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Sample records for frontal midline theta

  1. Modulation of frontal-midline theta by neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J; Scharfenort, Robert; Mokom, Zacharais N; Zimmermann, Jörg; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2014-01-01

    Cortical oscillations demonstrate a relationship with cognition. Moreover, they also exhibit associations with task performance and psychiatric mental disorders. This being the case, the modification of oscillations has become one of the key interests of neuroscientific approaches for cognitive enhancement. For such kind of alterations, neurofeedback (NF) of brain activity constitutes a promising tool. Concerning specific higher cognitive functions, frontal-midline theta (fm-theta) has been suggested as an important indicator of relevant brain processes. This paper presents a novel approach for an individualized, eight-session NF training to enhance fm-theta. An individual's dominant fm-theta frequency was determined based on experiments tapping executive functions. Effects of the actual NF training were compared to a pseudo-NF training. Participants of the pseudo-NF training experienced a comparable degree of motivation and commitment as the subjects of the actual NF training, but found the "training" slightly easier. In comparison to the pseudo-NF training, proper NF training significantly enhanced fm-theta amplitude in the actual training sessions, as well as during the whole course of training. However, unspecific changes in the alpha and beta frequency ranges found with both the actual NF and the pseudo-NF training groups emphasize the relevance of active control groups for neurofeedback studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Frontal midline theta oscillations during mental arithmetic: effects of stress.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Matti; Grimm, Simone; Bajbouj, Malek

    2015-01-01

    Complex cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic heavily rely on intact, well-coordinated prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. Converging evidence suggests that frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations play an important role during the execution of such PFC-dependent tasks. Additionally, it is well-established that acute stress impairs PFC function, and recent evidence suggests that FMT is decreased under stress. In this EEG study, we investigated FMT oscillations during a mental arithmetic task that was carried out in a stressful and a neutral control condition. Our results show late-onset, sustained FMT increases during mental arithmetic. In the neutral condition FMT started to increase earlier than in the stress condition. Direct comparison of the conditions quantified this difference by showing stronger FMT increases in the neutral condition in an early time window. Between-subject correlation analysis showed that attenuated FMT under stress was related to slowed reaction times. Our results suggest that FMT is associated with stimulus independent mental processes during the natural and complex PFC-dependent task of mental arithmetic, and is a possible marker for intact PFC function that is disrupted under stress.

  3. Frontal midline theta oscillations during mental arithmetic: effects of stress

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, Matti; Grimm, Simone; Bajbouj, Malek

    2015-01-01

    Complex cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic heavily rely on intact, well-coordinated prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. Converging evidence suggests that frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations play an important role during the execution of such PFC-dependent tasks. Additionally, it is well-established that acute stress impairs PFC function, and recent evidence suggests that FMT is decreased under stress. In this EEG study, we investigated FMT oscillations during a mental arithmetic task that was carried out in a stressful and a neutral control condition. Our results show late-onset, sustained FMT increases during mental arithmetic. In the neutral condition FMT started to increase earlier than in the stress condition. Direct comparison of the conditions quantified this difference by showing stronger FMT increases in the neutral condition in an early time window. Between-subject correlation analysis showed that attenuated FMT under stress was related to slowed reaction times. Our results suggest that FMT is associated with stimulus independent mental processes during the natural and complex PFC-dependent task of mental arithmetic, and is a possible marker for intact PFC function that is disrupted under stress. PMID:25941479

  4. Age-related changes of frontal-midline theta is predictive of efficient memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Z; Tóth, B; Boha, R; File, B; Molnár, M

    2014-07-25

    Frontal areas are thought to be the coordinators of working memory processes by controlling other brain areas reflected by oscillatory activities like frontal-midline theta (4-7 Hz). With aging substantial changes can be observed in the frontal brain areas, presumably leading to age-associated changes in cortical correlates of cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to test whether altered frontal-midline theta dynamics during working memory maintenance may underlie the capacity deficits observed in older adults. 33-channel EEG was recorded in young (18-26 years, N=20) and old (60-71 years, N=16) adults during the retention period of a visual delayed match-to-sample task, in which they had to maintain arrays of 3 or 5 colored squares. An additional visual odd-ball task was used to be able to measure the electrophysiological indices of sustained attentional processes. Old participants showed reduced frontal theta activity during both tasks compared to the young group. In the young memory maintenance-related frontal-midline theta activity was shown to be sensitive both to the increased memory demands and to efficient subsequent memory performance, whereas the old adults showed no such task-related difference in the frontal theta activity. The decrease of frontal-midline theta activity in the old group indicates that cerebral aging may alter the cortical circuitries of theta dynamics, thereby leading to age-associated decline of working memory maintenance function. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Frontal midline theta reflects anxiety and cognitive control: meta-analytic evidence.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Shackman, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from imaging and anatomical studies suggests that the midcingulate cortex (MCC) is a dynamic hub lying at the interface of affect and cognition. In particular, this neural system appears to integrate information about conflict and punishment in order to optimize behavior in the face of action-outcome uncertainty. In a series of meta-analyses, we show how recent human electrophysiological research provides compelling evidence that frontal-midline theta signals reflecting MCC activity are moderated by anxiety and predict adaptive behavioral adjustments. These findings underscore the importance of frontal theta activity to a broad spectrum of control operations. We argue that frontal-midline theta provides a neurophysiologically plausible mechanism for optimally adjusting behavior to uncertainty, a hallmark of situations that elicit anxiety and demand cognitive control. These observations compel a new perspective on the mechanisms guiding motivated learning and behavior and provide a framework for understanding the role of the MCC in temperament and psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinesthetic motor imagery training modulates frontal midline theta during imagination of a dart throw.

    PubMed

    Weber, E; Doppelmayr, M

    2016-12-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a frequently used and effective method for motor learning in sports as well as in other domains. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicated that experts within a certain sport exhibit a more pronounced brain activity during MI as compared to novices. Similar to the execution, during MI the motor sequence has to be planned. Thus, the frontal attentional system, in part represented by the frontal midline theta (4-7Hz), is closely related to these processes and presumably plays a major role in MI as well. In this study, a MI dart training and its impact on frontal midline theta activity (fmt) during MI are examined. 53 healthy subjects with no prior dart experience were randomly allocated to a kinesthetic training group (KinVis) or to a control group (Control). Both groups performed 15 training sessions. While in the KinVis group dart throwing was accompanied by MI, the Control group trained without MI. Dart performance and fmt activity during MI within the first and the 15th session were compared. As expected, the performance increase was more pronounced in the KinVis group. Furthermore, frontal theta amplitude was significantly increased in the KinVis group during MI in the 15th training session as compared to the baseline. These results confirm the effectivity of MI. The enhanced fmt activity in the KinVis group can be interpreted as a better allocation of the requested resources in the frontal attentional network after MI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Frontal midline theta connectivity is related to efficiency of WM maintenance and is affected by aging.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kardos, Zsófia; File, Bálint; Boha, Roland; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Molnár, Márk

    2014-10-01

    Representations in working memory (WM) are temporary, but can be refreshed for longer periods of time through maintenance mechanisms, thereby establishing their availability for subsequent memory tests. Frontal brain regions supporting WM maintenance operations undergo anatomical and functional changes with advancing age, leading to age related decline of memory functions. The present study focused on age-related functional connectivity changes of the frontal midline (FM) cortex in the theta band (4-8 Hz), related to WM maintenance. In the visual delayed-match-to-sample WM task young (18-26 years, N=20) and elderly (60-71 years N=16) adults had to memorize sample stimuli consisting of 3 or 5 items while 33 channel EEG recording was performed. The phase lag index was used to quantify connectivity strength between cortical regions. The low and high memory demanding WM maintenance periods were classified based on whether they were successfully maintained (remembered) or unsuccessfully maintained (unrecognized later). In the elderly reduced connectivity strength of FM brain region and decreased performance were observed. The connectivity strength between FM and posterior sensory cortices was shown to be sensitive to both increased memory demands and memory performance regardless of age. The coupling of frontal regions (midline and lateral) and FM-temporal cortices characterized successfully maintained trials and declined with advancing age. The findings provide evidence that a FM neural circuit of theta oscillations that serves a possible basis of active maintenance process is especially vulnerable to aging.

  8. Self-regulation of frontal-midline theta facilitates memory updating and mental set shifting

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J.; Figge, Christian; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2014-01-01

    Frontal-midline (fm) theta oscillations as measured via the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been suggested as neural “working language” of executive functioning. Their power has been shown to increase when cognitive processing or task performance is enhanced. Thus, the question arises whether learning to increase fm-theta amplitudes would functionally impact the behavioral performance in tasks probing executive functions (EFs). Here, the effects of neurofeedback (NF), a learning method to self-up-regulate fm-theta over fm electrodes, on the four most representative EFs, memory updating, set shifting, conflict monitoring, and motor inhibition are presented. Before beginning and after completing an individualized, eight-session gap-spaced NF intervention, the three-back, letter/number task-switching, Stroop, and stop-signal tasks were tested while measuring the EEG. Self-determined up-regulation of fm-theta and its putative role for executive functioning were compared to an active control group, the so-called pseudo-neurofeedback group. Task-related fm-theta activity after training differed significantly between groups. More importantly, though, after NF significantly enhanced behavioral performance was observed. The training group showed higher accuracy scores in the three-back task and reduced mixing and shifting costs in letter/number task-switching. However, this specific protocol type did not affect performance in tasks probing conflict monitoring and motor inhibition. Thus, our results suggest a modulation of proactive but not reactive mechanisms of cognitive control. Furthermore, task-related EEG changes show a distinct pattern for fm-theta after training between the NF and the pseudo-neurofeedback group, which indicates that NF training indeed tackles EFs-networks. In sum, the modulation of fm-theta via NF may serve as potent treatment approach for executive dysfunctions. PMID:25538585

  9. Self-regulation of frontal-midline theta facilitates memory updating and mental set shifting.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J; Figge, Christian; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2014-01-01

    Frontal-midline (fm) theta oscillations as measured via the electroencephalogram (EEG) have been suggested as neural "working language" of executive functioning. Their power has been shown to increase when cognitive processing or task performance is enhanced. Thus, the question arises whether learning to increase fm-theta amplitudes would functionally impact the behavioral performance in tasks probing executive functions (EFs). Here, the effects of neurofeedback (NF), a learning method to self-up-regulate fm-theta over fm electrodes, on the four most representative EFs, memory updating, set shifting, conflict monitoring, and motor inhibition are presented. Before beginning and after completing an individualized, eight-session gap-spaced NF intervention, the three-back, letter/number task-switching, Stroop, and stop-signal tasks were tested while measuring the EEG. Self-determined up-regulation of fm-theta and its putative role for executive functioning were compared to an active control group, the so-called pseudo-neurofeedback group. Task-related fm-theta activity after training differed significantly between groups. More importantly, though, after NF significantly enhanced behavioral performance was observed. The training group showed higher accuracy scores in the three-back task and reduced mixing and shifting costs in letter/number task-switching. However, this specific protocol type did not affect performance in tasks probing conflict monitoring and motor inhibition. Thus, our results suggest a modulation of proactive but not reactive mechanisms of cognitive control. Furthermore, task-related EEG changes show a distinct pattern for fm-theta after training between the NF and the pseudo-neurofeedback group, which indicates that NF training indeed tackles EFs-networks. In sum, the modulation of fm-theta via NF may serve as potent treatment approach for executive dysfunctions.

  10. The morphology of midcingulate cortex predicts frontal-midline theta neurofeedback success

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J.; Scharfenort, Robert; Mokom, Zacharais N.; Vosskuhl, Johannes; Figge, Christian; Zimmermann, Jörg; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2013-01-01

    Humans differ in their ability to learn how to control their own brain activity by neurofeedback. However, neural mechanisms underlying these inter-individual differences, which may determine training success and associated cognitive enhancement, are not well-understood. Here, it is asked whether neurofeedback success of frontal-midline (fm) theta, an oscillation related to higher cognitive functions, could be predicted by the morphology of brain structures known to be critically involved in fm-theta generation. Nineteen young, right-handed participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of T1-weighted brain images, and took part in an individualized, eight-session neurofeedback training in order to learn how to enhance activity in their fm-theta frequency band. Initial training success, measured at the second training session, was correlated with the final outcome measure. We found that the inferior, superior, and middle frontal cortices were not associated with training success. However, volume of the midcingulate cortex as well as volume and concentration of the underlying white matter structures act as predictor variables for the general responsiveness to training. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical foundation for the ability to learn to control one's own brain activity. PMID:23950741

  11. The morphology of midcingulate cortex predicts frontal-midline theta neurofeedback success.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J; Scharfenort, Robert; Mokom, Zacharais N; Vosskuhl, Johannes; Figge, Christian; Zimmermann, Jörg; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2013-01-01

    Humans differ in their ability to learn how to control their own brain activity by neurofeedback. However, neural mechanisms underlying these inter-individual differences, which may determine training success and associated cognitive enhancement, are not well-understood. Here, it is asked whether neurofeedback success of frontal-midline (fm) theta, an oscillation related to higher cognitive functions, could be predicted by the morphology of brain structures known to be critically involved in fm-theta generation. Nineteen young, right-handed participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of T1-weighted brain images, and took part in an individualized, eight-session neurofeedback training in order to learn how to enhance activity in their fm-theta frequency band. Initial training success, measured at the second training session, was correlated with the final outcome measure. We found that the inferior, superior, and middle frontal cortices were not associated with training success. However, volume of the midcingulate cortex as well as volume and concentration of the underlying white matter structures act as predictor variables for the general responsiveness to training. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical foundation for the ability to learn to control one's own brain activity.

  12. [Evaluation of mental workload of short-term memory task by secondary task performance and frontal midline theta rhythm].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, K; Sato, H

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the mental workload of short-term memory task by two objective measures, the secondary task performance and the frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm theta) of the electroencephalogram (EEG). First, to choose Fm theta appearance subjects EEGs were recorded for 18 male students during performing additional task. On Fm theta appearance subjects (8 males) a series of short-term memory task with changed number of memorable figures was imposed as the primary task, and tracking task as the secondary task. The task that presents seven numbers will be over the subjects' limits of short-term memory, and it was the threshold that the subjects' mental workload will be increased.

  13. tACS Phase Locking of Frontal Midline Theta Oscillations Disrupts Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Bankim S.; Witkowski, Matthias; Braun, Christoph; Robinson, Stephen E.; Born, Jan; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Birbaumer, Niels; Soekadar, Surjo R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations (4–8 Hz) are strongly related to cognitive and executive control during mental tasks such as memory processing, arithmetic problem solving or sustained attention. While maintenance of temporal order information during a working memory (WM) task was recently linked to FMT phase, a positive correlation between FMT power, WM demand and WM performance was shown. However, the relationship between these measures is not well understood, and it is unknown whether purposeful FMT phase manipulation during a WM task impacts FMT power and WM performance. Here we present evidence that FMT phase manipulation mediated by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can block WM demand-related FMT power increase (FMTΔpower) and disrupt normal WM performance. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers were assigned to one of two groups (group A, group B) and performed a 2-back task across a baseline block (block 1) and an intervention block (block 2) while 275-sensor magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. After no stimulation was applied during block 1, participants in group A received tACS oscillating at their individual FMT frequency over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) while group B received sham stimulation during block 2. After assessing and mapping phase locking values (PLV) between the tACS signal and brain oscillatory activity across the whole brain, FMT power and WM performance were assessed and compared between blocks and groups. Results: During block 2 of group A but not B, FMT oscillations showed increased PLV across task-related cortical areas underneath the frontal tACS electrode. While WM task-related FMTΔpower and WM performance were comparable across groups in block 1, tACS resulted in lower FMTΔpower and WM performance compared to sham stimulation in block 2. Conclusion: tACS-related manipulation of FMT phase can disrupt WM performance and influence WM task-related FMTΔpower. This finding may have important

  14. tACS Phase Locking of Frontal Midline Theta Oscillations Disrupts Working Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Chander, Bankim S; Witkowski, Matthias; Braun, Christoph; Robinson, Stephen E; Born, Jan; Cohen, Leonardo G; Birbaumer, Niels; Soekadar, Surjo R

    2016-01-01

    Frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations (4-8 Hz) are strongly related to cognitive and executive control during mental tasks such as memory processing, arithmetic problem solving or sustained attention. While maintenance of temporal order information during a working memory (WM) task was recently linked to FMT phase, a positive correlation between FMT power, WM demand and WM performance was shown. However, the relationship between these measures is not well understood, and it is unknown whether purposeful FMT phase manipulation during a WM task impacts FMT power and WM performance. Here we present evidence that FMT phase manipulation mediated by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can block WM demand-related FMT power increase (FMTΔpower) and disrupt normal WM performance. Twenty healthy volunteers were assigned to one of two groups (group A, group B) and performed a 2-back task across a baseline block (block 1) and an intervention block (block 2) while 275-sensor magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. After no stimulation was applied during block 1, participants in group A received tACS oscillating at their individual FMT frequency over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) while group B received sham stimulation during block 2. After assessing and mapping phase locking values (PLV) between the tACS signal and brain oscillatory activity across the whole brain, FMT power and WM performance were assessed and compared between blocks and groups. During block 2 of group A but not B, FMT oscillations showed increased PLV across task-related cortical areas underneath the frontal tACS electrode. While WM task-related FMTΔpower and WM performance were comparable across groups in block 1, tACS resulted in lower FMTΔpower and WM performance compared to sham stimulation in block 2. tACS-related manipulation of FMT phase can disrupt WM performance and influence WM task-related FMTΔpower. This finding may have important implications for the treatment of brain

  15. Frontal midline theta in the pre-shot phase of rifle shooting: differences between experts and novices.

    PubMed

    Doppelmayr, M; Finkenzeller, T; Sauseng, P

    2008-04-01

    In the present study the time course of frontal midline theta (Fmtheta) during the aiming period in rifle shooting was investigated. Experts (n=8) and novices (n=10) had to shoot repeatedly while EEG was recorded, and the time course of Fmtheta during the aiming period was significantly different between the two groups, showing a steady increase of power for the last 3s before the shot only for experts, but not for novices. Source analysis (LORETA) indicated a significantly stronger theta activity for experts strictly located at the anterior cingulate area and medial frontal cortex, locations well known for focused attention. The results suggest that experts and novices use different strategies during the aiming period. While novices keep a relatively constant amount of attention to the target, experts are able to increase attention exactly to the time point of the trigger pull.

  16. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) increases frontal-midline theta activity in the human EEG: a preliminary investigation of non-invasive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joe; Berger, Barbara; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-02-19

    Rhythmical brain activity in the range between four and eight Hz acquired over frontal-midline EEG recording sites - so called frontal-midline theta activity - is regarded as one of the most prominent neural signatures of sustained attention. It is reported to parametrically increase with cognitive load and is thought to be generated in medial prefrontal cortex. Here we explored the possibility of using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over frontal sites to enhance frontal-midline theta activity and to increase sustained attention performance. We used a small preliminary sample to test a novel direct current stimulation electrode configuration by which we were able to significantly increase frontal-midline theta amplitude in a resting condition after the end of the stimulation period. Using standardised low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis the effect in the surface EEG was localised to right prefrontal and left medial prefrontal brain areas. Transcranial direct current stimulation did, however, not have any impact on behavioural performance during a sustained attention task. This most likely was due to a very fast washout of the stimulation's after effect on theta activity. Although these are only preliminary results from a rather small sample, this study demonstrates that transcranial direct current stimulation can be used to rather selectively enhance frontal-midline theta amplitude.

  17. Brain Responses to a 6-Hz Binaural Beat: Effects on General Theta Rhythm and Frontal Midline Theta Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-01-01

    A binaural beat is a beat phenomenon that is generated by the dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies. The brain responses to binaural beats remain controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate theta activity responses to a binaural beat by controlling factors affecting localization, including beat frequency, carrier tone frequency, exposure duration, and recording procedure. Exposure to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone for 30 min was utilized in this study. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) was utilized as the recording modality. Twenty-eight participants were divided into experimental and control groups. Emotional states were evaluated by Brunel Mood Scale (BRMUS) before and after exposing to the stimulus. The results showed that theta activity was induced in the entire cortex within 10 min of exposure to the stimulus in the experimental group. Compared to the control group, theta activity was also induced at the frontal and parietal-central regions, which included the Fz position, and left hemisphere dominance was presented for other exposure durations. The pattern recorded for 10 min of exposure appeared to be brain functions of a meditative state. Moreover, tension factor of BRUMS was decreased in experimental group compared to control group which resembled the meditation effect. Thus, a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone was suggested as a stimulus for inducing a meditative state. PMID:28701912

  18. Brain Responses to a 6-Hz Binaural Beat: Effects on General Theta Rhythm and Frontal Midline Theta Activity.

    PubMed

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-01-01

    A binaural beat is a beat phenomenon that is generated by the dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies. The brain responses to binaural beats remain controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate theta activity responses to a binaural beat by controlling factors affecting localization, including beat frequency, carrier tone frequency, exposure duration, and recording procedure. Exposure to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone for 30 min was utilized in this study. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) was utilized as the recording modality. Twenty-eight participants were divided into experimental and control groups. Emotional states were evaluated by Brunel Mood Scale (BRMUS) before and after exposing to the stimulus. The results showed that theta activity was induced in the entire cortex within 10 min of exposure to the stimulus in the experimental group. Compared to the control group, theta activity was also induced at the frontal and parietal-central regions, which included the Fz position, and left hemisphere dominance was presented for other exposure durations. The pattern recorded for 10 min of exposure appeared to be brain functions of a meditative state. Moreover, tension factor of BRUMS was decreased in experimental group compared to control group which resembled the meditation effect. Thus, a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone was suggested as a stimulus for inducing a meditative state.

  19. Two Independent Frontal Midline Theta Oscillations during Conflict Detection and Adaptation in a Simon-Type Manual Reaching Task.

    PubMed

    Töllner, Thomas; Wang, Yijun; Makeig, Scott; Müller, Hermann J; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gramann, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    One of the most firmly established factors determining the speed of human behavioral responses toward action-critical stimuli is the spatial correspondence between the stimulus and response locations. If both locations match, the time taken for response production is markedly reduced relative to when they mismatch, a phenomenon called the Simon effect. While there is a consensus that this stimulus-response (S-R) conflict is associated with brief (4-7 Hz) frontal midline theta (fmθ) complexes generated in medial frontal cortex, it remains controversial (1) whether there are multiple, simultaneously active theta generator areas in the medial frontal cortex that commonly give rise to conflict-related fmθ complexes; and if so, (2) whether they are all related to the resolution of conflicting task information. Here, we combined mental chronometry with high-density electroencephalographic measures during a Simon-type manual reaching task and used independent component analysis and time-frequency domain statistics on source-level activities to model fmθ sources. During target processing, our results revealed two independent fmθ generators simultaneously active in or near anterior cingulate cortex, only one of them reflecting the correspondence between current and previous S-R locations. However, this fmθ response is not exclusively linked to conflict but also to other, conflict-independent processes associated with response slowing. These results paint a detailed picture regarding the oscillatory correlates of conflict processing in Simon tasks, and challenge the prevalent notion that fmθ complexes induced by conflicting task information represent a unitary phenomenon related to cognitive control, which governs conflict processing across various types of response-override tasks.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans constantly monitor their environment for and adjust their cognitive control settings in response to conflicts, an ability that arguably paves the way for

  20. Frontal midline theta rhythm and gamma power changes during focused attention on mental calculation: an MEG beamformer analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Ryouhei; Canuet, Leonides; Ishihara, Tsutomu; Aoki, Yasunori; Ikeda, Shunichiro; Hata, Masahiro; Katsimichas, Themistoklis; Gunji, Atsuko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Iwase, Masao; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fmθ) appears widely distributed over medial prefrontal areas in EEG recordings, indicating focused attention. Although mental calculation is often used as an attention-demanding task, little has been reported on calculation-related activation in Fmθ experiments. In this study we used spatially filtered MEG and permutation analysis to precisely localize cortical generators of the magnetic counterpart of Fmθ, as well as other sources of oscillatory activity associated with mental calculation processing (i.e., arithmetic subtraction). Our results confirmed and extended earlier EEG/MEG studies indicating that Fmθ during mental calculation is generated in the dorsal anterior cingulate and adjacent medial prefrontal cortex. Mental subtraction was also associated with gamma event-related synchronization, as an index of activation, in right parietal regions subserving basic numerical processing and number-based spatial attention. Gamma event-related desynchronization appeared in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, likely representing a mechanism to interrupt neural activity that can interfere with the ongoing cognitive task. PMID:24966825

  1. Frontal midline theta rhythm and gamma power changes during focused attention on mental calculation: an MEG beamformer analysis.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Ryouhei; Canuet, Leonides; Ishihara, Tsutomu; Aoki, Yasunori; Ikeda, Shunichiro; Hata, Masahiro; Katsimichas, Themistoklis; Gunji, Atsuko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Iwase, Masao; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fmθ) appears widely distributed over medial prefrontal areas in EEG recordings, indicating focused attention. Although mental calculation is often used as an attention-demanding task, little has been reported on calculation-related activation in Fmθ experiments. In this study we used spatially filtered MEG and permutation analysis to precisely localize cortical generators of the magnetic counterpart of Fmθ, as well as other sources of oscillatory activity associated with mental calculation processing (i.e., arithmetic subtraction). Our results confirmed and extended earlier EEG/MEG studies indicating that Fmθ during mental calculation is generated in the dorsal anterior cingulate and adjacent medial prefrontal cortex. Mental subtraction was also associated with gamma event-related synchronization, as an index of activation, in right parietal regions subserving basic numerical processing and number-based spatial attention. Gamma event-related desynchronization appeared in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, likely representing a mechanism to interrupt neural activity that can interfere with the ongoing cognitive task.

  2. Frontal midline theta rhythm and eyeblinking activity during a VDT task and a video game: useful tools for psychophysiology in ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Yamada, F

    1998-05-01

    The necessity of psychophysiological research in ergonomics has gradually been recognized in Japan. In this paper, frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm-theta) and eyeblinking are recommended as tools in this field, especially for assessing workers' attention concentration, mental workload, fatigue, and interest during VDT work at the workplace and playing video games at home. In experiment 1, Fm-theta and eyeblink rates were measured in 10 Japanese abacus experts (Group E) and 10 normal students (Group C) during a visual search task with VDT. Memory load affected all measures. The amount of Fm-theta appeared more in Group E than Group C, but blink rate was lower in Group E than in Group C. As abacus experts have such highly developed skills in concentration, the result indicates that the amount of Fm-theta would be a good index of attention concentration in VDT workers. The second experiment was done with 10 school-aged children as subjects during three visual tasks: video game, mental test and animation. Amounts of Fm-theta and the degree of blink inhibition were maximum while playing the video game, which all subjects reported they most preferred, and minimum while watching animation, which eight subjects reported to be most boring. An interesting task would seem to provoke Fm-theta and inhibit eyeblink activity. From these two experiments, Fm-theta and eyeblink rate would appear to be good indices of attention concentration and task pleasantness of a mental task using VDT.

  3. [Effect of the TRH analog DN-1417 on the appearance of frontal midline theta activity (Fm0)].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Mukasa, H; Hashimoto, M; Inanaga, K

    1987-06-01

    The distinct 0 rhythm which appears in the frontal midline area during the performance of mental tasks is called Fm0. The appearance of Fm0 shows individual differences and a close relationship to the personality traits of the subject. It is also reported that administration of diazepam or alcohol brings about an increase of Fm0 along with lowering of the anxiety level. In the present study, the TRH analog DN-1417 (80 mg) was administered to 8 healthy male students for 15 days. They were all extrovert in nature and had no great neurotic tendencies as measured by the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI). EEG recording, determination of the blood concentration of DN-1417, and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I (STAI-I) were carried out before, during, and after drug administration. The appearance of Fm0 showed significant increase during and just after drug administration. As to anxiety, the STAI-I score showed no significant change. There was no correlation between blood concentration and Fm0. From these results, we considered that the change of appearance of Fm0 due to drug administration was not necessarily associated with change of the anxiety level, and that DN-1417, a DA releaser, increased the appearance of Fm0.

  4. Frontal theta overrides pavlovian learning biases.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Eisenberg, Ian; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Huys, Quentin; Frank, Michael J

    2013-05-08

    Pavlovian biases influence learning and decision making by intricately coupling reward seeking with action invigoration and punishment avoidance with action suppression. This bias is not always adaptive-it can often interfere with instrumental requirements. The prefrontal cortex is thought to help resolve such conflict between motivational systems, but the nature of this control process remains unknown. EEG recordings of midfrontal theta band power are sensitive to conflict and predictive of adaptive control over behavior, but it is not clear whether this signal reflects control over conflict between motivational systems. Here we used a task that orthogonalized action requirements and outcome valence while recording concurrent EEG in human participants. By applying a computational model of task performance, we derived parameters reflective of the latent influence of Pavlovian bias and how it was modulated by midfrontal theta power during motivational conflict. Between subjects, those who performed better under Pavlovian conflict exhibited higher midfrontal theta power. Within subjects, trial-to-trial variance in theta power was predictive of ability to overcome the influence of the Pavlovian bias, and this effect was most pronounced in subjects with higher midfrontal theta to conflict. These findings demonstrate that midfrontal theta is not only a sensitive index of prefrontal control, but it can also reflect the application of top-down control over instrumental processes.

  5. Frontal-posterior theta oscillations reflect memory retrieval during sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Lars; Grigutsch, Maren; Schmuck, Noura; Gaston, Phoebe; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Successful working-memory retrieval requires that items be retained as distinct units. At the neural level, it has been shown that theta-band oscillatory power increases with the number of to-be-distinguished items during working-memory retrieval. Here we hypothesized that during sentence comprehension, verbal-working-memory retrieval demands lead to increased theta power over frontal cortex, supposedly supporting the distinction amongst stored items during verbal-working-memory retrieval. Also, synchronicity may increase between the frontal cortex and the posterior cortex, with the latter supposedly supporting item retention. We operationalized retrieval by using pronouns, which refer to and trigger the retrieval of antecedent nouns from a preceding sentence part. Retrieval demand was systematically varied by changing the pronoun antecedent: Either, it was non-embedded in the preceding main clause, and thus easy-to-retrieve across a single clause boundary, or embedded in the preceding subordinate clause, and thus hard-to-retrieve across a double clause boundary. We combined electroencephalography (EEG), scalp-level time-frequency analysis, source localization, and source-level coherence analysis, observing a frontal-midline and broad left-hemispheric theta-power increase for embedded-antecedent compared to non-embedded-antecedent retrieval. Sources were localized to left-frontal, left-parietal, and bilateral-inferior-temporal cortices. Coherence analyses suggested synchronicity between left-frontal and left-parietal and between left-frontal and right-inferior-temporal cortices. Activity of an array of left-frontal, left-parietal, and bilateral-inferior-temporal cortices may thus assist retrieval during sentence comprehension, potentially indexing the orchestration of item distinction, verbal working memory, and long-term memory. Our results extend prior findings by mapping prior knowledge on the functional role of theta oscillations onto processes genuine to human

  6. Midline Frontal Cortex Low-Frequency Activity Drives Subthalamic Nucleus Oscillations during Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Baltazar A.; Tan, Huiling; Little, Simon; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Hariz, Marwan; Foltynie, Thomas; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Zaghloul, Kareem A.

