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Sample records for front-illuminated photodiode array

  1. Integrated avalanche photodiode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2015-07-07

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  2. Enhanced performance of reversely transferred, doubly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays for front-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kang, Soon-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Doubly open-ended conventional TiO2 nanotube arrays (Type I) and nanoporous-layer-covered nanotube arrays (Type II) were transferred to transparent fluorine-doped tin oxides (FTOs) for front-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). FTO/Type II exhibited a long electron lifetime ( τ e ) and rapid electron transport compared to FTO/Type I because of the reduced surface defect-state-mediated recombination rate. In particular, Type II transferred reversely to the FTO (FTO/Type II-rev) had beneficial geometric effects, leading to a decrease in pore size from the bottom to the top and a nanoporous TiO2 thin bottom layer. These enabled more effective light scattering near the FTO and facilitated lateral electron movement toward the FTO, leading to a shortened electron pathway and a reduced recombination rate. The significantly enhanced electron lifetime and the shortened electron transit time of the FTO/Type II-rev improved the charge collection efficiency significantly. Furthermore, the enhanced light scattering increased the light harvesting efficiency. These beneficial geometric effects of FTO/Type II-rev contributed to the greatly enhanced overall cell efficiency (7.61%) of the DSSC compared to the DSSCs with FTO/Type I (5.27%) and FTO/Type II (6.65%).

  3. Optical Demonstrations with a Scanning Photodiode Array.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turman, Bobby N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the photodiode array and the electrical connections necessary for it. Also shows a few of the optical demonstration possibilities-shadowgraphs for measuring small objects, interference and diffraction effects, angular resolution of an optical system, and a simple spectrometer. (Author/DS)

  4. Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Communications Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.

    2001-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) array for ground-based optical communications receivers is investigated for the reception of optical signals through the turbulent atmosphere. Kolmogorov phase screen simulations are used to generate realistic spatial distributions of the received optical field. It is shown that use of an APD array for pulse-position modulation detection can improve performance by up to 4 dB over single APD detection in the presence of turbulence, but that photon-counting detector arrays yield even greater gains.

  5. Current isolating epitaxial buffer layers for high voltage photodiode array

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Cooper, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    An array of photodiodes in series on a common semi-insulating substrate has a non-conductive buffer layer between the photodiodes and the semi-insulating substrate. The buffer layer reduces current injection leakage between the photodiodes of the array and allows optical energy to be converted to high voltage electrical energy.

  6. Photodiode arrays having minimized cross-talk between diodes

    DOEpatents

    Guckel, Henry; McNamara, Shamus P.

    2000-10-17

    Photodiode arrays are formed with close diode-to-diode spacing and minimized cross-talk between diodes in the array by isolating the diodes from one another with trenches that are formed between the photodiodes in the array. The photodiodes are formed of spaced regions in a base layer, each spaced region having an impurity type opposite to that of the base layer to define a p-n junction between the spaced regions and the base layer. The base layer meets a substrate at a boundary, with the substrate being much more heavily doped than the base layer with the same impurity type. The trenches extend through the base layer and preferably into the substrate. Minority carriers generated by absorption of light photons in the base layer can only migrate to an adjacent photodiode through the substrate. The lifetime and the corresponding diffusion length of the minority carriers in the substrate is very short so that all minority carriers recombine in the substrate before reaching an adjacent photodiode.

  7. CdZnTe photodiode arrays for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sudharsanan, R.; Parodos, T.; Karam, N.H.; Ruzin, A.; Nemirovsky, Y.

    1996-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the design, fabrication, and performance of the first CdZnTe Schottky photodiode arrays for radiation detection. High pressure Bridgman-grown CdZnTe substrates with bulk resistivities in the range 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 10} ohm-cm were used. CdZnTe Schottky photodiodes were formed with In and Ti/Au contacts. Diode arrays with pixel sizes from 1000 x 1000 {mu}m to 100 x 100 {mu}m were fabricated. The diode`s I-V characteristics exhibited low leakage current and high bulk resistivity; leakage current decreased as diode pixel size was reduced. Response of these detector arrays to high energy photons was uniform and their energy resolution improved with smaller pixel size. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Photon counting photodiode array detector for far ultraviolet (FUV) astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartig, G. F.; Moos, H. W.; Pembroke, R.; Bowers, C.

    1982-01-01

    A compact, stable, single-stage intensified photodiode array detector designed for photon-counting, far ultraviolet astronomy applications employs a saturable, 'C'-type MCP (Galileo S. MCP 25-25) to produce high gain pulses with a narrowly peaked pulse height distribution. The P-20 output phosphor exhibits a very short decay time, due to the high current density of the electron pulses. This intensifier is being coupled to a self-scanning linear photodiode array which has a fiber optic input window which allows direct, rigid mechanical coupling with minimal light loss. The array was scanned at a 250 KHz pixel rate. The detector exhibits more than adequate signal-to-noise ratio for pulse counting and event location. Previously announced in STAR as N82-19118

  9. Fiber Optic Spectrophotometer With Photodiode Linear Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velluet, M. T.; Blanc, F.; Vernet, P.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements are used in a great number of industrial processes (chemical, pharmaceutical, farm-produce...) in nuclear environment and with optical precision components. Especially the evolution of a chemical process or of an optical coating could be followed by these measurements. Spectrophotometers, using optical fibers to transport the signal out of the instrument make possible the measurement "in-situ" and in real time. The advantage of using a diode array to detect the signal is an instantaneous measurement all over the spectral range without moving parts. It allows an excellent reproductibility of the measurements. The instrument is controlled by a micro computer. The spectrophotometer will be described and its technical performs presented. An extension using optical fibers on a "classical" spectrophotometer (a H.P. one) will be also described and its technical performs with such a system presented.

  10. Photon-to-digital photodiode imaging array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, William J.

    2001-10-01

    MOSAD©, Multiplexed OverSample Analog to Digital conversion, is a low power on focal plane analog to digital, A/D, process that places an oversample A/D at each pixel site. Two designs for a visible light staring array were developed with this approach. One used a silicon photo diode and the other used a photo gate for detection. The array was designed with a 320 X 240 format with the pixels placed on 16 micron centers. There are a total of 76,800 A/D's on the chip. The device is a monolithic integrated circuit that includes the sensors, A/D's and readout circuitry. A production 1.2 micron CCD/CMOS process was used in it construction. The A/D uses charge well switching at the pixel to convert the accumulated analog signal to digital data. There was negligible impact on the pixel area due to the A/D such that a fill factor of 73% was achieved with front side illumination for both approaches. At 400 samples per second, measured on chip power consumption is under 10 milliwatts. Noise measurements at sample rates from 400 samples per second to 1,600 samples per second were taken for both parts. It was found that the photo gate noise performance was four times better than the photo diode. At a nominal 28 times oversample, the photo diode obtained 8 to 9 bits performance and the photo gate achieved 10 to 11 bits. Nonuniformity variation was below the noise floor. No explanation for the difference in noise performance has yet been determined. This development was sponsored by NASA under a SBIR program.

  11. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  12. The Use of Self-scanned Silicon Photodiode Arrays for Astronomical Spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    The use of a Reticon self scanned silicon photodiode array for precision spectrophotometry is discussed. It is shown that internal errors are + or - 0.003 mag. Observations obtained with a photodiode array are compared with observations obtained with other types of detectors with agreement, from 3500 A to 10500 A, of 1%. The photometric properties of self scanned photodiode arrays are discussed. Potential pitfalls are given.

  13. Compact multispectral photodiode arrays using micropatterned dichroic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Eric V.; Fish, David E.

    2014-05-01

    The next generation of multispectral instruments requires significant improvements in both spectral band customization and portability to support the widespread deployment of application-specific optical sensors. The benefits of spectroscopy are well established for numerous applications including biomedical instrumentation, industrial sorting and sensing, chemical detection, and environmental monitoring. In this paper, spectroscopic (and by extension hyperspectral) and multispectral measurements are considered. The technology, tradeoffs, and application fits of each are evaluated. In the majority of applications, monitoring 4-8 targeted spectral bands of optimized wavelength and bandwidth provides the necessary spectral contrast and correlation. An innovative approach integrates precision spectral filters at the photodetector level to enable smaller sensors, simplify optical designs, and reduce device integration costs. This method supports user-defined spectral bands to create application-specific sensors in a small footprint with scalable cost efficiencies. A range of design configurations, filter options and combinations are presented together with typical applications ranging from basic multi-band detection to stringent multi-channel fluorescence measurement. An example implementation packages 8 narrowband silicon photodiodes into a 9x9mm ceramic LCC (leadless chip carrier) footprint. This package is designed for multispectral applications ranging from portable color monitors to purpose- built OEM industrial and scientific instruments. Use of an eight-channel multispectral photodiode array typically eliminates 10-20 components from a device bill-of-materials (BOM), streamlining the optical path and shrinking the footprint by 50% or more. A stepwise design approach for multispectral sensors is discussed - including spectral band definition, optical design tradeoffs and constraints, and device integration from prototype through scalable volume production

  14. Nano-Multiplication-Region Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nano-multiplication-region avalanche photodiodes (NAPDs), and imaging arrays of NAPDs integrated with complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel-sensor integrated circuitry, are being developed for applications in which there are requirements for high-sensitivity (including photoncounting) detection and imaging at wavelengths from about 250 to 950 nm. With respect to sensitivity and to such other characteristics as speed, geometric array format, radiation hardness, power demand of associated circuitry, size, weight, and robustness, NAPDs and arrays thereof are expected to be superior to prior photodetectors and arrays including CMOS active-pixel sensors (APSs), charge-coupled devices (CCDs), traditional APDs, and microchannelplate/ CCD combinations. Figure 1 depicts a conceptual NAPD array, integrated with APS circuitry, fabricated on a thick silicon-on-insulator wafer (SOI). Figure 2 presents selected aspects of the structure of a typical single pixel, which would include a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) integrated with the NAPD. The NAPDs would reside in silicon islands formed on the buried oxide (BOX) layer of the SOI wafer. The silicon islands would be surrounded by oxide-filled insulation trenches, which, together with the BOX layer, would constitute an oxide embedding structure. There would be two kinds of silicon islands: NAPD islands for the NAPDs and MOSFET islands for in-pixel and global CMOS circuits. Typically, the silicon islands would be made between 5 and 10 m thick, but, if necessary, the thickness could be chosen outside this range. The side walls of the silicon islands would be heavily doped with electron-acceptor impurities (p+-doped) to form anodes for the photodiodes and guard layers for the MOSFETs. A nanoscale reach-through structure at the front (top in the figures) central position of each NAPD island would contain the APD multiplication region. Typically, the reach-through structure would be

  15. Nano-multiplication region avalanche photodiodes and arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode with a nano-scale reach-through structure comprising n-doped and p-doped regions, formed on a silicon island on an insulator, so that the avalanche photodiode may be electrically isolated from other circuitry on other silicon islands on the same silicon chip as the avalanche photodiode. For some embodiments, multiplied holes generated by an avalanche reduces the electric field in the depletion region of the n-doped and p-doped regions to bring about self-quenching of the avalanche photodiode. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  16. Development and characterization of CMOS avalanche photodiode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, William G.; Christian, James F.; Augustine, Frank L.; Squillante, Michael R.; Entine, Gerald

    2005-04-01

    Avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays fabricated by using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication technology offer the possibility of combining these high sensitivity detectors with cost effective, on-board, complementary circuitry. Using CMOS techniques, Radiation Monitoring Devices has developed prototype pixels with active diameters ranging from 5 to 60 microns and with measured quantum efficiencies of up to 65%. The prototype CMOS APD pixel designs support both proportional and Geiger modes of photo-detection. When operating in Geiger mode, these APD"s act as single-optical-photon-counting detectors that can be used for time-resolved measurements under signal-starved conditions. We have also designed and fabricated CMOS chips that contain not only the APD pixels, but also associated circuitry for both actively and passively quenching the self-propagating Geiger avalanche. This report presents the noise and timing performance for the prototype CMOS APD pixels in both the proportional and Geiger modes of operation. It compares the quantum efficiency and dark-count rate of different pixel designs as a function of the applied bias and presents a discussion of the maximum count rates that is obtained with each of the two types of quenching circuits for operating the pixel in Geiger mode. Preliminary data on the application of the APD pixels to laser ranging and fluorescent lifetime measurement is also presented.

  17. Application of a photodiode-array optical turbulence sensor to wind studies in complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.M.; Green, T.J.

    1980-04-01

    A digital photodiode-array optical turbulence sensor was used to gather data simultaneously with analog optical anemometer measurements during the July 1979 ASCOT experiment. This system provided useful information regarding the uniformity of optical turbulence used by the optical anemometer to derive cross-path wind speeds. Wind speeds derived from digital analysis of the photodiode-array intensities also provided an independent measure of the cross-path wind speed. Close agreement was found between these two measures of the wind.

  18. An absorption detection approach for multiplexed capillary electrophoresis using a linear photodiode array.

    PubMed

    Gong, X; Yeung, E S

    1999-11-01

    A novel absorption detection method for highly multiplexed capillary electrophoresis is presented for zone electrophoresis and for micellar electrokinetic chromatography. The approach involves the use of a linear photodiode array on which a capillary array is imaged by a camera lens. Either a tungsten lamp or a mercury lamp can be used as the light source such that all common wavelengths for absorption detection are accessible by simply interchanging narrow-band filters. Each capillary spans several diodes in the photodiode array for absorption measurements. Over 100 densely packed capillaries can be monitored by a single photodiode array element with 1024 diodes. The detection limit for rhodamine 6G for each capillary in the multiplexed array is ∼1.8 × 10(-)(8) M injected (S/N = 2). The cross-talk between adjacent capillaries is less than 0.2%. Simultaneous analysis of 96 samples is demonstrated. PMID:21662842

  19. Development of Fuses for Protection of Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzesik, Michael; Bailey, Robert; Mahan, Joe; Ampe, Jim

    2015-11-01

    Current-limiting fuses composed of Ti/Al/Ni were developed for use in Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays for each individual pixel in the array. The fuses were designed to burn out at ˜4.5 × 10-3 A and maintain post-burnout leakage currents less than 10-7 A at 70 V sustained for several minutes. Experimental fuse data are presented and successful incorporation of the fuses into a 256 × 64 pixel InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array is reported.

  20. 64-element photodiode array for scintillation detection of x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrzecki, Maciej; Wolski, Dariusz; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; Chłopik, Arkadiusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Kłos, Helena; Panas, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Słysz, Wojciech; Stolarski, Maciej; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecka, Iwona; Zaborowski, Michał

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the design, technology and parameters of a new, silicon 64-element linear photodiode array developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE) for the detection of scintillations emitted by CsI scintillators (λ≈550 nm). The arrays are used in a device for examining the content of containers at border crossings under development at the National Centre for Nuclear Research. Two arrays connected with a scintillator block (128 CsI scintillators) form a 128-channel detection module. The array consists of 64 epiplanar photodiode structures (5.1 × 7.2 mm) and a 5.3 mm module. p+-ν-n+ photodiode structures are optimised for the detection of radiation of λ≈ 550 nm wavelength with no voltage applied (photovoltaic mode). The structures are mounted on an epoxy-glass laminate substrate, copper-clad on both sides, on which connections with a common anode and separate cathode leads are located. The photosensitive surface of photodiodes is covered with a special silicone gel, which protects photodiodes against the mechanical impact of scintillators

  1. Thin active region, type II superlattice photodiode arrays: Single-pixel and focal plane array characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, J. W.; Svensson, S. P.; Beck, W. A.; Goldberg, A. C.; Kennerly, S. W.; Hongsmatip, T.; Winn, M.; Uppal, P.

    2007-02-01

    We have measured the radiometric properties of two midwave infrared photodiode arrays (320×256pixel2 format) fabricated from the same wafer comprising a thin (0.24μm), not intentionally doped InAs /GaSb superlattice between a p-doped GaSb layer and a n-doped InAs layer. One of the arrays was indium bump bonded to a silicon fanout chip to allow for the measurement of properties of individual pixels, and one was bonded to a readout integrated circuit to enable array-scale measurements and infrared imaging. The superlattice layer is thin enough that it is fully depleted at zero bias, and the collection efficiency of photogenerated carriers in the intrinsic region is close to unity. This simplifies the interpretation of photocurrent data as compared with previous measurements made on thick superlattices with complex doping profiles. Superlattice absorption coefficient curves, obtained from measurements of the external quantum efficiency using two different assumptions for optical coupling into the chip, bracket values calculated using an eight-band k •p model. Measurements of the quantum efficiency map of the focal plane array were in good agreement with the single-pixel measurements. Imagery obtained with this focal plane array demonstrates the high uniformity and crystal quality of the type II superlattice material.

  2. Fast, Deep-Record-Length, Fiber-Coupled Photodiode Imaging Array for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2014-10-01

    HyperV Technologies has been developing an imaging diagnostic comprised of an array of fast, low-cost, long-record-length, fiber-optically-coupled photodiode channels to investigate plasma dynamics and other fast, bright events. By coupling an imaging fiber bundle to a bank of amplified photodiode channels, imagers and streak imagers of 100 to 1000 pixels can be constructed. By interfacing analog photodiode systems directly to commercial analog-to-digital converters and modern memory chips, a prototype 100 pixel array with an extremely deep record length (128 k points at 20 Msamples/s) and 10 bit pixel resolution has already been achieved. HyperV now seeks to extend these techniques to construct a prototype 1000 Pixel framing camera with up to 100 Msamples/sec rate and 10 to 12 bit depth. Preliminary experimental results as well as Phase 2 plans will be discussed. Work supported by USDOE Phase 2 SBIR Grant DE-SC0009492.

  3. Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Integrated to All-Digital CMOS Circuits.

    PubMed

    Aull, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews MIT Lincoln Laboratory's work over the past 20 years to develop photon-sensitive image sensors based on arrays of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Integration of these detectors to all-digital CMOS readout circuits enable exquisitely sensitive solid-state imagers for lidar, wavefront sensing, and passive imaging. PMID:27070609

  4. Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Integrated to All-Digital CMOS Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Aull, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews MIT Lincoln Laboratory's work over the past 20 years to develop photon-sensitive image sensors based on arrays of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Integration of these detectors to all-digital CMOS readout circuits enable exquisitely sensitive solid-state imagers for lidar, wavefront sensing, and passive imaging. PMID:27070609

  5. A 10MHz Fiber-Coupled Photodiode Imaging Array for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2013-10-01

    HyperV Technologies has been developing an imaging diagnostic comprised of arrays of fast, low-cost, long-record-length, fiber-optically-coupled photodiode channels to investigate plasma dynamics and other fast, bright events. By coupling an imaging fiber bundle to a bank of amplified photodiode channels, imagers and streak imagers of 100 to 10,000 pixels can be constructed. By interfacing analog photodiode systems directly to commercial analog to digital convertors and modern memory chips, a prototype pixel with an extremely deep record length (128 k points at 40 Msamples/s) has been achieved for a 10 bit resolution system with signal bandwidths of at least 10 MHz. Progress on a prototype 100 Pixel streak camera employing this technique is discussed along with preliminary experimental results and plans for a 10,000 pixel imager. Work supported by USDOE Phase 1 SBIR Grant DE-SC0009492.

  6. Fast, Deep-Record-Length, Fiber-Coupled Photodiode Imaging Array for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2015-11-01

    HyperV Technologies has been developing an imaging diagnostic comprised of an array of fast, low-cost, long-record-length, fiber-optically-coupled photodiode channels to investigate plasma dynamics and other fast, bright events. By coupling an imaging fiber bundle to a bank of amplified photodiode channels, imagers and streak imagers can be constructed. By interfacing analog photodiode systems directly to commercial analog-to-digital converters and modern memory chips, a scalable solution for 100 to 1000 pixel systems with 14 bit resolution and record-lengths of 128k frames has been developed. HyperV is applying these techniques to construct a prototype 1000 Pixel framing camera with up to 100 Msamples/sec rate and 10 to 14 bit depth. Preliminary experimental results as well as future plans will be discussed. Work supported by USDOE Phase 2 SBIR Grant DE-SC0009492.

  7. Application of a silicon photodiode array for solar edge tracking in the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. S.; Mayo, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) elevation sunsensor is described. This system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned, monolithic charge coupled device. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the HALOE science instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration, and then maintain the science IFOV four arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 0.7 micrometer operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability. The HALOE instrument is a gas correlation radiometer that is now being developed by NASA Langley Research Center for the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite.

  8. A photon-counting photodiode array detector for far ultraviolet (FUV) astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartig, G. F.; Moos, H. W.; Pembroke, R.; Bowers, C.

    1982-01-01

    A compact, stable, single-stage intensified photodiode array detector designed for photon-counting, far ultraviolet astronomy applications employs a saturable, 'C'-type MCP (Galileo S. MCP 25-25) to produce high gain pulses with a narrowly peaked pulse height distribution. The P-20 output phosphor exhibits a very short decay time, due to the high current density of the electron pulses. This intensifier is being coupled to a self-scanning linear photodiode array which has a fiber optic input window which allows direct, rigid mechanical coupling with minimal light loss. The array was scanned at a 250 KHz pixel rate. The detector exhibits more than adequate signal-to-noise ratio for pulse counting and event location.

  9. Self-scanned photodiode array - High performance operation in high dispersion astronomical spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S. S.; Tull, R. G.; Kelton, P.

    1978-01-01

    A multichannel spectrophotometric detector system has been developed using a 1024 element self-scanned silicon photodiode array, which is now in routine operation with the high-dispersion coude spectrograph of the University of Texas McDonald Observatory 2.7-m telescope. Operational considerations in the use of such arrays for high precision and low light level spectrophotometry are discussed. A detailed description of the system is presented. Performance of the detector as measured in the laboratory and on astronomical program objects is described, and it is shown that these arrays are highly effective detectors for high dispersion astronomical spectroscopy.

  10. The photodiode array camera: A new method for acquiring airtrack data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Crispin O.; Bergeron, David

    1994-05-01

    A linear photodiode array mounted in a camera body provides an excellent means of acquiring position-time information for gliders moving on an airtrack. Based on the output of a 512 photodiode array, a computer calculates positions of two gliders simultaneously with a resolution of 10 μm and accuracy of 400 μm along the full length of a 2 m airtrack. Motions lasting up to 5 min can be acquired at rates of 50 positions per second. The resulting data can be interpreted with the aid of spreadsheets and graphing programs. Setup, calibration, and operation of the apparatus are simple enough that students can design and perform their own mechanics experiments.

  11. Direct X-Ray Response Of Charge-Coupled Devices And Photodiode Linear Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launspach, J.; Bourgade, J. L.; Cavailler, C.; de Mascureau, J.; Mens, A.; Sauneuf, R.

    1986-08-01

    For x-ray calibration of detectors used on laser created plasma experiments we have developed and characterized two kinds of sources : classical continuous x-ray sources operating at 1.8 keV and 5.4 keV and a pulsed source obtained by modifying a plasma Focus device. Calibration data for x-ray Charge - Coupled Devices (CCD) and photodiode linear array cameras are presented.

  12. Development of a testbed for flexible a-Si:H photodiode sensing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Alfonso; Kunnen, George; Vetrano, Michael; Smith, Joseph; Marrs, Michael; Allee, David R.

    2013-05-01

    Large area, flexible sensing arrays for imaging, biochemical sensing and radiation detection are now possible with the development of flexible active matrix display technology. In particular, large-area flexible imaging arrays can provide considerable advancement in defense and security industries because of their inherent low manufacturing costs and physical plasticity that allows for increased adaptability to non-planar mounting surfaces. For example, a flexible array of photodetectors and lenslets formed into a cylinder could image simultaneously with a 360 degree view without the need for expensive bulky optics or a gimbaled mount. Here we report the design and development of a scalable 16x16 pixel testbed for flexible sensor arrays using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and demonstrate the capture of a shadow image with an array of photodiodes and active pixel sensors on a plastic substrate. The image capture system makes use of an array of low-noise, InGaZnO active pixel amplifiers to detect changes in current in 2.4 μm-thick reverse-biased a-Si:H PIN diodes. A thorough characterization of the responsivity, detectivity, and optical gain of an a- Si:H photodiode is also provided. At the back end, analog capture circuitry progressively scans the array and constructs an image based on the electrical activity in each pixel. The use of correlated-double-sampling to remove fixed pattern noise is shown to significantly improve spatial resolution due to process variations. The testbed can be readily adapted for the development of neutron, alpha-particle, or X-ray detection arrays given an appropriate conversion layer.

  13. Linear array of photodiodes to track a human speaker for video recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeTone, D.; Neal, H.; Lougheed, R.

    2012-12-01

    Communication and collaboration using stored digital media has garnered more interest by many areas of business, government and education in recent years. This is due primarily to improvements in the quality of cameras and speed of computers. An advantage of digital media is that it can serve as an effective alternative when physical interaction is not possible. Video recordings that allow for viewers to discern a presenter's facial features, lips and hand motions are more effective than videos that do not. To attain this, one must maintain a video capture in which the speaker occupies a significant portion of the captured pixels. However, camera operators are costly, and often do an imperfect job of tracking presenters in unrehearsed situations. This creates motivation for a robust, automated system that directs a video camera to follow a presenter as he or she walks anywhere in the front of a lecture hall or large conference room. Such a system is presented. The system consists of a commercial, off-the-shelf pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) color video camera, a necklace of infrared LEDs and a linear photodiode array detector. Electronic output from the photodiode array is processed to generate the location of the LED necklace, which is worn by a human speaker. The computer controls the video camera movements to record video of the speaker. The speaker's vertical position and depth are assumed to remain relatively constant- the video camera is sent only panning (horizontal) movement commands. The LED necklace is flashed at 70Hz at a 50% duty cycle to provide noise-filtering capability. The benefit to using a photodiode array versus a standard video camera is its higher frame rate (4kHz vs. 60Hz). The higher frame rate allows for the filtering of infrared noise such as sunlight and indoor lighting-a capability absent from other tracking technologies. The system has been tested in a large lecture hall and is shown to be effective.

  14. InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodiode arrays for free space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Mike S; Clark, William R; Rabinovich, William S; Mahon, Rita; Murphy, James L; Goetz, Peter G; Thomas, Linda M; Burris, Harris R; Moore, Christopher I; Waters, William D; Vaccaro, Kenneth; Krejca, Brian D

    2015-11-01

    In free space optical communication, photodetectors serve not only as communications receivers but also as position sensitive detectors (PSDs) for pointing, tracking, and stabilization. Typically, two separate detectors are utilized to perform these tasks, but recent advances in the fabrication and development of large-area, low-noise avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays have enabled these devices to be used both as PSDs and as communications receivers. This combined functionality allows for more flexibility and simplicity in optical system design without sacrificing the sensitivity and bandwidth performance of smaller, single-element data receivers. This work presents the development of APD arrays rated for bandwidths beyond 1 GHz with measured carrier ionization ratios of approximately 0.2 at moderate APD gains. We discuss the fabrication and characterization of three types of APD arrays along with their performance as high-speed photodetectors.

  15. Hybridization process for back-illuminated silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuette, Daniel R.; Westhoff, Richard C.; Loomis, Andrew H.; Young, Douglas J.; Ciampi, Joseph S.; Aull, Brian F.; Reich, Robert K.

    2010-04-01

    We present a unique hybridization process that permits high-performance back-illuminated silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) to be bonded to custom CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs) - a hybridization approach that enables independent optimization of the GM-APD arrays and the ROICs. The process includes oxide bonding of silicon GM-APD arrays to a transparent support substrate followed by indium bump bonding of this layer to a signal-processing ROIC. This hybrid detector approach can be used to fabricate imagers with high-fill-factor pixels and enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared as well as large-pixel-count, small-pixel-pitch arrays with pixel-level signal processing. In addition, the oxide bonding is compatible with high-temperature processing steps that can be used to lower dark current and improve optical response in the ultraviolet.

  16. Large-Format AlGaN PIN Photodiode Arrays for UV Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Franz, David

    2010-01-01

    A large-format hybridized AlGaN photodiode array with an adjustable bandwidth features stray-light control, ultralow dark-current noise to reduce cooling requirements, and much higher radiation tolerance than previous technologies. This technology reduces the size, mass, power, and cost of future ultraviolet (UV) detection instruments by using lightweight, low-voltage AlGaN detectors in a hybrid detector/multiplexer configuration. The solar-blind feature eliminates the need for additional visible light rejection and reduces the sensitivity of the system to stray light that can contaminate observations.

  17. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane arrays for three-dimensional imaging LADAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir; Zalud, Peter F.; Senko, Tom; Tower, John; Ferraro, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    We report on the development of focal plane arrays (FPAs) employing two-dimensional arrays of InGaAsP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs). These FPAs incorporate InP/InGaAs(P) Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) to create pixels that detect single photons at shortwave infrared wavelengths with high efficiency and low dark count rates. GmAPD arrays are hybridized to CMOS read-out integrated circuits (ROICs) that enable independent laser radar (LADAR) time-of-flight measurements for each pixel, providing three-dimensional image data at frame rates approaching 200 kHz. Microlens arrays are used to maintain high fill factor of greater than 70%. We present full-array performance maps for two different types of sensors optimized for operation at 1.06 μm and 1.55 μm, respectively. For the 1.06 μm FPAs, overall photon detection efficiency of >40% is achieved at <20 kHz dark count rates with modest cooling to ~250 K using integrated thermoelectric coolers. We also describe the first evalution of these FPAs when multi-photon pulses are incident on single pixels. The effective detection efficiency for multi-photon pulses shows excellent agreement with predictions based on Poisson statistics. We also characterize the crosstalk as a function of pulse mean photon number. Relative to the intrinsic crosstalk contribution from hot carrier luminescence that occurs during avalanche current flows resulting from single incident photons, we find a modest rise in crosstalk for multi-photon incident pulses that can be accurately explained by direct optical scattering.

  18. Impact ionization engineered avalanche photodiode arrays for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Mike S.; Rabinovich, William S.; Clark, William R.; Waters, William D.; Campbell, Joe C.; Mahon, Rita; Vaccaro, Kenneth; Krejca, Brian D.

    2016-03-01

    High sensitivity photodetectors serve two purposes in free space optical communication: data reception and position sensing for pointing, tracking, and stabilization. Because of conflicting performance criteria, two separate detectors are traditionally utilized to perform these tasks but recent advances in the fabrication and development of large area, low noise avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays have enabled these devices to be used both as position sensitive detectors (PSD) and as communications receivers. Combining these functionalities allows for more flexibility and simplicity in optical assembly design without sacrificing the sensitivity and bandwidth performance of smaller, single element data receivers. Beyond eliminating the need to separate the return beam into two separate paths, these devices enable implementation of adaptive approaches to compensate for focal plane beam wander and breakup often seen in highly scintillated terrestrial and maritime optical links. While the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Optogration Inc, have recently demonstrated the performance of single period, InAlAs/InGaAs APD arrays as combined data reception and tracking sensors, an impact ionization engineered (I2E) epilayer design achieves even lower carrier ionization ratios by incorporating multiple multiplication periods engineered to suppress lower ionization rate carriers while enhancing the higher ionization rate carriers of interest. This work presents a three period I2E concentric, five element avalanche photodiode array rated for bandwidths beyond 1GHz with measured carrier ionization ratios of 0.05-0.1 at moderate APD gains. The epilayer design of the device will be discussed along with initial device characterization and high speed performance measurements.

  19. Analytical high-speed countercurrent chromatography with photodiode array detection (HSCCC-UV)

    SciTech Connect

    Schaufelberger, D.E. )

    1989-01-01

    The use of analytical high-speed countercurrent chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HSCCC-UV) is described. Reduction of detector noise caused by non-retained stationary phase was achieved by adding an auxiliary solvent (MeOH, isoPrOH) by means of a post-column reactor. The technique was applied to the separation of aromatic compounds and natural products in Hexane-MeOH-H{sub 2} and CHCl{sub 3}-MeOH-H{sub 2}O solvent systems. On-line recorded UV spectra were almost identical to those obtained with pure standards in methanol. Spectra obtained by HSCCC-UV can be used to characterize separated compounds and facilitate peak identification.

  20. Nondestructive assessment of internal quality of Gannan navel orange by photodiode array spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xudong; Zhou, Huamao; Zhou, Wenchao; Liu, Yande

    2008-12-01

    The photodiode array (PDA) spectrometer combined with partial least square (PLS) was developed to rapid measure the internal quality indices of Gannan navel orange nondestructively in the wavelength range of 550-950nm. The original spectra were processed by standard normal variate (SNV) and Savitzky-Golay (SG) smooth method. The optimal models of internal quality indices were determined after different spectral windows chosen. The optimal model of soluble solids content (SSC), total acidity (TA) and ratio of them were developed with RMSECV = 0.5118Brix%, 0.0856% and 2.0617 by PLS method, respectively. The optimal spectral windows were 700-950nm, 600-750nm and 600-950nm for measuring internal indices nondestructively by PDA. The results illustrated that PDA with PLS method were a rapid tool to measure the internal quality indices of Gannan navel orange nondestructively.

  1. HIGH-SPEED IMAGING AND WAVEFRONT SENSING WITH AN INFRARED AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Baranec, Christoph; Atkinson, Dani; Hall, Donald; Jacobson, Shane; Chun, Mark; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.

    2015-08-10

    Infrared avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays represent a panacea for many branches of astronomy by enabling extremely low-noise, high-speed, and even photon-counting measurements at near-infrared wavelengths. We recently demonstrated the use of an early engineering-grade infrared APD array that achieves a correlated double sampling read noise of 0.73 e{sup −} in the lab, and a total noise of 2.52 e{sup −} on sky, and supports simultaneous high-speed imaging and tip-tilt wavefront sensing with the Robo-AO visible-light laser adaptive optics (AO) system at the Palomar Observatory 1.5 m telescope. Here we report on the improved image quality simultaneously achieved at visible and infrared wavelengths by using the array as part of an image stabilization control loop with AO-sharpened guide stars. We also discuss a newly enabled survey of nearby late M-dwarf multiplicity, as well as future uses of this technology in other AO and high-contrast imaging applications.

  2. Type-II InAs/GaSb photodiode array pixel isolation by femto-second laser anneal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sona; Das, Utpal; Gautam, Nutan; Krishna, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    A 775 nm, 150 fs laser anneal technique for increased inter-pixel isolation in type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode arrays (5.5 μ m cutoff wavelength) without mesa etch, is presented. With only p+ inter-pixel etch and fs laser anneal, a greater than two fold improvement in the inter-pixel isolation is observed at 70 K. A similar reduction in the dark current of p+ etched + fs laser annealed p-i-n photodiodes is observed at 70 K over un-passivated mesa etched photodiodes of 400 μ m pixel sizes, whereas in 55 μ m pixels a seven fold reduction in the surface component of dark current over un-passivated mesa etched diodes is achieved. An increased band gap of the inter-pixel region (∼ 10 meV) due to fs annealed intermixing has been calculated to be a possible reason for the improved inter-pixel isolation.

  3. HgCdTe MWIR Back-Illuminated Electron-Initiated Avalanche Photodiode Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reine, M. B.; Marciniec, J. W.; Wong, K. K.; Parodos, T.; Mullarkey, J. D.; Lamarre, P. A.; Tobin, S. P.; Gustavsen, K. A.; Williams, G. M.

    2007-08-01

    This paper reports data for back-illuminated planar n-on-p HgCdTe electron-initiated avalanche photodiode (e-APD) 4 × 4 arrays with large unit cells (250 × 250 μm2). The arrays were fabricated from p-type HgCdTe films grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on CdZnTe substrates. The arrays were bump-mounted to fanout boards and characterized in the back-illuminated mode. Gain increased exponentially with reverse bias voltage, and the gain versus bias curves were quite uniform from element to element. The maximum gain measured was 648 at -11.7 V for a cutoff wavelength of 4.06 μm at 160 K. For the same reverse-bias voltage, the gains measured at 160 K for elements with two different cutoff wavelengths (3.54 μm and 4.06 μm at 160 K) show an exponential increase with increasing cutoff wavelength, in agreement with Beck’s empirical model for gain versus voltage and cutoff wavelength in HgCdTe e-APDs. Spot scan data show that both the V = 0 response and the gain at V = -5.0 V are spatially uniform over the large junction area. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first spot scan data for avalanche gain ever reported for HgCdTe e-APDs. Capacitance versus voltage data are consistent with an ideal abrupt junction having a donor concentration equal to the indium concentration in the LPE film.

  4. Determination of three anabolic compounds in calf urine by liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection.

    PubMed

    Martín, Y

    2000-12-01

    A method for the determination of three anabolic hormones (diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol and trenbolone) in calf urine is described. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the samples were cleaned up by C18 solid-phase extraction. Drugs were extracted with hexane and analyzed by isocratic elution on a Discovery RP-Amide C16 5 microns column with photodiode-array detection at 240 and 347 nm. Both retention time and UV spectra were used for identification. Detection limits for the HPLC system were calculated to be 0.3 ng injected for all analytes in the standard mixture. However, for urine samples these limits increased because of the presence of unidentified matrix components. After extraction from urine, the limits of detection for the whole analytical procedure were 5 and 10 ng injected for trenbolone and stilbenes, respectively. The average recoveries of the hormones from spiked samples were in the range 53.1-56.7% with RSD between 11.3 and 14.5% for the whole procedure in the concentration range 25-2.5 ng ml-1.

  5. Simultaneous multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption measurements using a photodiode array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, S. L.; Chin, K. S.

    1994-05-01

    A photodiode array detector multichannel analyser system has been coupled to a graphite furnace atomizer and tested for simultaneous multielement atomic absorption analysis. Multielement hollow cathode lamps are used as light sources and spectral lines are dispersed through a spectrograph with three selectable gratings. Multiple transmitted spectra are recorded to simultaneously determine the atomic absorption profiles of the analyte elements during the atomization stage. Atomic absorbance of individual elements is obtained by integrating the respective peak areas of the appropriate time-resolved atomic absorption spectra. The obtained sensitivities for Ni-Co-Fe are within the same order of magnitude as those from conventional single element determinations using photomultiplier tube detection. The system has also been applied for simultaneous multielement flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) measurements and it has been demonstrated that background absorption can be readily corrected for both flame and graphite furnace AAS by a two-line method where non-atomic absorption lines can be chosen from the simultaneously recorded spectra.

  6. A slot-scanned photodiode-array/CCD hybrid detector for digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Mainprize, James G; Ford, Nancy L; Yin, Shi; Tümer, Türmay; Yaffe, Martin J

    2002-02-01

    We have developed a novel direct conversion detector for use in a slot-scanning digital mammography system. The slot-scan concept allows for dose efficient scatter rejection and the ability to use small detectors to produce a large-area image. The detector is a hybrid design with a 1.0 mm thick silicon PIN photodiode array (the x-ray absorber) indium-bump bonded to a CCD readout that is operated in time-delay integration (TDI) mode. Because the charge capacity requirement for good image quality exceeds the capabilities of standard CCDs, a novel CCD was developed. This CCD consists of 24 independent sections, each acting as a miniature CCD with eight rows for TDI. The signal from each section is combined off-chip to produce a full signal image. The MTF and DQE for the device was measured at several exposures and compared to a linear systems model of signal and noise propagation. Because of the scanning nature of TDI imaging, both the MTF(f) and DQE(f) are reduced along the direction of the scanning motion. For a 26 kVp spectrum, the DQE(0) was measured to be 0.75+/-0.02 for an exposure of 1.29 x 10(-5) C/kg (50 mR). PMID:11865992

  7. Linear terrestrial laser scanning using array avalanche photodiodes as detectors for rapid three-dimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yinqiao; Tong, Xiaohua; Tong, Peng; Bu, Hongyi; Shu, Rong

    2010-12-01

    As an active remote sensor technology, the terrestrial laser scanner is widely used for direct generation of a three-dimensional (3D) image of an object in the fields of geodesy, surveying, and photogrammetry. In this article, a new laser scanner using array avalanche photodiodes, as designed by the Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is introduced for rapid collection of 3D data. The system structure of the new laser scanner is first presented, and a mathematical model is further derived to transform the original data to the 3D coordinates of the object in a user-defined coordinate system. The performance of the new laser scanner is tested through a comprehensive experiment. The result shows that the new laser scanner can scan a scene with a field view of 30° × 30° in 0.2 s and that, with respect to the point clouds obtained on the wall and ground floor surfaces, the root mean square errors for fitting the two planes are 0.21 and 0.01 cm, respectively. The primary advantages of the developed laser scanner include: (i) with a line scanning mode, the new scanner achieves simultaneously the 3D coordinates of 24 points per single laser pulse, which enables it to scan faster than traditional scanners with a point scanning mode and (ii) the new scanner makes use of two galvanometric mirrors to deflect the laser beam in both the horizontal and the vertical directions. This capability makes the instrument smaller and lighter, which is more acceptable for users.

  8. P-InAsSbP/n-InAs single heterostructure back-side illuminated 8 × 8 photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunkov, P. N.; Il'inskaya, N. D.; Karandashev, S. A.; Lavrov, A. A.; Matveev, B. A.; Remennyi, M. A.; Stus', N. M.; Usikova, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    P-InAsSbP/n-InAs/n+-InAs single heterostructure photodiode monolithic array with linear impurity distribution in the space charge region and "bulk" n-InAs absorbing layer has been fabricated by the LPE method and studied for the first time. Unlike all known InAsSbP/InAs PDs with an abrupt p-n junction the linear impurity distribution PDs potentially suggest lower compared with analogs capacitance and tunneling current. Indeed the developed photodiodes showed good perspectives for use in low temperature pyrometry as low dark current (8 × 10-6 A/cm2, Ubias = -0.5 V, 164 K) and background limited infrared photodetector (BLIP) regime starting from 190 K (2π field of view, D3.1μm ∗ = 1.1 × 1012 cm Hz1/2/W) have been demonstrated. High photodiode performance is thought to be due to above peculiarities of the impurity distribution as well as low defect density in P-InAsSbP/n-InAs/n+-InAs single heterostructure.

  9. A discrete component low-noise preamplifier readout for a linear (1×16) SiC photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Duncan; Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Federico A.; Waczynski, Augustyn

    2016-09-01

    A compact, low-noise and inexpensive preamplifier circuit has been designed and fabricated to optimally readout a common cathode (1×16) channel 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode array for use in ultraviolet experiments. The readout uses an operational amplifier with 10 pF capacitor in the feedback loop in parallel with a low leakage switch for each of the channels. This circuit configuration allows for reiterative sample, integrate and reset. A sampling technique is given to remove Johnson noise, enabling a femtoampere level readout noise performance. Commercial-off-the-shelf acquisition electronics are used to digitize the preamplifier analog signals. The data logging acquisition electronics has a different integration circuit, which allows the bandwidth and gain to be independently adjusted. Using this readout, photoresponse measurements across the array between spectral wavelengths 200 nm and 370 nm are made to establish the array pixels external quantum efficiency, current responsivity and noise equivalent power.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination with photodiode array detection of ellagic acid in fresh and processed fruits.

    PubMed

    Amakura, Y; Okada, M; Tsuji, S; Tonogai, Y

    2000-10-27

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure based on an isocratic elution with photodiode array detection has been developed for a simple and rapid determination of ellagic acid (EA) in fresh and processed fruits. The homogenized sample was refluxed with methanol and then the extract was refined using a solid-phase cartridge before HPLC. We analyzed EA in 40 kinds of fresh fruits and 11 kinds of processed fruits by the developed method. EA was found in several berries, fueijoa, pineapple and pomegranate. This is the first occurrence of the detection of EA in bayberry, fueijoa and pineapple.

  11. High-resolution dynamic CT scanner based on a variable-zoom XRII and a linear photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drangova, Maria; Holdsworth, David W.; Fenster, Aaron

    1993-09-01

    We have developed a CT scanner with high temporal and spatial resolution which can be used to acquire dynamic images of objects undergoing periodic motion. Our system comprises of an x-ray image intensifier (XRII) optically coupled to a linear photo-diode array (PDA) camera. The XRII has been modified to vary electronically the magnification of the image continuously over fields-of-view (FOV) ranging between 8 and 24 cm, and thus increasing the resolution from 1.4 mm-1 to 3.8 mm-1. In this way, we can select a magnification which maximizes the image resolution for a given object.

  12. Observations of the O I lambda 7773 triplet in intermediate-type supergiants using a linear photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, G. R.; Humrich, A.

    1981-05-01

    Partially resolved spectra of the infrared oxygen triplet in A-G supergiants have been obtained with a new self-scanned photodiode array system. Curve of growth analyses indicate that the lines are formed in non-LTE. A line is identified at 7777.9 A which is strong in A supergiants and which will complicate the analysis of low resolution spectra. At a resolution of 0.45 A/diode the CN lines which appear in G8 and later stars are blended with the O I triplet rendering its equivalent width unreliable as a luminosity indicator.

  13. Linear arrays of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 1.0-1.7 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackley, D. E.; Hladky, J.; Lange, M. J.; Mason, S.; Erickson, G.; Olsen, G. H.; Ban, V. S.; Forrest, S. R.; Staller, C.

    1990-01-01

    Separate absorption and multiplication InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (SAM-APDs) with a floating guard ring structure that is well-suited to array applications have been successfully demonstrated. Individual APDs have breakdown voltages greater than 80 V, multiplications over 40 at 100 nA dark current, and uniform spatial gain profiles. Uniform I-V characteristics and gains have been measured over linear dimensions as large as 1.2 cm. Gains over 10 at low multiplied dark currents were measured on 21 consecutive devices at the wafer level.

  14. Filter-free integrated sensor array based on luminescence and absorbance measurements using ring-shaped organic photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Abel, Tobias; Sagmeister, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernhard; Kraker, Elke; Köstler, Stefan; Ungerböck, Birgit; Mayr, Torsten

    2012-12-01

    An optical waveguiding sensor array featuring monolithically integrated organic photodiodes as integrated photo-detector, which simplifies the readout system by minimizing the required parts, is presented. The necessity of any optical filters becomes redundant due to the proposed platform geometry, which discriminates between excitation light and sensing signal. The sensor array is capable of measuring luminescence or absorption, and both sensing geometries are based on the identical substrate. It is demonstrated that background light is virtually non-existent. All sensing and waveguide layers, as well as in- and out-coupling elements are assembled by conventional screen-printing techniques. Organic photodiodes are integrated by layer-by-layer vacuum deposition onto glass or common polymer foils. The universal and simple applicability of this sensor chip is demonstrated by sensing schemes for four different analytes. Relative humidity, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are measured in gas phase using luminescence-based sensor schemes; the latter two analytes are also measured by absorbance-based sensor schemes. Furthermore, oxygen and pH in aqueous media were enabled. The consistency of calibration characteristics extending over different sensor chips is verified.

  15. A reflectance photometer with a square photodiode array detector for use on multilayer dry-film slides.

    PubMed

    Neeley, W E

    1988-11-01

    This semiautomated prototype reflectance photometer measures reflected light from multilayer dry-film slides. The instrument makes use of a square photodiode array detector, a Hewlett-Packard desktop computer, and a modified mechanical transport mechanism from an Ektachem DT60 analyzer. When 2 microL of serum is placed on a dry-film slide, a colored spot is formed. The slide is automatically transported to an incubation area and then to the photometer area. There the spot is illuminated with dual tungsten lamps, and the reflected light passes through an interference filter, where it is focused on a square photodiode array containing 10,000 individual detectors. The analog signal from each detector is digitized and transmitted to a computer for calculation of the percentage of reflectance. I used a series of algorithms to locate the spot, estimate spot area, correct for minor variations in sample volume, and compute the average reflectance from a central spot area. To evaluate the instrument's performance, I ran parallel glucose determinations in the Beckman Astra; results correlated well. The small sample size along with no dead sample volume makes the system useful for small sample volumes.

  16. Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aull, Brian F.; Loomis, Andrew H.; Young, Douglas J.; Stern, Alvin; Felton, Bradley J.; Daniels, Peter J.; Landers, Debbie J.; Retherford, Larry; Rathman, Dennis D.; Heinrichs, Richard M.; Marino, Richard M.; Fouche, Daniel G.; Albota, Marius A.; Hatch, Robert E.; Rowe, Gregory S.; Kocher, David G.; Mooney, James G.; O'Brien, Michael E.; Player, Brian E.; Willard, Berton C.; Liau, Zong-Long; Zayhowski, John J.

    2004-06-01

    Lincoln Laboratory has developed 32 x 32-pixel ladar focal planes comprising silicon geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes and high-speed all-digital CMOS timing circuitry in each pixel. In Geiger mode operation, the APD can detect as little as a single photon, producing a digital CMOS-compatible voltage pulse. This pulse is used to stop a high-speed counter in the pixel circuit, thus digitizing the time of arrival of the optical pulse. This "photon-to-digital conversion" simultaneously achieves single-photon sensitivity and 0.5-ns timing. We discuss the development of these focal planes and present imagery from ladar systems that use them.

  17. The Trace Analysis of DEET in Water using an On-line Preconcentration Column and Liquid Chromatography with UV Photodiode Array Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the detection of trace levels of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in water is discussed. The method utilizes an on-line preconcentration column in series with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV photodiode array detection. DEET, a common insect repel...

  18. Microfluidic Biosensor Array with Integrated Poly(2,7-Carbazole)/Fullerene-Based Photodiodes for Rapid Multiplexed Detection of Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno Miguel Matos; Dong, Tao

    2013-01-01

    A multiplexed microfluidic biosensor made of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) was integrated into an array of organic blend heterojunction photodiodes (OPDs) for chemiluminescent detection of pathogens. Waterborne Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni and adenovirus were targeted in the PMMA chip, and detection of captured pathogens was conducted by poly(2,7-carbazole)/fullerene OPDs which showed a responsivity over 0.20 A/W at 425 nm. The limits of chemiluminescent detection were 5 × 105 cells/mL for E. coli, 1 × 105 cells/mL for C. jejuni, and 1 × 10−8 mg/mL for adenovirus. Parallel analysis for all three analytes in less than 35 min was demonstrated. Further recovery tests illustrated the potential of the integrated biosensor for detecting bacteria in real water samples. PMID:24287522

  19. Application of tomographic imaging to photodiode arrays in large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Tamura, N.; Peterson, B. J.; Iwama, N.; LHD Experimental Group

    2006-10-01

    Two 20-channel absolute x-ray ultraviolet photodiode (AXUVD) cameras are being used on the large helical device for measuring the two-dimensional radiation distribution. The local radiation emissivity is obtained by inverting the measured brightnesses with linear (Tikhonov-Phillips) or nonlinear (maximum entropy) regularization methods. The most important features of these improved methods are the capability of reconstructing radiation distributions without any symmetry assumptions, built-in smoothing, and useful reconstructions with relatively few detector channels. Together with improvements in the analysis method, the current AXUVD system makes it possible to obtain radiation emissivity images of various localized radiative phenomena, such as radiation collapse or transport of impurities injected into the plasma.

  20. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  1. Enhanced photoresponse of conformal TiO{sub 2}/Ag nanorod array-based Schottky photodiodes fabricated via successive glancing angle and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi; Cansizoglu, Hilal; Cansizoglu, Mehmet Fatih; Karabacak, Tansel; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors demonstrate a proof of concept nanostructured photodiode fabrication method via successive glancing angle deposition (GLAD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The fabricated metal-semiconductor nanorod (NR) arrays offer enhanced photoresponse compared to conventional planar thin-film counterparts. Silver (Ag) metallic NR arrays were deposited on Ag-film/Si templates by utilizing GLAD. Subsequently, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was deposited conformally on Ag NRs via ALD. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed the successful formation of vertically aligned Ag NRs deposited via GLAD and conformal deposition of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs via ALD. Following the growth of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs, aluminum metallic top contacts were formed to complete the fabrication of NR-based Schottky photodiodes. Nanostructured devices exhibited a photo response enhancement factor of 1.49 × 10{sup 2} under a reverse bias of 3 V.

  2. Study of flavonoids of Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) different edible organs by liquid chromatography photodiode array mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Tiziana; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Morelli, Ivano; Braca, Alessandra

    2004-10-20

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based method was developed for the characterization of flavonoids from Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) edible organs, a plant cultivated since pre-Colombian times in Mexico where the fruit is called chayote. Chayote is used for human consumption in many countries; in addition to the fruits, stems, leaves and the tuberous part of the roots are also eaten. Eight flavonoids, including three C-glycosyl and five O-glycosyl flavones, were detected, characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data, and quantified in roots, leaves, stems, and fruits of the plant by LC-photodiode array-MS. The aglycone moieties are represented by apigenin and luteolin, while the sugar units are glucose, apiose, and rhamnose. The results indicated that the highest total amount of flavonoids was in the leaves (35.0 mg/10 g of dried part), followed by roots (30.5 mg/10 g), and finally by stems (19.3 mg/10 g).

  3. Determination of total phthalates in edible oils by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qilong; Sun, Dekui; Han, Yangying; Jia, Litao; Hou, Bo; Liu, Shuhui; Li, Debao

    2016-03-01

    The previously reported procedure for the determination of the total phthalate in fatty food involved the extraction of phthalates using chloroform/methanol followed by the removal of the solvents before alkaline hydrolysis requiring 20 h and derivatization of phthalic acid. In this study, a phase-transfer catalyst (tetrabutylammonium chloride) was used in the liquid-liquid heterogeneous hydrolysis of phthalates in oil matrix shortening the reaction time to within 25 min. The resulting phthalic acid in the hydrolysate was extracted by a novel molecular complex based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method coupled with back-extraction before high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the linearity of the method was in the range of 0.5-12 nmol/g with the correlation coefficients (r) >0.997. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.11 nmol/g. Intraday and interday repeatability values expressed as relative standard deviation were 3.9 and 7.1%, respectively. The recovery rates ranged from 82.4 to 99.0%. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of total phthalate in seven edible oils.

  4. Feasibility study to determine correct focus by analyzing photon distributions on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kong, Hong Jin; Jo, Sung Eun; Oh, Min Seok

    2011-06-01

    A method to determine correct focus in direct detection laser radar system using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array (GmAPD-FPA) is proposed. It is implemented by laser pulses with controlled beam diameter and energy on a distant target. And the time-of-flight (TOF) of laser pulses are obtained for each pixel in GmAPD-FPA. With multiple laser pulses, time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) is carried out to obtain target detection probability. Using target detection probabilities of each pixel, the photon distribution on GmAPD-FPA is acquired. The condition to determine correct focus is the minimum photon distribution in GmAPD-FPA. In theory part, the range of laser pulse energy is decided. The experiments are carried out with commercial 1x8 pixel GmAPD-FPA. The experimental results show that the focus position is founded using this method and a spatial resolution of a laser radar system is improved where the 1x8 pixel GmAPD-FPA is located in focus position.

  5. Free-space optics based sensor network design using angle-diversity photodiode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anjan K.; Kunta, Swathi; Verma, Pramode; Huck, Robert C.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we describe a free-space optics (FSO) based mobile sensor network that is not subject to RF interference common to wireless sensor networks. FSO-based mobile sensor networks can potentially be used in applications where security of communication, including freedom from susceptibility to jamming, is important. The design of nodes containing multiple transceivers each composed of an LED and an angle-diversity array of identical photo detectors is discussed in this paper. Depending on the number of photodetectors in the array and the angular field of view of each photo detector we may obtain an increase in the signal to noise ratio of the overall optical communication system.

  6. Coherent THz wave combiner composed of arrayed uni-traveling carrier photodiodes and planar lightwave circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, K.; Haruki, J.; Sakano, G.; Kato, K.; Hisatake, S.; Nagatsuma, T.

    2016-02-01

    For high-power THz wave generation by photomixing of two lightwaves, we proposed the synchronous power combiner which consists of eight-arrayed photomixers/antennas and the THz phase control system. We experimentally confirmed the effectiveness of the power combination by synchronizing the phases of the THz wave by the mechanical optical delay lines and also demonstrated the same functionality at the lightwave-circuit-based optical phase control system. We found that the directional gain is increasing with increasing the number of photomixers from two to three and it reached up to 4.5 dB.

  7. Beam profile monitor for the NSLS vuv ring employing linear photodiode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Galayda, J.; Yu, L.H.; Shu, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Among the most important parameters of a storage accelerator are the position and size of the particle beam. In an electron machine, these parameters can be derived from measurements of the emitted synchrotron radiation. We discuss a system which monitors the two-dimensional profile of the synchrotron light in the NSLS vuv ring using commercially available high-resolution linear photosensitive diode arrays. The optical system has been designed to match the size of the image space to the dimensions of the diode sensor area. The scanning rate is automatically adjusted to hold the peaks of the profiles constant over a wide range of beam intensity variations. Video signals from the diode sensors can be readily interfaced to a computer for beam diagnostic purposes. Optics and factors determining the overall resolution of the system are discussed. Preliminary results of beam observations are presented.

