing on a 2018 Mars rover concept, which was considered as part of a potential Mars Sample Return campaign, we model the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) phase and the rover traverse phase as four sequential decision-making stages. The problem is to find a sequence of divert and driving maneuvers so that the rover drive is minimized and the probability of a mission failure (e.g., due to a failed landing) is below a user specified bound. By solving this problem for several different values of the model parameters (e.g., divert authority), this approach enables rigorous, accurate and systematic trade-offs for the EDL system vs. the mobility system, and, more in general, cross-domain trade-offs for the different phases of a space mission. The overall optimization problem can be seen as a chance-constrained dynamic programming problem, with the additional complexity that 1) in some stages the disturbances do not have any probabilistic characterization, and 2) the state space is extremely large (i.e, hundreds of millions of states for trade-offs with high-resolution Martian maps). To this purpose, we solve the problem by performing an unconventional combination of average and minimax cost analysis and by leveraging high efficient computation tools from the image processing community. Preliminary trade-off results are presented.

  7. Self Assembling Mars Transfer Vehicles: The Preferred Concept of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Explorations Missions Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    Recently, one of the most comprehensive design studies of conceptual manned Mars vehicles, conducted since the Apollo era Mars mission studies of the 1960's, was completed. One of the tasks of the study involved the analysis of nuclear thermal propulsion spacecraft for Manned Mars exploration missions. This paper describes the specific effort aimed at vehicle configuration design. Over the course of the four year study, three configuration baselines were developed, each reflecting trade study cycle results of sequential phases of the study. Favorable attributes incorporated into the final concept, including a capability for on-orbit self-assembly and ease of launch vehicle packability, represent design solutions to configuration deficiencies plaguing nuclear propulsion Mars spacecraft design since the vehicle archetype originated in the 1950's. This paper contains a narrative summary of significant milestones in the effort, describes the evolution to the preferred configuration, and set forth the benefits derived from its utilization.

  8. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  9. Infrared horizon sensor modeling for attitude determination and control: Analysis and mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phenneger, M. C.; Singhal, S. P.; Lee, T. H.; Stengle, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    The work performed by the Attitude Determination and Control Section at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center in analyzing and evaluating the performance of infrared horizon sensors is presented. The results of studies performed during the 1960s are reviewed; several models for generating the Earth's infrared radiance profiles are presented; and the Horizon Radiance Modeling Utility, the software used to model the horizon sensor optics and electronics processing to computer radiance-dependent attitude errors, is briefly discussed. Also provided is mission experience from 12 spaceflight missions spanning the period from 1973 to 1984 and using a variety of horizon sensing hardware. Recommendations are presented for future directions for the infrared horizon sensing technology.

  10. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 1: Analytical manual for earth orbital MAPSEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An introduction to the MAPSEP organization and a detailed analytical description of all models and algorithms are given. These include trajectory and error covariance propagation methods, orbit determination processes, thrust modeling, and trajectory correction (guidance) schemes. Earth orbital MAPSEP contains the capability of analyzing almost any currently projected low thrust mission from low earth orbit to super synchronous altitudes. Furthermore, MAPSEP is sufficiently flexible to incorporate extended dynamic models, alternate mission strategies, and almost any other system requirement imposed by the user. As in the interplanetary version, earth orbital MAPSEP represents a trade-off between precision modeling and computational speed consistent with defining necessary system requirements. It can be used in feasibility studies as well as in flight operational support. Pertinent operational constraints are available both implicitly and explicitly. However, the reader should be warned that because of program complexity, MAPSEP is only as good as the user and will quickly succumb to faulty user inputs.

  11. Mission Analysis and Conceptual Design of a Space Ambulance Utilizing the Boeing X-37B Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaesser, Nathaniel James

    This paper discusses the concept of operations and modifications for a crew return vehicle from the International Space Station based on the Boeing X-37B platform. The modifications necessary include accommodating a three person crew, adding an environmental control and life support system and modifying the propulsion system to be more conducive to a fast evacuation. Two crew seating configurations were considered and traded for vehicle mass, crew envelope and ease of loading and unloading the injured patient. Computer models were generated to determine key parameters, and the models were validated using physical mock-ups. The mission is considerably shorter than the design reference mission, meaning that there are significant reductions in propellant mass and volume. The results showed that by utilizing the space saved from smaller propellant tanks, and combining the crew's oxygen supply with the propulsion system, the vehicle can be retooled without modifying the outer mold line..

  12. Mission analysis for the ion beam deflection of fictitious asteroid 2015 PDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Amato, Davide; Cano, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Based on a hypothetical asteroid impact scenario proposed during the 2015 IAA Planetary Defense Conference (PDC), we study the deflection of fictitious asteroid 2015 PDC starting from ephemeris data provided by the conference organizers. A realistic mission scenario is investigated that makes use of an ion beam shepherd spacecraft as a primary deflection technique. The article deals with the design of a low-thrust rendezvous trajectory to the asteroid, the estimation of the propagated covariance ellipsoid and the outcome of an ion beam slow-push deflection starting from three worst case scenarios (impacts in New Delhi, Dhaka and Tehran). Displacing the impact point towards an extremely low-populated, easy-to-evacuate region, as opposed to full deflection, is found to be a more effective mitigation approach. Mission design, technical and political aspects are discussed.