    2014-01-01

    Making the right decision from conflicting information takes time. Recent computational, electrophysiological, and clinical studies have implicated two brain areas as being crucial in assuring sufficient time is taken for decision-making under conditions of conflict: the medial prefrontal cortex and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Both structures exhibit an elevation of activity at low frequencies (<10 Hz) during conflict that correlates with the amount of time taken to respond. This suggests that the two sites could become functionally coupled during conflict. To establish the nature of this interaction we recorded from deep-brain stimulation electrodes implanted bilaterally in the STN of 13 Parkinson's disease patients while they performed a sensory integration task involving randomly moving dots. By gradually increasing the number of dots moving coherently in one direction, we were able to determine changes in the STN associated with response execution. Furthermore, by occasionally having 10% of the dots move in the opposite direction as the majority, we were able to identify an independent increase in STN theta-delta activity triggered by conflict. Crucially, simultaneous midline frontal electroencephalographic recordings revealed an increase in the theta-delta band coherence between the two structures that was specific to high-conflict trials. Activity over the midline frontal cortex was Granger causal to that in STN. These results establish the cortico-subcortical circuit enabling successful choices to be made under conditions of conflict and provide support for the hypothesis that the brain uses frequency-specific channels of communication to convey behaviorally relevant information. PMID:24849364

  7. Midline frontal cortex low-frequency activity drives subthalamic nucleus oscillations during conflict.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Baltazar A; Tan, Huiling; Little, Simon; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Hariz, Marwan; Foltynie, Thomas; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Brown, Peter

    2014-05-21

    Making the right decision from conflicting information takes time. Recent computational, electrophysiological, and clinical studies have implicated two brain areas as being crucial in assuring sufficient time is taken for decision-making under conditions of conflict: the medial prefrontal cortex and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Both structures exhibit an elevation of activity at low frequencies (<10 Hz) during conflict that correlates with the amount of time taken to respond. This suggests that the two sites could become functionally coupled during conflict. To establish the nature of this interaction we recorded from deep-brain stimulation electrodes implanted bilaterally in the STN of 13 Parkinson's disease patients while they performed a sensory integration task involving randomly moving dots. By gradually increasing the number of dots moving coherently in one direction, we were able to determine changes in the STN associated with response execution. Furthermore, by occasionally having 10% of the dots move in the opposite direction as the majority, we were able to identify an independent increase in STN theta-delta activity triggered by conflict. Crucially, simultaneous midline frontal electroencephalographic recordings revealed an increase in the theta-delta band coherence between the two structures that was specific to high-conflict trials. Activity over the midline frontal cortex was Granger causal to that in STN. These results establish the cortico-subcortical circuit enabling successful choices to be made under conditions of conflict and provide support for the hypothesis that the brain uses frequency-specific channels of communication to convey behaviorally relevant information. Copyright © 2014 Zavala et al.

  8. Frontal theta as a mechanism for cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in cognitive neuroscience have afforded a description of neural responses in terms of latent algorithmic operations. However, the adoption of this approach to human scalp EEG has been more limited, despite the ability of this methodology to quantify canonical neuronal processes. Here we provide evidence that theta band activities over the mid-frontal cortex appear to reflect a common computation used for realizing the need for cognitive control. Moreover, by virtue of inherent properties of field oscillations, these theta band processes may be used to communicate this need and subsequently implement such control across disparate brain regions. Frontal theta is thus a compelling candidate mechanism by which emergent processes such as ‘cognitive control’ may be biophysically realized. PMID:24835663

  9. Frontal theta reflects uncertainty and unexpectedness during exploration and exploitation.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Figueroa, Christina M; Cohen, Michael X; Frank, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the exploitation/exploration trade-off in reinforcement learning, previous theoretical and empirical accounts have suggested that increased uncertainty may precede the decision to explore an alternative option. To date, the neural mechanisms that support the strategic application of uncertainty-driven exploration remain underspecified. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to assess trial-to-trial dynamics relevant to exploration and exploitation. Theta-band activities over middle and lateral frontal areas have previously been implicated in EEG studies of reinforcement learning and strategic control. It was hypothesized that these areas may interact during top-down strategic behavioral control involved in exploratory choices. Here, we used a dynamic reward-learning task and an associated mathematical model that predicted individual response times. This reinforcement-learning model generated value-based prediction errors and trial-by-trial estimates of exploration as a function of uncertainty. Mid-frontal theta power correlated with unsigned prediction error, although negative prediction errors had greater power overall. Trial-to-trial variations in response-locked frontal theta were linearly related to relative uncertainty and were larger in individuals who used uncertainty to guide exploration. This finding suggests that theta-band activities reflect prefrontal-directed strategic control during exploratory choices.

  10. Automatic Detection of Frontal Face Midline by Chain-coded Merlin-Farber Hough Trasform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Daichi; Ohyama, Wataru; Wakabayashi, Tetsushi; Kimura, Fumitaka

    We propose a novel approach for detection of the facial midline (facial symmetry axis) from a frontal face image. The facial midline has several applications, for instance reducing computational cost required for facial feature extraction (FFE) and postoperative assessment for cosmetic or dental surgery. The proposed method detects the facial midline of a frontal face from an edge image as the symmetry axis using the Merlin-Faber Hough transformation. And a new performance improvement scheme for midline detection by MFHT is present. The main concept of the proposed scheme is suppression of redundant vote on the Hough parameter space by introducing chain code representation for the binary edge image. Experimental results on the image dataset containing 2409 images from FERET database indicate that the proposed algorithm can improve the accuracy of midline detection from 89.9% to 95.1 % for face images with different scales and rotation.

  11. Oscillatory frontal theta responses are increased upon bisensory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sakowitz, O W; Schürmann, M; Başar, E

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the functional correlation of oscillatory EEG components with the interaction of sensory modalities following simultaneous audio-visual stimulation. In an experimental study (15 subjects) we compared auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to bimodal evoked potentials (BEPs; simultaneous auditory and visual stimulation). BEPs were assumed to be brain responses to complex stimuli as a marker for intermodal associative functioning. Frequency domain analysis of these EPs showed marked theta-range components in response to bimodal stimulation. These theta components could not be explained by linear addition of the unimodal responses in the time domain. Considering topography the increased theta-response showed a remarkable frontality in proximity to multimodal association cortices. Referring to methodology we try to demonstrate that, even if various behavioral correlates of brain oscillations exist, common patterns can be extracted by means of a systems-theoretical approach. Serving as an example of functionally relevant brain oscillations, theta responses could be interpreted as an indicator of associative information processing.

  12. Frontal theta is a signature of successful working memory manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Wessel, Jan R.; Aron, Adam R.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that working memory (WM) is updated/manipulated via a fronto-basal-ganglia circuit. One way that this could happen is via the synchronization of neural oscillations. A first step towards testing this hypothesis is to clearly establish a frontal scalp EEG signature of WM manipulation. Although many EEG studies have indeed revealed frontal EEG signatures for WM, especially in the theta frequency band (3–8 Hz), few of them required subjects to manipulate WM, and of those that did, none specifically tied the EEG signature to the manipulation process per se. Here we employed a WM manipulation task that has been shown with imaging to engage the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. We adapted this task to titrate the success of WM manipulation to approximately 50%. Using time-frequency analysis of EEG, we showed that theta power is increased over frontal cortex for successful versus failed WM manipulation, specifically at the time of the manipulation event. This establishes a clear-cut EEG signature of WM manipulation. Future studies could employ this to test the fronto-basal-ganglia hypothesis of WM updating/manipulation. PMID:23109082

  13. Frontal predominance of a relative increase in sleep delta and theta EEG activity after sleep loss in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Foy, R.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation (40 h) on topographic and temporal aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep was investigated by all night spectral analysis in six young volunteers. The sleep-deprivation-induced increase of EEG power density in the delta and theta frequencies (1-7 Hz) during nonREM sleep, assessed along the antero-posterior axis (midline: Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), was significantly larger in the more frontal derivations (Fz, Cz) than in the more parietal derivations (Pz, Oz). This frequency-specific frontal predominance was already present in the first 30 min of recovery sleep, and dissipated in the course of the 8-h sleep episode. The data demonstrate that the enhancement of slow wave EEG activity during sleep following extended wakefulness is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas.

  14. Frontal predominance of a relative increase in sleep delta and theta EEG activity after sleep loss in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Foy, R.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation (40 h) on topographic and temporal aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep was investigated by all night spectral analysis in six young volunteers. The sleep-deprivation-induced increase of EEG power density in the delta and theta frequencies (1-7 Hz) during nonREM sleep, assessed along the antero-posterior axis (midline: Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), was significantly larger in the more frontal derivations (Fz, Cz) than in the more parietal derivations (Pz, Oz). This frequency-specific frontal predominance was already present in the first 30 min of recovery sleep, and dissipated in the course of the 8-h sleep episode. The data demonstrate that the enhancement of slow wave EEG activity during sleep following extended wakefulness is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas.

  15. Frontal theta activation associated with error detection in toddlers: influence of familial socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Ángela; Guerra, Sonia; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rueda, M Rosario

    2016-12-15

    Error detection is one of the functions of the executive attention network, a brain system involved in executive control that includes the anterior cingulate cortex and other prefrontal regions. Despite the key role of this function in a wide range of life outcomes, very limited research has examined the early development of the network and whether its functional efficacy is related to environmental factors. Electrophysiological studies with adults have shown oscillatory activity in theta (4-7 Hz) range arising from medial frontal cortex that follows the detection of self-committed or observed errors. In the current study, we designed a novel experimental procedure that involved a familiarization phase with simple three-pieces puzzles followed by an experimental phase in which toddlers observed the puzzles being formed either correctly or incorrectly. Observation of incorrect configurations produced increased potentials in midline channels and greater power theta activity for both toddlers (n = 56) and adults (n = 14). In addition, socioeconomic status of the family in general, and parental education in particular, contributed to individual differences in the amplitude of the error-related signal and associated theta power in toddlers, indicating that children raised in lower SES families show poorer activation of the executive attention network. These data demonstrate the influence of environmental factors at the earliest stages of development of the executive attention network. Importantly, the results show that error-detection EEG signals can be used as neural markers of the initial development of executive attention, which can be of great help for the early detection of risk for developmental disorders involving deficits in this function.

  16. Frontal and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) theta EEG in depression: implications for treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Arns, Martijn; Etkin, Amit; Hegerl, Ulrich; Williams, Leanne M; DeBattista, Charles; Palmer, Donna M; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Harris, Anthony; deBeuss, Roger; Gordon, Evian

    2015-08-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), elevated theta current density in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), as estimated by source localization of scalp-recorded electroencenphalogram (EEG), has been associated with response to antidepressant treatments, whereas elevated frontal theta has been linked to non-response. This study used source localization to attempt to integrate these apparently opposite results and test, whether antidepressant response is associated with elevated rACC theta and non-response with elevated frontal theta and whether theta activity is a differential predictor of response to different types of commonly used antidepressants. In the international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D), a multi-center, international, randomized, prospective practical trial, 1008 MDD participants were randomized to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine-XR. The study also recruited 336 healthy controls. Treatment response and remission were established after eight weeks using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17). The resting-state EEG was assessed at baseline with eyes closed and source localization (eLORETA) was employed to extract theta from the rACC and frontal cortex. Patients with MDD had elevated theta in both frontal cortex and rACC, with small effect sizes. High frontal and rACC theta were associated with treatment non-response, but not with non-remission, and this effect was most pronounced in a subgroup with previous treatment failures. Low theta in frontal cortex and rACC are found in responders to antidepressant treatments with a small effect size. Future studies should investigate in more detail the role of previous treatment (failure) in the association between theta and treatment outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Social exclusion modulates event-related frontal theta and tracks ostracism distress in children

    PubMed Central

    van Noordt, Stefon J.R.; White, Lars O.; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C.; Crowley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Social exclusion is a potent elicitor of distress. Previous studies have shown that medial frontal theta oscillations are modulated by the experience of social exclusion. Using the Cyberball paradigm, we examined event-related dynamics of theta power in the EEG at medial frontal sites while children aged 8–12 years were exposed to conditions of fair play and social exclusion. Using an event-related design, we found that medial frontal theta oscillations (4–8 Hz) increase during both early (i.e., 200–400 ms) and late (i.e., 400–800 ms) processing of rejection events during social exclusion relative to perceptually identical “not my turn” events during inclusion. Importantly, we show that only for the later time window (400–800 ms) slow-wave theta power tracks self-reported ostracism distress. Specifically, greater theta power at medial frontal sites to “rejection” events predicted higher levels of ostracism distress. Alpha and beta oscillations for rejection events were unrelated to ostracism distress at either 200–400 ms or 400–800 ms time windows. Our findings extend previous studies by showing that medial frontal theta oscillations for rejection events are a neural signature of social exclusion, linked to experienced distress in middle childhood. PMID:26048623

  18. Social exclusion modulates event-related frontal theta and tracks ostracism distress in children.

    PubMed

    van Noordt, Stefon J R; White, Lars O; Wu, Jia; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Social exclusion is a potent elicitor of distress. Previous studies have shown that medial frontal theta oscillations are modulated by the experience of social exclusion. Using the Cyberball paradigm, we examined event-related dynamics of theta power in the EEG at medial frontal sites while children aged 8-12 years were exposed to conditions of fair play and social exclusion. Using an event-related design, we found that medial frontal theta oscillations (4-8Hz) increase during both early (i.e., 200-400ms) and late (i.e., 400-800ms) processing of rejection events during social exclusion relative to perceptually identical "not my turn" events during inclusion. Importantly, we show that only for the later time window (400-800ms) slow-wave theta power tracks self-reported ostracism distress. Specifically, greater theta power at medial frontal sites to "rejection" events predicted higher levels of ostracism distress. Alpha and beta oscillations for rejection events were unrelated to ostracism distress at either 200-400ms or 400-800ms time windows. Our findings extend previous studies by showing that medial frontal theta oscillations for rejection events are a neural signature of social exclusion, linked to experienced distress in middle childhood.

  19. Frontal theta links prediction errors to behavioral adaptation in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Klein, Theresa J; Allen, John J B

    2010-02-15

    Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a frontocentral voltage deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single-trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single-trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Mediofrontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioral adaptation and are well suited to single-trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioral adaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioral adaptations, with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice.

  20. Frontal Theta Dynamics during Response Conflict in Long-Term Mindfulness Meditators

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Han-Gue; Malinowski, Peter; Schmidt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness meditators often show greater efficiency in resolving response conflicts than non-meditators. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the improved behavioral efficiency are unclear. Here, we investigated frontal theta dynamics—a neural mechanism involved in cognitive control processes—in long-term mindfulness meditators. The dynamics of EEG theta oscillations (4–8 Hz) recorded over the medial frontal cortex (MFC) were examined in terms of their power (MFC theta power) and their functional connectivity with other brain areas (the MFC-centered theta network). Using a flanker-type paradigm, EEG data were obtained from 22 long-term mindfulness meditators and compared to those from 23 matched controls without meditation experience. Meditators showed more efficient cognitive control after conflicts, evidenced by fewer error responses irrespective of response timing. Furthermore, meditators exhibited enhanced conflict modulations of the MFC-centered theta network shortly before the response, in particular for the functional connection between the MFC and the motor cortex. In contrast, MFC theta power was comparable between groups. These results suggest that the higher behavioral efficiency after conflicts in mindfulness meditators could be a function of increased engagement to control the motor system in association with the MFC-centered theta network. PMID:28638334

  1. Frontal beta-theta network during REM sleep

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Sujith; Lepage, Kyle Q; Kopell, Nancy J; Cash, Sydney S

    2017-01-01

    We lack detailed knowledge about the spatio-temporal physiological signatures of REM sleep, especially in humans. By analyzing intracranial electrode data from humans, we demonstrate for the first time that there are prominent beta (15–35 Hz) and theta (4–8 Hz) oscillations in both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the DLPFC during REM sleep. We further show that these theta and beta activities in the ACC and the DLPFC, two relatively distant but reciprocally connected regions, are coherent. These findings suggest that, counter to current prevailing thought, the DLPFC is active during REM sleep and likely interacting with other areas. Since the DLPFC and the ACC are implicated in memory and emotional regulation, and the ACC has motor areas and is thought to be important for error detection, the dialogue between these two areas could play a role in the regulation of emotions and in procedural motor and emotional memory consolidation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18894.001 PMID:28121613

  2. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hestad, Knut A; Weider, Siri; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø; Sand, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls. Methods Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions. Results There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in μV. Borderline significance was found for anterior theta (P=0.051). Significantly increased left and right frontal electrode theta amplitude was found in AN patients (F3, P=0.014; F4, P=0.038) compared to controls. Significant differences were also observed for secondary variables: lower values for relative parietooccipital delta and frontocentral alpha activity among AN patients than among controls. Conclusion We observed slight excess frontal theta and lower relative alpha and delta amplitudes among AN patients than among controls. This pattern is possibly related to a slight frontal lobe dysfunction in AN, or it may reflect increased attention/vigilance or another state-related change in patients with AN compared to healthy controls. PMID:27703359

  3. Theta-alpha EEG phase distributions in the frontal area for dissociation of visual and auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Masakazu; Tero, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2017-03-07

    Working memory (WM) is known to be associated with synchronization of the theta and alpha bands observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs). Although frontal-posterior global theta synchronization appears in modality-specific WM, local theta synchronization in frontal regions has been found in modality-independent WM. How frontal theta oscillations separately synchronize with task-relevant sensory brain areas remains an open question. Here, we focused on theta-alpha phase relationships in frontal areas using EEG, and then verified their functional roles with mathematical models. EEG data showed that the relationship between theta (6 Hz) and alpha (12 Hz) phases in the frontal areas was about 1:2 during both auditory and visual WM, and that the phase distributions between auditory and visual WM were different. Next, we used the differences in phase distributions to construct FitzHugh-Nagumo type mathematical models. The results replicated the modality-specific branching by orthogonally of the trigonometric functions for theta and alpha oscillations. Furthermore, mathematical and experimental results were consistent with regards to the phase relationships and amplitudes observed in frontal and sensory areas. These results indicate the important role that different phase distributions of theta and alpha oscillations have in modality-specific dissociation in the brain.

  4. Theta-alpha EEG phase distributions in the frontal area for dissociation of visual and auditory working memory

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Masakazu; Tero, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is known to be associated with synchronization of the theta and alpha bands observed in electroencephalograms (EEGs). Although frontal-posterior global theta synchronization appears in modality-specific WM, local theta synchronization in frontal regions has been found in modality-independent WM. How frontal theta oscillations separately synchronize with task-relevant sensory brain areas remains an open question. Here, we focused on theta-alpha phase relationships in frontal areas using EEG, and then verified their functional roles with mathematical models. EEG data showed that the relationship between theta (6 Hz) and alpha (12 Hz) phases in the frontal areas was about 1:2 during both auditory and visual WM, and that the phase distributions between auditory and visual WM were different. Next, we used the differences in phase distributions to construct FitzHugh-Nagumo type mathematical models. The results replicated the modality-specific branching by orthogonally of the trigonometric functions for theta and alpha oscillations. Furthermore, mathematical and experimental results were consistent with regards to the phase relationships and amplitudes observed in frontal and sensory areas. These results indicate the important role that different phase distributions of theta and alpha oscillations have in modality-specific dissociation in the brain. PMID:28266595

  5. Is there a reason for performing frontal sinus trephination at 1 cm from midline? A tomographic study.

    PubMed

    Piltcher, Otavio Bejzman; Antunes, Marcelo; Monteiro, Fernanda; Schweiger, Cláudia; Schatkin, Barry

    2006-01-01

    The complex anatomy of the frontoethmoidal recess, as well as its anatomical relationship with the vital adjacent structures in the region explain the reason for considerable surgical care to protect these structures and minimize complications related to healing. Trephination is an accepted procedure to access the frontal sinus. Discuss the best location for performing frontal sinus trephination. Measuring sinus frontal depth at 3 points equidistant to the midline (crista galli) through the axial tomographic sections. We measured 138 frontal sinus (69 patients). Frontal sinus depth at 0,5 cm was statistically larger than 1 cm and 1.5 cm, as well as the 1 cm trephine point was significantly larger than 1.5 cm (12.22+/-4.25 vs 11.78+/-4.65 p<0,05; 12.22+/-4.25 vs 10.78+/-5.98 p<0.001; 11.78+/-4.65 vs 10.78+/-5.98 p<0.05). The trephine set used (maximum depth of penetration of 0.7 cm) is safe to be applied in approximately 80% of the patients. Analyzing the results, the trephination may be performed at variable points of the frontal sinus, but the distance of 1 cm from midline appears to be safer and shows better aesthetic results.

  6. Clozapine augments delta, theta, and right frontal EEG alpha power in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Maccrimmon, D; Brunet, D; Criollo, M; Galin, H; Lawson, J S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) effects of established clozapine therapy regimes compared to those of previous ineffective antipsychotic regimes among 64 chronic (DSM-IV) schizophrenic patients. Methods. Data from 20 EEG channels referenced to linked ears were collected before and during maintenance clozapine therapy (mean duration 1.4 years). Absolute power was calculated in six frequency bands: delta (0.4-3.6 Hz), theta (4.2-7.8 Hz), alpha (8.2-11.8 Hz), beta1 (12.2-15.8 Hz), beta2 (16.2-19.8 Hz), and beta3 (20.2-23.8 Hz). Results. Clozapine augments power globally in the delta and theta bands, but this effect is more pronounced over frontal areas. Beta3 power was reduced. Alpha showed a frontal increase, more pronounced in the right, coupled with a posterior decrease with no net change in overall power. Conclusion. The demonstration of a significant clozapine-induced alpha topographic shift frontally and to the right is a novel discovery that may serve to encourage further investigations of subcortical structures in attempts to better understand the diverse aetiologies and optimal treatments of the schizophrenias.

  7. Clozapine Augments Delta, Theta, and Right Frontal EEG Alpha Power in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    MacCrimmon, D.; Brunet, D.; Criollo, M.; Galin, H.; Lawson, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) effects of established clozapine therapy regimes compared to those of previous ineffective antipsychotic regimes among 64 chronic (DSM-IV) schizophrenic patients. Methods. Data from 20 EEG channels referenced to linked ears were collected before and during maintenance clozapine therapy (mean duration 1.4 years). Absolute power was calculated in six frequency bands: delta (0.4–3.6 Hz), theta (4.2–7.8 Hz), alpha (8.2–11.8 Hz), beta1 (12.2–15.8 Hz), beta2 (16.2–19.8 Hz), and beta3 (20.2–23.8 Hz). Results. Clozapine augments power globally in the delta and theta bands, but this effect is more pronounced over frontal areas. Beta3 power was reduced. Alpha showed a frontal increase, more pronounced in the right, coupled with a posterior decrease with no net change in overall power. Conclusion. The demonstration of a significant clozapine-induced alpha topographic shift frontally and to the right is a novel discovery that may serve to encourage further investigations of subcortical structures in attempts to better understand the diverse aetiologies and optimal treatments of the schizophrenias. PMID:23738206

  8. Children Who Desperately Want To Read, but Are Not Working at Grade Level: Use Movement Patterns as "Windows" To Discover Why. Part III: The Frontal Midline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corso, Marjorie

    A longitudinal research study observed 30 children between the ages of infancy and elementary age to determine if using large muscle motor patterns to master the three identified midlines that concur with the body planes used in anatomy is reflected in academic classroom learning levels. This third part of the study focused on the frontal midline.…

  9. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. Purpose To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. Methods EEG frontal theta (4–7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Results Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01). Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Conclusions Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers. PMID:26981639

  10. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01). Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  11. Theta and beta synchrony coordinate frontal eye fields and anterior cingulate cortex during sensorimotor mapping

    PubMed Central

    Babapoor-Farrokhran, Sahand; Vinck, Martin; Womelsdorf, Thilo; Everling, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The frontal eye fields (FEFs) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated for cognitive saccade tasks, but whether this joined activation indexes coordinated activity underlying successful guidance of sensorimotor mapping is unknown. Here we test whether ACC and FEF circuits coordinate through phase synchronization of local field potential and neural spiking activity in macaque monkeys performing memory-guided and pro- and anti-saccades. We find that FEF and ACC showed prominent synchronization at a 3–9 Hz theta and a 12–30 Hz beta frequency band during the delay and preparation periods with a strong Granger-causal influence from ACC to FEF. The strength of theta- and beta-band coherence between ACC and FEF but not variations in power predict correct task performance. Taken together, the results support a role of ACC in cognitive control of frontoparietal networks and suggest that narrow-band theta and to some extent beta rhythmic activity indexes the coordination of relevant information during periods of enhanced control demands. PMID:28169987

  12. TERT promoter mutated WHO grades II and III gliomas are located preferentially in the frontal lobe and avoid the midline.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ze-Lin; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Chen, Ling-Chao; Tang, Chao; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Ding, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Yang; Sun, Chong-Ran; Ng, Ho-Keung; Yao, Yu; Zhou, Liang-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERTp) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) have been regarded as biomarkers with distinct clinical and phenotypic features. Investigated the possible correlations between tumor location and genetic alterations would enhance our understanding of gliomagenesis and heterogeneity of glioma. We examined mutations of TERTp and IDH by direct sequencing and fluorescence in-situ hybridization in a cohort of 225 grades II and III diffuse gliomas. Correlation analysis between molecular markers and tumor locations was performed by Chi-square tests/Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found gliomas in frontal lobe showed higher frequency of TERTp mutation (P=0.0337) and simultaneously mutations of IDH and TERTp (IDH (mut)-TERTp(mut)) (P=0.0281) than frequency of biomarkers mutation of tumors in no-Frontal lobes, while lower frequency of TERTp mutation (P<0.0001) and simultaneously wild type of IDH and TERTp (IDH (wt)-TERTp(wt)) (P<0.0001) in midline than no-midline lobes. Logistic regression analysis indicated that locations of tumors associated with TERTp mutation (OR=0.540, 95% CI 0.324-0.900, P=0.018) and status of combinations of IDH and TERTp (IDH (mut)-TERTp (mut) vs. IDH (wt)-TERTp (wt) OR=0.162, 95% CI 0.075-0.350, P<0.001). In conclusion, grades II and III gliomas harboring TERTp mutation were located preferentially in the frontal lobe and rarely in midline. Association of IDH-TERTp status and tumor location suggests their potential values in molecular classification of grades II and III gliomas.

  13. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Pieranna; Bonfiglio, Luca; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Cantore, Nicoletta; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Piccotti, Emily; Rossi, Bruno; Andre, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ) is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error), at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance) became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects) suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi-naturalistic motor

  14. Morning nutrition and executive function processes in preadolescents: gender variations in phasic modulation of frontal eeg theta activity during a go/ no-go task

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Frontal EEG theta activity has been related to executive functions (i.e., goal-directed behavior such as inhibition and flexibility of action). We studied the effects of morning nutritional status on frontal theta-executive function relationships using stimulus-locked responses [event-related increa...

  15. Absolute Theta Power in the Frontal Cortex During a Visuomotor Task: The Effect of Bromazepam on Attention.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Mariana; Peressuti, Caroline; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Bromazepam is a benzodiazepine, which has been widely employed in the treatment of anxiety. We investigated the electrophysiological changes in absolute theta power within the frontal cortex when individuals performed a visuomotor task under bromazepam. The sample of 17 healthy individuals was randomized into 2 experimental conditions, under which bromazepam 6 mg and placebo were administered on different days. All subjects were right -handed, with no mental or physical illness and were not using any psychoactive or psychotropic substance during the entire period of the study. We found an increase in reaction time under bromazepam compared with placebo . With regard to the electrophysiological variable, we found a lower theta power value in the prefrontal cortex prior to task execution, compared with after. We therefore suggested that this could be an increase of neural activity in this region, because of the subjects' readiness to perform the task, that is, because of their higher alertness. The right lateral frontal region showed lower theta power under bromazepam for pre- and post-finger movement. This could have occurred because of more effort to execute the task. In the left frontal region: premovement did not demonstrate any difference between conditions, possibly because the proposed task was simple to execute. In conclusion, theta power plays an important role in the analysis of visuomotor performance, assuming that bromazepam causes impairment on sustained attention and sensory perception. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  16. Sentential Negation Might Share Neurophysiological Mechanisms with Action Inhibition. Evidence from Frontal Theta Rhythm.

    PubMed

    de Vega, Manuel; Morera, Yurena; León, Inmaculada; Beltrán, David; Casado, Pilar; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    frontal theta rhythm, which is usually considered a signature of action inhibition and control mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/366002-09$15.00/0.

  17. Conflict awareness dissociates theta-band neural dynamics of the medial frontal and lateral frontal cortex during trial-by-trial cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; van Gaal, Simon

    2015-08-01

    Recent findings have refuted the common assumption that executive control functions of the prefrontal cortex exclusively operate consciously, suggesting that many, if not all, cognitive processes could potentially operate unconsciously. However, although many cognitive functions can be launched unconsciously, several theoretical models of consciousness assume that there are crucial qualitative differences between conscious and unconscious processes. We hypothesized that the potential benefit of awareness in cognitive control mechanisms might become apparent when high control has to be maintained across time and requires the interaction between a set of distant frontal brain regions. To test this, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic data recorded while participants performed a task in which conflict awareness was manipulated by masking the conflict-inducing stimulus. We observed that instantaneous conflict as well as across trial conflict adaptation mechanisms were associated with medial frontal theta-band power modulations, irrespective of conflict awareness. However, and crucially, across-trial conflict adaptation processes reflected in increased theta-band power over dorsolateral frontal cortex were observed after fully conscious conflict only. This suggests that initial conflict detection and subsequent control adaptation by the medial frontal cortex are automatic and unconscious, whereas the routing of information from the medial frontal cortex to the lateral prefrontal cortex is a unique feature of conscious cognitive control.

  18. Resting posterior versus frontal delta/theta EEG activity is associated with extraversion and the COMT VAL(158)MET polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Jan; Gatt, Justine Megan

    2010-07-05

    Recent studies suggest that resting posterior versus frontal EEG delta/theta activity (delta/theta Pz-Fz) is both sensitive to pharmacological manipulations of neural dopamine and associated with the agency facet of extraversion (i.e., a motivational disposition comprising enthusiasm, energy, assertiveness, achievement striving and social dominance). These observations suggest that posterior versus frontal resting EEG delta/theta activity may represent a useful marker for investigating the molecular genetic basis of extraversion. The present study aimed to test the novel hypothesis of an association between delta/theta Pz-Fz and a functional polymorphism of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT VAL(158)MET) involved in dopamine catabolism. This was conducted in a large EEG data set from the Brain Resource International Database (BRID; resting EEG from N=1093 healthy individuals, 382 of which also genotyped for COMT VAL(158)MET). In summary, we (1) showed for the first time that the VAL allele is associated with increased delta/theta Pz-Fz; (2) replicated the association between extraversion and delta/theta Pz-Fz in a large, heterogeneous sample including both genders; and (3) documented that the VAL allele of the COMT VAL(158)MET is associated with increased extraversion scores, as previously reported for an overlapping BRID sample. This coherent pattern of findings adds further support to the suggestion that the posterior-anterior distribution of resting EEG slow wave activity in the delta/theta range represents a useful tool for probing the dopaminergic basis of extraversion.

  19. Auditory Conflict Resolution Correlates with Medial–Lateral Frontal Theta/Alpha Phase Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Samantha; Rossi, Stephanie; Hämäläinen, Matti; Ahveninen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    When multiple persons speak simultaneously, it may be difficult for the listener to direct attention to correct sound objects among conflicting ones. This could occur, for example, in an emergency situation in which one hears conflicting instructions and the loudest, instead of the wisest, voice prevails. Here, we used cortically-constrained oscillatory MEG/EEG estimates to examine how different brain regions, including caudal anterior cingulate (cACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), work together to resolve these kinds of auditory conflicts. During an auditory flanker interference task, subjects were presented with sound patterns consisting of three different voices, from three different directions (45° left, straight ahead, 45° right), sounding out either the letters “A” or “O”. They were asked to discriminate which sound was presented centrally and ignore the flanking distracters that were phonetically either congruent (50%) or incongruent (50%) with the target. Our cortical MEG/EEG oscillatory estimates demonstrated a direct relationship between performance and brain activity, showing that efficient conflict resolution, as measured with reduced conflict-induced RT lags, is predicted by theta/alpha phase coupling between cACC and right lateral frontal cortex regions intersecting the right frontal eye fields (FEF) and DLPFC, as well as by increased pre-stimulus gamma (60–110 Hz) power in the left inferior fontal cortex. Notably, cACC connectivity patterns that correlated with behavioral conflict-resolution measures were found during both the pre-stimulus and the pre-response periods. Our data provide evidence that, instead of being only transiently activated upon conflict detection, cACC is involved in sustained engagement of attentional resources required for effective sound object selection performance. PMID:25343503

  20. Working memory-related frontal theta activity is decreased under acute stress.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Matti; Rohde-Liebenau, Lea; Grimm, Simone; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-05-01

    Acute stress impairs prefrontal cortex (PFC) function and has detrimental effects on working memory (WM) performance. Converging evidence from electrophysiological studies suggests a close link between WM processes and frontal theta (FT) activity (4-8 Hz). However, the effect of stress on WM-related FT activity has not been investigated yet. To shed light on this topic we acquired EEG data from 31 healthy male subjects who underwent a stressful and a neutral control condition. In both conditions, they performed an n-back WM task at two different difficulty levels. Our results showed that WM-related FT activity was decreased under stress. Behaviorally, we found performance impairments under stress in the difficult task condition that were related to FT decreases. Increased cortisol levels indicated a successful moderate stress induction. These findings indicate that FT is a potential neurobiological marker for intact PFC functioning during WM and further supports the recently made assumption that FT acts in the PFC to optimize performance.