  8. A diffuse reflectance spectral imaging system for tumor margin assessment using custom annular photodiode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Sulochana; Lo, Justin Y.; Palmer, Gregory M.; Brooke, Martin A.; Nichols, Brandon S.; Yu, Bing; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Jokerst, Nan M.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a well-established method to quantitatively distinguish between benign and cancerous tissue for tumor margin assessment. Current multipixel DRS margin assessment tools are bulky fiber-based probes that have limited scalability. Reported herein is a new approach to multipixel DRS probe design, which utilizes direct detection of the DRS signal by using optimized custom photodetectors in direct contact with the tissue. This first fiberless DRS imaging system for tumor margin assessment consists of a 4 × 4 array of annular silicon photodetectors and a constrained free-space light delivery tube optimized to deliver light across a 256 mm2 imaging area. This system has 4.5 mm spatial resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio measured for normal and malignant breast tissue-mimicking phantoms was 35 dB to 45 dB for λ = 470 nm to 600 nm. PMID:23243571

  9. Quantification of patulin in fruit leathers by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA).

    PubMed

    Maragos, Chris M; Busman, Mark; Ma, Liang; Bobell, John

    2015-01-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin commonly found in certain fruit and fruit products. For this reason many countries have established regulatory limits pertaining to, in particular, apple juice and apple products. Fruit leathers are produced by dehydrating fruit puree, leaving a sweet product that has a leathery texture. A recent report in the literature described the detection of patulin at substantial levels in fruit leathers. To investigate this further, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA) method was developed for the sensitive detection of patulin in fruit leathers. Investigations were also made of the suitability of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for detection of patulin from the surface of fruit leathers. Results indicated DART-MS was insufficiently sensitive for quantification from the surface of home-style apple leathers, although patulin spiked onto the surface of leather or peel could be detected. The UPLC-PDA method was used to determine the fate of patulin during the preparation of home-made fruit leathers. Interestingly, when a home-style process was used, the patulin was not destroyed, but rather increased in concentration as the puree was dehydrated. The UPLC-PDA method was also used to screen for patulin in commercial fruit leathers. Of the 36 products tested, 14 were above the limit of detection (3.5 μg kg(-1)) and nine were above the limit of quantification (12 μg kg(-1)). Positive samples were confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS. Only one sample was found above the US regulatory limit for single-strength apple juice products (50 μg kg(-1)). These results suggest patulin can be concentrated during preparation and can be found in fruit leathers. The limited survey suggests that patulin is fairly prevalent in such commercial products, but that the levels are usually low.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection for determination of nobiletin content in the brain and serum of mice administrated the natural compound.

    PubMed

    Saigusa, Daisuke; Shibuya, Masatoshi; Jinno, Daisuke; Yamakoshi, Hiroyuki; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Naganuma, Akira; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2011-07-01

    We recently demonstrated that nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, exhibits anti-dementia action in animals. However, no determination methods for the content of nobiletin with beneficial action in the brain of nobiletin-administered animals have been developed, nor has its pharmacokinetics been revealed completely. Here, we established the high-performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array detection method for nobiletin determination using Bond Elut C18 SPE cartridges for extraction, where the calibration curve was linear over 0.025-10 ng, with coefficient of variation of less than 6.76%. This method enabled us to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of nobiletin given intraperitoneally or per os in the brain of mice.

  11. A linear photodiode array employed in a short range laser triangulation obstacle avoidance sensor. M.S. Thesis; [Martian roving vehicle sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odenthal, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    An opto-electronic receiver incorporating a multi-element linear photodiode array as a component of a laser-triangulation rangefinder was developed as an obstacle avoidance sensor for a Martian roving vehicle. The detector can resolve the angle of laser return in 1.5 deg increments within a field of view of 30 deg and a range of five meters. A second receiver with a 1024 elements over 60 deg and a 3 meter range is also documented. Design criteria, circuit operation, schematics, experimental results and calibration procedures are discussed.

  12. InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays for three-dimensional imaging at 1.06 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Jiang, Xudong; Patel, Ketan; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Koch, Tim; Rangwala, Sabbir; Zalud, Peter F.; Yu, Young; Tower, John; Ferraro, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of 32 x 32 focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InGaAsP/InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs) designed for use in three-dimensional (3-D) laser radar imaging systems at 1064 nm. To our knowledge, this is the first realization of FPAs for 3-D imaging that employ a planar-passivated buried-junction InP-based GmAPD device platform. This development also included the design and fabrication of custom readout integrate circuits (ROICs) to perform avalanche detection and time-of-flight measurements on a per-pixel basis. We demonstrate photodiode arrays (PDAs) with a very narrow breakdown voltage distribution width of 0.34 V, corresponding to a breakdown voltage total variation of less than +/- 0.2%. At an excess bias voltage of 3.3 V, which provides 40% pixel-level single photon detection efficiency, we achieve average dark count rates of 2 kHz at an operating temperature of 248 K. We present the characterization of optical crosstalk induced by hot carrier luminescence during avalanche events, where we show that the worst-case crosstalk probability per pixel, which occurs for nearest neighbors, has a value of less than 1.6% and exhibits anisotropy due to isolation trench etch geometry. To demonstrate the FPA response to optical density variations, we show a simple image of a broadened optical beam.

  13. Nuclear resonant scattering measurements on {sup 57}Fe by multichannel scaling with a 64-pixel silicon avalanche photodiode linear-array detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, S. Haruki, R.; Mitsui, T.; Yoda, Y.; Taniguchi, T.; Shimazaki, S.; Ikeno, M.; Saito, M.; Tanaka, M.

    2014-11-15

    We developed a silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) linear-array detector for use in nuclear resonant scattering experiments using synchrotron X-rays. The Si-APD linear array consists of 64 pixels (pixel size: 100 × 200 μm{sup 2}) with a pixel pitch of 150 μm and depletion depth of 10 μm. An ultrafast frontend circuit allows the X-ray detector to obtain a high output rate of >10{sup 7} cps per pixel. High-performance integrated circuits achieve multichannel scaling over 1024 continuous time bins with a 1 ns resolution for each pixel without dead time. The multichannel scaling method enabled us to record a time spectrum of the 14.4 keV nuclear radiation at each pixel with a time resolution of 1.4 ns (FWHM). This method was successfully applied to nuclear forward scattering and nuclear small-angle scattering on {sup 57}Fe.

  14. Active three-dimensional and thermal imaging with a 30-μm pitch 320×256 HgCdTe avalanche photodiode focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Borniol, Eric; Rothman, Johan; Guellec, Fabrice; Vojetta, Gautier; Destéfanis, Gérard; Pacaud, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) flash light detection and ranging (LADAR) imaging is based on time of flight (TOF) measurement of a single laser pulse. The laser pulse coming back from the observed object will be detected only if the number of photons received by each pixel generates a signal greater than the pixel noise. In order to extract this weak photonic signal from the noise we use the high gain and low excess noise of the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays developed at CEA/LETI. The sensor consists of a 30-μm pitch APD detector array hybridized to a 320×256 pixels ROIC for passive and active imaging. In passive mode the focal plane array behaves like a thermal imager and we measured 30 mK of noise-equivalent temperature difference. In active imaging mode, each pixel sensed the time of flight and the intensity two-dimensional (2-D) of a single laser pulse. Laboratory tests show a range noise of 11 cm for 4300 photoelectrons per pixel and detection limit under 100 photoelectrons. The sensor was also used during a field trial to record 2-D and 3-D real-time videos. The quality of the images obtained demonstrates the maturity of HgCdTe-APD-array technology.

  15. Design of Low Power CMOS Read-Out with TDI Function for Infrared Linear Photodiode Array Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vizcaino, Paul; Ramirez-Angulo, Jaime; Patel, Umesh D.

    2007-01-01

    A new low voltage CMOS infrared readout circuit using the buffer-direct injection method is presented. It uses a single supply voltage of 1.8 volts and a bias current of 1uA. The time-delay integration technique is used to increase the signal to noise ratio. A current memory circuit with faulty diode detection is used to remove dark current for background compensation and to disable a photodiode in a cell if detected as faulty. Simulations are shown that verify the circuit that is currently in fabrication in 0.5ym CMOS technology.

  16. Quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis for the quality evaluation of Isatis indigotica based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Rui; Huang, Shan-Jun; Li, Yi-Ming; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2012-01-01

    A simple and reliable method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PDA) was developed to control the quality of Radix Isatidis (dried root of Isatis indigotica) for chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitative analysis of eight bioactive constituents, including R,S-goitrin, progoitrin, epiprogoitrin, gluconapin, adenosine, uridine, guanosine, and hypoxanthine. In quantitative analysis, the eight components showed good regression (R > 0.9997) within test ranges, and the recovery method ranged from 99.5% to 103.0%. The UPLC fingerprints of the Radix Isatidis samples were compared by performing chemometric procedures, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and principal component analysis. The chemometric procedures classified Radix Isatidis and its finished products such that all samples could be successfully grouped according to crude herbs, prepared slices, and adulterant Baphicacanthis cusiae Rhizoma et Radix. The combination of quantitative and chromatographic fingerprint analysis can be used for the quality assessment of Radix Isatidis and its finished products.

  17. Autofocus technique for three-dimensional imaging, direct-detection laser radar using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal-plane array.

    PubMed

    Oh, Min Seok; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jo, Sung Eun

    2010-12-15

    An autofocus technique is proposed for a three-dimensional imaging, direct-detection laser radar system that uses a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array (GmAPD-FPA). This technique is implemented by pointing laser pulses on a target of interest and observing its scattered photon distribution on a GmAPD-FPA. Measuring the standard deviation of the photon distribution on a GmAPD-FPA enables the best focus condition to be found. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated experimentally by employing a 1 × 8 pixel GmAPD-FPA. It is shown that the spatial resolution improves when the GmAPD-FPA is located in the best focus position found by the autofocus technique. PMID:21165141

  18. Design of a back-illuminated, crystallographically etched, silicon-on-sapphire avalanche photodiode with monolithically integrated microlens, for dual-mode passive & active imaging arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Alvin G.; Cole, Daniel C.

    2008-12-01

    There is a growing need in space and environmental research applications for dual-mode, passive and active 2D and 3D ladar imaging methods. To fill this need, an advanced back-illuminated avalanche photodiode (APD) design is presented based on crystallographically etched (100) epitaxial silicon on R-plane sapphire (SOS), enabling single photon sensitive, solid-state focal plane arrays (FPAs) with wide dynamic range, supporting passive and active imaging capability in a single FPA. When (100) silicon is properly etched with KOH:IPA:H2O solution through a thermally grown oxide mask, square based pyramidal frustum or mesa arrays result with the four mesa sidewalls of the APD formed by (111) silicon planes that intersect the (100) planes at a crystallographic angle, Φc = 54.7°. The APD device is fabricated in the mesa using conventional silicon processing technology. Detectors are back-illuminated through light focusing microlenses fabricated in the thinned, AR-coated sapphire substrate. The APDs share a common, front-side anode contact, made locally at the base of each device mesa. A low resistance (Al) or (Cu) metal anode grid fills the space between pixels and also inhibits optical cross-talk. SOS-APD arrays are indium bump-bonded to CMOS readout ICs to produce hybrid FPAs. The quantum efficiency for the square 27 µm pixels exceeds 50% for 250 nm < λ < 400 nm and exceeds 80% for 400 nm < λ < 700 nm. The sapphire microlenses compensate detector quantum efficiency loss resulting from the mesa geometry and yield 100% sensitive-area-fill-factor arrays, limited in size only by the wafer diameter.

  19. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications. PMID:26077658

  20. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-06-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications.

  1. Hybrid photomultiplier tube and photodiode parallel detection array for wideband optical spectroscopy of the breast guided by magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghussein, Fadi; Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    A new optical parallel detection system of hybrid frequency and continuous-wave domains was developed to improve the data quality and accuracy in recovery of all breast optical properties. This new system was deployed in a previously existing system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spectroscopy, and allows incorporation of additional near-infrared wavelengths beyond 850 nm, with interlaced channels of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photodiodes (PDs). The acquisition time for obtaining frequency-domain data at six wavelengths (660, 735, 785, 808, 826, and 849 nm) and continuous-wave data at three wavelengths (903, 912, and 948 nm) is 12 min. The dynamic ranges of the detected signal are 105 and 106 for PMT and PD detectors, respectively. Compared to the previous detection system, the SNR ratio of frequency-domain detection was improved by nearly 103 through the addition of an RF amplifier and the utilization of programmable gain. The current system is being utilized in a clinical trial imaging suspected breast cancer tumors as detected by contrast MRI scans.

  2. Hybrid photomultiplier tube and photodiode parallel detection array for wideband optical spectroscopy of the breast guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    El-Ghussein, Fadi; Mastanduno, Michael A; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W; Paulsen, Keith D

    2014-01-01

    A new optical parallel detection system of hybrid frequency and continuous-wave domains was developed to improve the data quality and accuracy in recovery of all breast optical properties. This new system was deployed in a previously existing system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spectroscopy, and allows incorporation of additional near-infrared wavelengths beyond 850 nm, with interlaced channels of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photodiodes (PDs). The acquisition time for obtaining frequency-domain data at six wavelengths (660, 735, 785, 808, 826, and 849 nm) and continuous-wave data at three wavelengths (903, 912, and 948 nm) is 12 min. The dynamic ranges of the detected signal are 105 and 106 for PMT and PD detectors, respectively. Compared to the previous detection system, the SNR ratio of frequency-domain detection was improved by nearly 103 through the addition of an RF amplifier and the utilization of programmable gain. The current system is being utilized in a clinical trial imaging suspected breast cancer tumors as detected by contrast MRI scans. PMID:23979460

  3. Hybrid photomultiplier tube and photodiode parallel detection array for wideband optical spectroscopy of the breast guided by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A new optical parallel detection system of hybrid frequency and continuous-wave domains was developed to improve the data quality and accuracy in recovery of all breast optical properties. This new system was deployed in a previously existing system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spectroscopy, and allows incorporation of additional near-infrared wavelengths beyond 850 nm, with interlaced channels of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photodiodes (PDs). The acquisition time for obtaining frequency-domain data at six wavelengths (660, 735, 785, 808, 826, and 849 nm) and continuous-wave data at three wavelengths (903, 912, and 948 nm) is 12 min. The dynamic ranges of the detected signal are 105 and 106 for PMT and PD detectors, respectively. Compared to the previous detection system, the SNR ratio of frequency-domain detection was improved by nearly 103 through the addition of an RF amplifier and the utilization of programmable gain. The current system is being utilized in a clinical trial imaging suspected breast cancer tumors as detected by contrast MRI scans. PMID:23979460

  4. High efficiency n-Si/ p-Cu2O core-shell nanowires photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition of Cu2O on well-ordered Si nanowires array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hangil; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Ko, Kyung Yong; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Jaehoon; Oh, Jihun; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram

    2016-05-01

    A highly efficient n-Si/ p-Cu2O core-shell (C-S) nanowire (NW) photodiode was fabricated using Cu2O grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a well-ordered Si NW array. Ordered Si nanowires arrays were fabricated by nano-sphere lithography to pattern metal catalysts for the metal-assisted etching of silicon, resulting in a Si NW arrays with a good arrangement, smooth surface and small diameter distribution. The ALD-Cu2O thin films were grown using a new non-fluorinated Cu precursor, bis(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-butoxy)copper (C14H32N2O2Cu), and water vapor (H2O) at 140°C. Transmission electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer confirmed that p-Cu2O thin films had been coated over arrayed Si NWs with a diameter of 150 nm (aspect ratio of ˜7.6). The C-S NW photodiode exhibited more sensitive photodetection performance under ultraviolet illumination as well as an enhanced photocurrent density in the forward biasing region than the planar structure diode. The superior performance of C-S NWs photodiode was explained by the lower reflectance of light and the effective carrier separation and collection originating from the C-S NWs structure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Development of a Validated HPLC/Photodiode Array Method for the Determination of Isomenthone in the Aerial Parts of Ziziphora tenuior L.

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Nasrollah; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Ghaemmaghami, Lili; Kiani, Haran

    2013-01-01

    Background Ziziphora tenuior L. known as Kakuti in Persian, is used in traditional medicine for fever, dysentery, uterus infection and as an analgesic. It is used also in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders as carminative, or remedy of diarrhea or nausea. Major components of plant essential oil including pulegone, isomenthone, thymol, menthone, and piperitone are suggested to be responsible for the mentioned medicinal properties. Objectives In the present study, a normal high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/photodiode array validated method for quantification of isomenthone, one of the major constituents of Ziziphora, was established for the first time with a simple, rapid and accurate method. Materials and Methods HPLC analysis was done on a Waters system, equipped with 515 HPLC pump and waters 2996 photodiode array detector. The column was a Nova-Pak Silica (3.9 × 150 mm), and Empower software was used for the determination of the compounds and processing the data. The method was validated according to USP 32 requirements. Results A selective method for the resolution of isomenthone from two nearest peaks, thymol, and carvacrol was obtained with gradient system of hexane (A), and hexane: ethyl acetate (9:1) (B), starting with A: B (100:0) for 2 minutes, then 0−20% B in 5 minutes, A:B (80:20) for 5 minutes, then 20-30% B in 3 minutes, 30-100% B for 5 minutes, A:B (0:100) for 4 minutes following with equilibrating for 10 minutes. The flow rate was 1 mL/min at 22˚C and the injection volume for the standards and the samples was 20 μL. The retention time for isomenthone was found to be 7.45 minutes. The regression equation was y = 143235x - 2433 with the correlation co-factor R2 = 0.9992 and the percent recovery of 65.4 ± 3.85%. The sample obtained from 5 g of Z. teniour dried powder in 6 mL extract was standardized to contain 1.14 ± 0.030 μL/mL isomenthone which is equivalent to % 1.37 μL/g of the dried powdered plant. Limit of detection

  6. Determination of nitroaromatic explosives and their degradation products in unsaturated-zone water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array, mass spectrometric, and tandem mass spectrometric detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Paul M.; Furlong, E.T.; Dorsey, T.F.; Burkhardt, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, coupled by a thermospray interface to a high-performance liguid chromatography system and equipped with a photodiode array detector, were used to determine the presence of nitroaromatic explosives and their degradation products in USA unsaturated-zone water samples. Using this approach, the lower limits of quantitation for explosives determined by mass spectrometry in this study typically ranged from 10 to 100 ng/l.

  7. Simultaneous Quantification of Antioxidant Compounds in Phellinus igniarius Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nani; Li, Hongyu; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely used in the life sciences. Phellinus igniarius is a historically used natural antioxidant containing a variety of active compounds. Phenols, particularly Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B, are found in the high concentrations. Better quantitative methods are needed to perform quality control in order to support further research of this mushroom. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography method coupled to photodiode-array detection and an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-PAD-MS) was developed to simultaneously quantify Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B levels in the medicinal fungus Phellinus igniarius. The two compounds were quantified using UPLC-PAD and UPLC-MS. The methods were accurate (mean accuracy for spiked matrix ranged from 101.5% to 105.8%), sensitive (limit of detection ranged from 0.28 to 1.14 mg L-1) and precise (the relative standard deviations ranged from 0.13 to 2.8%). Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B were purified using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), structural evaluated to meet the request of standard substances. UPLC separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid over 10 min. The developed method was successfully applied to determine Inoscavin A and Hypholomine B in twelve Phellinus igniarius samples of different origins and the results showed that it was suitable for the analysis of these active components in Phellinus igniarius samples. PMID:27689891

  8. Determination of the polyphenolic content of a Capsicum annuum L. extract by liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection and evaluation of its biological activity.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Meriem; Soukup, Jan; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Riazi, Ali; Jandera, Pavel; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the polyphenolic profile of a pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) extract from Algeria and evaluate its biological activity. The total polyphenol content of the extract was determined as 1.373 mg of gallic acid equivalents (±0.0046), whereas the flavonoids were determined as 0.098 mg of quercetin (±0.0015). The determination of the complete polyphenolic profile of the extract was achieved by liquid chromatography with an RP-amide column in combination with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection through an electrospray ionization interface. A total of 18 compounds were identified, of which five were reported for the first time in the sample tested. Quercetin rhamnoside was the most abundant compound (82.6 μg/g of fresh pepper) followed by quercetin glucoside (19.86 μg/g). The antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effects were also determined. For the antimicrobial tests assessed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, kaempferol showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by quercetin and caffeic acids. In the study of the cytotoxicity of the extract, the cancer cells (U937) were more affected than the normal cells (peripheral blood mononucleated cells), with more than 62% inhibition at the highest concentration.

  9. Quantification of tetramethyl-terephthalic acid in rat liver, spleen and urine matrices by liquid-liquid phase extraction and HPLC-photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Baati, Tarek; Horcajada, Patricia; David, Olivier; Gref, Ruxandra; Couvreur, Patrick; Serre, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Tetramethyl-terephthalate (TMT) is the constitutive linker of the flexible porous iron(III) carboxylate Metal Organic Framework (MOF) MIL-88B_4CH₃ based drug nanocarrier (MIL stands for Material from Institut Lavoisier). A method for the determination of the concentration of tetramethyl-terephthalic acid has been developed in different biological rat matrices (liver, spleen and urine) using a liquid-liquid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array detection with 4-aminosalicylic acid as internal standard. The extraction conditions of TMT have been varied from urine to tissue depending on the complexity of the biological matrices. The chromatographic separation was performed with a gradient elution. In all matrices, the limits of detection and quantification of TMT was 0.01 and 0.05 μg ml⁻¹, respectively. The recovery of the TMT reached 86, 89 and 97% for urine, spleen and liver tissues, respectively. The linearity of the calibration curves in urine and tissues was satisfactory in all cases as evidenced by correlation coefficients >0.990. The within-day and between-day precisions were <15% (n=6) and the accuracy ranged in all cases between 86 and 103%. This method has finally allowed the quantification of TMT in rat urine and in tissue samples of rats administered intravenously with iron(III) tetramethyltherepthalate MIL-88B_4CH₃ nanoparticles.

  10. Quantification of fumaric acid in liver, spleen and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode-array detection.

    PubMed

    Baati, Tarek; Horcajada, Patricia; Gref, Ruxandra; Couvreur, Patrick; Serre, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of fumaric acid, an endogenous dicarboxylic acid with interesting biomedical applications either through its own biological activity or as a linker constitutive of the porous iron(III) fumarate metal organic framework (MOF) MIL-88A based drug nanocarrier (MIL stands for Material from Institut Lavoisier), has been developed in different rat biological complex media (liver, spleen and urine). After a liquid-liquid extraction procedure, fumaric acid concentration was determined by a simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled to a photodiode-array detector (PDA) using aminosalicylic acid as internal standard (IS) and a gradient elution. The recovery of fumaric acid reaches 89% and 92% for urine (for concentrations of 0.05 and 1μgml(-1), respectively) and 90% for liver and spleen tissues, exceeding 89% in all instances in comparison with the IS. Linearity has been kept from 0.05 to 1μgml(-1) and from 0.5 to 10μgg(-1) of fumaric acid in urine and tissues, respectively. The limit of detection of the method was 0.01μg per injection. This method has finally allowed the quantification of fumaric acid in rat urine and tissue samples after the intravenous administration of MIL-88A nanoparticles.

  11. Detection by coupled LC-photodiode array detection and high-resolution Orbitrap MS of dimethyl and diethyl yellow dyes used illegally in processed soymilk curd.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingchih; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Kuo, Ching-Hao; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    An efficient non-target dye-screening system consisting of a liquid chromatography photodiode array coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) is described. Visible absorption spectroscopy assisted in locating the peak of an unknown dye in HRMS chromatograms which allowed the accurate molecular weight of the unknown to be obtained. In a study of the adulteration of processed soymilk curd (tofu) with dimethyl yellow, an unexpected unknown dye was discovered. The compound was further purified by gel permeation chromatography and identified by HRMS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as diethyl yellow (solvent yellow 56). This is the first time that diethyl yellow has been reported in foods. The authentic diethyl yellow was then purchased and used as a quantitative standard. Tofu products and their ingredients associated with tofu processing were surveyed. Analysis showed the source of diethyl yellow could be traced to emulsifiers used as ingredient in tofu products. Surveillance work found the concentrations of diethyl yellow ranged from several μg kg(-1) (ppb) in the tofu products to up to hundreds of mg kg(-1) (ppm) in the emulsifiers. PMID:26076046

  12. Identification and analysis of alkaloids in cortex Phellodendron amurense by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Xian, Xiaoyan; Sun, Bohang; Ye, Xueting; Zhang, Guanying; Hou, Pengyi; Gao, Huiyuan

    2014-07-01

    Alkaloids from Cortex Phellodendron amurense Rupr. were identified to determine the material basis for the bioactivity of this herb. HPLC-ESI-MS with photodiode array detection coupled to XCharge C18 column was applied to analyze the alkaloids qualitatively and quantitatively. A total of 37 alkaloids were identified and tentatively characterized from the ethanol extract by online ESI-MS(n) fragmentation and UV spectral analysis. A total of ten alkaloids, including four novel natural products, were tentatively identified for the first time in P. amurense. The fragmentation pathways for certain compounds were analyzed. The contents of a pair of isomers (columbamine and jatrorrhizine) and four main alkaloids (phellodendrine, magnoflorine, berberine, and palmatine) were simultaneously quantified using the aforementioned method. Results showed that the newly discovered and known components of P. amurense were helpful in determining the material basis for the bioactivity of the herb. The application of the XCharge C18 column is a suitable and practical method for the isolation of alkaloids in plants.

  13. Determination of polymer additives-antioxidants and ultraviolet (UV) absorbers by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV photodiode array detection in food simulants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yali; Gu, Yanxiang; Wei, Yun

    2011-12-28

    An analytical method for the quantitative determination of migration levels of polymer additives such as antioxidants and UV absorbers in food packages by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-vis photodiode array detection has been developed. The pretreatment step involved solid-phase extraction with silica C18 cartridges. The analytical method showed good linearity, presenting regression coefficients (R(2)) ≥ 0.9990 for all compounds. This optimized method was also validated with respect to precision, reproducibility, stability, and accuracy. The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.09 and 1.72 μg mL(-1) and between 0.20 and 5.64 μg mL(-1) for 12 analytes, respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 67.48 and 108.55%, with relative standard deviations between 2.76 and 9.81%. Migration levels of antioxidants and UV absorbers were determined. Butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, Cyanox 2246, Irganox 1035, Tinuvin 326, Tinuvin 328, Irganox 1010, and Irganox 1330 were detected; BHT and Cyanox 2246 were at higher levels than the specific migration levels in some food simulants.

  14. Characterization of a CsI(Tl) array coupled to avalanche photodiodes for the Barrel of the CALIFA calorimeter at the NEPTUN tagged gamma beam facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascón, M.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Pietras, B.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Duran, I.; Glorius, J.; González, D.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Pietralla, N.; Savran, D.; Sonnabend, K.

    2013-10-01

    Among the variety of crystal calorimeters recently designed for several physics facilities, CALIFA (CALorimeter for In-Flight emitted gAmmas and light-charged particles) has especially demanding requirements since it must perform within a very complicated energy domain (gamma-ray energies from 0.1 to 20 MeV and up to 300 MeV protons). As part of the R&D program for the Barrel section of CALIFA, a reduced geometry prototype was constructed. This prototype consisted of a 3 × 5 array of CsI(Tl) crystals of varying dimensions, coupled to large area avalanche photodiodes. Here reported are the details regarding the construction of the prototype and the experimental results obtained at the NEPTUN tagged gamma beam facility, reconstructing gamma energies up to 10 MeV. Dedicated Monte Carlo simulations of the setup were also performed, enabling a deeper understanding of the experimental data. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the reconstruction method and helped to establish the most suitable crystal geometry to be employed within the forthcoming calorimeter.

  15. Determination of nitrofurans in animal feeds by liquid chromatography-UV photodiode array detection and liquid chromatography-ionspray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Jorge; Moura, Sara; Barbosa, Rita; Ramos, Fernando; da Silveira, Maria Irene Noronha

    2007-03-14

    Within the EU, the use of nitrofurans is prohibited in food production animals. For this reason detection of these compounds in feedingstuffs, at whatever limit, constitutes an offence under EU legislation. This detection generally involves the use of analytical methods with limits of quantification lowers than 1 mg kg(-1). These procedures are unsuitable for the detection and confirmation of trace amounts of nitrofurans in feedingstuffs due to contamination. It is well known that very low concentrations of these compounds can be the source of residues of nitrofuran metabolites in meat and other edible products obtained from animals consuming the contaminated feed. The present multi-compound method was capable of measuring very low concentrations of nitrofurantoin (NFT), nitrofurazone (NFZ), furazolidone (FZD) and furaltadone (FTD) in animal feed using nifuroxazide (NXZ) as internal standard. Following ethyl acetate extraction at mild alkaline conditions and purification on NH2 column, the nitrofurans are determined using liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (LC-DAD). It was observed a CCalpha ranged from 50 to 100 microg kg(-1). The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) procedure was used to confirm the identity of the suspected presence of any of the nitrofuran compounds. PMID:17386735

  16. Determination of plant hormones in fertilizers by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection: method development and single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Grazia Laura; Pagano, Pietro; Scordino, Monica; Sabatino, Leonardo; Scollo, Emanuele; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2008-01-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method that uses photodiode array detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of 12 native and synthetic plant hormones, i.e., plant growth regulators (PGRs), in fertilizers, such as 1-naphthol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, 4-(3-indolyl)butyric acid, dichlorprop, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, 1-naphthaleneacetamide, beta-naphthoxyacetic acid, and thidiazuron. The method was experimentally validated for routine regulatory application, and the following analytical parameters were assessed for all PGRs studied: linearity; specificity; precision (relative standard deviation) and accuracy, both measured at 3 concentration levels (0.1, 0.05, and 0.01%, w/w); ruggedness; limit of detection; and limit of quantification. Results were satisfactory for all method validation parameters tested and for all PGRs studied, demonstrating the suitability of the method for the determination of PGRs in fertilizers. The uncertainty of measurement was also estimated at 3 concentration levels for all PGRs by using the approach of the International Organization for Standardization, described in its Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The method was applied to 20 samples of liquid fertilizer with declared biostimulant properties.

  17. A validated high performance liquid chromatograph-photodiode array method for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive components in compound hongdoushan capsule

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liancai; Yang, Xian; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bochu; Zhang, Xue

    2014-01-01

    Background: The compound Hongdoushan capsule (CHC) is widely known as compound herbal preparation and is often used to treat ovarian cancer and breast cancer, and to enhance the body immunity, etc., in clinical practice. Objective: To determine simultaneously 10 bioactive components from CHC, namely glycyrrhetinic acid, liquiritin, glycyrrhizin, baccatin III, 10-deacetylbaccatin III, cephalomannine, taxol, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re, and ginsenoside Rb1. Materials and Methods: A high performance liquid chromatograph method coupled with photodiode array detector was developed and validated for the 1st time. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a SHIMADZU C18 by utilizing a gradient elution program. The mobile phase was acetonitrile (A)-water (B) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Results: The calibration curve was linear over the investigated concentration ranges with the values of r2 higher than 0.9993 for all the 10 bioactive components. The average recovery rates range from 98.4% to 100.5% with relative standard deviations ≤2.9%. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze 10 compounds in six CHC samples from different batches. In addition, the herbal sources of 32 chromatographic peaks were identified through comparative studying on chromatograms of standard, the respective extracts of Hongdoushan, RenShen, GanCao, and CHC. Conclusion: All the results imply that the accurate and reproducible method developed has high separation rate and enables the determination of 10 bioactive components in a single run for the quality control of CHC. PMID:24696551

  18. Advanced ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric methods for simultaneous screening and quantification of triterpenoids in Poria cocos.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bing; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Hong Sheng; Ding, Li Sheng; Xu, Hong Xi

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, precise and accurate method was developed to screen and quantify triterpenoids based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS). An exact neutral loss scan of 62.0004 Da (CH2O3) was used to selectively detect triterpenoids in Poria cocos, followed by a survey scan for exact masses of precursor and fragment ions of these triterpenoids. The developed method was applied to quantify seven major triterpenoids in 40 P. cocos samples of different origins within 18 min, and a total of 31 triterpenoids were unequivocally or tentatively identified. Principal component analysis of these samples showed a clear separation of three groups, and ten triterpenoids play key roles in differentiating these samples were obtained from the OPLS-DA variable influence on projection (VIP) plot and then unequivocally or tentatively identified. The developed method can be applied for rapid bitterness evaluation, quality control and authenticity establishment of P. cocos.

  19. Determination of 40 synthetic food colors in drinks and candies by high-performance liquid chromatography using a short column with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, N; Ichihashi, K

    2008-02-15

    Forty synthetic food colors were determined in drinks and candies by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The following food colors were analyzed within 19 min using a short analytical column (50 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 1.8 microm) at 50 degrees C with gradient elution: Ponceau 6R, Tartrazine, Fast yellow AB, Amaranth, Indigotine, Naphthol yellow S, Chrysoine, Ponceau 4R, Sunset yellow FCF, Red 10B, Orange G, Acid violet 7, Brilliant black PN, Allura red AC, Yellow 2G, Red 2G, Uranine, Fast red E, Green S, Ponceau 2R, Azorubine, Orange I, Quinoline yellow, Martius yellow, Ponceau SX, Ponceau 3R, Fast green FCF, Eosine, Brilliant blue FCF, Orange II, Orange RN, Acid blue 1, Erythrosine, Amido black 10B, Acid red 52, Patent blue V, Acid green 9, Phloxine B, Benzyl violet 4B, and Rose bengal. The recoveries of these compounds added to soft drinks and candies at 5 microg/g ranged from 76.6 to 115.0%, and relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) were within 6.0%. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 microg/g, respectively.

  20. Radiated power accounting and impurity transport estimates at the CDX-U spherical torus using photodiode arrays and FUV spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Stutman, D.; Iovea, M.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H. W.; Hoffman, D.; Munsat, T.; Menard, J.; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.; Jones, B.; Spaleta, J.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.

    1999-11-01

    The recently installed tangentially viewing ten channel fast AXUV diode array, together with poloidally viewing spectrally filtered SXR arrays, the XUV, FUV, visible spectrometers and the fast filtered CCD camera are used for radiated power measurements and intrinsic impurity transport estimates at the CDX-U spherical torus, in plasmas with tens of kA current and temperature in sub-hundred eV range. The inferred carbon, oxygen and hydrogen emissivity profiles and measured Te and ne profiles are used as inputs for impurity transport and collisional-radiative models. Bolometric corrections are derived to account for non-linearity of the AXUV diode spectral response to lower energy photons. The impact of charge exchange between impurity ions and neutrals on impurity transport and radiated power is investigated. The temperature diagnostics potential of the CIV/CV spectral line ratio is discussed and comparisons to the Thomson scattering and EBW measurements are made. This work is supported by U.S. DoE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53214 at JHU and DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-76-CHO-3073 at PPPL.

  1. [Determination of flavonol glycosides in tea samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhicong; Sha, Yuebing; Yu, Xiaobo; Liang, Yuerong

    2015-09-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of flavonol glycosides in tea samples. The chromatographic separation was performed on an UPLC HSS T3 column by gradient elution with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and water both containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. A total of 15 flavonol glycosides which include 3 myricetin glycosides, 6 quercetin glycosides and 6 kaempferol glycosides were positively identified in green and black tea samples by comparing the retention times and mass spectra of the samples with standards and publications. The quantities of flavonol glycosides were relatively calculated with the stand- ard quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside (Q-GRh) which was calibrated with external quantification method using multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed that there were different flavonol glycoside distributions in green tea and black tea. The total amount of flavonol glycosides in green tea was 1. 7 times of that in black tea. The major flavonol glycosides in green tea were myricetin-3-galactoside (M-Ga), myricetin-3-glucoside (M-G), quercetin-3-glucosyl-rhamnosyl-galactoside (Q-GaRhG), quercetin-3-glucosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside (Q-GRhG), kaempferol-3-glucosyl-rhamnosyl-galactoside (K-GaRhG) and kaempferol-3-glucosyl- rhamnosyl-glucoside (K-GRhG), but for black tea, the major flavonol glycosides were quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside (Q-GRh), quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-G), kaempferol-3-rhamnosylglucoside (K-GRh) and kaempferol-3-galactoside (K-Ga). The present method is accurate, convenient for the rapid identification of flavonol glycosides and analysis of constituent distribution for green and black teas.

  2. Photodiode array to charged aerosol detector response ratio enables comprehensive quantitative monitoring of basic drugs in blood by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2015-03-20

    Quantitative screening for a broad range of drugs in blood is regularly required to assess drug abuse and poisoning within analytical toxicology. Mass spectrometry-based procedures suffer from the large amount of work required to maintain quantitative calibration in extensive multi-compound methods. In this study, a quantitative drug screening method for blood samples was developed based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with two consecutive detectors: a photodiode array detector and a corona charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-DAD-CAD). The 2.1 mm × 150 mm UHPLC column contained a high-strength silica C18 bonded phase material with a particle size of 1.8 μm, and the mobile phase consisted of methanol/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in gradient mode. Identification was based on retention time, UV spectrum and the response ratio from the two detectors. Using historic calibration over a one-month period, the median precision (RSD) of retention times was 0.04% and the median accuracy (bias) of quantification 6.75%. The median precision of the detector response ratio over two orders of magnitude was 12%. The applicable linear ranges were generally 0.05-5 mg L(-1). The method was validated for 161 compounds, including antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, opioid analgesics, and adrenergic beta blocking drugs, among others. The main novelty of the method was the proven utility of the response ratio of DAD to CAD, which provided the additional identification efficiency required. Unlike with mass spectrometry, the high stability of identification and quantification allowed the use of facile historic calibration.

  3. Characteristics of Monolithically Integrated InGaAs Active Pixel Imager Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Q.; Cunningham, T. J.; Pain, B.; Lange, M. J.; Olsen, G. H.

    2000-01-01

    Switching and amplifying characteristics of a newly developed monolithic InGaAs Active Pixel Imager Array are presented. The sensor array is fabricated from InGaAs material epitaxially deposited on an InP substrate. It consists of an InGaAs photodiode connected to InP depletion-mode junction field effect transistors (JFETs) for low leakage, low power, and fast control of circuit signal amplifying, buffering, selection, and reset. This monolithically integrated active pixel sensor configuration eliminates the need for hybridization with silicon multiplexer. In addition, the configuration allows the sensor to be front illuminated, making it sensitive to visible as well as near infrared signal radiation. Adapting the existing 1.55 micrometer fiber optical communication technology, this integration will be an ideal system of optoelectronic integration for dual band (Visible/IR) applications near room temperature, for use in atmospheric gas sensing in space, and for target identification on earth. In this paper, two different types of small 4 x 1 test arrays will be described. The effectiveness of switching and amplifying circuits will be discussed in terms of circuit effectiveness (leakage, operating frequency, and temperature) in preparation for the second phase demonstration of integrated, two-dimensional monolithic InGaAs active pixel sensor arrays for applications in transportable shipboard surveillance, night vision, and emission spectroscopy.

  4. Two-way and three-way approaches to ultra high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array dataset for the quantitative resolution of a two-component mixture containing ciprofloxacin and ornidazole.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Erdal; Ertekin, Zehra Ceren; Büker, Eda

    2016-09-01

    Two-way and three-way calibration models were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array data with coeluted peaks in the same wavelength and time regions for the simultaneous quantitation of ciprofloxacin and ornidazole in tablets. The chromatographic data cube (tensor) was obtained by recording chromatographic spectra of the standard and sample solutions containing ciprofloxacin and ornidazole with sulfadiazine as an internal standard as a function of time and wavelength. Parallel factor analysis and trilinear partial least squares were used as three-way calibrations for the decomposition of the tensor, whereas three-way unfolded partial least squares was applied as a two-way calibration to the unfolded dataset obtained from the data array of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The validity and ability of two-way and three-way analysis methods were tested by analyzing validation samples: synthetic mixture, interday and intraday samples, and standard addition samples. Results obtained from two-way and three-way calibrations were compared to those provided by traditional ultra high performance liquid chromatography. The proposed methods, parallel factor analysis, trilinear partial least squares, unfolded partial least squares, and traditional ultra high performance liquid chromatography were successfully applied to the quantitative estimation of the solid dosage form containing ciprofloxacin and ornidazole.

  5. Electro-Optical Characteristics of P+n In0.53Ga0.47As Hetero-Junction Photodiodes in Large Format Dense Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWames, R.; Littleton, R.; Witte, K.; Wichman, A.; Bellotti, E.; Pellegrino, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper is concerned with focal plane array (FPA) data and use of analytical and three-dimensional numerical simulation methods to determine the physical effects and processes limiting performance. For shallow homojunction P+n designs the temperature dependence of dark current for T < 300 K depends on the intrinsic carrier concentration of the In0.53Ga0.47As material, implying that the dominant dark currents are generation and recombination (G-R) currents originating in the depletion regions of the double layer planar heterostructure (DLPH) photodiode. In the analytical model differences from bulk G-R behavior are modeled with a G-R like perimeter-dependent shunt current conjectured to originate at the InP/InGaAs interface. In this description the fitting property is the effective conductivity, σ eff( T), in mho cm-1. Variation in the data suggests σ eff (300 K) values of 1.2 × 10-11-4.6 × 10-11 mho cm-1). Substrate removal extends the quantum efficiency (QE) spectral band into the visible region. However, dead-layer effects limit the QE to 10% at a wavelength of 0.5 μm. For starlight-no moon illumination conditions, the signal-to-noise ratio is estimated to be 50 at an operating temperature of 300 K. A major result of the 3D numerical simulation of the device is the prediction of a perimeter G-R current not associated with the properties of the metallurgical interface. Another is the prediction that for a junction positioned in the larger band gap InP cap layer the QE is bias-dependent and that a relatively large reverse bias ≥0.9 V is needed for the QE to saturate to the shallow homojunction value. At this higher bias the dark current is larger than the shallow homojunction value. The 3D numerical model and the analytical model agree in predicting and explaining the measured radiatively limited diffusion current originating at the n-side of the junction. The calculations of the area-dependent G-R current for the condition studied are also in agreement

  6. [Study of profile analysis on urinary free steroids using high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric scanning by photodiode array--application of Girard reagent T for sample preparation].

    PubMed

    Toya, K

    1988-04-20

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been useful for profile analysis of steroids. However, the conventional extraction of urinary free steroids using urine specimens has some disadvantages because of lots of interfering substances simultaneously extracted from the urine. These substances were usually detected on the chromatogram at the range of relatively short retention time within which some urinary free steroids were heavily contaminated. Therefore it seemed unsuitable for profile analysis of urinary free steroids by HPLC. In this study, we developed a relatively simple and reproducible method for removing the interfering substances by Girard reagent T. In addition, the purity of each extracted free steroids were confirmed by Photodiode Array continuous scanning system, together with 3-dimensional chromatogram as well as contour map analyzed by the attached computer. The extraction procedure was as follows: (1) 10% volume of 24-h specimens of urine included 1 microgram internal standard was charged to Sep-pack C18 cartridge. The cartridge was eluted with 20 micromilligram ethyl acetate and the eluate was evaporated. (2) 10 mg Girard reagent T dissolved in 0.5 micromilligram acetic acid and 0.5 micromilligram ethanol was added to the residue, then left at room temperature for 2 hours. During this time, ketosteroids formed by the action of Girard reagent T turned to be water-soluble hydrazone complex. (3) After the addition of 10 micromilligram cold water, it was adjusted to pH 8 with NaOH and NaHCO3, then washed with 5 volumes of ethyl acetate (non-ketotic fraction). (4) The lower layer were hydrolyzed by adding 0.5 micromilligram concentrated hydrogen chloride and left for an hour at room temperature, then the liberated steroids were extracted with ethyl acetate (ketotic fraction). (5) Ethyl acetate extract was evaporated and redissolved in the mobile phase, then injected to HPLC. To determine the effect of Girard's separation non-ketotic fraction

  7. Gallium-based avalanche photodiode optical crosstalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Sopko, Bruno; Chren, Dominik

    2006-11-01

    Solid-state single photon detectors based on avalanche photodiode are getting more attention in various areas of applied physics: optical sensors, quantum key distribution, optical ranging and Lidar, time-resolved spectroscopy, X-ray laser diagnostics, and turbid media imaging. Avalanche photodiodes specifically designed for single photon counting semiconductor avalanche structures have been developed on the basis of various materials: Si, Ge, GaP, GaAsP, and InGaP/InGaAs at the Czech Technical University in Prague during the last 20 years. They have been tailored for numerous applications. Trends in demand are focused on detection array construction recently. Even extremely small arrays containing a few cells are of great importance for users. Electrical crosstalk between individual gating and quenching circuits and optical crosstalk between individual detecting cells are serious limitation for array design and performance. Optical crosstalk is caused by the parasitic light emission of the avalanche which accompanies the photon detection process. We have studied in detail the optical emission of the avalanche photon counting structure in the silicon- and gallium-based photodiodes. The timing properties and spectral distribution of the emitted light have been measured for different operating conditions to quantify optical crosstalk. We conclude that optical crosstalk is an inherent property of avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode. The only way to minimize optical crosstalk in avalanche photodiode array is to build active quenching circuit with minimum response time.

  8. Extending the Astronomical Application of Photon Counting HgCdTe Linear Avalanche Photo-Diode Arrays to Low Background Space Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Donald

    The high quantum efficiency and very low dark current, together with the ability to set the wavelength cutoff from one to far beyond 5.5 microns, of large format HAWAII HgCdTe arrays have already made them the workhorse for NASA space astronomy (and related) observations in the 1 to 5.5 micron infrared. They have performed outstandingly on Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 and WISE (and also Deep Impact/EPOXI and OCO-2) and are crucial to the two major NASA Astrophysics missions, JWST and WFIRST, and to Euclid. The proposed investigation seeks to extend these benefits to the most demanding observations those that seek to wring information from only a few photons (starved due to either the intrinsic faintness of the source or the need for high spectral or time resolution) or to discriminate a weak signature against a bright source. We will characterize, and optimize for space astronomy observations, the unique linear avalanche properties of HgCdTe photo-diodes (HgCdTe L-APDs) that allow noiseless (i.e. faithfully preserves the Poisson statistics of the incoming photons) avalanche multiplication of individual photo-electrons. 2.5 micron HgCdTe L-APD technology, developed for infrared eye-safe LIDAR and range gated imaging, is already benefiting infrared wavefront sensing for ground based adaptive optics. In HgCdTe the L-APD gain and the onset voltage for tunneling current are exponential functions of bandgap while also varying with cryogenic operating temperature. The unique HgCdTe bandgap engineering that allows tuning of the cutoff wavelength can be used to critically improve avalanche performance for specific applications. We will thoroughly evaluate avalanche performance at several representative bandgaps so as to allow model prediction of performance over the critical 1 to 5 micron spectral interval. The proposed investigation will hybridize modest 32x32 arrays of HgCdTe L-APDs to photon counting readouts already developed under another award and characterize their

  9. Development and application of a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method using photodiode array detection for simultaneous determination of granisetron, methylparaben, propylparaben, sodium benzoate, and their main degradation products in oral pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Hewala, Ismail; El-Fatatry, Hamed; Emam, Ehab; Mabrouk, Mokhtar

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive RP-HPLC method using photodiode array detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of granisetron hydrochloride, 1-methyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid (the main degradation product of granisetron), sodium benzoate, methylparaben, propylparaben, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (the main degradation product of parabens) in granisetron oral drops and solutions. The separation of the compounds was achieved within 8 min on a SymmetryShield RP18 column (100 x 4.6 mm id, 3.5 microm particle size) using the mobile phase acetonitrile--0.05 M KH2PO4 buffered to pH 3 using H3PO4 (3+7, v/v). The photodiode array detector was used to test the purity of the peaks, and the chromatograms were extracted at 240 nm. The method was validated, and validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. The robust method was successfully applied to the determination of granisetron and preservatives, as well as their degradation products in different batches of granisetron oral drops and solutions. The method proved to be sensitive for determination down to 0.04% (w/w) of granisetron degradation product relative to granisetron and 0.03% (w/w) 4-hydroxybenzoic acid relative to total parabens.

  10. Photodiodes based on self-assembled GeSi/Si(001) nanoisland arrays grown by the combined sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy of silicon and vapor-phase epitaxy of germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Filatov, D. O.; Gorshkov, A. P.; Volkova, N. S.; Guseinov, D. V.; Alyabina, N. A.; Ivanova, M. M.; Chalkov, V. Yu.; Denisov, S. A.; Shengurov, V. G.

    2015-03-15

    We investigate the photosensitivity spectra of photodiodes based on Si p-i-n structures with single-layered and multilayer self-assembled GeSi/Si(001) nanoisland arrays in the i region, which are grown using a technique combining Si molecular-beam epitaxy and Ge vapor-phase epitaxy, in dependence on the temperature, diode bias, and GeSi nanoisland parameters. We show that the temperature and field dependences of the diode photosensitivity in the spectral range of the interband optical absorption in GeSi nanoislands are determined by the ratio between the rate of emission of photoexcited holes from the nanoislands and the rate of the recombination of excess carriers in them. We demonstrate the possibility of determination of the hole recombination lifetime in GeSi nanoislands from the temperature and field dependences of the photosensitivity.

  11. The role of localized junction leakage in the temperature-dependent laser-beam-induced current spectra for HgCdTe infrared focal plane array photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, A. L.; Li, G. E-mail: xschen@mail.sitp.ac.cn; He, G.; Sun, Z. Q.; Hu, W. D.; Chen, X. S. E-mail: xschen@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Yin, F.; Zhang, B.; Lu, W.

    2013-11-07

    We have performed the study on the dependence of laser beam induced current (LBIC) spectra on the temperature for the vacancy-doped molecular beam epitaxy grown Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Te (x = 0.31) photodiodes by both experiment and numerical simulations. It is found that the measured LBIC signal has different distributions for different temperature extents. The LBIC profile tends to be more asymmetric with increasing temperature below 170 K. But the LBIC profile becomes more symmetric with increasing temperature above 170 K. Based on a localized leakage model, it is indicated that the localized junction leakage can lead to asymmetric LBIC signal, in good agreement with the experimental data. The reason is that the trap-assisted tunneling current is the dominant leakage current at the cryogenic temperature below 170 K while the diffusion current component becomes dominant above the temperature of 170 K. The results are helpful for us to better clarify the mechanism of the dependence of LBIC spectra on temperature for the applications of HgCdTe infrared photodiodes.

  12. A polychromator-type near-infrared spectrometer with a high-sensitivity and high-resolution photodiode array detector for pharmaceutical process monitoring on the millisecond time scale.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kodai; Genkawa, Takuma; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    In the fine chemicals industry, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, advanced sensing technologies have recently begun being incorporated into the process line in order to improve safety and quality in accordance with process analytical technology. For estimating the quality of powders without preparation during drug formulation, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been considered the most promising sensing approach. In this study, we have developed a compact polychromator-type NIR spectrometer equipped with a photodiode (PD) array detector. This detector is consisting of 640 InGaAs-PD elements with 20-μm pitch. Some high-specification spectrometers, which use InGaAs-PD with 512 elements, have a wavelength resolution of about 1.56 nm when covering 900-1700 nm range. On the other hand, the newly developed detector, having the PD with one of the world's highest density, enables wavelength resolution of below 1.25 nm. Moreover, thanks to the combination with a highly integrated charge amplifier array circuit, measurement speed of the detector is higher by two orders than that of existing PD array detectors. The developed spectrometer is small (120 mm × 220 mm × 200 mm) and light (6 kg), and it contains various key devices including the high-density and high-sensitivity PD array detector, NIR technology, and spectroscopy technology for a spectroscopic analyzer that has the required detection mechanism and high sensitivity for powder measurement, as well as a high-speed measuring function for blenders. Moreover, we have evaluated the characteristics of the developed NIR spectrometer, and the measurement of powder samples confirmed that it has high functionality.

  13. Design of a silicon avalanche photodiode pixel with integrated laser diode using back-illuminated crystallographically etched silicon-on-sapphire with monolithically integrated microlens for dual-mode passive and active imaging arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Alvin G.

    2010-08-01

    There is a growing need in scientific research applications for dual-mode, passive and active 2D and 3D LADAR imaging methods. To fill this need, an advanced back-illuminated silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) design is presented using a novel silicon-on-sapphire substrate incorporating a crystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) antireflective layer between the silicon and R-plane sapphire. This allows integration of a high quantum efficiency silicon APD with a gallium nitride (GaN) laser diode in each pixel. The pixel design enables single photon sensitive, solid-state focal plane arrays (FPAs) with wide dynamic range, supporting passive and active imaging capability in a single FPA. When (100) silicon is properly etched with TMAH solution, square based pyramidal frustum or mesa arrays result with the four mesa sidewalls of the APD formed by (111) silicon planes that intersect the (100) planes at a crystallographic angle, φ c = 54.7°. The APD device is fabricated in the mesa using conventional silicon processing technology. The GaN laser diode is fabricated by epitaxial growth inside of an inverted, etched cavity in the silicon mesa. Microlenses are fabricated in the thinned, and AR-coated sapphire substrate. The APDs share a common, front-side anode contact, and laser diodes share a common cathode. A low resistance (Al) or (Cu) metal anode grid fills the space between pixels and also inhibits optical crosstalk. SOS-APD arrays are flip-chip bump-bonded to CMOS readout ICs to produce hybrid FPAs. The square 27 μm emitter-detector pixel achieves SNR > 1 in active detection mode for Lambert surfaces at 1,000 meters.

  14. Rapid characterisation and comparison of saponin profiles in the seeds of Korean Leguminous species using ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS) analysis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae Joung; Lee, Byong Won; Park, Ki Hun; Jeong, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Ko, Jong-Min; Baek, In-Youl; Lee, Jin Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The present work was reported on investigation of saponin profiles in nine different legume seeds, including soybean, adzuki bean, cowpea, common bean, scarlet runner bean, lentil, chick pea, hyacinth bean, and broad bean using ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS) technique. A total of twenty saponins were characterised under rapid and simple conditions within 15min by the 80% methanol extracts of all species. Their chemical structures were elucidated as soyasaponin Ab (1), soyasaponin Ba (2), soyasaponin Bb (3), soyasaponin Bc (4), soyasaponin Bd (5), soyasaponin αg (6), soyasaponin βg (7), soyasaponin βa (8), soyasaponin γg (9), soyasaponin γa (10), azukisaponin VI (11), azukisaponin IV (12), azukisaponin II (13), AzII (14), AzIV (15), lablaboside E (16), lablaboside F (17), lablaboside D (18), chikusetusaponin IVa (19), and lablab saponin I (20). The individual and total saponin compositions exhibited remarkable differences in all legume seeds. In particular, soyasaponin βa (8) was detected the predominant composition in soybean, cowpea, and lentil with various concentrations. Interestingly, soybean, adzuki bean, common bean, and scarlet runner bean had high saponin contents, while chick pea and broad bean showed low contents. PMID:24176342

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of cinobufacini injection using rapid separation liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and HPLC-photodiode array detection, a feasible strategy for the quality control of Chinese medicine injections.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyu; Wu, Xu; Wang, Hongjie; Gao, Bo; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Bian, Baolin

    2013-02-01

    Cinobufacini injection, prepared from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, has presented its significant effects on the treatment of hepatitis and various cancers in the clinic. However, as an unclear complex chemical system, the optimization of its quality control markers has been a long-term challenge. In present study, a feasible strategy integrated markers screening, determination, and statistical analysis was efficiently proposed, especially for the undefined Chinese medicine injections. First, rapid separation LC-quadrupole-TOF-MS method was applied in the identification of 19 major compounds in the cinobufacini injection for the first time. Further, nine high-level contents active compounds were selected as quality control markers for the quantification analysis. An acceptable and validated determination method was established in 17 batches of cinobufacini injection by HPLC-photodiode array detection method, including linear regression relationship (r(2), 0.9996-1), precisions (RSD, 0.02-1.35%), repeatability (RSD, 0.05-1.97%), stability (RSD, 0.1-3.85%), and recovery (95.88-104.89%). Each analyte was detected at its maximum ultraviolet spectra wavelength. Finally, based on the quantification results, principal component analysis was performed on the quality assessment of cinobufacini injections. This three-step strategy provides a newly feasible solution for the quality control of Chinese medicine injections.