  13. A Whale of a Tale: Creating Spacecraft Telemetry Data Analysis Products for the Deep Impact Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturdevant, Kathryn F.; Wright, Jesse J.; Lighty, Roger A.; Nakamura, Lori L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes some of the challenges and lessons learned from the Deep Impact (DI) Mission Ground Data System's (GDS) telemetry data processing and product generation tool, nicknamed 'Whale.' One of the challenges of any mission is to analyze testbed and operational telemetry data. Methods to retrieve this data to date have required spacecraft subsystem members to become experts in the use of a myriad of query and plot tools. As budgets shrink, and the GDS teams grow smaller, more of the burden to understand these tools falls on the users. The user base also varies from novice to expert, and requiring them to become GDS tool experts in addition to spacecraft domain experts is an undue burden. The "Whale" approach is to process all of the data for a given spacecraft test, and provide each subsystem with plots and data products 'automagically.'.

  14. Multistage Analysis of Cyber Threats for Quick Mission Impact Assessment (CyberIA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    information overload . This system will leverage numerous established technologies and provide a better situational awareness of the monitored cyber...for processing. This information overload often leads to unknown cyber postures, system capabilities, and ultimately mission impacts due to cyber... INFORMATION The work described in this report was performed by the ISR Engineering Branch (Code H56D0) of the C2 and Networks Division (Code H5300

  15. Multi-Vehicle Flight Testbed for Extended Mission Analysis, Fault Isolation, and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    mounted to a quadrotor and a small radio- controlled truck, placed at (0,0) m, was used as a target [23]. During this test flight, the vision tracking ...13] Vladimerouy, V., Stubbs, A., Rubel, J., Fulford, A., Strick, J., & Dullerud, G., A Hovercraft Testbed for Decentralized and Cooperative Control ...indoor test ENvironment) that was constructed to enable investigations of long-duration missions in a controlled environment. RAVEN provides a

  16. Trajectory and System Analysis For Outer-Planet Solar-Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael; Woo, Byoungsam; Coverstone, Victoria L.; Hartmann, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Outer-planet mission and systems analyses are performed using three next generation solar-electric ion thruster models. The impact of variations in thruster model, flight time, launch vehicle, propulsion and power systems characteristics is investigated. All presented trajectories have a single Venus gravity assist and maximize the delivered mass to Saturn or Neptune. The effect of revolution ratio - the ratio of Venusian orbital period to the flight time between launch and flyby dates - is also discussed.

  17. A Framework for Reliability and Safety Analysis of Complex Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, John W.; Groen, Frank; Wang, Lui; Austin, Rebekah; Witulski, Art; Mahadevan, Nagabhushan; Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Lindsey, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Long duration and complex mission scenarios are characteristics of NASA's human exploration of Mars, and will provide unprecedented challenges. Systems reliability and safety will become increasingly demanding and management of uncertainty will be increasingly important. NASA's current pioneering strategy recognizes and relies upon assurance of crew and asset safety. In this regard, flexibility to develop and innovate in the emergence of new design environments and methodologies, encompassing modeling of complex systems, is essential to meet the challenges.

  18. Information in Command and Control: Connecting Mission Command and Social Network Analysis (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Howard ( Math Dept ) USMA, West Point, NY "The change from atoms to bits is irrevocable and unstoppable.“ --- N. Negroponte, Being Digital, 1995...of models & math . 3 Informatics in Military Operations • Information science (IS) involves collecting, fusing, exploiting information to...Resources Political E V E N T S Military Finances S U P O R T Storage Crimes Riots Protests Outside organizations Media 17 Mission Command

  19. Risk analysis of earth return options for the Mars rover/sample return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Four options for return of a Mars surface sample to Earth were studied to estimate the risk of mission failure and the risk of a sample container breach that might result in the release of Martian life forms, should such exist, in the Earth's biosphere. The probabilities calculated refer only to the time period from the last midcourse correction burn to possession of the sample on Earth. Two extreme views characterize this subject. In one view, there is no life on Mars, therefore there is no significant risk and no serious effort is required to deal with back contamination. In the other view, public safety overrides any desire to return Martian samples, and any risk of damaging contamination greater than zero is unacceptable. Zero risk requires great expense to achieve and may prevent the mission as currently envisioned from taking place. The major conclusion is that risk of sample container breach can be reduced to a very low number within the framework of the mission as now envisioned, but significant expense and effort, above that currently planned is needed. There are benefits to the public that warrant some risk. Martian life, if it exists, will be a major discovery. If it does not, there is no risk.

  20. Simplifying the Analysis of Data from Multiple Heliophysics Instruments and Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazell, D.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the intertwined plasma, particles and fields connecting the Sun and the Earth requires combining data from many diverse sources, but there are still many technological barriers that complicate the merging of data from different instruments and missions. We present an emerging data serving capability that provides a uniform way to access heterogeneous and distributed data. The goal of our data server is to provide a standardized data access mechanism that is identical for data of any format and layout (CDF, custom binary, FITS, netCDF, CSV and other flavors of ASCII, etc). Data remain in their original format and location (i.e., at instrument team sites or existing data centers), and our data server delivers a dynamically reformatted view of the data. Scientists can then use tools (clients that talk to the server) that offer a single interface for browsing, analyzing or downloading many different contemporary and legacy heliophysics data sets. Our current server accesses many CDF data resources at CDAWeb, as well as multiple other instrument team sites. Our webservice will be deployed on the Amazon Cloud at http://datashop.elasticbeanstalk.com/. Two basic clients will also be demonstrated: one in Java and one in IDL. Python, Perl, and Matlab clients are also planned. Complex missions such as Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus will benefit greatly from tools that enable multi-instrument and multi-mission data comparison.