  1. Normalisation of frontal theta activity following methylphenidate treatment in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Skirrow, Caroline; McLoughlin, Grainne; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with cognitive performance and functional brain changes that are sensitive to task conditions, indicating a role for dynamic impairments rather than stable cognitive deficits. Prominent hypotheses consistent with this observation are a failure to optimise brain arousal or activation states. Here we investigate cortical activation during different conditions. Using a sample of 41 non-comorbid adults with ADHD and 48 controls, we examine quantitative EEG activity during a resting state, a cued continuous performance test with flankers (CPT-OX) and the sustained attention to response task (SART). We further investigate the effects of methylphenidate in a subsample of 21 ADHD cases. Control participants showed a task-related increase in theta activity when engaged in cognitive tasks, primarily in frontal and parietal regions, which was absent in participants with ADHD. Treatment with methylphenidate resulted in normalisation of the resting state to task activation pattern. These findings suggest that ADHD in adults is associated with insufficient allocation of neuronal resources required for normal cortical activation commensurate with task demands. Further work is required to clarify the causal role of the deficit in cortical activation and provide a clearer understanding of the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Neural mechanisms of infant learning: differences in frontal theta activity during object exploration modulate subsequent object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Begus, Katarina; Southgate, Victoria; Gliga, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    Investigating learning mechanisms in infancy relies largely on behavioural measures like visual attention, which often fail to predict whether stimuli would be encoded successfully. This study explored EEG activity in the theta frequency band, previously shown to predict successful learning in adults, to directly study infants' cognitive engagement, beyond visual attention. We tested 11-month-old infants (N = 23) and demonstrated that differences in frontal theta-band oscillations, recorded during infants' object exploration, predicted differential subsequent recognition of these objects in a preferential-looking test. Given that theta activity is modulated by motivation to learn in adults, these findings set the ground for future investigation into the drivers of infant learning. PMID:26018832

  3. Abnormal frontal theta oscillations underlie the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Michael K; Han, Yvonne M Y; Sze, Sophia L; Chan, Agnes S

    2016-03-01

    Deficits in cognitive flexibility have been suggested to underlie the repetitive and stereotyped behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because cognitive flexibility is primarily mediated by the frontal lobe, where structural and functional abnormalities have been extensively found in these individuals, it is conceivable that their deficits in cognitive flexibility are related to abnormal activations of the frontal lobe. The present study investigates cognitive flexibility and its underlying neurophysiological activities as indicated by theta oscillations in children with ASD. Twenty-five children with high-functioning ASD and 25 IQ- and age-matched typically developing (TD) children were subjected to neuropsychological assessments on cognitive flexibility and electroencephalography recordings. The children with ASD performed significantly worse than the TD children across the tasks of cognitive flexibility, including the modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). These children also demonstrated a reduced increase of the theta power localized in multiple brain regions, including various sectors of the frontal lobe at the late stage (i.e., 600 ms-900 ms poststimulus interval) but not the early stage (i.e., 250 ms-550 ms poststimulus interval) of the performance of the modified WCST. The suppressed late frontal theta activities were further shown to be significantly correlated with a poorer performance on the cognitive flexibility measures. Our findings suggest that abnormal activations of multiple cortical regions, especially the frontal lobe, form the neural basis of the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with ASD. In addition, we found an EEG marker of cognitive flexibility which could be used to monitor treatment outcomes objectively. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning

    PubMed Central

    Bonfiglio, Luca; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Cantore, Nicoletta; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Piccotti, Emily; Rossi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ) is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error), at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance) became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects) suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi-naturalistic motor

  5. Posterior versus frontal theta activity indexes approach motivation during affective autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Walden, K; Pornpattananangkul, N; Curlee, A; McAdams, D P; Nusslock, R

    2015-03-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz - Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:171-187, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicated that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity, thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult), and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach- and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. These results have implications for (a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, (b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and (c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger.

  6. Posterior versus Frontal Theta Activity Indexes Approach Motivation during Affective Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Keegan; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Curlee, Alexandria; McAdams, Dan P.; Nusslock, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz-Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity (PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicates that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported Behavioral Approach System (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult) and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. Results have implications for a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger. PMID:25245178

  7. Does the inferior frontal sulcus play a functional role in deception? A neuronavigated theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Schuhmann, Teresa; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-01

    By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. In the present study, we critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) by means of neuronavigated continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI) were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right IFS is critically involved in deception.

  8. High-learners present larger mid-frontal theta power and connectivity in response to incorrect performance feedback.

    PubMed

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Nolte, Guido; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2013-01-30

    A crucial aspect of cognitive control and learning is the ability to integrate feedback, that is, to evaluate action outcomes and their deviations from the intended goals and to adjust behavior accordingly. However, how high-learners differ from low-learners in relation to feedback processing has not been characterized. Further, little is known about the underlying brain connectivity patterns during feedback processing. This study aimed to fill these gaps by analyzing electrical brain responses from healthy adult human participants while they performed a time estimation task with correct and incorrect feedback. As compared with low-learners, high-learners presented larger mid-frontal theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations and lower sensorimotor beta (17-24 Hz) oscillations in response to incorrect feedback. Further, high-learners showed larger theta connectivity from left central, associated with motor activity, to mid-frontal, associated with performance monitoring, immediately after feedback (0-0.3 s), followed by (from 0.3 to 0.6 s after feedback) a flux from mid-frontal to prefrontal, associated with executive functioning. We suggest that these results reflect two cognitive processes related to successful feedback processing: first, the obtained feedback is compared with the expected one, and second, the feedback history is updated based on this information. Our results also indicate that high- and low-learners differ not only on how they react to incorrect feedback, but also in relation to how their distant brain areas interact while processing both correct and incorrect feedback. This study demonstrates the neural underpinnings of individual differences in goal-directed adaptive behavior.

  9. Frontal EEG theta/beta ratio as an electrophysiological marker for attentional control and its test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Angelos; van der Does, Willem; Schakel, Lemmy; Putman, Peter

    2016-12-01

    A robust finding is that resting-state frontal theta/beta ratio (TBR), a spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency band parameter, is increased in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Accumulating evidence suggests that TBR might also provide an objective marker of executive cognitive control (and more specifically attentional control; AC) in healthy adults. The present study aimed to further investigate this conception by assessing EEG frequency band power and AC twice (with a one-week interval) in 41 young female adults. In line with our predictions, the negative association between TBR and trait AC, as measured with an often used self-report measure, was replicated. Results also demonstrated that test-retest reliability of resting-state frontal TBR was very good (r=.93) and, moreover, TBR measured at the first session predicted AC during the second session (r=-.44). These consistent results further reinforce the notion that frontal TBR could be used as a reliable biomarker for prefrontally-mediated executive AC.

  10. (No) time for control: Frontal theta dynamics reveal the cost of temporally guided conflict anticipation.

    PubMed

    van Driel, Joram; Swart, Jennifer C; Egner, Tobias; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Cohen, Michael X

    2015-12-01

    During situations of response conflict, cognitive control is characterized by prefrontal theta-band (3- to 8-Hz) activity. It has been shown that cognitive control can be triggered proactively by contextual cues that predict conflict. Here, we investigated whether a pretrial preparation interval could serve as such a cue. This would show that the temporal contingencies embedded in the task can be used to anticipate upcoming conflict. To this end, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from 30 human subjects while they performed a version of a Simon task in which the duration of a fixation cross between trials predicted whether the next trial would contain response conflict. Both their behavior and EEG activity showed a consistent but unexpected pattern of results: The conflict effect (increased reaction times and decreased accuracy on conflict as compared to nonconflict trials) was stronger when conflict was cued, and this was associated with stronger conflict-related midfrontal theta activity and functional connectivity. Interestingly, intervals that predicted conflict did show a pretarget increase in midfrontal theta power. These findings suggest that temporally guided expectations of conflict do heighten conflict anticipation, but also lead to less efficiently applied reactive control. We further explored this post-hoc interpretation by means of three behavioral follow-up experiments, in which we used nontemporal cues, semantically informative cues, and neutral cues. Together, this body of results suggests that the counterintuitive cost of conflict cueing may not be uniquely related to the temporal domain, but may instead be related to the implicitness and validity of the cue.

  11. Frontal Functional Connectivity of Electrocorticographic Delta and Theta Rhythms during Action Execution Versus Action Observation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Lopez, Susanna; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier P.; Pavone, Luigi; Morace, Roberta; Soricelli, Andrea; Noce, Giuseppe; Esposito, Vincenzo; Gallese, Vittorio; Mirabella, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that in seven drug-resistant epilepsy patients, both reaching-grasping of objects and the mere observation of those actions did desynchronize subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG) alpha (8–13 Hz) and beta (14–30) rhythms as a sign of cortical activation in primary somatosensory-motor, lateral premotor and ventral prefrontal areas (Babiloni et al., 2016a). Furthermore, that desynchronization was greater during action execution than during its observation. In the present exploratory study, we reanalyzed those ECoG data to evaluate the proof-of-concept that lagged linear connectivity (LLC) between primary somatosensory-motor, lateral premotor and ventral prefrontal areas would be enhanced during the action execution compared to the mere observation due to a greater flow of visual and somatomotor information. Results showed that the delta-theta (<8 Hz) LLC between lateral premotor and ventral prefrontal areas was higher during action execution than during action observation. Furthermore, the phase of these delta-theta rhythms entrained the local event-related connectivity of alpha and beta rhythms. It was speculated the existence of a multi-oscillatory functional network between high-order frontal motor areas which should be more involved during the actual reaching-grasping of objects compared to its mere observation. Future studies in a larger population should cross-validate these preliminary results. PMID:28223926

  12. Morning nutrition and executive function processes in preadolescents: modulation of frontal event-related theta, beta and gamma EEG oscillations during a go/ no-go task

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Executive functions (i.e., goal-directed behavior such as inhibition and flexibility of action) have been linked to frontal brain regions and to covariations in oscillatory brain activity, e.g., theta and gamma activity. We studied the effects of morning nutritional status on executive function rel...

  13. Successful memory encoding is associated with increased cross-frequency coupling between frontal theta and posterior gamma oscillations in human scalp-recorded EEG.

    PubMed

    Friese, Uwe; Köster, Moritz; Hassler, Uwe; Martens, Ulla; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson; Gruber, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Although previous studies have established that successful memory encoding is associated with increased synchronization of theta-band and gamma-band oscillations, it is unclear if there is a functional relationship between oscillations in these frequency bands. Using scalp-recorded EEG in healthy human participants, we demonstrate that cross-frequency coupling between frontal theta phase and posterior gamma power is enhanced during the encoding of visual stimuli which participants later on remember versus items which participants subsequently forget ("subsequent memory effect," SME). Conventional wavelet analyses and source localizations revealed SMEs in spectral power of theta-, alpha-, and gamma-band. Successful compared to unsuccessful encoding was reflected in increased theta-band activity in right frontal cortex as well as increased gamma-band activity in parietal-occipital regions. Moreover, decreased alpha-band activity in prefrontal and occipital cortex was also related to successful encoding. Overall, these findings support the idea that during the formation of new memories frontal cortex regions interact with cortical representations in posterior areas.

  14. Discrete shifts within the theta band between the frontal and parietal regions of the right hemisphere and the experiences of a sensed presence.

    PubMed

    Booth, John Nicholas; Persinger, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The attribution of personal cognition to another consciousness or sentient being is strongly correlated with altered perfusion within the frontoparietal or frontotemporal regions. The authors applied weak complex magnetic fields that produce an increased incidence of these experiences in healthy volunteers. Quantitative monopolar electroencephalographic (QEEG) measurements for each of the four lobes of the two hemispheres found that intensity of the sensed presence was significantly correlated with increased power within only the theta range over the right parietal and frontal lobes. Successive 1 Hz incremental analyses indicated specific power increases for 4 Hz-5 Hz and 7 Hz-8 Hz bands over the right parietal and frontal lobes, respectively. These results are consistent with those of other measures for both schizophrenia patients and healthy volunteers; changes in activity within these regions are associated with attribution of one's thoughts and actions to another.

  15. Frontal theta cordance predicts 6-month antidepressant response to subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Broadway, James M; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Hilimire, Matthew R; Parks, Nathan A; Devylder, Jordan E; Mayberg, Helen S; Corballis, Paul M

    2012-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subcallosal cingulate white matter (SCC) may be an effective approach for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) that otherwise fails to respond to more conventional therapies, but DBS is invasive, costly, and has potential for adverse effects. Therefore, it is important to identify potential biomarkers for predicting antidepressant response before intervention. Resting-state EEG was recorded from 12 TRD patients at pre-treatment baseline, after 4 weeks SCC DBS, and after 24 weeks SCC DBS. Lower frontal theta cordance (FTC) at baseline (and higher FTC after 4 weeks) predicted lower depression severity scores after 24 weeks. Greater FTC increases (baseline-4 weeks) predicted greater decreases in depression severity scores subsequently (4-24 weeks) and over the course of the study (baseline-24 weeks). Predictive relationships were topographically specific to theta cordance for frontal electrodes. Thus, results from this pilot study suggest that baseline FTC and changes early in treatment each have utility as biomarkers for predicting 6-month clinical response to SCC DBS for TRD.

  16. Frontal Theta Cordance Predicts 6-Month Antidepressant Response to Subcallosal Cingulate Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Broadway, James M; Holtzheimer, Paul E; Hilimire, Matthew R; Parks, Nathan A; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mayberg, Helen S; Corballis, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subcallosal cingulate white matter (SCC) may be an effective approach for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) that otherwise fails to respond to more conventional therapies, but DBS is invasive, costly, and has potential for adverse effects. Therefore, it is important to identify potential biomarkers for predicting antidepressant response before intervention. Resting-state EEG was recorded from 12 TRD patients at pre-treatment baseline, after 4 weeks SCC DBS, and after 24 weeks SCC DBS. Lower frontal theta cordance (FTC) at baseline (and higher FTC after 4 weeks) predicted lower depression severity scores after 24 weeks. Greater FTC increases (baseline–4 weeks) predicted greater decreases in depression severity scores subsequently (4–24 weeks) and over the course of the study (baseline–24 weeks). Predictive relationships were topographically specific to theta cordance for frontal electrodes. Thus, results from this pilot study suggest that baseline FTC and changes early in treatment each have utility as biomarkers for predicting 6-month clinical response to SCC DBS for TRD. PMID:22414813

  17. Propofol, Sevoflurane, and Ketamine Induce a Reversible Increase in Delta-Gamma and Theta-Gamma Phase-Amplitude Coupling in Frontal Cortex of Rat.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dinesh; Silverstein, Brian H; Sharba, Lana; Li, Duan; Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Viviane S; Hudetz, Anthony G; Mashour, George A

    2017-01-01

    Studies from human and non-human species have demonstrated a breakdown of functional corticocortical connectivity during general anesthesia induced by anesthetics with diverse molecular, neurophysiological, and pharmacological profiles. Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in long-range neural communication, and by corollary, functional connectivity, might be influenced by cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between the phase of slow oscillations and the amplitude of local fast oscillations. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) between slow oscillations and alpha rhythm during general anesthesia reveal distinct patterns depending on the anesthetic. In this study, we analyzed the effect of three clinically used anesthetics (propofol: n = 6, sevoflurane: n = 10, and ketamine: n = 8) with distinct molecular mechanisms on changes in PAC in the frontal cortex of rat. The loss of righting reflex was used as a surrogate for unconsciousness. PAC was calculated using the modulation index (MI) algorithm between delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-10 Hz), low gamma (25-55 Hz), and high gamma (65-125 Hz) bands. A linear mixed model with fixed effects was used for statistical comparisons between waking, anesthetized, and post-anesthesia recovery epochs. All three anesthetics increased the coupling between delta and low gamma (p < 0.0001) as well as between theta and low gamma (p < 0.0001) oscillations, which returned to baseline waking levels during the post-anesthetic recovery period. In addition, a reversible reduction in high gamma power (p < 0.0001) was a consistent change during anesthesia induced by all three agents. The changes in delta-high gamma and theta-high gamma PAC as well as power spectral changes in delta, theta, and low gamma bandwidths did not show a uniform response across the three anesthetics. These results encourage the study of alternative PAC patterns as drug-invariant markers of general anesthesia in humans.

  18. Effects of bromazepam in frontal theta activity on the performance of a sensorimotor integration task: a quantitative electroencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Sander; Machado, Sergio; Cunha, Marlo; Velasques, Bruna; Pompeu, Fernando; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Basile, Luis F; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2009-02-27

    Our objective is to verify the modulatory effects of bromazepam on EEG theta absolute power when subjects were submitted to a visuomotor task (i.e., car driver task). Sample was composed of 14 students (9 males and 5 females), right handed, with ages varying between 23 and 42 years (mean=32.5+/-9.5), absence of mental or physical impairments, no psychoactive or psychotropic substance use and no neuromuscular disorders (screened by a clinical examination). The results showed an interaction between condition and electrodes (p=0.034) in favor of F8 electrode compared with F7 in both experimental conditions (t-test; p=0.001). Additionally, main effects were observed for condition (p=0.001), period (p=0.001) and electrodes (p=0.031) in favor of F4 electrode compared with F3. In conclusion, Br 6mg of bromazepam may interfere in sensorimotor processes in the task performance in an unpredictable scenario allowing that certain visuospatial factors were predominant. Therefore, the results may reflect that bromazepam effects influence the performance of the involved areas because of the acquisition and integration of sensory stimuli processes until the development of a motor behavior based on the same stimuli.

  19. Offline continuous theta burst stimulation over right inferior frontal gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area impairs inhibition during a go/no-go task.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Neil M; Cressman, Erin K; Carlsen, Anthony N

    2017-04-06

    In a typical go/no-go task a single imperative stimulus is presented each trial, either a go or no-go stimulus. Participants are instructed to initiate a known response upon appearance of the go-signal and withhold the response if the no-go signal is presented. It is unclear whether the go-response is prepared in advance of the imperative stimulus in a go/no-go task. Moreover, it is unclear if inhibitory control processes suppress preparatory go-activation. The purpose of the present experiment was 1) to determine whether the go-response is prepared in advance of stimulus identification with the use of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), and 2) investigate the inhibitory role of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) during the performance of a go/no-go task with the use of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). The experiment consisted of three phases; a pre-cTBS phase in which participants completed a go/no-go and simple-RT task, followed by offline cTBS to temporarily deactivate either rIFG or preSMA (with a sham control), then a post-cTBS phase which was identical to the pre-cTBS phase. Results revealed that stimulation to both cortical sites impaired participants' ability to withhold movements during no-go trials. Notably, rIFG or preSMA stimulation did not affect the latency of voluntary go-responses and did not enable the SAS to involuntarily trigger responses. These findings suggest that preparation and initiation of the go-response occurs after the imperative stimulus, with the rIFG and preSMA involved in inhibiting the go-response once the stimulus is identified as a no-go signal.

  20. Medial Prefrontal-Medial Temporal Theta Phase Coupling in Dynamic Spatial Imagery.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Raphael; Bush, Daniel; Bisby, James A; Horner, Aidan J; Meyer, Sofie S; Burgess, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Hippocampal-medial prefrontal interactions are thought to play a crucial role in mental simulation. Notably, the frontal midline/medial pFC (mPFC) theta rhythm in humans has been linked to introspective thought and working memory. In parallel, theta rhythms have been proposed to coordinate processing in the medial temporal cortex, retrosplenial cortex (RSc), and parietal cortex during the movement of viewpoint in imagery, extending their association with physical movement in rodent models. Here, we used noninvasive whole-head MEG to investigate theta oscillatory power and phase-locking during the 18-sec postencoding delay period of a spatial working memory task, in which participants imagined previously learned object sequences either on a blank background (object maintenance), from a first-person viewpoint in a scene (static imagery), or moving along a path past the objects (dynamic imagery). We found increases in 4- to 7-Hz theta power in mPFC when comparing the delay period with a preencoding baseline. We then examined whether the mPFC theta rhythm was phase-coupled with ongoing theta oscillations elsewhere in the brain. The same mPFC region showed significantly higher theta phase coupling with the posterior medial temporal lobe/RSc for dynamic imagery versus either object maintenance or static imagery. mPFC theta phase coupling was not observed with any other brain region. These results implicate oscillatory coupling between mPFC and medial temporal lobe/RSc theta rhythms in the dynamic mental exploration of imagined scenes.

  1. Demands on response inhibition processes determine modulations of theta band activity in superior frontal areas and correlations with pupillometry - Implications for the norepinephrine system during inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Dippel, Gabriel; Mückschel, Moritz; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Beste, Christian

    2017-08-15

    Response inhibition processes are important for goal-directed behavior and particularly demanded when it is unlikely to inhibit automatically executed responses. It has been suggested that the norepinephrine (NE) system is important to consider for such likelihood effects. As an indirect measure of the NE system activity we used the pupil diameter and integrated this data with neurophysiological (EEG) data and beamforming analyses. The study shows that inhibitory control processes reflected by theta oscillations are strongly modulated by the likelihood to employ these processes and that these mechanisms were related to neural processes in the SMA and SFG. Probably, the modulations observed for theta band activity may reflect modulations in the encoding of a surprise, or conflict signal. Interestingly, correlation analyses of neuronal activity at the sensor and the source level with pupil diameter data revealed strong correlations that were only seen in the condition where inhibitory control processes were rarely demanded. On the basis of findings and theoretical models suggesting that the pupil diameter can be interpreted as a proximate of NE system activity the results may be interpreted that the NE system modulates inhibitory control processes via theta band activity in the SFB when the likelihood to inhibit a prepotent response tendency is low. From this it may be speculated that the NE system dynamically gains and loses relevance to modulate inhibitory control depending on boundary conditions that determine the mode of responding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mathematically gifted adolescents mobilize enhanced workspace configuration of theta cortical network during deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Gan, J Q; Wang, H

    2015-03-19

    Previous studies have established the importance of the fronto-parietal brain network in the information processing of reasoning. At the level of cortical source analysis, this eletroencepalogram (EEG) study investigates the functional reorganization of the theta-band (4-8Hz) neurocognitive network of mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning. Depending on the dense increase of long-range phase synchronizations in the reasoning process, math-gifted adolescents show more significant adaptive reorganization and enhanced "workspace" configuration in the theta network as compared with average-ability control subjects. The salient areas are mainly located in the anterior cortical vertices of the fronto-parietal network. Further correlation analyses have shown that the enhanced workspace configuration with respect to the global topological metrics of the theta network in math-gifted subjects is correlated with the intensive frontal midline theta (fm theta) response that is related to strong neural effort for cognitive events. These results suggest that by investing more cognitive resources math-gifted adolescents temporally mobilize an enhanced task-related global neuronal workspace, which is manifested as a highly integrated fronto-parietal information processing network during the reasoning process.

  3. Positive Emotional Experience: Induced by Vibroacoustic Stimulation Using a Body Monochord in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders: Is Associated with an Increase in EEG-Theta and a Decrease in EEG-Alpha Power.

    PubMed

    Sandler, H; Tamm, S; Fendel, U; Rose, M; Klapp, B F; Bösel, R

    2016-07-01

    Relaxation and meditation techniques are generally characterized by focusing attention, which is associated with an increase of frontal EEG Theta. Some studies on music perception suggest an activation of Frontal Midline Theta during emotionally positive attribution, others display a lateralization of electrocortical processes in the attribution of music induced emotion of different valence. The present study examined the effects of vibroacoustic stimulation using a Body Monochord and the conventional relaxation music from an audio CD on the spontaneous EEG of patients suffering from psychosomatic disorders (N = 60). Each treatment took about 20 min and was presented to the patients in random order. Subjective experience was recorded via self-rating scale. EEG power spectra of the Theta, Alpha-1 and Alpha-2 bands were analysed and compard between the two treatment conditions. There was no lateralization of electrocortical activity in terms of the emotional experience of the musical pieces. A reduction in Alpha-2 power occurred during both treatments. An emotionally positive attribution of the experience of the vibroacoustically induced relaxation state is characterized by a more pronounced release of control. In the context of focused attention this is interpreted as flow experience. The spontaneous EEG showed an increase in Theta power, particularly in the frontal medial and central medial area, and a greater reduction in Alpha-2 power. The intensity of positive emotional feelings during the CD music showed no significant effect on the increase in Theta power.

  4. Congenital midline cervical cleft.

    PubMed

    Agag, Richard; Sacks, Justin; Silver, Lester

    2007-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare disorder of the ventral neck that is clinically evident at birth and must be differentiated from the more common thyroglossal duct cyst. The case of CMCC presented here was associated with chromosomes 13/14 de novo Robertsonian translocations as well as midline deformities including a sacral tuft and a minor tongue-tie. The case is presented as well as discussion of histopathology, embryology, and surgical treatment.

  5. Evaluating the safety of frontal sinus trephination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annie S; Schaitkin, Barry M; Gillman, Grant S

    2010-03-01

    The depth of the frontal sinus was measured using axial computed tomography (CT) images to examine the safety of frontal sinus trephination at selected distances from the midline. Review of 200 sinus CT scans. Two hundred sinus CT scans (400 frontal sinuses) were reviewed to measure the frontal sinus depth at 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm from midline. Males had a significantly deeper frontal sinus than females at all measurements points (P < .001). The measurements revealed a considerable number of small but nonhypoplastic frontal sinuses, which were shallower than the length of standard frontal trephine instruments (7 mm) and would risk penetration of the posterior table of the sinus. Of all frontal sinuses studied, 9.54% were <7 mm deep at 5 mm from the midline, 10.12% at 10 mm, and 8.96% at 15 mm from the midline. Overall, 15.3% of all frontal sinuses studied had at least one point where the measured depth was <7 mm. Although the majority of patients have frontal sinuses deep enough to accommodate standard trephine instruments, surgeons should recognize that up to 15% of nonhypoplastic frontal sinuses may not be sufficiently deep at a given point to allow safe trephination without risking unintentional transgression of the posterior table. This study suggests that trephination routinely carried out at a given predetermined distance from the midline may be an unsafe practice. Careful evaluation of the imaging is essential in every case to avoid inadvertent injury and to help select the safest distance from the midline for frontal sinus trephination.

  6. Midline thalamic neurons are differentially engaged during hippocampus network oscillations.

    PubMed

    Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Espinosa, Nelson; Durán, Ernesto; Stockle, Marcelo; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-07-14

    The midline thalamus is reciprocally connected with the medial temporal lobe, where neural circuitry essential for spatial navigation and memory formation resides. Yet, little information is available on the dynamic relationship between activity patterns in the midline thalamus and medial temporal lobe. Here, we report on the functional heterogeneity of anatomically-identified thalamic neurons and the differential modulation of their activity with respect to dorsal hippocampal rhythms in the anesthetized mouse. Midline thalamic neurons expressing the calcium-binding protein calretinin, irrespective of their selective co-expression of calbindin, discharged at overall low levels, did not increase their activity during hippocampal theta oscillations, and their firing rates were inhibited during hippocampal sharp wave-ripples. Conversely, thalamic neurons lacking calretinin discharged at higher rates, increased their activity during hippocampal theta waves, but remained unaffected during sharp wave-ripples. Our results indicate that the midline thalamic system comprises at least two different classes of thalamic projection neuron, which can be partly defined by their differential engagement by hippocampal pathways during specific network oscillations that accompany distinct behavioral contexts. Thus, different midline thalamic neuronal populations might be selectively recruited to support distinct stages of memory processing, consistent with the thalamus being pivotal in the dialogue of cortical circuits.

  7. Midline thalamic neurons are differentially engaged during hippocampus network oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Espinosa, Nelson; Durán, Ernesto; Stockle, Marcelo; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The midline thalamus is reciprocally connected with the medial temporal lobe, where neural circuitry essential for spatial navigation and memory formation resides. Yet, little information is available on the dynamic relationship between activity patterns in the midline thalamus and medial temporal lobe. Here, we report on the functional heterogeneity of anatomically-identified thalamic neurons and the differential modulation of their activity with respect to dorsal hippocampal rhythms in the anesthetized mouse. Midline thalamic neurons expressing the calcium-binding protein calretinin, irrespective of their selective co-expression of calbindin, discharged at overall low levels, did not increase their activity during hippocampal theta oscillations, and their firing rates were inhibited during hippocampal sharp wave-ripples. Conversely, thalamic neurons lacking calretinin discharged at higher rates, increased their activity during hippocampal theta waves, but remained unaffected during sharp wave-ripples. Our results indicate that the midline thalamic system comprises at least two different classes of thalamic projection neuron, which can be partly defined by their differential engagement by hippocampal pathways during specific network oscillations that accompany distinct behavioral contexts. Thus, different midline thalamic neuronal populations might be selectively recruited to support distinct stages of memory processing, consistent with the thalamus being pivotal in the dialogue of cortical circuits. PMID:27411890

  8. Theta- and alpha-power enhancements in the electroencephalogram as an auditory delayed match-to-sample task becomes impossibly difficult.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Matthew G; Thompson, Eric R; Iyer, Nandini

    2017-08-09

    Recent studies have related enhancements of theta- (∼4-8 Hz) and alpha-power (∼8-13 Hz) to listening effort based on parallels between enhancement and task difficulty. In contrast, nonauditory works demonstrate that, although increases in difficulty are initially accompanied by increases in effort, effort decreases when a task becomes so difficult as to exceed one's ability. Given the latter, we examined whether theta- and alpha-power enhancements thought to reflect effortful listening show a quadratic trend across levels of listening difficulty from impossible to easy. Listeners (n = 14) performed an auditory delayed match-to-sample task with frequency-modulated tonal sweeps under impossible, difficult (at ∼70.7% correct threshold), and easy (well above threshold) conditions. Frontal midline theta-power and posterior alpha-power enhancements were observed during the retention interval, with greatest enhancement in the difficult condition. Independent component-based analyses of data suggest that theta-power enhancements stemmed from medial frontal sources at or near the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas alpha-power effects stemmed from occipital cortices. Results support the notion that theta- and alpha-power enhancements reflect effortful cognitive processes during listening, related to auditory working memory and the inhibition of task-irrelevant cortical processing regions, respectively. Theta- and alpha-power dynamics can be used to characterize the cognitive processes that make up effortful listening, including qualitatively different types of listening effort. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Midline granuloma in infant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, G N

    2004-04-01

    Midline Granuloma is a very uncommon disease characterised by localised inflamation, destruction and often mutilations of the tissues of the upper respiratory tract and face. This unique case is being reported for its rarity having the complete destruction of the external nose and part of the upper lip.

  10. Theta and Alpha Band Modulations Reflect Error-Related Adjustments in the Auditory Condensation Task

    PubMed Central

    Novikov, Nikita A.; Bryzgalov, Dmitri V.; Chernyshev, Boris V.