  16. Development of a fast analytical method for the determination of sudan dyes in chili- and curry-containing foodstuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Vanessa; Govaert, Yasmine; Moens, Goedele; Van Loco, Joris; Degroodt, Jean-Marie

    2006-02-01

    A simple and fast analytical method for the determination of sudans I, II, III, and IV in chili- and curry-containing foodstuffs is described. These dyes are extracted from the samples with acetonitrile and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector. The chromatographic separation is carried out on a reverse phase C18 column with an isocratic mode using a mixture of acetonitrile and water. An "in-house" validation was achieved in chili- and curry-based sauces and powdered spices. Depending on the dye, limits of detection range from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg in sauces and from 1.5 to 2 mg/kg in spices. Limits of quantification are between 0.4 and 1 mg/kg in sauces and between 3 and 4 mg/kg in spices. Validation data show a good repeatability and within-lab reproducibility with relative standard deviations < 15%. The overall recoveries are in the range of 51-86% in sauces and in the range of 89-100% in powdered spices depending on the dye involved. Calibration curves are linear in the 0-5 mg/kg range for sauces and in the 0-20 mg/kg range for spices. The proposed method is specific and selective, allowing the analysis of over 20 samples per working day.

  17. Characterization and identification of the chemical constituents from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn) by high performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array detector/linear ion trap FTICR hybrid mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiang; Wu, Caisheng; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Jinlan

    2013-02-15

    In recent years tartary buckwheat has become popular healthful food due to its antioxidant, antidiabetic and antitumor activities. However, its chemical constituents have not yet been fully characterized and identified. In this paper, a novel high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and linear ion trap FTICR hybrid mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA/LTQ-FTICRMS) method was established to characterize and identify a total of 36 compounds by a single run. The retention time, maximum UV absorption wavelength, accurate mass weight and characteristic fragment ions were collected on line. To confirm the structures, 11 compounds were isolated and identified by MS and NMR experiments. 1, 3, 6, 6'-tetra-feruloyl sucrose named taroside was a new phenlypropanoid glycoside, together with 3, 6-di-p-coumaroyl-1, 6'-di-feruloyl sucrose, 1, 6, 6'-tri-feruloyl-3-p-coumaroyl sucrose, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and quercetin-3-O-[β-D-xyloxyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnoside] were isolated for the first time from the Fagopyrum species. The research enriched the chemical information of tartary buckwheat.

  18. Robust method for investigating nitrogen metabolism of 15N labeled amino acids using AccQ•Tag ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: application to a parasitic plant-plant interaction.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Zachary; Cerveau, Delphine; Marnet, Nathalie; Bouchereau, Alain; Delavault, Philippe; Simier, Philippe; Pouvreau, Jean-Bernard

    2014-01-21

    An AccQ•Tag ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (AccQ•Tag-UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) method is presented here for the fast, robust, and sensitive quantification of (15)N isotopologue enrichment of amino acids in biological samples, as for example in the special biotic interaction between the cultivated specie Brassica napus (rapeseed) and the parasitic weed Phelipanche ramosa (broomrape). This method was developed and validated using amino acid standard solutions containing (15)N amino acid isotopologues and/or biological unlabeled extracts. Apparatus optimization, limits of detection and quantification, quantification reproducibility, and calculation method of (15)N isotopologue enrichment are presented. Using this method, we could demonstrate that young parasite tubercles assimilate inorganic nitrogen as (15)N-ammonium when supplied directly through batch incubation but not when supplied by translocation from host root phloem, contrary to (15)N2-glutamine. (15)N2-glutamine mobility from host roots to parasite tubercles followed by its low metabolism in tubercles suggests that the host-derived glutamine acts as an important nitrogen containing storage compound in the young tubercle of Phelipanche ramosa. PMID:24359440

  19. Automated detection and interpretation of spectral information using cross-correlation, millilitre volumes, pneumatic nebulization sample introduction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry with photodiode array detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanassios, V.; Drouin, P. J.; Spiers, G. A.

    1998-08-01

    A method for automated detection and interpretation of spectral information from ˜230 nm spectral windows, millilitre volume samples for 15 elements is presented. The basic approach involves cross-correlation of a spectral pattern obtained by running laboratory prepared multi-element `unknowns' with a reference spectral pattern obtained by running a single element standard. From the resultant cross-correlogram, it can be decided whether or not the sought-for reference spectral pattern (and the corresponding element) are present in the unknown. Spectral patterns were acquired using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system equipped with a linear, 1024-element, photo-diode array (Leco, Plasmarray). Reference spectral patterns for Al, Au, Be, Cd, Cu, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pd, Si, Sc, Y, Sr and Zn were converted to noise-free and interference-free binary software masks and, subsequently, to analogue software masks. Cross-correlation of the analogue masks with spectral patterns acquired by running multi-element unknowns is discussed, an algorithm that does not rely on fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to calculate cross-correlations is presented and a context-sensitive, colour-coded and interrogatable periodic table graphical user-interface that presents the likely composition of an unknown on the computer screen is described in detail.

  20. Development of high-speed, low-noise NIR HgCdTe avalanche photodiode arrays for adaptive optics and interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, Gert; Baker, Ian; Dorn, Reinhold; Eschbaumer, Siegfried; Ives, Derek; Mehrgan, Leander; Meyer, Manfred; Stegmeier, Jörg

    2010-07-01

    The most promising way to overcome the CMOS noise barrier of infrared AO sensors is the amplification of the photoelectron signal directly at the point of absorption inside the infrared pixel by means of the avalanche gain. HgCdTe eAPD arrays with cut off wavelengths of λc ~2.64 μm produced by SELEX-Galileo have been evaluated at ESO. The arrays were hybridized to an existing non-optimized ROIC developed for laser gated imaging which has a format of 320×256 pixels and four parallel video outputs. The avalanche gain makes it possible to reduce the read noise to < 7 e rms. The dark current requirements of IR wavefront sensing are also met.

  1. ZnO homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film for ultraviolet detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guoping; Chu Sheng; Zhan Ning; Liu Jianlin; Lin Yuqing; Chernyak, Leonid

    2011-01-24

    ZnO p-n homojunctions based on Sb-doped p-type nanowire array and n-type film were grown by combining chemical vapor deposition (for nanowires) with molecular-beam epitaxy (for film). Indium tin oxide and Ti/Au were used as contacts to the ZnO nanowires and film, respectively. Characteristics of field-effect transistors using ZnO nanowires as channels indicate p-type conductivity of the nanowires. Electron beam induced current profiling confirmed the existence of ZnO p-n homojunction. Rectifying I-V characteristic showed a turn-on voltage of around 3 V. Very good response to ultraviolet light illumination was observed from photocurrent measurements.

  2. Simultaneous determination of three diarylheptanoids and an alpha-tetralone derivative in the green walnut husks (Juglans regia L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junxi; Meng, Min; Li, Chen; Huang, Xinyi; Di, Duolong

    2008-05-01

    By optimizing extraction, separation and analytical conditions, a reliable and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method coupled with photodiode array detector (DAD) at room temperature is developed for simultaneous determination of three diarylheptanoids (juglanin A, juglanin B, rhoiptelol) and an alpha-tetralone derivative (regiolone) in methanol extracts from the green walnut husks (Juglans regia L.) The sample pretreatment process involved the reflux extraction using methanol as the extract with a ratio of liquor to sample of 15 mL/g. The separation was achieved on a SinoChrom ODS-AP C(18) column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and 2% (v/v) acetic acid in water. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD%) for the analytes ranged from 1.08 to 1.51 and 0.60 to 1.13, respectively. The average recoveries obtained were from 88.4% to 96.2% for the analytes with RSDs below 3.13%. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curve exceeded 0.999. The detection limits were 0.51, 0.25, 0.32 and 0.35 ng at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, respectively. Quantitative analyses of the samples from different grown sites and in obtained different months showed that the contents of the analytes varied significantly. The method was then successfully applied for the detection and isolation of a new diarylheptanoid derivative in the green walnut husks (J. regia L.). The structure of the new compound was elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC), HR-ESI-MS and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis.

  3. An improved high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in freeze-dried and hot-air-dried Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsai Hua; Chen, Chia Ju; Chen, Bing Huei

    2011-10-30

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antioxidant and anti-cancer activities, has been reported to contain functional components like carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and amount of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS) method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in hot-air-dried and freeze-dried R. nasutus. An Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column and a gradient mobile phase composed of methanol/N,N-dimethylformamide (97:3, v/v), acetonitrile and acetone were employed to separate internal standard zinc-phthalocyanine plus 12 cholorophylls and their derivatives within 21 min, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', hydroxychlorophyll a, 15-OH-lactone chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll b', hydroxychlorophyll b, pheophytin a, pheophytin a', hydroxypheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a' and pheophytin b in hot-air-dried R. nasutus with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. But, in freeze-dried R. nasutus, only 4 chlorophylls and their derivatives, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', chlorophyll b and pheophytin a were detected. Zinc-phthalocyanine was found to be an appropriate internal standard to quantify all the chlorophyll compounds. After quantification by HPLC-DAD, both chlorophyll a and pheophytin a were the most abundant in hot-air-dried R. nasutus, while in freeze-dried R. nasutus, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b dominated. PMID:22063550

  4. Development of material quality and structural design for high performance Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes and focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeghi, Manijeh; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Hoffman, Darin; Delaunay, Pierre-Yves; Huang, Edward Kwei-wei; Tidrow, Meimei; Nathan, Vaidya

    2008-08-01

    Recent progress made in the structure design, growth and processing of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors lifted both the quantum efficiency and the R0A product of the detectors. Type-II superlattice demonstrated its ability to perform imaging in the Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) and Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) ranges, becoming a potential competitor for technologies such as Quantum Well Infrared Photo-detectors (QWIP) and Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). Using an empirical tight-binding model, we developed superlattices designs that were nearly lattice-matched to the GaSb substrates and presented cutoff wavelengths of 5 and 11 μm. We demonstrated high quality material growth with X-ray FWHM below 30 arcsec and an AFM rms roughness of 1.5 Å over an area of 20x20 μm2. The detectors with a 5 μm cutoff, capable of operating at room temperature, showed a R0A of 1.25 106 Ω.cm2 at 77K, and a quantum efficiency of 32%. In the long wavelength infrared, we demonstrated high quantum efficiencies above 50% with high R0A products of 12 Ω.cm2 by increasing the thickness of the active region. Using the novel M-structure superlattice design, more than one order of magnitude improvement has been observed for electrical performance of the devices. Focal plane arrays in the middle and long infrared range, hybridized to an Indigo read out integrated circuit, exhibited high quality imaging.

  5. Determination of selected water-soluble vitamins using hydrophilic chromatography: a comparison of photodiode array, fluorescence, and coulometric detection, and validation in a breakfast cereal matrix.

    PubMed

    Langer, Swen; Lodge, John K

    2014-06-01

    Water-soluble vitamins are an important class of compounds that require quantification from food sources to monitor nutritional value. In this study we have analysed six water-soluble B vitamins ([thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), nicotinic acid (B3, NAc), nicotinamide (B3, NAm), pyridoxal (B6), folic acid (B9)], and ascorbic acid (vit C) with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), and compared UV, fluorescent (FLD) and coulometric detection to optimise a method to quantitate the vitamins from food sources. Employing UV/diode array (DAD) and fluorimetric detection, six B vitamins were detected in a single run using gradient elution from 100% to 60% solvent B [10mM ammonium acetate, pH 5.0, in acetonitrile and water 95:5 (v:v)] over 18 min. UV detection was performed at 268 nm for B1, 260 nm for both B3 species and 284 nm for B9. FLD was employed for B2 at excitation wavelength of 268 nm, emission of 513 nm, and 284 nm/317 nm for B6. Coulometric detection can be used to detect B6 and B9, and vit C, and was performed isocratically at 75% and 85% of solvent B, respectively. B6 was analysed at a potential of 720 mV, while B9 was analysed at 600 mV, and vit C at 30 mV. Retention times (0.96 to 11.81 min), intra-day repeatability (CV 1.6 to 3.6), inter-day variability (CV 1.8 to 11.1), and linearity (R 0.9877 to 0.9995) remained good under these conditions with limits of detection varying from 6.6 to 164.6 ng mL(-1), limits of quantification between 16.8 and 548.7 ng mL(-1). The method was successfully applied for quantification of six B vitamins from a fortified food product and is, to our knowledge, the first to simultaneously determine multiple water-soluble vitamins extracted from a food matrix using HILIC.

  6. Reversed-phase high-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Photodiode Array Detector Validated Simultaneous Quantification of six Bioactive Phenolic Acids in Roscoea purpurea Tubers and their In vitro Cytotoxic Potential against Various Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Misra, Ankita; Kumar, Dharmesh; Srivastava, Amit; Sood, Anil; Rawat, AKS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Roscoea purpurea or Roscoea procera Wall. (Zingiberaceae) is traditionally used for nutrition and in the treatment of various ailments. Objective: Simultaneous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (RP-HPLC) photodiode array detector identification of phenolic acids (PA's) was carried out in whole extract of tuber and their cytotoxic potential was estimated along with radical scavenging action. Bioactivity guided fractionation was also done to check the response potential against the same assay. Materials and Methods: Identification and method validation was performed on RP-HPLC column and in vitro assays were used for bioactivity. Results: Protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, apigenin, and kaempferol were quantified as 0.774%, 0.064%, 0.265%, 1.125%, 0.128%, and 0.528%, respectively. Validated method for simultaneous determination of PA's was found to be accurate, reproducible, and linearity was observed between peak area response and concentration. Recovery of identified PA's was within the acceptable limit of 97.40–104.05%. Significant pharmacological response was observed in whole extract against in vitro cytotoxic assay, that is, Sulforhodamine B assay, however, fractionation results in decreased action potential. Similar pattern of results were observed in the antioxidant assay, as total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were highest in whole extract and decreases with fractionation. Radical scavenging activity was prominent in chloroform fraction, exhibiting IC50 at 0.25 mg/mL. Conclusion: Study, thus, reveals that R. purpurea exhibit significant efficacy in cytotoxic activity with the potentiality of scavenging free radicals due the presence of PA's as reported through RP-HPLC. SUMMARY Proto-catechuic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, apigenin and kaempferol were quantified as 0.774, 0.064, 0.265, 1.125, 0.128 and 0.528 %Preliminary cytotoxic activity revealed that whole

  7. Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si Infrared Photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon

    1991-01-01

    Cutoff wavelengths depend on x and also adjusted somewhat via reverse bias. Si1-xGex photodiodes with cutoff wavelengths in and beyond practically important range of 8 to 12 micrometers made by molecular-beam epitaxy. Compatible (in terms of fabrication processes) with silicon readout circuitry, exhibit long-term stability, manufactured with sufficient uniformity for use in focal-plane arrays; and operate at temperatures approximately greater than 65 K, for which temperatures small, portable refrigerators available.

  8. Breadboard linear array scan imager program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The performance was evaluated of large scale integration photodiode arrays in a linear array scan imaging system breadboard for application to multispectral remote sensing of the earth's resources. Objectives, approach, implementation, and test results of the program are presented.

  9. Performance of a-Si:H photodiode technology-based advanced CMOS active pixel sensor imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theil, Jeremy A.; Haddad, Homayoon; Snyder, Rick D.; Zelman, Mike; Hula, David; Lindahl, Kirk A.

    2001-12-01

    Amorphous silicon photodiode technology is a very attractive option for image array integrated circuits because it enables large die-size reduction and higher light collection efficiency than c-Si arrays. The concept behind the technology is to place the photosensing element directly above the rest of the circuit, thus eliminating the need to make areal tradeoffs between photodiode and pixel circuit. We have developed an photodiode array technology that is fully compatible with a 0.35 um CMOS process to produce image sensors arrays with 10-bit dynamic range that are 30% smaller than comparable c-Si photodiode arrays. The work presented here will discuss performance issues and solutions to lend itself to cost-effective high-volume manufacturing. The various methods of interconnection of the diode to the array and their advantages will be presented. The effect of doped layer thickness and concentration on quantum efficiency, and the effect of a-Si:H defect concentration on diode performance will be discussed. The photodiode dark leakage current density is about 80 pA/cm2, and its absolute quantum efficiency peaks about 85% at 550 nm. These sensors have 50% higher sensitivity, and 2x lower dark current when compared to bulk silicon sensors of the same design. The cell utilizes a 3 FET design, but allows for 100% photodiode area due to the elevated nature of the design. The VGA (640 X 480), array demonstrated here uses common intrinsic and p-type contact layers, and makes reliable contact to those layers by use of a monolithic transparent conductor strap tied to vias in the interconnect.

  10. Metamaterial selective emitters for photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMeo, Dante F.; Pfeister, Nicole A.; Shemelya, Corey M.; Vandervelde, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    This work demonstrates metamaterial (MM) selective thermal emitters for potential use with energy harvesting photodiodes, such as thermophotovoltaic cells. Preliminary structures have been designed, simulated, and fabricated using CST Microwave Studio and microfabrication techniques including electron beam evaporation, atomic layer deposition, and electron beam lithography, respectively. Samples were tested to determine the effect of top layer metal thickness on the absorption of these devices. Preliminary simulation and testing was also performed to design a device for operation at 500°C.

  11. Potential for SPECT cameras utilizing photodiode readout of scintillator crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Gruber, G.J.; Huesman, R.H.

    1997-05-01

    We present a conceptual design for a SPECT detector consisting of an array of 3x3x5 mm CsI(Tl) scintillator crystals individually read out by an array of 3 mm square silicon photodiodes. The interaction position is not determined by Anger logic, but by the location of the individual crystal/photodiode element in which the gamma ray is observed. Since the design is modular (each module typically having 64 crystals, photodiodes, and charge amplifiers, and one multiplexer circuit to reduce the number of readout channels), a large variety of camera geometries can be realized. Advantages of this design over conventional cameras (NaI(Tl) scintillator/photomultiplier tube) are lower gain drift (i.e. higher stability), smaller size, significantly higher count rate capability, and potentially lower cost. For the 141 keV emissions of Tc-99m, both CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) have 85-90% photoelectric fraction, but CsI(TI) has an attenuation length of 3.0 mm as compared to 4.5 mm for NaI(Tl). Thus, a 5 mm thick CsI(Tl) camera has singular efficiency to a Nal(Tl) camera with a 7.5 mm thickness (between 1/4 and 3/8 inch). The light output of CsI(Tl) is 25% higher than that of Nal(Tl), and while its 565 nm emissions are not efficiently detected with photomultiplier tubes, they are well matched to photodiode detection.

  12. Investigation of CMOS photodiodes integrated on an ASIC by a 0.5-µm analog CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Ricklefs, U.; Hillmer, H.

    2010-04-01

    The characteristics of photodiodes integrated on CMOS ASICs depend on wavelength of radiation, structure of the photodiode itself and the parameters of the process of production. In this paper, the influence of the structure of integrated CMOS photodiodes produced in a standard 0.5 μm mixed signal CMOS process on the sensitivity is described. These photodiodes are used as image sensor elements arranged in an array for noncontact optoelectronic measurements. Models of integrated photodiodes distinguish the lateral and the vertical region of the photodiodes. The standard 0.5 μm CMOS process offers three types of pn-junctions: n+/p-substrate, p+/n-well and n-well/p-substrate. Based on our previous research and on the results from other authors the p+/n-well is chosen due to its better sensitivity and isolation against other structures. The local sensitivity is measured with a scanning setup by applying a diffraction limited spot spot of light on the surface of the diodes. Independent of the wavelength of radiation the charge carriers are generated mainly in the lateral region and not - as expected - in the vertical region. The maximum value of the local sensitivity is found in photodiodes with subdivided p+ regions showing a distance of 1.5 μm between these regions in the space between these two adjacent p+ regions. This local sensitivity is three times smaller than that of a reference PIN photodiode. According to this result, the new photodiodes will be constructed with optimized geometries. All examined structures of this type of photodiodes show a maximal spectral sensitivity in the range of 650 nm - 700 nm.

  13. A room temperature LSO/PIN photodiode PET detector module that measures depth of interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Melcher, C.L.; Manente, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    We present measurements of a 4 element PET detector module that uses a 2{times}2 array of 3 mm square PIN photodiodes to both measure the depth of interaction (DOI) and identify the crystal of interaction. Each photodiode is coupled to one end of a 3{times}3{times}25 mm LSO crystal, with the opposite ends of all 4 crystals attached to a single PMT that provides a timing signal and initial energy discrimination. Each LSO crystal is coated with a {open_quotes}lossy{close_quotes} reflector, so the ratio of light detected in the photodiode and PMT depends on the position of interaction in the crystal, and is used to determine this position on an event by event basis. This module is operated at +25{degrees}C with a photodiode amplifier peaking time of 2 {mu}s. When excited by a collimated beam of 511 keV photons at the photodiode end of the module (i.e. closest to the patient), the DOI resolution is 4 mm fwhm and the crystal of interaction is identified correctly 95% of the time. When excited at the opposite end of the module, the DOI resolution is 13 mm fwhm and the crystal of interaction is identified correctly 73% of the time. The channel to channel variations in performance are minimal.

  14. Performances of photodiode detectors for top and bottom counting detectors of ISS-CREAM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, H. J.; Anderson, T.; Angelaszek, D.; Baek, S. J.; Copley, M.; Coutu, S.; Han, J. H.; Huh, H. G.; Hwang, Y. S.; Im, S.; Jeon, H. B.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, K. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kwashnak, K.; Lee, J.; Lee, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Lutz, L.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nutter, S.; Ofoha, O.; Park, H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. M.; Patterson, P.; Seo, E. S.; Wu, J.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2015-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) experiment at the International Space Station (ISS) aims to elucidate the source and acceleration mechanisms of high-energy cosmic rays by measuring the energy spectra from protons to iron. The instrument is planned for launch in 2015 at the ISS, and it comprises a silicon charge detector, a carbon target, top and bottom counting detectors, a calorimeter, and a boronated scintillator detector. The top and bottom counting detectors are developed for separating the electrons from the protons, and each of them comprises a plastic scintillator and a 20×20 silicon photodiode array. Each photodiode is 2.3 cm×2.3 cm in size and exhibits good electrical characteristics. The leakage current is measured to be less than 20 nA/cm2 at an operating voltage. The signal-to-noise ratio is measured to be better than 70 using commercial electronics, and the radiation hardness is tested using a proton beam. A signal from the photodiode is amplified by VLSI (very-large-scale integration) charge amp/hold circuits, the VA-TA viking chip. Environmental tests are performed using whole assembled photodiode detectors of a flight version. Herein, we present the characteristics of the developed photodiode along with the results of the environmental tests.

  15. Modeling of high-precision wavefront sensing with new generation of CMT avalanche photodiode infrared detectors.

    PubMed

    Gousset, Silvère; Petit, Cyril; Michau, Vincent; Fusco, Thierry; Robert, Clelia

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared wavefront sensing allows for the enhancement of sky coverage with adaptive optics. The recently developed HgCdTe avalanche photodiode arrays are promising due to their very low detector noise, but still present an imperfect cosmetic that may directly impact real-time wavefront measurements for adaptive optics and thus degrade performance in astronomical applications. We propose here a model of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront measurement in the presence of residual fixed pattern noise and defective pixels. To adjust our models, a fine characterization of such an HgCdTe array, the RAPID sensor, is proposed. The impact of the cosmetic defects on the Shack-Hartmann measurement is assessed through numerical simulations. This study provides both a new insight on the applicability of cadmium mercury telluride (CMT) avalanche photodiodes detectors for astronomical applications and criteria to specify the cosmetic qualities of future arrays. PMID:26836674

  16. In vivo metabolism study of rhubarb decoction in rat using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV photodiode-array and mass-spectrometric detection: a strategy for systematic analysis of metabolites from traditional Chinese medicines in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Xu, Lei; Xu, Fengguo; Li, Zhe; Dong, Haijuan; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zunjian

    2010-11-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used for separation and identification of metabolites in rat urine, bile and plasma after oral administration of rhubarb decoction. Based on the proposed strategy, 91 of the 113 potential metabolites were tentatively identified or characterized. Besides anthraquinones metabolites, gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin metabolites were also detected and characterized in these biological samples. Our results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of anthraquinones, while methylation, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin. Phase I reactions (e.g., hydroxylation and reduction) played a relatively minor role compared to phase II reactions in metabolism of phenolic compounds of rhubarb decoction. The identification and structure elucidation of these metabolites provided essential data for further pharmacological and clinical studies of rhubarb and related preparations. Moreover, the results of the present investigations clearly indicated the relevance and usefulness of the combination of chromatographic, spectrophotometric, and mass-spectrometric analysis to detect and identify metabolites.

  17. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD)/HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS) profiling of anthocyanins from Andean Mashua Tubers (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruíz and Pavón) and their contribution to the overall antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David; Betalleluz, Indira; Giusti, M Monica; Schwartz, Steven J; Tian, Qingguo; Pedreschi, Romina; Larondelle, Yvan

    2006-09-20

    Mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruíz and Pavón), an Andean tuber with high antioxidant activity, has sparked interest because of its traditional medicinal use. In this study, we evaluated the anthocyanin composition for three purple mashua genotypes and their contribution to the overall antioxidant activity of the tuber. Mashua anthocyanins, total phenolics, and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) antioxidant activity ranged from 45.5 to 131.9 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g fresh weight (FW), 174.9 to 275.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of FW, and 16.2 to 45.7 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g of FW, respectively. The high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS-MS) profiles revealed the presence of 11 different anthocyanins. The two major pigments (56.4-73.0% total area range at 520 nm) were identified as delphinidin 3-glucoside-5-acetylrhamnoside and delphinidin 3-sophoroside-5-acetylrhamnoside. Other pigments were delphinidin 3-glucoside-5-rhamnoside, delphinidin 3-sophoroside-5-rhamnoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-sophoroside, and cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-rhamnoside. Cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside were only found in two genotypes, while pelargonidin 3-sophoroside and pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-rhamnoside were only found in the third one. Anthocyanins from mashua were the major contributors to the total ABTS values for only one of the three genotypes, suggesting that other phenolics present are playing a major role in the antioxidant power of mashua tubers. Results from this study provide important information for the Nutraceutical and Functional Food Market for the use of mashua anthocyanins not only as a source of natural colorants but also as a source of phytonutrients.

  18. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru

    2013-08-23

    Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and

  19. Vertical Isolation for Photodiodes in CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement in complementary metal oxide/semi conduct - or (CMOS) image detectors, two additional implants in each pixel would effect vertical isolation between the metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the photodiode of the pixel. This improvement is expected to enable separate optimization of the designs of the photodiode and the MOSFETs so as to optimize their performances independently of each other. The purpose to be served by enabling this separate optimization is to eliminate or vastly reduce diffusion cross-talk, thereby increasing sensitivity, effective spatial resolution, and color fidelity while reducing noise.

  20. Photodiode scintillation detector for radiac instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirschl, Joseph C.

    1984-10-01

    Scintillation detectors have traditionally employed photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with the attendant drawback of relatively high cost and need for a high voltage supply. This article reviews evaluation of a photodiode type scintillation detector, which exhibits promising features (small size and low power) for radiation survey meter application. Gamma radiation response characteristics, both for pulse and dc-mode of detector operation are presented, along with an example of a simple, high-range digital radiacmeter (breadboard design), utilizing this photodiode scintillation detector in conjunction with a single-chip A/D converter/LCD display driver and featuring low power demand (15 mW).

  1. Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes for High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Don; Morrison, Alan P.

    Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (GM-APDs) are establishing themselves as potential candidates for the broad temporal range covered in high time resolution astrophysics (HTRA). These detectors have already been employed in astronomical instrumentation and significant results have been obtained to date. Their high time resolution and quantum efficiency make these single photon event counting detectors ideal for observations of stochastic phenomena, and ultimately for extreme HTRA observations. In this chapter, we review the technology and to illustrate their potential we briefly touch on specific science goals and astronomical applications. We then focus on the fabrication and characterisation of GM-APDs, and discuss the development and challenges posed in designing array devices.

  2. Selectively grown vertical silicon nanowire p-n+ photodiodes via aqueous electroless etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyonik; Hong, Juree; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Young-Woon; Lee, Taeyoon

    2013-06-01

    A facile method to selectively grow vertically-aligned silicon nanowires (SiNWs) which can inherit the doping concentration from its mother wafer, with controllable length, is demonstrated using the combination of photolithography and aqueous electroless etching. The use of SU-8-2002, a chemically and mechanically robust photoresist (PR) material, provided a high selectivity for the etching reaction on the exposed surface of 1-μm-thick n+ doped p-type (1 0 0) Si substrate, resulting in the fabrication of ˜30-μm-long vertically-aligned SiNW photodiode arrays on the desired locations, while the areas covered with SU-8-2002 remained unreacted. Optical and field emission scanning electron microscope analyses confirmed that SiNWs were selectively grown while retaining the shape of the PR patterns. The electrical and optical measurements of the fabricated p-n+ junction SiNW photodiodes were compared to those of reference planar p-n+ junction Si photodiodes: the current density of the p-n+ junction SiNW photodiodes was approximately 3 times greater than that of the planar counterpart at the forward bias of 5 V, which can be attributed to the high density of defect states on the rough surfaces of the synthesized SiNWs, leading to the increased recombination efficiencies for the injected carriers. In addition, the photoresponse of the p-n+ SiNW photodiode arrays was 3.4 times higher than that of the planar device at -3.5 V due to the increase in the light scattering.

  3. Note: Galvanic isolated voltage source using a single photodiode.

    PubMed

    Stoican, O S

    2010-04-01

    A galvanic isolated voltage source able to provide several volts by using a single photodiode is described. A pulse-modulated laser beam is sent to a photodiode. By using a step-up transformer the amplitude of the variable voltage generated by the photodiode is increased. Adding a rectifier cell the variable voltage is converted back into a dc voltage.

  4. Photodiode and photomultiplier areal sensitivity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngbluth, O., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Several silicon photodiodes and photomultipliers were tested to determine signal variations as a light spot was scanned over the photosensitive surface of these detectors. Qualitative and quantitative data is presented to demonstrate the areal sensitivity anomalies. These anomalies are related back to the fabrication techniques of the manufacturers.

  5. CMOS BDJ photodiode for trichromatic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Lien; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Fu, ZhenHong; Titus, Albert H.

    2012-03-01

    A novel method for achieving trichromatic color detection using a single photodetector with less than three p-n junctions is presented. This new method removes the constraints of color sensing in buried-double-junction (BDJ) photodiode, eliminates the need for a priori light source knowledge or for changing color intensity. After using a single visible light optical filter to block irradiance external of visible spectrum, the color detection is achieved by taking the difference in depletion region photocurrent generated by different reverse bias voltages. This "difference output" effectively forms the "third" optical wavelength specific depletion region required for trichromatic color sensing. This method is based on exploiting the relationship between photon absorption and photon penetration depth of silicon, and the basic property of p-n junction photodiode which states that only photons absorbed within depletion region generate current. The theory is validated experimentally using BDJ photodiodes fabricated through MOSIS Inc. in the AMI-ABN 1.5um technology and ON-SEMI 0.5um technology. A commercial p-i-n photodiode is also being investigated for contrast and comparison.

  6. MRS photodiode in strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Rykalin, V.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Zutshi, v.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2004-12-01

    The experimental results on the performance of the MRS (Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor) photodiode in the strong magnetic field of 4.4T, and the possible impact of the quench of the magnet at 4.5T on sensor's operation are reported.

  7. Linearity of silicon photodiodes for EUV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholze, Frank; Klein, Roman M.; Mueller, Ralph

    2004-05-01

    Photodiodes are used as easy-to-operate detectors in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt calibrates photodiodes with an 0.3% or better relative uncertainty for the spectral responsivity. These calibrations are based on the comparison of the photodiodes to a primary detector standard using monochromatized synchrotron radiation with a rather low radiant power of about 1 μW. At the customer"s, these diodes may be used for strongly pulsed radiation and very different radiant powers. The linearity of the photodiode signal with incident radiant power was studied with EUV radiation. We used quasi-monochromatic direct undulator radiation to achieve high radiant power. The linearity of the photodiodes was tested with quasi-DC illumination for different photon beam spot sizes. A systematic and significant variation of the maximum external photocurrent with the photon beam spot size is shown. The maximum current in linear operation (less than 1% relative saturation) decreased from about 3 mA for 6 mm photon beam diameter to 0.2 mA for 0.25 mm diameter. The corresponding irradiance increased from 30 mW/cm2 for the 6 mm aperture to about 2 W/cm2 for the 0.25 mm aperture. This behaviour is attributed to a change in the effective serial resistance with the photon beam size. The values derived from the saturation measurement vary between 65 Ohm for a 6 mm and 540 Ohm for a 0.25 mm beam. The effect can be explained by the finite conductivity of the thin front contact layer which carries the current to the electrode.

  8. Extrinsic germanium blocked-impurity-band detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Dan M.

    1993-07-01

    The progress of a program to develop Ge:Ga blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detector arrays for far-infrared space astronomy is reviewed. So far, the best devices, working in the 80 - 200 micrometers range, have responsive quantum efficiency better than 15%, detective quantum efficiency 10%, dark current 100 electrons s(superscript -1), and response uniformity better than a few percent. Structures with both bulk absorbers and epitaxial absorbing layers have been studied, as well as a variety of surface passivation. Front-illuminated arrays as large as 6 X 6, with 0.5 mm pixels, have been fabricated. Present performance conforms very well to the standard model of BIB detector operation. Further improvements in quantum efficiency and dark current, and larger formats, are anticipated, and the devices may play an important role in several upcoming far-infrared astronomical experiments.

  9. Comparison of the electro-optical performances of MWIR InAs/GaSb superlattice pin photodiode and FPA with asymmetrical designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giard, Edouard; Taalat, Rachid; Delmas, Marie; Rodriguez, Jean-Baptiste; Christol, Philippe; Jaeck, Julien; Ribet-Mohamed, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    We first present an electro-optical characterization of the radiometric performances of a type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) pin photodiode operating in the mid-wavelength infrared domain. This photodiode was grown with an InAs-rich structure. We focused our attention on quantum efficiency and responsivity: quantum efficiency of mono-pixel device reaches 23% at λ = 2.1 μm for 1 μm thick SL structure and 77K operating temperature. Then we measured the angular response of this photodiode: the response of the photodiode doesn't depend on the angle of incidence of the flux. We also report the QE of 2μm-thick InAs-rich T2SL pin 320×256 pixels focal plane array, which reaches 61% at λ = 2.6 μm.

  10. Type-II Superlattice Avalanche Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun

    Type-II superlattice avalanche photodiodes have shown advantages compared to conventional mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for infrared wavelength detection. However, surface or interface leakage current has been a major issue for superlattice avalanche photodiodes, especially in infrared wavelength region. First, passivation of the superlattice device with ammonium sulfide and thioacetamide was carried out, and its surface quality was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The study showed that both ammonium sulfide and thiacetamide passivation can actively remove the native oxide at the surface. Thiacetamide passivation combine more sulfur bonds with III-V elements than that of ammonium sulfide. Another X-ray photoelectron spectra of thiacetamide-treated atomic layer deposited zinc sulfide capped InAs/GaSb superlattice was performed to investigate the interface sulfur bond conditions. Sb--S and As--S bonds disappear while In-S bond gets enhanced, indicating that Indium Sulfide should be the major components at the interface after ZnS deposition. Second, the simulation of electrical characteristics for zinc sulfide, silicon nitride and silicon dioxide passivated superlattice devices was performed by SILVACO software to fit the experimental results and to discover the surface current mechanism. Different surface current mechanism strengths were found. Third, several novel dual-carrier avalanche photodiode structures were designed and simulated. The structures had alternate carrier multiplication regions, placed next to a wider electron multiplication region, creating dual-carrier multiplication feedback systems. Gain and excess noise factor of these structures were simulated and compared based on the dead space multiplication theory under uniform electric field. From the simulation, the applied bias can be greatly lowered or the thickness can be shrunk to achieve the same gain from the conventional device. The width of the thin region was the most

  11. A New Positioning Algorithm for Position-Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Olcott, Peter D; Levin, Craig S

    2007-06-01

    We are using a novel position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) for the construction of a high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Up to now most researchers working with PSAPDs have been using an Anger-like positioning algorithm involving the four corner readout signals of the PSAPD. This algorithm yields a significant non-linear spatial "pin-cushion" distortion in raw crystal positioning histograms. In this paper, we report an improved positioning algorithm, which combines two diagonal corner signals of the PSAPD followed by a 45° rotation to determine the X or Y position of the interaction. We present flood positioning histogram data generated with the old and new positioning algorithms using a 3 × 4 array of 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) and a 3 × 8 array of 1 × 1 × 3 mm(3) of LSO crystals coupled to 8 × 8 mm(2) PSAPDs. This new algorithm significantly reduces the pin-cushion distortion in raw flood histogram image. PMID:24307743

  12. Characterization of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for fluorescence decay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, John C.; Phelan, Don; Morrison, Alan P.; Redfern, R. Michael; Mathewson, Alan

    2002-05-01

    Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APD) can be biased above the breakdown voltage to allow detection of single photons. Because of the increase in quantum efficiency, magnetic field immunity, robustness, longer operating lifetime and reduction in costs, solid-state detectors capable of operating at non-cryogenic temperatures and providing single photon detection capabilities provide attractive alternatives to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). Shallow junction Geiger mode APD detectors provide the ability to manufacture photon detectors and detector arrays with CMOS compatible processing steps and allows the use of novel Silicon-on-Insulator(SoI) technology to provide future integrated sensing solutions. Previous work on Geiger mode APD detectors has focused on increasing the active area of the detector to make it more PMT like, easing the integration of discrete reaction, detection and signal processing into laboratory experimental systems. This discrete model for single photon detection works well for laboratory sized test and measurement equipment, however the move towards microfluidics and systems on a chip requires integrated sensing solutions. As we move towards providing integrated functionality of increasingly nanoscopic sized emissions, small area detectors and detector arrays that can be easily integrated into marketable systems, with sensitive small area single photon counting detectors will be needed. This paper will demonstrate the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional simulation of optical coupling that occurs in Geiger mode APDs. Fabricated Geiger mode APD detectors optimized for fluorescence decay measurements were characterized and preliminary results show excellent results for their integration into fluorescence decay measurement systems.

  13. Silicon photodiode as the two-color detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, D. B.; Zakharenko, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes a silicon photodiode as the two-color photodetector. The work of one photodiode in two spectral ranges is achieved due to the changes of the spectral sensitivity of the photodiodes in the transition from photodiode mode for photovoltaic in the short circuit mode. On the basis of silicon photodiode FD-256 the layout of the spectral ratio pyrometer was assembled and the results of theoretical calculations was confirmed experimentally. The calculated dependences of the coefficient of error of the spectral ratio pyrometer from temperature reverse voltage 10 and 100 V was presented. The calculated dependence of the instrumental error and the assessment of methodological errors of the proposed photodetector spectral ratio was done. According to the results of the presented research was set the task of development photodiode detectors which change the spectral sensitivity depending on the applied voltage.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of compact gamma cameras based on avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Després, Philippe; Funk, Tobias; Shah, Kanai S.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2007-06-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and in particular position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs), are an attractive alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for reading out scintillators for PET and SPECT. These solid-state devices offer high gain and quantum efficiency, and can potentially lead to more compact and robust imaging systems with improved spatial and energy resolution. In order to evaluate this performance improvement, we have conducted Monte Carlo simulations of gamma cameras based on avalanche photodiodes. Specifically, we investigated the relative merit of discrete and PSAPDs in a simple continuous crystal gamma camera. The simulated camera was composed of either a 4 × 4 array of four channels 8 × 8 mm2 PSAPDs or an 8 × 8 array of 4 × 4 mm2 discrete APDs. These configurations, requiring 64 channels readout each, were used to read the scintillation light from a 6 mm thick continuous CsI:Tl crystal covering the entire 3.6 × 3.6 cm2 photodiode array. The simulations, conducted with GEANT4, accounted for the optical properties of the materials, the noise characteristics of the photodiodes and the nonlinear charge division in PSAPDs. The performance of the simulated camera was evaluated in terms of spatial resolution, energy resolution and spatial uniformity at 99mTc (140 keV) and 125I (ap30 keV) energies. Intrinsic spatial resolutions of 1.0 and 0.9 mm were obtained for the APD- and PSAPD-based cameras respectively for 99mTc, and corresponding values of 1.2 and 1.3 mm FWHM for 125I. The simulations yielded maximal energy resolutions of 7% and 23% for 99mTc and 125I, respectively. PSAPDs also provided better spatial uniformity than APDs in the simple system studied. These results suggest that APDs constitute an attractive technology especially suitable to build compact, small field of view gamma cameras dedicated, for example, to small animal or organ imaging.

  15. Photon detection with cooled avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. L.; Metscher, B. D.

    1987-01-01

    Commercial avalanche photodiodes have been operated as single-photon detectors at an optimum operating temperature and bias voltage. These detectors were found to be 1.5-3 times more sensitive than presently available photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Both single-photon detection probability and detector noise increase with bias voltage; detection probabilities greater than twice that of a PMT were obtained with detector noise levels below 100 counts per second. Higher probabilities were measured at higher noise levels. The sources of noise and their dependence on temperature and bias voltage are discussed.

  16. Cooled avalanche photodiode used for photon detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Deborah L.; Metscher, Brian D.

    1987-01-01

    Commercial avalanche photodiodes have been operated as single-photon detectors at an optimum operating temperature and bias voltage. These detectors were found to be 1.5 to 3 times more sensitive than presently-available photomultiplier tubes (PPMTs). Both single-photon detection probability and detector noise increase with bias voltage; detection probabilities greater than 25 percent were obtained with detector noise levels comparable to the noise of a PMT; higher probabilities were measured at higher noise levels. The sources of noise and their dependence on temperature and bias voltage are discussed.

  17. Photodiodes for ten micrometer laser communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    The performance is discussed of 10-micron mercury-cadmiumtelluride and lead-tin-telluride photodiodes in laser heterodyne communication systems. The dependence of detector quantum efficiency, resistance, frequency response, and signal-to-noise ratio on temperature, bias, and local oscillator power are examined. Included in the discussion is an analysis of the feasibility of high temperature operation, and ability of the detector to dissipate power to a heat sink is explored. Some aspects of direct detection response are considered and figures showing flux levels from a blackbody presented.

  18. Geiger avalanche photodiodes as tentative light detectors for VHE gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellion, D.; Jradi, K.; Le Padellec, A.; Rennane, A.; Moutier, F.; Borrel, V.; Esteve, D.; Magenc, C.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.

    2010-03-01

    Due to its sensitivity and speed, the detector still widely used in Cerenkov astrophysics experiments remains the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT). For instance, recent pathbreaking experiments in Very High Energy astrophysics (VHE), such as MAGIC and HESS, have used mainstream PMT technology [Aharonian, F. et al Astron. Astrophys. 492(1):L25-L28 (2008)]. Moreover the Cerenkov Telescope Array (CTA) which is now in its design phase, is also planed to be based on PMT’s. However, there are some disadvantages to the PMT technology: the rather poor quantum efficiency, the use of high voltages, the high cost when used in large number in a matrix arrangement and the large weight. Hence, we have investigated the possibility to design future Cerenkov telescopes based on solid state technology, specifically Geiger avalanche photodiodes. In a preliminary development test, we placed HAMAMATSU avalanche photodiodes at the focal plane of a 60 cm diameter telescope at the Pic du Midi in the French Pyrénées, in order to record incident cosmic rays. In this paper, we describe not only the experimental setup but we also put special emphasis to the reduction of the semi-conductor noise. We also show first data that were recorded during two runs in the fall of 2006, and conclude by the presentation of the design of an “integrated, low-cost solid state photodiode arrangement” which might be an alternative to PMT’s for future VHE telescopes.

  19. A cooled avalanche photodiode with high photon detection probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. L.; Metscher, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode has been operated as a photon-counting detector with 2 to 3 times the sensitivity of currently-available photomultiplier tubes. APD (avalanche photodiodes) detection probabilities that exceed 27% and approach 50% have been measured at an optimum operating temperature which minimizes noise. The sources of noise and their dependence on operating temperature and bias voltage are discussed.

  20. Foliage penetration optimization for Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Steven E.

    2013-05-01

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GMAPD) Lidar systems can be used to image targets that are partially concealed by foliage. This application of GMAPD Lidar is challenging because most APDs operating in Geiger- mode report only one range measurement per transmitted laser pulse. If a GMAPD makes a foliage range measurement, it cannot make a range measurement to a target concealed by the foliage. When too much laser energy is received, the vast majority of range measurements are from the foliage and only a small percentage are from the target. Some GMAPD Lidar systems can report their average detection probability during operation. The average detection probability, which is often called "P-det", is calculated over an array of GMAPDs, over multiple laser pulses, or over both. However, the detection probability does not distinguish between target range measurements, foliage range measurements, and noise events. In this paper, it is shown that when certain collection parameters are known, that the probability of detecting a target obscured by foliage can be maximized by selecting the appropriate "P-det". It is also shown that for a typical foliage penetration scenario where most of the reflected laser energy is from the foliage that operating with a "P-det" between 65% and 80% produces a near-maximum target detection probability.

  1. Hybrid UV Imager Containing Face-Up AlGaN/GaN Photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Pain, Bedabrata

    2005-01-01

    A proposed hybrid ultraviolet (UV) image sensor would comprise a planar membrane array of face-up AlGaN/GaN photodiodes integrated with a complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) readout-circuit chip. Each pixel in the hybrid image sensor would contain a UV photodiode on the AlGaN/GaN membrane, metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) readout circuitry on the CMOS chip underneath the photodiode, and a metal via connection between the photodiode and the readout circuitry (see figure). The proposed sensor design would offer all the advantages of comparable prior CMOS active-pixel sensors and AlGaN UV detectors while overcoming some of the limitations of prior (AlGaN/sapphire)/CMOS hybrid image sensors that have been designed and fabricated according to the methodology of flip-chip integration. AlGaN is a nearly ideal UV-detector material because its bandgap is wide and adjustable and it offers the potential to attain extremely low dark current. Integration of AlGaN with CMOS is necessary because at present there are no practical means of realizing readout circuitry in the AlGaN/GaN material system, whereas the means of realizing readout circuitry in CMOS are well established. In one variant of the flip-chip approach to integration, an AlGaN chip on a sapphire substrate is inverted (flipped) and then bump-bonded to a CMOS readout circuit chip; this variant results in poor quantum efficiency. In another variant of the flip-chip approach, an AlGaN chip on a crystalline AlN substrate would be bonded to a CMOS readout circuit chip; this variant is expected to result in narrow spectral response, which would be undesirable in many applications. Two other major disadvantages of flip-chip integration are large pixel size (a consequence of the need to devote sufficient area to each bump bond) and severe restriction on the photodetector structure. The membrane array of AlGaN/GaN photodiodes and the CMOS readout circuit for the proposed image sensor would

  2. Opto-chemical sensors based on integrated ring-shaped organic photodiodes: progress and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, Torsten; Abel, Tobias; Ungerböck, Birgit; Sagmeister, Martin; Charwat, Verena; Ertl, Peter; Kraker, Elke; Köstler, Stefan; Tschepp, Andreas; Lamprecht, Bernhard

    2012-10-01

    The recent advances on a monolithically integrated sensor platform based on ring-shaped organic photo detectors are presented. Various sensing chemistries based on luminescence for the detection of a number of parameters such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, humidity and pH in gaseous and/or liquid phase were investigated and optimized to the requirements of the sensor platform. Aiming on practical application, the need and methods to reference luminescence signals are evaluated including two wavelength rationing and lifetime measurements. Finally, we will discuss potential applications of the platform and present a micro-fluidic chip containing an array of integrated sensor spots and organic photodiodes.

  3. A compact 64-pixel CsI(T1)/Si PIN photodiode imaging module with IC readout

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, Gregory J.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Holland, Stephen E.; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio; Krieger, Brad; Mandelli, Emanuele; Meddeler, Gerrit; Wang, Nadine W.

    2001-08-09

    We characterize the performance of a complete 64-pixel compact gamma camera imaging module consisting of optically isolated 3 mm 3 mm 5 mm CsI(Tl) crystals coupled to a custom array of low-noise Si PIN photodiodes read out by a custom IC. At 50 V bias the custom 64-pixel photodiode arrays demonstrate an average leakage current of 28 pA per 3 mm 3 mm pixel, a 98.5 percent yield of pixels with <100 pA leakage, and a quantum efficiency of about 80 percent for 540 nm CsI(Tl) scintillation photons. The custom 64-channel readout IC uses low-noise preamplifiers, shaper amplifiers, and a winner-take-all (WTA) multiplexer. The IC demonstrates maximum gain of 120 mV / 1000 e-, the ability to select the largest input signal in less than 150 ns, and low electronic noise at 8 ms peaking time ranging from 25 e- rms (unloaded) to an estimated 180 e- rms (photodiode load of 3 pF, 50 pA). At room temperature a complete 64-pixel detector module employing a custom photodiode array and readout IC demonstrates an average energy resolution of 23.4 percent fwhm and an intrinsic spatial resolution of 3.3 mm fwhm for the 140 keV emissions of 99mTc. Construction of an array of such imaging modules is straightforward, hence this technology shows strong potential for numerous compact gamma camera applications, including scintimammography.

  4. Avalanche speed in thin avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, D. S.; Rees, G. J.; David, J. P. R.

    2003-04-01

    The duration of the avalanche multiplication process in thin GaAs avalanche photodiodes is investigated using a full band Monte Carlo (FBMC) model. The results are compared with those of a simple random path length (RPL) model which makes the conventional assumptions of a displaced exponential for the ionization path length probability distribution function and that carriers always travel at their saturated drift velocities. We find that the avalanche duration calculated by the RPL model is almost twice of that predicted by the FBMC model, although the constant drift velocities used in the former model are estimated using the latter. The faster response predicted by FBMC model arises partly from the reduced dead space but mainly from the velocity overshoot of ionizing carriers. While the feedback multiplication processes forced by the effects of dead space extend the avalanche duration in short structures, the effects of velocity overshoot in the realistic model more than compensate, significantly improving multiplication bandwidth.

  5. Diamond photodiodes for x-ray application

    SciTech Connect

    Distel, James R; Smedley, John; Keister, Jeffrey W; Muller, Erik; Jordan - Sweet, Jean; Bohon, Jen; Dong, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Single crystal high purity CVD diamonds have been metallized and calibrated as photodiodes at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Current mode responsivity measurements have been made over a wide range (0.2-28 keV) of photon energies across several beamlines. Linear response has been achieved over ten orders of magnitude of incident flux, along with uniform spatial response. A simple model of responsivity has been used to describe the results, yielding a value of 13.3 {+-} 0.5 eV for the mean pair creation energy. The responsivity vs. photon energy data show a dip for photon energies near the carbon edge (284 eV), indicating incomplete charge collection for carriers created less than one micron from the metallized layer.

  6. Avalanche characteristics of single heterojunction avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, L. C.; You, A. H.; Andy, L. L. Y.; Tan, S. L.

    2009-03-01

    A simple Monte Carlo (MC) model is proposed to study the avalanche characteristics of heterojunction avalanche photodiode (HAPD). This model is capable to simulate the avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in HAPDs by including the dead-space effect, hole to electron ionization ratio and heterointerface probability. The dead-space effect showed a vital role in reducing noise in single junction HAPDs based on the statistical determination in our model. It is shown that the dead-space effect reduces the avalanche noise in heterojunction device due to the localized ionization events. We found that the dead-space effect and the number of hole feedback impact ionizations are still the dominant effects to improve the excess noise factor especially in the injection layer of the device. In addition, the probability of electron and hole to cross the heterointerface will eliminate the secondary impact ionizations in the device.

  7. Noise processes modeling in HgCdTe infrared photodiode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlakov, Igor D.; Selyakov, Andrew Y.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir P.; Filachev, Anatoly M.

    2010-04-01

    A numerical model of the current noise spectral density in elements of infrared focal plane array based on HgCdTe photodiodes has been developed. Model is based on Langevine method and applied to the photodiode with p+-n-junction and base of finite length d. Dominated dark current diffusion mechanism and random nature of thermal generationrecombination and scattering processes determined the diffusion current fluctuations has been taken into account. The model main peculiar properties are the stochastic boundary conditions on the interface between the depletion and quasineutral regions. Current noise spectral density of the diode with thin base d < Lp, where Lp is the hole diffusion length in n-region, has been calculated. In thin base diodes with blocking contact to substrate, in which recombination velocity S = 0, a noise suppression effect is revealed. At noticeable reverse junction biases |qV| > 3kT the diffusion current noise suppression is to be observed in whole frequency band ωtfl << 1, where tfl is the hole flight time through the depletion region. In this case the diffusion current noise spectral density is less than in diodes with thick base (d >> Lp) by a factor th(d/Lp). At slight biases |qV| < 3kT the diffusion current noise suppression occurs only in limited frequency band ωτ < 1, where τ is the minority carriers lifetime. At high frequencies ωτ >> 1 diffusion current noise comes out of fluctuations caused by scattering processes and is independent on the diode structure. Photocurrent noise spectral density has been calculated too. Model developed is useful for the photodiode elements and arrays optimization.

  8. Characterization of avalanche photodiodes for lidar atmospheric return signal detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antill, C. W., Jr.; Holloway, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from tests to characterize noise, dark current, overload, and gain versus bias, relationships of ten avalanche photodiodes. The advantages of avalanche photodiodes over photomultiplier tubes for given laser wavelengths and return signal amplitudes are outlined. The relationship between responsivity and temperature and dark current and temperature are examined. Also, measurements of the noise equivalent power, the excess noise factor, and linearity are given. The advantages of using avalanche photodiodes in the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment and the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment are discussed.

  9. Photodiode-Based X-Ray Beam-Position Monitor With High Spatial-Resolution for the NSLS-II Beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.S.; Siddons, D. P.

    2009-05-25

    We developed a photodiode-based monochromatic X-ray beam-position monitor (X-BPM) with high spatial resolution for the project beamlines of the NSLS-II. A ring array of 32 Si PIN-junction photodiodes were designed for use as a position sensor, and a low-noise HERMES4 ASIC chip was integrated into the electronic readout system. A series of precision measurements to characterize electrically the Si-photodiode sensor and the ASIC chip demonstrated that the inherent noise is sufficiently below tolerance levels. Following up modeling of detector's performance, including geometrical optimization using a Gaussian beam, we fabricated and assembled a first prototype. In this paper, we describe the development of this new state-of-the-art X-ray BPM along the beamline, in particular, downstream from the monochromator.

  10. The blocking probability of Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Bruce; Srinivasan, Meera; Hamkins, Jon

    2005-08-01

    When a photon is detected by a Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diode (GMAPD), the detector is rendered inactive, or blocked, for a certain period of time. In this paper we derive the blocking probability for a GMAPD whose input is either an unmodulated, Bernoulli modulated or pulse-position-modulated (PPM) Poisson process. We demonstrate how the PPM and Bernoulli cases differ, illustrating that the PPM blocking probability is larger than the Bernoulli. The blocking rates may be decreased by focusing the incident light on an array of detectors. We show that the binomial output statistics of an array of GMAPDs may be modeled as Poisson and measure the error in this approximation via the relative entropies of the two distributions.

  11. Relative degradation of near infrared avalanche photodiodes from proton irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Heidi; Johnston, Allan H.

    2004-01-01

    InGaAs and Ge avalanche photodiodes are compared for the effects of 63-MeV protons on dark current. Differences in displacement damage factors are discussed as they relate to structural differences between devices.

  12. Three photon absorption detection using polymer photo-diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, Somayeh M. A.; Rao Bobbara, Sanyasi; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2013-10-01

    Nonlinear absorption is investigated in a poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) PCBM fullerene blend, one of the most popular organic solar cell's materials. We observe three-photon absorption in the bulk hetero junction photodiode configuration. The output photocurrent of the photodiode is interpreted in terms of the three-photon absorption properties of the P3HT:PCBM blend at 1550 nm.

  13. Infrared vertically-illuminated photodiode for chip alignment feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloatti, L.; Ram, R. J.

    2016-08-01

    We report on vertically-illuminated photodiodes fabricated in the GlobalFoundries 45nm 12SOI node and on a packaging concept for optically-interconnected chips. The photodiodes are responsive at 1180 nm -a wavelength currently used in chip-to-chip communications. They have further a wide field-of-view which enables chip-to-board positional feedback in chip-board assemblies. Monolithic integration enables on-chip processing of the positional data.

  14. Optimum Receiver Structure for PPM Signals with Avalanche Photodiode Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Srinivasan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The maximum likelihood decision statistic for detection of pulse-position modulated signals with an avalanche photodiode is derived, using the more accurate Webb density rather than Poisson or Gaussian approximations for the distribution of avalanche photodiode output electrons. It is shown that for Webb-distributed output electtrons, the maximum likelihood rule is to choose the PPM word corresponding to the slot with the maximum electron count.