  1. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Geologic Samples Containing Organic Materials: Implications for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Boynton, W. V.

    2006-01-01

    The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument scheduled to fly onboard the 2007 Mars Phoenix Scout Mission will perform differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and evolved gas analysis (EGA) of soil samples and ice collected from the surface and subsurface at a northern landing site on Mars. We have been developing a sample characterization data library using a laboratory DSC integrated with a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TEGA data returned during the mission. The laboratory TEGA test-bed instrument has been modified to operate under conditions similar to TEGA, i.e., reduced pressure (e.g., 100 torr) and reduced carrier gas flow rates. We have previously developed a TEGA data library for a variety of volatile-bearing mineral phases, including Fe-oxyhydroxides, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates. Here we examine the thermal and evolved gas properties of samples that contain organics. One of the primary objectives of the Phoenix Scout Mission is to search for habitable zones by assessing organic or biologically interesting materials in icy soil. Nitrogen is currently the carrier gas that will be used for TEGA. In this study, we examine two possible modes of detecting organics in geologic samples; i.e., pyrolysis using N2 as the carrier gas and combustion using O2 as the carrier gas.

  2. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  3. Mars Surface Mission Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A workshop was held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute on September 4-5, 1997, to address the surface elements of the Mars Reference Mission now being reviewed by NASA. The workshop considered the current reference mission and addressed the types of activities that would be expected for science and resource exploration and facilities operations. A set of activities was defined that can be used to construct "vignettes" of the surface mission. These vignettes can form the basis for describing the importance of the surface mission, for illustrating aspects of the surface mission, and for allowing others to extend and revise these initial ideas. The topic is rich with opportunities for additional conceptualization. It is recommended that NASA consider supporting university design teams to conduct further analysis of the possibilities.

  4. [Analysis of Multiplatform CO (Carbon Monoxide) Measurements During Trace-P Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pougatchev, Nikita S.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is considered mission critical (TRACE-P NRA) because it is one of the gases involved in controlling the oxidizing power of the atmosphere and, as a tracer gas, is valuable in interpreting mission data sets. Carbon monoxide exhibits interannual differences, suggesting relatively short-term imbalances in sources and sinks. Sources of CO are dominated by fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and the photochemical oxidation of CH4 and nonmethane hydrocarbons while reaction with OH is believed to be the major sink for atmospheric CO, with additional losses due to soil uptake. Uncertainties in the magnitude and distribution of both sources and sinks remain fairly large however, and additional data are required to refine the global budget. Seasonal changes and a northern hemispheric latitudinal gradient have been described for a variety of Pacific basin sites through long-term monitoring of surface background levels. Latitudinal variations have also recently been described at upper tropospheric altitudes over a multi-year period by. TRACE-P will provide an aircraft survey of CO over the northern Pacific in the northern spring when CO concentrations are at their seasonal maximum in the northern hemisphere (NH) and at their seasonal minimum in the southern hemisphere (SH). Previous GTE missions, Le., PEM West-B and PEM Tropics-B, ground-based, and satellite observations (MAPS, April 1994) give us a general picture of the distribution of CO over the northern Pacific during this season. Based on these measurements, background CO levels over remote ocean areas are anticipated to be in the range of 110 - 180 ppbv, while those closer to the Asian continent may rise as high as 600 ppbv. These measurements also reveal high spatial variability (both horizontal and vertical) as well as temporal variations in CO over the area planned for the TRACE-P mission. This variability is a result of multiple CO sources, the meteorological complexity of transport processes

  5. CATLAC: Calibration and validation analysis tool of local area coverage for the SeaWiFS mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Robert H.; Gregg, Watson W.; Patt, Frederick S.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration and validation Analysis Tool of Local Area Coverage (CATLAC) is an analysis package for selecting and graphically displaying Earth and space targets for calibration and validation activities on a polar orbiting satellite. The package is written in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and includes a graphical user interface. Although it is designed specifically for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, the package can be used for analysis on other Earth-viewing missions. An individual can use text or graphical methods in CATLAC to select Earth targets to be scanned by a satellite. Additional onboard calibration activities (such as observations of the moon, or solar irradiance from a solar diffuser), which use data recorder time, can also be specified. All information pertinent to the creation of a command schedule can be written to a file which is read by a command scheduler. The scheduler can be invoked and the Local Area Coverage (LAC) recording periods can be visually verified using CATLAC. The schedule can also be verified by examining record and error files written by the scheduler.

  6. "Chiron": A Proposed Remote Sensing Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis Instrument for a Nuclear Powered Prometheus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.

  7. Cluster II Wideband (WBD) Plasma Wave Investigation Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    This Summary of Research is being submitted to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. A summary of the significant accomplishments of the Cluster Wideband (WBD) Plasma Wave Investigation team achieved during the period of the grant, October 1,2000 through January 14, 2004, and a listing of all of the publications that resulted from work carried out under the grant is presented. Also included is a listing of the numerous public outreach activities that took place during the period of the grant in which the Cluster mission and Cluster WBD science were discussed.

  8. [A mission to Mars: the prognostic analysis of concurrent psychological problems].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, S I; Miasnikov, V I; Kozerenko, O P; Sal'nitakiĭ, V P; Nechaev, A P

    2003-01-01

    Psychological implications of situations that may take place during a mission to Mars including desynchronosis, fatigue, psychic asthenization, acute mental disorders, interruption of the information flow, unpredicted transformation of the socio-psychological needs, a persistent conflict tension in the crew, errors in manual control of the vehicle, refusal or impossibility to fulfill an operation, difficulties in communication between the crew and ground controllers were analyzed for determination of their causes and consequences, probable starting time, ways and methods of preventing and surmounting each of these situations.