    2015-01-01

    Error commission leads to adaptive adjustments in a number of brain networks that subserve goal-directed behavior, resulting in either enhanced stimulus processing or increased motor threshold depending on the nature of errors committed. Here, we studied these adjustments by analyzing post-error modulations of alpha and theta band activity in the auditory version of the two-choice condensation task, which is highly demanding for sustained attention while involves no inhibition of prepotent responses. Errors were followed by increased frontal midline theta (FMT) activity, as well as by enhanced alpha band suppression in the parietal and the left central regions; parietal alpha suppression correlated with the task performance, left central alpha suppression correlated with the post-error slowing, and FMT increase correlated with both behavioral measures. On post-error correct trials, left-central alpha band suppression started earlier before the response, and the response was followed by weaker FMT activity, as well as by enhanced alpha band suppression distributed over the entire scalp. These findings indicate that several separate neuronal networks are involved in post-error adjustments, including the midfrontal performance monitoring network, the parietal attentional network, and the sensorimotor network. Supposedly, activity within these networks is rapidly modulated after errors, resulting in optimization of their functional state on the subsequent trials, with corresponding changes in behavioral measures. PMID:26733266

  11. Variable resolution electromagnetic tomography (VARETA) in evaluation of compression of cerebral arteries due to deep midline brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bouzas, Antonio; Harmony, Thalía; Fernández, Thalía; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Santiago, Efraín

    2004-01-01

    Hemispheric tumors produced electroencephalographic (EEG) delta activity mainly due to deafferentation of cerebral cortex. In small, deep midline lesions that compressed cerebral arteries, the most important abnormality should have been in EEG theta band that selectively responded to brain ischemia. Frequency domain-variable resolution electromagnetic tomography (FD-VARETA) has been applied satisfactorily to the study of brain tumors, cerebral infarcts, and brain hemorrhages and was shown to localize areas of hypoperfusion. Twelve patients with deep midline lesions compressing different cerebral arteries were studied. Computer tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as quantitative EEG with source calculation in frequency domain were obtained. Brain electromagnetic tomographies (BETs) were calculated to evaluate localization and extension of functional abnormalities. Ten of twelve cases presented abnormal sources in theta band as main abnormal source. In only two cases was the main source in delta band, but these cases also had abnormal Z values in theta band. In four patients there were only abnormal values in theta range. Sources of abnormal theta activity were observed in regions irrigated by the arteries compressed. In deep midline lesions, compression of cerebral arteries producing relative ischemia may explain abnormal EEG sources in theta band. Patients with main source in theta band showed vascular compression and some patients exhibited vasogenic edema. Thus, theta might be due to relative ischemia produced by both hypoperfusion and edema. Once again, VARETA has found to be very useful in evaluation of functional abnormalities.

  12. Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jamille Barros; da Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; da Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. Methods: An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Results: Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Conclusions: Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation. PMID:28125140

  13. Midline approach to pediatric nasofrontal dermoid cysts.

    PubMed

    Ortlip, Timothy; Ambro, Bryan T; Pereira, Kevin D

    2015-02-01

    To highlight the advantages of the vertical midline incision in providing satisfactory cosmesis with complete excision of pediatric nasofrontal dermoid cysts. Retrospective case series of nasofrontal dermoid cysts in 4 patients treated at a single tertiary medical center from June 1, 2010, through July 31, 2012. The mean age at surgery was 2.5 years. The anatomical location of the nasofrontal dermoid cysts differed: (1) supratip extending through the upper lateral cartilages to the cartilaginous septum, (2) upper dorsum and subcutaneous tissue, (3) tip and supratip extending deep to the nasal bones with involvement of the anterior cranial fossae and dura, and (4) nasal tip extending deep to the level of the rhinion and involving the upper lateral cartilages and below the left medial canthus. Preoperative imaging was performed on all patients. There was one case of intracranial extension. All patients underwent surgical excision with the vertical midline incision. Nasal reconstruction was performed with local soft-tissue flaps (1 patient), regenerative tissue matrix (2 patients), and bone dust pate (1 patient). The patient with intracranial involvement also underwent a frontal craniotomy. All lesions were histologically confirmed as dermoid cysts. Mean follow-up was 1.5 years. There were no complications or recurrences. All patients had cosmetically acceptable scars. A vertical midline incision with modifications to excise involved skin provides a satisfactory and cosmetically sound approach to congenital lesions of the nasofrontal region. It affords adequate exposure for complete excision and reconstruction. A multidisciplinary team consisting of a neurosurgeon, facial plastic surgeon, and pediatric otolaryngologist is needed to optimize outcomes.

  14. Management of Midline Facial Clefts.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sobhan; Sabhlok, Samrat; Panda, Pankaj Kumar; Khatri, Isha

    2015-12-01

    Median or midline facial clefts are rare anomalies of developmental origin, etiology of whose occurrence is still unknown precisely. The most basic presentation of midline facial clefts is in the form of a Median cleft lip which is defined as any congenital vertical cleft through the centre of the upper lip. First described by Bechard in 1823, it is the most common amongst all atypical clefts reported. The incidence is about 1:10,00,000 births. This may occur as a sporadic event or as a part of an inherited sequence of anomalies. It arises embryologically from incomplete fusion of the medial nasal prominences. The authors present a series of eight cases with varying degrees of midline facial clefts. This review article aims to give a broad idea on the various classifications used for further understanding of midline facial clefts and a brief idea about the various surgical management techniques used in the repair of these facial clefts.

  15. Theta vocabulary I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchev, S.; Zabrodin, A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper is an annotated list of transformation properties and identities satisfied by the four theta functions θ1, θ2, θ3, θ4 of one complex variable, presented in a ready-to-use form. An attempt is made to reveal a pattern behind various identities for the theta-functions. It is shown that all possible 3, 4 and 5-term identities of degree four emerge as algebraic consequences of the six fundamental bilinear 3-term identities connecting the theta-functions with modular parameters τ and 2 τ.

  16. A rare case of NUT midline carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ball, Allison; Bromley, Amy; Glaze, Sarah; French, Christopher A; Ghatage, Prafull; Köbel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    ► NUT midline carcinoma is a rare and aggressive cancer arising in midline structures and is of squamous cell lineage. ► Diagnosis by use of molecular tests is possible with clinical suspicion. ► NUT midline carcinoma is refractory to conventional treatments, but understanding of molecular alterations may lead to an effective therapy.

  17. Expected reward modulates encoding-related theta activity before an event.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Matthias J; Watrous, Andrew J; Ekstrom, Arne D; Ranganath, Charan; Otten, Leun J

    2013-01-01

    Oscillatory brain activity in the theta frequency range (4-8 Hz) before the onset of an event has been shown to affect the likelihood of successfully encoding the event into memory. Recent work has also indicated that frontal theta activity might be modulated by reward, but it is not clear how reward expectancy, anticipatory theta activity, and memory formation might be related. Here, we used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the relationship between these factors. EEG was recorded from healthy adults while they memorized a series of words. Each word was preceded by a cue that indicated whether a high or low monetary reward would be earned if the word was successfully remembered in a later recognition test. Frontal theta power between the presentation of the reward cue and the onset of a word was predictive of later memory for the word, but only in the high reward condition. No theta differences were observed before word onset following low reward cues. The magnitude of prestimulus encoding-related theta activity in the high reward condition was correlated with the number of high reward words that were later confidently recognized. These findings provide strong evidence for a link between reward expectancy, theta activity, and memory encoding. Theta activity before event onset seems to be especially important for the encoding of motivationally significant stimuli. One possibility is that dopaminergic activity during reward anticipation mediates frontal theta activity related to memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Theta-Burst LTP

    PubMed Central

    Larson, John; Munkácsy, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This review covers the spatial and temporal rules governing induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) by theta-burst stimulation. Induction of LTP in field CA1 by high frequency stimulation bursts that resemble the burst discharges (complex-spikes) of hippocampal pyramidal neurons involves a multiple-step mechanism. A single burst is insufficient for LTP induction because it evokes both excitatory and inhibitory currents that partially cancel and limit postsynaptic depolarization. Bursts repeated at the frequency (~5 Hz) of the endogenous theta rhythm induce maximal LTP, primarily because this frequency disables feed-forward inhibition and allows sufficient postsynaptic depolarization to activate voltage-sensitive NMDA receptors. The disinhibitory process, referred to as “priming”, involves presynaptic GABA autoreceptors that inhibit GABA release. Activation of NMDA receptors allows a calcium flux into dendritic spines that serves as the proximal trigger for LTP. We include new data showing that theta-burst stimulation is more efficient than other forms of stimulation for LTP induction. In addityion, we demonstrate that associative interactions between synapses activated during theta-bursts are limited to major dendritic domains since such interactions occur within apical or basal dendritic trees but not between them. We review evidence that recordings of electrophysiological responses during theta burst stimulation can help to determine if experimental manipulations that affect LTP do so by affecting events antecedent to the induction process, such as NMDA receptor activation, or downstream signaling cascades that result from postsynaptic calcium fluxes. Finally, we argue that theta-burst LTP represents a minimal model for stable, non-decremental LTP that is more sensitive to a variety of experimental manipulations than is LTP induced by other stimulation paradigms. PMID:25452022

  19. Frontal Oscillatory Dynamics Predict Feedback Learning and Action Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Cohen, Michael X.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after…

  20. Frontal Oscillatory Dynamics Predict Feedback Learning and Action Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Cohen, Michael X.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after…

  1. Frontal oscillatory dynamics predict feedback learning and action adjustment.

    PubMed

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Cohen, Michael X

    2011-12-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after specific, randomly selected time intervals (300-2000 msec) using the feedback after each button press (correct, too fast, too slow). Consistent with previous findings, theta-band activity over medial frontal scalp sites (presumably reflecting medial frontal cortex activity) was stronger after negative feedback, whereas beta-band activity was stronger after positive feedback. Theta-band power predicted learning only after negative feedback, and beta-band power predicted learning after positive and negative feedback. Furthermore, negative feedback increased theta-band intersite phase synchrony (a millisecond resolution measure of functional connectivity) among right lateral prefrontal, medial frontal, and sensorimotor sites. These results demonstrate the importance of frontal theta- and beta-band oscillations and intersite communication in the realization of reinforcement learning.

  2. Navigating Intermediate Targets: The Nervous System Midline

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Barry J.; Zou, Yimin

    2010-01-01

    In a bilaterally symmetric animal, the midline plays a key role in directing axon growth during wiring of the nervous system. Midline cells provide a variety of guidance cues for growing axons, to which different types of axons respond in different ways and at different times. For some axons, the midline is an intermediate target. They first seek it out, but then move on towards their final targets on the opposite side. For others, the midline is a repulsive barrier that keeps them on their own side of the midline. And for many of these axons the midline provides signals that guide them along specific lateral pathways or up and down the longitudinal axis. PMID:20534708

  3. [Medial venous catheter or midline (MVC)].

    PubMed

    Carrero Caballero, Ma Carmen; Montealegre Sanz, María; Cubero Pérez, Ma Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Current clinical practice is characterised for importance of the patient's quality of life and the need to reduce the costs of their treatment. We search intravenous therapy alternatives that meet the needs of the patient, reducing the complications associated with the use of venous catheters. Scientific evidence shows that there are midline venous catheters that offer patients and professionals the possibility of extending the duration of infusion therapy, using more venous compatibility materials, and with less risk of infection. The Midlines are becoming in a safe an efficient device for intravenous therapy, continuous and intermittent infusion, provided the necessary care by expert nurses. Midline catheters are peripheral venous access devices between 3 to 10 inches in length (8 to 25 cm). Midlines are usually placed in an upper arm vein, such as the brachial or cephalic, and the distal extreme ends below the level of the axillary line. Midlines catheters implanted in the cephalic or deep basilica veins get more blood flow. This large blood volume justifies the lower risk of mechanical or chemical phlebitis. Midlines are routinely used for two to six weeks. Due that the extrem of these catheters does not extend beyond the axillary line, there are limitations for its use: type of infused drugs, velocity of infusion, etc. In general, solutions that have pH 5 to 9, or an osmolarity less than 500 mOsm are appropriate for infusion through a Midline. Its use is recommended in case of treatments over 7 days with low irritant capacity fluids. According to the Infusion Nurses Society's standards of practice, Midline catheters are appropriate for all intravenous fluids that would normally be administered through a short peripheral IV Importantly, due that the catheter does not pass through the central veins, Midlines can be placed without a chest X-ray to confirm placement. For certain situations, Midlines are suitable for acute units and even for care home settings

  4. Transcultural perception of maxillary midline diastema.

    PubMed

    Akinboboye, Bolanle; Umesi, Donna; Ajayi, Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    Perception of maxillary midline diastema as an esthetic trait varies in relation to culture, age group, and racial background. Although midline diastema is accepted in Africa, there are few reports on interethnic perception of midline diastema among Nigerians. Participants aged 19 to 45 years were selected from six geographical zones of Nigeria; one state was randomly selected from each zone, and a local government area (LGA) selected from each state. A structured questionnaire including a set of color smile photographs with varying sizes of maxillary midline diastema (narrowest=2 mm; widest=6 mm) was administered. Information sought was age, gender, socioeconomic group, tribe, presence of a midline diastema, and grading of attractiveness of smile. This information was evaluated using a Likert scale. A total of 402 subjects aged 19 to 45 years and a mean age of 36.3 years (±0.714) took part in this study. The highest proportion of subjects with midline diastema was aged 21 to 30 years (33.9%), females (29.8%), from the Hausa ethnic group (35%), and from the class II socioeconomic group (31.9%). Among the ethnic groups, Hausa had the highest (65%) preference for midline diastema. Females (58.8%) and those in the class II socioeconomic group (68.1%) also had the highest preference for midline diastema. There was a strong relationship between incidence of and preference for midline diastema (P=0.000). All ethnic groups rated maxillary midline diastema as attractive, especially when the width was within 2 to 3 mm (P=0.02). All ethnic groups perceived maxillary midline diastema to be an esthetic attribute, provided the width was within 2 to 3 mm.

  5. Understanding the theta aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fear, Robert; Milan, Steve; Carter, Jennifer; Maggiolo, Romain; Fazakerley, Andrew; Dandouras, Iannis; Mende, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The theta aurora, first observed by Dynamics Explorer in the 1980s, is a configuration of the Earth's aurora in which auroral emissions extend into and across the polar cap in the form of a transpolar arc. It is well established that the theta aurora occurs predominantly when the interplanetary magnetic field has a northward component, but over the last thirty years various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this intriguing phenomenon. In the last couple of years, a range of evidence has accumulated which strongly suggests that the transpolar arc is formed as proposed by Milan et al. (2005): magnetotail reconnection occurs during intervals of northward IMF, which results in a local "wedge" of closed magnetospheric flux that remains trapped in the magnetotail. Precipitation on these closed field lines results in the transpolar arc analogously to the formation of the aurora in the main oval. Evidence for magnetotail reconnection as the cause of the theta aurora includes the timescales necessary to influence the location at which the transpolar arc forms, and the presence of characteristic ionospheric flows which are excited by magnetotail reconnection and which are statistically associated with transpolar arcs (Fear & Milan, 2012a,b). Most recently, direct observation has been made of a localised wedge of closed magnetic flux, "trapped" in the lobe, which was observed to move back and forth in a manner which (to our knowledge) can only be explained by the magnetotail reconnection mechanism (Fear et al., 2014). In this talk, we summarise the evidence for the formation of the theta aurora by magnetotail reconnection, and discuss the remaining challenges in obtaining a comprehensive understanding of this spectacular phenomenon.

  6. Orbital Involvement by NUT Midline Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jill N; Notz, Gregory; Bogdasarian, Ronald N; Cognetti, David M; Curry, Joseph M; Rosen, Marc R; Tuluc, Madalina; Evans, James J; Bilyk, Jurij R

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old female presented with a sino-orbital lesion that proved to be a NUT midline carcinoma. This is only the third case of orbital involvement by this aggressive lesion. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of NUT midline carcinoma are discussed, as well as its management options.

  7. EEG synchronization characteristics of functional connectivity and complex network properties of memory maintenance in the delta and theta frequency bands.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Boha, Roland; Pósfai, Márton; Gaál, Zsófia Anna; Kónya, Anikó; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Molnár, Márk

    2012-03-01

    Task-dependent changes of nonlinear-linear synchronization features and graph theoretical properties of the delta and theta frequencies were analyzed in the present EEG study that were related to episodic memory maintenance processes. Synchronization was found to increase with respect to both the delta and theta bands within the frontal and parietal areas and also between these regions. Results of graph theoretical analysis indicated a task-related shift towards small-world network topology in the theta band.

  8. Midline shift and lateral guidance angle in adults with unilateral posterior crossbite.

    PubMed

    Rilo, Benito; da Silva, José Luis; Mora, María Jesús; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Santana, Urbano

    2008-06-01

    Unilateral posterior crossbite is a malocclusion that, if not corrected during infancy, typically causes permanent asymmetry. Our aims in this study were to evaluate various occlusal parameters in a group of adults with uncorrected unilateral posterior crossbite and to compare findings with those obtained in a group of normal subjects. Midline shift at maximum intercuspation, midline shift at maximum aperture, and lateral guidance angle in the frontal plane were assessed in 25 adults (ages, 17-26 years; mean, 19.6 years) with crossbites. Midline shift at maximum intercuspation was zero (ie, centric midline) in 36% of the crossbite subjects; the remaining subjects had a shift toward the crossbite side. Midline shift at maximum aperture had no association with crossbite side. Lateral guidance angle was lower on the crossbite side than on the noncrossbite side. No parameter studied showed significant differences with respect to the normal subjects. Adults with unilateral posterior crossbite have adaptations that compensate for the crossbite and maintain normal function.

  9. NUT Midline Carcinoma: A Rare Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Al Diffalha, Sameer; Al Aukla, Nidal; Hasan, Saleh; Dickinson, Shohreh; Khalil, Farah

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) midline carcinoma can present in the head, neck, and mediastinum. In general, it presents in young adult men and has a poor prognosis. We report on a case of NUT midline carcinoma of the mediastinum in a man 27 years of age without any prior malignancy. Due to the location of the tumor, mediastinal lymphoma and germ cell tumor were initially considered; however, immunohistochemistry was performed using NUT antibody that revealed it to be NUT midline carcinoma. Although guidelines exist for squamous cell carcinoma of the head, neck, and mediastinum, no such specific guidelines are available for NUT midline carcinoma, which looks morphologically similar to squamous cell carcinoma but behaves more aggressively and carries a poor prognosis.

  10. Theta vocabulary II. Multidimensional case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchev, S.; Zabrodin, A.

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that the Jacobi and Riemann identities of degree four for the multidimensional theta functions as well as the Weierstrass identities emerge as algebraic consequences of the fundamental multidimensional binary identities connecting the theta functions with Riemann matrices τ and 2 τ.

  11. Relationship between regional hemodynamic activity and simultaneously recorded EEG-theta associated with mental arithmetic-induced workload.

    PubMed

    Sammer, Gebhard; Blecker, Carlo; Gebhardt, Helge; Bischoff, Matthias; Stark, Rudolf; Morgen, Katrin; Vaitl, Dieter

    2007-08-01

    Theta increases with workload and is associated with numerous processes including working memory, problem solving, encoding, or self monitoring. These processes, in turn, involve numerous structures of the brain. However, the relationship between regional brain activity and the occurrence of theta remains unclear. In the present study, simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings were used to investigate the functional topography of theta. EEG-theta was enhanced by mental arithmetic-induced workload. For the EEG-constrained fMRI analysis, theta-reference time-series were extracted from the EEG, reflecting the strength of theta occurrence during the time course of the experiment. Theta occurrence was mainly associated with activation of the insular cortex, hippocampus, superior temporal areas, cingulate cortex, superior parietal, and frontal areas. Though observation of temporal and insular activation is in accord with the theory that theta specifically reflects encoding processes, the involvement of several other brain regions implies that surface-recorded theta represents comprehensive functional brain states rather than specific processes in the brain. The results provide further evidence for the concept that emergent theta band oscillations represent dynamic functional binding of widely distributed cortical assemblies, essential for cognitive processing. This binding process may form the source of surface-recorded EEG theta. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. LIMBIC CIRCUITRY OF THE MIDLINE THALAMUS

    PubMed Central

    Vertes, Robert P.; Linley, Stephanie B.; Hoover, Walter B.

    2016-01-01

    The thalamus was subdivided into three major groups: sensorimotor nuclei (or principal/relay nuclei), limbic nuclei and nuclei bridging these two domains. Limbic nuclei of thalamus (or ‘limbic thalamus’) consist of the anterior nuclei, midline nuclei, medial division of the mediodorsal nucleus (MDm) and central medial nucleus (CM) of the intralaminar complex. The midline nuclei include the paraventricular (PV) and paratenial (PT) nuclei, dorsally, and the reuniens (RE) and rhomboid (RH) nuclei, ventrally. The ‘limbic’ thalamic nuclei predominantly connect with limbic-related structures and serve a direct role in limbic–associated functions. Regarding the midline nuclei, RE/RH mainly target limbic cortical structures, particularly the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Accordingly, RE/RH participate in functions involving interactions of the HF and mPFC. By contrast, PV/PT mainly project to limbic subcortical structures, particularly the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, and hence are critically involved in affective behaviors such as stress/anxiety, feeding behavior, and drug seeking activities. The anatomical/functional characteristics of MDm and CM are very similar to those of the midline nuclei and hence the collection of nuclei extending dorsoventrally along the midline/paramidline of the thalamus constitute the core of the ‘limbic thalamus’. PMID:25616182

  13. Revisiting the Factors Underlying Maxillary Midline Diastema.

    PubMed

    Jaija, Abdullah M Zakria; El-Beialy, Amr Ragab; Mostafa, Yehya A

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to analyze the etiological factors underlying the presence of maxillary midline diastema in a sample of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods. One hundred patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected from 1355 patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The pretreatment orthodontic records were analyzed. The width of the maxillary midline diastema was measured clinically with a digital caliper at two levels: the mesioincisal angles of the central incisors and five millimeters from the incisal edge. The two measurements were averaged, and patients with diastema of more than 0.5 millimeter in width were enrolled. Results. Diastema is a multifactorial clinical finding with more than one underlying etiological cause. The interrelationship between the familial pattern of midline diastema and the microdontia, macroglossia, labial frenum, and alveolar cleft conforms was clear. The effect of a mesiodens and the upper lateral incisor whether bilaterally missing, unerupted, or peg shaped was minimal. Conclusion. Etiological factors underlying maxillary midline diastema are interconnected. Using a checklist as a guide during handling maxillary midline diastema is important in the different stages of treatment.

  14. Revisiting the Factors Underlying Maxillary Midline Diastema

    PubMed Central

    Jaija, Abdullah M. Zakria; El-Beialy, Amr Ragab; Mostafa, Yehya A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to analyze the etiological factors underlying the presence of maxillary midline diastema in a sample of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods. One hundred patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected from 1355 patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The pretreatment orthodontic records were analyzed. The width of the maxillary midline diastema was measured clinically with a digital caliper at two levels: the mesioincisal angles of the central incisors and five millimeters from the incisal edge. The two measurements were averaged, and patients with diastema of more than 0.5 millimeter in width were enrolled. Results. Diastema is a multifactorial clinical finding with more than one underlying etiological cause. The interrelationship between the familial pattern of midline diastema and the microdontia, macroglossia, labial frenum, and alveolar cleft conforms was clear. The effect of a mesiodens and the upper lateral incisor whether bilaterally missing, unerupted, or peg shaped was minimal. Conclusion. Etiological factors underlying maxillary midline diastema are interconnected. Using a checklist as a guide during handling maxillary midline diastema is important in the different stages of treatment. PMID:27239374

  15. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    Frontal lobe seizures Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Frontal lobe seizures are a common form of epilepsy, a ... seizures originate in the front of the brain. Frontal lobe seizures may also be caused by abnormal brain ...

  16. In vitro thermosensitivity of the midline thalamus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Kathleen A.; Bockholt, H. Jeremy; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M.

    1995-01-01

    This study compared the thermosensitivity and spontaneous activity of thatamic midline neurons with those of neurons in areas widely regarded to be involved in thermoregulation (preoptic/anterior hypothalamus and posterior hypothalamus). In vitro single unit recordings were made from neurons within the thalamic midline nuclei, the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus and posterior hypothalamus prior to and during a temperature change 3-7 C above and below 37 C. There were no significant differences in the degree of thermosensitivity or the proportion of thermosensitive neurons in the three areas. In each area examined, the thermosensitive neurons had a spontaneous activity which was significantly greater than that of the temperature-insensitive neurons. The results suggest that structures of the midline thalamus may play a role similar to that of the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus and posterior hypothalamus in the processing of temperature related information.

  17. Permutation symmetry for theta functions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.C.

    2011-01-21

    This paper does for combinations of theta functions most of what Carlson (2004) [1] did for Jacobian elliptic functions. In each case the starting point is the symmetric elliptic integral R{sub F} of the first kind. Its three arguments (formerly squared Jacobian elliptic functions but now squared combinations of theta functions) differ by constants. Symbols designating the constants can often be used to replace 12 equations by three with permutation symmetry (formerly in the letters c, d, n for the Jacobian case but now in the subscripts 2, 3, 4 for theta functions). Such equations include derivatives and differential equations, bisection and duplication relations, addition formulas (apparently new for theta functions), and an example of pseudoaddition formulas.

  18. Resting EEG theta activity predicts cognitive performance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hermens, Daniel F; Soei, Eleonore X C; Clarke, Simon D; Kohn, Michael R; Gordon, Evian; Williams, Leanne M

    2005-04-01

    Quantitative electroencephalography has contributed significantly to elucidating the neurobiologic mechanisms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The most consistent and robust electroencephalographic disturbance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder has been abnormally increased theta band during resting conditions. Separate research using attention-demanding tests has elucidated cognitive disturbances that differentiate attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study attempts to integrate electroencephalographic and neuropsychological indices to determine whether cognitive performance is specifically related to increased theta. Theta activity was recorded during a resting condition for 46 children/adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their sex- and age-matched control subjects. Accuracy and reaction time during an auditory oddball and a visual continuous performance test were then recorded. Compared with control subjects, the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder group manifested significantly increased (primarily left) frontal theta. Furthermore, the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder group scored significantly delayed reaction time and decreased accuracy in both tasks. Correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between frontal (primarily left) theta and oddball accuracy for the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder group compared with a significant relationship between posterior (primarily right) theta and reaction time in the continuous performance test for the control group. These results indicate that spatial neurophysiologic deficits in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may be related to disturbances in signal detection. This observation has important implications for the role of trait-like biologic deficits in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder predicting performance in information processing.

  19. Search for Theta+ at CLAS in gamma n ---> Theta+ K-.

    SciTech Connect

    N.A. Baltzell; D.J. Tedeschi

    2006-06-01

    The existence of pentaquarks is being studied in recent experiments at Jefferson Lab. This analysis investigates the reaction gamma d --> Theta^+K^-(p) with the Theta^+ decaying to pK^0. Produced with a tagged photon beam of endpoint energy 3.6 GeV incident on a 24 cm liquid deuterium target, the pK^0_sK^-(p) final state is measured exclusively. With well defined strangeness and no neutral meson background, this channel is an important place to look for the Theta^+. However, it contains large contributions from hyperons produced via gamma n --> Y*K^0, and the effects of mesons are also present in the K^0K^- system. The current focus is on understanding these backgrounds.

  20. REM Sleep Theta Changes in Frequent Nightmare Recallers.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Louis-Philippe; Paquette, Tyna; Blanchette-Carrière, Cloé; Dumel, Gaëlle; Nielsen, Tore

    2017-09-01

    To replicate and expand upon past research by evaluating sleep and wake electroencephalographic spectral activity in samples of frequent nightmare (NM) recallers and healthy controls. Computation of spectral activity for sleep (non-REM and REM) and wake electroencephalogram recordings from 18 frequent NM recallers and 15 control participants. There was higher "slow-theta" (2-5 Hz) for NM recallers than for controls during wake, non-REM sleep and REM sleep. Differences were clearest for frontal and central derivations and for REM sleep cycles 2-4. There was also higher beta activity during NREM sleep for NM recallers. Findings partially replicate past research by demonstrating higher relative "slow-theta" (3-4Hz) for NM recallers than for controls. Findings are consistent with a neurocognitive model of nightmares that stipulates cross-state anomalies in emotion processing in NM-prone individuals.

  1. Midline and off-midline infratentorial supracerebellar approaches to the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Baydin, Serhat; Güngör, Abuzer; Miki, Koichi; Komune, Noritaka; Kurogi, Ryota; Iihara, Koji; Rhoton, Albert L

    2016-10-07

    OBJECTIVE A common approach to lesions of the pineal region is along the midline below the torcula. However, reports of how shifting the approach off midline affects the surgical exposure and relationships between the tributaries of the vein of Galen are limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the microsurgical and endoscopic anatomy of the pineal region as seen through the supracerebellar infratentorial approaches, including midline, paramedian, lateral, and far-lateral routes. METHODS The quadrigeminal cisterns of 8 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and straight endoscope. Twenty CT angiograms were examined to measure the depth of the pineal gland, slope of the tentorial surface of the cerebellum, and angle of approach to the pineal gland in each approach. RESULTS The midline supracerebellar route is the shortest and provides direct exposure of the pineal gland, although the culmen and inferior and superior vermian tributaries of the vein of Galen frequently block this exposure. The off-midline routes provide a surgical exposure that, although slightly deeper, may reduce the need for venous sacrifice at both the level of the veins from the superior cerebellar surface entering the tentorial sinuses and at the level of the tributaries of the vein of Galen in the quadrigeminal cistern, and require less cerebellar retraction. Shifting from midline to off-midline exposure also provides a better view of the cerebellomesencephalic fissure, collicular plate, and trochlear nerve than the midline approaches. Endoscopic assistance may aid exposure of the pineal gland while preserving the bridging veins. CONCLUSIONS Understanding the characteristics of different infratentorial routes to the pineal gland will aid in gaining a better view of the pineal gland and cerebellomesencephalic fissure and may reduce the need for venous sacrifice at the level of the tentorial sinuses draining the upper

  2. Decreased theta power at encoding and cognitive mapping deficits in elderly individuals during a spatial memory task.

    PubMed

    Lithfous, Ségolène; Tromp, Delphine; Dufour, André; Pebayle, Thierry; Goutagny, Romain; Després, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of theta activity in cognitive mapping, and to determine whether age-associated decreased theta power may account for navigational difficulties in elderly individuals. Cerebral activity was recorded using electroencephalograph in young and older individuals performing a spatial memory task that required the creation of cognitive maps. Power spectra were computed in the frontal and parietal regions and correlated with recognition performance. We found that accuracy of cognitive mapping was positively correlated with left frontal theta activity during encoding in young adults but not in older individuals. Compared with young adults, older participants were impaired in the creation of cognitive maps and showed reduced theta and alpha activity at encoding. These results suggest that encoding processes are impaired in older individual, which may explain age-related cognitive mapping deficits.

  3. Frontal Lobe Lipoma Associated with Cortical Dysplasia and Abnormal Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Baskan, Ozdil; Geyik, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intracranial lipomas (ICLs) are rare lesions, the vast majority encountered as incidental findings on imaging studies. ICLs are generally pericallosal midline lesions and thought to be asymptomatic and can be accompanied by additional intracranial congenital malformations. We describe a 17-year old male with an unusual case of ICL on the frontal lobe associated with cortical dysplasia and abnormal vasculature mimicking arteriovenous malformation on magnetic resonance images. PMID:25489889

  4. Spontaneous closure of midline diastema following frenectomy.

    PubMed

    Koora, Kiran; Muthu, M S; Rathna, Prabhu V

    2007-03-01

    Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic problem in mixed and early permanent dentitions. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenical factors. Many innovative therapies varying from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomies) and orthodontics are available. Although literature says every frenectomy procedure should be preceded by orthodontic treatment, we opted for frenectomy technique without any orthodontic intervention. Presented herewith is a case report of a 9-year-old girl with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. A spontaneous closure of the midline diastema was noted within 2 months following frenectomy. The patient was followed up for 4 months after which the space remained closed and there was no necessity for an orthodontic treatment at a later stage.