  15. Silicon avalanche photodiodes developed at the Institute of Electron Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Bar, Jan; Grynglas, Maria; Uszynski, Andrzej; Grodecki, Remigiusz; Grabiec, Piotr B.; Krzeminski, Sylwester; Budzynski, Tadeusz

    2004-07-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) -- due to the effect of avalanche multiplication of carriers in their structure -- are most sensitive and fastest detectors of visible and near infrared radiation. Also the value of noise equivalent power NEP of these detectors is the smallest. In the paper, the design, technology and properties of the silicon avalanche photodiodes with a n+ - p - π - p+ epiplanar structure developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE) are presented. The diameters of photosensitive area range from 0.3 mm to 5 mm. The ITE photodiodes are optimized for the detection of the 800 nm - 850 nm radiation, but the detailed research on spectral dependencies of the gain and noise parameters has revealed that the spectral operating range of the ITE photodiodes is considerable wider and achieves 550 - 1000 nm. These photodiodes can be used in detection of very weak and very fast optical signals. Presently in the world, the studies are carried out on applying the avalanche photodiodes in detection of X radiation and in the scintillation detection of nuclear radiation.

  16. Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N(2) thermometry.

    PubMed

    Plath, I; Meier, W; Stricker, W

    1992-01-01

    The application of an unintensified backside-illuminated CCD for the acquisition of broadband single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) spectra is demonstrated. This CCD shows a quantum efficiency 5 times higher than a front-illuminated CCD and offers significant advantages compared with intensified linear photodiode array detectors generally used for single-pulse CARS thermometry. It overcomes the main drawbacks of the intensified linear photodiode array detector in single-pulse CARS N(2) spectroscopy: nonlinearity, limited dynamic range, and image persistence. A method for extending the dynamic range is demonstrated in a highly turbulent flame. PMID:19784236

  17. Application of a backside-illuminated charge-coupled-device camera for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy N2 thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, I.; Meier, W.; Stricker, W.

    1992-01-01

    The application of an unintensified backside-illuminated CCD for the acquisition of broadband single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) spectra is demonstrated. This CCD shows a quantum efficiency 5 times higher than a front-illuminated CCD and offers significant advantages compared with intensified linear photodiode array detectors generally used for single-pulse CARS thermometry. It overcomes the main drawbacks of the intensified linear photodiode array detector in single-pulse CARS N2 spectroscopy: nonlinearity, limited dynamic range, and image persistence. A method for extending the dynamic range is demonstrated in a highly turbulent flame.

  18. Response of photodiodes in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husk, D. E.; Tarrio, C.; Benitez, E. L.; Schnatterly, S. E.

    1991-09-01

    We have measured the responses of four commercial photodiodes in the vacuum ultraviolet from 20 to 600 eV and have also measured the inelastic-electron-scattering spectra of the materials contained in the diodes from 0 to 260 eV. Three of the diodes are silicon: an enhanced channel device, an x-ray-stabilized silicon diode, and a p-i-n diode. The fourth is a gallium arsenide phosphide Schottky diode. The diode response has been modeled by considering absorption through the surface layer and inelastic surface recombination. The model produces an excellent description of the measured responses. From our analysis we have obtained reasonable values for the number of electrons produced per eV of incident radiation, the thicknesses of the surface layers, the surface recombination velocities, and the average diffusion lengths of the minority carriers. The highest efficiency is obtained for a silicon x-ray-stabilized diode followed by the gallium arsenide phosphide diode. We find that both of these diodes make excellent, stable soft-x-ray detectors.

  19. A compact, discrete CsI(Tl) scintillator/Si photodiode gamma camera for breast cancer imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, Gregory J.

    2000-12-01

    Recent clinical evaluations of scintimammography (radionuclide breast imaging) are promising and suggest that this modality may prove a valuable complement to X-ray mammography and traditional breast cancer detection and diagnosis techniques. Scintimammography, however, typically has difficulty revealing tumors that are less than 1 cm in diameter, are located in the medial part of the breast, or are located in the axillary nodes. These shortcomings may in part be due to the use of large, conventional Anger cameras not optimized for breast imaging. In this thesis I present compact single photon camera technology designed specifically for scintimammography which strives to alleviate some of these limitations by allowing better and closer access to sites of possible breast tumors. Specific applications are outlined. The design is modular, thus a camera of the desired size and geometry can be constructed from an array (or arrays) of individual modules and a parallel hole lead collimator for directional information. Each module consists of: (1) an array of 64 discrete, optically-isolated CsI(Tl) scintillator crystals 3 x 3 x 5 mm{sup 3} in size, (2) an array of 64 low-noise Si PIN photodiodes matched 1-to-1 to the scintillator crystals, (3) an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that amplifies the 64 photodiode signals and selects the signal with the largest amplitude, and (4) connectors and hardware for interfacing the module with a motherboard, thereby allowing straightforward computer control of all individual modules within a camera.

  20. Development of Gated Pinned Avalanche Photodiode Pixels for High-Speed Low-Light Imaging.

    PubMed

    Resetar, Tomislav; De Munck, Koen; Haspeslagh, Luc; Rosmeulen, Maarten; Süss, Andreas; Puers, Robert; Van Hoof, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the benefits of linear-mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in high-speed CMOS imaging as compared to different approaches present in literature. Analysis of APDs biased below their breakdown voltage employed in single-photon counting mode is also discussed, showing a potentially interesting alternative to existing Geiger-mode APDs. An overview of the recently presented gated pinned avalanche photodiode pixel concept is provided, as well as the first experimental results on a 8 × 16 pixel test array. Full feasibility of the proposed pixel concept is not demonstrated; however, informative data is obtained from the sensor operating under -32 V substrate bias and clearly exhibiting wavelength-dependent gain in frontside illumination. The readout of the chip designed in standard 130 nm CMOS technology shows no dependence on the high-voltage bias. Readout noise level of 15 e - rms, full well capacity of 8000 e - , and the conversion gain of 75 µV / e - are extracted from the photon-transfer measurements. The gain characteristics of the avalanche junction are characterized on separate test diodes showing a multiplication factor of 1.6 for red light in frontside illumination. PMID:27537882

  1. Development of Gated Pinned Avalanche Photodiode Pixels for High-Speed Low-Light Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Resetar, Tomislav; De Munck, Koen; Haspeslagh, Luc; Rosmeulen, Maarten; Süss, Andreas; Puers, Robert; Van Hoof, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the benefits of linear-mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in high-speed CMOS imaging as compared to different approaches present in literature. Analysis of APDs biased below their breakdown voltage employed in single-photon counting mode is also discussed, showing a potentially interesting alternative to existing Geiger-mode APDs. An overview of the recently presented gated pinned avalanche photodiode pixel concept is provided, as well as the first experimental results on a 8 × 16 pixel test array. Full feasibility of the proposed pixel concept is not demonstrated; however, informative data is obtained from the sensor operating under −32 V substrate bias and clearly exhibiting wavelength-dependent gain in frontside illumination. The readout of the chip designed in standard 130 nm CMOS technology shows no dependence on the high-voltage bias. Readout noise level of 15 e- rms, full well capacity of 8000e-, and the conversion gain of 75 µV/e- are extracted from the photon-transfer measurements. The gain characteristics of the avalanche junction are characterized on separate test diodes showing a multiplication factor of 1.6 for red light in frontside illumination. PMID:27537882

  2. Development of Gated Pinned Avalanche Photodiode Pixels for High-Speed Low-Light Imaging.

    PubMed

    Resetar, Tomislav; De Munck, Koen; Haspeslagh, Luc; Rosmeulen, Maarten; Süss, Andreas; Puers, Robert; Van Hoof, Chris

    2016-08-15

    This work explores the benefits of linear-mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in high-speed CMOS imaging as compared to different approaches present in literature. Analysis of APDs biased below their breakdown voltage employed in single-photon counting mode is also discussed, showing a potentially interesting alternative to existing Geiger-mode APDs. An overview of the recently presented gated pinned avalanche photodiode pixel concept is provided, as well as the first experimental results on a 8 × 16 pixel test array. Full feasibility of the proposed pixel concept is not demonstrated; however, informative data is obtained from the sensor operating under -32 V substrate bias and clearly exhibiting wavelength-dependent gain in frontside illumination. The readout of the chip designed in standard 130 nm CMOS technology shows no dependence on the high-voltage bias. Readout noise level of 15 e - rms, full well capacity of 8000 e - , and the conversion gain of 75 µV / e - are extracted from the photon-transfer measurements. The gain characteristics of the avalanche junction are characterized on separate test diodes showing a multiplication factor of 1.6 for red light in frontside illumination.

  3. Analysis of the photodiode boundary layer transition indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, D.W.; Wilken, A.C.; Payne, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The photodiode transition indicator is a device which has been successfully used to determine the onset of boundary layer transition on numerous hypersonic flight vehicles. The exact source of the electromagnetic radiation detected by the photodiode at transition was not understood. In some cases early saturation of the device occurred, and the device failed to detect transition. Analyses have been performed to determine the source of the radiation producing the photodiode signal. The results of these analyses indicate that the most likely source of the radiation is blackbody emission from the heatshield material bordering the quartz window of the device. Good agreement between flight data and calculations based on this radiation source has been obtained. Analyses also indicate that the most probable source of the radiation causing early saturation is blackbody radiation from carbon particles which break away from the nosetip during the ablation process.

  4. Low temperature solution-processed high performance photodiode based on Si-ZnO core-shell structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Shen, Xiaojuan; Song, Tao; Hu, Jia; Sun, Baoquan

    2013-04-14

    Radial heterojunction photodiodes based on a silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs)-zinc oxide (ZnO) core-shell structure is demonstrated in this report. The heterojunction can be constructed by spin-coating ZnO nanoparticles onto SiNWs and a low temperature post-annealing process (<270 °C). The photodiode displays typical diode rectifying characteristics with an ideality factor of as low as 1.28, and shows an excellent photoresponse in both visible and near infrared regions in which a peak value of 0.54 A/W at zero bias was attained. The sensitivity is superior to that of previously reported devices fabricated with vacuum-deposition methods. In contrast, the planar silicon-ZnO junction only displays the peak photoresponsivity of 0.34 A/W. The superior performance of radial junction is ascribed to the highlight-harvesting capability, large interfacial area and efficient charge carrier collection arising from the core (SiNWs)-shell (ZnO) structure. Here, high temperature processes are dispensable by using facile solution-processed techniques, which avoid thermal minority lifetime degradation of silicon and simplify the fabrication process of the photodiodes.

  5. Ge-on-Si photodiode with black silicon boosted responsivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, M.; Oehme, M.; Käsebier, T.; Zilk, M.; Kostecki, K.; Kley, E.-B.; Schulze, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2015-08-01

    Normal-incidence Ge-on-Si photodiodes with 300 nm thick intrinsic Ge absorber layer and black silicon light-trapping are fabricated and analyzed with regard to their responsivity. Compared to a standard Ge-on-Si photodiode without black silicon, the black silicon device exhibits a 3-times increased responsivity of 0.34 A/W at 1550 nm. By that, the problematic bandwidth-responsivity trade-off in ultrafast Ge-on-Si detectors can be widely overcome. The black silicon light-trapping structure can be applied to the device rear during back-end processing.

  6. III-V alloy heterostructure high speed avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, H. D.; Nakano, K.; Tomasetta, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Heterostructure avalanche photodiodes have been successfully fabricated in several III-V alloy systems: GaAlAs/GaAs, GaAlSb/GaAlSb, and InGaAsP/InP. These diodes cover optical wavelengths from 0.4 to 1.8 micron. Early stages of development show very encouraging results. High speed response of less than 35 ps and high quantum efficiency more than 95 percent have been obtained. The dark currents and the excess avalanche noise are also dicussed. A direct comparison of GaAlSb, GaAlAsSb, and In GaAsP avalanche photodiodes is given.

  7. Effects of the 9-T magnetic field on MRS photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Rykalin, V.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2005-10-01

    The experimental results on the performance of the MRS (Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor) photodiode in the strong magnetic field of 9T, and the possible impact of the quench of the magnet at 9.5T on sensor's operation are reported. The measurement method used is being described. The results of the work agree with the expectations that the MRS photodiode is not exhibiting sensitivity to the magnetic field presence. This result is essential for the design of the future electron-positron linear collider detector.

  8. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. PMID:24518318

  9. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis.

  10. Linear Mode HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiodes for Photon Counting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, William, III; Beck, Jeffrey; Scritchfield, Richard; Skokan, Mark; Mitra, Pradip; Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James; Carpenter, Darren; Lane, Barry

    2015-01-01

    An overview of recent improvements in the understanding and maturity of linear mode photon counting with HgCdTe electron-initiated avalanche photodiodes is presented. The first HgCdTe LMPC 2x8 format array fabricated in 2011 with 64 micron pitch was a remarkable success in terms of demonstrating a high single photon signal to noise ratio of 13.7 with an excess noise factor of 1.3-1.4, a 7 ns minimum time between events, and a broad spectral response extending from 0.4 micron to 4.2 micron. The main limitations were a greater than 10x higher false event rate than expected of greater than 1 MHz, a 5-7x lower than expected APD gain, and a photon detection efficiency of only 50% when greater than 60% was expected. This paper discusses the reasons behind these limitations and the implementation of their mitigations with new results.

  11. Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of two-layer turbid media by densely packed multi-pixel photodiode reflectance probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senlik, Ozlem; Greening, Gage; Muldoon, Timothy J.; Jokerst, Nan M.

    2016-03-01

    Spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance (SRDR) measurements provide photon path information, and enable layered tissue analysis. This paper presents experimental SRDR measurements on two-layer PDMS skin tissue-mimicking phantoms of varying top layer thicknesses, and bulk phantoms of varying optical properties using concentric multi-pixel photodiode array (CMPA) probes, and corresponding forward Monte Carlo simulations. The CMPA is the most densely packed semiconductor SRDR probe reported to date. Signal contrasts between the single layer phantom and bi-layer phantoms with varying top layer thicknesses are as high as 80%. The mean error between the Monte Carlo simulations and the experiment is less than 6.2 %.

  12. Development of a large pixel, spectrally optimized, pinned photodiode/interline charge coupled device (CCD) detector for the Earth Observing System (EOS)/Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Tilt (MODIS-T) instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewin, Audrey J.; Jhabvala, Murzy; Shu, Peter K.

    1991-01-01

    A pinned photodiode/interline CCD Detector Array is under development for the EOS/MODIS-T project. Outstanding features of the device include large pixels, spectrally optimized fill factors, and blooming protection. The detector has 30 spatial rows and 32 spectral columns. The device layout is split into two halves; each half has its own detector area, storage area, and output structure.

  13. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Yelena; Shauly, Eitan; Paz, Yaron

    2015-12-01

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect.

  14. Increasing the dynamic range of CMOS photodiode imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A multiple-step reset process and circuit for resetting a voltage stored on a photodiode of an imaging device. A first stage of the reset occurs while a source and a drain of a pixel source-follower transistor are held at ground potential and the photodiode and a gate of the pixel source-follower transistor are charged to an initial reset voltage having potential less that of a supply voltage. A second stage of the reset occurs after the initial reset voltage is stored on the photodiode and the gate of the pixel source-follower transistor and the source and drain voltages of the pixel source-follower transistor are released from ground potential thereby allowing the source and drain voltages of the pixel source-follower transistor to assume ordinary values above ground potential and resulting in a capacitive feed-through effect that increases the voltage on the photodiode to a value greater than the initial reset voltage.

  15. BiCMOS-integrated photodiode exploiting drift enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swoboda, Robert; Schneider-Hornstein, Kerstin; Wille, Holger; Langguth, Gernot; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-08-01

    A vertical pin photodiode with a thick intrinsic layer is integrated in a 0.5-μm BiCMOS process. The reverse bias of the photodiode can be increased far above the circuit supply voltage, enabling a high-drift velocity. Therefore, a highly efficient and very fast photodiode is achieved. Rise/fall times down to 94 ps/141 ps at a bias of 17 V were measured for a wavelength of 660 nm. The bandwidth was increased from 1.1 GHz at 3 V to 2.9 GHz at 17 V due to the drift enhancement. A quantum efficiency of 85% with a 660-nm light was verified. The technological measures to avoid negative effects on an NPN transistor due to the Kirk effect caused by the low-doped I-layer epitaxy are described. With a high-energy collector implant, the NPN transit frequency is held above 20 GHz. CMOS devices are unaffected. This photodiode is suitable for a wide variety of high-sensitivity optical sensor applications, for optical communications, for fiber-in-the-home applications, and for optical interconnects.

  16. Test of the DEP hybrid photodiode in 5 Tesla Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D; Freeman, J.; Ronzhin, A.; Cushman, R.; Heering, A.

    1997-10-01

    The CMS detector is designed so that the tile/fiber hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) is immersed in a 4 Tesla magnetic field. The Hybrid Photodiode (HPD) will be used as the photodetector. Below we present the experiment data which we obtained on the HPD behavior in a magnetic field.

  17. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Yelena; Shauly, Eitan; Paz, Yaron

    2015-12-07

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect.

  18. Reading a CD-ROM without a photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishon, Michael J.; Mourozeau, G.; Ng, K.; Sahai, A. A.; Locquet, Alexandre; Citrin, D. S.

    2016-04-01

    We use a laser diode from a commercial CD/DVD-ROM drive to detect changes in the surface of a diffraction grating without a photodiode. Specifically, we exploit the changing terminal voltage in the laser-diode due to changing feedback strength as the laser is rastered across the grating's surface.

  19. Hybrid AlGaN-SiC Avalanche Photodiode for Deep-UV Photon Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Federico A.; Sigwarth, John; Goldsman, Neil; Akturk, Akin

    2010-01-01

    The proposed device is capable of counting ultraviolet (UV) photons, is compatible for inclusion into space instruments, and has applications as deep- UV detectors for calibration systems, curing systems, and crack detection. The device is based on a Separate Absorption and Charge Multiplication (SACM) structure. It is based on aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) absorber on a silicon carbide APD (avalanche photodiode). The AlGaN layer absorbs incident UV photons and injects photogenerated carriers into an underlying SiC APD that is operated in Geiger mode and provides current multiplication via avalanche breakdown. The solid-state detector is capable of sensing 100-to-365-nanometer wavelength radiation at a flux level as low as 6 photons/pixel/s. Advantages include, visible-light blindness, operation in harsh environments (e.g., high temperatures), deep-UV detection response, high gain, and Geiger mode operation at low voltage. Furthermore, the device can also be designed in array formats, e.g., linear arrays or 2D arrays (micropixels inside a superpixel).

  20. Synthetic Array Heterodyne Detection: Developments within the Caliope CO{sub 2} DIAL Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rehse, S.J.; Strauss, E.M.

    1995-09-01

    A new technique, Synthetic Array Heterodyne Detection, offers a wider field of view and improved signal to noise for coherent DIAL systems by reducing speckle interference. We have implemented a synthetic multi-pixel array using a CO{sub 2} laser on a single element HgCdTe photodiode.

  1. Optical phased-array ladar.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Juan; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio; Hatch, Robert; Payson, Harold

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a ladar with 0.5 m class range resolution obtained by integrating a continuous-wave optical phased-array transmitter with a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode receiver array. In contrast with conventional ladar systems, an array of continuous-wave sources is used to effectively pulse illuminate a target by electro-optically steering far-field fringes. From the reference frame of a point in the far field, a steered fringe appears as a pulse. Range information is thus obtained by measuring the arrival time of a pulse return from a target to a receiver pixel. This ladar system offers a number of benefits, including broad spectral coverage, high efficiency, small size, power scalability, and versatility.

  2. Future sensor system needs for staring arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John Lester

    2011-05-01

    This is a systems application paper regarding how sensor systems may use future technology FPAs. A historical perspective is discussed along with lessons learned from previous technologies. Future system requirements for strained super-lattice (SLS), quantum dots (QDOT) and traditional quantum well infrared photo-diodes (QWIP) arrays will be presented from both a commercial and military perspective. New potential markets will open up in the future if certain FPA technologies can reduce cost and provide higher sensitivities at higher operating temperatures.

  3. Analysis and modeling of optical crosstalk in InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Quan; Jiang, Xudong; Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Piccione, Brian; Owens, Mark; Slomkowski, Krystyna

    2015-05-01

    Optical crosstalk is a major factor limiting the performance of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GmAPD) focal plane arrays (FPAs). This is especially true for arrays with increased pixel density and broader spectral operation. We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical investigations on the crosstalk effects in InP-based GmAPD FPAs for both 1.06-μm and 1.55-μm applications. Mechanisms responsible for intrinsic dark counts are Poisson processes, and their inter-arrival time distribution is an exponential function. In FPAs, intrinsic dark counts and cross talk events coexist, and the inter-arrival time distribution deviates from purely exponential behavior. From both experimental data and computer simulations, we show the dependence of this deviation on the crosstalk probability. The spatial characteristics of crosstalk are also demonstrated. From the temporal and spatial distribution of crosstalk, an efficient algorithm to identify and quantify crosstalk is introduced.

  4. Design, fabrication, and characterization of InSb avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abautret, J.; Evirgen, A.; Perez, J. P.; Christol, P.; Rouvié, A.; Cluzel, R.; Cordat, A.; Rothman, J.

    2013-12-01

    In this communication, the potentiality of InSb material as an avalanche photodiode (APD) device is investigated. Current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics at 77K of InSb pin photodiodes were simulated by using ATLAS software from SILVACO, in dark conditions and under illumination. In order to validate parameter values used for the modeling, theoretical J-V results were compared with experimental measurements performed on InSb diodes fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. Next, assuming a multiplication process only induced by the electrons (e-APD), different designs of separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) APD structure were theoretically investigated and the first InSb SAM APD structure with 1μm thick multiplication layer was then fabricated and characterized.

  5. Flexible germanium nanomembrane metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Munho; Seo, Jung-Hun; Yu, Zongfu; Zhou, Weidong; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate flexible Ge nanomembrane (Ge NM) based metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes. The effect of uniaxial tensile strain on Ge NM based photodiodes was investigated using bending fixtures. Dark current density is decreased from 21.5 to 4.8 mA/cm2 at 3 V by a tensile strain of 0.42% while photon responsivity is increased from 0.2 to 0.45 A/W at the wavelength of 1.5 μm. Enhanced responsivity is also observed at longer wavelengths up to 1.64 μm. The uniaxial tensile strain effectively reduces the direct bandgap energy of the Ge NM, leading to a shift of the absorption edge toward a longer wavelength.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  7. Low-noise photodiode detector for optical fluctuation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Fonck, R.J.; Ashley, R.; Durst, R. ); Paul, S.F.; Renda, G. )

    1992-10-01

    The beam emission spectroscopy optical fluctuation diagnostic requires the highest possible quantum efficiency detector at 656 nm to minimize the photon statistical baseline limit to the detectable fluctuation level. A photoconductive photodiode detector with an extremely low-noise preamplifier and a reactive feedback circuit provides quantum efficiencies up to 70%--80% for a useful frequency range of at least 0--150 kHz with incident powers of {similar to}10 nW. The diodes are chosen for negligible leakage current and hence do not require active cooling. These detectors have provided increase in the sensitivity to plasma fluctuation amplitude by a factor of {similar to}14 over photomultipliers and a factor of 4 over large area avalanche photodiodes.

  8. Receiver characteristics of laser altimeters with avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.; Boutsikaris, Leo; Abshire, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The receiver characteristics of a laser altimeter system containing an avalanche photodiode photodetector are analyzed using the Gaussian approximation, the saddle-point approximation, and a nearly exact analysis. The last two methods are shown to yield very similar results except when the background noise is extremely low and the probability of false alarm is high. However, the Gaussian approximation method is shown to cause significant errors even under relatively high levels of background noise and received signal energy.

  9. Avalanche Photodiode Statistics in Triggered-avalanche Detection Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    The output of a triggered avalanche mode avalanche photodiode is modeled as Poisson distributed primary avalanche events plus conditionally Poisson distributed trapped carrier induced secondary events. The moment generating function as well as the mean and variance of the diode output statistics are derived. The dispersion of the output statistics is shown to always exceed that of the Poisson distribution. Several examples are considered in detail.

  10. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, history, properties and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renker, D.

    2006-11-01

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs) have been developed during recent years and promise to be an alternative to photomultiplier tubes. They have many advantages like single photon response, high detection efficiency, high gain at low bias voltage and very good timing properties but some of their properties, the dark count rate for example, can be a problem. Several types of G-APDs are on the market and should be selected carefully for a given application.

  11. Vertically illuminated TW-UTC photodiodes for terahertz generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos Z., Claudio M.; Calle G., Victor H.; Alvarez, Jaime A.; Mena, F. Patricio; Vukusic, Josip; Stake, Jan; Michael, Ernest A.

    2012-09-01

    More efficient and powerful continuous-wave photonic mixers as terahertz sources are motivated by the need of more versatile local oscillators for submillimeter/terahertz receiver systems. Uni-Travelling Carrier (UTC) photodiodes are very prospective candidates for reaching this objective, but so far only have been reported as lumped-elements or as edge-illuminated optical-waveguide travelling-wave (TW) devices. To overcome the associated power limitations of those implementations, we are developing a novel implementation of the UTC photodiodes which combines a travelingwave photomixer with vertical velocity-matched illumination in a distributed structure. In this implementation called velocity-matched travelling-wave uni-travelling carrier photodiode, it is possible to obtain in-situ velocity matching of the beat-fringes of the two angled laser beams with the submm/THz-wave on the stripline. In this way, minimum frequency roll-off is achieved by tuning the angle between the two laser beams. A first design of these TW-UTC PDs from our Terahertz Photonics Laboratory at University of Chile has been micro-fabricated at the MC2 cleanroom facility at Chalmers Technical University.

  12. Infrared to visible image up-conversion using optically addressed spatial light modulator utilizing liquid crystal and InGaAs photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodar, A.; Arun Kumar, T.; Sarusi, G.; Abdulhalim, I.

    2016-01-01

    Combination of InGaAs/InP heterojunction photodetector with nematic liquid crystal (LC) as the electro-optic modulating material for optically addressed spatial light modulator for short wavelength infra-red (SWIR) to visible light image conversion was designed, fabricated, and tested. The photodetector layer is composed of 640 × 512 photodiodes array based on heterojunction InP/InGaAs having 15 μm pitch on InP substrate and with backside illumination architecture. The photodiodes exhibit extremely low, dark current at room temperature, with optimum photo-response in the SWIR region. The photocurrent generated in the heterojunction, due to the SWIR photons absorption, is drifted to the surface of the InP, thus modulating the electric field distribution which modifies the orientation of the LC molecules. This device can be attractive for SWIR to visible image upconversion, such as for uncooled night vision goggles under low ambient light conditions.

  13. Single photon counting with a microchannel plate intensified integrated diode array.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, M

    1989-06-01

    A multichannel photoelectron counting system employing a Reticon 1024-element linear silicon photodiode array with fiber optic window has been developed. The primary esign philosophy was to produce a 1-D electronic camera optimized for high dispersion astronomical spectrophotometry of faint sources by intense fying the photodiode array with a microchannel plate. With an intensification factor of approximately 10(8), single photon incidences will be amplified beyond system noise, becoming readily discriminable by low resolution pulse counting electronics. The system will approach the ideal of a truly noiseless amplifier with shot-limited performance. Funds not being available for the purchase of a microchannel plate, operation of the system in the rapid scanning intensified mode was illustrated by using the photodiode array as a line scanner imaging bright sources, and operation in the slow chilled Reticon mode was illustrated by installation in an automated 3-m Czerny-Turner double monochromator. PMID:20555472

  14. Development and validation of highly selective screening and confirmatory methods for the qualitative forensic analysis of organic explosive compounds with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with (photodiode array and) LTQ ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometric detections (HPLC-(PDA)-LTQOrbitrap).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoma; Koeberg, Mattijs; Kuijpers, Chris-Jan; Kok, Eric

    2014-01-01

    An LTQ-Orbitrap FTMS is a new (hybrid) mass spectrometric (MS) analyzer. It allows for the acquisition of full scan MS(n) (n-stage fragmentations, n=1-n) spectra with the linear ion trap detector (LTQ) at high speed and/or with the Fourier Transform-detector (Orbitrap) with ultra high mass resolution (>60,000 at m/z<400amu) and high mass accuracy (≤1ppm with internal calibration). In addition it may be coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) with photo diode array (PDA) detection. Two methods for the forensic screening and confirmation of all common trace explosives in post-blast residues have been developed on this instrument using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). In one run, the nitrogen-containing explosives are analyzed with the combination of "LC-(PDA)-APCI(-)-LTQ MS(2)/Orbitrap FTMS" (Method 1). In another run, peroxide explosives are analyzed with "LC-APCI(+)-LTQ MS(2)/Orbitrap FTMS" (Method 2). The performance of both methods has been validated according to procedures defined in the EU COMMISSION DECISION implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results (DC 2002/657/EC) and other standards (NEN 17025 and NEN 7777). The methods are highly selective due to the simultaneous utilization of the Orbitrap FTMS and LTQ MS(2), both of which are highly selective detectors Tested explosive compounds can be detected in the molecular ion form by the Orbitrap analyzer with minimal mass interference in different matrices when using an extremely narrow mass tolerance detection window (≤2ppm). The identification of a detected compound follows an identification point system. Experimental results show that almost all explosive compounds meet the confirmation criteria (minimum 4 points) required for the positive identification by the DC 2002/657/EC.

  15. Development and validation of highly selective screening and confirmatory methods for the qualitative forensic analysis of organic explosive compounds with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with (photodiode array and) LTQ ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometric detections (HPLC-(PDA)-LTQOrbitrap).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoma; Koeberg, Mattijs; Kuijpers, Chris-Jan; Kok, Eric

    2014-01-01

    An LTQ-Orbitrap FTMS is a new (hybrid) mass spectrometric (MS) analyzer. It allows for the acquisition of full scan MS(n) (n-stage fragmentations, n=1-n) spectra with the linear ion trap detector (LTQ) at high speed and/or with the Fourier Transform-detector (Orbitrap) with ultra high mass resolution (>60,000 at m/z<400amu) and high mass accuracy (≤1ppm with internal calibration). In addition it may be coupled with liquid chromatography (LC) with photo diode array (PDA) detection. Two methods for the forensic screening and confirmation of all common trace explosives in post-blast residues have been developed on this instrument using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). In one run, the nitrogen-containing explosives are analyzed with the combination of "LC-(PDA)-APCI(-)-LTQ MS(2)/Orbitrap FTMS" (Method 1). In another run, peroxide explosives are analyzed with "LC-APCI(+)-LTQ MS(2)/Orbitrap FTMS" (Method 2). The performance of both methods has been validated according to procedures defined in the EU COMMISSION DECISION implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results (DC 2002/657/EC) and other standards (NEN 17025 and NEN 7777). The methods are highly selective due to the simultaneous utilization of the Orbitrap FTMS and LTQ MS(2), both of which are highly selective detectors Tested explosive compounds can be detected in the molecular ion form by the Orbitrap analyzer with minimal mass interference in different matrices when using an extremely narrow mass tolerance detection window (≤2ppm). The identification of a detected compound follows an identification point system. Experimental results show that almost all explosive compounds meet the confirmation criteria (minimum 4 points) required for the positive identification by the DC 2002/657/EC. PMID:24438773

  16. Highly enhanced avalanche probability using sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shingo; Namekata, Naoto Inoue, Shuichiro; Tsujino, Kenji

    2014-01-27

    We report on visible light single photon detection using a sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode. Detection efficiency of 70.6% was achieved at a wavelength of 520 nm when an electrically cooled silicon avalanche photodiode with a quantum efficiency of 72.4% was used, which implies that a photo-excited single charge carrier in a silicon avalanche photodiode can trigger a detectable avalanche (charge) signal with a probability of 97.6%.

  17. Guided-wave photodiode using through-absorber quantum-well-intermixing and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention includes a high-speed, high-saturation power detector (e.g., a photodiode) compatible with a relatively simple monolithic integration process. In particular embodiments, the photodiode includes an intrinsic bulk absorption region, which is grown above a main waveguide core including a number of quantum wells (QWs) that are used as the active region of a phase modulator. The invention also includes methods of fabricating integrated photodiode and waveguide assemblies using a monolithic, simplified process.

  18. A new approach to investigate leakage current mechanisms in infrared photodiodes from illuminated current-voltage characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, Vishnu

    2014-08-28

    This paper presents a new approach to investigate leakage current mechanisms in infrared photodiodes from the illuminated current–voltage characteristics. The example of mid-wave mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes is presented to illustrate the new approach. The new method is suitable for evaluating diodes in an array environment as advance knowledge of any of the material or device parameters are not required. The thermal saturation current is estimated from the observed open circuit voltage and zero-bias current (photo-current) of the diode. The ohmic shunt resistance is estimated from the observed maximum dynamic impedance of the diode. The experimentally observed reverse bias diode current in excess of thermal current, photo-current, and ohmic shunt current is reported to be best described by an exponential function of the type, I{sub excess} = I{sub r0} + K{sub 1} exp (K{sub 2} V), where I{sub r0}, K{sub 1}, and K{sub 2} are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. Our investigations reveal a close link between the excess current and the sources of ohmic currents in the diode. Exponential growth of excess current with the applied bias voltage has been interpreted as an indication of soft breakdown of the diodes.

  19. A new approach to investigate leakage current mechanisms in infrared photodiodes from illuminated current-voltage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Vishnu

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach to investigate leakage current mechanisms in infrared photodiodes from the illuminated current-voltage characteristics. The example of mid-wave mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes is presented to illustrate the new approach. The new method is suitable for evaluating diodes in an array environment as advance knowledge of any of the material or device parameters are not required. The thermal saturation current is estimated from the observed open circuit voltage and zero-bias current (photo-current) of the diode. The ohmic shunt resistance is estimated from the observed maximum dynamic impedance of the diode. The experimentally observed reverse bias diode current in excess of thermal current, photo-current, and ohmic shunt current is reported to be best described by an exponential function of the type, Iexcess = Ir0 + K1 exp (K2 V), where Ir0, K1, and K2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. Our investigations reveal a close link between the excess current and the sources of ohmic currents in the diode. Exponential growth of excess current with the applied bias voltage has been interpreted as an indication of soft breakdown of the diodes.

  20. Application of photodiodes to the detection of electromagnetic bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Y.; Saito, T.; Sakata, M.; Shima, M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of photodiode + scintillator (1 m2 x 1 cm) detector is developed to detect the large electro-magnetic burst under an EX-chamber. The threshold burst size is found to be 4.3 x 10 the 5 particles at the center of the scintillator. Therefore a gamma-ray family of 10 TeV is detectable by it, when it is set under 14 r.1. of iron. In addition, a very fast (2.4 nsec width) and very bright (correspond to 10 to the 6 particles) scintillation pulse has become avarable for this study.

  1. A 1.06 micrometer avalanche photodiode receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eden, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a complete solid state 1.06 micron optical receiver which can be used in optical communications at data rates approaching 1.5 Gb/s, or in other applications requiring sensitive, short pulse detection, is reported. This work entailed both the development of a new type of heterojunction III-V semiconductor alloy avalanche photodiode and an extremely charge-sensitive wideband low noise preamp design making use of GaAs Schottky barrier-gate field effect transistors (GAASFET's) operating in in the negative-feedback transimpedance mode. The electrical characteristics of the device are described.

  2. Reliability assessment of multiple quantum well avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Ilgu; Menkara, Hicham M.; Wang, Yang; Oguzman, Isamil H.; Kolnik, Jan; Brennan, Kevin F.; May, Gray S.; Wagner, Brent K.; Summers, Christopher J.

    1995-01-01

    The reliability of doped-barrier AlGaAs/GsAs multi-quantum well avalanche photodiodes fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated via accelerated life tests. Dark current and breakdown voltage were the parameters monitored. The activation energy of the degradation mechanism and median device lifetime were determined. Device failure probability as a function of time was computed using the lognormal model. Analysis using the electron beam induced current method revealed the degradation to be caused by ionic impurities or contamination in the passivation layer.

  3. Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

    1989-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

  4. Vertically illuminated TW-UTC photodiodes for terahertz generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos Z., Claudio; Calle, Victor; Diaz, Marcos; Mena, F. Patricio; Vukusic, Josip; Stake, Jan; Michael, Ernest A.

    2010-07-01

    More efficient continuous-wave photonic nearinfrared mixers as terahertz sources are investigated with the motivation to develop a universal photonic local oscillator for astronomical submillimeter/terahertz receiver systems. For this, we develop new concepts for vertically illuminated traveling-wave (TW) photomixers, TW Uni-Travelling Carrier (UTC) photodiodes. Device simulation/modeling and optical/terahertz testing is being done in the new terahertz photonics laboratory at the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Chile, whereas device fabrication is performed at the MC2 cleanroom facility at Chalmers Technical University. We report on first progress in this direction.

  5. MRS Photodiode, LED and extruded scintillator performance in magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, V.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2005-05-01

    The experimental results on the performance of the MRS (Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor) photodiode in the strong magnetic field of 4.4T, and the possible impact of the quench of the magnet at 4.5T on sensor's operation are reported. In addition, the experimental results on the performance of the extruded scintillator and WLS fiber, and various LEDs in the magnetic fields of 1.8T and 2.3T respectively, are detailed. The measurement method used is being described.

  6. High performance x-ray imaging detectors on foil using solution-processed organic photodiodes with extremely low dark leakage current (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Moet, Date; van der Steen, Jan Laurens; van Breemen, Albert; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Gilot, Jan; Andriessen, Ronn; Simon, Matthias; Ruetten, Walter; Douglas, Alexander; Raaijmakers, Rob; Malinowski, Pawel E.; Myny, Kris; Gelinck, Gerwin

    2015-10-01

    High performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil using solution-processed organic photodiodes with extremely low dark leakage current Abhishek Kumara, Date Moeta, Albert van Breemena, Santhosh Shanmugama, Jan-Laurens van der Steena, Jan Gilota, Ronn Andriessena, Matthias Simonb, Walter Ruettenb, Alexander U. Douglasb, Rob Raaijmakersc, Pawel E. Malinowskid, Kris Mynyd and Gerwin H. Gelincka,e a. Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, Eindhoven 5656 AE, The Netherlands b. Philips Research, High Tech Campus 34, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands c. Philips Healthcare, Veenpluis 6-8, 5684 PC Best, The Netherlands d. Department of Large Area Electronics, imec vzw, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven B3001, Belgium e. Applied Physics Department, TU Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands We demonstrate high performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil suitable for medical grade X-ray imaging applications. The detectors are based on solution-processed organic photodiodes forming bulk-heterojunctions from photovoltaic donor and acceptor blend. The organic photodiodes are deposited using an industrially compatible slot die coating technique with end of line processing temperature below 100°C. These photodiodes have extremely low dark leakage current density of 10-7 mA/cm2 at -2V bias with very high yield and have peak absorption around 550 nm wavelength. We combine these organic photodiodes with high mobility metal oxide semiconductor based thin film transistor arrays with high pixel resolution of 200ppi on thin plastic substrate. When combined with a typical CsI(TI) scintillator material on top, they are well suited for low dose X-ray imaging applications. The optical crosstalk is insignificant upto resolution of 200 ppi despite the fact that the photodiode layer is one continuous layer and is non-pixelated. Low processing temperatures are another key advantage since they can be fabricated on plastic substrate. This implies that we can make X-ray detectors on flexible foil. Those

  7. Analysis and Enhancement of Low-Light-Level Performance of Photodiode-Type CMOS Active Pixel Images Operated with Sub-Threshold Reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Yang, Guang; Ortiz, Monico; Wrigley, Christopher; Hancock, Bruce; Cunningham, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Noise in photodiode-type CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) is primarily due to the reset (kTC) noise at the sense node, since it is difficult to implement in-pixel correlated double sampling for a 2-D array. Signal integrated on the photodiode sense node (SENSE) is calculated by measuring difference between the voltage on the column bus (COL) - before and after the reset (RST) is pulsed. Lower than kTC noise can be achieved with photodiode-type pixels by employing "softreset" technique. Soft-reset refers to resetting with both drain and gate of the n-channel reset transistor kept at the same potential, causing the sense node to be reset using sub-threshold MOSFET current. However, lowering of noise is achieved only at the expense higher image lag and low-light-level non-linearity. In this paper, we present an analysis to explain the noise behavior, show evidence of degraded performance under low-light levels, and describe new pixels that eliminate non-linearity and lag without compromising noise.

  8. 4H-SiC photodiode model for DC SPICE circuit simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociubiński, Andrzej; Duk, Mariusz; Korona, Mateusz; Muzyka, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Technology, characterization and in particularly modeling of 4H-SiC photodiode have been presented in this paper. Modeling and simulation has been performed using PSPICE environment. Comparison of simulation with real results for electrical characteristic (I-V) of circular SiC photodiodes has been also presented.

  9. Effect of avalanche build-up time on avalanche photodiode sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, H.; Kanbe, H.

    1985-03-01

    A calculation method for the receiver sensitivity of an avalanche photodiode is considered, taking into account avalanche build-up time and carrier transit time, in addition to the CR time constant. Actual receiver performance is estimated in a high data rate region of up to 10 Gbits/s for germanium avalanche photodiodes, applying the measured avalanche build-up time.

  10. Gain-Bandwidth Product Optimization of Heterostructure Avalanche Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Oh-Hyun; Hayat, Majeed M.; Campbell, Joe C.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2005-05-01

    A generalized history-dependent recurrence theory for the time-response analysis is derived for avalanche photodiodes with multilayer, heterojunction multiplication regions. The heterojunction multiplication region considered consists of two layers: a high-bandgap Al_0.6 Ga_0.4 As energy-buildup layer, which serves to heat up the primary electrons, and a GaAs layer, which serves as the primary avalanching layer. The model is used to optimize the gain-bandwidth product (GBP) by appropriate selection of the width of the energy-buildup layer for a given width of the avalanching layer. The enhanced GBP is a direct consequence of the heating of primary electrons in the energy-buildup layer, which results in a reduced first dead space for the carriers that are injected into the avalanche-active GaAs layer. This effect is akin to the initial-energy effect previously shown to enhance the excess-noise factor characteristics in thin avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Calculations show that the GBP optimization is insensitive to the operational gain and the optimized APD also minimizes the excess-noise factor.

  11. Fast single photon avalanche photodiode-based time-resolved diffuse optical tomography scanner

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Ying; Niedre, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Resolution in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a persistent problem and is primarily limited by high degree of light scatter in biological tissue. We showed previously that the reduction in photon scatter between a source and detector pair at early time points following a laser pulse in time-resolved DOT is highly dependent on the temporal response of the instrument. To this end, we developed a new single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) based time-resolved DOT scanner. This instrument uses an array of fast SPADs, a femto-second Titanium Sapphire laser and single photon counting electronics. In combination, the overall instrument temporal impulse response function width was 59 ps. In this paper, we report the design of this instrument and validate its operation in symmetrical and irregularly shaped optical phantoms of approximately small animal size. We were able to accurately reconstruct the size and position of up to 4 absorbing inclusions, with increasing image quality at earlier time windows. We attribute these results primarily to the rapid response time of our instrument. These data illustrate the potential utility of fast SPAD detectors in time-resolved DOT. PMID:26417526

  12. Fast single photon avalanche photodiode-based time-resolved diffuse optical tomography scanner.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ying; Niedre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Resolution in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a persistent problem and is primarily limited by high degree of light scatter in biological tissue. We showed previously that the reduction in photon scatter between a source and detector pair at early time points following a laser pulse in time-resolved DOT is highly dependent on the temporal response of the instrument. To this end, we developed a new single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) based time-resolved DOT scanner. This instrument uses an array of fast SPADs, a femto-second Titanium Sapphire laser and single photon counting electronics. In combination, the overall instrument temporal impulse response function width was 59 ps. In this paper, we report the design of this instrument and validate its operation in symmetrical and irregularly shaped optical phantoms of approximately small animal size. We were able to accurately reconstruct the size and position of up to 4 absorbing inclusions, with increasing image quality at earlier time windows. We attribute these results primarily to the rapid response time of our instrument. These data illustrate the potential utility of fast SPAD detectors in time-resolved DOT.

  13. Update on Linear Mode Photon Counting with the HgCdTe Linear Mode Avalanche Photodiode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jeffrey D.; Kinch, Mike; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the gain-voltage characteristic of the mid-wavelength infrared cutoff HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is discussed both experimentally and theoretically as a function of the width of the multiplication region. Data are shown that demonstrate a strong dependence of the gain at a given bias voltage on the width of the n- gain region. Geometrical and fundamental theoretical models are examined to explain this behavior. The geometrical model takes into account the gain-dependent optical fill factor of the cylindrical APD. The theoretical model is based on the ballistic ionization model being developed for the HgCdTe APD. It is concluded that the fundamental theoretical explanation is the dominant effect. A model is developed that combines both the geometrical and fundamental effects. The model also takes into account the effect of the varying multiplication width in the low bias region of the gain-voltage curve. It is concluded that the lower than expected gain seen in the first 2 × 8 HgCdTe linear mode photon counting APD arrays, and higher excess noise factor, was very likely due to the larger than typical multiplication region length in the photon counting APD pixel design. The implications of these effects on device photon counting performance are discussed.

  14. Flexible Photodiodes Based on Nitride Core/Shell p–n Junction Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A flexible nitride p-n photodiode is demonstrated. The device consists of a composite nanowire/polymer membrane transferred onto a flexible substrate. The active element for light sensing is a vertical array of core/shell p–n junction nanowires containing InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown by MOVPE. Electron/hole generation and transport in core/shell nanowires are modeled within nonequilibrium Green function formalism showing a good agreement with experimental results. Fully flexible transparent contacts based on a silver nanowire network are used for device fabrication, which allows bending the detector to a few millimeter curvature radius without damage. The detector shows a photoresponse at wavelengths shorter than 430 nm with a peak responsivity of 0.096 A/W at 370 nm under zero bias. The operation speed for a 0.3 × 0.3 cm2 detector patch was tested between 4 Hz and 2 kHz. The −3 dB cutoff was found to be ∼35 Hz, which is faster than the operation speed for typical photoconductive detectors and which is compatible with UV monitoring applications. PMID:27615556

  15. Studies of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDS) as Readout Devices for Scintillating Fibers for High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Shera, Suzanne; Shamo, Denis

    1998-01-01

    New gamma ray and charged particle telescope designs based on scintillating fiber arrays could provide low cost, high resolution, lightweight, very large area and multi radiation length instrumentation for planned NASA space exploration. The scintillating fibers low visible light output requires readout sensors with single photon detection sensitivity and low noise. The sensitivity of silicon Avalanche Photodiodes (APDS) matches well the spectral output of the scintillating fibers. Moreover, APDs have demonstrated single photon capability. The global aim of our work is to make available to NASA a novel optical detector concept to be used as scintillating fiber readouts and meeting the requirements of the new generations of space-borne gamma ray telescopes. We proposed to evaluate the feasibility of using RMD's small area APDs ((mu)APD) as scintillating fiber readouts and to study possible alternative (mu)APD array configurations for space borne readout scintillating fiber systems, requiring several hundred thousand to one million channels. The evaluation has been conducted in accordance with the task description and technical specifications detailed in the NASA solicitation "Studies of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD as readout devices for scintillating fibers for High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Telescopes" (#8-W-7-ES-13672NAIS) posted on October 23, 1997. The feasibility study we propose builds on recent developments of silicon APD arrays and light concentrators advances at RMD, Inc. and on more than 5 years of expertise in scintillating fiber detectors. In a previous program we carried out the initial research to develop a high resolution, small pixel, solid-state, silicon APD array which exhibited very high sensitivity in the UV-VIS spectrum. This (mu)APD array is operated in Geiger mode and results in high gain (greater than 10(exp 8)), extremely low noise, single photon detection capability, low quiescent power (less than 10 (mu)W/pixel for 30 micrometers sensitive

  16. Development of novel technologies to enhance performance and reliability of III-Nitride avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvarna, Puneet Harischandra

    Solar-blind ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes are an enabling technology for applications in the fields of astronomy, communication, missile warning systems, biological agent detection and particle physics research. Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are capable of detecting low-intensity light with high quantum efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio without the need for external amplification. The properties of III-N materials (GaN and AlGaN) are promising for UV photodetectors that are highly efficient, radiation-hard and capable of visible-blind or solar-blind operation without the need for external filters. However, the realization of reliable and high performance III-N APDs and imaging arrays has several technological challenges. The high price and lack of availability of bulk III-N substrates necessitates the growth of III-Ns on lattice mismatched substrates leading to a high density of dislocations in the material that can cause high leakage currents, noise and premature breakdown in APDs. The etched sidewalls of III-N APDs and high electric fields at contact edges are also detrimental to APD performance and reliability. In this work, novel technologies have been developed and implemented that address the issues of performance and reliability in III-Nitride based APDs. To address the issue of extended defects in the bulk of the material, a novel pulsed MOCVD process was developed for the growth of AlGaN. This process enables growth of high crystal quality AlxGa1-xN with excellent control over composition, doping and thickness. The process has also been adapted for the growth of high quality III-N materials on silicon substrate for devices such as high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). A novel post-growth defect isolation technique is also discussed that can isolate the impact of conductive defects from devices. A new sidewall passivation technique using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of dielectric materials was developed for III-N APDs that is effective in

  17. Si/Ge photodiodes for coherent and analog communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piels, Molly

    High-speed photodiodes have diverse applications in wireless and fiber communications. They can be used as output stages for antenna systems as well as receivers for fiber optic networks. Silicon is an attractive substrate material for photonic components for a number of reasons. Low cost manufacturing in CMOS fabrication facilities, low material loss at telecommunications wavelengths, and relatively simple co-packaging with electronics are all driving interest in silicon photonic devices. Since silicon does not absorb light at telecommunications wavelengths, photodetector fabrication requires the integration of either III-V materials or germanium. Recent work on germanium photodetectors has focused on low-capacitance devices suitable for integration with silicon electronics. These devices have excellent bandwidth and efficiency, but have not been designed for the levels of photocurrent required by coherent and analog systems. This thesis explores the design, fabrication, and measurement of photodetectors fabricated on silicon with germanium absorbing regions for high speed and high power performance. There are numerous design trade-offs between speed, efficiency, and output power. Designing for high bandwidth favors small devices for low capacitance. Small devices require abrupt absorption profiles for good efficiency, but design for high output power favors large devices with dilute absorption. The absorption profile can be controlled by the absorber layer thickness, but this will also affect the bandwidth and power handling. This work quantifies the trade-offs between high speed, high efficiency, and high power design. Intrinsic region thickness and absorption profile are identified as the most important design variables. For PIN structures, the absorption profile and intrinsic region thickness are both functions of the Ge thickness, but in uni-traveling carrier (UTC) structures the absorption profile and intrinsic region can be designed independently. This

  18. Magnetic arrays

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Kim, Won-jong; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness.

  19. Magnetic arrays

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, D.L.; Kim, W.; Williams, M.E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays are disclosed which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness. 12 figs.

  20. Post-processing Free Quantum Random Number Generator Based on Avalanche Photodiode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Sheng-Kai, Liao; Fu-Tian, Liang; Qi, Shen; Hao, Liang; Cheng-Zhi, Peng

    2016-03-01

    Not Available Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, Shanghai Branch, University of Science and Technology of China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 11405172.

  1. Development of high performance SWIR InGaAs focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagi, Richie; Bregman, Jeremy; Mizuno, Genki; Oduor, Patrick; Olah, Robert; Dutta, Achyut K.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2015-05-01

    Banpil Photonics has developed a novel InGaAs based photodetector array for Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) imaging, for the most demanding security, defense, and machine vision applications. These applications require low noise from both the detector and the readout integrated circuit arrays. In order to achieve high sensitivity, it is crucial to minimize the dark current generated by the photodiode array. This enables the sensor to function in extremely low light situations, which enables it to successfully exploit the benefits of the SWIR band. In addition to minimal dark current generation, it is essential to develop photodiode arrays with higher operating temperatures. This is critical for reducing the power consumption of the device, as less energy is spent in cooling down the focal plane array (in order to reduce the dark current). We at Banpil Photonics are designing, simulating, fabricating and testing SWIR InGaAs arrays, and have achieved low dark current density at room temperature. This paper describes Banpil's development of the photodetector array. We also highlight the fabrication technique used to reduce the amount of dark current generated by the photodiode array, in particular the surface leakage current. This technique involves the deposition of strongly negatively doped semiconductor material in the area between the pixels. This process reduces the number of dangling bonds present on the edges of each pixel, which prevents electrons from being swept across the surface of the pixels. This in turn drastically reduces the amount of surface leakage current at each pixel, which is a major contributor towards the total dark current. We present the optical and electrical characterization data, as well as the analysis that illustrates the dark current mechanisms. Also highlighted are the challenges and potential opportunities for further reduction of dark current, while maintaining other parameters of the photodiode array, such as size, weight, temperature

  2. Spatially resolved photodiode response for simulating precise interferometers.

    PubMed

    Fernández Barranco, Germán; Tröbs, Michael; Müller, Vitali; Gerberding, Oliver; Seifert, Frank; Heinzel, Gerhard

    2016-08-20

    Quadrant photodiodes (QPDs) are used in laser interferometry systems to simultaneously detect longitudinal displacement of test masses and angular misalignment between the two interfering beams. The latter is achieved by means of the differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique, which provides ultra-high precision for measuring angular displacements. We have developed a setup to obtain the spatially resolved response of QPDs that, together with an extension of the simulation software IfoCAD, allows us to use the measured response in simulations and accurately predict the desired longitudinal and DWS phase observables. Three different commercial off-the-shelf QPD candidates for space-based interferometry were characterized. The measured response of one QPD was used in optical simulations. Nonuniformities in the response of the device and crosstalk between segments do not introduce significant variations in the longitudinal and DWS measurands with respect to the standard case when a uniform QPD without crosstalk is used. PMID:27556990

  3. Innovative Detection System of Ochratoxin A by Thin Film Photodiodes

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Domenico; de Cesare, Giampiero; Fanelli, Corrado; Nascetti, Augusto; Ricelli, Alessandra; Scipinotti, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present, for the first time, a rapid, compact and innovative method for detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) sensors. 2 μl of acidified toluene containing OTA at different concentrations were spotted on the silica side of a High Performance Thin Layer Cromatography plate and aligned with a a-Si:H p-i-n photodiode deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition on a different glass substrate. As an UV radiation excites the mycotoxin, the re-emitted light is detected by the a-Si:H sensor. Results show a very good linearity between OTA concentration and the sensor photocurrent over almost three orders of magnitude. The minimum detected OTA concentration is equal to 0.1ng, showing that the presented system has the potential for a low cost system suitable for the early detection of toxins in foods.

  4. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation. PMID:26907016

  5. Avalanche photodiode based time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ogasawara, Keiichi Livi, Stefano A.; Desai, Mihir I.; Ebert, Robert W.; McComas, David J.; Walther, Brandon C.

    2015-08-15

    This study reports on the performance of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) as a timing detector for ion Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. We found that the fast signal carrier speed in a reach-through type APD enables an extremely short timescale response with a mass or energy independent <2 ns rise time for <200 keV ions (1−40 AMU) under proper bias voltage operations. When combined with a microchannel plate to detect start electron signals from an ultra-thin carbon foil, the APD comprises a novel TOF system that successfully operates with a <0.8 ns intrinsic timing resolution even using commercial off-the-shelf constant-fraction discriminators. By replacing conventional total-energy detectors in the TOF-Energy system, APDs offer significant power and mass savings or an anti-coincidence background rejection capability in future space instrumentation.

  6. Responsivity of Diamond X-ray Photodiodes Calibrated at NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Keister,J.W.; Smedley, J.; Muller, E. M.; Bohon, J.

    2009-09-27

    Single crystal, high purity synthetic diamond is used as photoabsorption and carrier transport medium in x-ray photodiodes. While the thermal / mechanical robustness and high x-ray transmission of diamond make such devices attractive for synchrotron instrumentation, state-of-the-art quality material and electrical interfaces further make such detectors feasible. The present work develops methodology for attaining calculable responsivity (photocurrent yield) over a wide range of photon energies (0.2 to 28 keV) to within 5% accuracy. These methods achieve linear response for up to 0.2 W absorbed x-ray power and response time as low as 1 ns. Details of contact formation / robustness and bias configuration are explored.