  9. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyland, R. E.; Sherman, S. W.; Morfin, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The crew capsule of the MOTV was studied with emphasis on crew accommodations, crew capsule functional requirements, subsystem interface definition between crew module and propulsion module, and man rating requirements. Competing mission modes were studied covering a wide range of propulsion concepts. These included one stage, one and one half stage, and two stage concepts using either the standard STS or an augmented STS. Several deorbit concepts were considered, including all propulsive modes, direct re-entry, and aeromaneuvering skip in skip out in the upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere. A five year plan covering costs, schedules, and critical technology issues is discussed.

  10. A Whale of a Tale: Creating Spacecraft Telemetry Data Analysis Products for the Deep Impact Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturdevant, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A description of the Whale product generation utility and its means of analyzing project data for Deep Impact Missions is presented. The topics include: 1) Whale Definition; 2) Whale Overview; 3) Whale Challenges; 4) Network Configuration; 5) Network Diagram; 6) Whale Data Flow: Design Decisions; 7) Whale Data Flow Diagram; 8) Whale Data Flow; 9) Whale Team and Users; 10) Creeping Requirements; 11) Whale Competition; 12) Statistics: Processing Time; 13) CPU and Disk Usage; 14) The Ripple Effect of More Data; and 15) Data Validation and the Automation Challenge.

  11. A MATERIAL COST-MINIMIZATION ANALYSIS FOR HERNIA REPAIRS AND MINOR PROCEDURES DURING A SURGICAL MISSION IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Jaime A.; Ousley, Jenny; Barrett, Christopher D.; Baalman, Sara; Ward, Kyle; Borchardt, Malgorzata; Thomas, J. Ross; Perotti, Gary; Frisella, Margaret M.; Matthews, Brent D.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Expenditures on material supplies and medications constitute the greatest per capita costs for surgical missions. We hypothesized that supply acquisition at nonprofit organization (NPO) costs would lead to significant cost-savings compared to supply acquisition at US academic institution costs from the provider perspective for hernia repairs and minor procedures during a surgical mission in the Dominican Republic (DR). METHODS Items acquired for a surgical mission were uniquely QR-coded for accurate consumption accounting. Both NPO and US academic institution unit costs were associated with each item in an electronic inventory system. Medication doses were recorded and QR-codes for consumed items were scanned into a record for each sampled procedure. Mean material costs and cost savings ± SDs were calculated in US dollars for each procedure type. Cost-minimization analyses between the NPO and the US academic institution platforms for each procedure type ensued using a two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs test with α=0.05. Item utilization analyses generated lists of most frequently used materials by procedure type. RESULTS The mean cost savings of supply acquisition at NPO costs for each procedure type were as follows: $482.86 ± $683.79 for unilateral inguinal hernia repair (IHR, n=13); $332.46 ± $184.09 for bilateral inguinal hernia repair (BIHR, n=3); $127.26 ± $13.18 for hydrocelectomy (HC, n=9); $232.92 ± $56.49 for femoral hernia repair (FHR, n=3); $120.90 ± $30.51 for umbilical hernia repair (UHR, n=8); $36.59 ± $17.76 for minor procedures (MP, n=26); and $120.66 ± $14.61 for pediatric inguinal hernia repair (PIHR, n=7). CONCLUSION Supply acquisition at NPO costs leads to significant cost-savings compared to supply acquisition at US academic institution costs from the provider perspective for IHR, HC, UHR, MP, and PIHR during a surgical mission to DR. Item utilization analysis can generate minimum-necessary material lists for each procedure

  12. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-04-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hanger, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  13. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hangar, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  14. Analysis of Oxygen Spectral Lines in the 1.27 Micron Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2011-01-01

    The ASCENDS mission requires simultaneous laser remote sensing of CO2 and O2 in order to convert CO2 column number densities to average column CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). As such, the CO2 column number density and the O2 column number density will be utilized to derive the average XCO2 column. NASA Langley Research Center, working with its partners, is developing O2 lidar technology in the 1.26-1.27- m band for surface pressure measurements. The O2 model optical depth calculation is very sensitive to knowledge of the transmitted wavelengths and to the choice of Voigt input parameters. Modeling using the HITRAN database is being carried out to establish the evolution of candidate O2 absorption lines as a function of atmospheric parameters such as altitude, temperature, and pressure. Preliminary results indicate limitations of the Voigt profile and the need to utilize more advanced models which take into account line mixing, line narrowing, and speed dependence. In this paper, we evaluate alternative lineshape models to establish the optimum lineshapes which better account for the variability of individual O2 absorption lines at various atmospheric conditions. The combination of our modeling efforts with accurate laboratory measurements is anticipated to aid in achieving the desired CO2 mixing ratio measurement accuracy requirement of for the ASCENDS mission.

  15. Near hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1. Appendices A and B. Mission analysis and performance specification studies report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The three most promising vehicle use patterns (missions) for the near term electric hybrid vehicle were found to be all-purpose city driving, commuting, and family and civic business. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. origin-destination studies data. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means, the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  16. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cañizares, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferrone, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hernández, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H.-B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission, a precursor mission aimed at demonstrating key technologies for future space-based gravitational wave detectors, like LISA. Since much of the flight hardware has already been constructed and tested, we will show that performance measurements and analysis of these flight components lead to an expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder which is a significant improvement over the mission requirements, and which actually reaches the LISA requirements over the entire LISA Pathfinder measurement band.