  5. The effects of theta transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Pahor, Anja; Jaušovec, Norbert

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on resting brain activity and on measures of fluid intelligence. Theta tACS was applied to the left parietal and left frontal brain areas of healthy participants after which resting electroencephalogram (EEG) data was recorded. Following sham/active stimulation, the participants solved two tests of fluid intelligence while their EEG was recorded. The results showed that active theta tACS affected spectral power in theta and alpha frequency bands. In addition, active theta tACS improved performance on tests of fluid intelligence. This influence was more pronounced in the group of participants that received stimulation to the left parietal area than in the group of participants that received stimulation to the left frontal area. Left parietal tACS increased performance on the difficult test items of both tests (RAPM and PF&C) whereas left frontal tACS increased performance only on the easy test items of one test (RAPM). The observed behavioral tACS influences were also accompanied by changes in neuroelectric activity. The behavioral and neuroelectric data tentatively support the P-FIT neurobiological model of intelligence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Event-related theta oscillations during working memory tasks in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Schmiedt, C; Brand, A; Hildebrandt, H; Basar-Eroglu, C

    2005-12-01

    Altered frontal lobe activity and executive control associated with working memory (WM) dysfunction are recognized as core deficits in schizophrenia. These impairments have been discussed as being associated with deficits in self-regulated action monitoring and anticipatory action plan generation. To study electrophysiological correlates of executive control -- specifically action monitoring and action rule switching -- under varying WM load, we used a paradigm derived from classic N-back (WM) tasks and requiring monitoring of simple actions. We focused on event-related changes in post-stimulus theta oscillatory activity during varying cognitive and WM demand in healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. The results show significant WM load and rule-switching-related increases of post-stimulus theta amplitude at fronto-central locations in controls. In patients with schizophrenia, there was no such modulation, but -- apart from an increased early theta at left temporal locations -- generally reduced late theta responses in all tasks and at all locations. Furthermore, the patients with schizophrenia showed significant differences in their error patterns, which imply differences in automation and anticipation of actions between controls and patients. These findings suggest that theta oscillations are involved in mediating frontal lobe activity and functions related to enhanced executive control. We conclude that the patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in acquiring a mental task set which appear to be associated with impairments in action monitoring and task-specific regulation of executive control.

  7. swot: Super W Of Theta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupon, Jean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Kilbinger, Martin; Medezinski, Elinor

    2017-07-01

    SWOT (Super W Of Theta) computes two-point statistics for very large data sets, based on “divide and conquer” algorithms, mainly, but not limited to data storage in binary trees, approximation at large scale, parellelization (open MPI), and bootstrap and jackknife resampling methods “on the fly”. It currently supports projected and 3D galaxy auto and cross correlations, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and weighted histograms.

  8. Mechanisms of Theta Plasmid Replication.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Joshua; Camps, Manel

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are autonomously replicating pieces of DNA. This article discusses theta plasmid replication, which is a class of circular plasmid replication that includes ColE1-like origins of replication popular with expression vectors. All modalities of theta plasmid replication initiate synthesis with the leading strand at a predetermined site and complete replication through recruitment of the host's replisome, which extends the leading strand continuously while synthesizing the lagging strand discontinuously. There are clear differences between different modalities of theta plasmid replication in mechanisms of DNA duplex melting and in priming of leading- and lagging-strand synthesis. In some replicons duplex melting depends on transcription, while other replicons rely on plasmid-encoded trans-acting proteins (Reps); primers for leading-strand synthesis can be generated through processing of a transcript or in other replicons by the action of host- or plasmid-encoded primases. None of these processes require DNA breaks. The frequency of replication initiation is tightly regulated to facilitate establishment in permissive hosts and to achieve a steady state. The last section of the article reviews how plasmid copy number is sensed and how this feedback modulates the frequency of replication.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitor for NUT midline carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maher, Ossama M; Christensen, Anthony M; Yedururi, Sireesha; Bell, Diana; Tarek, Nidale

    2015-04-01

    NUT Midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare and invariably fatal poorly differentiated carcinoma characterized by chromosomal rearrangement involving the nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) gene. Current approaches do not provide durable response. We report a case of widely metastatic NMC in a 17-year-old female who, following an initial response to combination chemotherapy developed rapid disease progression. Treatment with vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) resulted in an objective response, yet she died in less than one year from initial diagnosis. This report shows a potentially promising activity of HDACi in the treatment of NMC that needs further exploration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Orthodontic Management of Midline Diastema in Mixed Dentition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Shetty, Raghvendra M; Dixit, Uma; Mallikarjun, K; Kohli, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Midline diastema is a space between the central incisors. Although physiologic transitory maxillary midline diastema is observed in children during eruption of maxillary anterior teeth in most cases, it is self-corrected after eruption of maxillary canines. However, midline diastema unrelated to the eruption of teeth has been observed owing to various etiologic factors. Treatment to align the central incisors depends on the predisposing factors.

  11. Midline thalamic reuniens lesions improve executive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Prasad, J A; Abela, A R; Chudasama, Y

    2017-03-14

    The role of the thalamus in complex cognitive behavior is a topic of increasing interest. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the nucleus reuniens (NRe), a midline thalamic nucleus interconnected with both hippocampal and prefrontal circuitry, lead to enhancement of executive behaviors typically associated with the prefrontal cortex. Rats were tested on four behavioral tasks: (1) the combined attention-memory (CAM) task, which simultaneously assessed attention to a visual target and memory for that target over a variable delay; (2) spatial memory using a radial arm maze, (3) discrimination and reversal learning using a touchscreen operant platform, and (4) decision-making with delayed outcomes. Following NRe lesions, the animals became more efficient in their performance, responding with shorter reaction times but also less impulsively than controls. This change, combined with a decrease in perseverative responses, led to focused attention in the CAM task and accelerated learning in the visual discrimination task. There were no observed changes in tasks involving either spatial memory or value-based decision making. These data complement ongoing efforts to understand the role of midline thalamic structures in human cognition, including the development of thalamic stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for acquired cognitive disabilities (Schiff, 2008; Mair et al., 2011), and point to the NRe as a potential target for clinical intervention.

  12. Misleading EEG Lateralization Associated With Midline Shift.

    PubMed

    Ghearing, Gena R; Abramovici, Sergiu; Popescu, Alexandra; Baldwin, Maria E

    2017-07-04

    Midline discharges, lateralized periodic discharges, and seizures have been described with ipsilateral lesions that result in midline shift (MLS). Periodic discharges and seizures arising contralateral to a known lesion have not previously been described as a sign of MLS. We present four patients with focal brain lesions, resulting in MLS and epileptiform discharges arising from the contralateral hemisphere. Patient 1 underwent a right anterior temporal lobectomy. On postoperative day 2, computed tomography demonstrated a right to left MLS of 12 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Patient 2 experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was more prominent on the left. Computed tomography after craniotomy demonstrated left to right MLS of 6 mm, and EEG was remarkable for right lateralized periodic discharges. Patient 3 had a right subdural hematoma and underwent craniotomy for evacuation. On postoperative day 3, computed tomography demonstrated a right MLS of 7 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Patient 4 had traumatic brain hemorrhages with maximal left frontotemporal involvement. Six days after the trauma, computed tomography was significant for left to right MLS of 9 mm, and EEG showed right lateralized periodic discharges. Epileptiform discharges and seizures occurring contralateral to a known lesion may be an indicator of MLS.

  13. Why don't you like me? Midfrontal theta power in response to unexpected peer rejection feedback.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, M J W; Dekkers, L M S; Westenberg, P M; van der Veen, F M; van der Molen, M W

    2017-02-01

    Social connectedness theory posits that the brain processes social rejection as a threat to survival. Recent electrophysiological evidence suggests that midfrontal theta (4-8Hz) oscillations in the EEG provide a window on the processing of social rejection. Here we examined midfrontal theta dynamics (power and inter-trial phase synchrony) during the processing of social evaluative feedback. We employed the Social Judgment paradigm in which 56 undergraduate women (mean age=19.67 years) were asked to communicate their expectancies about being liked vs. disliked by unknown peers. Expectancies were followed by feedback indicating social acceptance vs. rejection. Results revealed a significant increase in EEG theta power to unexpected social rejection feedback. This EEG theta response could be source-localized to brain regions typically reported during activation of the saliency network (i.e., dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, inferior frontal gyrus, frontal pole, and the supplementary motor area). Theta phase dynamics mimicked the behavior of the time-domain averaged feedback-related negativity (FRN) by showing stronger phase synchrony for feedback that was unexpected vs. expected. Theta phase, however, differed from the FRN by also displaying stronger phase synchrony in response to rejection vs. acceptance feedback. Together, this study highlights distinct roles for midfrontal theta power and phase synchrony in response to social evaluative feedback. Our findings contribute to the literature by showing that midfrontal theta oscillatory power is sensitive to social rejection but only when peer rejection is unexpected, and this theta response is governed by a widely distributed neural network implicated in saliency detection and conflict monitoring.

  14. Treatment of giant congenital cysts of the midline in adults: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, Liverana; Mattogno, Pier Paolo; Bianchi, Federico; Pallini, Roberto; Fernandez, Eduardo; Doglietto, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background: Giant cysts of the midline, not associated to a tumor, are exceptional finding in the brain of adults. Here we present two cases of symptomatic giant cerebral cysts of the midline occurred in an elderly and in a young adult patients both treated with mini-invasive unilateral neuroendoscopic procedure. In the recent literature (since 1999) similar cases have not been reported. Beside the clinical report, review of literature and major anatomical features of the region are described. Case Description: These two adults (82 and 41 years old respectively) had a slow progressive development of headache, gait disturbances, memory impairment and urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed giant cyst of the midline and hydrocephalus. Surgery with the endoscopic procedure, through a right frontal burr hole, was followed by clinical and radiological improvement. Conclusion: Giant cerebral cysts of the midline in adults can be successfully treated through a neuroendoscopic monolateral approach that comprehends multiple openings, diffuse coagulation of the capsule, and careful releasing of capsule-ependyma adherences. Knowledge of major anatomical and developmental details of the septal region is necessary to avoid complication in a mini-invasive surgical procedure. PMID:26421217

  15. A KCNJ6 gene polymorphism modulates theta oscillations during reward processing.

    PubMed

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Chorlian, David B; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T; Edenberg, Howard J; Wetherill, Leah; Schuckit, Marc; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Tischfield, Jay A; Porjesz, Bernice

    2017-05-01

    Event related oscillations (EROs) are heritable measures of neurocognitive function that have served as useful phenotype in genetic research. A recent family genome-wide association study (GWAS) by the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) found that theta EROs during visual target detection were associated at genome-wide levels with several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including a synonymous SNP, rs702859, in the KCNJ6 gene that encodes GIRK2, a G-protein inward rectifying potassium channel that regulates excitability of neuronal networks. The present study examined the effect of the KCNJ6 SNP (rs702859), previously associated with theta ERO to targets in a visual oddball task, on theta EROs during reward processing in a monetary gambling task. The participants were 1601 adolescent and young adult offspring within the age-range of 17-25years (800 males and 801 females) from high-dense alcoholism families as well as control families of the COGA prospective study. Theta ERO power (3.5-7.5Hz, 200-500ms post-stimulus) was compared across genotype groups. ERO theta power at central and parietal regions increased as a function of the minor allele (A) dose in the genotype (AA>AG>GG) in both loss and gain conditions. These findings indicate that variations in the KCNJ6 SNP influence magnitude of theta oscillations at posterior loci during the evaluation of loss and gain, reflecting a genetic influence on neuronal circuits involved in reward-processing. Increased theta power as a function of minor allele dose suggests more efficient cognitive processing in those carrying the minor allele of the KCNJ6 SNPs. Future studies are needed to determine the implications of these genetic effects on posterior theta EROs as possible "protective" factors, or as indices of delays in brain maturation (i.e., lack of frontalization). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conservation of arthropod midline netrin accumulation revealed with a cross-reactive antibody provides evidence for midline cell homology.

    PubMed

    Simanton, Wendy; Clark, Stephanie; Clemons, Anthony; Jacowski, Caitlin; Farrell-VanZomeren, Adrienne; Beach, Paul; Browne, William E; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Although many similarities in arthropod CNS development exist, differences in axonogenesis and the formation of midline cells, which regulate axon growth, have been observed. For example, axon growth patterns in the ventral nerve cord of Artemia franciscana differ from that of Drosophila melanogaster. Despite such differences, conserved molecular marker expression at the midline of several arthropod species indicates that midline cells may be homologous in distantly related arthropods. However, data from additional species are needed to test this hypothesis. In this investigation, nerve cord formation and the putative homology of midline cells were examined in distantly related arthropods, including: long- and short-germ insects (D. melanogaster, Aedes aeygypti, and Tribolium castaneum), branchiopod crustaceans (A. franciscana and Triops longicauditus), and malacostracan crustaceans (Porcellio laevis and Parhyale hawaiensis). These comparative analyses were aided by a cross-reactive antibody generated against the Netrin (Net) protein, a midline cell marker and regulator of axonogenesis. The mechanism of nerve cord formation observed in Artemia is found in Triops, another branchiopod, but is not found in the other arthropods examined. Despite divergent mechanisms of midline cell formation and nerve cord development, Net accumulation is detected in a well-conserved subset of midline cells in branchiopod crustaceans, malacostracan crustaceans, and insects. Notably, the Net accumulation pattern is also conserved at the midline of the amphipod P. hawaiensis, which undergoes split germ-band development. Conserved Net accumulation patterns indicate that arthropod midline cells are homologous, and that Nets function to regulate commissure formation during CNS development of Tetraconata.

  17. Pentaquark spectroscopy: exotic {theta} baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Bijker, R.; Giannini, M.M.; Santopinto, E.

    2004-09-13

    We propose a collective stringlike model of q4q-bar pentaquarks with the geometry of an equilateral tetrahedron in which the four quarks are located at the four corners and the antiquark in its center. The nonplanar equilibrium configuration is a consequence of the permutation symmetry of the four quarks. In an application to the spectrum of exotic {theta} baryons, we find that the ground state pentaquark has angular momentum and parity Jp 1/2- and a small magnetic moment of 0.382 {mu}N. The decay width is suppressed by the spatial overlap with the decay products.

  18. Midline synovial and ganglion cysts causing neurogenic claudication

    PubMed Central

    Pindrik, Jonathan; Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Maleki, Zahra; Bydon, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Typically situated posterolateral in the spinal canal, intraspinal facet cysts often cause radicular symptoms. Rarely, the midline location of these synovial or ganglion cysts may cause thecal sac compression leading to neurogenic claudication or cauda equina syndrome. This article summarizes the clinical presentation, radiographic appearance, and management of three intraspinal, midline facet cysts. Three patients with symptomatic midline intraspinal facet cysts were retrospectively reviewed. Documented clinical visits, operative notes, histopathology reports, and imaging findings were investigated for each patient. One patient presented with neurogenic claudication while two patients developed partial, subacute cauda equina syndrome. All 3 patients initially responded favorably to lumbar decompression and midline cyst resection; however, one patient required surgical stabilization 8 mo later. Following the three case presentations, we performed a thorough literature search in order to identify articles describing intraspinal cystic lesions in lateral or midline locations. Midline intraspinal facet cysts represent an uncommon cause of lumbar stenosis and thecal sac compression. Such entities should enter the differential diagnosis of midline posterior cystic lesions. Midline cysts causing thecal sac compression respond favorably to lumbar surgical decompression and cyst resection. Though laminectomy is a commonly performed operation, stabilization may be required in cases of spondylolisthesis or instability. PMID:24364023

  19. Midline synovial and ganglion cysts causing neurogenic claudication.

    PubMed

    Pindrik, Jonathan; Macki, Mohamed; Bydon, Mohamad; Maleki, Zahra; Bydon, Ali

    2013-12-16

    Typically situated posterolateral in the spinal canal, intraspinal facet cysts often cause radicular symptoms. Rarely, the midline location of these synovial or ganglion cysts may cause thecal sac compression leading to neurogenic claudication or cauda equina syndrome. This article summarizes the clinical presentation, radiographic appearance, and management of three intraspinal, midline facet cysts. Three patients with symptomatic midline intraspinal facet cysts were retrospectively reviewed. Documented clinical visits, operative notes, histopathology reports, and imaging findings were investigated for each patient. One patient presented with neurogenic claudication while two patients developed partial, subacute cauda equina syndrome. All 3 patients initially responded favorably to lumbar decompression and midline cyst resection; however, one patient required surgical stabilization 8 mo later. Following the three case presentations, we performed a thorough literature search in order to identify articles describing intraspinal cystic lesions in lateral or midline locations. Midline intraspinal facet cysts represent an uncommon cause of lumbar stenosis and thecal sac compression. Such entities should enter the differential diagnosis of midline posterior cystic lesions. Midline cysts causing thecal sac compression respond favorably to lumbar surgical decompression and cyst resection. Though laminectomy is a commonly performed operation, stabilization may be required in cases of spondylolisthesis or instability.

  20. Management of congenital midline cervical cleft.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Colin W; Benson, Alex D; Verchere, Cynthia G; Ludemann, Jeffrey P; Arneja, Jugpal S

    2012-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare developmental defect of the anterior neck normally characterized by an atrophic mucosal plaque with a cranial nipple-like skin tag, a short caudal sinus, and may be attached to a subcutaneous fibrous cord of variable length. Clinically, patients present at an early age with, white females being the most commonly affected population. In addition to aesthetic concerns, CMCC can prevent full extension of the neck, result in micrognathia and torticollis, predispose patients to infection, and can coexist with other clefting defects or cysts. Fewer than 50 cases have been published in the English-language literature. Herein, we report a case of CMCC that also presented with a mild contracture of the right sternohyoid muscle. The embryopathogenesis, histopathology, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare condition are also discussed.

  1. EEG theta and Mu oscillations during perception of human and robot actions

    PubMed Central

    Urgen, Burcu A.; Plank, Markus; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Poizner, Howard; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    The perception of others’ actions supports important skills such as communication, intention understanding, and empathy. Are mechanisms of action processing in the human brain specifically tuned to process biological agents? Humanoid robots can perform recognizable actions, but can look and move differently from humans, and as such, can be used in experiments to address such questions. Here, we recorded EEG as participants viewed actions performed by three agents. In the Human condition, the agent had biological appearance and motion. The other two conditions featured a state-of-the-art robot in two different appearances: Android, which had biological appearance but mechanical motion, and Robot, which had mechanical appearance and motion. We explored whether sensorimotor mu (8–13 Hz) and frontal theta (4–8 Hz) activity exhibited selectivity for biological entities, in particular for whether the visual appearance and/or the motion of the observed agent was biological. Sensorimotor mu suppression has been linked to the motor simulation aspect of action processing (and the human mirror neuron system, MNS), and frontal theta to semantic and memory-related aspects. For all three agents, action observation induced significant attenuation in the power of mu oscillations, with no difference between agents. Thus, mu suppression, considered an index of MNS activity, does not appear to be selective for biological agents. Observation of the Robot resulted in greater frontal theta activity compared to the Android and the Human, whereas the latter two did not differ from each other. Frontal theta thus appears to be sensitive to visual appearance, suggesting agents that are not sufficiently biological in appearance may result in greater memory processing demands for the observer. Studies combining robotics and neuroscience such as this one can allow us to explore neural basis of action processing on the one hand, and inform the design of social robots on the other. PMID

  2. EEG theta and Mu oscillations during perception of human and robot actions.

    PubMed

    Urgen, Burcu A; Plank, Markus; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Poizner, Howard; Saygin, Ayse P

    2013-01-01

    The perception of others' actions supports important skills such as communication, intention understanding, and empathy. Are mechanisms of action processing in the human brain specifically tuned to process biological agents? Humanoid robots can perform recognizable actions, but can look and move differently from humans, and as such, can be used in experiments to address such questions. Here, we recorded EEG as participants viewed actions performed by three agents. In the Human condition, the agent had biological appearance and motion. The other two conditions featured a state-of-the-art robot in two different appearances: Android, which had biological appearance but mechanical motion, and Robot, which had mechanical appearance and motion. We explored whether sensorimotor mu (8-13 Hz) and frontal theta (4-8 Hz) activity exhibited selectivity for biological entities, in particular for whether the visual appearance and/or the motion of the observed agent was biological. Sensorimotor mu suppression has been linked to the motor simulation aspect of action processing (and the human mirror neuron system, MNS), and frontal theta to semantic and memory-related aspects. For all three agents, action observation induced significant attenuation in the power of mu oscillations, with no difference between agents. Thus, mu suppression, considered an index of MNS activity, does not appear to be selective for biological agents. Observation of the Robot resulted in greater frontal theta activity compared to the Android and the Human, whereas the latter two did not differ from each other. Frontal theta thus appears to be sensitive to visual appearance, suggesting agents that are not sufficiently biological in appearance may result in greater memory processing demands for the observer. Studies combining robotics and neuroscience such as this one can allow us to explore neural basis of action processing on the one hand, and inform the design of social robots on the other.

  3. Theta dynamics reveal domain-specific control over stimulus and response conflict.

    PubMed

    Nigbur, Roland; Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Stürmer, Birgit

    2012-05-01

    Cognitive control allows us to adjust to environmental changes. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) is thought to detect conflicts and recruit additional resources from other brain areas including the lateral prefrontal cortices. Here we investigated how the MFC acts in concert with visual, motor, and lateral prefrontal cortices to support adaptations of goal-directed behavior. Physiologically, these interactions may occur through local and long-range synchronized oscillation dynamics, particularly in the theta range (4-8 Hz). A speeded flanker task allowed us to investigate conflict-type-specific control networks for perceptual and response conflicts. Theta power over MFC was sensitive to both perceptual and response conflict. Interareal theta phase synchrony, however, indicated a selective enhancement specific for response conflicts between MFC and left frontal cortex as well as between MFC and the presumed motor cortex contralateral to the response hand. These findings suggest that MFC theta-band activity is both generally involved in conflict processing and specifically involved in linking a neural network controlling response conflict.

  4. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    PubMed

    Ali, R; Noma, U; Jansen, M; Smyth, D

    2010-12-01

    Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke's pouch. We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt's cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  5. Midline diastema and its aetiology--a review.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reji; Kamath, Geetha

    2014-06-01

    Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic complaint of patients. Treating the midline diastema is a matter of concern for practitioners, as many different aetiologies are reported to be associated with it. The appearance of midline diastema as part of the normal dental development makes it difficult for practitioners to decide whether to intervene or not at an early stage. The aim of this article is to review the possible aetiology and management options which will help the clinician to diagnose, intercept and to take effective action to correct the midline diastema. The available data shows that an early intervention is desirable in cases with large diastemas. Treatment modality, timing and retention protocol depends on the aetiology of the diastema. Therefore, priority needs to be given to diagnosing the aetiology before making any treatment decisions. Clinical Relevance: This article aims to determine and evaluate the aetiology and possible treatment options of midline diastema.

  6. Idiopathic midline destructive disease (IMDD): a subgroup of patients with the ''midline granuloma'' syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tsokos, M.; Fauci, A.S.; Costa, J.

    1982-02-01

    ''Midline granuloma syndrome'' encompasses a number of specific clinicopathologic entities, such as ''Wegener's granulomatosis, midline malignant reticulosis, lymphoma, nasal carcinoma and a broad spectrum of infectious diseases. In the course of studying a number of patients presenting with destructive lesions of the upper respiratory tract, 11 cases emerged as having unique clinicopathologic features. These are: 1) presence of locally destructive lesions which are always restricted to the upper respiratory tract. 2) Absence of systemic disease during a follow-up period of six months to 18 years (mean 7.3 years). On examination of repeated biopsy specimens the histopathologic picture consisted of acute and chronic inflammation with variable amounts of necrosis. Granulomata were seen in one case. Malignant or atypical cells were invariably absent. Frank vasculitis was not seen, although in five of the patients inflammatory cells in the wall of small vessels were conspicuous 4) Inability to demonstrate an infectious origin by culture or special stains. Radiation therapy has proven effective in patients with this entity, for which the term ''Idiopathic Midline Destructive Disease'' (IMDD) is proposed.

  7. Frontal lobe ataxia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    The precise anatomy and physiology of human walking remains poorly understood. The frontal lobes appear crucial, and, on the basis of clinical observation, contribute to the control of truncal motion, postural responses, and the maintenance of equilibrium and locomotion. The rich repertoire of frontal gait disorders gives some indication of this complexity. Variable combinations of disequilibrium with a wide stance base, increased body sway and falls, loss of control of truncal motion, locomotor disability with gait ignition failure, start hesitation, shuffling, and freezing are encountered in diseases of the frontal lobes. Furthermore, the pattern of gait may change as the frontal disease progresses. The slowness of walking, lack of heel-shin or upper limb ataxia, dysarthria or nystagmus distinguishes the wide stance base from cerebellar gait ataxia. A lively facial expression, normal voluntary movements of the upper limbs, upper motor neuron signs, and the absence of a rest tremor distinguish the hypokinetic elements from Parkinson's disease. Poor truncal mobility, impaired postural responses, and falls after the slightest perturbation eventually make walking impossible even though simple leg movements may still be possible while seated or lying. One or more of these features usually predominates in the initial presentation of a frontal gait syndrome. Accordingly, there is considerable variation in the manner of presentation and evolution of frontal gait disorders. The gait syndrome is accompanied by frontal motor and cognitive changes, which may be subtle or overshadowed by the gait disorder. This complexity of clinical presentation accounts for the plethora of descriptions from "frontal ataxia" to "gait apraxia". As suggested in the original descriptions of frontal ataxia, the spectrum of gait disturbance is likely to be due to damage to frontal cortex and its connections with subcortical structures including the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and the brainstem.

  8. Traveling Theta Waves in the Human Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Honghui

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal theta oscillation is strongly correlated with behaviors such as memory and spatial navigation, but we do not understand its specific functional role. One hint of theta's function came from the discovery in rodents that theta oscillations are traveling waves that allow parts of the hippocampus to simultaneously exhibit separate oscillatory phases. Because hippocampal theta oscillations in humans have different properties compared with rodents, we examined these signals directly using multielectrode recordings from neurosurgical patients. Our findings confirm that human hippocampal theta oscillations are traveling waves, but also show that these oscillations appear at a broader range of frequencies compared with rodents. Human traveling waves showed a distinctive pattern of spatial propagation such that there is a consistent phase spread across the hippocampus regardless of the oscillations' frequency. This suggests that traveling theta oscillations are important functionally in humans because they coordinate phase coding throughout the hippocampus in a consistent manner. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show for the first time in humans that hippocampal theta oscillations are traveling waves, moving along the length of the hippocampus in a posterior–anterior direction. The existence of these traveling theta waves is important for understanding hippocampal neural coding because they cause neurons at separate positions in the hippocampus to experience different theta phases simultaneously. The theta phase that a neuron measures is a key factor in how that cell represents behavioral information. Therefore, the existence of traveling theta waves indicates that, to fully understand how a hippocampal neuron represents information, it is vital to also account for that cell's location in addition to conventional measures of neural activity. PMID:26354915

  9. Frontal-posterior coherence and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Jessica I; Kuti, Julia; Brown, Jessica; Mahon, Jessica R; Gayda-Chelder, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The reliable measurement of brain health and cognitive function is essential in mitigating the negative effects associated with cognitive decline through early and accurate diagnosis of change. The present research explored the relationship between EEG coherence for electrodes within frontal and posterior regions, as well as coherence between frontal and posterior electrodes and performance on standard neuropsychological measures of memory and executive function. EEG coherence for eyes-closed resting-state EEG activity was calculated for delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Participants (N=66; mean age=67.15years) had their resting-state EEGs recorded and completed a neuropsychological battery that assessed memory and executive function, two cognitive domains that are significantly affected during aging. A positive relationship was observed between coherence within the frontal region and performance on measures of memory and executive function for delta and beta frequency bands. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed for coherence between frontal and posterior electrode pairs, particularly within the theta frequency band, and performance on Digit Span Sequencing, a measure of working memory. The present research supports a more substantial link between EEG coherence, rather than spectral power, and cognitive function. Continued study in this area may enable EEG to be applied broadly as a diagnostic measure of cognitive ability.

  10. Frontal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Bagla, Ritu; Skidmore, Christopher T

    2011-05-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is the second most common localization-related or focal epilepsy. Frontal lobe seizures are challenging to diagnose as the clinical manifestations are diverse due to the complexity and variability of the patterns of epileptic discharges, and the scalp electroencephalograph (EEG) can often be normal or misleading. This review focuses on the clinical and EEG features of seizures arising from the frontal lobe. The clinical manifestations in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy are varied. Frontal lobe seizures can be divided into perirolandic, supplementary sensorimotor area, dorsolateral, orbitofrontal, anterior frontopolar, opercular, and cingulate types. Seizures originating from the perirolandic and supplementary sensorimotor areas are clinically distinct, characterized by motor activity or asymmetric tonic posturing with preserved awareness. Seizures arising from dorsolateral, orbitofrontal, frontopolar, and cingulate areas are not as well characterized and have more variable clinical manifestations. Scalp EEG recording is sometimes helpful in localization but is usually normal or misleading in frontal lobe epilepsy. The treatment is similar to other localization-related or focal epilepsies. Medications are the first line of therapy, and surgery is considered for patients who fail to respond to medications. The surgical outcome in frontal lobe resections is less favorable than in anterior temporal lobectomies due to the challenge in locating the epileptogenic zone and the presence of functional areas (eloquent cortex) that can limit the resection. Frontal lobe seizures are characterized by diverse behavioral manifestations. Only a few well-described frontal lobe syndromes exist. The variety of clinical manifestations reflects both the varying sites of seizure origin and propagation routes that seizures may take. Although this review provides a framework for the understanding of these seizures, one should remain cautious in diagnosing seizure

  11. Reduction Formulae for Products of Theta Functions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    In four cases it is already known that the product of two distinct Jacobian theta functions having the same variable z and the same nome q is a multiple of a single Jacobian theta function, with the multiple independent of z. The main purpose of the present note is to show that this property also applies in the remaining two cases. PMID:26900529

  12. Photographic observations of Theta-1 Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, W. A.; Gull, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    Photographic observations of the eclipsing binary Theta-1 Ori A suggest a secondary minimum near phase 0.64 of its 65.43233-day period. This minimum may be wavelength dependent. The star Theta-1 Ori E is suspected of being variable.

  13. Perception of maxillary dental midline shift in asymmetric faces.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno Pereira; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Martinez-de-Fuentes, Rafael; Fernandez, Ana Aida Vilches; Chu, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine whether certain facial asymmetries (nose and chin) have an impact on the perception of the maxillary dental midline shift. From a digitally created symmetric facial model (SFM) constructed in a previous study, a new asymmetric facial model (AFM) was created, with nose and chin deviated to the same side. Modifications were made on the AFM for shifts in the maxillary dental midline in both directions, resulting in a total of eight different images. Through a web survey, 112 randomly selected laypersons were asked to evaluate each image according to their own personal beauty and esthetic criteria using a visual Likert scale. 1 mm of dental midline shift to the left of the AFM was not noticed; 1 mm of dental midline shift to the right of the AFM had a negative impact on perception of facial attractiveness; 2 and 3 mm of dental midline shift to left or right of the AFM had a negative impact on perception of facial attractiveness. Facial asymmetries such as nose and chin inclinations have an impact on the perception of maxillary dental midline shift. Direction of dental midline shift can be a major factor in this perception.