  7. Design and characterization of avalanche photodiodes in submicron CMOS technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancheri, L.; Bendib, T.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Stoppa, D.

    2014-03-01

    The fabrication of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) in CMOS processes can be exploited in several application domains, including telecommunications, time-resolved optical detection and scintillation detection. CMOS integration allows the realization of systems with a high degree of parallelization which are competitive with hybrid solutions in terms of cost and complexity. In this work, we present a linear-mode APD fabricated in a 0.15μm process, and report its gain and noise characterization. The experimental observations can be accurately predicted using Hayat dead-space noise model. Device simulations based on dead-space model are then used to discuss the current status and the perspectives for the integration of high-performance low-noise devices in standard CMOS processes.

  8. Systematic afterpulsing-estimation algorithms for gated avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiechers, Carlos; Ramírez-Alarcón, Roberto; Muñiz-Sánchez, Oscar R.; Yépiz, Pablo Daniel; Arredondo-Santos, Alejandro; Hirsch, Jorge G.; U'Ren, Alfred B.

    2016-09-01

    We present a method designed to efficiently extract optical signals from InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operated in gated mode. In particular, our method permits an estimation of the fraction of counts which actually results from the signal being measured, as opposed to being produced by noise mechanisms, specifically by afterpulsing. Our method in principle allows the use of InGaAs APDs at high detection efficiencies, with the full operation bandwidth, either with or without resorting to the application of a dead time. As we show below, our method can be used in configurations where afterpulsing exceeds the genuine signal by orders of magnitude, even near saturation. The algorithms which we have developed are suitable to be used either in real-time processing of raw detection probabilities or in post-processing applications, after a calibration step has been performed. The algorithms which we propose here can complement technologies designed for the reduction of afterpulsing.

  9. High resolution, low energy avalanche photodiode X-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R.; Vanderpuye, K.; Entine, G.; Squillante, M. R.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon avalanche photodiodes have been fabricated, and their performance as X-ray detectors has been measured. Photon sensitivity and energy resolution were measured as a function of size and operating parameters. Noise thresholds as low as 212 eV were obtained at room temperature, and backscatter X-ray fluorescence data were obtained for aluminum and other light elements. It is concluded that the results with the X-ray detector are extremely encouraging, and the performance is challenging the best available proportional counters. While not at the performance level of either cryogenic silicon or HgI2, these device operate at room temperature and can be reproduced in large numbers and with much larger areas than typically achieved with HgI2. In addition, they are rugged and appear to be indefinitely stable.

  10. Temperature Control of Avalanche Photodiode Using Thermoelectric Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1999-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDS) are quantum optical detectors that are used for visible and near infrared optical detection applications. Although APDs are compact, rugged, and have an internal gain mechanism that is suitable for low light intensity; their responsivity, and therefore their output, is strongly dependent on the device temperature. Thermoelectric coolers (TEC) offers a suitable solution to this problem. A TEC is a solid state cooling device, which can be controlled by changing its current. TECs are compact and rugged, and they can precisely control the temperature to within 0.1 C with more than a 150 C temperature gradient between its surfaces. In this Memorandum, a proportional integral (PI) temperature controller for APDs using a TEC is discussed. The controller is compact and can successfully cool the APD to almost 0 C in an ambient temperature environment of up to 27 C.

  11. Characterization of midwave infrared InSb avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abautret, J.; Perez, J. P.; Evirgen, A.; Rothman, J.; Cordat, A.; Christol, P.

    2015-06-01

    This paper focuses on the InSb material potential for the elaboration of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for high performance infrared imaging applications, both in passive or active mode. The first InSb electron-APD structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy, processed and electrically characterized. The device performances are at the state of the art for the InSb epi-diode technology, with a dark current density J(-50 mV) = 32 nA/cm2 at 77 K. Then, a pure electron injection was performed, and an avalanche gain, increasing exponentially, was observed with a gain value near 3 at -4 V at 77 K. The Okuto-Crowell model was used to determine the electron ionization coefficient α(E) in InSb, and the InSb gain behavior is compared with the one of InAs and MCT APDs.

  12. Investigation of a photon counting avalanche photodiode from Hamamatsu photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britvitch, I.; Musienko, Y.; Renker, D.

    2006-11-01

    Multi-cell avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in Geiger mode have been shown to be a very promising alternative to photomultiplier tubes for the detection of single photons at room temperature. Like a photomultiplier they have high gain and a fast rise time and they are insensitive to pickup. Beyond it they operate in high magnetic fields, are compact and need a relatively low bias voltage. It is expected that the MOS production technique makes them cheap. Recently PSI and Hamamatsu Photonics worked together for the development of a radiation-hard APD for CMS ECAL and had very good success. The development continued based on a similar design for a photon counting multielement Geiger-mode APD with an area of 1×1 mm 2. The properties of this device have been measured and will be reported.

  13. Studies of avalanche photodiodes for scintillating fibre tracking readout

    SciTech Connect

    Fenker, H; Thomas, J

    1993-01-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) operating in ``Geiger Mode`` have been studied in a fibre tracking readout environment. A fast recharge circuit has been developed for high rate data taking, and results obtained from a model fibre tracker in the test beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented. A high rate calibrated light source has been developed using a commercially available laser diode and has been used to measure the efficiency of the devices. The transmission of the light from a 1mm fibre onto a 0.5mm diameter APD surface has been identified as the main problem in the use of these particular devices for scintillating fibre tracking in the Superconducting Supercollider environment. Solutions to this problem are proposed.

  14. Systematic afterpulsing-estimation algorithms for gated avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Wiechers, Carlos; Ramírez-Alarcón, Roberto; Muñiz-Sánchez, Oscar R; Yépiz, Pablo Daniel; Arredondo-Santos, Alejandro; Hirsch, Jorge G; U'Ren, Alfred B

    2016-09-10

    We present a method designed to efficiently extract optical signals from InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operated in gated mode. In particular, our method permits an estimation of the fraction of counts that actually results from the signal being measured, as opposed to being produced by noise mechanisms, specifically by afterpulsing. Our method in principle allows the use of InGaAs APDs at high detection efficiencies, with the full operation bandwidth, either with or without resorting to the application of a dead-time. As we show below, our method can be used in configurations where afterpulsing exceeds the genuine signal by orders of magnitude, even near saturation. The algorithms that we have developed are suitable to be used either in real-time processing of raw detection probabilities or in post-processing applications, after a calibration step has been performed. The algorithms that we propose here can complement technologies designed for the reduction of afterpulsing. PMID:27661361

  15. Light induced tunnel effect in CNT-Si photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramo, C.; Ambrosio, M.; Bonavolontà, C.; Boscardin, M.; Castrucci, P.; Crivellari, M.; De Crescenzi, M.; de Lisio, C.; Fiandrini, E.; Grossi, V.; Maddalena, P.; Passacantando, M.; Santucci, S.; Scarselli, M.; Valentini, A.; Valentino, M.

    2016-07-01

    Negative differential resistance (NDR), for which the current is a decreasing function of the voltage, has been observed in the current-voltage curves of several types of structures. We measured tunnelling current and NDR by illuminating large area heterojunction obtained by growing Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes on the surface of n-doped Silicon substrate. In the absence of light, the current flow is null until a junction threshold of about 2.4 V is reached, beyond which the dark current flows at room temperature with a very low intensity of few nA. When illuminated, a current of tens nA is observed at a drain voltage of about 1.5 V. At higher voltage the current intensity decreases according to a negative resistance of the order of MΩ. In the following we report details of tunneling photodiode realized and negative resistance characteristics.

  16. Application of cooled IR focal plane arrays in thermographic cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollheim, B.; Gaertner, M.; Dammass, G.; Krausz, M.

    2016-05-01

    The usage of cooled IR Focal Plane Array detectors in thermographic or radiometric thermal imaging cameras, respectively, leads to special demands on these detectors, which are discussed in this paper. For a radiometric calibration of wide temperature measuring ranges from -40 up to 2,000 °C, a linear and time-stable response of the photodiode array has to be ensured for low as well as high radiation intensities. The maximum detectable photon flux is limited by the allowed shift of the photodiode's bias that should remain in the linear part of the photodiode's I(V) curve even for the highest photocurrent. This limits the measurable highest object temperature in practice earlier than the minimum possible integration time. Higher temperature measuring ranges are realized by means of neutral or spectral filters. Defense and Security applications normally provide images at the given ambient temperature with small hot spots. The usage of radiometric thermal imagers for thermography often feature larger objects with a high temperature contrast to the background. This should not generate artifacts in the image, like pixel patterns or stripes. Further issues concern the clock regime or the sub-frame capabilities of the Read-Out-Circuit and the frame rate dependency of the signal. We will briefly describe the demands on the lens design for thermal imaging cameras when using cooled IR Focal Plane Array detectors with large apertures.

  17. Photo sensor array technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossman, M. W.; Young, V. F.; Beall, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an improved capability photo sensor array imager for use in a Viking '75 type facsimile camera is presented. This imager consists of silicon photodiodes and lead sulfide detectors to cover a spectral range from 0.4 to 2.7 microns. An optical design specifying filter configurations and convergence angles is described. Three electronics design approaches: AC-chopped light, DC-dual detector, and DC-single detector, are investigated. Experimental and calculated results are compared whenever possible using breadboard testing and tolerance analysis techniques. Results show that any design used must be forgiving of the relative instability of lead sulfide detectors. A final design using lead sulfide detectors and associated electronics is implemented by fabrication of a hybrid prototype device. Test results of this device show a good agreement with calculated values.

  18. Kokkos Array

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards Daniel Sunderland, Harold Carter

    2012-09-12

    The Kokkos Array library implements shared-memory array data structures and parallel task dispatch interfaces for data-parallel computational kernels that are performance-portable to multicore-CPU and manycore-accelerator (e.g., GPGPU) devices.

  19. Systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.R.; McCabe, A.P.H.; Vrquhart, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Selected Contents of this book are: Efficient Systolic Arrays for the Solution of Toeplitz Systems, The Derivation and Utilization of Bit Level Systolic Array Architectures, an Efficient Systolic Array for Distance Computation Required in a Video-Codec Based Motion-Detection, On Realizations of Least-Squares Estimation and Kalman Filtering by Systolic Arrays, and Comparison of Systolic and SIMD Architectures for Computer Vision Computations.

  20. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Schotter, Joerg; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Thomas P.

    2009-08-11

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  1. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Schotter, Joerg; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Thomas P.

    2007-03-13

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  2. Millimeter-wave signal generation using an integrated mode-locked semiconductor laser and photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, G.A.; Mar, A.; Hietala, V.; Zolper, J.

    1997-02-01

    A compact optoelectronic integrated circuit for generation of mm-wave frequencies is demonstrated. A monolithically integrated semiconductor ring laser, optical amplifier and waveguide photodiode are used to generate electrical signals up to 85.2 GHz.

  3. Investigation of the avalanche photodiodes for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter operated at high gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiters, K.; Diemoz, M.; Godinovic, N.; Ingram, Q.; Longo, E.; Montecchi, M.; Musienko, Y.; Nicol, S.; Patel, B.; Renker, D.; Reucroft, S.; Rusack, R.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Singovski, A.; Soric, I.; Swain, J.; Vikas, P.

    2001-04-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) with improved characteristics were developed by Hamamatsu Photonics for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS experiment. This report presents measurements of the latest generation of APDs, which are capable to operate at high gains (˜2000).

  4. Development of printed ITO coatings on PET and PEN foil for flexible organic photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusing, S.; Oliveira, P. W.; Kraker, E.; Haase, A.; Palfinger, C.; Veith, M.

    2008-04-01

    ITO (tin doped indium oxide) coatings with a sheet resistance of 2 to 3 kΩ(square) were produced by gravure printing process on PET and PEN foil. The printing paste consisted of ITO nanoparticles which were dispersed in a solvent by using a surfactant. The dispersion was mixed with a binder and a photo initiator before printing. The printed films were hardened under UV-irradiation at low temperatures (< 130°C). The sheet resistance could be decreased by heat treatment at 120°C under forming gas atmosphere (N II/H II) to 1.5 kΩ(square). The transmission of the ITO coated PET and PEN foils is more than 80 % in the visible range. The ITO films were directly used as the bottom electrode in an organic photodiode (OPD). The setup of the OPD originates from the well known Tang photodiode, consisting of a stacked layer of copper phthalocyanine (p-type material) and perylene tetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (n-type material). The photodiodes are characterised via current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The performance of the photodiodes with printed ITO on plastic substrates could be improved by the deposition of a PEDOT/PSS layer (Baytron (R) P) on the ITO coated foils and was then comparable to the performance of photodiodes with semi-transparent gold as anode on PET substrates. These results demonstrate the suitability of the printed ITO layers as anode for organic photodiodes.

  5. Nanostructured organic-inorganic photodiodes with high rectification ratio.

    PubMed

    Karan, Santanu; Mallik, Biswanath

    2008-12-10

    High quality organic-inorganic heterojunction photodiodes based on nanostructured copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) and intrinsic zinc oxide (i-ZnO) have been fabricated. The i-ZnO thin films/layers were grown by RF magnetron sputtering on clean indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. These films have been characterized by optical absorption and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). CuPc thin films deposited at room temperature on i-ZnO have exhibited a change in their surface morphology with the post-deposition annealing temperature under normal atmosphere. The electrical dark conductivity and the photoconductivity of ITO/i-ZnO/CuPc/Au sandwich structures have been measured under various photoexcitation intensities using a xenon light source. The devices have shown excellent reproducibility of their electrical characteristics and high rectification ratios. The highest rectification ratio is nearly 831 calculated above the threshold voltage at room temperature for the sample annealed at 250 °C (i.e. Pc 250). The effects of the annealing temperature of CuPc on the surface morphology, rectification ratio, and optical properties have been discussed. PMID:21730664

  6. Nanostructured organic inorganic photodiodes with high rectification ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karan, Santanu; Mallik, Biswanath

    2008-12-01

    High quality organic-inorganic heterojunction photodiodes based on nanostructured copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) and intrinsic zinc oxide (i-ZnO) have been fabricated. The i-ZnO thin films/layers were grown by RF magnetron sputtering on clean indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. These films have been characterized by optical absorption and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). CuPc thin films deposited at room temperature on i-ZnO have exhibited a change in their surface morphology with the post-deposition annealing temperature under normal atmosphere. The electrical dark conductivity and the photoconductivity of ITO/i-ZnO/CuPc/Au sandwich structures have been measured under various photoexcitation intensities using a xenon light source. The devices have shown excellent reproducibility of their electrical characteristics and high rectification ratios. The highest rectification ratio is nearly 831 calculated above the threshold voltage at room temperature for the sample annealed at 250 °C (i.e. Pc 250). The effects of the annealing temperature of CuPc on the surface morphology, rectification ratio, and optical properties have been discussed.

  7. Characterization of midwave infrared InSb avalanche photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Abautret, J. Evirgen, A.; Perez, J. P.; Christol, P.; Rothman, J.; Cordat, A.

    2015-06-28

    This paper focuses on the InSb material potential for the elaboration of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for high performance infrared imaging applications, both in passive or active mode. The first InSb electron-APD structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy, processed and electrically characterized. The device performances are at the state of the art for the InSb epi-diode technology, with a dark current density J(−50 mV) = 32 nA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. Then, a pure electron injection was performed, and an avalanche gain, increasing exponentially, was observed with a gain value near 3 at −4 V at 77 K. The Okuto–Crowell model was used to determine the electron ionization coefficient α(E) in InSb, and the InSb gain behavior is compared with the one of InAs and MCT APDs.

  8. Capacity of avalanche-photodiode-detected pulse position modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Ceniceros, Juan M.

    2000-05-01

    The capacity is determined for an optical channel employing Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) and an Avalanche PhotoDiode (APD) detector. This channel is different from the usual optical channel in that the detector output is characterized by a Webb-plus-Gaussian distribution, not a Poison distribution. The capacity is expressed as a function of the PPM order, slot width, laser dead time, average number of incident signal and background photons received, and APD parameters. Based on a system using a laser and detector proposed for X2000 second delivery, numerical results provide upper bounds on the data rate and level of background noise that the channel can support while operating at a given BER. For the particular case studied, the capacity-maximizing PPM order is near 2048 for nighttime reception and 16 for daytime reception. Reed-Solomon codes can handle background levels 2.3 to 7.6 dB below the ultimate level that can be handled by codes operating at the Shannon limit.

  9. Capacity of avalanche-photodiode-detected pulse position modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, GuiFen; Yin, FuChang

    2002-08-01

    The capacity of channel is tha highest data rate it can reliably support.Whenever the data rate is less than the capacity of the channel, there exists an error-correcting code for the channel that has an output probability of error as small as desired, and coversely, whenever the data rate is more than the capacity the probability oferror is bounded away from zero. The capacity is determined an optical channel employing Pulse Position modulation (PPM) and an Avalanche Photodiode (APD) detector. The channel is different from the usual optical channel in that the detector output is characterized by a webb-plus-gaussian distribution, not a poisson distribution. The capacity is expressed as a funtion of the PPM order, solt width ,laser dead time , average number of incident singal and background photons received, and APD parameters. Based on a system using a laser and detector proposed for x2000 second delivery, numerical results provide upper bounds on the data rate and level of background noise that the channel can support while operating at a given BER For the particular case studied, the capacity-maximizing PPM order is near 2048 for nighttime reception and 16 for daytime reception. Reed-Solomon codes can hanndle backgroun levels 2.3 to 7.6 dB below the ultimate level that can be handled by codes operating at the Shannon limit.

  10. Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1991-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.

  11. Characterization of Advanced Avalanche Photodiodes for Water Vapor Lidar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Halama, Gary E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2000-01-01

    Development of advanced differential absorption lidar (DIAL) receivers is very important to increase the accuracy of atmospheric water vapor measurements. A major component of such receivers is the optical detector. In the near-infrared wavelength range avalanche photodiodes (APD's) are the best choice for higher signal-to-noise ratio, where there are many water vapor absorption lines. In this study, characterization experiments were performed to evaluate a group of silicon-based APD's. The APD's have different structures representative of different manufacturers. The experiments include setups to calibrate these devices, as well as characterization of the effects of voltage bias and temperature on the responsivity, surface scans, noise measurements, and frequency response measurements. For each experiment, the setup, procedure, data analysis, and results are given and discussed. This research was done to choose a suitable APD detector for the development of an advanced atmospheric water vapor differential absorption lidar detection system operating either at 720, 820, or 940 nm. The results point out the benefits of using the super low ionization ratio (SLIK) structure APD for its lower noise-equivalent power, which was found to be on the order of 2 to 4 fW/Hz(sup (1/2)), with an appropriate optical system and electronics. The water vapor detection systems signal-to-noise ratio will increase by a factor of 10.

  12. High Response in a Tellurium-Supersaturated Silicon Photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-Yuan; Huang, Yong-Guang; Liu, De-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Zhu, Hong-Liang

    2013-03-01

    Single crystalline silicon supersaturated with tellurium are formed by ion implantation followed by excimer nanosecond pulsed laser melting (PLM). The lattice damaged by ion implantation is restored during the PLM process, and dopants are effectively activated. The hyperdoped layer exhibits high and broad optical absorption from 400 to 2500nm. The n+ p photodiodes fabricated from these materials show high response (6.9A/W at 1000nm) with reverse bias 12 V at room temperature. The corresponding cut-off wavelength is 1258nm. The amount of gain and extended cut-off wavelength both increase with increasing reverse bias voltage; above 100% external quantum efficiency is observed even at a reverse bias of 1 V. The cut-off wavelength with 0 V bias is shorter than the commercial silicon detector. This implies that the Burstein-Moss shift is due to hyperdoping. The amount of the extended cut-off wavelength increases with increasing reverse bias voltage, suggesting existence of the Franz—Keldysh effect.

  13. Characterization of novel Hamamatsu Multi Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays for the GlueX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Orlando; Rojas, Rimsky; Kuleshov, Sergey V.; Hakobyan, Hayk; Toro, Alam; Brooks, William K.

    2013-12-01

    The novel Hamamatsu Multi Pixel Photon Counter Array S12045(X) is an array of 16 individual MPPCs (3x3 mm{sup 2}) (further in the paper MPPC array channel) each with 3600 G-APD (Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes) pixels (50x50 [{micro}m{sup 2}]). Each MPPC in the array works with its individual reverse bias voltage mode (around 70 V). The paper summarizes the characterization process of MPPC arrays used in GlueX experiment (Hall D, Jefferson Lab). We studied the main features of each MPPC array channel for 2800 MPPC arrays at different temperatures. Two measurement stations were built to extract gain, breakdown voltage, photo detection efficiency (PDE), optical crosstalk and dark rate for each MPPC array channel. The hardware and the data analysis are described, which includes new analytical expressions to obtain the mean number of photo-electrons and optical crosstalk. The dynamical behavior of characterization parameters is presented as well.

  14. Enhanced Red and Near Infrared Detection in Flow Cytometry Using Avalanche Photodiodes

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, William G.; Varadi, Gyula; Entine, Gerald; Podniesinski, Edward; Wallace, Paul K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Polychromatic flow cytometry enables detailed identification of cell phenotype using multiple fluorescent parameters. The photomultiplier tubes used to detect fluorescence in current instruments limit the sensitivity in the long wavelength spectral range. We demonstrate the flow cytometric applications of silicon avalanche photodiodes, which have improved red sensitivity and a working fluorescence detection range beyond 1000 nm. Methods A comparison of the wavelength dependent performance of the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tube was carried out using pulsed light emitting diode sources, calibrated test beads and biological samples. A breadboard flow cytometer test bench was constructed to compare the performance of photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiode detectors. The avalanche photodiode used an additional amplifier stage to match the internal gain of the photomultiplier tube. Results The resolution of the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tube was compared for flow cytometry applications using a pulsed light emitting diode source over the 500 nm to 1060 nm spectral range. These measurements showed the relative changes in the signal to noise performance of the APD and PMT over a broad spectral range. Both the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tubes were used to measure the signal to noise response for a set of 6 peak calibration beads over the 530 to 800 nm wavelength range. CD4 positive cells labeled with antibody conjugated phycoerythrin or 800 nm quantum dots were identified by simultaneous detection using the avalanche photodiode and the photomultiplier tube. The ratios of the intensities of the CD4− and CD4+ populations were found to be similar for both detectors in the visible wavelengths, but only the avalanche photodiode was able to separate these populations at wavelengths above 800 nm. Conclusions These measurements illustrate the differences in APD and PMT performance at different wavelengths and signal

  15. Downsampling Photodetector Array with Windowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patawaran, Ferze D.; Farr, William H.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit

    2012-01-01

    In a photon counting detector array, each pixel in the array produces an electrical pulse when an incident photon on that pixel is detected. Detection and demodulation of an optical communication signal that modulated the intensity of the optical signal requires counting the number of photon arrivals over a given interval. As the size of photon counting photodetector arrays increases, parallel processing of all the pixels exceeds the resources available in current application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and gate array (GA) technology; the desire for a high fill factor in avalanche photodiode (APD) detector arrays also precludes this. Through the use of downsampling and windowing portions of the detector array, the processing is distributed between the ASIC and GA. This allows demodulation of the optical communication signal incident on a large photon counting detector array, as well as providing architecture amenable to algorithmic changes. The detector array readout ASIC functions as a parallel-to-serial converter, serializing the photodetector array output for subsequent processing. Additional downsampling functionality for each pixel is added to this ASIC. Due to the large number of pixels in the array, the readout time of the entire photodetector is greater than the time between photon arrivals; therefore, a downsampling pre-processing step is done in order to increase the time allowed for the readout to occur. Each pixel drives a small counter that is incremented at every detected photon arrival or, equivalently, the charge in a storage capacitor is incremented. At the end of a user-configurable counting period (calculated independently from the ASIC), the counters are sampled and cleared. This downsampled photon count information is then sent one counter word at a time to the GA. For a large array, processing even the downsampled pixel counts exceeds the capabilities of the GA. Windowing of the array, whereby several subsets of pixels are designated

  16. Linear array CCD sensor for multispectral camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabbal, J.; Boucharlat, G.; Capppechi, F.; Benoit-Gonin, R.

    1985-10-01

    Design, operational and performance features are described for a new 2048 element CCD array in a ceramic package for beam sharing focal plane arrangements on remote sensing satellites. The device, labeled the TH 7805, furnishes 13 micron square pixels at 13 microns pitch over the 480-930 nm interval, two video outputs and a single-phase, buried channel CCD register. Each n-p photodiode is linked to a Si coating by a gate storing the photocharges. Crosstalk between elements is less than 1 percent and the rms noise level is 180 micro-V. The array output sensitivity is 1.37 micro-V/electron, linearity to less than 1 percent, and a 10 MHz maximum data rate. The entire sensor package draws under 150 mW power from the spacecraft. The TH 7805 has withstood over 10 krads in tests without exhibiting faults.

  17. Advanced active quenching circuits for single-photon avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipčević, M.; Christensen, B. G.; Kwiat, P. G.; Gauthier, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    Commercial photon-counting modules, often based on actively quenched solid-state avalanche photodiode sensors, are used in wide variety of applications. Manufacturers characterize their detectors by specifying a small set of parameters, such as detection efficiency, dead time, dark counts rate, afterpulsing probability and single photon arrival time resolution (jitter), however they usually do not specify the conditions under which these parameters are constant or present a sufficient description. In this work, we present an in-depth analysis of the active quenching process and identify intrinsic limitations and engineering challenges. Based on that, we investigate the range of validity of the typical parameters used by two commercial detectors. We identify an additional set of imperfections that must be specified in order to sufficiently characterize the behavior of single-photon counting detectors in realistic applications. The additional imperfections include rate-dependence of the dead time, jitter, detection delay shift, and "twilighting." Also, the temporal distribution of afterpulsing and various artifacts of the electronics are important. We find that these additional non-ideal behaviors can lead to unexpected effects or strong deterioration of the system's performance. Specifically, we discuss implications of these new findings in a few applications in which single-photon detectors play a major role: the security of a quantum cryptographic protocol, the quality of single-photon-based random number generators and a few other applications. Finally, we describe an example of an optimized avalanche quenching circuit for a high-rate quantum key distribution system based on time-bin entangled photons.

  18. Wavelength-band-tuning photodiodes by using various metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J D; Chan, Y D; Chou, T C

    2015-11-20

    Wavelength-band tuning was easily achieved in this work by depositing various metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on silicon p-n junction photodiodes (PDs). The normalization spectrum of the PDs deposited with gold (Au) NPs reveals a high-wavelength pass characteristic; the PDs with silver (Ag) NPs coating behave as a low-wavelength pass, and the PDs with Au/Ag bimetallic NPs appear as a band-wavelength pass PD with a full width at half maximum of 450 ∼ 630 nm. The issue of wavelength-band tuning is due to the different plasmonic resonance wavelengths associated with various metallic NPs. The extinction plot shows the Au NPs have a longer resonant wavelength of about 545 nm, leading to the incident light with a wavelength near or longer than 545 nm scattered by the Au NPs, hence a high-wavelength pass PD. The PDs with Ag NPs, due to the Ag NPs, exhibit a short resonant wavelength of 430 nm, and the short-wavelength incident light is absorbed near the silicon (Si) surface, where the Ag NPs is atop it. The shorter-wavelength incident light is enhanced by the plasmonic resonance of Ag NPs, making a low-wavelength PD. The Au/Ag NPs presents a resonant wavelength of 500 nm between the Au and Ag NPs. For the incident light with a wavelength close to 500 nm, a constructive interference causes a substantial increase in the local electromagnetic field, hence leading to a band-wavelength pass PD. PMID:26508114

  19. Wavelength-band-tuning photodiodes by using various metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J D; Chan, Y D; Chou, T C

    2015-11-20

    Wavelength-band tuning was easily achieved in this work by depositing various metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on silicon p-n junction photodiodes (PDs). The normalization spectrum of the PDs deposited with gold (Au) NPs reveals a high-wavelength pass characteristic; the PDs with silver (Ag) NPs coating behave as a low-wavelength pass, and the PDs with Au/Ag bimetallic NPs appear as a band-wavelength pass PD with a full width at half maximum of 450 ∼ 630 nm. The issue of wavelength-band tuning is due to the different plasmonic resonance wavelengths associated with various metallic NPs. The extinction plot shows the Au NPs have a longer resonant wavelength of about 545 nm, leading to the incident light with a wavelength near or longer than 545 nm scattered by the Au NPs, hence a high-wavelength pass PD. The PDs with Ag NPs, due to the Ag NPs, exhibit a short resonant wavelength of 430 nm, and the short-wavelength incident light is absorbed near the silicon (Si) surface, where the Ag NPs is atop it. The shorter-wavelength incident light is enhanced by the plasmonic resonance of Ag NPs, making a low-wavelength PD. The Au/Ag NPs presents a resonant wavelength of 500 nm between the Au and Ag NPs. For the incident light with a wavelength close to 500 nm, a constructive interference causes a substantial increase in the local electromagnetic field, hence leading to a band-wavelength pass PD.

  20. High-Operating-Temperature HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, J.; Baier, N.; Ballet, P.; Mollard, L.; Fournier, M.; Gout, J. S.; Chamonal, J.-P.

    2009-08-01

    In this communication we report the first results of electro-optical characterization of planar heterostructure HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes (APDs), which enables the operation of APDs at high gain, at low bias, and with low dark current and/or at high operating temperature (HOT). The APD is based on a heterostructure in which the photons are detected in a wide-band-gap layer, and the photoelectrons are amplified in a vertical junction in a confined narrow-gap layer. The dark diffusion current and thermal background sensitivity of the device are limited by using a thin narrow-band-gap amplification layer. In addition, the defect-limited dark current is also expected to be reduced due to the reduced volume of the narrow-band-gap depletion layer. The electro-optical performance was characterized at T = 80 K and T = 200 K for two devices with a nominal thickness of the amplification layer of w = 100 nm and 500 nm, realized in x Cd = 0.3 Hg-vacancy-doped layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The measurements show an average gain of < M< = 10 at a reverse bias of 5 V, which is slightly reduced compared with a conventional APD with x Cd = 0.3. The thermal diffusion current measured at low reverse bias, V b = 0.1 V, and at T = 200 K is about 0.1 mA/cm2 to 0.3 mA/cm2, which is a factor of 50 lower than standard x Cd = 0.3 n-on- p APDs. The quantum efficiency due to absorption in the gain layer is high (QEpeak > 30%), although no antireflecting coating was used, indicating that the device can also be used for high-operating-temperature thermal detection.

  1. Wavelength-band-tuning photodiodes by using various metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. D.; Chan, Y. D.; Chou, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    Wavelength-band tuning was easily achieved in this work by depositing various metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on silicon p-n junction photodiodes (PDs). The normalization spectrum of the PDs deposited with gold (Au) NPs reveals a high-wavelength pass characteristic; the PDs with silver (Ag) NPs coating behave as a low-wavelength pass, and the PDs with Au/Ag bimetallic NPs appear as a band-wavelength pass PD with a full width at half maximum of 450 ∼ 630 nm. The issue of wavelength-band tuning is due to the different plasmonic resonance wavelengths associated with various metallic NPs. The extinction plot shows the Au NPs have a longer resonant wavelength of about 545 nm, leading to the incident light with a wavelength near or longer than 545 nm scattered by the Au NPs, hence a high-wavelength pass PD. The PDs with Ag NPs, due to the Ag NPs, exhibit a short resonant wavelength of 430 nm, and the short-wavelength incident light is absorbed near the silicon (Si) surface, where the Ag NPs is atop it. The shorter-wavelength incident light is enhanced by the plasmonic resonance of Ag NPs, making a low-wavelength PD. The Au/Ag NPs presents a resonant wavelength of 500 nm between the Au and Ag NPs. For the incident light with a wavelength close to 500 nm, a constructive interference causes a substantial increase in the local electromagnetic field, hence leading to a band-wavelength pass PD.

  2. Breadboard linear array scan imager using LSI solid-state technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracy, R. A.; Brennan, J. A.; Frankel, D. G.; Noll, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of large scale integration photodiode arrays in a linear array scan (pushbroom) breadboard was evaluated for application to multispectral remote sensing of the earth's resources. The technical approach, implementation, and test results of the program are described. Several self scanned linear array visible photodetector focal plane arrays were fabricated and evaluated in an optical bench configuration. A 1728-detector array operating in four bands (0.5 - 1.1 micrometer) was evaluated for noise, spectral response, dynamic range, crosstalk, MTF, noise equivalent irradiance, linearity, and image quality. Other results include image artifact data, temporal characteristics, radiometric accuracy, calibration experience, chip alignment, and array fabrication experience. Special studies and experimentation were included in long array fabrication and real-time image processing for low-cost ground stations, including the use of computer image processing. High quality images were produced and all objectives of the program were attained.

  3. The CDX-U multilayer mirror array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovea, M.; Stutman, D.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Finkenthal, M.; Munsat, T.; Menard, J.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Jones, B.; Spaleta, J.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.; Hoffman, D.

    1999-11-01

    A prototype array of miniature, multilayer mirror/AXUV photodiode monochromators is being installed on CDX-U for fast, spectrally resolved imaging of the USXR impurity line emission. At present, the array is equipped with ten Mo/Si mirrors tuned to the intrinsic O VI line emission at 170 Å. The O distribution thus obtained is used in conjunction with other profile diagnostics on CDX-U to assess the intrinsic impurity transport, while the emission fluctuations are used to trace the MHD activity outside the q=1 surface. In a second stage of the research, the array will be equipped with Ni/C mirrors tuned to the 2p-3d Li-like Ne transitions at 98 Å, for time-dependent transport measurements using injected Ne gas. Further on, the array will be used to measure the Li distribution in CDX-U, during planned liquid Li divertor experiments. Initial results obtained with the array in the O VI configuration will be presented. Work supported by DoE grant No. DE-FG02-86ER52314ATDoE and DoE contract No. DE-AC02-76-CHO-3073.

  4. Four-layer depth-of-interaction PET detector for high resolution PET using a multi-pixel S8550 avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Oda, Ichiro; Shibuya, Kengo; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga; Kitamura, Keishi; Murayama, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are being used as photodetectors in positron emission tomography (PET) because they have many advantages over photomultipliers (PMTs) typically used in PET detectors. We have developed a PET detector that consists of a multi-pixel APD and a 6×6×4 array of 1.46×1.46 mm 2×4.5 m LYSO crystals for a small animal PET scanner. The detector can identify four-layer depth of interaction (DOI) with a position-sensitive APD coupled to the backside of a crystal array by just an optimized reflector arrangement. Since scintillation lights are shared among many pixels by the method, weaker signals in APD pixels far from the interacting crystals are affected by noise. To evaluate the performance of the four-layer DOI detector with the APD and the influence of electrical noise on our method, we constructed a prototype DOI detector and tested its performance. We found, except for crystal elements on the edge of the crystal array, all crystal elements could be identified from the 2D position histogram. An energy resolution of 16.9% was obtained for the whole crystal array of the APD detector. The results of noise dependence of detector performances indicated that the DOI detector using the APD could achieve sufficient performance even when using application-specific integrated circuits.

  5. Low-Noise Large-Area Photoreceivers with Low Capacitance Photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Abhay M. (Inventor); Datta, Shubhashish (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A quad photoreceiver includes a low capacitance quad InGaAs p-i-n photodiode structure formed on an InP (100) substrate. The photodiode includes a substrate providing a buffer layer having a metal contact on its bottom portion serving as a common cathode for receiving a bias voltage, and successive layers deposited on its top portion, the first layer being drift layer, the second being an absorption layer, the third being a cap layer divided into four quarter pie shaped sections spaced apart, with metal contacts being deposited on outermost top portions of each section to provide output terminals, the top portions being active regions for detecting light. Four transimpedance amplifiers have input terminals electrically connected to individual output terminals of each p-i-n photodiode.

  6. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Siwak, N. P.; Fan, X. Z.; Ghodssi, R.; Kanakaraju, S.; Richardson, C. J. K.

    2014-10-06

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We have fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.

  7. Characterization of GaSb photodiode for gamma-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, Bor-Chau; Prout, David L.; Liang, Baolai; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2016-08-01

    We extract the carrier mobility-lifetime products for epitaxially grown GaSb and demonstrate the spectral response to gamma rays of a GaSb p–i–n photodiode with a 2-µm-thick absorption region. Under exposure from 55Fe and 241Am radioactive sources at 140 K, the photodiode exhibits full width at half maximum energy resolutions of 1.238 ± 0.028 and 1.789 ± 0.057 keV at 5.89 and 59.5 keV, respectively. We observe good linearity of the GaSb photodiode across a range of photon energies. The electronic noise and charge trapping noise are measured and shown to be the main components limiting the measured energy resolutions.

  8. Characterization of GaSb photodiode for gamma-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, Bor-Chau; Prout, David L.; Liang, Baolai; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2016-08-01

    We extract the carrier mobility-lifetime products for epitaxially grown GaSb and demonstrate the spectral response to gamma rays of a GaSb p-i-n photodiode with a 2-µm-thick absorption region. Under exposure from 55Fe and 241Am radioactive sources at 140 K, the photodiode exhibits full width at half maximum energy resolutions of 1.238 ± 0.028 and 1.789 ± 0.057 keV at 5.89 and 59.5 keV, respectively. We observe good linearity of the GaSb photodiode across a range of photon energies. The electronic noise and charge trapping noise are measured and shown to be the main components limiting the measured energy resolutions.

  9. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwak, N. P.; Fan, X. Z.; Kanakaraju, S.; Richardson, C. J. K.; Ghodssi, R.

    2014-10-01

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We have fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.

  10. High performance waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si linear mode avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Nicholas J D; Derose, Christopher T; Brock, Reinhard W; Starbuck, Andrew L; Pomerene, Andrew T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S

    2016-08-22

    We present experimental results for a selective epitaxially grown Ge-on-Si separate absorption and charge multiplication (SACM) integrated waveguide coupled avalanche photodiode (APD) compatible with our silicon photonics platform. Epitaxially grown Ge-on-Si waveguide-coupled linear mode avalanche photodiodes with varying lateral multiplication regions and different charge implant dimensions are fabricated and their illuminated device characteristics and high-speed performance is measured. We report a record gain-bandwidth product of 432 GHz for our highest performing waveguide-coupled avalanche photodiode operating at 1510nm. Bit error rate measurements show operation with BER< 10-12, in the range from -18.3 dBm to -12 dBm received optical power into a 50 Ω load and open eye diagrams with 13 Gbps pseudo-random data at 1550 nm. PMID:27557187

  11. Analysis of the photodiode boundary layer transition indicator. LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, D.W.; Wilken, A.C.; Payne, J.L.

    1994-06-01

    The photodiode transition indicator is a device which has been successfully used to determine the onset of boundary layer transition on numerous hypersonic flight vehicles. The exact source of the electromagnetic radiation detected by the photodiode at transition was not understood. In some cases early saturation of the device occurred, and the device failed to detect transition. Analyses have been performed to determine the source of the radiation producing the photodiode signal. The results of these analyses indicate that the most likely source of the radiation is blackbody emission from the heatshield material bordering the quartz window of the device. Good agreement between flight data and calculations based on this radiation source has been obtained. Analyses also indicate that the most probable source of the radiation causing early saturation is blackbody radiation from carbon particles which break away from the nosetip during the ablation process.

  12. 25 Gbps silicon photonics multi-mode fiber link with highly alignment tolerant vertically illuminated germanium photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Tadashi; Wakayama, Yuki; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Oda, Katsuya; Sagawa, Misuzu; Takemoto, Takashi; Nomoto, Etsuko; Arimoto, Hideo; Tanaka, Shigehisa

    2015-02-01

    For a multi mode fiber optical link, a high speed silicon photonics receiver based on a highly alignment tolerant vertically illuminated germanium photodiode was developed. The germanium photodiode has 20 GHz bandwidth and responsivity of 0.5 A/W with highly alignment tolerance for passive optical assembly. The receiver achieves 25 Gbps error free operation after 100 m multi mode fiber transmission.

  13. A near infrared organic photodiode with gain at low bias voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Ian H; Crone, Brian K

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate an organic photodiode with near infrared optical response out to about 1100 run with a gain of {approx}10 at 1000 run under 5V reverse bias. The diodes employ a soluble naphthalocyanine with a peak absorption coefficient of {approx}10{sup 5} cm{sup -1} at 1000 nm. In contrast to most organic photodiodes, no exciton dissociating material is used. At zero bias, the diodes are inefficient with an external quantum efficiency of {approx} 10{sup -2}. In reverse bias, large gain occurs and is linear with bias voltage above 4V. The observed gain is consistent with a photoconductive gain mechanism.

  14. Silicon photodiode with selective Zr/Si coating for extreme ultraviolet spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Aruev, P N; Barysheva, Mariya M; Ber, B Ya; Zabrodskaya, N V; Zabrodskii, V V; Lopatin, A Ya; Pestov, Alexey E; Petrenko, M V; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, Nikolai N; Sukhanov, V L; Chkhalo, Nikolai I

    2012-10-31

    The procedure of manufacturing silicon photodiodes with an integrated Zr/Si filter for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range is developed. A setup for measuring the sensitivity profile of detectors with spatial resolution better than 100 {mu}m is fabricated. The optical properties of silicon photodiodes in the EUV and visible spectral ranges are investigated. Some characteristics of SPD-100UV diodes with Zr/Si coating and without it, as well as of AXUV-100 diodes, are compared. In all types of detectors a narrow region beyond the operating aperture is found to be sensitive to the visible light. (photodetectors)

  15. 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for ultraviolet flame detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.

    2015-10-01

    In the last few years silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as an appropriate material for the detection of very low ultraviolet photon fluxes even at elevated temperatures. In this paper we report on the electro-optical characteristics of large area interdigit Ni2Si/4H-SiC photodiodes in TO metal can package with a suitable molded cap quartz window with high transmission in the ultraviolet wavelength range. The detectors have been tested for the detection of the ultraviolet component of the yellow flame emitted by a small candle, showing good sensitivity for very weak photon fluxes notwithstanding the linear operation condition of the photodiodes.

  16. Anti-reflective nano- and micro-structures on 4H-SiC for photodiodes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, nano-scale honeycomb-shaped structures with anti-reflection properties were successfully formed on SiC. The surface of 4H-SiC wafer after a conventional photolithography process was etched by inductively coupled plasma. We demonstrate that the reflection characteristic of the fabricated photodiodes has significantly reduced by 55% compared with the reference devices. As a result, the optical response Iillumination/Idark of the 4H-SiC photodiodes were enhanced up to 178%, which can be ascribed primarily to the improved light trapping in the proposed nano-scale texturing. PMID:21711744

  17. Improved x-ray detection and particle identification with avalanche photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Diepold, Marc Franke, Beatrice; Götzfried, Johannes; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Krauth, Julian J.; Mulhauser, Françoise; Nebel, Tobias; Pohl, Randolf; Fernandes, Luis M. P.; Amaro, Fernando D.; Gouvea, Andrea L.; Monteiro, Cristina M. B.; Santos, Joaquim M. F. dos; Machado, Jorge; Amaro, Pedro; Santos, José Paulo; and others

    2015-05-15

    Avalanche photodiodes are commonly used as detectors for low energy x-rays. In this work, we report on a fitting technique used to account for different detector responses resulting from photoabsorption in the various avalanche photodiode layers. The use of this technique results in an improvement of the energy resolution at 8.2 keV by up to a factor of 2 and corrects the timing information by up to 25 ns to account for space dependent electron drift time. In addition, this waveform analysis is used for particle identification, e.g., to distinguish between x-rays and MeV electrons in our experiment.

  18. Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current.

    PubMed

    DeRose, Christopher T; Trotter, Douglas C; Zortman, William A; Starbuck, Andrew L; Fisher, Moz; Watts, Michael R; Davids, Paul S

    2011-12-01

    We present a compact 1.3 × 4 μm2 Germanium waveguide photodiode, integrated in a CMOS compatible silicon photonics process flow. This photodiode has a best-in-class 3 dB cutoff frequency of 45 GHz, responsivity of 0.8 A/W and dark current of 3 nA. The low intrinsic capacitance of this device may enable the elimination of transimpedance amplifiers in future optical data communication receivers, creating ultra low power consumption optical communications. PMID:22273883

  19. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    SciTech Connect

    McGarry, M. B. Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Johnson, J.; Franz, P.

    2014-09-15

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 μm thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ∼6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

  20. Indium gallium arsenide imaging with smaller cameras, higher-resolution arrays, and greater material sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettenberg, Martin H.; Cohen, Marshall J.; Brubaker, Robert M.; Lange, Michael J.; O'Grady, Matthew T.; Olsen, Gregory H.

    2002-08-01

    Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) photodiode arrays have numerous commercial, industrial, and military applications. During the past 10 years, great strides have been made in the development of these devices starting with simple 256-element linear photodiode arrays and progressing to the large 640 x 512 element area arrays now readily available. Linear arrays are offered with 512 elements on a 25 micron pitch with no defective pixels, and are used in spectroscopic monitors for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems as well as in machine vision applications. A 320 x 240 solid-state array operates at room temperature, which allows development of a camera which is smaller than 25 cm3 in volume, weighs less than 100 g and uses less than 750 mW of power. Two dimensional focal plane arrays and cameras have been manufactured with detectivity, D*, greater than 1014 cm-(root)Hz/W at room temperature and have demonstrated the ability to image at night. Cameras are also critical tools for the assembly and performance monitoring of optical switches and add-drop multiplexers in the telecommunications industry. These same cameras are used for the inspection of silicon wafers and fine art, laser beam profiling, and metals manufacturing. By varying the Indium content, InGaAs photodiode arrays can be tailored to cover the entire short-wave infrared spectrum from 1.0 micron to 2.5 microns. InGaAs focal plane arrays and cameras sensitive to 2.0 micron wavelength light are now available in 320 x 240 formats.

  1. Photon crosstalk in pixel array for x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Giyoon; Kang, Dong-uk; Lee, Daehee; Cho, Gyuseong

    2014-09-01

    A large-area X-ray CMOS image sensor (LXCIS) is widely used in mammography, non-destructive inspection, and animal CT. For LXCIS, in spite of weakness such as low spatial and energy resolution, a Indirect method using scintillator like CsI(Tl) or Gd2O2S is still well-used because of low cost and easy manufacture. A photo-diode for X-ray imaging has large area about 50 ~ 200 um as compared with vision image sensors. That is because X-ray has feature of straight and very small light emission of a scintillator. Moreover, notwithstanding several structure like columnar, the scintillator still emit a diffusible light. This diffusible light from scintillator can make spatial crosstalk in X-ray photodiode array because of a large incidence angle. Moreover, comparing with vision image sensors, X-ray sensor doesn't have micro lens for gathering the photons to photo-diode. In this study, we simulated the affection of spatial crosstalk in X-ray sensor by comparing optical sensor. Additionally, the chip, which was fabricated in 0.18 um 1P5M process by Hynix in Korea, was tested to know the effect of spatial crosstalk by changing design parameters. From these works, we found out that spatial crosstalk is affected by pixel pitch, incident angle of photons, and micro lens on each pixels.

  2. Experimental analysis of a novel and low-cost pin photodiode dosimetry system for diagnostic radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazififard, Mohammad; Suh, Kune Y.; Mahmoudieh, Afshin

    2016-07-01

    Silicon PIN photodiode has recently found broad and exciting applications in the ionizing radiation dosimetry. In this study a compact and novel dosimetry system using a commercially available PIN photodiode (BPW34) has been experimentally tested for diagnostic radiology. The system was evaluated with clinical beams routinely used for diagnostic radiology and calibrated using a secondary reference standard. Measured dose with PIN photodiode (Air Kerma) varied from 10 to 430 μGy for tube voltages from 40 to 100 kVp and tube current from 0.4 to 40 mAs. The minimum detectable organ dose was estimated to be 10 μGy with 20% uncertainty. Results showed a linear correlation between the PIN photodiode readout and dose measured with standard dosimeters spanning doses received. The present dosimetry system having advantages of suitable sensitivity with immediate readout of dose values, low cost, and portability could be used as an alternative to passive dosimetry system such as thermoluminescent dosimeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology.

  3. Photodiode properties of molecular beam epitaxial InSb on a heavily doped substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiguo; Fan, Huitao; Peng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Zhengxiong; Si, Junjie; Emelyanov, E.; Putyato, M.; Semyagin, B.; Pchelyakov, O.; Preobrazhenskii, V.

    2014-01-01

    Photodiodes of InSb were fabricated on an epitaxial layer grown using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Thermal cleaning of the InSb (0 0 1) substrate surface, 2° towards the (1 1 1) B plane, was performed to remove the oxide. Photodiode properties of МВЕ-formed epitaxial InSb were demonstrated. Zero-bias resistance area product (R0A) measurements were taken at 80 K under room temperature background for a pixel size of 100 μm × 100 μm. Values were as high as 4.36 × 104 Ω/cm2, and the average value of R0A was 1.66 × 104 Ω/cm2. The peak response was 2.44 (A/W). The epitaxial InSb photodiodes were fabricated using the same process as bulk crystal InSb diodes with the exception of the junction formation method. These values are comparable to the properties of bulk crystal InSb photodiodes.

  4. The blocking probability of Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Srinivasan, Meera; Hamkins, Jon

    2005-01-01

    When a photo is detected by a Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diode (GMAPD), the detector is rendered inactive, or blocked, for a certain period of time. In this paper we derive the blocking probability for a GMAPD whose input is either an unmodulated, Benoulli modulated or pulse-position-modulated Poisson process.

  5. Photon Detection with Cooled Avalanche Photodiodes: Theory and Preliminary Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. L.; Hays, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) can be operated in a geiger-tube mode so that they can respond to single electron events and thus be used as photon counting detectors. Operational characteristics and theory of APDs while used in this mode are analyzed and assessed. Preliminary experimental investigation of several commercially available APDs has commenced, and initial results for dark count statistics are presented.

  6. Photoionization of Trapped Carriers in Avalanche Photodiodes to Reduce Afterpulsing During Geiger-Mode Photon Counting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    We reduced the afterpulsing probability by a factor of five in a Geiger-mode photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiode by using sub-band-gap (lambda = 1.95 micron) laser diode illumination, which we believe photoionizes the trapped carriers.

  7. Silicon photodiodes with integrated thin-film filters for selective bandpasses in the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, L. R.; Vest, Robert E.; Woods, Thomas N.; Korde, Raj S.

    1994-09-01

    Silicon photodiodes which operate satisfactorily in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) have been commercially available for the past few years. These photodiodes also inherently respond to radiation extending from the x-ray region to the near infrared, a property which is undesirable in many EUV applications. The addition of a thin film of a suitable filtering material to the surface of such a photodiode can accomplish the restriction of the sensitivity of the silicon to a much narrower band, or bands, in the EUV. This results in a rugged, yet sensitive photometer for applications in which dominant out-of-band radiation is present. Applications include plasma diagnostics, solar physics, x-ray lithography, x-ray microscopy, and materials science. Previous attempts to produce such devices have resulted in degraded shunt resistance with a corresponding increase in background noise. Prototype detectors have now been fabricated using directly deposited films of aluminum, aluminum/carbon, aluminum/carbon/scandium, silver, tin, and titanium, without degradation of the noise characteristics of the uncoated photodiodes. Measured and theoretical sensitivity data are presented, as well as a discussion of relatively simple methods to reduce the x-ray response of such filtered detectors.

  8. Microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutley, Michael C.; Stevens, Richard F.; Daly, Daniel J.

    1992-04-01

    Microlenses have been with us for a long time as indeed the very word lens reminds us. Many early lenses,including those made by Hooke and Leeuwenhoek in the 17th century were small and resembled lentils. Many languages use the same word for both (French tilentillelt and German "Linse") and the connection is only obscure in English because we use the French word for the vegetable and the German for the optic. Many of the applications for arrays of inicrolenses are also well established. Lippmann's work on integral photography at the turn of the century required lens arrays and stimulated an interest that is very much alive today. At one stage, lens arrays played an important part in high speed photography and various schemes have been put forward to take advantage of the compact imaging properties of combinations of lens arrays. The fact that many of these ingenious schemes have not been developed to their full potential has to a large degree been due to the absence of lens arrays of a suitable quality and cost.

  9. Studies of High Performance Indium Gallium Arsenide Metal-Semiconductor Photodiodes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to achieve high speed and high responsivity metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes, which includes material growth, device design, fabrication, and testing. Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth were used to grow high purity InGaAs layers. To obtain high purity InGaAs layers, rare-earth elements (Yb, Ga, and Er) were used during LPE growth. The rare-earth elements react strongly with donor impurities to purify the epitaxial layers, resulting in higher mobility, lower carrier concentration, and higher photoluminescence efficiency in the rare-earth doped melt grown InGaAs layer. Unfortunately, rare-earth elements have high impurity levels and hardly interact with acceptor impurities; thus, causing undesired deep levels. Both abrupt and digital superlattice InAlAs barrier enhancement InGaAs MSM photodiodes were grown by MBE. To improve the photoresponsivity, a transparent conductive material, cadmium tin oxide (CTO) was used as the MSM contacts. The CTO functions as a Schottky contact, an optical window and an anti-reflection coating. The Schottky barrier height, which is vitally important for MSM photodiodes, was studied with CTO, ITO, Au, Ti, and Pt on InAlAs using the Norde method. The CTO MSM photodiodes showed a factor of almost two improvement in responsivity over conventional Ti/Au MSM photodiodes. Abrupt barrier enhancement MSM photodiodes using CTO and Ti/Au electrodes demonstrated 3-dB bandwidths of 0.3 and 0.8 GHz, respectively. However, digital grading of the heterojunction facilitated better carrier extraction resulting in increased bandwidths of 1.3 and 7.1 GHz, respectively, for CTO and Ti/Au. It was demonstrated that CTO possesses a low resistivity, high transparency, and good Schottky barrier height, which makes CTO a very attractive transparent conductor suitable for optoelectronic applications. Lastly, four novel structures were proposed to improve the responsivity and the bandwidth of

  10. Double-layer electrode based on TiO2 nanotubes arrays for enhancing photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Zuoli; Que, Wenxiu; Sun, Peng; Ren, Jiangbo

    2013-12-26

    The present work reports a rapid and facile method to fabricate a novel double-layer TiO2 photoanode, which is based on highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays and monodispersive scattering microspheres. This double-layer TiO2 sphere/TNTA photoanode have got many unique structural and optical properties from TiO2 scattering microspheres, such as high specific surface area, multiple interparticle scattering, and efficient light-harvesting. Results indicate that this as-fabricated double-layer TiO2 sphere/TNTA front-illumination dye-sensitized solar cell, which is fabricated from the TiO2 nanotube arrays with a 17.4 μm length after TiCl4 treatment, exhibits a pronounced power conversion efficiency of 7.24% under an AM1.5 G irradiation, which can be attributed to the increased incident photon-to-current conversion and light-harvesting efficiency. PMID:24304127

  11. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing; Li, Fenfang

    2016-03-01

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m.

  12. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing; Li, Fenfang

    2016-03-01

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ˜15 cm and range accuracy is ˜4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ˜40 m.

  13. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing; Li, Fenfang

    2016-03-01

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m. PMID:27036763

  14. Inferential physical measurements using detectors and detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, F.; Burhardt, K. K.; Waltz, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Some uses of photodiode detector arrays for on-line inferential measurement of process parameters are described in this paper. Optical considerations involving these arrays are discussed. High resolution camera lenses are not necessarily best in these applications since different lens design considerations apply when discrete arrays are used. Serious linearity and repeatability problems that were encountered with some commercially available solid state camera systems are discussed. The requirement of modest system cost, coupled with the need for high speed on-line analysis, place stringent restrictions on the type and amount of computer analysis that can be carried out. A set of recognition algorithms which have worked well in the initial applications are described. Some of the remaining problems, and possible approaches to them, are presented.

  15. A comparison of imaging methods for use in an array biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Joel P.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2002-01-01

    An array biosensor has been developed which uses an actively-cooled, charge-coupled device (CCD) imager. In an effort to save money and space, a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera and photodiode were tested as replacements for the cooled CCD imager. Different concentrations of CY5 fluorescent dye in glycerol were imaged using the three different detection systems with the same imaging optics. Signal discrimination above noise was compared for each of the three systems.

  16. An InP/Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by self-aligned corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. T.; Omanakuttan, G.; Lourdudoss, S.