  17. Venus 2000 Mission Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Marr, Greg; Vaughn, Frank; Houghton, Martin B.

    1997-05-01

    As part of the Discovery Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has solicited proposals for inter-planetary research to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. A mission, called Venus 2000 (V2k), has been proposed for exploration of the Venus Atmosphere. This is NASAs first voyage to Venus to investigate key science objectives since Magellan and will be launched in summer 2002. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, V2k mission design and control will focus on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs and control systems provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  18. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  19. The Evolution of the Federal Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Aerial Measurement System

    2012-07-31

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is a federal emergency response asset whose assistance may be requested by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies to respond to a nuclear or radiological incident. It is an interagency organization with representation from the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other federal agencies. FRMAC, in its present form, was created in 1987 when the radiological support mission was assigned to the DOE’s Nevada Operations Office by DOE Headquarters. The FRMAC asset, including its predecessor entities, was created, grew, and evolved to function as a response to radiological incidents. Radiological emergency response exercises showed the need for a coordinated approach to managing federal emergency monitoring and assessment activities. The mission of FRMAC is to coordinate and manage all federal radiological environmental monitoring and assessment activities during a nuclear or radiological incident within the United States in support of state,local, tribal governments, DHS, and the federal coordinating agency. Radiological emergency response professionals with the DOE’s national laboratories support the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), the Aerial MeasuringSystem (AMS), and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). These teams support the FRMAC to provide: Atmospheric transport modeling; Radiation monitoring; Radiological analysis and data assessments; and Medical advice for radiation injuries In support of field operations, the FRMAC provides geographic

  20. The Cluster Science Archive and its relevance for multi-missions data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, A.; Escoubet, C. P.; Laakso, H. E.; Perry, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The science data archive of the Cluster mission is a major contribution of the European Space Agency (ESA) to the International Living With a Star program. Known as the Cluster Active Archive (CAA), its availability since 2006 has resulted in a significant increase of the scientific return of this on-going mission. The Cluster science archive (CSA) has been developed in parallel to CAA over the last few years at the European Space Astronomy Center (ESAC) in Madrid, Spain. It is the long-term science archive of the Cluster mission, developed and managed along with all the other ESA science archives. Publicly opened in November 2013, CSA is available in parallel with CAA during a transition period until CAA public closing in early autumn 2014. Our goal here is to present what has been put in place to help geophysicists in their research. We will first talk about some aspects of the CSA user interface (data visualization including particle distribution; user data profiles) and how users can access data remotely (data streaming in Matlab, or via IDL or Python). The second goal is to present unique value added datasets that are now available on the CSA/CAA. These data have been produced by the scientific community, thanks to two EU FP7 projects: ECLAT and MAARBLE. For instance, the polarization and propagation parameters of ULF Pc waves measured by Cluster and Themis (since 2007) are available and cover more than a decade; along with magnetic spectra of Pc waves measured simultaneously by CHAMP and ground-based magnetometers. These data are clearly an outstanding data resource for low frequency waves researchers. Other datasets will be presented to show that CSA/CAA allow much more than downloading Cluster data from a graphical user interface. It's a single point entry that allows studies from micro-scale physics in the tail (e.g. catalogues of dipolarization fronts), to meso- and large-scale M-I coupling studies (e.g. Cluster magnetic footprints based on T96 and TS05

  1. Geospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Geospace Missions - Understanding and being able to predict the behavior of the Earth's near space environment, called Geospace, is important for several reasons. These include the fact that most of the space-based commercial, military, and space research assets are exposed to this environment and that investigating fundamental plasma processes at work through out the solar system can most readily be accomplished in Geospace, the only place we can access the processes. NASA missions that are directed toward understanding, characterizing, and predicting the Geospace environment are described in this presentation. Emphasis is placed on those missions that investigate those phenomena that most affect life and society. The significance of investigating ionospheric irregularities, the radiation belt dynamics with the LWS Geospace Mission will be discussed.

  2. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  3. A non-homogeneous Markov model for phased-mission reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smotherman, Mark; Zemoudeh, Kay

    1989-01-01

    Three assumptions of Markov modeling for reliability of phased-mission systems that limit flexibility of representation are identified. The proposed generalization has the ability to represent state-dependent behavior, handle phases of random duration using globally time-dependent distributions of phase change time, and model globally time-dependent failure and repair rates. The approach is based on a single nonhomogeneous Markov model in which the concept of state transition is extended to include globally time-dependent phase changes. Phase change times are specified using nonoverlapping distributions with probability distribution functions that are zero outside assigned time intervals; the time intervals are ordered according to the phases. A comparison between a numerical solution of the model and simulation demonstrates that the numerical solution can be several times faster than simulation.

  4. Analysis of DRIRU bearings and lubricant from solar max repair mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Repair Mission (SMRM) by the shuttle astronauts in April 1984, returned to Earth the Delta Redundant Inertial Reference Unit 2 (DRIRU 2) from the Solar Maximum satellite. The DRIRU 2 included three gyroscopes. The gyroscope, S/N 094, in position 2 was disassembled by Teledyne Systems personnel of Northridge, California, and the bearings were returned to Goddard Space Flight Center for examination. The Solar Max Satellite was in orbit for 4 years with the bearings running continuously at 6000 rpm. The ball bearings, had sufficient remaining lubrication and had runs successfully for over the last 4 years. As a result of these findings, the bearings should have lasted their predicted life of 5 years with no problems.