  14. The prognostic importance of midline involvement in oral tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shane; Yu, James B; Wilson, Lynn D; Judson, Benjamin L; Decker, Roy H

    2012-10-01

    To examine the importance of midline involvement and other clinicopathologic factors in predicting the rate of contralateral lymph node metastasis and survival in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data to identify a cohort of 5430 patients with laterally rising tumors. Clinicopathologic factors examined as potentially predictive of contralateral lymph node metastasis included extension to midline, T classification, anatomic site, grade, histologic subtype, race, age, and sex. Survival analysis included the above factors plus lymph node status. T1 tumors and lateral T2 and T3 tumors had rates of contralateral lymph node metastasis ranging from 0.7% to 0.9% on presentation. T4 lesions and midline crossing T2 and T3 lesions had corresponding rates of 8.3% to 13.0%. Primary extension across the midline was associated with a mean survival about half that of strictly lateral tumors and its significance was maintained in multivariate analysis. Patients with T1 disease or T2-3 disease that does not cross midline are in a different prognostic class from patients with T2-3 disease that crosses midline or T4 tumors. These results give the strongest evidence to date that involvement of the midline is a powerful predictor for decreased survival in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. The Midline Catheter: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Daniel Z; Little, Andrew; Vinsant, Charles; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2016-09-01

    Venous access in the emergency department (ED) is an often under-appreciated procedural skill given the frequency of its use. The patient's clinical status, ongoing need for laboratory investigation, and intravenous therapeutics guide the size, type, and placement of the catheter. The availability of trained personnel and dedicated teams using ultrasound-guided insertion techniques in technically difficult situations may also impact the selection. Appropriate device selection is warranted on initial patient contact to minimize risk and cost. To compare venous access device indications and complications, highlighting the use of midline catheters as a potentially cost-effective and safe approach for venous access in the ED. Midline catheters (MC) offer a comparable rate of device-related bloodstream infection to standard peripheral intravenous catheters (PIV), but with a significantly lower rate than peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) and central venous catheters (CVC) (PIV 0.2/1000, MC 0.5/1000, PICC 2.1-2.3/1000, CVC 2.4-2.7/1000 catheter days). The average dwell time of a MC is reported as 7.69-16.4 days, which far exceeds PIVs (2.9-4.1 days) and is comparable to PICCs (7.3-16.6 days). Cost of insertion of a MC has been cited as comparable to three PIVs, and their use has been associated with significant cost savings when placed to avoid prolonged central venous access with CVCs or in patients with difficult-to-access peripheral veins. Placement of a MC includes modified Seldinger and accelerated, or all-in-one, Seldinger techniques with or without ultrasound guidance, with a high rate of first-attempt success. The MC is a versatile venous access device with a low complication rate, long dwell time, and high rate of first-attempt placement. Its utilization in the ED in patients deemed to require prolonged hospitalization or to have difficult-to-access peripheral vasculature could reduce cost and risk to patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. The suboccipital midline approach to foramen magnum meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; Rustemi, Oriela; Scienza, Renato

    2015-05-01

    Anterior and anterolateral meningiomas of the foramen magnum (FM) can be resected either through extensive skull base approaches or through the classical suboccipital midline approach with limited bone removal. This paper describes the suboccipital midline approach focusing on some peculiar technical features that serve to achieve the necessary space for safe resection of these challenging tumors. In our experience, by adopting appropriate strategies to gain space (some of them natural, others acquired) the suboccipital midline approach can achieve the safe resection of anterior and anterolateral FM meningiomas in the majority of cases.

  17. Three Ways in Which Midline Regions Contribute to Self-Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Flagan, Taru; Beer, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    An integration of existing research and newly conducted psychophysiological interaction (PPI) connectivity analyses suggest a new framework for understanding the contribution of midline regions to social cognition. Recent meta-analyses suggest that there are no midline regions that are exclusively associated with self-processing. Whereas medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is broadly modulated by self-processing, subdivisions within MPFC are differentially modulated by the evaluation of close others (ventral MPFC: BA 10/32) and the evaluation of other social targets (dorsal MPFC: BA 9/32). The role of DMPFC in social cognition may also be less uniquely social than previously thought; it may be better characterized as a region that indexes certainty about evaluation rather than previously considered social mechanisms (i.e., correction of self-projection). VMPFC, a region often described as an important mediator of socioemotional significance, may instead perform a more cognitive role by reflecting the type of information brought to bear on evaluations of people we know well. Furthermore, the new framework moves beyond MPFC and hypothesizes that two other midline regions, ventral anterior cingulate cortex (VACC: BA 25) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC: BA 11), aid motivational influences on social cognition. Despite the central role of motivation in psychological models of self-perception, neural models have largely ignored the topic. Positive connectivity between VACC and MOFC may mediate bottom-up sensitivity to information based on its potential for helping us evaluate ourselves or others the way we want. As connectivity becomes more positive with striatum and less positive with middle frontal gyrus (BA 9/44), MOFC mediates top-down motivational influences by adjusting the standards we bring to bear on evaluations of ourselves and other people. PMID:23935580

  18. Ectopia cordis and other midline defects.

    PubMed

    Morales, J M; Patel, S G; Duff, J A; Villareal, R L; Simpson, J W

    2000-07-01

    Thoracic ectopia cordis and other midline defects are rare congenital anomalies that often occur with other intracardiac defects. Despite significant improvements in neonatal and infant cardiac surgeries, operations for thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis carry an extremely high mortality with only a few reported survivors of thoracic ectopia cordis. The clinical charts of 4 patients with ectopia cordis over a 6-year period were reviewed. Three of the patients showed varying degrees of Cantrell's Pentalogy; thoracic ectopia cordis was found in 1. We have reviewed our surgical strategies and reported the patients' clinical outcomes. All 4 patients are alive at follow-up. Two infants with double-outlet right ventricle have been fully corrected, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was necessary in 1 infant for cardiac failure following the cardiac repair. A newborn with thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis underwent primary repair of his diaphragmatic defect, and a silo was used to progressively reduce the omphalocele. He is currently awaiting elective repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Lastly, the patient with thoracic ectopia cordis underwent successful soft tissue coverage, and she is being followed in the clinic with restrictive muscular ventricular septal defects and a left ventricular diverticulum. Our experience along with other reports in the literature demonstrates that patients with thoracic and thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis can undergo and survive full cardiac, neurologic, and abdominal repair during infancy. Furthermore we advocate different approaches determined by the severity of the presentation and the presence of other complicating factors.

  19. Comparative drug screening in NUT midline carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Beesley, A H; Stirnweiss, A; Ferrari, E; Endersby, R; Howlett, M; Failes, T W; Arndt, G M; Charles, A K; Cole, C H; Kees, U R

    2014-03-04

    The NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare but fatal cancer for which systematic testing of therapy options has never been performed. On the basis of disease biology, we compared the efficacy of the CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol (FP) with a panel of anticancer agents in NMC cell lines and mouse xenografts. In vitro anthracyclines, topoisomerase inhibitors, and microtubule poisons were among the most cytotoxic drug classes for NMC cells, while efficacy of the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 varied considerably between lines carrying different BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4)-NUT (nuclear protein in testis) translocations. Efficacy of FP was comparable to vincristine and doxorubicin, drugs that have been previously used in NMC patients. All three compounds showed significantly better activity than etoposide and vorinostat, agents that have also been used in NMC patients. Statins and antimetabolites demonstrated intermediate single-agent efficacy. In vivo, vincristine significantly inhibited tumour growth in two different NMC xenografts. Flavopiridol in vivo was significantly effective in one of the two NMC xenograft lines, demonstrating the biological heterogeneity of this disease. These results demonstrate that FP may be of benefit to a subset of patients with NMC, and warrant a continued emphasis on microtubule inhibitors, anthracyclines, and topoisomerase inhibitors as effective drug classes in this disease.

  20. Binary sensitivity of theta activity for gain and loss when monitoring parametric prediction errors.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Denise J C; Poljac, Edita; Bekkering, Harold

    2016-08-01

    Several theories have been proposed to account for the medial frontal activity that is elicited during the evaluation of outcomes. Respectively, these theories claim that the medial frontal response reflects (i) the absolute deviation between the value of an outcome and its expected value (i.e. an absolute prediction error); (ii) the deviation between actual and expected outcomes, with a specific sensitivity to outcomes that are worse than expected (i.e. a negative prediction error); (iii) a binary evaluation in terms of good and bad outcomes. In the current electroencephalography study, participants were presented with cues that induced specific predictions for the values of trial outcomes (a gain or loss of points). The actual outcomes occasionally deviated from the predicted values, producing prediction errors with parametrically varying size. Analysis of the medial frontal theta activity in response to the outcomes demonstrated a specific sensitivity to the occurrence of a loss of points when a gain had been predicted. However, the absolute deviation with respect to the predicted value did not modulate the theta response. This finding is consistent with the idea that outcome monitoring activity measured over medial frontal cortex is sensitive to the binary distinction between good and bad outcomes.

  1. Conservation of arthropod midline netrin accumulation revealed with a cross-reactive antibody provides evidence for midline cell homology

    PubMed Central

    Simanton, Wendy; Clark, Stephanie; Clemons, Anthony; Jacowski, Caitlin; Farrell-VanZomeren, Adrienne; Beach, Paul; Browne, William E.; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Although many similarities in arthropod CNS development exist, differences in axonogenesis and the formation of midline cells, which regulate axon growth, have been observed. For example, axon growth patterns in the ventral nerve cord of Artemia franciscana differ from that of Drosophila melanogaster. Despite such differences, conserved molecular marker expression at the midline of several arthropod species indicates that midline cells may be homologous in distantly related arthropods. However, data from additional species are needed to test this hypothesis. In this investigation, nerve cord formation and the putative homology of midline cells were examined in distantly related arthropods, including: long- and short-germ insects (D. melanogaster, Aedes aeygypti, and Tribolium castaneum), branchiopod crustaceans (A. franciscana and Triops longicauditus), and malacostracan crustaceans (Porcellio laevis and Parhyale hawaiensis). These comparative analyses were aided by a cross-reactive antibody generated against the Netrin (Net) protein, a midline cell marker and regulator of axonogenesis. The mechanism of nerve cord formation observed in Artemia is found in Triops, another branchiopod, but is not found in the other arthropods examined. Despite divergent mechanisms of midline cell formation and nerve cord development, Net accumulation is detected in a well-conserved subset of midline cells in branchiopod crustaceans, malacostracan crustaceans, and insects. Notably, the Net accumulation pattern is also conserved at the midline of the amphipod P. hawaiensis, which undergoes split germ-band development. Conserved Net accumulation patterns indicate that arthropod midline cells are homologous, and that Nets function to regulate commissure formation during CNS development of Tetraconata. PMID:19469853

  2. Role of midline frontolimbic cortex in production of the isolation call of squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    MacLean, P D; Newman, J D

    1988-05-31

    Since the separation cry of mammals serves to maintain (1) mother-offspring contact and (2) contact between members of a group, it probably ranks as a basic mammalian vocalization. The present study is part of an investigation concerned with identifying the cerebral representation of the separation call in squirrel monkeys. For this purpose, monkeys are tested for their ability to produce spontaneous calls in isolation before and after ablations of different parts of the brain. Because of the subject's auditory and visual isolation, the call emitted during testing is referred to as the isolation call. In a preceding study, it was shown that lesions at the thalamomidbrain junction and in the ventral central gray interfere with the structure and/or production of the call. The present study focuses on the rostral midline limbic cortex, known to be one of the two cortical areas where stimulation elicits vocalization in monkeys. Evidence derived by the process of elimination indicates that the spontaneous call depends on the concerted action of a continuous band of rostral limbic cortex comprising parts of areas 24, 25, and 12. The midline frontal neocortex peripheral to this limbic zone does not appear to be essential for the call.

  3. Medial and Superior Orbital Decompression: Improving Access for Endonasal Endoscopic Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Poczos, Pavel; Kurbanov, Almaz; Keller, Jeffrey T; Zimmer, Lee A

    2015-12-01

    Visualization by Draf I-III endoscopic access to the frontal sinus via drainage pathways is sometimes inadequate. We compare lateral frontal sinus exposures by Draf approaches versus our modification of removing the medial-superior wall of the orbit while preserving the periorbita. Twenty cadaveric heads dissected using Draf IIB, III, and modified Draf III with medial and superior orbital decompression (MSOD) underwent thin-cut computed tomography (CT) scanning. Under image guidance, measurements extended from the midline crista gali to the most lateral point of the frontal sinus. A case report shows the modified Draf III improved frontal sinus access. Comparing Draf IIB and III with Draf III with MSOD, respectively, distances between midline and most lateral point averaged 19.1 mm, 23.7 mm, and 30.4 mm (left) and 18.7 mm, 25.1 mm, and 32.2 mm (right). Differences between Draf III with/without MSOD were 6.65 mm (left) and 7.09 mm (right); 12 heads were excluded because of under-pneumatization of the sinuses. Draf III with MSOD extended surgical access to lateral regions of the frontal sinus. This extension achieved better visualization and instrumentation with minimal removal of the frontal bone's orbital segment anterior and superior to the anterior ethmoidal artery while preserving the periorbita. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Germinoma with Involvement of Midline and Off-Midline Intracranial Structures

    PubMed Central

    Loto, Monica Graciela; Danilowicz, Karina; González Abbati, Santiago; Torino, Rafael; Misiunas, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Germinomas are malignant intracranial germ tumors, usually found in suprasellar regions. Less than 10% are localized in off-middle structures, and synchronous involvement of both structures has only exceptionally been published. A case of an 18-year-old male patient with progressive right-sided hemiparesis and panhypopituitarism was reviewed. Brain MRI showed a solid mass involving pituitary and hypothalamus with thickening of pituitary stalk, high intensity lesions on T2-weighted imaging in left internal capsule, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and mild atrophy of the left internal capsule and cerebral peduncle. Nonadenomatous lesions were considered in the differential diagnosis. Alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were negative in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), while β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG) levels were slightly increased in CSF. A transsphenoidal biopsy identified a germinoma. Four cycles of chemotherapy with bleomicine, etoposide, and cysplatin were given, followed by radiotherapy, but patients died due to a recidiva. Conclusion. Germinoma must be considered in patients with insipidus diabetes with a sellar mass with thickening of pituitary stalk; and ectopic germinoma must be suspected in patients with slowly progressive hemiparesis with cerebral hemiatrophy. Even with a rare condition, colocalization of midline and off-midline germinoma must be suspected in the presence of these typical signs of both localizations. PMID:24660074

  5. Can parturients identify the midline during neuraxial block placement?

    PubMed

    Marroquin, Bridget M; Fecho, Karamarie; Salo-Coombs, Victoria; Spielman, Fred J

    2011-02-01

    To determine whether parturients can reliably identify their midline during epidural or spinal needle insertion, and to determine whether parturient feedback helps the anesthesiologist successfully identify the midline. Survey instrument completed by anesthesiologists. Labor and delivery unit of a university-based, tertiary-care hospital. Completed questionnaires were obtained for 554 of 904 (61.3%) neuraxial blocks. Data were collected on the type of neuraxial block, number of needle redirections required to identify the midline, the patient's height and weight, the patient's position during block placement, whether the patient was questioned for assistance identifying the midline, and if so, how helpful the patient was in redirecting the needle to locate the epidural or subarachnoid space. The anesthesiologist requested the assistance of 194 patients (35.0%) for needle location. Of those questioned, the anesthesiologist reported 128 instances (66.0%) when the patient's response was helpful in identification of the midline. Morbidly obese parturients (BMI > 35 kg/m²) were questioned more often than their non-morbidly obese counterparts (48.9% vs. 30.5%; P < 0.0005). Of those morbidly obese parturients who were questioned (n = 64), 76.6% were reported by the anesthesiologist to be helpful. Most patients, including morbidly obese patients, are helpful in identifying the midline during neuraxial anesthesia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Crossing the embryonic midline: molecular mechanisms regulating axon responsiveness at an intermediate target

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus-Follini, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In bilaterally symmetric animals, the precise assembly of neural circuitry at the midline is essential for coordination of the left and right sides of the body. Commissural axons must first be directed across the midline and then be prevented from re-crossing in order to ensure proper midline connectivity. Here, we review the attractants and repellents that direct axonal navigation at the ventral midline and the receptors on commissural neurons through which they signal. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms that commissural axons use to switch their responsiveness to midline-derived cues, so that they are initially responsive to midline attractants and subsequently responsive to midline repellents. PMID:25779002

  7. Hippocampal theta sequences reflect current goals.

    PubMed

    Wikenheiser, Andrew M; Redish, A David

    2015-02-01

    Hippocampal information processing is discretized by oscillations, and the ensemble activity of place cells is organized into temporal sequences bounded by theta cycles. Theta sequences represent time-compressed trajectories through space. Their forward-directed nature makes them an intuitive candidate mechanism for planning future trajectories, but their connection to goal-directed behavior remains unclear. As rats performed a value-guided decision-making task, the extent to which theta sequences projected ahead of the animal's current location varied on a moment-by-moment basis depending on the rat's goals. Look-ahead extended farther on journeys to distant goals than on journeys to more proximal goals and was predictive of the animal's destination. On arrival at goals, however, look-ahead was similar regardless of where the animal began its journey from. Together, these results provide evidence that hippocampal theta sequences contain information related to goals or intentions, pointing toward a potential spatial basis for planning.

  8. Movement Enhances the Nonlinearity of Hippocampal Theta

    PubMed Central

    Sheremet, Alex; Burke, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear, metastable dynamics of the brain are essential for large-scale integration of smaller components and for the rapid organization of neurons in support of behavior. Therefore, understanding the nonlinearity of the brain is paramount for understanding the relationship between brain dynamics and behavior. Explicit quantitative descriptions of the properties and consequences of nonlinear neural networks, however, are rare. Because the local field potential (LFP) reflects the total activity across a population of neurons, nonlinearites of the nervous system should be quantifiable by examining oscillatory structure. We used high-order spectral analysis of LFP recorded from the dorsal and intermediate regions of the rat hippocampus to show that the nonlinear character of the hippocampal theta rhythm is directly related to movement speed of the animal. In the time domain, nonlinearity is expressed as the development of skewness and asymmetry in the theta shape. In the spectral domain, nonlinear dynamics manifest as the development of a chain of harmonics statistically phase coupled to the theta oscillation. This evolution was modulated across hippocampal regions, being stronger in the dorsal CA1 relative to more intermediate areas. The intensity and timing of the spiking activity of pyramidal cells and interneurons was strongly correlated to theta nonlinearity. Because theta is known to propagate from dorsal to ventral regions of the hippocampus, these data suggest that the nonlinear character of theta decreases as it travels and supports a hypothesis that activity dissipates along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We describe the first explicit quantification regarding how behavior enhances the nonlinearity of the nervous system. Our findings demonstrate uniquely how theta changes with increasing speed due to the altered underlying neuronal dynamics and open new directions of research on the relationship between single

  9. Lattice theta constants vs Riemann theta constants and NSR superstring measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, P.; Morozov, A.; Sleptsov, A.

    2009-10-01

    We discuss relations between two different representations of hypothetical holomorphic NSR measures, based on two different ways of constructing the semi-modular forms of weight 8. One of these ways is to build forms from the ordinary Riemann theta constants and another — from the lattice theta constants. We discuss unexpectedly elegant relations between lattice theta constants, corresponding to 16-dimensional self-dual lattices, and Riemann theta constants and present explicit formulae expressing the former ones through the latter. Starting from genus 5 the modular-form approach to construction of NSR measures is clearly sick and it seems to fail completely already at genus 6.

  10. Temporally and spatially distinct theta oscillations dissociate a language-specific from a domain-general processing mechanism across the age trajectory.

    PubMed

    Beese, Caroline; Meyer, Lars; Vassileiou, Benedict; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-09-11

    The cognitive functionality of neural oscillations is still highly debated, as different functions have been associated with identical frequency ranges. Theta band oscillations, for instance, were proposed to underlie both language comprehension and domain-general cognitive abilities. Here we show that the ageing brain can provide an answer to the open question whether it is one and the same theta oscillation underlying those functions, thereby resolving a long-standing paradox. While better cognitive functioning is predicted by low theta power in the brain at rest, resting state (RS) theta power declines with age, but sentence comprehension deteriorates in old age. We resolve this paradox showing that sentence comprehension declines due to changes in RS theta power within domain-general brain networks known to support successful sentence comprehension, while low RS theta power within the left-hemispheric dorso-frontal language network predicts intact sentence comprehension. The two RS theta networks were also found to functionally decouple relative to their independent internal coupling. Thus, both temporally and spatially distinct RS theta oscillations dissociate a language-specific from a domain-general processing mechanism.

  11. Concurrent working memory task decreases the Stroop interference effect as indexed by the decreased theta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Tang, D; Hu, L; Zhang, L; Hitchman, G; Wang, L; Chen, A

    2014-03-14

    Working memory (WM) tasks may increase or decrease the interference effect of concurrently performed cognitive control tasks. However, the neural oscillatory correlates of this modulation effect of WM on the Stroop task are still largely unknown. In the present study, behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from 32 healthy participants during their performance of the single Stroop task and the same task with a concurrent WM task. We observed that the Stroop interference effect represented in both response times (RTs) and theta-band event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) magnitude reduced under the dual-task condition compared with the single-task condition. The reduction of interference in theta-band ERSP was further positively correlated with interference reduction in RTs, and was mainly explained by the source in the left middle frontal gyrus. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the effect of concurrent WM tasks on the reduction of the Stroop interference effect can be indexed by EEG oscillations in theta-band rhythm in the centro-frontal regions and this modulation was mediated by the reduced cognitive control under the concurrent WM task. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Topography, Power and Current Source Density of Theta Oscillations during Reward Processing as Markers for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B.; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Roopesh, Bangalore N.; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have linked alcoholism with a dysfunctional neural reward system. Although several electrophysiological studies have explored reward processing in healthy individuals, such studies in alcohol dependent individuals are quite rare. The present study examines theta oscillations during reward processing in abstinent alcoholics. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 38 abstinent alcoholics and 38 healthy controls as they performed a single outcome gambling task which involved outcomes of either loss or gain of an amount (10¢ or 50¢) that was bet. Event-related theta band (3.0–7.0 Hz) power following each outcome stimulus was computed using the S-transform method. Theta power at the time window of the outcome-related negativity (ORN) and positivity (ORP) (200–500 ms) was compared across groups and outcome conditions. Additionally, behavioral data of impulsivity and task performance were analyzed. The alcoholic group showed significantly decreased theta power during reward processing compared to controls. Current Source Density (CSD) maps of alcoholics revealed weaker and diffuse source activity for all conditions and weaker bilateral prefrontal sources during the Loss 50 condition as compared to controls who manifested stronger and focused midline sources. Further, alcoholics exhibited increased impulsivity and risk-taking on the behavioral measures. A strong association between reduced anterior theta power and impulsive task-performance was observed. It is suggested that decreased power and weaker and diffuse CSD in alcoholics may be due to dysfunctional neural reward circuitry. The relationship among alcoholism, theta oscillations, reward processing and impulsivity could offer clues to understand brain circuitries that mediate reward processing and inhibitory control. PMID:21520344

  13. Theta/beta neurofeedback in children with ADHD: Feasibility of a short-term setting and plasticity effects.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, Jessica; Heinrich, Hartmut; Bezold, Mareile; Reuter, Nina; Kratz, Oliver; Horndasch, Stefanie; Berking, Matthias; Ros, Tomas; Gevensleben, Holger; Moll, Gunther H; Studer, Petra

    2017-02-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) is increasingly used as a therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however behavioral improvements require 20 plus training sessions. More economic evaluation strategies are needed to test methodological optimizations and mechanisms of action. In healthy adults, neuroplastic effects have been demonstrated directly after a single session of NF training. The aim of our study was to test the feasibility of short-term theta/beta NF in children with ADHD and to learn more about the mechanisms underlying this protocol. Children with ADHD conducted two theta/beta NF sessions. In the first half of the sessions, three NF trials (puzzles as feedback animations) were run with pre- and post-reading and picture search tasks. A significant decrease of the theta/beta ratio (TBR), driven by a decrease of theta activity, was found in the NF trials of the second session demonstrating rapid and successful neuroregulation by children with ADHD. For pre-post comparisons, children were split into good vs. poor regulator groups based on the slope of their TBR over the NF trials. For the reading task, significant EEG changes were seen for the theta band from pre- to post-NF depending on individual neuroregulation ability. This neuroplastic effect was not restricted to the feedback electrode Cz, but appeared as a generalized pattern, maximal over midline and right-hemisphere electrodes. Our findings indicate that short-term NF may be a valuable and economical tool to study the neuroplastic mechanisms of targeted NF protocols in clinical disorders, such as theta/beta training in children with ADHD.

  14. Frontal gamma noise power and cognitive domains in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Díez, Alvaro; Suazo, Vanessa; Casado, Pilar; Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Perea, María Victoria; Molina, Vicente

    2014-01-30

    The cognitive deficit profile is different among individuals with schizophrenia. We quantified the amount of electroencephalographic activity unlocked to stimuli onset (noise power) over frontal regions regarding deficit in cognitive domains. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls underwent clinical, cognitive and electrophysiological assessments. Noise power studies may be considered complementary but not equivalent to induced power studies. We compared gamma and theta noise power magnitude during a P300 paradigm between subsets of patients divided according to cognitive deficit in key domains and controls. Patients displayed higher gamma noise power activity at Fz site and significantly lower performance in all cognitive domains when compared to controls. The subset of patients with cognitive deficit for working memory and problem solving/executive functions domains displayed significantly higher frontal-lateral noise power values in comparison to the subset of patients without cognitive deficit and controls. Patients with significant cognitive deficits in domains with greater frontal contribution are also characterized by an abnormally higher gamma band noise power over the frontal region. Our data may endorse various biological subsets within schizophrenia, characterized by the presence or absence of a significant cognitive deficit in frontal domains. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Changes in absolute theta power in bipolar patients during a saccadic attention task.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Consuelo; Diniz, Claudia; Di Girogio, Luiza; Bittencourt, Juliana; Gongora, Mariana; Ken Tanaka, Guaraci; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Novis, Fernanda; Angélica Silveira, Luciana; da Silva, Rafael de Assis; Cagy, Mauricio; Cheniaux, Elie; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna

    2015-08-30

    The present study analyzed absolute theta power (ATP) in brain areas involved with attention in the three phase of BD while the patients performing a saccadic attention task. We hypothesized that patients in depression and mania states show a higher ATP compared to euthymic patients, since a higher ATP is indicative of attention deficit. We analyzed the frontal (F7, F3, Fz, F4 and F8) and central (C3, Cz and C4) areas. Thirty bipolar patients were enrolled in this study. The subjects performed a saccadic attention task while their brain activity pattern was recorded using quantitative electroencephalography (20 channels). Our results showed a main effect for group over C3, C4, Cz, F7, F4, F8 electrodes, and a main effect for moment over Cz, F7, F8 electrodes. These results indicate that both task and groups produce changes in theta activity in distinct cortical areas that participate in the organization of attention. Our results therefore demonstrate that, although it is well established in the literature that theta has a relevant role in the attention process, it is necessary to deepen the investigations to better understand the specifics of theta during visual processing tasks that have a demand for attention.

  16. An Alpha and Theta Intensive and Short Neurofeedback Protocol for Healthy Aging Working-Memory Training

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Joana; Portugal, Ana Maria; Fernandes, Luís; Afonso, Nuno; Pereira, Mariana; Sousa, Nuno; Dias, Nuno S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested the effects of an intensive and short alpha and theta neurofeedback (NF) protocol in working memory (WM) performance in a healthy elder population and explored the effects of a multimodal approach, by supplementing NF with cognitive tasks. Participants were allocated to four groups: NF (N = 9); neurofeedback supplemented with cognitive training (NFCT) (N = 8); cognitive training (CT) (N = 7) and sham neurofeedback (Sham-NF) (N = 6). The intervention consisted in 30-min sessions for 8 days. The NF group presented post intervention increases of alpha and theta relative power as well as performance in the matrix rotation task. In addition, a successful up training of frontal theta showed positive correlation with an improvement of post-training alpha and a better performance in the matrix rotation task. The results presented herein suggest that an intensive and short NF protocol enables elders to learn alpha and theta self-modulation and already presents moderate improvements in cognition and basal EEG. Also, CT group showed moderate performance gains on the cognitive tasks used during the training sessions but no clear improvements on neurophysiology and behavioral measurements were observed. This study represents a first attempt to study the effects of an intensive and short NF protocol in WM performance of elders. The evidence presented here suggests that an intensive and short NF intervention could be a valid alternative for introduction of older populations to NF methodologies. PMID:27458369

  17. An Alpha and Theta Intensive and Short Neurofeedback Protocol for Healthy Aging Working-Memory Training.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana; Portugal, Ana Maria; Fernandes, Luís; Afonso, Nuno; Pereira, Mariana; Sousa, Nuno; Dias, Nuno S

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested the effects of an intensive and short alpha and theta neurofeedback (NF) protocol in working memory (WM) performance in a healthy elder population and explored the effects of a multimodal approach, by supplementing NF with cognitive tasks. Participants were allocated to four groups: NF (N = 9); neurofeedback supplemented with cognitive training (NFCT) (N = 8); cognitive training (CT) (N = 7) and sham neurofeedback (Sham-NF) (N = 6). The intervention consisted in 30-min sessions for 8 days. The NF group presented post intervention increases of alpha and theta relative power as well as performance in the matrix rotation task. In addition, a successful up training of frontal theta showed positive correlation with an improvement of post-training alpha and a better performance in the matrix rotation task. The results presented herein suggest that an intensive and short NF protocol enables elders to learn alpha and theta self-modulation and already presents moderate improvements in cognition and basal EEG. Also, CT group showed moderate performance gains on the cognitive tasks used during the training sessions but no clear improvements on neurophysiology and behavioral measurements were observed. This study represents a first attempt to study the effects of an intensive and short NF protocol in WM performance of elders. The evidence presented here suggests that an intensive and short NF intervention could be a valid alternative for introduction of older populations to NF methodologies.

  18. Genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG theta power in humans.

    PubMed

    Heitland, I; Kenemans, J L; Böcker, K B E; Baas, J M P

    2014-11-01

    It has long been postulated that exogenous cannabinoids have a profound effect on human cognitive functioning. These cannabinoid effects are thought to depend, at least in parts, on alterations of phase-locking of local field potential neuronal firing. The latter can be measured as activity in the theta frequency band (4-7Hz) by electroencephalogram. Theta oscillations are supposed to serve as a mechanism in neural representations of behaviorally relevant information. However, it remains unknown whether variability in endogenous cannabinoid activity is involved in theta rhythms and therefore, may serve as an individual differences index of human cognitive functioning. To clarify this issue, we recorded resting state EEG activity in 164 healthy human subjects and extracted EEG power across frequency bands (δ, θ, α, and β). To assess variability in the endocannabinoid system, two genetic polymorphisms (rs1049353, rs2180619) within the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) were determined in all participants. As expected, we observed significant effects of rs1049353 on EEG power in the theta band at frontal, central and parietal electrode regions. Crucially, these effects were specific for the theta band, with no effects on activity in the other frequency bands. Rs2180619 showed no significant associations with theta power after Bonferroni correction. Taken together, we provide novel evidence in humans showing that genetic variability in the cannabinoid receptor 1 is associated with resting state EEG power in the theta frequency band. This extends prior findings of exogenous cannabinoid effects on theta power to the endogenous cannabinoid system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of mental task load on fronto-central theta activity in a deep saturation dive to 450 msw.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, J; Lorenz, B; Heineke, M

    1992-07-01

    The increase of theta activity (4-7 Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during deep diving is commonly attributed to pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the high pressure neurologic syndrome. The aim of this study was to clarify whether more precise cognitive aspects of the condition may be described in which theta activity occurs during a deep dive. Among 4 divers who were repeatedly examined during the GUSI 14 dive to 450 msw, 3 divers exhibited a pronounced correlation between short-term memory load, as varied by the memory set size of Sternberg's memory search task (MST), and the size of a distinct peak in the theta band of the EEG-power spectrum. The power of this peak was greatest in the fronto-central electrode position (Fz), increased dramatically during MST-performance at pressure, and failed to subside fully 1 day before surfacing. Despite the close dependency of observed theta activity on cognitive demands, no consistent correlation with performance measures (mean reaction time and errors) was found. In one diver, theta waves of similar morphology appeared in the resting EEG and increased significantly during the dive. We suggest two alternative explanations for the positive interaction of memory load and hyperbaric exposure on Fz-theta: a) Both factors induce a state of increased mental effort or selectivity of attention, known to be accompanied by frontal theta activity from normobaric studies. b) Pressure abnormally facilitates or patterns rhythmical excitations underlying theta activity that would occur naturally to a lesser extent during certain mental activities, learning, or repetitive short-term memory operations.