    2015-05-01

    An n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) method is presented. N-InP/p-Si heterojunction has been achieved from a suitable pattern containing circular shaped openings in a triangular lattice on the InP seed layer on p-Si substrate and subsequent CELOG of completely coalesced n-InP. To avoid current path through the seed layer in the final photodiode, semi-insulating InP:Fe was grown with adequate thickness prior to n-InP growth in a low pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor. The n-InP/p-Si heterointerface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature cross-sectional photoluminescence (PL) mapping illustrates the defect reduction effect in InP grown on Si by CELOG method. The InP PL intensity measured above the InP/Si heterojunction is comparable to that of InP grown on a native planar substrate indicating low interface defect density of CELOG InP despite of 8% lattice mismatch with Si. The processed n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiodes show diode characteristics from the current-voltage (I-V) measurements with a dark current density of 0.324 mA/cm2 at a reverse voltage of -1 V. Under the illumination of AM1.5 conditions, the InP/Si heterojunction photodiode exhibited photovoltaic effect with an open circuit voltage of 180 mV, a short circuit current density of 1.89 mA/cm2, an external quantum efficiency of 4.3%, and an internal quantum efficiency of 6.4%. This demonstration of epitaxially grown InP/Si heterojunction photodiode will open the door for low cost and high efficiency solar cells and photonic integration of III-Vs on silicon.

  17. An InP/Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by self-aligned corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y. T. Omanakuttan, G.; Lourdudoss, S.

    2015-05-25

    An n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) method is presented. N-InP/p-Si heterojunction has been achieved from a suitable pattern containing circular shaped openings in a triangular lattice on the InP seed layer on p-Si substrate and subsequent CELOG of completely coalesced n-InP. To avoid current path through the seed layer in the final photodiode, semi-insulating InP:Fe was grown with adequate thickness prior to n-InP growth in a low pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor. The n-InP/p-Si heterointerface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature cross-sectional photoluminescence (PL) mapping illustrates the defect reduction effect in InP grown on Si by CELOG method. The InP PL intensity measured above the InP/Si heterojunction is comparable to that of InP grown on a native planar substrate indicating low interface defect density of CELOG InP despite of 8% lattice mismatch with Si. The processed n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiodes show diode characteristics from the current-voltage (I-V) measurements with a dark current density of 0.324 mA/cm{sup 2} at a reverse voltage of −1 V. Under the illumination of AM1.5 conditions, the InP/Si heterojunction photodiode exhibited photovoltaic effect with an open circuit voltage of 180 mV, a short circuit current density of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2}, an external quantum efficiency of 4.3%, and an internal quantum efficiency of 6.4%. This demonstration of epitaxially grown InP/Si heterojunction photodiode will open the door for low cost and high efficiency solar cells and photonic integration of III-Vs on silicon.

  18. Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D. Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. B.; Tritz, K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Medley, S. S.

    2014-11-15

    A new compact, multi-channel Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode array has been designed and is being fabricated for the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The SSNPA system utilizes a set of vertically stacked photodiode arrays in current mode viewing the same plasma region with different filter thickness to obtain fast temporal resolution (∼120 kHz bandwidth) and coarse energy information in three bands of >25 keV, >45 keV, and >65 keV. The SSNPA system consists of 15 radial sightlines that intersect existing on-axis neutral beams at major radii between 90 and 130 cm, 15 tangential sightlines that intersect new off-axis neutral beams at major radii between 120 and 145 cm. These two subsystems aim at separating the response of passing and trapped fast ions. In addition, one photodiode array whose viewing area does not intersect any neutral beams is used to monitor passive signals produced by fast ions that charge exchange with background neutrals.

  19. Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, Y. B.; Roquemore, A. L.; Medley, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    A new compact, multi-channel Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode array has been designed and is being fabricated for the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The SSNPA system utilizes a set of vertically stacked photodiode arrays in current mode viewing the same plasma region with different filter thickness to obtain fast temporal resolution (˜120 kHz bandwidth) and coarse energy information in three bands of >25 keV, >45 keV, and >65 keV. The SSNPA system consists of 15 radial sightlines that intersect existing on-axis neutral beams at major radii between 90 and 130 cm, 15 tangential sightlines that intersect new off-axis neutral beams at major radii between 120 and 145 cm. These two subsystems aim at separating the response of passing and trapped fast ions. In addition, one photodiode array whose viewing area does not intersect any neutral beams is used to monitor passive signals produced by fast ions that charge exchange with background neutrals.

  20. Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Heidbrink, W W; Tritz, K; Zhu, Y B; Roquemore, A L; Medley, S S

    2014-11-01

    A new compact, multi-channel Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode array has been designed and is being fabricated for the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U). The SSNPA system utilizes a set of vertically stacked photodiode arrays in current mode viewing the same plasma region with different filter thickness to obtain fast temporal resolution (∼120 kHz bandwidth) and coarse energy information in three bands of >25 keV, >45 keV, and >65 keV. The SSNPA system consists of 15 radial sightlines that intersect existing on-axis neutral beams at major radii between 90 and 130 cm, 15 tangential sightlines that intersect new off-axis neutral beams at major radii between 120 and 145 cm. These two subsystems aim at separating the response of passing and trapped fast ions. In addition, one photodiode array whose viewing area does not intersect any neutral beams is used to monitor passive signals produced by fast ions that charge exchange with background neutrals.

  1. Global Arrays

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  2. Pacific Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, H.; Takeo, A.; Isse, T.; Nishida, K.; Shiobara, H.; Suetsugu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Based on our recent results on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry (e.g., Suetsugu & Shiobara, 2014, Annual Review EPS), together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have now enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (both radial and azimuthal), with deployments of ~10-15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) (namely "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey"; Takeo et al., 2013, JGR; Kawakatsu et al., 2013, AGU; Takeo, 2014, Ph.D. Thesis; Takeo et al., 2014, JpGU). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations might be sought.

  3. Evaluation of Photodiode and Thermopile Pyranometers for Photovoltaic Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-09-01

    Accurately determining PV module performance in the field requires measurement of solar irradiance reaching the PV panel at a high level of accuracy and known uncertainty. Silicon detectors used in various solar energy measuring instruments including reference cells are potentially an attractive choice for multiple reasons that include faster responsivity than thermopile detectors, cheaper cost and lower maintenance. The main drawback though is the fact that the silicon detectors are only spectrally responsive in a narrow part of the solar spectrum. Therefore, to determine broadband solar irradiance a calibration factor that converts the narrowband response to broadband is required. Normally this calibration factor is a single number determined under standard conditions but then used for various scenarios including varying air-mass, panel orientation and atmospheric conditions. This would not have been an issue if all wavelengths that form the broadband spectrum responded uniformly to atmospheric constituents. Unfortunately the scattering and absorption signature varies widely across wavelengths and the calibration factor computed under certain test conditions is not appropriate for other conditions. This paper lays out the issues that will arise from the use of silicon detectors for PV performance measurement in the field. We also present a comparison of simultaneous spectral and broadband measurements from silicon and thermopile detectors and estimated measurement errors when using silicon devices for both array performance and resource assessment.

  4. Microdischarge arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenhui

    Microhollow cathode discharges (MHCDs) are DC or pulsed gas discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric, and containing a concentric hole. The diameter of the hole, in this hollow cathode configuration, is in the hundred-micrometer range. MHCDs satisfy the two conditions necessary for an efficient excimer radiation sources: (1) high energy electrons which are required to provide a high concentration of excited or ionized rare gas atoms; (2) high pressure operation which favors excimer formation (a three-body process). Flat panel excimer sources require parallel operation of MHCDs. Based on the current-voltage characteristics of MHCD discharges, which have positive slopes in the low current (Townsend) mode and in the abnormal glow mode, stable arrays of MHCD discharges in argon and xenon could be generated in these current ranges without ballasting each MHCD separately. In the Townsend range, these arrays could be operated up to pressures of 400 Torr. In the abnormal glow mode, discharge arrays were found to be stable up to atmospheric pressure. By using semi-insulating silicon as the anode material, the stable operation of MHCD arrays could be extended to the current range with constant voltage (normal glow) and also that with negative differential conductance (hollow cathode discharge region). Experiments with a cathode geometry without microholes, i.e. excluding the hollow cathode phase, revealed that stable operation of discharges over an extended area were possible. The discharge structure in this configuration reduces to only the cathode fall and negative glow, with the negative glow plasma serving to conduct the discharge current radially to the circular anode. With decreasing current, a transition from homogenous plasma to self-organized plasma filaments is observed. Array formation was not only studied with discharges in parallel, but also with MHCD discharges in series. By using a sandwich electrode configuration, a tandem discharge was

  5. Mars Array Technology Experiment Developed to Test Solar Arrays on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Solar arrays will be the power supply for future missions to the planet Mars, including landers, rovers, and eventually human missions to explore the Martian surface. Until Mars Pathfinder landed in July 1997, no solar array had been used on the surface. The MATE package is intended to measure the solar energy reaching the surface, characterize the Martian environment to gather the baseline information required for designing power systems for long-duration missions, and to quantify the performance and degradation of advanced solar cells on the Martian surface. To measure the properties of sunlight reaching the Martian surface, MATE incorporates two radiometers and a visible/NIR spectrometer. The radiometers consist of multiple thermocouple junctions using thin-film technology. These devices generate a voltage proportional to the solar intensity. One radiometer measures the global broadband solar intensity, including both the direct and scattered sunlight, with a field of view of approximately 130. The second radiometer incorporates a slit to measure the direct (unscattered) intensity radiation. The direct radiometer can only be read once per day, with the Sun passing over the slit. The spectrometer measures the global solar spectrum with two 256-element photodiode arrays, one Si sensitive in the visible range (300 to 1100 nm), and a second InGaAs sensitive to the near infrared (900 to 1700 nm). This range covers 86 percent of the total energy from the Sun, with approximately 5-nm resolution. Each photodiode array has its own fiber-optic feed and grating. Although the purpose of the MATE is to gather data useful in designing solar arrays for Mars surface power systems, the radiometer and spectrometer measurements are expected to also provide important scientific data for characterizing the properties of suspended atmospheric dust. In addition to measuring the solar environment of Mars, MATE will measure the performance of five different individual solar cell types

  6. Integrating an electrically active colloidal quantum dot photodiode with a graphene phototransistor

    PubMed Central

    Nikitskiy, Ivan; Goossens, Stijn; Kufer, Dominik; Lasanta, Tania; Navickaite, Gabriele; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2016-01-01

    The realization of low-cost photodetectors with high sensitivity, high quantum efficiency, high gain and fast photoresponse in the visible and short-wave infrared remains one of the challenges in optoelectronics. Two classes of photodetectors that have been developed are photodiodes and phototransistors, each of them with specific drawbacks. Here we merge both types into a hybrid photodetector device by integrating a colloidal quantum dot photodiode atop a graphene phototransistor. Our hybrid detector overcomes the limitations of a phototransistor in terms of speed, quantum efficiency and linear dynamic range. We report quantum efficiencies in excess of 70%, gain of 105 and linear dynamic range of 110 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 1.5 kHz. This constitutes a demonstration of an optoelectronically active device integrated directly atop graphene and paves the way towards a generation of flexible highly performing hybrid two-dimensional (2D)/0D optoelectronics. PMID:27311710

  7. High Performance Photodiode Based on p-Si/Copper Phthalocyanine Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Junkang; Peng, Yingquan; Zheng, Tingcai; Lv, Wenli; Ren, Qiang; Fobao, Huang; Ying, Wang; Chen, Zhen; Tang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic (HOI) photodiodes have both advantages of organic and inorganic materials, including compatibility of traditional Si-based semiconductor technology, low cost, high photosensitivity and high reliability, showing tremendous value in application. Red light sensitive HOI photodiodes based on the p-Si/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) hetrojunction were fabricated and characterized. The effects of CuPc layer thickness on the performance were investigated, and an optimal layer thickness of around 30 nm was determined. An analytical expression is derived to describe the measured thickness dependence of the saturation photocurrent. For the device with optimal CuPc layer thickness, a photoresponsivity of 0.35 A/W and external quantum efficiency of 70% were obtained at 9 V reverse voltage bias and 655 nm light illumination of 0.451 mW. Furthermore, optical power dependent performances were investigated.

  8. A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 Si-PIN photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Yücel, E. Barlas; Yücel, M.; Ozben, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 silicon PIN photodiode was designed and produced. X-rays were produced from a CEI OX/70-P dental tube using a custom made ±30 kV power supply. A charge sensitive preamplifier and a shaping amplifier were built for the amplification of small signals produced by photons in the depletion layer of Si-PIN photodiode. A two dimensional position control unit was used for moving the detector in small steps to measure the intensity of X-rays absorbed in the object to be imaged. An Aessent AES220B FPGA module was used for transferring the image data to a computer via USB. Images of various samples were obtained with acceptable image quality despite of the low cost of the device.

  9. Initial characterization of a position-sensitive photodiode/BGO detector for PET (positron emission tomography)

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.; Jackson, H.G.; Turko, B.T.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.B.; Vuletich, T.

    1988-11-01

    We present initial results of a position-sensitive photodiode/BGO detector for high resolution, multi-layer positron emission tomography (PET). Position sensitivity is achieved by dividing the 3 mm /times/ 20 mm rectangular photosensitive area along the diagonal to form two triangular segments. Each segment was individually connected to a low-noise amplifier. The photodiodes and crystals were cooled to /minus/100/degree/C to reduce dark current and increase the BGO signal. With an amplifier peaking time of 17 ..mu..sec, the sum of the signals (511 keV photopeak) was 3200 electrons with a full width at half maximum (fwhm) of 750 electrons. The ratio of one signal to the sum determined the depth of interaction with a resolution of 11 mm fwhm. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  10. High Performance Photodiode Based on p-Si/Copper Phthalocyanine Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Junkang; Peng, Yingquan; Zheng, Tingcai; Lv, Wenli; Ren, Qiang; Fobao, Huang; Ying, Wang; Chen, Zhen; Tang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic (HOI) photodiodes have both advantages of organic and inorganic materials, including compatibility of traditional Si-based semiconductor technology, low cost, high photosensitivity and high reliability, showing tremendous value in application. Red light sensitive HOI photodiodes based on the p-Si/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) hetrojunction were fabricated and characterized. The effects of CuPc layer thickness on the performance were investigated, and an optimal layer thickness of around 30 nm was determined. An analytical expression is derived to describe the measured thickness dependence of the saturation photocurrent. For the device with optimal CuPc layer thickness, a photoresponsivity of 0.35 A/W and external quantum efficiency of 70% were obtained at 9 V reverse voltage bias and 655 nm light illumination of 0.451 mW. Furthermore, optical power dependent performances were investigated. PMID:27427631

  11. Dynamics of local micro-breakdown in the Geiger mode of avalanche photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Verhovtseva, A. V. Gergel, V. A.

    2009-07-15

    Mathematical modeling methods were used to study the dynamics of micro-breakdown development in structures of silicon avalanche photodiodes. The constructed model considers the locality of the avalanchexs multiplication region appearing during single photon absorption and the delay of the avalanchexs current spreading over the rear electrode of the diode. The calculations showed two different phases of transient process of the formation of the electrical signal, i.e., the rapid and slow ones due to current spreading and ordinary RC recharge, respectively. The load resistances required to implement the pulsed mode of operation of the structures of the avalanche photodiode were calculated for a series of actual diode capacitances and spreading resistances of the rear electrode.

  12. Improved x-ray detection and particle identification with avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Diepold, Marc; Fernandes, Luis M P; Machado, Jorge; Amaro, Pedro; Abdou-Ahmed, Marwan; Amaro, Fernando D; Antognini, Aldo; Biraben, François; Chen, Tzu-Ling; Covita, Daniel S; Dax, Andreas J; Franke, Beatrice; Galtier, Sandrine; Gouvea, Andrea L; Götzfried, Johannes; Graf, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hildebrandt, Malte; Indelicato, Paul; Julien, Lucile; Kirch, Klaus; Knecht, Andreas; Kottmann, Franz; Krauth, Julian J; Liu, Yi-Wei; Monteiro, Cristina M B; Mulhauser, Françoise; Naar, Boris; Nebel, Tobias; Nez, François; Santos, José Paulo; dos Santos, Joaquim M F; Schuhmann, Karsten; Szabo, Csilla I; Taqqu, David; Veloso, João F C A; Voss, Andreas; Weichelt, Birgit; Pohl, Randolf

    2015-05-01

    Avalanche photodiodes are commonly used as detectors for low energy x-rays. In this work, we report on a fitting technique used to account for different detector responses resulting from photoabsorption in the various avalanche photodiode layers. The use of this technique results in an improvement of the energy resolution at 8.2 keV by up to a factor of 2 and corrects the timing information by up to 25 ns to account for space dependent electron drift time. In addition, this waveform analysis is used for particle identification, e.g., to distinguish between x-rays and MeV electrons in our experiment. PMID:26026509

  13. Integrating an electrically active colloidal quantum dot photodiode with a graphene phototransistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitskiy, Ivan; Goossens, Stijn; Kufer, Dominik; Lasanta, Tania; Navickaite, Gabriele; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2016-06-01

    The realization of low-cost photodetectors with high sensitivity, high quantum efficiency, high gain and fast photoresponse in the visible and short-wave infrared remains one of the challenges in optoelectronics. Two classes of photodetectors that have been developed are photodiodes and phototransistors, each of them with specific drawbacks. Here we merge both types into a hybrid photodetector device by integrating a colloidal quantum dot photodiode atop a graphene phototransistor. Our hybrid detector overcomes the limitations of a phototransistor in terms of speed, quantum efficiency and linear dynamic range. We report quantum efficiencies in excess of 70%, gain of 105 and linear dynamic range of 110 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 1.5 kHz. This constitutes a demonstration of an optoelectronically active device integrated directly atop graphene and paves the way towards a generation of flexible highly performing hybrid two-dimensional (2D)/0D optoelectronics.

  14. Computer modeling of carrier transport in (Hg,Cd)Te photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, C. J.; Darling, B.; Martin, B. G.

    1986-04-01

    A numerical technique has been used to solve the carrier transport equations for several (Hg,Cd)Te photodiode configurations, namely n+pp+, n+np, and pin. Of particular interest are the fundamental recombination mechanisms of radiative and Auger. Results clearly demonstrate the importance of Auger type 1 and 7 mechanisms on the n and p sides of the junction, respectively, in limiting carrier lifetimes. For example, it was found that for defect-free Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x = 0.2 and hole concentration less than 4 x 10 to the 14th cu cm adjacent to the depletion region, the Auger recombination rate can be reduced below the radiative rate. An analysis of the spatial dependence of the electron mobility shows that the presence of high carrier concentrations and electric field strengths can reduce the mobility and consequently have an effect on the sensitivity and temporal response of the photodiode.

  15. Thick, segmented CdWO{sub 4}-photodiode detector for cone beam megavoltage CT: A Monte Carlo study of system design parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Monajemi, T. T.; Fallone, B. G.; Rathee, S.

    2006-12-15

    Megavoltage (MV) imaging detectors have been the focus of research by many groups in recent years. We have been working with segmented CdWO{sub 4} crystals in contact with photodiodes in our lab. The present study uses both x-ray and optical photon transport Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the effects of scintillation crystal height, septa material, beam divergence, and beam spectrum on the modulation transfer function, MTF(f) and zero frequency detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0), of a theoretical area detector. The theoretical detector is comprised of tall, segmented CdWO{sub 4} crystals and two dimensional photodiode arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and a fill factor of 72%. Increasing the crystal height above 10 mm does not result in an improvement in the DQE(0) if the reflection coefficient of the septa is less than 0.8. For a reflection coefficient of 0.975 for the septa, there is a continual gain in the DQE(0) up to 30 mm tall crystals. Similar calculations show that employing a 3.5 MV beam without a flattening filter increases the DQE(0) for 20 mm tall crystals by 9% compared to a typical 6 MV beam with a flattening filter. The severe degradations due to beam divergence on MTF(f) are quantified and suggest the use of focused detectors in MV imaging. It is found that when the effect of optical photons is considered, the presence of divergence can appear as a shift in the location of the input signal as well as loss of spatial resolution.

  16. Recent progress in high gain InAs avalanche photodiodes (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Seth; Maddox, Scott J.; Sun, Wenlu; Nair, Hari P.; Campbell, Joe C.

    2015-08-01

    InAs possesses nearly ideal material properties for the fabrication of near- and mid-infrared avalanche photodiodes (APDs), which result in strong electron-initiated impact ionization and negligible hole-initiated impact ionization [1]. Consequently, InAs multiplication regions exhibit several appealing characteristics, including extremely low excess noise factors and bandwidth independent of gain [2], [3]. These properties make InAs APDs attractive for a number of near- and mid-infrared sensing applications including remote gas sensing, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), and both active and passive imaging. Here, we discuss our recent advances in the growth and fabrication of high gain, low noise InAs APDs. Devices yielded room temperature multiplication gains >300, with much reduced (~10x) lower dark current densities. We will also discuss a likely key contributor to our current performance limitations: silicon diffusion into the intrinsic (multiplication) region from the underlying n-type layer during growth. Future work will focus on increasing the intrinsic region thickness, targeting gains >1000. This work was supported by the Army Research Office (W911NF-10-1-0391). [1] A. R. J. Marshall, C. H. Tan, M. J. Steer, and J. P. R. David, "Electron dominated impact ionization and avalanche gain characteristics in InAs photodiodes," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, p. 111107, 2008. [2] A. R. J. Marshall, A. Krysa, S. Zhang, A. S. Idris, S. Xie, J. P. R. David, and C. H. Tan, "High gain InAs avalanche photodiodes," in 6th EMRS DTC Technical Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2009. [3] S. J. Maddox, W. Sun, Z. Lu, H. P. Nair, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank, "Enhanced low-noise gain from InAs avalanche photodiodes with reduced dark current and background doping," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 101, no. 15, pp. 151124-151124-3, Oct. 2012.

  17. Intensity influence on Gaussian beam laser based measurements using quadrant photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Panduputra, Yohannes; Ng, Tuck Wah; Neild, Adrian; Robinson, Michael

    2010-07-01

    In many measurement applications using quadrant photodiodes, the signal is normally obtained from integrated devices incorporating current-to-voltage amplifiers that provide the necessary difference outputs with amplification. Quadrant photodiodes permit two-axis laser beam size and beam deflection determination. We show here that photodiode saturation, nonlinear characteristics of amplifying circuits, and voltage clipping features meant to prevent the output of a circuit from exceeding a predetermined voltage level to distort applied waveforms, play a significant role in measurement at low and high intensity levels, respectively. These two factors conspire to underestimate laser beam size measurement. A best-fit computation of the size versus power trend was found to permit satisfactory estimation of the beam size as well as the optimal laser power to be used. The intensity of light was also found to strongly affect the sensitivity of beam deflection measurements, in which a correction based on best-fit computation was deficient. In this case, calibration steps would be needed when light levels changed. PMID:20648132

  18. Three-element trap filter radiometer based on large active area silicon photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Salim, S G R; Anhalt, K; Taubert, D R; Hollandt, J

    2016-05-20

    This paper shows the opto-mechanical design of a new filter radiometer built at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, for the accurate determination of the thermodynamic temperature of high-temperature blackbodies. The filter radiometer is based on a three-element reflection-type trap detector that uses three large active area silicon photodiodes. Its spectral coverage and field of view are defined by a detachable narrow-band filter and a diamond-turned precision aperture, respectively. The temperature of the filter radiometer is stabilized using a water-streamed housing and is measured using a thin-film platinum thermometer placed onto the first photodiode element. The trap "mount" has been made as compact as possible, which, together with the large active area of the chosen photodiodes, allows a wide field of view. This work presents the design of the filter radiometer and discusses the criteria that have been considered in order for the filter radiometer to suit the application.

  19. Proton effects on low noise and high responsivity silicon-based photodiodes for space environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pedroza, Guillaume; Gilard, Olivier; Bourqui, Marie-Lise; Bechou, Laurent; Deshayes, Yannick; How, Lip Sun; Rosala, Francois

    2009-01-15

    A series of proton irradiations has been carried out on p-n silicon photodiodes for the purpose of assessing the suitability of these devices for the European Galileo space mission. The irradiations were performed at energies of 60, 100, and 150 MeV with proton fluences ranging from 1.7x10{sup 10} to 1x10{sup 11} protons/cm{sup 2}. Dark current, spectral responsivity, and dark current noise were measured before and after each irradiation step. We observed an increase in both dark current, dark current noise, and noise equivalent power and a drop of the spectral responsivity with increasing displacement damage dose. An analytical model has been developed to investigate proton damage effects through the modeling of the electro-optical characteristics of the photodiode. Experimental degradations were successfully explained taking into account the degradation of the minority carrier diffusion length in the N-region of the photodiode. The degradation model was then applied to assess the end-of-life performance of these devices in the framework of the Galileo mission.

  20. The top down design flow of a-Si:H photodiodes with multivariate methods of analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merfort, Christian; Bablich, Andreas; Schwaneberg, Oliver; Watty, Krystian; Böhm, Markus

    2011-11-01

    A fast and reliable detection of potentially dangerous substances has become very important in ensuring civilian security. Currently, modern security systems have proven to be more effective on the basis that objects should be properly characterized and identified. For instance, chemical tests are used to identify samples of whitish powder that is suspected to be dangerous or illegal. Although these chemical tests are conducted very quickly, they are relatively expensive. However, well established methods of optical characterization offer a suitable alternative. The demand for low-cost and disposable devices have escalated the development of intelligent photodiodes, especially of tunable a-Si:H multispectral photodiodes1. Our aim of reengineering is to develop the best match for the spectral response adjustment. Unfortunately, it is not sufficient to optimize the spectral response only. The top down design flow begins with the calculation of the photocurrent for different combinations of light sources, spectral responses and whitish powder samples to build up a multivariate data set. The optimum combination is found at the point of intersection in the factor values in a 2-D scattergram. It is therefore, required that the use optimized photodiodes would simplify and accelerate the identification of potentially dangerous substances.

  1. Modular design for narrow scintillating cells with MRS photodiodes in strong magnetic field for ILC detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Rykalin, V.; Schellpffer, J.; Zutshi, V.

    2006-08-01

    The experimental results for the narrow scintillating elements with effective area about 20 cm 2 are reported. The elements were formed from the single piece of scintillator and were read out via wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers with the Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor (MRS) photodiodes on both ends of each fiber. The count rates were obtained using radioactive source 90Sr, with threshold at about three photoelectrons in each channel and quad coincidences (double coincidences between sensors on each fiber and double coincidences between two neighboring fibers). The formation of the cells from the piece of scintillator by using grooves is discussed, and their performances were tested using the radioactive source by measuring the photomutiplier current using the same WLS fiber. Because effective cell area can be readily enlarged or reduced, this module may be used as an active element for calorimeter or muon system for the design of the future electron-positron linear collider detector. Experimental verification of the performance of the MRS photodiode in a strong magnetic field of 9 T, and the impact a magnet quench at 9.5 T are reported. The measurement method used is described. The results confirm the expectations that the MRS photodiode is insensitive to a strong magnetic field and therefore applicable to calorimetry in the presence of magnetic field. The overall result is of high importance for large multi-channel systems.

  2. Heterogeneous immunoassays in microfluidic format using fluorescence detection with integrated amorphous silicon photodiodes

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, A. T.; Novo, P.; Prazeres, D. M. F.; Chu, V.; Conde, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Miniaturization of immunoassays through microfluidic technology has the potential to decrease the time and the quantity of reactants required for analysis, together with the potential of achieving multiplexing and portability. A lab-on-chip system incorporating a thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photodiode microfabricated on a glass substrate with a thin-film amorphous silicon-carbon alloy directly deposited above the photodiode and acting as a fluorescence filter is integrated with a polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic network for the direct detection of antibody-antigen molecular recognition reactions using fluorescence. The model immunoassay used consists of primary antibody adsorption to the microchannel walls followed by its recognition by a secondary antibody labeled with a fluorescent quantum-dot tag. The conditions for the flow-through analysis in the microfluidic format were defined and the total assay time was 30 min. Specific molecular recognition was quantitatively detected. The measurements made with the a-Si:H photodiode are consistent with that obtained with a fluorescence microscope and both show a linear dependence on the antibody concentration in the nanomolar-micromolar range. PMID:21403847

  3. Three-element trap filter radiometer based on large active area silicon photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Salim, S G R; Anhalt, K; Taubert, D R; Hollandt, J

    2016-05-20

    This paper shows the opto-mechanical design of a new filter radiometer built at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, for the accurate determination of the thermodynamic temperature of high-temperature blackbodies. The filter radiometer is based on a three-element reflection-type trap detector that uses three large active area silicon photodiodes. Its spectral coverage and field of view are defined by a detachable narrow-band filter and a diamond-turned precision aperture, respectively. The temperature of the filter radiometer is stabilized using a water-streamed housing and is measured using a thin-film platinum thermometer placed onto the first photodiode element. The trap "mount" has been made as compact as possible, which, together with the large active area of the chosen photodiodes, allows a wide field of view. This work presents the design of the filter radiometer and discusses the criteria that have been considered in order for the filter radiometer to suit the application. PMID:27411121

  4. Characterization of Al0.8Ga0.2As geiger photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. J.; Ren, Min; Chen, Yaojia; Johnson, E. B.; Campbell, Joe C.; Christian, James F.

    2015-08-01

    Solid-state photomultipliers (SSPM) are high gain photodetectors composed of Geiger photodiodes (GPD) operating above device breakdown voltage. In scintillation based radiation detection applications, SSPMs fabricated using silicon (SiPMs, MPPCs, etc) provide a compact, low cost alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), however, the high dark count rate due to its low band-gap (1.1eV) limits the signal-to-noise performance as the silicon SSPM is scaled to large areas. SSPMs fabricated in materials with a larger band-gap have the potential to surmount the performance limitations experienced by silicon. AlGaAs is a material that provides a bandgap from 1.55eV to 2.13 eV, depending on Al concentration. Using high Al concentration AlGaAs to engineer a wideband- gap (>2eV) SSPM is very desirable in terms of reducing dark noise, which promises better signal-to-noise performances when large detector areas is needed. This work describes the development of Geiger photodiodes (GPDs), the individual elements of a SSPM, fabricated in AlGaAs with 80% Al concentration. We present the design of the GPDs, the fabrication process, along with characterization data of fabricated GPD samples. To the best of our knowledge, we have demonstrated for the first time, a passively quenched Geiger photodiode in Al0.8Ga0.2As.

  5. Far-Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.; Sivananthan, S.; Zhou, Y. D.

    The development of focal plane arrays has dramatically increased the sensitivity and efficiency of optical and infrared telescopes. The versatility of HgCdTe alloy technology has been demonstrated by detector arrays with cutoff wavelengths tailored between λc = 1-10 μm. Although the cutoff wavelength can theoretically be extended to infinity (zero gap) by increasing the HgTe mole fraction, the required accuracy of the alloy composition is difficult to achieve with conventional liquid-phase-epitaxy (LPE). The more recent technique of molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE), on the other hand, provides the necessary precision, and detector arrays appear feasible out to λc = 100 μm. Although the alloy approach should work, an alternate device structure may prove superior. Rather than alloying HgTe and CdTe, one can deposit alternating layers of the two materials in a composite structure called a superlattice (SL). Because layer thickness (rather than alloy composition) determines the cutoff wavelength in a SL, this approach should prove easier for fabricating an Eg = 0.01 eV semiconductor. Photodiodes made from SL material should also have lower tunneling currents, which are the dominant source of noise in low gap devices. This talk will describe a NASA-funded project to develop HgCdTe detectors for FIR wavelengths. Work is now in progress on the fabrication of discrete detectors, with emphasis on the superlattice approach. Within 3 years we hope to have a 32 x 32 element array for λ = 50-60 μm. The ultimate goal is a 128 x 128 element array for λ = 50-100 μm that could be used on a SOFIA instrument.

  6. Performance assessment of simulated 3D laser images using Geiger-mode avalanche photo-diode: tests on simple synthetic scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyac, Antoine; Hespel, Laurent; Riviere, Nicolas; Briottet, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    In the past few decades, laser imaging has demonstrated its potential in delivering accurate range images of objects or scenes, even at long range or under bad weather conditions (rain, fog, day and night vision). We note great improvements in the conception and development of single and multi infrared sensors, concerning embedability, circuitry reading capacity, or pixel resolution and sensitivity, allowing a wide diversity of applications (i.e. enhanced vision, long distance target detection and reconnaissance, 3D DSM generation). Unfortunately, it is often difficult to dispose of all the instruments to compare their performance for a given application. Laser imaging simulation has shown to be an interesting alternative to acquire real data, offering a higher flexibility to perform this sensors comparison, plus being time and cost efficient. In this paper, we present a 3D laser imaging end-to-end simulator using a focal plane array with Geiger mode detection, named LANGDOC. This work aims to highlight the interest and capability of this new generation of photo-diodes arrays, especially for airborne mapping and surveillance of high risk areas.

  7. Contribution of generation-recombination processes at inner interface of MBE-grown Hg1-xCdxTe heterostucture to dark current of small active area photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekanova, Galina V.; Drugova, Albina A.; Kholodnov, Viacheslav; Nikitin, Mikhail S.

    2009-09-01

    Multilayer heterostructures of Hg1-xCdxTe alloy grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on large size alternative substrates Si, GaAs and Ge are considered as one of productive alternative materials for issue of large format photovoltaic (PV) infrared (IR) focal plane arrays. However reaching of ultimate performance of small-pitched photodiode's (PD) covering spectral range from 8 to 12 μm depends on electronic properties of both individual layers and heterostructure interfaces. Due to small thickness of heterostructure layers, interfaces are located close to active regions of p-n junction and hence generation-recombination processes at interfaces will contribute to value of current flowing through junction. As usual measured dark current value of small-sized PD is higher than estimated from calculation and cannot be explained by discrepancy between real and estimated charge carriers concentration in absorption layers where p-n junction is formed. Objective of the present work was to calculate the contribution of recombination of charge carriers via electronic states on nearby inner interface to dark current of Hg1-xCdxTe LWIR PD (λco equals to 9.5-10.3 μm at Top=77 K) and its variation with absorption layer parameters and compare it to measured data on small-pitched arrays. We have concluded previously that at high recombination rate dark current can grow in orders of value.

  8. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  9. Semiconductor arrays with multiplexer readout for gamma-ray imaging: results for a 48 × 48 Ge array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, H. B.; Augustine, F. L.; Barrett, H. H.; Dereniak, E. L.; Matherson, K. L.; Meyers, T. J.; Perry, D. L.; Venzon, J. E.; Woolfenden, J. M.; Young, E. T.

    1994-12-01

    We are developing a new kind of gamma-ray imaging device that has sub-millimeter spatial resolution and excellent energy resolution. The device is composed of a slab of semiconductor detector partitioned into an array of detector cells by photolithography and connected to a monolithic circuit chip called a multiplexer (MUX) for readout. Our application is for an ultra-high-resolution SPECT system for functional brain imaging using an injected radiotracer. We report here on results obtained with a Hughes 48 × 48 Ge PIN-photodiode array with MUX readout, originally developed as an infrared focal-plane-array imaging sensor. The device functions as an array of individual gamma-ray detectors with minimal interpixel crosstalk. Linearity of energy response is excellent up to at least 140 keV. The array exhibits excellent energy resolution, ˜ 2 keV at ≤ 140 keV or 1.5% FWHM at 140 keV. The energy resolution is dominated by MUX readout noise and so should improve with MUX optimization for gamma-ray detection. The spatial resolution of the 48 × 48 Ge array is essentially the same as the pixel spacing, 125 μm. The quantum efficiency is limited by the thin Ge detector (0.25 mm), but this approach is readily applicable to thicker Ge detectors and room-temperature semiconductor detectors such as CdTe, HgI 2 and CdZnTe.

  10. Design and performance of single photon APD focal plane arrays for 3-D LADAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Owens, Mark; Patel, Ketan; Jiang, Xudong; Slomkowski, Krystyna; Rangwala, Sabbir; Zalud, Peter F.; Senko, Tom; Tower, John; Ferraro, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    ×We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of focal plane arrays (FPAs) for use in 3-D LADAR imaging applications requiring single photon sensitivity. These 32 × 32 FPAs provide high-efficiency single photon sensitivity for three-dimensional LADAR imaging applications at 1064 nm. Our GmAPD arrays are designed using a planarpassivated avalanche photodiode device platform with buried p-n junctions that has demonstrated excellent performance uniformity, operational stability, and long-term reliability. The core of the FPA is a chip stack formed by hybridizing the GmAPD photodiode array to a custom CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) and attaching a precision-aligned GaP microlens array (MLA) to the back-illuminated detector array. Each ROIC pixel includes an active quenching circuit governing Geiger-mode operation of the corresponding avalanche photodiode pixel as well as a pseudo-random counter to capture per-pixel time-of-flight timestamps in each frame. The FPA has been designed to operate at frame rates as high as 186 kHz for 2 μs range gates. Effective single photon detection efficiencies as high as 40% (including all optical transmission and MLA losses) are achieved for dark count rates below 20 kHz. For these planar-geometry diffused-junction GmAPDs, isolation trenches are used to reduce crosstalk due to hot carrier luminescence effects during avalanche events, and we present details of the crosstalk performance for different operating conditions. Direct measurement of temporal probability distribution functions due to cumulative timing uncertainties of the GmAPDs and ROIC circuitry has demonstrated a FWHM timing jitter as low as 265 ps (standard deviation is ~100 ps).

  11. Installation of soft X-ray array diagnostics and its application to tomography reconstruction using synthetic KSTAR X-ray images

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Juhyeok; Hong, Joohwan; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Kim, Junghee

    2014-11-15

    Four-array system of soft X-ray diagnostics was installed on KSTAR tokamak. Each array has 32 viewing chords of two photo-diode array detectors with spatial resolution of 2 cm. To estimate signals from the soft X-ray radiation power, typical n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and argon impurity line radiation profiles in KSTAR are chosen. The photo-diodes were absolutely calibrated as a function of the incident photon energy in 2–40 keV range with a portable X-ray tube. Two-dimensional T{sub e} image properties by multi-energy method were simulated and visualized with six combinations of beryllium filter sets within the dynamic range of signal ratio.

  12. Simultaneous quantification of six main active constituents in Chinese Angelica by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Li; Si-Wang, Wang; Hong-Hai, Tu; Wei, Cao

    2013-01-01

    Background: Angelica sinensis is a famous traditional Chinese medicinalherb, which is predominantly used in the treatment of gynecological conditions. It is the first report for the simultaneous determination of six major active components in Chinese Angelica, which is important for quality control. Objective: A validated HPLC-PAD method was first developed to evaluate the quality of crude and processed Radix Angelica through simultaneous determination of six bioactive compounds, namely ferulic acid, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, coniferyl ferulate, Z/E-ligustilide and Z/E-butylidenephthalide. Materials and Methods: Samples were separated on a Xtimate™C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and detected by PAD. Mobile phase was composed of (A) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.02%, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile (MeCN) (including 10% tetrahydrofuran, v/v) using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ≥ 0.9963) within the tested ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 91.927–105.859%. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the developed method is accurate and reproducible and could be readily utilized as a suitable quality control method for the quantification of Radix Angelica. PMID:23772106

  13. Quality evaluation of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhan-nan; Sun, Yi-ming; Luo, Shi-qiong; Chen, Jin-wu; Chen, Jin-wu; Yu, Zheng-wen; Sun, Min

    2014-03-01

    A new, validated method, developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 phenolics (chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, vitexin, rutin, afzelin, isoquercitrin, narirutin, kaempferitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, chrysosplenol D, vitexicarpin, 5-hydroxy-3,3',4',7-tetramethoxy flavonoids, 5-hydroxy-3,4',6,7-tetramethoxy flavonoids and kaempferol-3,7,4'-trimethyl ether) in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. was successfully applied to 35 batches of samples collected from different regions or at different times and their total antioxidant activities (TAAs) were investigated. The aim was to develop a quality control method to simultaneously determine the major active components in H. cordata. The HPLC-DAD method was performed using a reverse-phase C18 column with a gradient elution system (acetonitrile-methanol-water) and simultaneous detection at 345 nm. Linear behaviors of method for all the analytes were observed with linear regression relationship (r(2)>0.999) at the concentration ranges investigated. The recoveries of the 16 phenolics ranged from 98.93% to 101.26%. The samples analyzed were differentiated and classified based on the contents of the 16 characteristic compounds and the TAA using hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results analyzed showed that similar chemical profiles and TAAs were divided into the same group. There was some evidence that active compounds, although they varied significantly, may possess uniform anti-oxidant activities and have potentially synergistic effects. PMID:24577906

  14. Quantification of patulin in fruit leathers by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patulin is a mycotoxin commonly found in certain fruit and fruit products. For this reason many countries have established regulatory limits pertaining to, in particular, apple juice and apple products. Fruit leathers are produced by dehydrating fruit puree, leaving a sweet product that has a leathe...

  15. Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer Array on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    K. Shinohara; D.S. Darrow; A.L. Roquemore; S.S. Medley; F.E. Cecil

    2004-05-13

    A Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The array consists of four chords viewing through a common vacuum flange. The tangency radii of the viewing chords are 60, 90, 100, and 120 cm. They view across the three co-injection neutral beam lines (deuterium, 80 keV (typ.) with tangency radii 48.7, 59.2, and 69.4 cm) on NSTX and detect co-going energetic ions. A silicon photodiode used was calibrated by using a mono-energetic deuteron beam source. Deuterons with energy above 40 keV can be detected with the present setup. The degradation of the performance was also investigated. Lead shots and epoxy are used for neutron shielding to reduce handling any hazardous heavy metal. This method also enables us to make an arbitrary shape to be fit into the complex flight tube.

  16. Combined blazed grating and microlens array for color image sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Tadayuki; Shimatani, Naoko; Kintaka, Kenji; Nishio, Kenzo; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Ura, Shogo

    2014-03-01

    A combination of a blazed grating and a microlens array is discussed for high-efficiency color image sensing. Each image segment includes a microlens with blazed grating and three photodiodes assigned to red, green, and blue colors. Color-splitting performances of design examples were simulated by the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. It was found that the spectral characteristics were similar to the ideal NTSC specifications for a segment size of 10 µm with a polymer microlens and a TiO2 blazed grating. A prototype consisting of a honeycomb array of microlenses of 15 µm cell diameter and a TiO2 blaze grating of 1.22 µm period and 0.35 µm height was fabricated and characterized. Power utilization efficiency of about 60% was predicted theoretically and estimated experimentally, which is much higher in comparison to a conventional image sensor utilizing color filters.

  17. Performance of focal plane arrays for the photon counting arrays (PCAR) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blessinger, Michael A.; Enriquez, Marlon; Groppe, Joseph V.; Flynn, Kevin; Sudol, Thomas M.; Onat, Bora M.; Kleinhans, William E.

    2007-04-01

    The DARPA PCAR program is sponsoring the development of low noise, near infrared (1.5 μm wavelength) focal plane arrays (FPAs) for night vision applications. The first phase of this work has produced a collection of 640 x 512 pixel, 20 μm pitch FPAs with low noise. The approach was to design four different read out integrated circuits (ROICs), all compatible with the same bump-bonded InGaAs photodiode detector array. Two of the designs have capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) pixels, each with a somewhat different amplifier design and with two different sizes of small integration capacitors. The third design is a source follower per detector (SFD) pixel, integrating on the detector capacitance. The fourth design also integrates on the detector capacitance, but uses a moderate gain, in-pixel amplifier to boost the signal level, and also has a differential pixel output. All four designs require off-chip correlated sampling to achieve the desired noise level. The correlated sampling is performed digitally in the data acquisition software. Each design is capable of 30 frames per second read out rate, and has a dynamic range of 1000:1 using a rolling, non-snapshot integration. The designs were fabricated in a standard CMOS foundry process, and were bump-bonded to InGaAs detector arrays. All four designs are working without any significant design errors, and are producing low noise imaging, with less than 50 electrons rms noise per pixel after correlated double sampling.

  18. Plasmonic nanohole arrays on Si-Ge heterostructures: an approach for integrated biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augel, L.; Fischer, I. A.; Dunbar, L. A.; Bechler, S.; Berrier, A.; Etezadi, D.; Hornung, F.; Kostecki, K.; Ozdemir, C. I.; Soler, M.; Altug, H.; Schulze, J.

    2016-03-01

    Nanohole array surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors offer a promising platform for high-throughput label-free biosensing. Integrating nanohole arrays with group-IV semiconductor photodetectors could enable low-cost and disposable biosensors compatible to Si-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology that can be combined with integrated circuitry for continuous monitoring of biosamples and fast sensor data processing. Such an integrated biosensor could be realized by structuring a nanohole array in the contact metal layer of a photodetector. We used Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy to investigate nanohole arrays in a 100 nm Al film deposited on top of a vertical Si-Ge photodiode structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We find that the presence of a protein bilayer, constitute of protein AG and Immunoglobulin G (IgG), leads to a wavelength-dependent absorptance enhancement of ~ 8 %.

  19. Characterization of InGaAs linear array for applications to remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Farnsworth, Glenn R.; Abedin, M. N.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2005-05-01

    An Indium Gallium Arsenide linear photodiode array in the 1.1-2.5 μm spectral range was characterized. The array has 1024X1 pixels with a 25 μm pitch and was manufactured by Sensors Unlimited, Inc. Characterization and analysis of the electrical and optical properties of a camera system were carried out at room temperature to obtain detector performance parameters. The signal and noise were measured while the array was uniformly illuminated at varying exposure levels. A photon transfer curve was generated by plotting noise as a function of average signal to obtain the camera gain constant. The spectral responsivity was also measured, and the quantum efficiency, read noise and full-well capacity were determined. This paper describes the characterization procedure, analyzes the experimental results, and discusses the applications of the InGaAs linear array to future earth and planetary remote sensing mission.

  20. Characterization of InGaAs Linear Array for Applications to Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Farnsworth, Glenn R.; Abedin, M. N.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2005-01-01

    An Indium Gallium Arsenide linear photodiode array in the 1.1-2.5 micron spectral range was characterized. The array has 1024x1 pixels with a 25 micron pitch and was manufactured by Sensors Unlimited, Inc. Characterization and analysis of the electrical and optical properties of a camera system were carried out at room temperature to obtain detector performance parameters. The signal and noise were measured while the array was uniformly illuminated at varying exposure levels. A photon transfer curve was generated by plotting noise as a function of average signal to obtain the camera gain constant. The spectral responsivity was also measured, and the quantum efficiency, read noise and full-well capacity were determined. This paper describes the characterization procedure, analyzes the experimental results, and discusses the applications of the InGaAs linear array to future earth and planetary remote sensing mission.

  1. Active pixel sensor array with multiresolution readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. The imaging device can also include an electronic shutter formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate, and/or a storage section to allow for simultaneous integration. In addition, the imaging device can include a multiresolution imaging circuit to provide images of varying resolution. The multiresolution circuit could also be employed in an array where the photosensitive portion of each pixel cell is a photodiode. This latter embodiment could further be modified to facilitate low light imaging.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of In0.83Al0.17N based MSM visible photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Naveed; Devarajan, Mutharasu

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we report on the growth of In0.83Al0.17N film on p-type Si (1 1 1) substrate for metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiode application. The film was synthesized by reactive magnetron co-sputtering technique on Si (1 1 1) substrate in Ar and N2 mixture at 300 °C. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed (0 0 2) oriented diffraction peak corresponding to nanocrystalline InAlN. The band gap of In0.83Al0.17N film was estimated from UV-vis reflectance measurement and it was found to be 2.38 eV. To fabricate In0.83Al0.17N based MSM photodiode, Pt contacts were deposited on the film through RF magnetron sputtering. Upon exposure to 520 nm light, the Pt/In0.83Al0.17N/Pt photodiode displayed a sharp rise in the value of current. The photodiode exhibited a high sensitivity (4.8×103) and current gain (48.1) at a bias voltage of 5 V. The response and recovery time were calculated to be 0.62 and 0.63 s respectively. The results of present work demonstrate that the sputtered grown InAlN film is a promising material for the MSM photodiode application.

  3. Extremely Efficient Multiple Electron-hole Pair Generation in Carbon Nanotube Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, Nathaniel

    2010-03-01

    The efficient generation of multiple electron-hole (e-h) pairs from a single photon could improve the efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells beyond standard thermodynamic limits [1] and has been the focus of much recent work in semiconductor nanomaterials [2,3]. In single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), the small Fermi velocity and low dielectric constant suggests that electron-electron interactions are very strong and that high-energy carriers should efficiently generate e-h pairs. Here, I will discuss observations of highly efficient generation of e-h pairs due to impact excitation in SWNT p-n junction photodiodes [4]. To investigate optoelectronic transport properties of individual SWNT photodiodes, we focus a laser beam over the device while monitoring the electronic characteristics. Optical excitation into the second electronic subband E22 ˜ 2 EGAP leads to striking photocurrent steps in the device I-VSD characteristics that occur at voltage intervals of the band gap energy EGAP/ e. Spatially and spectrally resolved photocurrent combined with temperature-dependent studies suggest that these steps result from efficient generation of multiple e-h pairs from a single hot E22 carrier. We conclude that in the SWNT photodiode, a single photon with energy greater than 2EGAP is converted into multiple e-h pairs, leading to enhanced photocurrent and increased photo-conversion efficiency. [1] W. Shockley, and H. J. Queisser, Journal of Applied Physics 32, 510 (1961). [2] R. D. Schaller, and V. I. Klimov, Physical Review Letters 92 (18), 186601 (2004). [3] R. J. Ellingson, et al, Nano Letters, 5 (5), 865-871 (2005). [4] Nathaniel M. Gabor, Zhaohui Zhong, Ken Bosnick, Jiwoong Park, and Paul McEuen, Science, 325, 1367 (2009).

  4. Wavelength-division-multiplexed InGaAs/InP avalanched photodiodes for quantum key distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon Hyeok; Ha, Changkyun; Jeong, Heung-Sun; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seoung Hun; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Kyong Hon

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate improved single photon detection efficiencies of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in a wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) scheme for high-capacity plug-and-play-type two-way quantum key distributions (QKDs). Single-photon detectors (SPDs) combined in the WDM APD scheme can be used to overcome the detection speed limit of a single SPD which is caused mainly by the afterpulse effect. The multiple SPDs combined in the parallel WDM scheme can increase the single photon detection capacity, although additional optical losses resulted from the WDM MUX and deMUX devices induce limited increases.

  5. Direct detection of Tritium and Carbon-14 beta particles with GaAs photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, A. M.; Lees, J. E.; Bassford, D. J.

    2012-09-01

    New measurements are reported which show beta particles emitted from 3H and 14C sources being directly detected with GaAs mesa photodiodes without use of scintillators. Spectra accumulated with GaAs diodes which were originally developed for X-ray spectroscopy are presented which show that individual beta particles from these sources can be counted and the energy they deposit in the detector measured. Potential longer term applications of this technology as it is developed further and improved include space missions, autoradiography, monitoring tritium produced by fusion reactors and nuclear decommissioning.

  6. A circuit model simulation for separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banoushi, A.; Kardan, M. R.; Ataee Naeini, M.

    2005-06-01

    We obtain a transfer function and a circuit model for separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes (SAGCM-APD's). This model is used to calculate the frequency and time responses of the APD's, and to investigate the influence of the carrier velocities and dead-space effect on the bandwidth of the devices. It is shown that for thinner APD's, the dead-space effect can be included by considering a non-local model for carrier velocities, and a local model for impact ionization rates. The new approach is easier than the previous methods, and the calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Modeling the gain and bandwidth of submicron active layer n+-i-p+ avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Kanishka; Das, N. R.

    2012-10-01

    The electron initiated avalanche gain and bandwidth are calculated for thin submicron GaAs n+-i-p+ avalanche photodiode. A model is used to estimate the avalanche build-up of carriers in the active multiplication layer considering the dead-space effect. In the model, the carriers are identified both by their energy and position in the multiplication region. The excess energy of the carriers above threshold is assumed to be equally distributed among the carriers generated after impact ionization. The gain versus bias and bandwidth versus gain characteristics of the device are also demonstrated for different active layer thicknesses of the APD.

  8. 10μm thin transmissive photodiode produced by ALBA Synchrotron and IMB-CNM-CSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, C.; Jover-Manas, G.; Matilla, O.; Avila, J.; Juanhuix, J.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Rodriguez, J.

    2015-03-01

    Thin silicon photodiodes are common X-ray beam diagnosis devices at synchrotron facilities. Here we present a new device featuring an extremely thin layer that allows X-ray transmission over 90% for energies above 10 keV. The diode has a radiation-hard silicon junction with silicon dioxide passivation and a protective entrance window. These outstanding features make this device suited for diagnostic applications in X-ray synchrotron beamlines. Hereby preliminary results of X-ray transmission, responsivity and uniformity are presented.

  9. Conceptual design and applications of HgCdTe infrared photodiodes for heterodyne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirieix, M. B.; Hofheimer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The significance of HgCdTe photodiodes are discussed relative to their existance in heterodyne detection systems operating in the 9 to 11 micrometer CO2 laser wavelength region. Their successful fabrication as well as the physical properties of the materials are described. The implementation of controlled industrial processes are reported with emphasis on the yield of predictable and repeatable detector characteristics to the discriminating systems, demands for high cutoff frequencies, quantum efficiency, and reliability. The most salient production steps and diode characteristics are presented. Measured results from production units are also given.

  10. Effective amplifier noise for an optical receiver based on linear mode avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C.-C.

    1989-01-01

    The rms noise charge induced by the amplifier for an optical receiver based on the linear-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) was analyzed. It is shown that for an amplifier with a 1-pF capacitor and a noise temperature of 100 K, the rms noise charge due to the amplifier is about 300. Since the noise charge must be small compared to the signal gain, APD gains on the order of 1000 will be required to operate the receiver in the linear mode.

  11. Design and testing of an active quenching circuit for an avalanche photodiode photon detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbel, D.; Schwartz, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The photon-detection capabilities of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating above their theoretical breakdown voltages are described, with particular attention given to the needs and methods of quenching an avalanche once breakdown has occurred. A brief background on the motives of and previous work with this mode of operation is presented. Finally, a description of the design and testing of an active quenching circuit is given. Although the active quenching circuit did not perform as expected, knowledge was gained as to the signal amplitudes necessary for quenching and the need for a better model for the above-breakdown circuit characteristics of the Geiger-mode APD.

  12. Dark Current Degradation of Near Infrared Avalanche Photodiodes from Proton Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Johnston, Allan H.

    2004-01-01

    InGaAs and Ge avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are examined for the effects of 63-MeV protons on dark current. Dark current increases were large and similar to prior results for silicon APDs, despite the smaller size of InGaAs and Ge devices. Bulk dark current increases from displacement damage in the depletion regions appeared to be the dominant contributor to overall dark current degradation. Differences in displacement damage factors are discussed as they relate to structural and material differences between devices.

  13. State-of-the-art performance of GaAlAs/GaAs avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, H. D.; Nakano, K.; Tomasetta, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ga(0.15)Al(0.85)As/GaAs avalanche photodiodes have been successfully fabricated. The performance of these detectors is characterized by a rise time of less than 35 ps, an external quantum efficiency with an antireflection coating of 95% at 0.53 microns, and a microwave optical gain of 42 dB. The dark current density is in the low range (10 to the minus A/sq cm) at one-half the breakdown voltages, and rises to 0.0001 A/sq cm at 42 dB optical gain.

  14. Application of a LED-photodiode optocouple for the study of human respiratory function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, A. G.; Zhumashev, N. K.; Lukyanov, G. N.; Mynbaev, K. D.; Rassadina, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Application of a LED-photodiode optocouple for the study of human respiratory function is considered. The optocouple operating in the middle-infrared part of the spectrum (with the peak of the LED emission at 4.1 μm at 300 K) was applied for monitoring changes in CO2 concentration during respiration of a human. Studies were carried out simultaneously with the measurements of pressure in the left and right halves of the nose cavity. The results of the study open possibilities for using infrared optocouples as sensitive elements in compact and cheap sensors detecting breath abnormalities associated with respiratory and other diseases.

  15. Triangular-barrier quantum rod photodiodes: Their fabrication and detector characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmori, M.; Kobayashi, Y.; Vitushinskiy, P.; Nakamura, S.; Kojima, T.; Sakaki, H.

    2014-02-24

    We have fabricated a GaAs-based triangular-barrier photodiode, in which self-assembled InGaAs quantum rods (Q-rods) are embedded in its barrier region. Transport study at 100 K has shown that electrons start to flow mainly through Q-rods when a bias is set above a threshold. Upon illumination, photo-generated holes are found to accumulate in the middle portion of Q-rods and efficiently lower the local barrier height, yielding the responsivity as high as 10{sup 5} A/W at the incident light of 1 fW.

  16. 50-Gbit/s vertical illumination avalanche photodiode for 400-Gbit/s Ethernet systems.