  5. Description, analysis and impact of major solar activity during recent U.S. Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, M. J.; Hardy, A. C.; Atwell, W.; Hardy, K.

    1992-01-01

    Since STS-26, three large solar events have occurred during Shuttle missions: a geomagnetic storm during STS-29 and solar particle events (SPEs) during STS-28 and -34. The maximum dose to a crew attributed to an SPE was estimated to be 30 micro-Gy. Time-resolved dosimetry measurements of the SPE dose during STS-28 were made using the USAF Radiation Monitoring Equipment. Comparison of calculated and measured dose demonstrated a discrepancy, possibly a result of deficiencies in the geomagnetic cutoff model used. This experience demonstrates that dose from an SPE is strongly dependent on numerous factors such as orbit inclination, SPE start time, spectral parameters and geomagnetic field conditions; the exact combination of these factors is fortuitous. New sources of data and procedures are being investigated, including real-time tracking of auroral oval positions or determination of particle cutoff latitudes, for incorporation into operational Shuttle radiation support practices.

  6. Link Analysis of High Throughput Spacecraft Communication Systems for Future Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's plan to launch several spacecraft into low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support science missions in the next ten years and beyond requires down link throughput on the order of several terabits per day. The ability to handle such a large volume of data far exceeds the capabilities of current systems. This paper proposes two solutions, first, a high data rate link between the LEO spacecraft and ground via relay satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO). Second, a high data rate direct to ground link from LEO. Next, the paper presents results from computer simulations carried out for both types of links taking into consideration spacecraft transmitter frequency, EIRP, and waveform; elevation angle dependent path loss through Earths atmosphere, and ground station receiver GT.

  7. Link Analysis of High Throughput Spacecraft Communication Systems for Future Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's plan to launch several spacecrafts into low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support science missions in the next ten years and beyond requires down link throughput on the order of several terabits per day. The ability to handle such a large volume of data far exceeds the capabilities of current systems. This paper proposes two solutions, first, a high data rate link between the LEO spacecraft and ground via relay satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO). Second, a high data rate direct to ground link from LEO. Next, the paper presents results from computer simulations carried out for both types of links taking into consideration spacecraft transmitter frequency, EIRP, and waveform; elevation angle dependent path loss through Earths atmosphere, and ground station receiver GT.

  8. Participation in the definition, conduct, and analysis of particle accelerator experiments for the first Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) is a joint endeavor between NASA and the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Sciences (ISAS) in Japan. Its objectives are to use energetic electron beams to investigate beam-atmosphere interactions and beam-plasma interactions in the earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere using the shuttle Spacelab. Two flights of SEPAC have occurred to date (Spacelab 1 on STS-9 in Nov.-Dec. 1983 and ATLAS 1 on STS-45 in Mar.-Apr. 1992). The SEPAC instrumentation is available for future missions, and the scientific results of the first two missions justify further investigations; however, at present there are no identifiable future flight opportunities. As specified in the contract, the primary purpose of this report is to review the scientific accomplishments of the ATLAS 1 SEPAC experiments, which have been documented in the published literature, with only a brief review of the earlier Spacelab 1 results. One of the main results of the Spacelab 1 SEPAC experiments was that the ejection of plasma from the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjet was effective in maintaining vehicle charge neutralization during electron beam firings, but only for a brief period of 10 ms or so. Therefore, a xenon plasma contactor, which can provide continuous vehicle charge neutralization, was developed for the ATLAS 1 SEPAC experiments. Because of the successful operation of the plasma contactor on ATLAS 1, it was possible to perform experiments on beam-plasma interactions and beam-atmosphere interactions at the highest beam power levels of SEPAC. In addition, the ability of the plasma contactor to eject neutral xenon led to a successful experiment on the critical ionization velocity (CIV) phenomena on ATLAS 1.

  9. Mission Scenario Development Workbench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Baker, John; Gilbert, John; Hanks, David; Mandutianu, Dan; Hooper, David

    2006-01-01

    The Mission Scenario Development Workbench (MSDW) is a multidisciplinary performance analysis software tool for planning and optimizing space missions. It provides a number of new capabilities that are particularly useful for planning the surface activities on other planets. MSDW enables rapid planning of a space mission and supports flight system and scientific-instrumentation trades. It also provides an estimate of the ability of flight, ground, and science systems to meet high-level mission goals and provides means of evaluating expected mission performance at an early stage of planning in the project life cycle. In MSDW, activity plans and equipment-list spreadsheets are integrated with validated parameterized simulation models of spacecraft systems. In contrast to traditional approaches involving worst-case estimates with large margins, the approach embodied in MSDW affords more flexibility and more credible results early in the lifecycle through the use of validated, variable- fidelity models of spacecraft systems. MSDW is expected to help maximize the scientific return on investment for space missions by understanding early the performance required to have a successful mission while reducing the risk of costly design changes made at late stages in the project life cycle.

  10. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley; Speece, Robert F.; Rivera, Jorge E.