  20. The interplay between theta and alpha oscillations in the human electroencephalogram reflects the transfer of information between memory systems.

    PubMed

    Sauseng, P; Klimesch, W; Gruber, W; Doppelmayr, M; Stadler, W; Schabus, M

    2002-05-17

    The exchange of information between the working and long-term memory system (WMS and LTMS) was investigated. We analyzed evoked theta and upper alpha desynchronization in a special memory task, designed to study the transfer of information between both memory systems. The results show that during attempts to retrieve information from the LTMS, evoked theta oscillations spread from anterior to posterior recording sites. When information actually is retrieved, the direction reverses and theta spreads to frontal sites. This time point--when direction reverses--varies between subjects to a large extent but is significantly correlated with memory performance and the onset of upper alpha desynchronization. We conclude that this phenomenon reflects the transfer of information between the WMS and LTMS

  1. Theta and High-Frequency Activity Mark Spontaneous Recall of Episodic Memories

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John F.; Sharan, Ashwini D.; Sperling, Michael R.; Ramayya, Ashwin G.; Evans, James J.; Healey, M. Karl; Beck, Erin N.; Davis, Kathryn A.; Lucas, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Humans possess the remarkable ability to search their memory, allowing specific past episodes to be re-experienced spontaneously. Here, we administered a free recall test to 114 neurosurgical patients and used intracranial theta and high-frequency activity (HFA) to identify the spatiotemporal pattern of neural activity underlying spontaneous episodic retrieval. We found that retrieval evolved in three electrophysiological stages composed of: (1) early theta oscillations in the right temporal cortex, (2) increased HFA in the left hemisphere including the medial temporal lobe (MTL), left inferior frontal gyrus, as well as the ventrolateral temporal cortex, and (3) motor/language activation during vocalization of the retrieved item. Of these responses, increased HFA in the left MTL predicted recall performance. These results suggest that spontaneous recall of verbal episodic memories involves a spatiotemporal pattern of spectral changes across the brain; however, high-frequency activity in the left MTL represents a final common pathway of episodic retrieval. PMID:25143616

  2. Association between theta power in 6-month old infants at rest and maternal PTSD severity: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Pilar M; Poremba, Carly; Flynn, Lucinda R; Savich, Renate; Annett, Robert D; Stephen, Julia

    2016-09-06

    Compared to infants born to mothers without PTSD, infants born to mothers with active PTSD develop poorer behavioral reactivity and emotional regulation. However, the association between perinatal maternal PTSD and infant neural activation remains largely unknown. This pilot study (N=14) examined the association between perinatal PTSD severity and infant frontal neural activity, as measured by MEG theta power during rest. Results indicated that resting left anterior temporal/frontal theta power was correlated with perinatal PTSD severity (p=0.004). These findings suggest delayed cortical maturation in infants whose mothers had higher perinatal PTSD severity and generate questions regarding perinatal PTSD severity and infant neurophysiological consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Congenital Midline Tongue Base Mass in An Infant: Lingual Hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Mawaddah; See, Goh Bee

    2016-01-01

    Lingual hamartoma is a rare finding of congenital midline posterior tongue mass. The lesion may be seen as a single anomaly or maybe associated with syndrome especially the Oral Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS). Here, we report an otherwise normal and healthy two-month-old boy with a congenital midline base of tongue mass presented with snoring and episodic vomiting since the age of 1 month. Tumour excision from the area of foramen of caecum recovered a pinkish pedunculated tumour. Histopathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyomatous lingual hamartoma. Differential diagnosis, especially for midline tongue mass and other paediatric tongue lesions are discussed. We also discuss the epidemiology, histopathologic features, treatment and prognosis of lingual hamartoma based on the literature review. PMID:27790477

  4. A midline for oxaliplatin infusion: the myth of safety devices

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ben; Hickish, Tamas; Uña Cidon, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a platinum compound mainly used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. According to its manufacturer it is not considered vesicant agent though it has been shown to cause severe tissue damage if extravasation occurs in large doses. Several cases of extravasation have been reported; most of them from incorrectly placed peripheral cannula or incorrect use of central venous access devices. To reduce these risks, peripherally inserted central catheters and midline catheters have been increasingly used and are especially helpful if poor peripheral venous access. Midlines are mainly used for patients not receiving vesicant drugs, and are generally inserted without radiological guidance. They are believed to be safe, but we present the first ever-documented oxaliplatin extravasation injury from a midline catheter. PMID:24903726

  5. A midline for oxaliplatin infusion: the myth of safety devices.

    PubMed

    Masters, Ben; Hickish, Tamas; Cidon, Esther Uña

    2014-06-05

    Oxaliplatin is a platinum compound mainly used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. According to its manufacturer it is not considered vesicant agent though it has been shown to cause severe tissue damage if extravasation occurs in large doses. Several cases of extravasation have been reported; most of them from incorrectly placed peripheral cannula or incorrect use of central venous access devices. To reduce these risks, peripherally inserted central catheters and midline catheters have been increasingly used and are especially helpful if poor peripheral venous access. Midlines are mainly used for patients not receiving vesicant drugs, and are generally inserted without radiological guidance. They are believed to be safe, but we present the first ever-documented oxaliplatin extravasation injury from a midline catheter. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Frontal slow-wave activity as a predictor of negative symptoms, cognition and functional capacity in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Han; Stone-Howell, Breannan; Edgar, J. Christopher; Huang, Mingxiong; Wootton, Cassandra; Hunter, Michael A.; Lu, Brett Y.; Sadek, Joseph R.; Miller, Gregory A.; Cañive, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased temporal and frontal slow-wave delta (1–4 Hz) and theta (4–7 Hz) activities are the most consistent resting-state neural abnormalities reported in schizophrenia. The frontal lobe is associated with negative symptoms and cognitive abilities such as attention, with negative symptoms and impaired attention associated with poor functional capacity. Aims To establish whether frontal dysfunction, as indexed by slowing, would be associated with functional impairments. Method Eyes-closed magnetoencephalography data were collected in 41 participants with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls, and frequency-domain source imaging localised delta and theta activity. Results Elevated delta and theta activity in right frontal and right temporoparietal regions was observed in the schizophrenia v. control group. In schizophrenia, right-frontal delta activity was uniquely associated with negative but not positive symptoms. In the full sample, increased right-frontal delta activity predicted poorer attention and functional capacity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that treatment-associated decreases in slow-wave activity could be accompanied by improved functional outcome and thus better prognosis. PMID:26206861

  7. [Percussional auscultation of frontal sinuses].

    PubMed

    Akopian, R G

    2000-01-01

    Percussional auscultation of the frontal sinuses is used for diagnosis of frontal sinusitides. Phonendoscope placed by the sinus walls auscultates sounds forming as a result of comparative percussion of the anterior sinus walls. Three main percussional tones are singled out. This method was employed for diagnosis in 48 patients with frontal sinusitis. The technique is easy to perform, safe and precise (90%). The trend in frontal sinusitides development can be followed up.

  8. Interhemispheric Asymmetries and Theta Activity in the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex as EEG Signature of HIV-Related Depression: Gender Matters.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Heidemarie; Lutz, Franz P C; McIntosh, Roger C; Dévieux, Jessy G; Ironson, Gail

    2016-04-01

    Resting EEGs of 40 people living with HIV (PLWH) on long-term antiretroviral treatment were examined for z-scored deviations from a healthy control (normative database) to examine the main and interaction effects of depression and gender. Regions of interest were frontal (alpha) and central (all bands) for interhemispheric asymmetries in quantitative EEGs and theta in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Z-scored normed deviations of depressed PLWH, compared with nondepressed, showed right-dominant interhemispheric asymmetries in all regions. However, after adjusting for multiple testing, significance remained only central for theta, alpha, and beta. Reversed (left-dominant) frontal alpha asymmetry is a potential EEG marker of depression in the HIV negative population that was not reversed in depressive PLWH; however, corresponding with extant literature, gender had an effect on the size of frontal alpha asymmetry. The LORETA analysis revealed a trending interactional effect of depression and gender on theta activity in the rACC in Brodmann area 32. We found that compared to men, women had greater right-dominant frontal alpha-asymmetry and elevated theta activity in voxels of the rACC, which may indicate less likelihood of depression and a higher likelihood of response to antidepressants. In conclusion, subtle EEG deviations, such as right-dominant central theta, alpha, and beta asymmetries and theta activity in the rACC may mark HIV-related depressive symptoms and may predict the likelihood of response to antidepressants but gender effects need to be taken into account. Although this study introduced the use of LORETA to examine the neurophysiological correlates of negative affect in PLWH, further research is needed to assess the utility of this tool in diagnostics and treatment monitoring of depression in PLWH.

  9. Midline catheters: the middle ground of intravenous therapy administration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N Richard

    2004-01-01

    Evangelical Community Hospital at Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, is a small community hospital with 110 beds. This organization sought a device to bridge between the short peripheral catheter and the peripherally inserted central catheter. The midline catheter provided an answer to this dilemma. However, a literature search for midline catheters yielded only four published articles, and only one of these was related to outcomes. The drugs used and the type of patients treated at Evangelical Community Hospital provided a challenge for the infusion therapist. This article examines the management of the patients who fell into a midlength of stay, and for whom both the short peripheral catheter and the peripherally inserted central catheter were inappropriate.

  10. The use of 8 cm midlines in community IV therapy.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kate

    2014-10-22

    There is limited published literature on the use of 8 cm centimetre midlines for vascular access. This clinical audit was undertaken to provide a local evidence base for the insertion of midlines in patients receiving non-vesicant intravenous antibiotic therapy in the community setting over the medium term. The findings show their use has clear advantages for patients and clinicians. Although conducted in the community setting, the audit could be replicated in any community or hospital environment where medium-term intravenous therapy of non-vesicant fluids is administered.

  11. Axon-glial interactions at the Drosophila CNS midline.

    PubMed

    Crews, Stephen T

    2010-01-01

    The glia that reside at the midline of the Drosophila CNS are an important embryonic signaling center and also wrap the axons that cross the CNS. The development of the midline glia (MG) is characterized by migration, ensheathment, subdivision of axon commissures, apoptosis, and the extension of glial processes. All of these events are characterized by cell-cell contact between MG and adjacent neurons. Cell adhesion and signaling proteins that mediate different aspects of MG development and MG-neuron interactions have been identified. This provides a foundation for ultimately obtaining an integrated picture of how the MG assemble into a characteristic axonal support structure in the CNS.

  12. Mesial frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2012-10-01

    Mesial frontal lobe epilepsies can be divided into epilepsies arising from the anterior cingulate gyrus and those of the supplementary sensorimotor area. They provide diagnostic challenges because they often lack lateralizing or localizing features on clinical semiology and interictal and ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A number of unique semiologic features have been described over the last decade in patients with mesial frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). There are few reports of applying advanced neurophysiologic techniques such as electrical source imaging, magnetoencephalography, EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging, or analysis of high-frequency oscillations in patients with mesial FLE. Despite these diagnostic challenges, it seems that patients with mesial FLE benefit from epilepsy surgery to the same extent or even better than patients with FLE do, as a whole.

  13. Frontal Polymerization in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pojman, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Frontal polymerization systems, with their inherent large thermal and compositional gradients, are greatly affected by buoyancy-driven convection. Sounding rocket experiments allowed the preparation of benchmark materials and demonstrated that methods to suppress the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ground-based research did not significantly affect the molecular weight of the polymer. Experiments under weightlessness show clearly that bubbles produced during the reaction interact very differently than under 1 g.

  14. Learning alters theta amplitude, theta-gamma coupling and neuronal synchronization in inferotemporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background How oscillatory brain rhythms alone, or in combination, influence cortical information processing to support learning has yet to be fully established. Local field potential and multi-unit neuronal activity recordings were made from 64-electrode arrays in the inferotemporal cortex of conscious sheep during and after visual discrimination learning of face or object pairs. A neural network model has been developed to simulate and aid functional interpretation of learning-evoked changes. Results Following learning the amplitude of theta (4-8 Hz), but not gamma (30-70 Hz) oscillations was increased, as was the ratio of theta to gamma. Over 75% of electrodes showed significant coupling between theta phase and gamma amplitude (theta-nested gamma). The strength of this coupling was also increased following learning and this was not simply a consequence of increased theta amplitude. Actual discrimination performance was significantly correlated with theta and theta-gamma coupling changes. Neuronal activity was phase-locked with theta but learning had no effect on firing rates or the magnitude or latencies of visual evoked potentials during stimuli. The neural network model developed showed that a combination of fast and slow inhibitory interneurons could generate theta-nested gamma. By increasing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor sensitivity in the model similar changes were produced as in inferotemporal cortex after learning. The model showed that these changes could potentiate the firing of downstream neurons by a temporal desynchronization of excitatory neuron output without increasing the firing frequencies of the latter. This desynchronization effect was confirmed in IT neuronal activity following learning and its magnitude was correlated with discrimination performance. Conclusions Face discrimination learning produces significant increases in both theta amplitude and the strength of theta-gamma coupling in the inferotemporal cortex which are correlated with

  15. Measuring Theta_13 at Daya Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Kwong

    2014-03-14

    We measured the neutrino mixing angle, theta13, presumably related to the preponderance of matter over antimatter in our universe with high precision. We determined theta13 by measuring the disappearance of neutrinos from a group of six nuclear reactors. The target, located inside a mountain at about 2 km from the reactors, is 80 tons of liquid scintillator doped with trace amount of Gadolinium to increase its neutron detection efficiency. The neutrino flux is measured by the inverse beta-decay reaction where the final-state particles are detected by the liquid scintillator. The measured value of theta13, based on data collected over 3 years, is large, around 8 degrees, rendering the measurement of the parameter related to matter-antimatter asymmetry in future long baseline neutrino experiments easier.

  16. Frontal bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Marinheiro, Bruno Henrique; de Medeiros, Eduardo Henrique Pantosso; Sverzut, Cássio Edvard; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the epidemiology, treatment, and complications of frontal bone fractures associated, or not, with other facial fractures. This evaluation also sought to minimize the influence of the surgeon's skills and the preference for any rigid internal fixation system. The files from 3758 patients who attended the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, from March 2004 to November 2011 and presented with facial trauma were scanned, and 52 files were chosen for the review. Eleven (21.15%) of these patients had pure fractures of the frontal bone, and trauma incidence was more prevalent in men (92.3%), whites (61.53%), and adults (50%). Despite the use of helmets at the moment of the trauma, motorcycle crashes were the most common etiological factor (32.69%). Fracture of the anterior wall of the frontal sinus with displacement was the main injury observed (54.9%), and the most common treatment was internal fixation with a plate and screws (45.09%). Postoperative complications were observed in 35.29% of the cases. The therapy applied was effective in handling this type of fracture, and the success rate was comparable to that reported in other published studies.

  17. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity.

    PubMed

    Klucharev, Vasily; Munneke, Moniek A M; Smidts, Ale; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-08-17

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex by theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces conformity, as indicated by reduced conformal adjustments in line with group opinion. Both the extent and probability of conformal behavioral adjustments decreased significantly relative to a sham and a control stimulation over another brain area. The posterior part of the medial frontal cortex has previously been implicated in behavioral and attitudinal adjustments. Here, we provide the first interventional evidence of its critical role in social influence on human behavior.

  18. The increase in theta/beta ratio on resting-state EEG in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is mediated by slow alpha peak frequency.

    PubMed

    Lansbergen, Marieke M; Arns, Martijn; van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Spronk, Desirée; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2011-01-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was found to be characterized by a deviant pattern of electrocortical activity during resting state, particularly increased theta and decreased beta activity. The first objective of the present study is to confirm whether individuals with slow alpha peak frequency contribute to the finding of increased theta activity in ADHD. The second objective is to explore the relation between resting-state brain oscillations and specific cognitive functions. From 49 boys with ADHD and 49 healthy control boys, resting-state EEG during eyes open and eyes closed was recorded, and a variety of cognitive tasks were administered. Theta and beta power and theta/beta ratio were calculated using both fixed frequency bands and individualized frequency bands. As expected, theta/beta ratio, calculated using fixed frequency bands, was significantly higher in ADHD children than control children. However, this group effect was not significant when theta/beta ratio was assessed using individualized frequency bands. No consistent relation was found between resting-state brain oscillations and cognition. The present results suggest that previous findings of increased theta/beta ratio in ADHD may reflect individuals with slow alpha peak frequencies in addition to individuals with true increased theta activity. Therefore, the often reported theta/beta ratio in ADHD can be considered a non-specific measure combining several distinct neurophysiological subgroups such as frontal theta and slowed alpha peak frequencies. Future research should elucidate the functional role of resting-state brain oscillations by investigating neurophysiological subgroups, which may have a clearer relation to cognitive functions than single frequency bands.

  19. Cerebellar theta oscillations are synchronized during hippocampal theta-contingent trace conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Loren C.; Berry, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus and cerebellum are critically involved in trace eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC). The mechanisms underlying the hippocampal-cerebellar interaction during this task are not well-understood, although hippocampal theta (3–7 Hz) oscillations are known to reflect a favorable state for EBCC. Two groups of rabbits received trace EBCC in which a brain-computer interface administered trials in either the explicit presence or absence of naturally occurring hippocampal theta. A high percentage of robust theta led to a striking enhancement of learning accompanied by rhythmic theta-band (6–7 Hz) oscillations in the interpositus nucleus (IPN) and cerebellar cortex that were time-locked both to hippocampal rhythms and sensory stimuli during training. Rhythmic oscillations were absent in the cerebellum of the non-theta group. These data strongly suggest a beneficial impact of theta-based coordination of hippocampus and cerebellum and, importantly, demonstrate that hippocampal theta oscillations can be used to index, and perhaps modulate, the functional properties of the cerebellum. PMID:19940240

  20. Elevated midline-parietal gamma band noise power in schizophrenia but not in bipolar patients.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Vanessa; Lubeiro, Alba; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Moreno-Ortega, Marta; Dompablo, Mónica; Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Palomo, Tomas; Molina, Vicente

    2016-12-01

    Gamma oscillations are key in coordinating brain activity and seem to be altered in schizophrenia. In previous work, we studied the spatial distribution of a noise power measure (scalp-recorded electroencephalographic activity unlocked to stimuli) and found higher magnitudes in the gamma band related to symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we sought to replicate those findings and to study its specificity for schizophrenia in a completely independent sample. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the factorial structure of gamma noise power acquired with an electroencephalographic recording during an odd-ball P300 paradigm in the 250- to 550-ms window in 70 patients with schizophrenia (16 patients with first episode), 45 bipolar patients and 65 healthy controls. Clinical and cognitive correlates of the resulting factors were also assessed. Three factors arose from the PCA. The first displayed a midline-parietal distribution (roughly corresponding to the default mode network), the second was centro-temporal and the third anterior-frontal. Schizophrenia but not bipolar patients showed higher gamma noise power loadings in the first factor in comparison with controls. Scores for this factor were significantly and directly associated with positive and total symptoms in patients and inversely associated with global cognition in all participants. The results of this study replicate those of our previous publication and suggest an elevated midline-parietal gamma noise power specific to schizophrenia. The gamma noise power measure seems to be a useful tool for studying background oscillatory activity during performance of cognitive tasks.

  1. Modified Off-Midline Closure of Pilonidal Sinus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Aly

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous surgical procedures have been described for pilonidal sinus disease, but treatment failure and disease recurrence are frequent. Conventional off-midline flap closures have relatively favorable surgical outcomes, but relatively unfavorable cosmetic outcomes. Aim: The author reported outcomes of a new simplified off-midline technique for closure of the defect after complete excision of the sinus tracts. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients of both sexes were enrolled for modified D-shaped excisions were used to include all sinuses and their ramifications, with a simplified procedure to close the defect. Results: The overall wound infection rate was 12%, (12.2% for males and 11.1% for females). Wound disruption was necessitating laying the whole wound open and management as open technique. The overall wound disruption rate was 6%, (6.1% for males and 5.5% for females) and the overall recurrence rate was 7%. Conclusion: Our simplified off-midline closure without flap appeared to be comparable to conventional off-midline closure with flap, in terms of wound infection, wound dehiscence, and recurrence. Advantages of the simplified procedure include potentially reduced surgery complexity, reduced surgery time, and improved cosmetic outcome. PMID:24926445

  2. Midline Body Actions and Leftward Spatial “Aiming” in Patients with Spatial Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Amit; Pigott, Kara; Barrett, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial motor–intentional “Aiming” bias is a dysfunction in initiation/execution of motor–intentional behavior, resulting in hypokinetic and hypometric leftward movements. Aiming bias may contribute to posture, balance, and movement problems and uniquely account for disability in post-stroke spatial neglect. Body movement may modify and even worsen Aiming errors, but therapy techniques, such as visual scanning training, do not take this into account. Here, we evaluated (1) whether instructing neglect patients to move midline body parts improves their ability to explore left space and (2) whether this has a different impact on different patients. A 68-year-old woman with spatial neglect after a right basal ganglia infarct had difficulty orienting to and identifying left-sided objects. She was prompted with four instructions: “look to the left,” “point with your nose to the left,” “point with your [right] hand to the left,” and “stick out your tongue and point it to the left.” She oriented leftward dramatically better when pointing with the tongue/nose, than she did when pointing with the hand. We then tested nine more consecutive patients with spatial neglect using the same instructions. Only four of them made any orienting errors. Only one patient made >50% errors when pointing with the hand, and she did not benefit from pointing with the tongue/nose. We observed that pointing with the tongue could facilitate left-sided orientation in a stroke survivor with spatial neglect. If midline structures are represented more bilaterally, they may be less affected by Aiming bias. Alternatively, moving the body midline may be more permissive for leftward orienting than moving right body parts. We were not able to replicate this effect in another patient; we suspect that the magnitude of this effect may depend upon the degree to which patients have directional akinesia, spatial Where deficits, or cerebellar/frontal cortical lesions. Future research

  3. Deficient Event-Related Theta Oscillations in Individuals at Risk for Alcoholism: A Study of Reward Processing and Impulsivity Features

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Chorlian, David B.; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T.; Anokhin, Andrey P.; Bauer, Lance O.; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. Event-related oscillations (EROs) have been used to effectively measure brain (dys)function during cognitive tasks in individuals with alcoholism and related disorders and in those at risk to develop these disorders. The current study examines ERO theta power during reward processing as well as impulsivity in adolescent and young adult subjects at high risk for alcoholism. Methods EROs were recorded during a monetary gambling task (MGT) in 12–25 years old participants (N = 1821; males = 48%) from high risk alcoholic families (HR, N = 1534) and comparison low risk community families (LR, N = 287) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Impulsivity scores and prevalence of externalizing diagnoses were also compared between LR and HR groups. Results HR offspring showed lower theta power and decreased current source density (CSD) activity than LR offspring during loss and gain conditions. Younger males had higher theta power than younger females in both groups, while the older HR females showed more theta power than older HR males. Younger subjects showed higher theta power than older subjects in each comparison. Differences in topography (i.e., frontalization) between groups were also observed. Further, HR subjects across gender had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders compared to LR subjects. Conclusions As theta power during reward processing is found to be lower not only in alcoholics, but also in HR subjects, it is proposed that reduced reward-related theta power, in addition to impulsivity and externalizing features, may be related in a predisposition to develop alcoholism and related disorders. PMID:26580209

  4. Deficient Event-Related Theta Oscillations in Individuals at Risk for Alcoholism: A Study of Reward Processing and Impulsivity Features.

    PubMed

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Chorlian, David B; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T; Anokhin, Andrey P; Bauer, Lance O; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Schuckit, Marc A; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. Event-related oscillations (EROs) have been used to effectively measure brain (dys)function during cognitive tasks in individuals with alcoholism and related disorders and in those at risk to develop these disorders. The current study examines ERO theta power during reward processing as well as impulsivity in adolescent and young adult subjects at high risk for alcoholism. EROs were recorded during a monetary gambling task (MGT) in 12-25 years old participants (N = 1821; males = 48%) from high risk alcoholic families (HR, N = 1534) and comparison low risk community families (LR, N = 287) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Impulsivity scores and prevalence of externalizing diagnoses were also compared between LR and HR groups. HR offspring showed lower theta power and decreased current source density (CSD) activity than LR offspring during loss and gain conditions. Younger males had higher theta power than younger females in both groups, while the older HR females showed more theta power than older HR males. Younger subjects showed higher theta power than older subjects in each comparison. Differences in topography (i.e., frontalization) between groups were also observed. Further, HR subjects across gender had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders compared to LR subjects. As theta power during reward processing is found to be lower not only in alcoholics, but also in HR subjects, it is proposed that reduced reward-related theta power, in addition to impulsivity and externalizing features, may be related in a predisposition to develop alcoholism and related disorders.

  5. The outcomes of midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy.

    PubMed

    Sooklim, Ratchadawan; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Prasertcharoensuk, Witoon; Pattamadilok, Jeerichuda; Seekorn, Kanok; Chongsomchai, Chompilas; Pitak, Prakai; Chansamak, Sukanya

    2007-10-29

    Episiotomy is the surgical enlargement of the vaginal orifice by an incision of the perineum during the second stage of labor or just before delivery of the baby. During the 1970s, it was common to perform an episiotomy for almost all women having their first delivery, ostensibly for prevention of severe perineum tears and easier subsequent repair. However, there are no data available to indicate if an episiotomy should be midline or medio-lateral. We compared midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy for complication such as extended perineal tears, pain scores, wound infection rates and other complications. We conducted a prospective cohort including 1,302 women, who gave birth vaginally between April 2005 and February 2006 at Srinagarind Hospital - a tertiary care center in Northeast Thailand. All women included had low risk pregnancies and delivered at term. The outcome measures included deep perineal tears (including perineal tears with anal sphincter and/or rectum tears), other complications, and women's satisfaction at 48 hours and 6-weeks postpartum. In women with midline episiotomy, deep perineal tears occurred in 14.8%, which is statistically significantly higher compared to 7% in women who underwent a medio-lateral episiotomy (p-value < 0.05). There was no difference between the groups for other outcomes (such as blood loss, vaginal hematoma, infection, pain, dyspareunia, and women's satisfaction with the method). The risk factors for deep perineal tears were: midline episiotomy, primiparity, maternal height < 145 cm, fetal birth weight > 3,500 g and forceps extraction. Midline compared to medio-lateral episiotomy resulted in more deep perineal tears. It is more likely deep perineal tears would occur in cases with additional risk factors.

  6. The outcomes of midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sooklim, Ratchadawan; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Prasertcharoensuk, Witoon; Pattamadilok, Jeerichuda; Seekorn, Kanok; Chongsomchai, Chompilas; Pitak, Prakai; Chansamak, Sukanya

    2007-01-01

    Background Episiotomy is the surgical enlargement of the vaginal orifice by an incision of the perineum during the second stage of labor or just before delivery of the baby. During the 1970s, it was common to perform an episiotomy for almost all women having their first delivery, ostensibly for prevention of severe perineum tears and easier subsequent repair. However, there are no data available to indicate if an episiotomy should be midline or medio-lateral. We compared midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy for complication such as extended perineal tears, pain scores, wound infection rates and other complications. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort including 1,302 women, who gave birth vaginally between April 2005 and February 2006 at Srinagarind Hospital – a tertiary care center in Northeast Thailand. All women included had low risk pregnancies and delivered at term. The outcome measures included deep perineal tears (including perineal tears with anal sphincter and/or rectum tears), other complications, and women's satisfaction at 48 hours and 6-weeks postpartum. Results In women with midline episiotomy, deep perineal tears occurred in 14.8%, which is statistically significantly higher compared to 7% in women who underwent a medio-lateral episiotomy (p-value < 0.05). There was no difference between the groups for other outcomes (such as blood loss, vaginal hematoma, infection, pain, dyspareunia, and women's satisfaction with the method). The risk factors for deep perineal tears were: midline episiotomy, primiparity, maternal height < 145 cm, fetal birth weight > 3,500 g and forceps extraction. Conclusion Midline compared to medio-lateral episiotomy resulted in more deep perineal tears. It is more likely deep perineal tears would occur in cases with additional risk factors. PMID:17967168

  7. Characterization of midline medulla role in the trigeminal depressor response.

    PubMed

    Clement, M E; McCall, R B

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the role of the midline medulla in mediating the trigeminal depressor response. Previously we found that lesions of the midline medulla abolished the decrease in blood pressure resulting from electrical stimulation of the spinal trigeminal complex. Electrical stimulation (5 Hz) of the spinal trigeminal tract elicited a decrease in arterial blood pressure that was associated with an inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity recorded from the inferior cardiac nerve of anesthetized cats. The effect of single shocks applied to the trigeminal complex on sympathetic activity was determined using computer-averaging techniques. Single shock stimulation consistently elicited an excitation of sympathetic activity that was followed by an inhibition of sympathetic nerve discharge. The gamma-aminobutyric acid antagonist picrotoxin blocked the depressor response elicited by electrical stimulation of the midline medulla but not by stimulation of the spinal trigeminal complex. Extracellular recordings of the discharges of midline medullary neurons were made to determine the effects of trigeminal stimulation on sympathoinhibitory, sympathoexcitatory, and serotonin neurons. Sympathoinhibitory and sympathoexcitatory neurons were identified by the relationship between unitary discharges and sympathetic nerve activity and by their response to baroreceptor reflex activation. Serotonin (5-HT) neurons were identified using criteria previously developed in our laboratory. These included 1) a slow regular discharge rate, 2) sensitivity to the inhibitory action of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, 3) failure to respond to baroreceptor reflex activation, and 4) the discharges of the 5-HT neurons were not related to sympathetic activity. Stimulation of the spinal trigeminal complex typically inhibited the discharges of sympathoinhibitory neurons. In contrast, stimulation of the trigeminal complex

  8. Holomorphic projections and Ramanujan's mock theta functions.

    PubMed

    Imamoğlu, Özlem; Raum, Martin; Richter, Olav K

    2014-03-18

    We use spectral methods of automorphic forms to establish a holomorphic projection operator for tensor products of vector-valued harmonic weak Maass forms and vector-valued modular forms. We apply this operator to discover simple recursions for Fourier series coefficients of Ramanujan's mock theta functions.

  9. [The theta rhythm of the infant EEG and the development of the mechanisms of voluntary control of attention in the 2nd half of the first year of life].