    PubMed

    Nada, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Haruki; Muramoto, Yoshifumi; Ishibashi, Tadao; Matsuzaki, Hideaki

    2014-06-16

    50-Gbit/s error-free operation is demonstrated by a high-speed avalanche photodiode for the first time. The APD exhibits 3-dB bandwidth of 35 GHz and excellent receiver sensitivity of -10.8 dBm at a BER of 10(-12) against non-return to zero input optical signals. These results indicate our APD is promising for the systems with serial baud rate of 50 Gbit/s such as 400-Gbit/s Ethernet systems.

  17. A photodiode-based neutral particle bolometer for characterizing charge-exchanged fast-ion behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Clary, R.; Smirnov, A.; Dettrick, S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Ruskov, E.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y.

    2012-10-15

    A neutral particle bolometer (NPB) has been designed and implemented on Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device in order to spatially and temporally resolve the charge-exchange losses of fast-ion populations originating from neutral beam injection into field-reversed configuration plasmas. This instrument employs a silicon photodiode as the detection device with an integrated tungsten filter coating to reduce sensitivity to light radiation. Here we discuss the technical aspects and calibration of the NPB, and report typical NPB measurement results of wall recycling effects on fast-ion losses.

  18. A photodiode-based neutral particle bolometer for characterizing charge-exchanged fast-ion behaviora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, R.; Smirnov, A.; Dettrick, S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Ruskov, E.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y.

    2012-10-01

    A neutral particle bolometer (NPB) has been designed and implemented on Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device in order to spatially and temporally resolve the charge-exchange losses of fast-ion populations originating from neutral beam injection into field-reversed configuration plasmas. This instrument employs a silicon photodiode as the detection device with an integrated tungsten filter coating to reduce sensitivity to light radiation. Here we discuss the technical aspects and calibration of the NPB, and report typical NPB measurement results of wall recycling effects on fast-ion losses.

  19. A photodiode-based neutral particle bolometer for characterizing charge-exchanged fast-ion behavior.

    PubMed

    Clary, R; Smirnov, A; Dettrick, S; Knapp, K; Korepanov, S; Ruskov, E; Heidbrink, W W; Zhu, Y

    2012-10-01

    A neutral particle bolometer (NPB) has been designed and implemented on Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device in order to spatially and temporally resolve the charge-exchange losses of fast-ion populations originating from neutral beam injection into field-reversed configuration plasmas. This instrument employs a silicon photodiode as the detection device with an integrated tungsten filter coating to reduce sensitivity to light radiation. Here we discuss the technical aspects and calibration of the NPB, and report typical NPB measurement results of wall recycling effects on fast-ion losses.

  20. The 1.06 micrometer avalanche photodiode detectors with integrated circuit preamplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eden, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a complete solid state 1.06 micron optical receiver which can be used in optical communications at data rates approaching 1.5 Gb/s, or in other applications requiring sensitive, short-pulse detection, is reported. This work entailed both the development of a new type of heterojunction 3-5 semiconductor alloy avalanche photodiode and an extremely charge-sensitive wideband low-noise preamp design making use of GaAs Schottky barrier-gate field effect transistors.

  1. Measurements of the photon detection efficiency done for Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, S.; Meddi, F.; Kuznetsova, E.

    2010-04-01

    Estimation of the Photon Detect Efficiency (PDE) of multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) based on measurements of the G-APD response to low-intensity light is presented. The fit of the light-response spectra takes into account after-pulsing and cross-talk effects and yields the value of initial photons. Using a calibrated photo-detector as a reference, the value of the PDE can be calculated. The sources of systematic error of the obtained PDE is discussed as well as possibility for its minimization.

  2. Transient effects of ionizing radiation in Si, InGaAsP, GaAlSb, and Ge photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wiczer, J. J.; Barnes, C. E.; Dawson, L. R.

    1980-01-01

    Certain military applications require the continuous operation of optoelectronic information transfer systems during exposure to ionizing radiation. In such an environment the optical detector can be the system element which limits data transmission. We report here the measured electrical and optical characteristics of an irradiation tolerant photodiode fabricated from a double heterojunction structure in the gallium aluminum antimonide (GaAlSb) ternary semiconductor system. A series of tests at Sandia Laboratories' Relativistic Electron Beam Accelerator (REBA) subjected this device and commercially available photodiodes (made from silicon, germanium, and indium gallium arsenide phosphide) to dose rate levels of 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ rads/sec. The results of these tests show that the thin GaAlSb double heterojunction photodiode structure generates significantly less unwanted radiation induced current density than that of the next best commercial device.

  3. Metal-optic cavity for a high efficiency sub-fF germanium photodiode on a silicon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Going, Ryan; Kim, Myung-Ki; Wu, Ming C

    2013-09-23

    We propose two designs of nanoscale sub-fF germanium photodiodes which are efficiently integrated with silicon waveguides. The metal-optic cavities are simulated with the finite difference time domain method and optimized using critical coupling concepts. One design is for a metal semiconductor metal photodiode with <200 aF capacitance, 39% external quantum efficiency, and 0.588 (λ/n)³ cavity volume at 1.5 µm wavelength. The second design is for a vertical p-i-n photodiode with <100 aF capacitance, 51% external quantum efficiency, and 0.804 (λ/n)³ cavity volume. Both designs make use of CMOS compatible materials germanium and aluminum metal for potential future monolithic integration with silicon photonics.

  4. Light emitting diode, photodiode-based fluorescence detection system for DNA analysis with microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Gordon H; Glerum, D Moira; Backhouse, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Electrophoretic separation of fluorescently end-labeled DNA after a PCR serves as a gold standard in genetic diagnostics. Because of their size and cost, instruments for this type of analysis have had limited market uptake, particularly for point-of-care applications. This might be changed through a higher level of system integration and lower instrument costs that can be realized through the use of LEDs for excitation and photodiodes for detection--if they provide sufficient sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate an optimized microchip electrophoresis instrument using polymeric fluidic chips with fluorescence detection of end-labeled DNA with a LOD of 0.15 nM of Alexa Fluor 532. This represents orders of magnitude improvement over previously reported instruments of this type. We demonstrate the system with an electrophoretic separation of two PCR products and their respective primers. We believe that this is the first LED-induced fluorescence microchip electrophoresis system with photodiode-based detection that could be used for standard applications of PCR and electrophoresis. PMID:26412502

  5. Reversed Three-Dimensional Visible Light Indoor Positioning Utilizing Annular Receivers with Multi-Photodiodes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yinfan; Zhao, Jiaqi; Shi, Jianyang; Chi, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the increasingly wide use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) lighting, in this paper we propose a reversed indoor positioning system (IPS) based on LED visible light communication (VLC) in order to improve indoor positioning accuracy. Unlike other VLC positioning systems, we employ two annular receivers with multi-photodiodes installed on the ceiling to locate the persons who carry LEDs. The basic idea is using multi-photodiodes to calculate the angle while using the received signal strength (RSS) method to calculate the distance. The experiment results show that the effective positioning range of the proposed system is 1.8 m when the distance between two receivers is 1.2 m. Moreover, a positioning error less than 0.2 m can be achieved under the condition that the radius of the PIN circle is between 0.16 m and 0.2 m, and the distance of the transmitter-receiver plane is less than 1.8 m, which will be effective in practice. PMID:27509504

  6. Miniaturized analytical instrumentation for electrochemiluminescence assays: a spectrometer and a photodiode-based device.

    PubMed

    Neves, Marta M P S; Bobes-Limenes, Pablo; Pérez-Junquera, Alejandro; González-García, María Begoña; Hernández-Santos, David; Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Herein, a new miniaturized analytical instrumentation for electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays is presented. A photodiode integrated in an ECL cell combined with a potentiostat/galvanostat, all integrated in a one-piece instrument (μSTAT ECL), was developed. In addition, a complementary micro-spectrometer integrated in a similar ECL cell for luminescence spectra recording is also proposed. Both cells are intended to be used with screen-printed electrodes and all the devices are portable and small sized. Their performance was corroborated with two innovative proofs-of-concept that centered on the luminol transduction chemistry: a first time reported ECL assay based on the enzymatic reaction between an indoxyl substrate and the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, and the electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) process triggered by the electro-oxidized luminol to the acceptor fluorescein. The photodiode system revealed to be more sensitive than the spectrometer device in collecting the light; however, with the latter, it is possible to discriminate different luminescent species according to their maximum wavelength emission, which is extremely useful for carrying out simple and simultaneous ECL multiplex analyzes. The spectrometer device works as an excellent accessory to couple with the μSTAT ECL instrument, complementing the experiments. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the ECL-RET: from luminol-H2O2 system to fluorescein, the micro-spectrometer for the light collection and the 3D representation of the ECL-RET reaction. PMID:27299777

  7. Magnetic resonance in films and photodiodes based on poly-(phenyl-phenylene-vinylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyakonov, V.; Rösler, G.; Schwoerer, M.; Blumstengel, S.; Lüders, K.

    1996-02-01

    Films of poly-(2-phenyl-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (PPPV) and photodiodes with PPPV as an active layer were studied by optically (ODMR) and electrically (EDMR) detected electron-spin resonance (ESR). Two different signals were observed in ODMR: enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) at g=2.01 due to recombination of the photogenerated polarons (s=1/2), and a half-field enhancement signal, attributed to the fusion of triplet excitons. Both processes lead to the formation of singlet excitons. The spectral dependence of the s=1/2 signal follows the low energy part of the PL spectrum, indicating that delayed recombination of distant polarons is influenced by ESR, whereas the cw PL contains both prompt and delayed contributions. The linewidth and the intensity of the ODMR signal depend on the PL excitation intensity. Both effects are due to a decrease of the recombination lifetime of the polaron pairs at higher intensities. The relative decrease of the short-circuit photocurrent ISC through a PPPV photodiode by ESR saturation is due to recombination of nonthermalized, nongeminate excess charge polarons in the active layer of the device. This effect is at least two orders of magnitude stronger than the enhancement of total PL at the same temperature. This feature is found to be common for conjugated polymers investigated so far, and reflects the fact that the total photogenerated ISC is spin dependent, whereas ODMR selects only the nongeminate portion of recombining species in the sample.

  8. Cd Hg Te (1.3 µm - 1.55 µm) Avalanche Photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meslage, J.; Pichard, G.; Fragnon, M.; Royer, M.; Nguyen Duy, M.; Biosrobert, C.; Morvan, D.

    1983-11-01

    The particular Cd0.7 Hg0.3Te band structure:almost equality of band gap and spin orbit splitting, provides good ionization properties to this alloy : a high ionization coefficients ratio is expected. The devices elaboration is made by planar technology. A N+/N/P+ structure is achieved by ions implantation followed by a diffusion process. A diffused guard ring allows to avoid surface and junction edge effects. The I (V) characteristic shows a breakdown voltage (VB) of about 100 V. The dark current at 0.95 VB, amounts 100nA.Photodiodes sensitivity is typiclly of 0.7. A/W when M=1.Multiplication coefficients as high as 40 have been measured, the photoresponse spatial homogeneity in gain mode has been also controlled with a lOμm size spot : no microplasma effect have been observed. Photodetectors sensitivity, measured at 500 MHz, remains identical in avalanche operating mode. Good linearity is obtained when plotting P-N schottky noise versus light intensity No excess noise was observed. The study of the avalanche photodiode noise, synchronous with 1.3. μm DEL emission, at 30 MHz with a 1 MHz bandwith has been carried out in relation to the multiplication factor, and has led to an estimation of the ionization coefficient ratio.

  9. Updated design for a low-noise, wideband transimpedance photodiode amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S. F.; Marsala, R.

    2006-10-15

    The high-speed rotation diagnostic developed for Columbia's HBT-EP tokamak requires a high quantum efficiency, very low drift detector/amplifier combination. An updated version of the circuit developed originally for the beam emission spectroscopy experiment on TFTR is being used. A low dark current (2 nA at 15 V bias), low input source capacitance (2 pF) FFD-040 N-type Si photodiode is operated in photoconductive mode. It has a quantum efficiency of 40% at the 468.6 nm (He II line that is being observed). A low-noise field-effect transistor (InterFET IFN152 with e{sub Na}=1.2 nV/{radical}Hz) is used to reduce the noise in the transimpedance preamplifier (A250 AMPTEK op-amp) and a very high speed (unity-gain bandwidth=200 MHz) voltage feedback amplifier (LM7171) is used to restore the frequency response up to 100 kHz. This type of detector/amplifier is photon-noise limited at this bandwidth for incident light with a power of >{approx}2 nW. The circuit has been optimized using SIMETRIX 4.0 SPICE software and a prototype circuit has been tested successfully. Though photomultipliers and avalanche photodiodes can detect much lower light levels, for light levels >2 nW and a 10 kHz bandwidth, this detector/amplifier combination is more sensitive because of the absence of excess (internally generated) noise.

  10. Performances of amorphous silicon photodiodes integrated in chemiluminescence based μ-TAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Domenico; Nardini, Massimo; Scipinotti, Riccardo; de Cesare, Giampiero; Mirasoli, Mara; Zangheri, Martina; Roda, Aldo; Nascetti, Augusto

    2013-05-01

    A detailed characterization of the performances of amorphous silicon photodiodes in the detection of chemiluminescent signal is carried out. Comparison with commercial CCD acquisition system has been done as benchmark. The underlying idea is the development of stand-alone and compact micro-total-analysys-systems (μ-TAS) that do not need bulky and expensive equipment for their operation as external focusing optics and excitation sources. The photosensor is p-i-n structures deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition on a glass substrate covered with a transparent conductive oxide that acts as bottom electrode and window layer for the light impinging through the glass. A PDMS layer with wells has been fabricated using an aluminum mold and bonded on the glass substrate with a well aligned with a photosensor. The experiments have been performed by filling a well with solutions containing different quantities of horseradish peroxidase. A good linearity of the photosensor response is observed across the entire measurement range that spans over three orders of magnitude. The system detection limit is 70 fg/μL. A very good agreement between results achieved with conventional off-chip CCD detection and the on-chip photodiode has been observed. Experiments with target molecules immobilized on a functionalized glass surface have been also performed in microfluidic regime, confirming the validity of the proposed integrated approach based on a-Si:H technology.

  11. Light helicity detection in MOS-based spin-photodiodes: An analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoni, M.; Rinaldi, C.

    2016-09-01

    In a metal-oxide-semiconductor-based spin-photodiode, the helicity of an incoming light is efficiently converted into an electrical signal by exploiting (i) the helicity dependence of the degree of optical spin orientation for photogenerated carriers in the semiconductor and (ii) the spin-dependent tunneling transmission of the insulating barrier between the semiconductor and a ferromagnetic metal. Here, we propose a theoretical model for predicting the electrical response of the device to a circularly polarized light, by integrating the Fert-Jaffrès framework [A. Fert and H. Jaffrès, Phys. Rev. B 64, 184420 (2001)] with a helicity-dependent photo-generation term. A figure of merit, related to the variation of the electrical response to the switching of the light helicity from right to left, is defined, and its dependence on the constitutive parameters of the device (barrier resistivity and spin selectivity, semiconductor resistivity and spin diffusion length) is shown. Finally, a simple analytical formula for identifying the optimal resistance barrier leading to the maximum efficiency is found and experimentally validated on Fe/MgO/Ge spin-photodiodes.

  12. Interplanetary space weather effects on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter avalanche photodiode performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, E. B.; Carlton, A. K.; Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Spence, H. E.; Sun, X.; Cahoy, K.

    2016-05-01

    Space weather is a major concern for radiation-sensitive space systems, particularly for interplanetary missions, which operate outside of the protection of Earth's magnetic field. We examine and quantify the effects of space weather on silicon avalanche photodiodes (SiAPDs), which are used for interplanetary laser altimeters and communications systems and can be sensitive to even low levels of radiation (less than 50 cGy). While ground-based radiation testing has been performed on avalanche photodiode (APDs) for space missions, in-space measurements of SiAPD response to interplanetary space weather have not been previously reported. We compare noise data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) SiAPDs with radiation measurements from the onboard Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) instrument. We did not find any evidence to support radiation as the cause of changes in detector threshold voltage during radiation storms, both for transient detector noise and long-term average detector noise, suggesting that the approximately 1.3 cm thick shielding (a combination of titanium and beryllium) of the LOLA detectors is sufficient for SiAPDs on interplanetary missions with radiation environments similar to what the LRO experienced (559 cGy of radiation over 4 years).

  13. Modelling and measurement of the absolute level of power radiated by antenna integrated THz UTC photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Natrella, Michele; Liu, Chin-Pang; Graham, Chris; van Dijk, Frederic; Liu, Huiyun; Renaud, Cyril C; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2016-05-30

    We determine the output impedance of uni-travelling carrier (UTC) photodiodes at frequencies up to 400 GHz by performing, for the first time, 3D full-wave modelling of detailed UTC photodiode structures. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of the UTC impedance evaluation, by using it in the prediction of the absolute power radiated by an antenna integrated UTC, over a broad frequency range and confirming the predictions by experimental measurements up to 185 GHz. This is done by means of 3D full-wave modelling and is only possible since the source (UTC) to antenna impedance match is properly taken into account. We also show that, when the UTC-to-antenna coupling efficiency is modelled using the classical junction-capacitance/series-resistance concept, calculated and measured levels of absolute radiated power are in substantial disagreement, and the maximum radiated power is overestimated by a factor of almost 7 dB. The ability to calculate the absolute emitted power correctly enables the radiated power to be maximised through optimisation of the UTC-to-antenna impedance match.

  14. 3D avalanche multiplication in Si-Ge lateral avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Erum; Hayat, Majeed M.; Davids, Paul S.; Camacho, Ryan M.

    2016-05-01

    Si-Ge lateral avalanche photodiodes (Si-Ge LAPDs) are promising devices for single photon detection, but they also have technology challenges. Si-Ge LAPDs are CMOS compatible and capable of detecting photons near the 1550 nm telecommunications bands. However, the Si-Ge LAPD exhibits a unique avalanche multiplication process in silicon, where the electrons and holes follow curved paths in three-dimensional space. Traditional models for the analysis of the avalanche multiplication process assume one-dimensional paths for the carriers that undergo the chains of impact ionizations; therefore, they are not suitable for analyzing the avalanche properties of Si-Ge LAPDs. In this paper, the statistics of the avalanche process in the Si-Ge LAPD are modeled analytically using a method that was recently developed by our group for understanding the avalanche multiplication in nanopillar, core-shell GaAs avalanche photodiodes, for which the electric field is non-uniform in magnitude and direction. Specifically, the calculated mean avalanche gain and the excess noise are presented for the Si-Ge LAPD device. It is also shown that the avalanche characteristics depend upon the specific avalanche path taken by the carrier, which depends, in turn, on the lateral location where each photon is absorbed in the Ge absorber. This property can be exploited to achieve reduced excess noise as well as wavelength-sensitive single-photon detection.

  15. Modelling and measurement of the absolute level of power radiated by antenna integrated THz UTC photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Natrella, Michele; Liu, Chin-Pang; Graham, Chris; van Dijk, Frederic; Liu, Huiyun; Renaud, Cyril C; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2016-05-30

    We determine the output impedance of uni-travelling carrier (UTC) photodiodes at frequencies up to 400 GHz by performing, for the first time, 3D full-wave modelling of detailed UTC photodiode structures. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of the UTC impedance evaluation, by using it in the prediction of the absolute power radiated by an antenna integrated UTC, over a broad frequency range and confirming the predictions by experimental measurements up to 185 GHz. This is done by means of 3D full-wave modelling and is only possible since the source (UTC) to antenna impedance match is properly taken into account. We also show that, when the UTC-to-antenna coupling efficiency is modelled using the classical junction-capacitance/series-resistance concept, calculated and measured levels of absolute radiated power are in substantial disagreement, and the maximum radiated power is overestimated by a factor of almost 7 dB. The ability to calculate the absolute emitted power correctly enables the radiated power to be maximised through optimisation of the UTC-to-antenna impedance match. PMID:27410104

  16. Reversed Three-Dimensional Visible Light Indoor Positioning Utilizing Annular Receivers with Multi-Photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yinfan; Zhao, Jiaqi; Shi, Jianyang; Chi, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the increasingly wide use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) lighting, in this paper we propose a reversed indoor positioning system (IPS) based on LED visible light communication (VLC) in order to improve indoor positioning accuracy. Unlike other VLC positioning systems, we employ two annular receivers with multi-photodiodes installed on the ceiling to locate the persons who carry LEDs. The basic idea is using multi-photodiodes to calculate the angle while using the received signal strength (RSS) method to calculate the distance. The experiment results show that the effective positioning range of the proposed system is 1.8 m when the distance between two receivers is 1.2 m. Moreover, a positioning error less than 0.2 m can be achieved under the condition that the radius of the PIN circle is between 0.16 m and 0.2 m, and the distance of the transmitter-receiver plane is less than 1.8 m, which will be effective in practice. PMID:27509504

  17. Miniaturized analytical instrumentation for electrochemiluminescence assays: a spectrometer and a photodiode-based device.

    PubMed

    Neves, Marta M P S; Bobes-Limenes, Pablo; Pérez-Junquera, Alejandro; González-García, María Begoña; Hernández-Santos, David; Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Herein, a new miniaturized analytical instrumentation for electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays is presented. A photodiode integrated in an ECL cell combined with a potentiostat/galvanostat, all integrated in a one-piece instrument (μSTAT ECL), was developed. In addition, a complementary micro-spectrometer integrated in a similar ECL cell for luminescence spectra recording is also proposed. Both cells are intended to be used with screen-printed electrodes and all the devices are portable and small sized. Their performance was corroborated with two innovative proofs-of-concept that centered on the luminol transduction chemistry: a first time reported ECL assay based on the enzymatic reaction between an indoxyl substrate and the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, and the electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) process triggered by the electro-oxidized luminol to the acceptor fluorescein. The photodiode system revealed to be more sensitive than the spectrometer device in collecting the light; however, with the latter, it is possible to discriminate different luminescent species according to their maximum wavelength emission, which is extremely useful for carrying out simple and simultaneous ECL multiplex analyzes. The spectrometer device works as an excellent accessory to couple with the μSTAT ECL instrument, complementing the experiments. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the ECL-RET: from luminol-H2O2 system to fluorescein, the micro-spectrometer for the light collection and the 3D representation of the ECL-RET reaction.

  18. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    PubMed

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications. PMID:26974642

  19. Light emitting diode, photodiode-based fluorescence detection system for DNA analysis with microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Gordon H; Glerum, D Moira; Backhouse, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Electrophoretic separation of fluorescently end-labeled DNA after a PCR serves as a gold standard in genetic diagnostics. Because of their size and cost, instruments for this type of analysis have had limited market uptake, particularly for point-of-care applications. This might be changed through a higher level of system integration and lower instrument costs that can be realized through the use of LEDs for excitation and photodiodes for detection--if they provide sufficient sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate an optimized microchip electrophoresis instrument using polymeric fluidic chips with fluorescence detection of end-labeled DNA with a LOD of 0.15 nM of Alexa Fluor 532. This represents orders of magnitude improvement over previously reported instruments of this type. We demonstrate the system with an electrophoretic separation of two PCR products and their respective primers. We believe that this is the first LED-induced fluorescence microchip electrophoresis system with photodiode-based detection that could be used for standard applications of PCR and electrophoresis.

  20. Efficient light collection from crystal scintillators using a compound parabolic concentrator coupled to an avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenke, P. A.; Briggs, M. S.; Bhat, P. N.; Reardon, P.; Connaughton, V.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2013-09-01

    In support of improved gamma-ray detectors for astrophysics and observations of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs), we have designed a new approach for the collection and detection of optical photons from scintillators such as Sodium Iodide and Lanthanum Bromide using a light concentrator coupled to an Avalanche photodiode (APD). The APD has many advantages over traditional photomultiplier tubes such as their low power consumption, their compact size, their durability, and their very high quantum efficiency. The difficulty in using these devices in gamma-ray astronomy has been coupling their relatively small active area to the large scintillators necessary for gamma-ray science. Our solution is to use an acrylic Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) to match the large output area of the scintillation crystal to the smaller photodiode. These non-imaging light concentrators exceed the light concentration of focused optics and are light and inexpensive to produce. We present our results from the analysis and testing of such a system including gains in light collecting efficiency, energy resolution of nuclear decay lines, as well as our design for a new, fast TGF detector.

  1. Photodiode-based cutting interruption sensor for near-infrared lasers.

    PubMed

    Adelmann, B; Schleier, M; Neumeier, B; Hellmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We report on a photodiode-based sensor system to detect cutting interruptions during laser cutting with a fiber laser. An InGaAs diode records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a ring mirror and optical filter arrangement mounted between a collimation unit and a cutting head. The photodiode current is digitalized with a sample rate of 20 kHz and filtered with a Chebyshev Type I filter. From the measured signal during the piercing, a threshold value is calculated. When the diode signal exceeds this threshold during cutting, a cutting interruption is indicated. This method is applied to sensor signals from cutting mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, as well as different material thicknesses and also laser flame cutting, showing the possibility to detect cutting interruptions in a broad variety of applications. In a series of 83 incomplete cuts, every cutting interruption is successfully detected (alpha error of 0%), while no cutting interruption is reported in 266 complete cuts (beta error of 0%). With this remarkable high detection rate and low error rate, the possibility to work with different materials and thicknesses in combination with the easy mounting of the sensor unit also to existing cutting machines highlight the enormous potential for this sensor system in industrial applications.

  2. Performance of a junction termination extension avalanche photodiode for use with scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramsch, E.; Pcheliakov, O.; Chistokhin, Igor B.

    2008-11-01

    An avalanche photodiode with a ring structure called junction termination extension (JTE) was built and tested. It has three diffused rings around the main junction to avoid early breakdown at the surface. The ITE rings have less doping than the main junction and can be built by well controlled single ion-implantation through a single mask. Avalanche photodiodes with two mm diameter active area have been have been built by implantation of boron with a dose of 2, 3, 4 and 5 × 1012 cm-2, followed by deep diffusion of the junction up to 14 μm. The dark current is strongly dependent on the implantation dose, decreasing with decreasing charge. For the APDs with implanted dose of 5 × 1012 cm-2 a gain of 8 is obtained at 1120 V. The energy resolution from a 137Cs source was measured to be 24.4% FWHM with a 2 × 2 × 2 mm3 BGO scintillator. We have also performed simulations of the gain and breakdown voltage that correlate well with the results.

  3. Narrowband light detection via internal quantum efficiency manipulation of organic photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armin, Ardalan; Jansen-van Vuuren, Ross D.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Spectrally selective light detection is vital for full-colour and near-infrared (NIR) imaging and machine vision. This is not possible with traditional broadband-absorbing inorganic semiconductors without input filtering, and is yet to be achieved for narrowband absorbing organic semiconductors. We demonstrate the first sub-100 nm full-width-at-half-maximum visible-blind red and NIR photodetectors with state-of-the-art performance across critical response metrics. These devices are based on organic photodiodes with optically thick junctions. Paradoxically, we use broadband-absorbing organic semiconductors and utilize the electro-optical properties of the junction to create the narrowest NIR-band photoresponses yet demonstrated. In this context, these photodiodes outperform the encumbent technology (input filtered inorganic semiconductor diodes) and emerging technologies such as narrow absorber organic semiconductors or quantum nanocrystals. The design concept allows for response tuning and is generic for other spectral windows. Furthermore, it is material-agnostic and applicable to other disordered and polycrystalline semiconductors.

  4. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du Hong; Wang Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-07-15

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 {mu}m. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 {mu}m pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of {approx}80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 {mu}m pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or

  5. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    PubMed Central

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du, Hong; Wang, Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and∕or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  6. Optoelectronic properties of photodiodes for the mid-and far-infrared based on the InAs/GaSb/AlSb materials family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Frank; Buerkle, L.; Hamid, R.; Herres, N.; Pletschen, Wilfried; Sah, R. E.; Kiefer, Rudolf; Schmitz, J.

    2001-06-01

    The optoelectronic properties of short-period InAs/(GaIn)Sb superlattices (SLs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates are discussed. We report on the optimization of the SL materials properties with special emphasis on the use for infrared detection devices. The materials quality is evaluated by using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. In- plane magneto-transport investigations were performed applying mobility spectrum analysis. The SL diodes were analyzed performing standard electro-optical measurements. The observation of resonances in the I-V curves in the regime of Zener-tunneling due to Wannier-Stark localization opens a new tool for the electrical investigation of photodiodes with low band gap energy. The status of the processing technology is reported demonstrating the feasibility for the fabrication of 256 X 256 focal plane arrays operating in the 8-to-12 micrometers atmospheric window. In addition, results are given for mid-infrared SL-diodes, grown with lattice matched AlGaAsSb barriers instead in the binary InAs/GaSb SL system.

  7. Improved Photoresponse of Hybrid ZnO/P3HT Bilayered Photodetector Obtained Through Oriented Growth of ZnO Nanorod Arrays and the Use of Hole Injection Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgaiyan, Anubha; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2015-08-01

    We report highly oriented one-dimensional (1-D) growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays (NRA) which were later utilized to fabricate hybrid photodiodes having the typical photodiode configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/ZnO/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/Ag. These functional hybrid bilayered photodiodes were found to have high rectification ratio under dark conditions and demonstrated enhanced responsivity under light illumination. Further, we studied the effect of an intermediate electron blocking layer of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on the photodiode characteristics and demonstrated ITO/ZnO/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Ag photodiodes, reporting very high rectification ratio and responsivity in this bilayered configuration. The observed results are explained on the basis of the increased surface area of contact between the ZnO nanorods and the P3HT, and also the efficient hole injection into the P3HT layer from the top Ag electrode.

  8. Integrated infrared array technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Mccreight, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of integrated infrared (IR) array technology is presented. Although the array pixel formats are smaller, and the readout noise of IR arrays is larger, than the corresponding values achieved with optical charge-coupled-device silicon technology, substantial progress is being made in IR technology. Both existing IR arrays and those being developed are described. Examples of astronomical images are given which illustrate the potential of integrated IR arrays for scientific investigations.

  9. Solar array drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Sturman, J. C.; Stanhouse, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A solar array drive system consisting of a solar array drive mechanism and the corresponding solar array drive electronics is being developed. The principal feature of the solar array drive mechanism is its bidirectional capability which enables its use in mechanical redundancy. The solar array drive system is of a widely applicable design. This configuration will be tested to determine its acceptability for generic mission sets. Foremost of the testing to be performed is the testing for extended duration.

  10. Photodiode-like behavior and excellent photoresponse of vertical Si/monolayer MoS2 heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xu, Cheng-Yan; Wang, Jia-Ying; Zhen, Liang

    2014-11-26

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and their van der Waals heterostructures have been experimentally and theoretically demonstrated as potential candidates for photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices due to the suitable bandgap and excellent light absorption. In this work, we report the observation of photodiode behavior in (both n- and p- type) silicon/monolayer MoS2 vertical heterostructures. The photocurrent and photoresponsivity of heterostructures photodiodes were dependent both on the incident light wavelength and power density, and the highest photoresponsivity of 7.2 A/W was achieved in n-Si/monolayer MoS2 vertical heterostructures photodiodes. Compared with n-Si/MoS2 heterostructures, the photoresponsivity of p-Si/MoS2 heterostructure was much lower. Kelvin probe microscope (KFM) results demonstrated the more efficient separation of photogenerated excitons in n-Si/MoS2 than that in p-Si/MoS2. Coupling KFM results with band alignments of (p-, n-) Si/MoS2 heterostructures, the origins of photodiode-like phenomena of p-Si/MoS2 and n-Si/MoS2 have been unveiled, that is intrinsic built-in electric field in p-n junction, and modulated barrier height and width at the interface in n-n junction. Our work may benefit to the deep understanding of the integration of two-dimensional materials with more conventional three-dimensional semiconductors, and then contribute to the developments in the area of van der Waals heterostructures.

  11. Reset noise suppression in two-dimensional CMOS photodiode pixels through column-based feedback-reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, B.; Cunningham, T. J.; Hancock, B.; Yang, G.; Seshadri, S.; Ortiz, M.

    2002-01-01

    We present new CMOS photodiode imager pixel with ultra-low read noise through on-chip suppression of reset noise via column-based feedback circuitry. The noise reduction is achieved without introducing any image lag, and with insignificant reduction in quantum efficiency and full well.

  12. Final report on LDRD project 105967 : exploring the increase in GaAs photodiode responsivity with increased neutron fluence.

    SciTech Connect

    Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Cich, Michael Joseph; Wrobel, Theodore Frank; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Fleming, Robert M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Wrobel, Diana L.

    2008-01-01

    A previous LDRD studying radiation hardened optoelectronic components for space-based applications led to the result that increased neutron irradiation from a fast-burst reactor caused increased responsivity in GaAs photodiodes up to a total fluence of 4.4 x 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (1 MeV Eq., Si). The silicon photodiodes experienced significant degradation. Scientific literature shows that neutrons can both cause defects as well as potentially remove defects in an annealing-like process in GaAs. Though there has been some modeling that suggests how fabrication and radiation-induced defects can migrate to surfaces and interfaces in GaAs and lead to an ordering effect, it is important to consider how these processes affect the performance of devices, such as the basic GaAs p-i-n photodiode. In this LDRD, we manufactured GaAs photodiodes at the MESA facility, irradiated them with electrons and neutrons at the White Sands Missile Range Linac and Fast Burst Reactor, and performed measurements to show the effect of irradiation on dark current, responsivity and high-speed bandwidth.

  13. Low-Timing-Jitter Near-Infrared Single-Photon-Sensitive 16-Channel Intensified-Photodiode Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Lu, Wei; Yang, Guangning; Sun, Xiaoli; Sykora, Derek; Jurkovic, Mike; Aebi, Verle; Costello, Ken; Burns, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We developed a 16-channel InGaAsP photocathode intensified-photodiode (IPD) detector with 78 ps (1-sigma) timing-jitter, less than 500 ps FWHM impulse response, greater than 15% quantum efficiency at 1064 nm wavelength with 131 kcps dark counts at 15 C.

  14. Low bandgap mid-infrared thermophotovoltaic arrays based on InAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krier, A.; Yin, M.; Marshall, A. R. J.; Kesaria, M.; Krier, S. E.; McDougall, S.; Meredith, W.; Johnson, A. D.; Inskip, J.; Scholes, A.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the first low bandgap thermophotovoltaic (TPV) arrays capable of operating with heat sources at temperatures as low as 345 °C, which is the lowest ever reported. The individual array elements are based on narrow band gap InAs/InAs0.61Sb0.13P0.26 photodiode structures. External power conversion efficiency was measured to be ∼3% from a single element at room temperature, using a black body at 950 °C. Both 25-element and 65-element arrays were fabricated and exhibited a TPV response at different source temperatures in the range 345-950 °C suitable for electricity generation from waste heat and other applications.

  15. Time-resolved solid-state array imaging systems: Developments and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, H. A.

    1988-08-01

    Several optical, single transient data imaging systems have been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for providing time-, space-, and intensity information of pulsed radiation sources. The basic components of these systems are fast-gated cameras, large-bandwidth transmission lines, large memories, and image processors. Several methods are currently investigated to: (1) produce faster optical gates without significant irising or reduction in resolution, and (2) to improve spatial resolution. Both photodiode arrays and charge-coupled devices (CCD) are used for the imagers in the solid-state cameras. These cameras are designed to achieve a large dynamic range (500:1), low saturation fluence (less than or equal to 1.5 erg/ sq cm at 420 nm), and small frame time (less than or equal to 2.5 msec). Current investigations are concentrating on large segmented (512 x 512) photodiode arrays with CCD readout. All cameras are designed for fiber-optic or lens coupling. Maximum dynamic range and maximum signal-to-noise is achieved by using 8-, 10-, or 12-bit A/D converters. A technique known as data compression is applied to take advantage of a 10-bit system using an 8-bit data acquisition arrangement. The advent of large array cameras requires modifications in calibration procedure, data acquisition, and image processing.

  16. Evaluation of GM-APD array devices for low-light-level imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Kimberly; Hanold, Brandon; Lee, Joong; Figer, Donald F.

    2014-05-01

    The ability to count single photons is necessary to achieve many important science objectives in the near future. This paper presents the lab-tested performance of a photon-counting array-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GMAPD) device in the context of low-light-level imaging. Testing results include dark count rate, afterpulsing probability, intra-pixel sensitivity, and photon detection efficiency, and the effects of radiation damage on detector performance. The GM-APD detector is compared to the state-of-the-art performance of other established detectors using Signal-to-noise ratio as the overall evaluation metric.

  17. Adaptive optics wavefront sensors based on photon-counting detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aull, Brian F.; Schuette, Daniel R.; Reich, Robert K.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2010-07-01

    For adaptive optics systems, there is a growing demand for wavefront sensors that operate at higher frame rates and with more pixels while maintaining low readout noise. Lincoln Laboratory has been investigating Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays integrated with CMOS readout circuits as a potential solution. This type of sensor counts photons digitally within the pixel, enabling data to be read out at high rates without the penalty of readout noise. After a brief overview of adaptive optics sensor development at Lincoln Laboratory, we will present the status of silicon Geigermode- APD technology along with future plans to improve performance.

  18. Hard disk drive based microsecond x-ray chopper for characterization of ionization chambers and photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, O.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R.

    2015-03-01

    A fast X-ray chopper capable of producing ms long X-ray pulses with a typical rise time of few μs was realized. It is ideally suited to investigate the temporal response of X-ray detectors with response times of the order of μs to ms, in particular, any kind of ionization chambers and large area photo diodes. The drive mechanism consists of a brushless DC motor and driver electronics from a common hard disk drive, keeping the cost at an absolute minimum. Due to its simple construction and small dimensions, this chopper operates at home lab based X-ray tubes and synchrotron radiation sources as well. The dynamics of the most important detectors used in time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy, namely, ionization chambers and Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon photodiodes, were investigated in detail. The results emphasize the applicability of this X-ray chopper.

  19. Supercontinuum Fourier transform spectrometry with balanced detection on a single photodiode

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Goncharov, Vasily; Hall, Gregory

    2016-08-25

    Here, we have developed phase-sensitive signal detection and processing algorithms for Fourier transform spectrometers fitted with supercontinuum sources for applications requiring ultimate sensitivity. Similar to well-established approach of source noise cancellation through balanced detection of monochromatic light, our method is capable of reducing the relative intensity noise of polychromatic light by 40 dB. Unlike conventional balanced detection, which relies on differential absorption measured with a well matched pair of photo-detectors, our algorithm utilizes phase-sensitive differential detection on a single photodiode and is capable of the real-time correction for instabilities in supercontinuum spectral structure over a broad range of wavelengths. Inmore » the resulting method is universal in terms of applicable wavelengths and compatible with commercial spectrometers. We present a proof-of-principle experimental« less

  20. Avalanche photodiode with high responsivity in 0.35 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberl, Wolfgang; Schneider-Hornstein, Kerstin; Enne, Reinhard; Steindl, Bernhard; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-04-01

    The presented linear mode avalanche photodiode (APD) uses the standard layers and process steps available in the 0.35-μm Si bulk CMOS process. Due to a low-doped epitaxial layer with a resistivity of 664 Ω cm, a deep intrinsic zone is realized to enable a large depleted absorption region at already moderate bias voltages and therefore ensures a high low-voltage responsivity. In combination with avalanche gain at high bias voltages, this leads to an overall responsivity of 1.7×105 A/W at 1.1 nW optical input power and 670-nm wavelength. The maximum achieved avalanche gain was 4.94×105. The maximum -3 dB frequency of 700 MHz was measured at a reverse bias voltage of 30 V and an optical input power of 14.7 μW.

  1. Spray coated indium-tin-oxide-free organic photodiodes with PEDOT:PSS anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Morten Falco, Aniello; Loch, Marius; Lugli, Paolo; Scarpa, Giuseppe

    2014-10-15

    In this paper we report on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-free spray coated organic photodiodes with an active layer consisting of a poly(3-hexylthiophen) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend and patterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. External quantum efficiency and current voltage characteristics under illuminated and dark conditions as well as cut-off frequencies for devices with varying active and hole conducting layer thicknesses were measured in order to characterize the fabricated devices. 60% quantum efficiency as well as nearly four orders of magnitude on-off ratios have been achieved. Those values are comparable with standard ITO devices.

  2. Supercontinuum Fourier transform spectrometry with balanced detection on a single photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, Vasily; Hall, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Here, we have developed phase-sensitive signal detection and processing algorithms for Fourier transform spectrometers fitted with supercontinuum sources for applications requiring ultimate sensitivity. Similar to well-established approach of source noise cancellation through balanced detection of monochromatic light, our method is capable of reducing the relative intensity noise of polychromatic light by 40 dB. Unlike conventional balanced detection, which relies on differential absorption measured with a well matched pair of photo-detectors, our algorithm utilizes phase-sensitive differential detection on a single photodiode and is capable of the real-time correction for instabilities in supercontinuum spectral structure over a broad range of wavelengths. In the resulting method is universal in terms of applicable wavelengths and compatible with commercial spectrometers. We present a proof-of-principle experimental

  3. Design considerations for high-speed low-noise avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Beng K.; Ng, Jo S.; Hambleton, Paul J.; David, John P. R.; Ong, D. S.; Rees, Graham J.; Tozer, Richard C.

    2001-10-01

    Realization of high-speed avalanche photodiodes (APDs) requires the use of thin avalanche regions to reduce carrier transit time. A systematic investigation on the effect of dead space on the current impulse response and bandwidth of short APDs was carried out using a random path length model assuming a constant carrier velocity. The results indicate that, although dead space suppresses large multiplication values in a short device to give low excess noise, the number of impact ionization a carrier can undergo in a single transit is reduced. Consequently, multiple carrier feedback processes are necessary to achieve a given multiplication value. This results in an increase in the response time and reduces the bandwidth of short APDs. Conventional local models that take no account of the dead space effect will tend to overestimate the operating speed of these devices.

  4. High-resolution mapping of quantum efficiency of silicon photodiode via optical-feedback laser microthermography

    SciTech Connect

    Cemine, Vernon Julius; Blanca, Carlo Mar; Saloma, Caesar

    2006-09-20

    We map the external quantum efficiency (QE) distribution of a silicon photodiode (PD) sample via a thermographic imaging technique based on optical-feedback laser confocal microscopy. An image pair consisting of the confocal reflectance image and the 2D photocurrent map is simultaneously acquired to delineate the following regions of interest on the sample: the substrate, the n-type region, the pn overlay, and the bonding pad. The 2D QE distribution is derived from the photocurrent map to quantify the optical performance of these sites. The thermal integrity of the sample is then evaluated by deriving the rate of change of QE with temperature T at each point on the silicon PD. These gradient maps function not only as stringent measures of local thermal QE activity but they also expose probable defect locations on the sample at high spatial resolution - a capability that is not feasible with existing bulk measurement techniques.

  5. Micropixel avalanche photodiodes and the possibility for their application in positron-emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfimov, N. V.; Selyunin, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Micropixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPDs) are new instruments for detecting low-intensity light. They consist of many microcounters (pixels integrated on a common silicon wafer). A unique design by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) (Z. Sadygov)—deep-microwell MAPD—provides an order of larger pixel densities without losses in photon-detection efficiency. These instruments are beginning to find use in precision electromagnetic calorimetry. MAPDs can be most widely applied as photodetectors in scanners for positron-emission tomographs (PETs), particularly the time-of-flight PETs becoming popular now. The possibility of using MAPDs in PETs is shown, and the time resolution of a pair of quanta detected by Lutetium Fine Silicate scintillation crystals with MAPD readout is obtained at the level of 400 ps.

  6. Sounding rocket measurement of the absolute solar EUV flux utilizing a silicon photodiode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Canfield, L. R.

    1990-01-01

    A newly developed stable and high quantum efficiency silicon photodiode was used to obtain an accurate measurement of the integrated absolute magnitude of the solar extreme UV photon flux in the spectral region between 50 and 800 A. The adjusted daily 10.7-cm solar radio flux and sunspot number were 168.4 and 121, respectively. The unattenuated absolute value of the solar EUV flux at 1 AU in the specified wavelength region was 6.81 x 10 to the 10th photons/sq cm per s. Based on a nominal probable error of 7 percent for National Institute of Standards and Technology detector efficiency measurements in the 50- to 500-A region (5 percent on longer wavelength measurements between 500 and 1216 A), and based on experimental errors associated with the present rocket instrumentation and analysis, a conservative total error estimate of about 14 percent is assigned to the absolute integral solar flux obtained.

  7. Research on passivation of type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Li-xue; Shen, Xiang-wei; Zhu, Xu-bo; Peng, Zhen-yu; Lv, Yan-qiu; Si, Jun-jie; Sun, Wei-guo

    2013-09-01

    Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice material, because of its excellent predominance, is becoming the best choice for the third generation infrared detector. Surface passivation, which is one of the most important process during the device fabricated, can improve the performance of superlattice detector greatly. In this work, three passivation methods were experimented based on MWIR superlattices, then after electrodes were fabricated, detectors were tested. From the measurements, the passivation of anodic sulfide cooperating with SiO2 is more effective than others, zero-bias resistance area product of device with 5μm cutoff wavelength reach up to 104Ω•cm2 at 77K, reverse-bias dark current density is reduced to 10-5A/cm2 at -1V, peak detectivity is 1010cm•Hz1/2/W and quantum efficiency reach 35%. Retest after a month later, the performance of photodiodes without diversity.

  8. Switching characteristic and capacitance analysis of a-Si:H pinpin photodiodes for visible range telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantoni, A.; Fernandes, M.; Louro, P.; Vieira, M.

    2016-05-01

    The device under study is an a-SiC:H/a-Si:H pinpin photodiodes produced by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition) and has a structure that consists of a p-i'(a-SiC:H)-n/p-i(a-Si:H)-n heterostructure with low conductivity doped layers. This device structure has been demonstrated useful in optical communications that use the WDM technique to encode multiple signals in the visible light range. We present in this work experimental results about C-V measurements of the device under complex conditions of illumination. Also it is presented an analysis based on the transient response of the device when illuminated by a pulsed light, with and without optical bias superposition. Rising and decaying times of the collected photocurrent will be outlined under the different conditions. A simulation study outlines the role played by each pin substructure on the response speed and gives some hint on the possible optimization of this device.

  9. Numerical simulation of impact ionization in Ge/AlxGa1-xAs avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, C. K.

    2010-08-01

    Impact ionization in Ge/AlxGa1-xAs p-i-n heterostructures has been studied using the Monte Carlo technique. The thin (<300 nm) Ge/AlxGa1-xAs single heterojunction structure was found to exhibit large hole (β) to electron (α) ionization coefficient ratio, owing to a higher β in the Ge layer and a lower α in the AlxGa1-xAs layer, together with the dead space effects. The Ge/AlxGa1-xAs avalanche photodiodes are attractive for applications where a wide wavelength detection range is required for compatibility with multiple sources such as in the emerging active optical cable and optical interconnect applications, as well as in the established optical fiber telecommunication systems.

  10. Plasmonic field confinement for separate absorption-multiplication in InGaAs nanopillar avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Alan C.; Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; El-Howayek, Georges; Rajagopal, Abhejit; Currie, Marc; Hayat, Majeed M.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2015-12-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are essential components in quantum key distribution systems and active imaging systems requiring both ultrafast response time to measure photon time of flight and high gain to detect low photon flux. The internal gain of an APD can improve system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Excess noise is typically kept low through the selection of material with intrinsically low excess noise, using separate-absorption-multiplication (SAM) heterostructures, or taking advantage of the dead-space effect using thin multiplication regions. In this work we demonstrate the first measurement of excess noise and gain-bandwidth product in III-V nanopillars exhibiting substantially lower excess noise factors compared to bulk and gain-bandwidth products greater than 200 GHz. The nanopillar optical antenna avalanche detector (NOAAD) architecture is utilized for spatially separating the absorption region from the avalanche region via the NOA resulting in single carrier injection without the use of a traditional SAM heterostructure.

  11. Temperature dependent characteristics of submicron GaAs avalanche photodiodes obtained by a nonlocal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masudy-Panah, S.; Moravvej-Farshi, M. K.; Jalali, M.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, using a nonlocal analysis we have extracted the temperature dependent ionization coefficients and threshold energies of submicron GaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with multiplication region thicknesses as narrow as 49 nm, from electron and hole injection photo-multiplication processes. These extracted parameters have been used to predict the temperature dependence of APDs characteristics, such as mean gain, 3 dB-bandwidth, gain-bandwidth product, excess noise factor, performance factor, and breakdown field, over a temperature range of 20 K to 290 K. In the nonlocal analysis we have taken the effects of nonuniform electric filed within the multiplication region and its surrounding depletion regions, injected carrier's initial ionization energy, carrier's spatial ionization rate as well as the carrier's dead space and its previous ionization history into account. We have shown that our predicted gain values are in excellent agreement with existing experimental data measured by others.

  12. Polarization engineering of back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Fuxue

    2016-08-01

    The back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with a p-type graded AlGaN layer have been designed to investigate the polarization engineering on the performance of the devices. The calculated results show that the APD with p-graded AlGaN layer exhibits lower avalanche breakdown voltage and increased maximum multiplication gain compared to the structure with conventional p-type AlGaN layer. The improved performance of the designed APD is numerically explained by the polarization-assisted enhancement of the ionization electric field in the multiplication region and polarization doping effect caused by the p-type graded layer.

  13. Practical photon number detection with electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, O; Yuan, Z L; Shields, A J

    2012-01-01

    Low-noise single-photon detection is a prerequisite for quantum information processing using photonic qubits. In particular, detectors that are able to accurately resolve the number of photons in an incident light pulse will find application in functions such as quantum teleportation and linear optics quantum computing. More generally, such a detector will allow the advantages of quantum light detection to be extended to stronger optical signals, permitting optical measurements limited only by fluctuations in the photon number of the source. Here we demonstrate a practical high-speed device, which allows the signals arising from multiple photon-induced avalanches to be precisely discriminated. We use a type of silicon avalanche photodiode in which the lateral electric field profile is strongly modulated in order to realize a spatially multiplexed detector. Clearly discerned multiphoton signals are obtained by applying sub-nanosecond voltage gates in order to restrict the detector current. PMID:22273682

  14. On the analytical formulation of excess noise in avalanche photodiodes with dead space.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Erum; Cheong, Jeng S; David, J P R; Hayat, Majeed M

    2016-09-19

    Simple, approximate formulas are developed to calculate the mean gain and excess noise factor for avalanche photodiodes using the dead-space multiplication theory in the regime of small multiplication width and high applied electric field. The accuracy of the approximation is investigated by comparing it to the exact numerical method using recursive coupled integral equations and it is found that it works for dead spaces up to 15% of the multiplication width, which is substantial. The approximation is also tested for real materials such as GaAs, InP and Si for various multiplication widths, and the results found are accurate within ∼ 15% of the actual noise, which is a significant improvement over the local-theory noise formula. The results obtained for the mean gain also confirm the recently reported relationship between experimentally determined local ionization coefficients and the enabled non-local ionization coefficients. PMID:27661898

  15. Spectrally dependent photovoltages in Schottky photodiode based on (100) B-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Čermák, Jan Rezek, Bohuslav; Koide, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Daisuke

    2014-02-07

    Spectrally and spatially resolved photovoltages were measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on a Schottky photo-diode made of a 4 nm thin tungsten-carbide (WC) layer on a 500 nm oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond epitaxial layer (O-BDD) that was grown on a Ib (100) diamond substrate. The diode was grounded by the sideways ohmic contact (Ti/WC), and the semitransparent Schottky contact was let unconnected. The electrical potentials across the device were measured in dark (only 650 nm LED of KPFM being on), under broad-band white light (halogen lamp), UV (365 nm diode), and deep ultraviolet (deuterium lamp) illumination. Illumination induced shift of the electrical potential remains within 210 mV. We propose that the photovoltage actually corresponds to a shift of Fermi level inside the BDD channel and thereby explains orders of magnitude changes in photocurrent.

  16. Germanium-tin multiple quantum well on silicon avalanche photodiode for photodetection at two micron wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Lee, Shuh Ying; Lei, Dian; Gong, Xiao; Khai Loke, Wan; Yoon, Soon-Fatt; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-09-01

    We report the demonstration of a germanium-tin multiple quantum well (Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW)-on-Si avalanche photodiode (APD) for light detection near the 2 μm wavelength range. The measured spectral response covers wavelengths from 1510 to 2003 nm. An optical responsivity of 0.33 A W-1 is achieved at 2003 nm due to the internal avalanche gain. In addition, a thermal coefficient of breakdown voltage is extracted to be 0.053% K-1 based on the temperature-dependent dark current measurement. As compared to the traditional 2 μm wavelength APDs, the Si-based APD is promising for its small excess noise factor, less stringent demand on temperature stability, and its compatibility with silicon technology.

  17. Application of PN and avalanche silicon photodiodes to low-level optical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppeldauer, G.; Schaefer, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    New approaches to the discovery of other planetary systems require very sensitive and stable detection techniques in order to succeed. Two methods in particular, the astrometric and the photometric methods, require this. To begin understanding the problems and limitations of solid state detectors regarding this application, preliminary experiments were performed at the National Bureau of Standards and a low light level detector characterization facility was built. This facility is briefly described, and the results of tests conducted in it are outlined. A breadboard photometer that was used to obtain stellar brightness ratio precision data is described. The design principles of PN and avalanche silicon photodiodes based on low light level measuring circuits are discussed.

  18. Gain properties of doped GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well avalanche photodiode structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menkara, H. M.; Wagner, B. K.; Summers, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive characterization has been made of the static and dynamical response of conventional and multiple quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Comparison of the gain characteristics at low voltages between the MQW and conventional APDs show a direct experimental confirmation of a structure-induced carrier multiplication due to interband impact ionization. Similar studies of the bias dependence of the excess noise characteristics show that the low-voltage gain is primarily due to electron ionization in the MQW-APDS, and to both electron and hole ionization in the conventional APDS. For the doped MQW APDS, the average gain per stage was calculated by comparing gain data with carrier profile measurements, and was found to vary from 1.03 at low bias to 1.09 near avalanche breakdown.

  19. Predictions of silicon avalanche photodiode detector performance in water vapor differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenimer, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Performance analyses are presented which establish that over most of the range of signals expected for a down-looking differential absorption lidar (DIAL) operated at 16 km the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) is the preferred detector for DIAL measurements of atmospheric water vapor in the 730 nm spectral region. The higher quantum efficiency of the APD's, (0.8-0.9) compared to a photomultiplier's (0.04-0.18) more than offsets the higher noise of an APD receiver. In addition to offering lower noise and hence lower random error the APD's excellent linearity and impulse recovery minimize DIAL systematic errors attributable to the detector. Estimates of the effect of detector system parameters on overall random and systematic DIAL errors are presented, and performance predictions are supported by laboratory characterization data for an APD receiver system.

  20. Radiation effects induced in pin photodiodes by 40- and 85-MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becher, J.; Kernell, R. L.; Reft, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    PIN photodiodes were bombarded with 40- and 85-MeV protons to a fluence of 1.5 x 10 to the 11th power p/sq cm, and the resulting change in spectral response in the near infrared was determined. The photocurrent, dark current and pulse amplitude were measured as a function of proton fluence. Changes in these three measured properties are discussed in terms of changes in the diode's spectral response, minority carrier diffusion length and depletion width. A simple model of induced radiation effects is presented which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The model assumes that incident protons produce charged defects within the depletion region simulating donor type impurities.

  1. Results of hybrid photodiode irradiation by 200 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbaugh A. et al.

    2001-12-03

    Hybrid Photodiodes (HPD, [1]) will be used as the photodetector for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) readout [2]. The HPDs are required to operate in a high radiation environment, where the HCAL detector will receive a total ionizing dose of about 330 rads and a fluence of 4 x 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} over a 10 year running period [3]. Effects of HPD irradiation by low energy neutrons were studied and reported previously [1]. In these studies, high energy protons are used to study possible effects of single event burnout [4], since high energy protons are more likely to induce large energy transfer within the HPD silicon. The HPDs were irradiated by 200 MeV protons at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility [IUCF, 5]. The results of the study are presented.

  2. A method to precisely identify the afterpulses when using the S9717 avalanche photodiode

    SciTech Connect

    Rusu, Alexandru Rusu, Lucian

    2015-12-07

    The detection ratio of an avalanche photodiode (APD) biased in Geiger-mode increases versus the excess voltage; the afterpulsing rate increases too. The last one can be reduced by inserting an artificial dead time and accepting a lower measuring top rate. So, in order to tune a single-photon detector system, it is necessary to exactly identify afterpulses and measure their rate; the experimental results are presented. When using the S9717 APD in Geiger-mode, the cathode to ground voltage waveform reveals the existence of a particular sequence of pulses: a usual one followed, within 1μs, by a least one appearing to have been generated for negative excess voltage values. All these characteristics are the signature of the afterpulsing generation. Based on this observation, we were able to precisely measure the afterpulsing rate.