    1994-01-01

    A pre-launch debris inspection of the pad and Shuttle vehicle was conducted on 2 March 1994. The detailed walkdown of Launch Pad 39B and MLP-1 also included the primary flight elements OV-102 Columbia (16th flight), ET-62 (LWT 55), and BI-064 SRB's. There were no significant facility or vehicle anomalies. After the launch on March 4th, a debris inspection of Pad 39B was performed. Damage to the pad overall was minimal. On-orbit photographs taken by the flight crew and two films from the ET/ORB umbilical cameras of the External Tank after separation from the Orbiter revealed no major damage or lost flight hardware that would have been a safety of flight concern. Orbiter performance on final approach appeared normal. Infrared imagery of landing gear deployment showed the loss of thermal barrier from the nose gear wheel well. The missing thermal barrier material was not recovered. The Solid Rocket Boosters were inspected at Hanger AF after retrieval. Both frustums had a combined total of 44 MSA-2 debonds over fasteners. Significant amounts of BTA had been applied to closeouts on the RH frustum, forward skirt, and aft skirt. Hypalon paint was blistered/missing over the areas were the BTA had been applied. The underlying BTA was not sooted (IFA STS-62-B-1). Investigation of this condition has concluded there was insufficient heat rates to cause blistering of the Hypalon until late in the ascent phase. A post landing inspection of OV-102 was conducted after the landing at KSC. The Orbiter TPS sustained a total of 97 hits, of which 16 had a major dimension of 1 inch or larger. The Orbiter lower surface had a total of 36 hits, of which 7 had a major dimension of 1 inch or larger. Based on these numbers and comparison to statistics from previous missions of similar configuration, both the total number of debris hits and the number of hits 1 inch or larger was less than average. Six thermal barriers, total size approximately 36 in. x 3 in. x 1.5 in., and one corner tile

  11. Noble Gas Analysis for Mars Robotic Missions: Evaluating K-Ar Age Dating for Mars Rock Analogs and Martian Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Ming, D. W.; Garrison, D. H.; Jones, J. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Nagao, K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this noble gas investigation was to evaluate the possibility of measuring noble gases in martian rocks and air by future robotic missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL mission has, as part of its payload, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument, which consists of a pyrolysis oven integrated with a GCMS. The MSL SAM instrument has the capability to measure noble gas compositions of martian rocks and atmosphere. Here we suggest the possibility of K-Ar age dating based on noble gas release of martian rocks by conducting laboratory simulation experiments on terrestrial basalts and martian meteorites. We provide requirements for the SAM instrument to obtain adequate noble gas abundances and compositions within the current SAM instrumental operating conditions, especially, a power limit that prevents heating the furnace above approx.1100 C. In addition, Martian meteorite analyses from NASA-JSC will be used as ground truth to evaluate the feasibility of robotic experiments to constrain the ages of martian surface rocks.

  12. An overview of the phase-modular fault tree approach to phased mission system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, L.; Xing, L.; Donohue, S. K.; Ou, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We look at how fault tree analysis (FTA), a primary means of performing reliability analysis of PMS, can meet this challenge in this paper by presenting an overview of the modular approach to solving fault trees that represent PMS.

  13. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  14. Low Speed Analysis of Mission Adaptive Flaps on a High Speed Civil Transport Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessard, Victor R.

    1999-01-01

    Thin-layer Navier-Stokes analyses were done on a high speed civil transport configuration with mission adaptive leading-edge flaps. The flow conditions simulated were Mach = 0.22 and Reynolds number of 4.27 million for angles-of-attack ranging from 0 to 18 degrees. Two turbulence closure models were used. Analyses were done exclusively with the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model at low angle-of-attack conditions. At high angles-of-attack where considerable flow separation and vortices occurred the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model was also considered. The effects of flow transition were studied. Predicted aerodynamic forces, moment, and pressure are compared to experimental data obtained in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley. The forces and moments correlated well with experimental data in terms of trends. Drag and pitching moment were consistently underpredicted. Predicted surface pressures compared well with experiment at low angles-of-attack. Above 10 angle-of-attack the pressure comparisons were not as favorable. The two turbulent models affected the pressures on the flap considerably and neither produced correct results at the high angles-of-attack.

  15. Raman spectroscopic analysis of geological and biogeological specimens of relevance to the ExoMars mission.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hutchinson, Ian B; Ingley, Richard; Parnell, John; Vítek, Petr; Jehlička, Jan

    2013-06-01

    A novel miniaturized Raman spectrometer is scheduled to fly as part of the analytical instrumentation package on an ESA remote robotic lander in the ESA/Roscosmos ExoMars mission to search for evidence for extant or extinct life on Mars in 2018. The Raman spectrometer will be part of the first-pass analytical stage of the sampling procedure, following detailed surface examination by the PanCam scanning camera unit on the ExoMars rover vehicle. The requirements of the analytical protocol are stringent and critical; this study represents a laboratory blind interrogation of specimens that form a list of materials that are of relevance to martian exploration and at this stage simulates a test of current laboratory instrumentation to highlight the Raman technique strengths and possible weaknesses that may be encountered in practice on the martian surface and from which future studies could be formulated. In this preliminary exercise, some 10 samples that are considered terrestrial representatives of the mineralogy and possible biogeologically modified structures that may be identified on Mars have been examined with Raman spectroscopy, and conclusions have been drawn about the viability of the unambiguous spectral identification of biomolecular life signatures. It is concluded that the Raman spectroscopic technique does indeed demonstrate the capability to identify biomolecular signatures and the mineralogy in real-world terrestrial samples with a very high degree of success without any preconception being made about their origin and classification.