  3. Unambiguous determination of carrier concentration and mobility for InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Cervera, C.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Perez, J. P.; Aiet-Kaci, H.; Chaghi, R.; Christol, P.; Konczewicz, L.; Contreras, S.

    2009-08-01

    In this communication we report on electrical properties of nonintentionally doped (nid) type II InAs/GaSb superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We present a simple technological process which, thanks to the suppression of substrate, allows direct Hall measurement on superlattice structures grown on conductive GaSb substrate. Two samples were used to characterize the transport: one grown on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate and another grown on n-GaSb substrate where a etch stop layer was inserted to remove the conductive substrate. Mobilities and carrier concentrations have been measured as a function of temperature (77-300 K), and compared with capacitance-voltage characteristic at 80 K of a photodiode comprising a similar nid superlattice.

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic composites for applications in Vis-NIR photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luszczynska, Beata; Szymanski, Marek Z.

    2015-10-01

    Active layers of bulk heterojunction are extensively studied because of their great potential for application in low-cost optoelectronic devices like photovoiltaic cells and photodiodes. The performance of such devices is strongly influenced by the formed nanostructures which determine the transport ability of the organic composite. We investigated the charge carrier transport properties of two organic composites: poly(3-hexyothiophene) (P3HT) with (6,6)-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (60PCBM)and poly(triarylamine) (PTTA) blended with 60PCBM. The optimised organic blend was used as a matrix material for Cu-In-Se nanocrystals. Adding Cu-In-Se nanocrystals to a P3HT/60PCBM bulk heterojunction leads to a significant improvement of the maximum external quantum efficiency of the investigated system from 48% to 70% (at wavelength 520 nm).

  5. Traveling-wave Uni-Traveling Carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation.

    PubMed

    Rouvalis, Efthymios; Renaud, Cyril C; Moodie, David G; Robertson, Michael J; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2010-05-24

    The design, experimental evaluation and performance of a Traveling-Wave Uni-Traveling Carrier photodiode for Terahertz generation are described and its advantages in terms of frequency response are demonstrated. The device delivered 148 microW at 457 GHz, 24 microW at 914 GHz when integrated with resonant antennas and 105 microW at 255 GHz, 30 microW at 408 GHz, 16 microW at 510 GHz and 10 microW at 612 GHz. Record levels of Terahertz figure of merit (PTHz/Popt2 in W(-1)) were achieved ranging from 1 W(-1) at 110 GHz to 0.0024 W(-1) at 914 GHz. PMID:20588968

  6. Germanium-tin multiple quantum well on silicon avalanche photodiode for photodetection at two micron wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Lee, Shuh Ying; Lei, Dian; Gong, Xiao; Khai Loke, Wan; Yoon, Soon-Fatt; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-09-01

    We report the demonstration of a germanium-tin multiple quantum well (Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW)-on-Si avalanche photodiode (APD) for light detection near the 2 μm wavelength range. The measured spectral response covers wavelengths from 1510 to 2003 nm. An optical responsivity of 0.33 A W‑1 is achieved at 2003 nm due to the internal avalanche gain. In addition, a thermal coefficient of breakdown voltage is extracted to be 0.053% K‑1 based on the temperature-dependent dark current measurement. As compared to the traditional 2 μm wavelength APDs, the Si-based APD is promising for its small excess noise factor, less stringent demand on temperature stability, and its compatibility with silicon technology.

  7. Hard disk drive based microsecond x-ray chopper for characterization of ionization chambers and photodiodes

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, O. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R.

    2015-03-15

    A fast X-ray chopper capable of producing ms long X-ray pulses with a typical rise time of few μs was realized. It is ideally suited to investigate the temporal response of X-ray detectors with response times of the order of μs to ms, in particular, any kind of ionization chambers and large area photo diodes. The drive mechanism consists of a brushless DC motor and driver electronics from a common hard disk drive, keeping the cost at an absolute minimum. Due to its simple construction and small dimensions, this chopper operates at home lab based X-ray tubes and synchrotron radiation sources as well. The dynamics of the most important detectors used in time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy, namely, ionization chambers and Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon photodiodes, were investigated in detail. The results emphasize the applicability of this X-ray chopper.

  8. Cramer-Rao lower bound on range error for LADARs with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Steven E

    2010-08-20

    The Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) on range error is calculated for laser detection and ranging (LADAR) systems using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GMAPDs) to detect reflected laser pulses. For the cases considered, the GMAPD range error CRLB is greater than the CRLB for a photon-counting device. It is also shown that the GMAPD range error CRLB is minimized when the mean energy in the received laser pulse is finite. Given typical LADAR system parameters, a Gaussian-envelope received pulse, and a noise detection rate of less than 4 MHz, the GMAPD range error CRLB is minimized when the quantum efficiency times the mean number of received laser pulse photons is between 2.2 and 2.3. PMID:20733630

  9. PIN photodiodes irradiated with 40- and 85-MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reft, C. S.; Becher, J.; Kernell, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    PIN photodiodes were bombarded with 40- and 85-MeV protons to a fluence of 1.5 x 10 to the 11th p/sq cm, and the resulting change in spectral response in the near infrared was determined. The photocurrent, dark current, and pulse amplitude were measured as a function of proton fluence. Changes in these three measured properties are discussed in terms of changes in the diode's spectral response, minority carrier diffusion length, and depletion width. A simple model of induced radiation effects is presented which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The model assumes that incident protons produce charged defects within the depletion region simulating donor type impurities.

  10. A new superbright LED stimulator: photodiode-feedback design for linearizing and stabilizing emitted light.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Mori, N; Nakamura, F

    1992-05-01

    A new, reliable LED photic generator is described for analog stimulus presentation in vision research. A "superbright" red-emitting diode is controlled via optical feedback using a PIN-photodiode. A Maxwellian-view stimulator developed this way has been proven capable of covering intensities of retinal illuminance of over 26,000 td with a linear dynamic range of 3.7 log units. The device also has outstanding properties in linearity (distortion less than 0.12% at 100 Hz), frequency characteristics (d.c. to 2 kHz full-modulation bandwidth), stability (0.0002% fluctuation), and noise (S/N ratio greater than 76 dB). PMID:1604864

  11. Epitaxial InGaAsP/InP photodiode for registration of InP scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luryi, S.; Kastalsky, A.; Gouzman, M.; Lifshitz, N.; Semyonov, O.; Stanacevic, M.; Subashiev, A.; Kuzminsky, V.; Cheng, W.; Smagin, V.; Chen, Z.; Abeles, J. H.; Chan, W. K.; Shellenbarger, Z. A.

    2010-10-01

    Operation of semiconductor scintillators requires optically tight integration of the photoreceiver system on the surface of the scintillator slab. We have implemented an efficient and fast quaternary InGaAsP pin photodiode, epitaxially grown on the surface of an InP scintillator wafer and sensitive to InP luminescence. The diode is characterized by an extremely low room-temperature dark current, about 1 nA/cm2 at the reverse bias of 2 V. The low leakage makes possible a sensitive readout circuitry even though the diode has a large area (1×1 mm2) and therefore large capacitance (50 pF). Results of electrical, optical and radiation testing of the diodes are presented. Detection of individual α-particles and γ-photons is demonstrated.

  12. Study of X-ray emission from plasma focus device using vacuum photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, N.; Borthakur, T. K.; Neog, N. K.

    2013-10-01

    A newly fabricated vacuum photodiode (VPD) is used to measure time resolved X-ray emission and electron temperature from plasma focus device operated in hydrogen medium. The VPD signals are compared with the PIN diode signal and observed to be of similar in nature. The acquired signals from VPD are deduced to measure electron temperature and X-ray radiated power for four different anode tips (cylindrical, diverging, oval and converging). The electron temperatures are found to be 0.64, 1.5, 0.60 and 0.55 keV for cylindrical, diverging, oval and converging anode tips respectively in hydrogen plasma. The X-ray radiated powers are observed to be varying with respect to the shape of the anode tips and it is found highest in case of converging tip and lowest for the diverging one. Results indicate that VPD could efficiently be employed as an X-ray diagnostics in plasma focus device.

  13. Equivalent circuit modeling of metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes with transparent conductor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rommel, Sean L.; Erby, David N.; Gao, Wei; Berger, Paul R.; Zydzik, George J.; Rhodes, W. W.; O'Bryan, H. M.; Sivco, Deborah L.; Cho, Alfred Y.

    1997-04-01

    Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes with electrodes fabricated from the transparent conductor cadmium tin oxide (CTO) have been shown to double photoresponsivity. Their bandwidths, however, are significantly lower than those of MSMs fabricated with standard Ti/Au contacts. Though MSMs are generally believed to be limited by the transit time of electrons, it is possible the larger resistivity of CTO has become a significant factor, making the MSMs RC time constant limited instead. Previous models of MSMs only account for one of the two back-to-back Schottky diodes. A new model which takes into account both the forward and reverse biased junctions has been developed from the small signal model of a Schottky diode. This new model was fit to data obtained from S-parameter measurements, and incorporates both the transit time response and RC time constant response.

  14. High performance InAs/Ga1-xInxSb superlattice infrared photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Weimer, U.; Pletschen, W.; Schmitz, J.; Ahlswede, E.; Walther, M.; Wagner, J.; Koidl, P.

    1997-12-01

    The optical and electrical properties of infrared photodiodes diodes based on InAs/(GaIn)Sb superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The diodes, with a cut-off wavelength around 8 μm show a current responsivity of 2 A/W. By proper adjustment of the p-doping level above the n-background concentration the depletion width exceeds a critical size of about 60 nm, leading to the suppression of band-to-band tunneling currents. Above that critical width the dynamic impedance R0A at 77 K reaches values above 1 kΩ cm2 leading to a Johnson-noise-limited detectivity in excess of 1×1012 cm√Hz/W.

  15. InAs/Ga1-xInxSb infrared superlattice photodiodes for infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Frank; Weimar, U.; Ahlswede, E.; Pletschen, Wilfried; Schmitz, J.; Walther, Martin

    1998-04-01

    Electric and optical properties of IR photodiodes based on InAs/(GaIn)Sb superlattices were investigations. Mesa diodes were fabricated with cut-off wavelengths ranging from 7.5 to 12 micrometers , showing 77 K detectivities between 1 X 1012 cmHz0.5/W and 5 X 1010 cmHz0.5/W, respectively. At least two leakage current mechanisms are observed in the reverse bias branch of the current-voltage characteristics. At high reverse bias band-to-band tunneling currents dominate. Close to zero voltage surface leakage currents become important. The leakage currents are studied with gate controlled mesa diodes, allowing depletion or inversion of the mesa side walls. In addition, the band-to- band tunneling currents are investigated by applying magnetic fields oriented parallel and perpendicular to the electric field across the p-n junction of the diode.

  16. Hard disk drive based microsecond X-ray chopper for characterization of ionization chambers and photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Müller, O; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D; Frahm, R

    2015-03-01

    A fast X-ray chopper capable of producing ms long X-ray pulses with a typical rise time of few μs was realized. It is ideally suited to investigate the temporal response of X-ray detectors with response times of the order of μs to ms, in particular, any kind of ionization chambers and large area photo diodes. The drive mechanism consists of a brushless DC motor and driver electronics from a common hard disk drive, keeping the cost at an absolute minimum. Due to its simple construction and small dimensions, this chopper operates at home lab based X-ray tubes and synchrotron radiation sources as well. The dynamics of the most important detectors used in time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy, namely, ionization chambers and Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon photodiodes, were investigated in detail. The results emphasize the applicability of this X-ray chopper. PMID:25832273

  17. Scintillation fiber array detector for measurement of neutron beam profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong; Hong, Byungsik; Jo, Mihee; Lee, Kyong Sei; Sim, Kwang-Souk

    2009-10-01

    We built and tested a detector to measure the profile of fast-neutron beams delivered by the MC50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The core component of the detector is a 2×46 array of scintillation fibers. The light output of the scintillation fibers is transformed into a current signal by a 46-channel silicon photodiode and digitized by a current-mode signal processor. This scanning device was designed to cover a neutron beam area of 30×32 cm2. The detector was tested in a neutron beam delivered by the MC50 cyclotron at KIRAMS. We demonstrate that the detector can successfully measure the neutron beam profile at various beam currents from 10 to 20 μA. The proposed neutron beam profile detector will be useful, for example, in radiotherapy applications with neutron intensities above 107 Hz/cm2.

  18. Gated IR imaging with 128 × 128 HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiode FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jeff; Woodall, Milton; Scritchfield, Richard; Ohlson, Martha; Wood, Lewis; Mitra, Pradip; Robinson, Jim

    2007-04-01

    The next generation of IR sensor systems will include active imaging capabilities. One example of such a system is a gated-active/passive system. The gated-active/passive system promises long-range target detection and identification. A detector that is capable of both active and passive modes of operation opens up the possibility of a self-aligned system that uses a single focal plane. The detector would need to be sensitive in the 3-5 μm band for passive mode operation. In the active mode, the detector would need to be sensitive in eye-safe range, e.g. 1.55 μm, and have internal gain to achieve the required system sensitivity. The MWIR HgCdTe electron injection avalanche photodiode (e-APD) not only provides state-of-the-art 3-5 μm spectral sensitivity, but also high avalanche photodiode gain without minimal excess noise. Gains of greater than 1000 have been measured in MWIR e-APDs with a gain independent excess noise factor of 1.3. This paper reports the application of the mid-wave HgCdTe e-APD for near-IR gated-active/passive imaging. Specifically a 128x128 FPA composed of 40 μm pitch, 4.2 μm to 5 μm cutoff, APD detectors with a custom readout integrated circuit was designed, fabricated, and tested. Median gains as high as 946 at 11 V bias with noise equivalent inputs as low as 0.4 photon were measured at 80 K. A gated imaging demonstration system was designed and built using commercially available parts. High resolution gated imagery out to 9 km was obtained with this system that demonstrated predicted MTF, precision gating, and sub 10 photon sensitivity.

  19. Dislocations as a Noise Source in LWIR HgCdTe Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźwikowski, Krzysztof; Jóźwikowska, Alina; Martyniuk, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    The effect of dislocation on the 1/ f noise current in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) reverse biased HgCdTe photodiodes working at liquid nitrogen (LN) temperature was analyzed theoretically by using a phenomenological model of dislocations as an additional Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) generation-recombination (G-R) channel in heterostructure. Numerical analysis was involved to solve the set of transport equations in order to find a steady state values of physical parameters of the heterostructure. Next, the set of transport equations for fluctuations (TEFF) was formulated and solved to obtain the spectral densities (SD) of the fluctuations of electrical potential, quasi-Fermi levels, and temperature. The SD of mobility fluctuations, shot G-R noise, and thermal noise were also taken into account in TEFF. Additional expressions for SD of 1/ f fluctuations of the G-R processes were derived. Numerical values of the SD of noise current were compared with the experimental results of Johnson et al. Theoretical analysis has shown that the dislocations increase the G-R processes and this way cause the growth of G-R dark current. Despite the fact that dislocations increase both shot G-R noise and 1/ f G-R noise, the main cause of 1/ f current noise in LN cooled LWIR photodiodes are fluctuations of the carriers mobility determined by 1/ f fluctuations of relaxation times. As the noise current is proportional to the total diode current, growth of G-R dark current caused by dislocations leads to the growth of noise current.

  20. Dislocations as a Noise Source in LWIR HgCdTe Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźwikowski, Krzysztof; Jóźwikowska, Alina; Martyniuk, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The effect of dislocation on the 1/f noise current in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) reverse biased HgCdTe photodiodes working at liquid nitrogen (LN) temperature was analyzed theoretically by using a phenomenological model of dislocations as an additional Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) generation-recombination (G-R) channel in heterostructure. Numerical analysis was involved to solve the set of transport equations in order to find a steady state values of physical parameters of the heterostructure. Next, the set of transport equations for fluctuations (TEFF) was formulated and solved to obtain the spectral densities (SD) of the fluctuations of electrical potential, quasi-Fermi levels, and temperature. The SD of mobility fluctuations, shot G-R noise, and thermal noise were also taken into account in TEFF. Additional expressions for SD of 1/f fluctuations of the G-R processes were derived. Numerical values of the SD of noise current were compared with the experimental results of Johnson et al. Theoretical analysis has shown that the dislocations increase the G-R processes and this way cause the growth of G-R dark current. Despite the fact that dislocations increase both shot G-R noise and 1/f G-R noise, the main cause of 1/f current noise in LN cooled LWIR photodiodes are fluctuations of the carriers mobility determined by 1/f fluctuations of relaxation times. As the noise current is proportional to the total diode current, growth of G-R dark current caused by dislocations leads to the growth of noise current.

  1. 2 μm wavelength range InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes heterogeneously integrated on silicon photonic integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Muneeb, Muhammad; Boehm, Gerhard; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther

    2015-10-01

    The heterogeneous integration of InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes on silicon photonic integrated circuits for the 2 µm wavelength range is presented. A responsivity of 1.2 A/W at a wavelength of 2.32 µm and 0.6 A/W at 2.4 µm wavelength is demonstrated. The photodiodes have a dark current of 12 nA at -0.5 V at room temperature. The absorbing active region of the integrated photodiodes consists of six periods of a "W"-shaped quantum well, also allowing for laser integration on the same platform.

  2. Performance characteristics of InGaAs/GaAs and GaAs/InGaAlAs coherently strained superlattice photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Utpal; Zebda, Yousef; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Chin, Albert

    1987-01-01

    The properties of In(0.24)Ga(0.76)As/GaAs and GaAs/In(0.05)Ga(0.58)Al(0.37)As superlattice photodiodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated. From the temporal response characteristics, deconvolved rise times about 60-100 ps are obtained. The measured responsivities of the photodiodes with dark currents of 5-10 nA at 10 V are about 0.4 A/W, which correspond to peak external quantum efficiencies of about 60 percent. These results indicate that very high performance photodiodes can be realized with strained layers.

  3. Development of CdZnTe energy selective arrays for industrial and medical radiation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichar, Raulf; Schirato, Richard; Reed, John

    1994-12-01

    Recent advances in the production of CdZnTe using the high pressure Bridgman growth process now make it possible to design and fabricate complex X-ray sensor arrays on large monolithic substrates. These solid state ionization devices have the advantages of improved spatial and energy resolution, and produce significantly higher signals than competitive scintillator-photodiode systems. We have fabricated a number of linear and areal monolithic arrays in our laboratory using vacuum deposited contacts on such material with good success. These arrays operate in a pulse counting mode using hybrid and surface mount circuitry mounted in close proximity to the arrays. Linear devices with pitches of less than 0.8 mm and with 32 elements per substrate have been used for very wide dynamic range radioscopy with excellent results. Images are presented which demonstrate dynamic range in excess of 500:1 and Nyquist limited resolution at diagnostic X-ray energies for a wide variety of samples. Preliminary results demonstrate that the arrays can be used for energy selective radioscopy permitting the identification of differing materials within the image by approximate atomic number. Systems using areal arrays also have been evaluated as radiation cameras and demonstrate good spatial and energy resolution. Examples of data taken with a pin-hole collimator show the ability to distinguish source distributions by energy as well as location and intensity. Ongoing work in the improvement of spatial and energy resolution and the fabrication of larger arrays is discussed.

  4. Twenty-channel bolometer array for studying impurity radiation and transport in the TCS field-reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostora, M. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Wurden, G. A.

    2006-10-01

    A bolometer array diagnostic has been developed for the University of Washington Translation, Confinement, and Sustainment (TCS) field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment in order to measure radially resolved total radiated power per unit length of the FRC. This will provide radiation energy loss information, useful in power balance and impurity studies. The 20-element photodiode bolometer will be mounted at the midplane of the TCS cylindrical vacuum chamber to view the rotating magnetic field (RMF) generated FRC plasma. Key features of this new bolometer array are (1) extensive electrical shielding against the RMF, (2) robust electrical isolation, (3) trans-impedance amplifiers using a microcoax interface at the array and a fiber optic interface to the screen room, and (4) a custom glass-on-metal socket for the 20-element photodiode chip to ensure high vacuum compatibility. The bolometer array can be retracted behind a gate valve using a stepper motor to protect it during vacuum chamber bakeout. The slit assembly housing is interchangeable to provide flexibility for the viewing sightlines.

  5. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  6. Development of the HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detectors and the Improvement in the CO2 Lidar Performance for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.; Chen, J. R.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing the CO2 lidar as a candidate for the NASA's planned ASCENDS mission under the support of Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) IIP and ATI-QRS programs. A new type of HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) detector has been developed by the DRS Technologies under the IIP program. The new detectors achieved >70% quantum efficiency, including the effect of the fill factor, over the spectral range from 0.4 to 4.3 μm, which significantly improves the receiver performance of our CO2 lidar and enabled other remote sending measurements. The HgCdTe APD arrays have 80 μm square pixels in a 4x4 array along with a bank of 16 preamplifiers on the same chip carrier. Test results at both DRS and GSFC showed the HgCdTe APD array has achieved, an APD gain of 500-1000, 8-10 MHz electrical bandwidth, and an average noise equivalent power (NEP) of <0.5 fW/Hz1/2. It has demonstrated at least a 3 orders of magnitude dynamic range at a fixed APD gain setting. The gains of the APD and the preamplifier can also be adjusted to further extend the receiver dynamic range. During summer 2014 we successfully demonstrated airborne lidar measurements of column CO2 using one of these detectors. The Aerospace Corporation is currently building a 3U CubeSat with one of these detectors in a small closed-cycle cryocooler as the primary payload under the ESTO In-space Validation of Earth Science Technology (InVEST) program. The CubeSat is scheduled to be launched in late 2016 and will fly in a low Earth orbit and monitor the performance for at least a year. We have also updated the performance analysis of a space-based version of our CO2 lidar with the new HgCdTe APD detector. For the retrievals, a least-square-error method is used to fit the measured transmittances to a predetermined line shape function using 8 to 16 sampling wavelengths. The error in the derived total optical depth and the CO2 mixing ratio are estimated via the standard error

  7. Implementation of Strategies to Improve the Reliability of III-Nitride Photodetectors towards the Realization of Visible and Solar-Blind Imaging Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulmer, John J.

    isolates conductive pathways in III-Nitrides using an electrochemical etch and novel foam passivation technique. Establishing improved photodiode performance and device reliability, 4x4 and 8x8 arrays of GaN p-i-n photodiodes were demonstrated and integrated with external circuitry to generate image patterns using 360nm illumination. This work represents significant progress towards the realization of reliable III-Nitride UV detectors arrays and future directions are proposed in order to demonstrate large-scale arrays for high-resolution ultraviolet imaging.

  8. A 64 single photon avalanche diode array in 0.18 µm CMOS standard technology with versatile quenching circuit for quick prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhring, Wilfried; Le Normand, Jean-Pierre; Zint, Virginie; Dumas, Norbert; Dadouche, Foudil; Malasse, Imane; Scholz, Jeremy

    2012-04-01

    Several works have demonstrated the successfully integration of Single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) operating in Geiger mode in a standard CMOS circuit for the last 10 years. These devices offer an exceptional temporal resolution as well as a very good optical sensitivity. Nevertheless, it is difficult to predict the expected performances of such a device. Indeed, for a similar structure of SPAD, some parameter values can differ by two orders of magnitude from a technology to another. We proposed here a procedure to identify in just one or two runs the optimal structure of SPAD available for a given technology. A circuit with an array of 64 SPAD has been realized in the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS image sensor process. It encompasses an array of 8 different structures of SPAD reproduced in 8 diameters in the range from 5 μm up to 40 μm. According to the SPAD structures, efficient shallow trench insulator and/or P-Well guard ring are used for preventing edge breakdown. Low dark count rate of about 100 Hz are expected thanks to the use of buried n-well layer and a high resistivity substrate. Each photodiode is embedded in a pixel which includes a versatile quenching circuitry and an analog output of its cathode voltage. The quenching system is configurable in four operation modes; the SPAD is disabled, the quenching is completely passive, the reset of the photodiode is active and the quenching is fully active. The architecture of the array makes possible the characterization of every single photodiode individually. The parameters to be measured for a SPAD are the breakdown avalanche voltage, the dark count rate, the dead time, the timing jitter, the photon detection probability and the after-pulsing rate.

  9. Thermophotovoltaic Array Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    SBurger; E Brown; K Rahner; L Danielson; J Openlander; J Vell; D Siganporia

    2004-07-29

    A systematic approach to thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array design and fabrication was used to optimize the performance of a 192-cell TPV array. The systematic approach began with cell selection criteria that ranked cells and then matched cell characteristics to maximize power output. Following cell selection, optimization continued with an array packaging design and fabrication techniques that introduced negligible electrical interconnect resistance and minimal parasitic losses while maintaining original cell electrical performance. This paper describes the cell selection and packaging aspects of array optimization as applied to fabrication of a 192-cell array.

  10. Nearly lattice-matched n, i, and p layers for InGaN p-i-n photodiodes in the 365-500 nm spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkman, E. A.; El-Masry, N. A.; Emara, A.; Bedair, S. M.

    2008-03-01

    We report on nearly lattice-matched grown InGaN based p-i-n photodiodes detecting in the 365-500nm range with tunable peak responsivity tailored by the i-layer properties. The growth of lattice matched i- and n-InGaN layer leads to improvement in the device performance. This approach produced photodiodes with zero-bias responsivities up to 0.037A /W at 426nm, corresponding to 15.5% internal quantum efficiency. The peak responsivity wavelength ranged between 416 and 466nm, the longest reported for III-N photodiodes. The effects of InN content and i-layer thickness on photodiode properties and performance are discussed.

  11. Wavelength-selective ultraviolet (Mg,Zn)O photodiodes: Tuning of parallel composition gradients with oxygen pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhipeng; von Wenckstern, Holger; Lenzner, Jörg; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-06-01

    We report on ultraviolet photodiodes with integrated optical filter based on the wurtzite (Mg,Zn)O thin films. Tuning of the bandgap of filter and active layers was realized by employing a continuous composition spread approach relying on the ablation of a single segmented target in pulsed-laser deposition. Filter and active layers of the device were deposited on opposite sides of a sapphire substrate with nearly parallel compositional gradients. Ensure that for each sample position the bandgap of the filter layer blocking the high energy radiation is higher than that of the active layer. Different oxygen pressures during the two depositions runs. The absorption edge is tuned over 360 meV and the spectral bandwidth of photodiodes is typically 100 meV and as low as 50 meV.

  12. High performance CaS solar-blind ultraviolet photodiodes fabricated by seed-layer-assisted growth

    SciTech Connect

    He, Qing Lin; Lai, Ying Hoi; Sou, Iam Keong; Liu, Yi; Beltjens, Emeline; Qi, Jie

    2015-11-02

    CaS, with a direct bandgap of 5.38 eV, is expected to be a strong candidate as the active-layer of high performance solar-blind UV photodiodes that have important applications in both civilian and military sectors. Here, we report that a seed-layer-assisted growth approach via molecular beam epitaxy can result in high crystalline quality rocksalt CaS thin films on zincblende GaAs substrates. The Au/CaS/GaAs solar-blind photodiodes demonstrated , more than five orders in its visible rejection power, a photoresponse of 36.8 mA/w at zero bias and a corresponding quantum efficiency as high as 19% at 235 nm.

  13. Normal incidence spectrophotometer using high density transmission grating technology and highly efficiency silicon photodiodes for absolute solar EUV irradiance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Korde, R.

    1992-01-01

    New developments in transmission grating and photodiode technology now make it possible to realize spectrometers in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (wavelengths less than 1000 A) which are expected to be virtually constant in their diffraction and detector properties. Time dependent effects associated with reflection gratings are eliminated through the use of free standing transmission gratings. These gratings together with recently developed and highly stable EUV photodiodes have been utilized to construct a highly stable normal incidence spectrophotometer to monitor the variability and absolute intensity of the solar 304 A line. Owing to its low weight and compactness, such a spectrometer will be a valuable tool for providing absolute solar irradiance throughout the EUV. This novel instrument will also be useful for cross-calibrating other EUV flight instruments and will be flown on a series of Hitchhiker Shuttle Flights and on SOHO. A preliminary version of this instrument has been fabricated and characterized, and the results are described.

  14. The effect of temperature instability on the threshold sensitivity of photodetectors based on AIII-BV photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, S. E.; Gavrilov, G. A.; Kapralov, A. A.; Sotnikova, G. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    The dependence of the sensitivity of photodetectors based on AIII-BV photodiodes on accidental variations of the temperature of its elements is analyzed. It is shown that the temperature drift of the bias level in input circuits of op-amps strongly contributes to the resulting photodetector noise up to frequencies on the order of 1 MHz. To reach the limiting sensitivities of the sensors, it is necessary to stabilize the temperature of not only the photodiode chip, but also the integrated circuit of the first amplifier stage. For most of applications, the required stabilization accuracy does not exceed ±0.1°C. As a result of the analysis, prototype high-sensitivity medium-wavelength (2-5 μm) sensors were developed that operate without forced cooling and have a detection threshold of tens of nanowatts at a detection bandwidth of 0-1 MHz.

  15. Investigation of trap-assisted tunneling current in InAs/(GaIn)Sb superlattice long-wavelength photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q. K.; Fuchs, F.; Schmitz, J.; Pletschen, W.

    2002-12-01

    Trap centers with an energy level positioned 1/3 of the band gap below the effective conduction band edge are observed in the electroluminescence spectra of InAs/(GaIn)Sb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength of 11 μm. The trap centers are recognized by simulating the low-temperature current-voltage characteristics of the diodes. Excellent quantitative agreement on both, the I-V characteristic and the differential resistance between the experimental data and the theoretical prediction is achieved. The quantitative simulation of the I-V characteristics shows, that the 77 K performance of InAs/(GaIn)Sb photodiodes is dominated by generation-recombination processes even at long wavelengths. Above 50 K, tunneling currents are not of importance.

  16. Dark-current characteristics of GaN-based UV avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jintong; Chang, Chao; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-04-01

    For UV detecting, it needs high ratio of signal to noise, which means high responsibility and low noise. GaN-based avalanche photodiodes can provide a high internal photocurrent gain. In this paper, we report the testing and characterization of GaN based thin film materials, optimization design of device structure, the device etching and passivation technology, and the photoelectric characteristics of the devices. Also, uniformity of the device was obtained. The relationship between dark current and material quality or device processes was the focus of this study. GaN based material with high aluminum components have high density defects. Scanning electron microscope, cathodoluminescence spectra, X-ray double crystal diffraction and transmission spectroscopy testing were employed to evaluate the quality of GaN-based material. It shows that patterned sapphire substrate or thick AlN buffer layer is more effective to get high quality materials. GaN-based materials have larger hole ionization coefficient, so back incident structure were adopted to maximize the hole-derived multiplication course and it was helped to get a smaller multiplication noise. The device with separate absorption and multiplication regions is also prospective to reduce the avalanche noise. According to AlGaN based material characteristics and actual device fabrication, device structure was optimized further. Low physical damage inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching method was used to etch mesa and wet etching method was employed to treat mesa damage. Silica is passivation material of device mesa. For solar-blind ultraviolet device, it is necessary to adopt a wider bandgap material than AlGaN material. The current-voltage characteristics under reverse bias were measured in darkness and under UV illumination. The distribution of dark current and response of different devices was obtained. In short, for GaN-based UV avalanche photodiode, dark current was related to high density dislocation of

  17. III-V strain layer superlattice based band engineered avalanche photodiodes (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sid

    2015-08-01

    photodiodes and some of the recent results on the work being done at Raytheon on SWIR avalanche photodiodes.

  18. Development of wide-band-gap AlxGa1-xAs (x>0.7) photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. J.; Kang, Tae Hoon; Hammig, Mark; Johnson, E. B.; Christian, J. F.

    2015-08-01

    The development of high-performance scintillation materials that emit light below 400 nm has prompted the development of improved solid-state UV photodetectors. While silicon provides a mature context for UV photodetectors, the high dark current due to its low band-gap (1.1 eV) limits the signal-to-noise performance when scaling the detector to large areas. Photodetectors fabricated in materials with a larger band-gap have the potential to surmount the performance limitations experienced by silicon. AlxGa1-xAs, is a material that provides a band gap from 1.55 eV to 2.13 eV, depending on the Al concentration. Using high Al concentration (0.7 < x < 1), AlxGa1-xAs to engineer a wider bandgap > 2eV is very desirable in terms of reducing dark noise. Due to its strong absorption of UV-light at the material surface, however, surface effects limit the quantum efficiency below 400 nm. Introducing surface layers that have a longer penetration depth for UV photons promises to boost the quantum efficiency in the UV while maintaining low dark current. This work describes the development of a photodiode fabricated in AlxGa1-xAs, x > 0.7, compared to an AlxGa1-xAs, x > 0.7 photodiode with an AlAs surface (x = 1). It presents the design of the photodiodes, simulations of their performance, the fabrication process, along with characterization data of fabricated photodiodes. We report on the surface effects of high aluminum concentration AlxGa1-xAs, x > 0.7, to provide a high quantum efficiency for photons below 400 nm, by examining the charge collection.

  19. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Structure optimization of a uni-traveling-carrier photodiode with introduction of a hydro-dynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoyu, Li; Yejin, Zhang; Xiaojian, Li; Lilin, Tian

    2010-10-01

    Characteristics of a uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) are investigated. A hydro-dynamic model is introduced which takes into account the electrons' velocity overshoot in the depletion region, which is a more accurate high speed device than using the normal drift—diffuse model. Based on previous results, two modified UTC-PDs are presented, and an optimized device is obtained, the bandwidth of which is more than twice that of the original.

  20. Analysis of ciliary beat pattern and beat frequency using digital high speed imaging: comparison with the photomultiplier and photodiode methods

    PubMed Central

    Chilvers, M.; O'Callaghan, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of the power and recovery stroke of respiratory cilia using digital high speed video imaging. Beat frequency measurements made using digital high speed video were also compared with those obtained using the photomultiplier and modified photodiode techniques.
METHOD—Ciliated epithelium was obtained by brushing the inferior nasal turbinate of 20 healthy subjects. Ciliated edges were observed by microscopy and the deviation of cilia during their recovery stroke relative to the path travelled during their power stroke was measured. Beat frequency measurements made by digital high speed video analysis were compared with those obtained using the photomultiplier and modified photodiode.
RESULTS—Cilia were found to beat with a forward power stroke and a backward recovery stroke within the same plane. The mean angular deviation of the cilia during the recovery stroke from the plane of the forward power stroke was only 3.6°(95% CI 3.1 to 4.1). There was a significant difference in beat frequency measurement between the digital high speed video (13.2 Hz (95% CI 11.8 to 14.6)) and both photomultiplier (12.0 Hz (95% CI 10.8 to 13.1), p = 0.01) and photodiode (11.2 Hz (95% CI 9.9 to 12.5), p<0.001) techniques. The Bland-Altman limits of agreement for the digital high speed video were -2.75 to 5.15 Hz with the photomultiplier and -2.30 to 6.06 Hz with the photodiode.
CONCLUSION—Respiratory cilia beat forwards and backwards within the same plane without a classical sideways recovery sweep. Digital high speed video imaging allows both ciliary beat frequency and beat pattern to be evaluated.

 PMID:10722772

  1. Development of photodetection system based on multipixel avalanche Geiger photodiodes with WLS for LXe low-background detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, D. Yu.; Akindinov, A. V.; Alexandrov, I. S.; Burenkov, A. A.; Danilov, M. V.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Stekhanov, V. N.

    2010-04-01

    A multipixel avalanche Geiger photodiode with a p-terphenyl wavelength shifter in front of it has been tested in the liquid xenon to detect the 175-nm scintillation light. The global detection efficiency of the VUV photons of ~10% is obtained. A photodetection system with sensitivity to sub-keV ionization and few-mm coordinate accuracy is proposed for LXe low-background experiments.

  2. High-optical-power handling InGaAs photodiodes and balanced receivers for high-spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) analog photonic links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhay M.; Wang, Xinde; Mohr, Dan; Becker, Donald; Patil, Ravikiran

    2004-08-01

    We have developed 20 mA or higher photocurrent handling InGaAs photodiodes with 20 GHz bandwidth, and 10 mA or higher photocurrent handling InGaAs photodiodes with >40 GHz bandwidth. These photodiodes have been thoroughly tested for reliability including Bellcore GR 468 standard and are built to ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System. These Dual-depletion InGaAs/InP photodiodes are surface illuminated and yet handle such large photocurrent due to advanced band-gap engineering. They have broad wavelength coverage from 800 nm to 1700 nm, and thus can be used at several wavelengths such as 850 nm, 1064 nm, 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1620 nm. Furthermore, they exhibit very low Polarization Dependence Loss of 0.05dB typical to 0.1dB maximum. Using above high current handling photodiodes, we have developed classical Push-Pull pair balanced photoreceivers for the 2 to 18 GHz EW system. These balanced photoreceivers boost the Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) by almost 3 dB by eliminating the laser RIN noise. Future research calls for designing an Avalanche Photodiode Balanced Pair to boost the SFDR even further by additional 3 dB. These devices are a key enabling technology in meeting the SFDR requirements for several DoD systems.

  3. High-speed on-chip windowed centroiding using photodiode-based CMOS imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A centroid computation system is disclosed. The system has an imager array, a switching network, computation elements, and a divider circuit. The imager array has columns and rows of pixels. The switching network is adapted to receive pixel signals from the image array. The plurality of computation elements operates to compute inner products for at least x and y centroids. The plurality of computation elements has only passive elements to provide inner products of pixel signals the switching network. The divider circuit is adapted to receive the inner products and compute the x and y centroids.

  4. High-speed on-chip windowed centroiding using photodiode-based CMOS imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A centroid computation system is disclosed. The system has an imager array, a switching network, computation elements, and a divider circuit. The imager array has columns and rows of pixels. The switching network is adapted to receive pixel signals from the image array. The plurality of computation elements operates to compute inner products for at least x and y centroids. The plurality of computation elements has only passive elements to provide inner products of pixel signals the switching network. The divider circuit is adapted to receive the inner products and compute the x and y centroids.

  5. Characterization of AlInN/GaN structures on AlN templates for high-performance ultraviolet photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Khai, Pum Chian; Ichikawa, Junki; Egawa, Takashi; Jimbo, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    The authors characterize AlInN/GaN structures on AlN templates for high-performance ultraviolet photodiodes. AlInN/GaN structures were grown with various growth parameters by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. In the case of nearly lattice-matched to GaN underlying layers, AlInN/GaN structures are found to have smooth interface. AlInN layers grown at the low pressure are confirmed to have high crystal quality from x-ray diffraction measurements and good surface morphology from atomic force microscope images. The noble AlInN-based photodiodes were fabricated. Their performances show the leakage current of 48 nA at a reverse voltage of 5 V and the cutoff wavelength around 260 nm. A cutoff-wavelength responsivity of 21.84 mA/W is obtained, corresponding to quantum efficiency of 10.6%. It may be possible to realize high-performance ultraviolet photodiodes by further optimizing AlInN/GaN structures.

  6. Effect of metal-precursor gas ratios on AlInN/GaN structures for high efficiency ultraviolet photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Y.; Khai, P. C.; Egawa, T.

    2011-11-01

    The authors report on the effect of metal-precursor gas ratios on AlInN/GaN structures for high efficiency ultraviolet photodiodes. AlInN/GaN structures with the different metal-precursor gas ratio, namely V/III ratio, were grown on AlN templates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Nearly lattice-matched AlInN layer is obtained at the higher temperature by decreasing the V/III ratio. AlInN layers are found to have good crystal qualities with no dependency on the V/III ratio. However, pit density depends slightly on the V/III ratio, indicating good surface morphology is obtained by decreasing the V/III ratio. The fabricated photodiodes also show good device characteristics by decreasing the V/III ratio. The spectral responsivity at the cutoff wavelength increases from 1 to 20 mA/W, indicating that the quantum efficiency is greatly improved. We believe that the further optimization of the growth parameters for AlInN/GaN structures is one of the effective approaches in realizing high efficiency ultraviolet photodiodes.

  7. X-ray spectroscopy in mammography with a silicon PIN photodiode with application to the measurement of tube voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenzel, Roseli; Herdade, Silvio Bruni; Terini, Ricardo Andrade; Costa, Paulo Roberto

    2004-11-01

    In this work a silicon PIN photodiode was employed in mammographic x-ray spectroscopy under clinical and nonclinical conditions. Measurements have been performed at a constant potential tungsten anode tube, adapted in this work with molybdenum filters to produce a beam like that used in mammography, and at a clinical equipment with a molybdenum anode tube by using an additional aluminum filtration. The corrected x-ray spectra were in full agreement with those generated by theoretical models published in the literature and agree well with those measured with a CdZnTe detector for tube voltages less than 30 kV. The half value layer and the relative exposure values calculated from the corrected silicon PIN photodiode spectra were in agreement with those measured with an ionization chamber. These results indicate that a silicon PIN photodiode are very suitable for mammographic x-ray spectroscopy. As an application, the voltage (kV) applied to mammographic x-ray equipment has been measured through the evaluation of the spectra high energy cut off. Uncertainties evaluated for the voltage values calculated from the measured spectra are less than 0.13% for voltages in the range 20-35 kV. The low uncertainties associated with the obtained results in this work point out that the method employed can be accurately used for calibration of noninvasive mammographic kVp meters.

  8. A Monte Carlo simulator for noise analysis of avalanche photodiode pixels in low-light image sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resetar, Tomislav; Süss, Andreas; Vermandere, Elke; Karpiak, Bogdan; Puers, Robert; Van Hoof, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Noise performance of avalanche photodiodes in light detection is typically described by the excessive noise factor, taking into account only the increase of the variance of the output electron count distribution with respect to the input. This approach is attractive since the excessive noise factor, together with the avalanche gain, can easily be included into the signal-to-noise ratio expression of the complete detection chain. For low-light applications down to single-photon counting, that description is typically not sufficient since one is also interested in the higher moments of the output distribution. Analytical derivation of the output electron count distributions of avalanche photodiodes is typically possible only for very simple electric field profile approximations, which is often not a sufficient description of reality. This work presents a Monte Carlo simulator for numerical prediction of the output distribution that can be applied to any arbitrary electric field profile as well as any light absorption profile and therefore serve as a useful tool for device design and optimization. Comparison with the standard McIntyre theory is provided for a constant field profile showing good agreement. Furthermore, the presented method is used to predict the avalanche noise performance of the recently presented pinned avalanche photodiode pixel (PAPD) with the electric field profile extracted from a finite-element simulation. The pixel is aiming for improvements in high-speed and low-light level image detection in minimally-modified CMOS image sensor technology.

  9. Microspot-based ELISA in microfluidics: chemiluminescence and colorimetry detection using integrated thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Novo, Pedro; Prazeres, Duarte Miguel França; Chu, Virginia; Conde, João Pedro

    2011-12-01

    Microfluidic technology has the potential to decrease the time of analysis and the quantity of sample and reactants required in immunoassays, together with the potential of achieving high sensitivity, multiplexing, and portability. A lab-on-a-chip system was developed and optimized using optical and fluorescence microscopy. Primary antibodies are adsorbed onto the walls of a PDMS-based microchannel via microspotting. This probe antibody is then recognised using secondary FITC or HRP labelled antibodies responsible for providing fluorescence or chemiluminescent and colorimetric signals, respectively. The system incorporated a micron-sized thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode microfabricated on a glass substrate. The primary antibody spots in the PDMS-based microfluidic were precisely aligned with the photodiodes for the direct detection of the antibody-antigen molecular recognition reactions using chemiluminescence and colorimetry. The immunoassay takes ~30 min from assay to the integrated detection. The conditions for probe antibody microspotting and for the flow-through ELISA analysis in the microfluidic format with integrated detection were defined using antibody solutions with concentrations in the nM-μM range. Sequential colorimetric or chemiluminescence detection of specific antibody-antigen molecular recognition was quantitatively detected using the photodiode. Primary antibody surface densities down to 0.182 pmol cm(-2) were detected. Multiplex detection using different microspotted primary antibodies was demonstrated. PMID:22012414

  10. In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodiodes with transparent cadmium tin oxide contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Paul R.; Dutta, Niloy K.; Zydzik, George; O'Bryan, H. M.; Keller, Ursula; Smith, Peter R.; Lopata, John; Sivco, D.; Cho, A. Y.

    1992-10-01

    A new type of p-i-n In0.53Ga0.47As photodiode having an optically transparent composite top electrode consisting of a thin semitransparent metal layer and a transparent cadmium tin oxide (CTO) layer was investigated. The composite functions as the n or p contact, an optical window, and an antireflection coating. The transparent contact also prevents shadowing of the active layer by the top electrode, thus allowing greater collection of incident light. Since the CTO contact is nonalloyed, interdiffusion into the i-region is not relevant avoiding an increased dark current. The photodiodes exhibited leakage currents of ≤8 nA and some as low as 23 pA, with reverse breakdown voltages of ≥15-17 V. Responsivity was measured using a 1.55 μm InGaAsP diode laser focused onto an unpassivated 60 μm diam p-i-n photodiode and was ≥0.41 A/W. Photoresponse of the diodes to 3 ps pulses from a Nd:YLF laser (λ=1.047 μm) was 169 and 86 ps for the 60 and 9 μm diodes, respectively. The maximum frequency response of the 9 μm diode is packaging limited, and is expected to have an intrinsic response time of 20-30 ps.

  11. Organic/IR-Semiconductor heterojunctions for low-cost, high temperature IR arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Colin E.

    1992-08-01

    This program evaluated a new technology for producing infrared photo-diodes in HgCdTe and InSb using evaporated organic heterojunctions. High quantum-efficiency IR detectors were demonstrated with the organic process comparable to commercial IR detectors. The organic photodiodes at room temperature were better than commercial detectors. They had lower leakage currents and higher resistance-area products (RoAs). Detector arrays made with the organics can operate at higher temperatures than the current detectors. Initial data at low temperatures were poorer than commercial detectors with lower RoAs and slightly higher 1/f noise. This comparison at low temperature may change with further optimization of the organic process. The organic diode process is very simple, low cost and non-damaging to the HgCdTe or InSb. It involves thermal evaporation of the organic onto the HgCdTe or InSb followed by evaporation of metal contacts through a shadow mask. Phase 1 demonstrated organic/HaCdTe IR detectors with quantum efficiencies similar to commercial devices operating at higher temperatures. The technology is ready for a Phase 2 to further optimize the processing for IR arrays and to increase yields.

  12. Superconducting Bolometer Array Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Rick; Staguhn, Johannes; Wollack, Ed; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The next generation of far-infrared and submillimeter instruments require large arrays of detectors containing thousands of elements. These arrays will necessarily be multiplexed, and superconducting bolometer arrays are the most promising present prospect for these detectors. We discuss our current research into superconducting bolometer array technologies, which has recently resulted in the first multiplexed detections of submillimeter light and the first multiplexed astronomical observations. Prototype arrays containing 512 pixels are in production using the Pop-Up Detector (PUD) architecture, which can be extended easily to 1000 pixel arrays. Planar arrays of close-packed bolometers are being developed for the GBT (Green Bank Telescope) and for future space missions. For certain applications, such as a slewed far-infrared sky survey, feedhorncoupling of a large sparsely-filled array of bolometers is desirable, and is being developed using photolithographic feedhorn arrays. Individual detectors have achieved a Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) of -10(exp 17) W/square root of Hz at 300mK, but several orders of magnitude improvement are required and can be reached with existing technology. The testing of such ultralow-background detectors will prove difficult, as this requires optical loading of below IfW. Antenna-coupled bolometer designs have advantages for large format array designs at low powers due to their mode selectivity.

  13. Electronic Switch Arrays for Managing Microbattery Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Alahmad, Mahmoud; Sukumar, Vinesh; Zghoul, Fadi; Buck, Kevin; Hess, Herbert; Li, Harry; Cox, David

    2008-01-01

    Integrated circuits have been invented for managing the charging and discharging of such advanced miniature energy-storage devices as planar arrays of microscopic energy-storage elements [typically, microscopic electrochemical cells (microbatteries) or microcapacitors]. The architecture of these circuits enables implementation of the following energy-management options: dynamic configuration of the elements of an array into a series or parallel combination of banks (subarrarys), each array comprising a series of parallel combination of elements; direct addressing of individual banks for charging/or discharging; and, disconnection of defective elements and corresponding reconfiguration of the rest of the array to utilize the remaining functional elements to obtain the desited voltage and current performance. An integrated circuit according to the invention consists partly of a planar array of field-effect transistors that function as switches for routing electric power among the energy-storage elements, the power source, and the load. To connect the energy-storage elements to the power source for charging, a specific subset of switches is closed; to connect the energy-storage elements to the load for discharging, a different specific set of switches is closed. Also included in the integrated circuit is circuitry for monitoring and controlling charging and discharging. The control and monitoring circuitry, the switching transistors, and interconnecting metal lines are laid out on the integrated-circuit chip in a pattern that registers with the array of energy-storage elements. There is a design option to either (1) fabricate the energy-storage elements in the corresponding locations on, and as an integral part of, this integrated circuit; or (2) following a flip-chip approach, fabricate the array of energy-storage elements on a separate integrated-circuit chip and then align and bond the two chips together.

  14. Organic Photodiodes: The Future of Full Color Detection and Image Sensing.

    PubMed

    Jansen-van Vuuren, Ross D; Armin, Ardalan; Pandey, Ajay K; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Major growth in the image sensor market is largely as a result of the expansion of digital imaging into cameras, whether stand-alone or integrated within smart cellular phones or automotive vehicles. Applications in biomedicine, education, environmental monitoring, optical communications, pharmaceutics and machine vision are also driving the development of imaging technologies. Organic photodiodes (OPDs) are now being investigated for existing imaging technologies, as their properties make them interesting candidates for these applications. OPDs offer cheaper processing methods, devices that are light, flexible and compatible with large (or small) areas, and the ability to tune the photophysical and optoelectronic properties - both at a material and device level. Although the concept of OPDs has been around for some time, it is only relatively recently that significant progress has been made, with their performance now reaching the point that they are beginning to rival their inorganic counterparts in a number of performance criteria including the linear dynamic range, detectivity, and color selectivity. This review covers the progress made in the OPD field, describing their development as well as the challenges and opportunities. PMID:27111541

  15. Recent progress in avalanche photodiodes for sensing in the IR spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, S. J.; Ren, M.; Woodson, M. E.; Bank, S. R.; Campbell, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Abstract—We report low-noise avalanche gain from photodiodes composed of a previously uncharacterized alloy, AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y, grown lattice-matched on GaSb substrates. By varying the aluminum content the direct bandgap can be tuned from 0.25 eV (0% aluminum) to 1.24 eV (75% aluminum), corresponding to photon wavelengths from 5000 nm to 1000 nm, with the transition from direct-gap to indirect-gap occurring at ~1.18 eV (~72% aluminum), or 1050 nm. This has been used to fabricate separate absorption, charge, and multiplication (SACM) APDs using Al0.7In0.3As0.3Sb0.7 for the multiplication region and Al0.4In0.6As0.3Sb0.7 for the absorber. Gain values as high as 100 have been achieved and the excess noise factor is characterized by a k value of 0.01, which is comparable to or below that of Si. In addition, since the bandgap of the absorption region is direct, its absorption depth is 5 to 10 times shorter than indirect-bandgap silicon, potentially enabling significantly higher operating bandwidths.

  16. 25 Gbps 850 nm photodiode for emerging 100 Gb ethernet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Abhay; Rue, Jim; Becker, Don; Datta, Shubhashish; McFaul, Will

    2011-06-01

    The IEEE Std 802.3ba-2010 for 40 Gb and 100 Gb Ethernet was released in July, 2010. This standard will continue to evolve over the next several years. Two of the challenging transmit/receive architectures contained in this standard are the 100GBASE-LR4 (<10 km range) and 100GBASE-ER4 (<40 km range). Although presently envisioned for 1310 nm optical wavelengths, both of these 4 lane, 25.78 GBaud formats may be adopted for the impending 850 nm short reach optical backplane market, whose range is below 150 m. Driven by major computer server companies, such as IBM, HP and Oracle, the 850 nm Active Optical Cable (AOC) market is presently undergoing an increase of serial rates up to 25 Gbaud to enhance backplane interconnectivity. With AOCs up to 16 channels, the potential for up to 400 Gbps backhaul composite data rates will soon be possible. We report a 25 Gbps photodiode with quantum efficiency ~ 0.6 at 850 nm. This InGaAs/InP device was optimized for high quantum efficiency at 850 nm. When pigtailed with multimode fiber and integrated with an application-specific RF amplifier, the resultant photoreceiver will provide multiple functionalities for these 100 Gb Ethernet markets.

  17. Enhancement of carrier collection efficiency in photodiodes by introducing a salicided polysilicon contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Yelena; Shauly, Eitan; Paz, Yaron

    2015-06-01

    Suppressing recombination on silicon contact interfaces is a topic being addressed for various applications such as photo sensors and solar cells. Although salicidation of the contacts enables low contact resistance, it is usually avoided for these applications as it increases the recombination rate on the contact interfaces. This study explores the use of salicided polysilicon buffer layer in photodiodes' contacts, acting to reduce the recombination rate at the silicide contact. The contact incorporates the advantage of low contact resistance due to silicidation with polysilicon interface that reduces recombination by creating carrier selective junction. The introduction of a polysilicon interlayer was found to increase the short circuit current and the fill factor and to decrease the dark leakage current. The improvement in the light collection parameters was found to be more pronounced under high light intensity (1000 W/m2) than under low light intensity (400 W/m2). The benevolent effect of the polysilicon interlayer is expected to be noticed in devices that are sensitive to contacts' performance. This includes not only image sensors but also high efficiency silicon solar cells.

  18. Photodiode Based on CdO Thin Films as Electron Transport Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soylu, M.; Kader, H. S.

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The films were analyzed by means of XRD, AFM, and UV/Vis spectrophotometry. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the films are formed from CdO with cubic crystal structure and consist of nano-particles. The energy gap of the prepared film was found to be 2.29 eV. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the CdO/p-Si heterojunction were examined in the dark and under different illumination intensities. The heterojunction showed high rectifying behavior and a strong photoresponse. Main electrical parameters of the photodiode such as series and shunt resistances (R s and R sh), saturation current I 0, and photocurrent I ph, were extracted considering a single diode equivalent circuit of a photovoltaic cell. Results indicate that the application of CdO thin films as an electron transport layer on p-Si acts as a photodetector in the field of the UV/visible.

  19. Response of large area avalanche photodiodes to low energy x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, T. R.; Bales, M.; Arp, U.; Dong, B.; Farrell, R.

    2012-05-15

    For an experiment to study neutron radiative beta-decay, we operated large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) near liquid nitrogen temperature to detect x rays with energies between 0.2 keV and 20 keV. Whereas there are numerous reports of x ray spectrometry using APDs at energies above 1 keV, operation near liquid nitrogen temperature allowed us to reach a nominal threshold of 0.1 keV. However, due to the short penetration depth of x rays below 1 keV, the pulse height spectrum of the APD become complex. We studied the response using monochromatic x ray beams and employed phenomenological fits of the pulse height spectrum to model the measurement of a continuum spectrum from a synchrotron. In addition, the measured pulse height spectrum was modelled using a profile for the variation in efficiency of collection of photoelectrons with depth into the APD. The best results are obtained with the collection efficiency model.

  20. Interface properties and surface leakage of HcCdTe photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T. S.; Buchner, S. P.; Byer, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    A program was undertaken to determine the origin of surface leakage associated with Hg sub 1-x Cd sub x TE photodiodes and to seek improved surface passivation techniques. To attain this goal, emphasis was placed on surface spectroscopic analyses and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) characteristics of candidate passivants. During the initial four months of the program, the insulating and interfacial properties of anodic oxides and ZnS on Hg0.8Cd0.2Te were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were developed for determining depth profiles of compositional variations in the semiconductor with a minimum materials damage. Using these techniques, we found that (a) the composition of a 1200 angstrom anodic film is 68% Te02, 27% CdO, and 6% HgO, and (b) the cations, especially the Hg ions in the semiconductor, are significantly depleted near the interface. The capacitance-voltage curves from MIS measurements of the same specimen exhibited a large hysteresis and a characteristic indicative of a high density of surface states. The consequence of these chemical and electrical properties to diode passivation is discussed.