  16. Analysis of the Touch-And-Go Surface Sampling Concept for Comet Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Bayard, David S.; Blackmore, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the Touch-and-Go (TAG) concept for enabling a spacecraft to take a sample from the surface of a small primitive body, such as an asteroid or comet. The idea behind the TAG concept is to let the spacecraft descend to the surface, make contact with the surface for several seconds, and then ascend to a safe location. Sampling would be accomplished by an end-effector that is active during the few seconds of surface contact. The TAG event is one of the most critical events in a primitive body sample-return mission. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a representative spacecraft during the TAG event, i.e., immediately prior, during, and after surface contact of the sampler. The study evaluates the sample-collection performance of the proposed sampling end-effector, in this case a brushwheel sampler, while acquiring material from the surface during the contact. A main result of the study is a guidance and control (G&C) validation of the overall TAG concept, in addition to specific contributions to demonstrating the effectiveness of using nonlinear clutch mechanisms in the sampling arm joints, and increasing the length of the sampling arms to improve robustness.

  17. Parameter estimation supplement to the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program (MAESTRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    This Parameter Estimation Supplement describes the PEST computer program and gives instructions for its use in determination of lunar gravitation field coefficients. PEST was developed for use in the RAE-B lunar orbiting mission as a means of lunar field recovery. The observations processed by PEST are short-arc osculating orbital elements. These observations are the end product of an orbit determination process obtained with another program. PEST's end product it a set of harmonic coefficients to be used in long-term prediction of the lunar orbit. PEST employs some novel techniques in its estimation process, notably a square batch estimator and linear variational equations in the orbital elements (both osculating and mean) for measurement sensitivities. The program's capabilities are described, and operating instructions and input/output examples are given. PEST utilizes MAESTRO routines for its trajectory propagation. PEST's program structure and subroutines which are not common to MAESTRO are described. Some of the theoretical background information for the estimation process, and a derivation of linear variational equations for the Method 7 elements are included.

  18. Vertical Spin Tunnel Testing and Stability Analysis of Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Fremaux, C. Michael; Bean, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid using limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes, retro-rockets, and reaction control systems and rely on the natural aerodynamic stability of the vehicle throughout the Entry, Descent, and Landing phases of flight. Testing in NASA Langley's 20-FT Vertical Spin Tunnel (20-FT VST), dynamically-scaled MMEEV models was conducted to improve subsonic aerodynamic models and validate stability criteria for this class of vehicle. This report documents the resulting data from VST testing for an array of 60-deg sphere-cone MMEEVs. Model configurations included were 1.2 meter, and 1.8 meter designs. The addition of a backshell extender, which provided a 150% increase in backshell diameter for the 1.2 meter design, provided a third test configuration. Center of Gravity limits were established for all MMEEV configurations. An application of System Identification (SID) techniques was performed to determine the aerodynamic coefficients in order to provide databases for subsequent 6-degree-of-freedom simulations.

  19. An analysis of AMTEC, multi-cell ground-demo for the Pluto/Express mission

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, J.M.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1998-07-01

    Results of recent tests of an 8-cell, AMTEC ground-demo are analyzed and the performance of individual cells compared. The ground-demo produced a peak electric power of 27 W{sub e} at an output voltage of 16 V, when tested at hot and cold side temperatures of 1123 K and 553 K. The electric power output and terminal voltage of the individual cells, however, differed by as much as 25%, from 2.94 to 3.76 W{sub e}, and 1.73 to 2.21 V, respectively. These variations were attributed to differences in: (a) contact resistance between electrode / BASE / current collector; (b) current (or electrons) leakage between anode and cathode electrodes through the metal-ceramic braze joint between BASE tubes and support plate; and (c) the charge-exchange polarization losses. Model's predictions compared very well with measured voltage and electric power output of individual cells and of the ground-demo. At the operating conditions for the Pluto/Express spacecraft (T{sub hot} {approximately} 1200 K, T{sub cd} {approximately} 573 K), the best performing ground-demo cell would have delivered 5 W{sub e} at an output voltage of 3 V. These values, however, are still significantly lower than those needed to meet the Pluto/Express mission power requirements (8.2 W{sub e} at 3.5 V, per cell).

  20. Pre-Mission Communication And Awareness Stratgies For Positive Group Functioning And Development: Analysis Of A Crew At The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) In Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allner, Matthew; Bishop, Sheryl; Gushin, Vadim; McKay, Chris; Rygalov, Vadim; Allner, Matthew

    Introduction: Psychosocial group functioning has become an increased international focus of many space faring nations due to the recent shift in focus of colonizing the Moon and then preparing to travel to Mars and beyond. Purpose: This study investigates the effects of pre-mission communication and awareness strategies for positive group functioning in extreme environments as well as suggestive countermeasures to maintain positive group dynamic development in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. The study is supported by both preand intra-mission management efforts, which included crewmember assessments at various mission phases (pre-, intra-, and end-mission). Methods: A six person heterogeneous American crew conducted a Mars simulation mission at the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, USA in 2006 as part of a new NASA training program called Spaceward Bound. Participants were administered assessments of personality, personal and group identity/functioning, subjective stress, coping, and subjective motivation. All participants were also provided information (pre-mission) regarding past research and tendencies of group functioning, stressors, cognitive functioning, and mission mistakes from a mission phase analysis approach, to see if this would be a factor in positive group dynamic development. Results: Data collected and obtained by both assessment and journaling methods were both consistent and indicative of positive personalities desirable of expedition crews. Assessment data further indicated positive group cohesion and group interactions, along with supportive and strong leadership, all which led to positive personal and group experiences for crewmembers. Crewmembers all displayed low levels of competition while still reporting high motivation and satisfaction for the group dynamic development and the mission objectives that were completed. Journals kept by the crew psychologist indicated that crewmembers all felt that the pre-mission