    PubMed

    Stroganova, T A; Orekhova, E V; Posikera, I N

    1998-01-01

    The neurophysiological basis of attention control was studied in infants at the second half-year of life, i.e. in the period when the capability for voluntary control over behavior fundamentally improves. EEG was recorded in 60 infants aed 8-11 months in three experimental conditions: 1) attention to an object in the visual field (externally controlled attention, or the baseline state), 2) anticipation of a person in the peek-a-boo game (internally controlled attention), 3) attention to the reappeared person in the peek-a-boo game (control condition). The spectral analysis of the EEG data revealed a sharp increase in the EEG theta (3.6-6.0 Hz) during internally controlled attention as compared to the baseline and control conditions. The theta1 (3.6-4.8 Hz) increase was maximal in the frontal derivations. The reactivity of the frontal theta1 during internally controlled attention discriminated infants with different abilities to maintain this type of attention. The reactivity of the theta2 (5.2-6.0 Hz) was maximal in the right temporal derivation (T6) and did not depend on stability of the anticipatory attention. The findings point to different functional significance of the theta1 and theta2 rhythms in infants. It is suggested that synchronization of the frontal theta1 rhythm in infants reflects the activity of the anterior attention system which realizes the executive attention control. The ability to maintain anticipatory attention increased with age, whereas the frontal theta1 synchronization decreased and totally disappeared at the age of 11 months. At the age of 8 months there was a positive correlation between the frontal theta1 synchronization and behavioral index of stability of the internally controlled attention. On the contrary, this correlation was negative at the age of 9 and 10 months. It is suggested that the age-dependent dynamics of the relationship between the frontal theta1 reactivity and attention reflects a leap in maturation of the anterior

  10. Dorsolateral Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ricky W.; Worrell, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Dorsolateral frontal lobe seizures often present as a diagnostic challenge. The diverse semiologies may not produce lateralizing or localizing signs, and can appear bizarre and suggest psychogenic events. Unfortunately, scalp EEG and MRI are often unsatisfactory. It is not uncommon that these traditional diagnostic studies are either unhelpful or even misleading. In some cases SPECT and PET imaging can be an effective tool to identify the origin of seizures. However, these techniques and other emerging techniques all have limitations, and new approaches are needed to improve source localization. PMID:23027094

  11. Dorsolateral frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ricky W; Worrell, Greg A

    2012-10-01

    Dorsolateral frontal lobe seizures often present as a diagnostic challenge. The diverse semiologies may not produce lateralizing or localizing signs and can appear bizarre and suggest psychogenic events. Unfortunately, scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often unsatisfactory. It is not uncommon that these traditional diagnostic studies are either unhelpful or even misleading. In some cases, SPECT and positron emission tomography imaging can be an effective tool to identify the origin of seizures. However, these techniques and other emerging techniques all have limitations, and new approaches are needed to improve source localization.

  12. Spectral EEG frontal asymmetries correlate with the experienced pleasantness of TV commercial advertisements.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Toppi, Jlenia; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Bez, Francesco; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze the changes in the EEG frontal activity during the observation of commercial videoclips. In particular, we aimed to investigate the existence of EEG frontal asymmetries in the distribution of the signals' power spectra related to experienced pleasantness of the video, as explicitly rated by the eleven experimental subjects investigated. In the analyzed population, maps of Power spectral density (PSD) showed an asymmetrical increase of theta and alpha activity related to the observation of pleasant (unpleasant) advertisements in the left (right) hemisphere. A correlation analysis revealed that the increase of PSD at left frontal sites is negatively correlated with the degree of pleasantness perceived. Conversely, the de-synchronization of left alpha frontal activity is positively correlated with judgments of high pleasantness. Moreover, our data presented an increase of PSD related to the observation of unpleasant commercials, which resulted higher with respect to the one elicited by pleasant advertisements.

  13. Better than sleep: theta neurofeedback training accelerates memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Miriam; Rozengurt, Roman; Barnea, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Consistent empirical results showed that both night and day sleep enhanced memory consolidation. In this study we explore processes of consolidation of memory during awake hours. Since theta oscillations have been shown to play a central role in exchange of information, we hypothesized that elevated theta during awake hours will enhance memory consolidation. We used a neurofeedback protocol, to enhance the relative power of theta or beta oscillations. Participants trained on a tapping task, were divided into three groups: neurofeedback theta; neurofeedback beta; control. We found a significant improvement in performance in the theta group, relative to the beta and control groups, immediately after neurofeedback. Performance was further improved after night sleep in all groups, with a significant advantage favoring the theta group. Theta power during training was correlated with the level of improvement, indicating a clear relationship between memory consolidation, and theta neurofeedback.

  14. Event-Related Theta Power during Lexical-Semantic Retrieval and Decision Conflict is Modulated by Alcohol Intoxication: Anatomically Constrained MEG

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Rosen, Burke Q.; Cox, Brendan; Kovacevic, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Language processing is commonly characterized by an event-related increase in theta power (4–7 Hz) in scalp EEG. Oscillatory brain dynamics underlying alcohol’s effects on language are poorly understood despite impairments on verbal tasks. To investigate how moderate alcohol intoxication modulates event-related theta activity during visual word processing, healthy social drinkers (N = 22, 11 females) participated in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg for women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. They performed a double-duty lexical decision task as they detected real words among non-words. An additional requirement to respond to all real words that also referred to animals induced response conflict. High density whole-head MEG signals and midline scalp EEG data were decomposed for each trial with Morlet wavelets. Each person’s reconstructed cortical surface was used to constrain noise-normalized distributed minimum norm inverse solutions for theta frequencies. Alcohol intoxication increased reaction time and marginally affected accuracy. The overall spatio-temporal pattern is consistent with the left-lateralized fronto-temporal activation observed in language studies applying time-domain analysis. Event-related theta power was sensitive to the two functions manipulated by the task. First, theta estimated to the left-lateralized fronto-temporal areas reflected lexical-semantic retrieval, indicating that this measure is well suited for investigating the neural basis of language functions. While alcohol attenuated theta power overall, it was particularly deleterious to semantic retrieval since it reduced theta to real words but not pseudowords. Second, a highly overlapping prefrontal network comprising lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex was sensitive to decision conflict and was also affected by intoxication, in agreement with previous studies indicating that executive functions are especially vulnerable to

  15. Hippocampal theta, gamma, and theta-gamma coupling: effects of aging, environmental change, and cholinergic activation

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Tara K.; Howe, Matthew D.; Schmidt, Brandy; Hinman, James R.; Escabí, Monty A.

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations coordinate the timing of multiple inputs to hippocampal neurons and have been linked to information processing and the dynamics of encoding and retrieval. One major influence on hippocampal rhythmicity is from cholinergic afferents. In both humans and rodents, aging is linked to impairments in hippocampus-dependent function along with degradation of cholinergic function. Cholinomimetics can reverse some age-related memory impairments and modulate oscillations in the hippocampus. Therefore, one would expect corresponding changes in these oscillations and possible rescue with the cholinomimetic physostigmine. Hippocampal activity was recorded while animals explored a familiar or a novel maze configuration. Reexposure to a familiar situation resulted in minimal aging effects or changes in theta or gamma oscillations. In contrast, exploration of a novel maze configuration increased theta power; this was greater in adult than old animals, although the deficit was reversed with physostigmine. In contrast to the theta results, the effects of novelty, age, and/or physostigmine on gamma were relatively weak. Unrelated to the behavioral situation were an age-related decrease in the degree of theta-gamma coupling and the fact that physostigmine lowered the frequency of theta in both adult and old animals. The results indicate that age-related changes in gamma and theta modulation of gamma, while reflecting aging changes in hippocampal circuitry, seem less related to aging changes in information processing. In contrast, the data support a role for theta and the cholinergic system in encoding and that hippocampal aging is related to impaired encoding of new information. PMID:23303862

  16. Self-generated theta oscillations in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Goutagny, Romain; Jackson, Jesse; Williams, Sylvain

    2009-12-01

    Hippocampal theta rhythm is crucial for spatial memory and is thought to be generated by extrinsic inputs. In contrast, using a complete rat hippocampus in vitro, we found several intrinsic, atropine-resistant theta generators in CA1. These oscillators were organized along the septotemporal axis and arose independently from CA3. Our results suggest that CA1 theta rhythm can emerge from the coupling of multiple autonomous hippocampal theta oscillators.

  17. Thalamic Bursts Down-regulate Cortical Theta and Nociceptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Brian W; Cross, Brent; Smith, Kelsey A; Roach, Catherine; Xia, Jimmy; Chao, Yu-Chieh; Levitt, Joshua; Koyama, Suguru; Moore, Christopher I; Saab, Carl Y

    2017-05-30

    We tested the relation between pain behavior, theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations in somatosensory cortex and burst firing in thalamic neurons in vivo. Optically-induced thalamic bursts attenuated cortical theta and mechanical allodynia. It is proposed that thalamic bursts are an adaptive response to pain that de-synchronizes cortical theta and decreases sensory salience.

  18. Trial-by-trial coupling between EEG and BOLD identifies networks related to alpha and theta EEG power increases during working memory maintenance.

    PubMed

    Scheeringa, René; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Oostenveld, Robert; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter; Bastiaansen, Marcel C M

    2009-02-01

    PET and fMRI experiments have previously shown that several brain regions in the frontal and parietal lobe are involved in working memory maintenance. MEG and EEG experiments have shown parametric increases with load for oscillatory activity in posterior alpha and frontal theta power. In the current study we investigated whether the areas found with fMRI can be associated with these alpha and theta effects by measuring simultaneous EEG and fMRI during a modified Sternberg task This allowed us to correlate EEG at the single trial level with the fMRI BOLD signal by forming a regressor based on single trial alpha and theta power estimates. We observed a right posterior, parametric alpha power increase, which was functionally related to decreases in BOLD in the primary visual cortex and in the posterior part of the right middle temporal gyrus. We relate this finding to the inhibition of neuronal activity that may interfere with WM maintenance. An observed parametric increase in frontal theta power was correlated to a decrease in BOLD in regions that together form the default mode network. We did not observe correlations between oscillatory EEG phenomena and BOLD in the traditional WM areas. In conclusion, the study shows that simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings can be successfully used to identify the emergence of functional networks in the brain during the execution of a cognitive task.

  19. The diagnostic ability of an additional midline peripheral zone biopsy in transrectal ultrasonography-guided 12-core prostate biopsy to detect midline prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Inpyeong; Kim, Sang Youn; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Myoung Seok; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic effect of adding a midline peripheral zone (PZ) biopsy to the 12-core biopsy protocol used to diagnose prostate cancer (PC), and to assess the clinical and pathologic characteristics of midline-positive PC in order to identify a potential subgroup of patients who would require midline PZ biopsy. This study included 741 consecutive patients who underwent a transrectal ultrasonography-guided, 12-core prostate biopsy with an additional midline core biopsy between October 2012 and December 2013. We grouped patients by the presence or absence of PC and subdivided patients with PC based on the involvement of the midline core. The clinical characteristics of these groups were compared, including serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations, PSA density, and pathological features in the biopsy specimens. PC was detected in 289 patients (39.0%). Among the PC patients, 66 patients (22.8%) had midline PC. No patients were diagnosed with PC based only on a midline core. The Gleason scores, number of positive cores, tumor core length, serum PSA concentrations, and PSA density were significantly higher in patients with midline-positive PC (P<0.001). Furthermore, significant cancer was more frequent in the midline-positive group (98.5% vs. 78.0%). Patients showing a positive result for PC in a midline PZ biopsy were more likely to have multiple tumors or large-volume PC with a high tumor burden. However, our data indicated that an additional midline core biopsy is unlikely to be helpful in detecting occult midline PC.

  20. The diagnostic ability of an additional midline peripheral zone biopsy in transrectal ultrasonography-guided 12-core prostate biopsy to detect midline prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic effect of adding a midline peripheral zone (PZ) biopsy to the 12-core biopsy protocol used to diagnose prostate cancer (PC), and to assess the clinical and pathologic characteristics of midline-positive PC in order to identify a potential subgroup of patients who would require midline PZ biopsy. Methods: This study included 741 consecutive patients who underwent a transrectal ultrasonography-guided, 12-core prostate biopsy with an additional midline core biopsy between October 2012 and December 2013. We grouped patients by the presence or absence of PC and subdivided patients with PC based on the involvement of the midline core. The clinical characteristics of these groups were compared, including serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations, PSA density, and pathological features in the biopsy specimens. Results: PC was detected in 289 patients (39.0%). Among the PC patients, 66 patients (22.8%) had midline PC. No patients were diagnosed with PC based only on a midline core. The Gleason scores, number of positive cores, tumor core length, serum PSA concentrations, and PSA density were significantly higher in patients with midline-positive PC (P<0.001). Furthermore, significant cancer was more frequent in the midline-positive group (98.5% vs. 78.0%). Conclusion: Patients showing a positive result for PC in a midline PZ biopsy were more likely to have multiple tumors or large-volume PC with a high tumor burden. However, our data indicated that an additional midline core biopsy is unlikely to be helpful in detecting occult midline PC. PMID:26403961

  1. Deqi Induction by HT7 Acupuncture Alters Theta and Alpha Band Coherence in Human Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Go-Eun; Yun, Jong-Min; Yang, Seung-Bum; Kang, Yeonseok; Kang, Hyung-Won; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Junbeom; Kwon, O Sang; Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jae-Hyo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the changes in phase synchronization in the theta and alpha bands before and during the performance of classical acupuncture on the Sinmun (HT7). The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from nine healthy young subjects were recorded before and during acupuncture in the "closed-eye" state. The EEG signals were acquired from 19 surface scalp electrodes (FP1, FP2, F7, F3, Fz F4, F8, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1, and O2). Needles were inserted into the HT7 bilaterally and were then manipulated to induce deqi and retained for 15 minutes. Phase synchronization was measured by phase coherence. In the theta band, coherence significantly increased between the temporal (T5, T6) and occipital areas (O1, O2) during the acupuncture stimulation. In the alpha band, coherence significantly increased between the left temporal area (T5) and other areas (frontal, parietal, and occipital). Phase coherence in the theta and alpha bands tended to increase during the retention of the acupuncture needles after deqi. Therefore, it can be concluded that acupuncture stimulation with deqi is clinically effective via the central nervous system (CNS).

  2. Deqi Induction by HT7 Acupuncture Alters Theta and Alpha Band Coherence in Human Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwang-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the changes in phase synchronization in the theta and alpha bands before and during the performance of classical acupuncture on the Sinmun (HT7). The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from nine healthy young subjects were recorded before and during acupuncture in the “closed-eye” state. The EEG signals were acquired from 19 surface scalp electrodes (FP1, FP2, F7, F3, Fz F4, F8, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1, and O2). Needles were inserted into the HT7 bilaterally and were then manipulated to induce deqi and retained for 15 minutes. Phase synchronization was measured by phase coherence. In the theta band, coherence significantly increased between the temporal (T5, T6) and occipital areas (O1, O2) during the acupuncture stimulation. In the alpha band, coherence significantly increased between the left temporal area (T5) and other areas (frontal, parietal, and occipital). Phase coherence in the theta and alpha bands tended to increase during the retention of the acupuncture needles after deqi. Therefore, it can be concluded that acupuncture stimulation with deqi is clinically effective via the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:28484506

  3. Changes in the theta band coherence during motor task after hand immobilization.

    PubMed

    Brauns, Igor; Teixeira, Silmar; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Machado, Sergio; Cagy, Mauricio; Gongora, Mariana; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Machado, Dionis; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; Salas-Pacheco, Jose; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Many different factors can temporarily or permanently impair movement and impairs cortical organization, e.g. hand immobilization. Such changes have been widely studied using electroencephalography. Within this context, we have investigated the immobilization effects through the theta band coherence analysis, in order to find out whether the immobilization period causes any changes in the inter and intra-hemispheric coherence within the cerebral cortex, as well as to observe whether the theta band provides any information about the neural mechanisms involved during the motor act. We analyzed the cortical changes that occurred after 48 hours of hand immobilization. The theta band coherence was study through electroencephalography in 30 healthy subjects, divided into two groups (control and experimental). Within both groups, the subjects executed a task involving flexion and extension of the index finger, before and after 48 hours. The experimental group, however, was actually submitted to hand immobilization. We were able to observe an increase in the coupling within the experimental group in the frontal, parietal and temporal regions, and a decrease in the motor area. In order to execute manual tasks after some time of movement restriction, greater coherence is present in areas related to attention, movement preparation and sensorimotor integration processes. These results may contribute to a detailed assessment of involved neurophysiological mechanism in motor act execution.

  4. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  5. Frontal-opercular aphasia.

    PubMed

    Taubner, R W; Raymer, A M; Heilman, K M

    1999-11-01

    The standard nomenclature divides nonfluent aphasic syndromes with relatively spared comprehension into Broca's aphasia and transcortical motor aphasia. We report on a patient with a persistent nonfluent aphasia from a discrete, primarily cortical, frontal-opercular lesion who had impaired syntax but intact repetition and, therefore, did not conform to the traditional classification. Based on this patient's behavior and a review of other cases, we have divided the nonfluent aphasias with intact comprehension into five disorders. (1) Verbal akinesia-exhibiting diminished intention or drive to speak and associated with medial frontal lesions (supplementary motor area and cingulate gyrus) or with lesions damaging the efferent projections from these areas. (2) Disorders of syntax-telegraphic and agrammatic utterances that may be associated with dominant pars opercularis lesions. (3) Phonemic disintegration-a failure to correctly produce phonemes, which may be associated with injury to the opercular primary motor cortex or efferent projections from this area. (4) Defects of lexical access-patients who struggle to find words and are impaired at timed word-generation tasks. Defects of lexical access may be associated with lesions of the pars triangularis and adjacent prefrontal cortex. (5) Mixed defects. According to this model, the traditional patient with Broca's aphasia would exhibit disorders of syntax, phonemic disintegration, and defects of lexical access, whereas the traditional patient with transcortical motor aphasia would have verbal akinesia or defects of lexical access or both. Our patient had defects of lexical access and syntax, but only mild symptoms of phonemic disintegration, suggesting that his opercular primary motor cortex was relatively intact. Our patient's ability to repeat normally while his propositional speech remained telegraphic suggests that different neural mechanisms subserve these functions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  7. EEG Source Reconstruction Reveals Frontal-Parietal Dynamics of Spatial Conflict Processing

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30–50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8–12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4–8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions. PMID:23451201

  8. NUT Midline Carcinoma: Morphoproteomic Characterization with Genomic and Therapeutic Correlates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongxia; McGuire, Mary F; Zhang, Songlin; Brown, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    NUT midline carcinoma is a rare entity arising primarily in the midline of teenagers and young adults. Genomically, it is associated with a translocation involving a nuclear protein in testis (NUT) gene with other genes, most commonly, the BRD4 gene. The resultant is a partial or near total block in differentiation of tumor cells into mature squamous elements. Such tumors are resistant to conventional therapy with a reported mean survival at less than 1 year. In this study, we investigated two cases with genomic confirmation as NUT midline carcinoma by morphoproteomic analysis using immunohistochemical antibodies. Our results showed overexpression, largely in the undifferentiated cells of the tumors of: 1) Stemness marker, SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2); 2) Constitutive activation of the mTORC2 pathway with expression of total insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R[Tyr1165/1166]), and nuclear p-mTOR (Ser 2448) and p-Akt (Ser 473); and 3) c-Myc, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1) and histone methyltransferase enhancer of Zeste, Drosophila, homolog 2 (EZH2) as molecular impediments to differentiation. These data were analyzed through the use of QIAGEN's Ingenuity(®) Pathway Analysis (IPA(®), QIAGEN Redwood City, www.qiagen.com/ingenuity). The results established the interconnection of these pathways and molecules, and identified several pharmacogenomic agents--melatonin, metformin, vorinostat, curcumin, and sulforaphane--that have the potential to remove the block in differentiation and lead to the establishment of a more benign form of NUT midline carcinoma.

  9. Congenital midline cervical cleft with an underlying bronchogenic like cyst.

    PubMed

    Vure, Srinivas; Pang, Karl; Hallam, Lavinia; Lui, M; Croaker, David

    2009-09-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is an uncommon malformation. We report a case of a baby girl aged 3 days with a CMCC associated with a cyst reported as a bronchogenic cyst (BC). The pathology is not specific. The association of BC and CMCC is extremely rare and only five cases have been found in the literature. We report our case and review the relevant literature.

  10. Giant cell reparative granuloma presenting as a midline nasal mass.

    PubMed

    Govett, G S; Amedee, R G

    1991-03-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is an uncommon entity that has been reported in all areas of the head and neck. It must be distinguished from true giant cell tumors, brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism, aneurysmal bone cysts, and fibrous dysplasia. It responds well to surgical debulking and curettage and has a benign clinical course. We describe a case report of a GCRG presenting as a midline nasal mass and review the pertinent English language literature.

  11. Factors influencing primary treatment of midline vulvar cancers.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Lesley B; Conrad, Steven A; Miller, David S; Richardson, Debra L; Kehoe, Siobhan; Lea, Jayanthi S

    2016-07-01

    Advanced vulvar cancers involving midline structures pose a therapeutic challenge. Our objectives were to review the management and outcomes, and identify factors influencing primary treatment modality. Patients with midline vulvar cancers diagnosed from 1985 to 2012 were included in the analysis. Medical records were abstracted for demographics, clinico-pathological findings, treatment, and outcomes. Groin node status was defined by clinical findings or pathology. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and differences by log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. Factors influencing treatment modality were evaluated using stepwise logistic regression. Forty-two patients were identified. Twenty-one underwent primary radical vulvectomy and 21 underwent primary radiation. Median tumor diameter was 3.4cm (range 2-9cm) for primary radical vulvectomy and 5cm (range 2.3-15cm) for primary radiation. Primary radiation was significantly associated with a tumor diameter ≥5cm (p=0.02), or when 2 or more midline (p=0.008) or 1 or more mucosal structures (p=0.03) were involved. On multivariate analysis, age and tumor diameter were predictors of progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.02 and p=0.0004, respectively) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.03 and p=0.0005, respectively). Thirty-month OS for primary surgery and primary radiation was 74% and 71% (p=0.78), respectively. There were no differences in PFS or recurrence rates between the two treatment groups. Clinical tumor diameter and the number of midline or mucosal structures involved influence selection of primary treatment modality. Survival outcomes and recurrence rates did not differ between treatment groups. Age and tumor diameter are important prognostic factors for survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Le Fort I Approach for Midline Tumors of the Palate.

    PubMed

    de Cevallos, Jorge Guiñales Díaz; Carretero, Jose L Cebrián; de Vera, Jose L Del Castillo Pardo; García, Miguel Burgueño

    2015-12-01

    Midline tumors of the palate may represent a challenge for the maxillofacial surgeon. Their resection and immediate reconstruction could be hindered when a simply intraoral approach is selected. The Le Fort I downfracture approach represents an ideal technique for the management of this tumors, simplifying their resection, ensuring a tumor-free margin, and allowing their reconstruction with a temporal muscle flap. A review of this procedure is presented, highlighting the technical keys and its principal advantages.

  13. Sensory and spinal inhibitory dorsal midline crossing is independent of Robo3.

    PubMed

    Comer, John D; Pan, Fong Cheng; Willet, Spencer G; Haldipur, Parthiv; Millen, Kathleen J; Wright, Christopher V E; Kaltschmidt, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Commissural neurons project across the midline at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS), providing bilateral communication critical for the coordination of motor activity and sensory perception. Midline crossing at the spinal ventral midline has been extensively studied and has revealed that multiple developmental lineages contribute to this commissural neuron population. Ventral midline crossing occurs in a manner dependent on Robo3 regulation of Robo/Slit signaling and the ventral commissure is absent in the spinal cord and hindbrain of Robo3 mutants. Midline crossing in the spinal cord is not limited to the ventral midline, however. While prior anatomical studies provide evidence that commissural axons also cross the midline dorsally, little is known of the genetic and molecular properties of dorsally-crossing neurons or of the mechanisms that regulate dorsal midline crossing. In this study, we describe a commissural neuron population that crosses the spinal dorsal midline during the last quarter of embryogenesis in discrete fiber bundles present throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Using immunohistochemistry, neurotracing, and mouse genetics, we show that this commissural neuron population includes spinal inhibitory neurons and sensory nociceptors. While the floor plate and roof plate are dispensable for dorsal midline crossing, we show that this population depends on Robo/Slit signaling yet crosses the dorsal midline in a Robo3-independent manner. The dorsally-crossing commissural neuron population we describe suggests a substrate circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal spinal cord.

  14. Sensory and spinal inhibitory dorsal midline crossing is independent of Robo3

    PubMed Central

    Comer, John D.; Pan, Fong Cheng; Willet, Spencer G.; Haldipur, Parthiv; Millen, Kathleen J.; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Kaltschmidt, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Commissural neurons project across the midline at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS), providing bilateral communication critical for the coordination of motor activity and sensory perception. Midline crossing at the spinal ventral midline has been extensively studied and has revealed that multiple developmental lineages contribute to this commissural neuron population. Ventral midline crossing occurs in a manner dependent on Robo3 regulation of Robo/Slit signaling and the ventral commissure is absent in the spinal cord and hindbrain of Robo3 mutants. Midline crossing in the spinal cord is not limited to the ventral midline, however. While prior anatomical studies provide evidence that commissural axons also cross the midline dorsally, little is known of the genetic and molecular properties of dorsally-crossing neurons or of the mechanisms that regulate dorsal midline crossing. In this study, we describe a commissural neuron population that crosses the spinal dorsal midline during the last quarter of embryogenesis in discrete fiber bundles present throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Using immunohistochemistry, neurotracing, and mouse genetics, we show that this commissural neuron population includes spinal inhibitory neurons and sensory nociceptors. While the floor plate and roof plate are dispensable for dorsal midline crossing, we show that this population depends on Robo/Slit signaling yet crosses the dorsal midline in a Robo3-independent manner. The dorsally-crossing commissural neuron population we describe suggests a substrate circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal spinal cord. PMID:26257608

  15. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weidmayer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  16. Robotic Anterior and Midline Skull Base Surgery: Preclinical Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Bert W. Weinstein, Gregory S.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To develop a minimally invasive surgical technique to access the midline and anterior skull base using the optical and technical advantages of robotic surgical instrumentation. Methods and Materials: Ten experimental procedures focusing on approaches to the nasopharynx, clivus, sphenoid, pituitary sella, and suprasellar regions were performed on one cadaver and one live mongrel dog. Both the cadaver and canine procedures were performed in an approved training facility using the da Vinci Surgical Robot. For the canine experiments, a transoral robotic surgery (TORS) approach was used, and for the cadaver a newly developed combined cervical-transoral robotic surgery (C-TORS) approach was investigated and compared with standard TORS. The ability to access and dissect tissues within the various areas of the midline and anterior skull base were evaluated, and techniques to enhance visualization and instrumentation were developed. Results: Standard TORS approaches did not provide adequate access to the midline and anterior skull base; however, the newly developed C-TORS approach was successful in providing the surgical access to these regions of the skull base. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is an exciting minimally invasive approach to the skull base that warrants continued preclinical investigation and development.

  17. Midline Lumbar Fusion with Cortical Bone Trajectory Screw

    PubMed Central

    MIZUNO, Masaki; KURAISHI, Keita; UMEDA, Yasuyuki; SANO, Takanori; TSUJI, Masanori; SUZUKI, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    A novel cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw technique provides an alternative fixation technique for lumbar spine. Trajectory of CBT screw creates a caudo-cephalad path in sagittal plane and a medio-lateral path in axial plane, and engages cortical bone in the pedicle. The theoretical advantage is that it provides enhanced screw grip and interface strength. Midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) is composed of posterior mid-line approach, microsurgical laminectomy, and CBT screw fixation. We adopted the MIDLF technique for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Advantages of this technique include that decompression and fusion are available in the same field, and it minimizes approach-related damages. To determine whether MIDLF with CBT screw is as effective as traditional approach and it is minimum invasive technique, we studied the clinical and radiological outcomes of MIDLF. Our results indicate that MIDLF is effective and minimum invasive technique. Evidence of effectiveness of MIDLF is that patients had good recovery score, and that CBT screw technique was safety in clinical and stable in radiological. MIDLF with CBT screw provides the surgeon with additional options for fixation. This technique is most likely to be useful for treating lumbar spondylolisthesis in combination with midline decompression and insertion of an interbody graft, such as the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion or posterior lumbar interbody fusion techniques. PMID:25169139

  18. Dietary consistency and the midline sutures in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Burn, AK; Herring, SW; Hubbard, R; Zink, K; Rafferty, K; Lieberman, DE

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of reduced masticatory function on midline suture growth and morphology in growing pigs. Setting and Sample Population The sample was 20 pigs separated into 2 dietary groups, and raised at the Department of Antrhopology, Harvard University. Midline suture specimes were analyzed at the Department of Orthodontics, University of Washington. Materials and Methods Ten farm pigs and 10 minipigs, all male, were randomly assigned to hard (n=9) and soft diet (n=11) groups. Fluorochromic mineral labels were administered to document bone apposition, and the animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. Undecalcified sections of the interfrontal, interparietal, internasal and intermaxillary sutures were evaluated for bone quantity and sutural thickness, interdigitation ratio and growth rate. Results Soft diet pigs were characterized by a slower rate of weight gain, and less bone than their hard diet counterparts. Even after correction for weight gain, soft diet pigs had reduced suture growth rate and thickness. However, no difference in interdigitation ratio was detected between dietary groups. Conclusion Restriction to a soft diet reduces midline suture growth and bone apposition in the growing pig. PMID:20477970

  19. Parvalbumin Interneurons of Hippocampus Tune Population Activity at Theta Frequency.

    PubMed

    Amilhon, Bénédicte; Huh, Carey Y L; Manseau, Frédéric; Ducharme, Guillaume; Nichol, Heather; Adamantidis, Antoine; Williams, Sylvain

    2015-06-03

    Hippocampal theta rhythm arises from a combination of recently described intrinsic theta oscillators and inputs from multiple brain areas. Interneurons expressing the markers parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) are leading candidates to participate in intrinsic rhythm generation and principal cell (PC) coordination in distal CA1 and subiculum. We tested their involvement by optogenetically activating and silencing PV or SOM interneurons in an intact hippocampus preparation that preserves intrinsic connections and oscillates spontaneously at theta frequencies. Despite evidence suggesting that SOM interneurons are crucial for theta, optogenetic manipulation of these interneurons modestly influenced theta rhythm. However, SOM interneurons were able to strongly modulate temporoammonic inputs. In contrast, activation of PV interneurons powerfully controlled PC network and rhythm generation optimally at 8 Hz, while continuously silencing them disrupted theta. Our results thus demonstrate a pivotal role of PV but not SOM interneurons for PC synchronization and the emergence of intrinsic hippocampal theta.

  20. EEG theta power and coherence to octave illusion in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Leilei; Chai, Hao; Yu, Shaohua; Xu, You; Chen, Wanzhen; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The exact mechanism behind auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia remains unknown. A corollary discharge dysfunction hypothesis has been put forward, but it requires further confirmation. Electroencephalography (EEG) of the Deutsch octave illusion might offer more insight, by demonstrating an abnormal cerebral activation similar to that under auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. We invited 23 first-episode schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations and 23 healthy participants to listen to silence and two sound sequences, which consisted of alternating 400- and 800-Hz tones. EEG spectral power and coherence values of different frequency bands, including theta rhythm (3.5-7.5 Hz), were computed using 32 scalp electrodes. Task-related spectral power changes and task-related coherence differences were also calculated. Clinical characteristics of patients were rated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. After both sequences of octave illusion, the task-related theta power change values of frontal and temporal areas were significantly lower, and the task-related theta coherence difference values of intrahemispheric frontal-temporal areas were significantly higher in schizophrenic patients than in healthy participants. Moreover, the task-related power change values in both hemispheres were negatively correlated and the task-related coherence difference values in the right hemisphere were positively correlated with the hallucination score in schizophrenic patients. We only tested the Deutsch octave illusion in primary schizophrenic patients with acute first episode. Further studies might adopt other illusions or employ other forms of schizophrenia. Our results showed a lower activation but higher connection within frontal and temporal areas in schizophrenic patients under octave illusion. This suggests an oversynchronized but weak frontal area to exert an action to the ipsilateral temporal area, which supports the corollary discharge

  1. Higher theta and alpha1 coherence when listening to Vedic recitation compared to coherence during Transcendental Meditation practice.

    PubMed

    Travis, Frederick; Parim, Niyazi; Shrivastava, Amrita

    2017-03-01

    This study compared subjective experiences and EEG patterns in 37 subjects when listening to live Vedic recitation and when practicing Transcendental Meditation (TM). Content analysis of experiences when listening to Vedic recitation yielded three higher-order code. Experiences during Vedic recitation were: (1) deeper than during TM practice; (2) experienced as an inner process; and (3) characterized by lively silence. EEG patterns support these higher-order codes. Theta2 and alpha1 frontal, parietal, and frontal-parietal coherence were significantly higher when listening to Vedic recitation, than during TM practice. Theta2 coherence is seen when attending to internal mental processes. Higher theta2 coherence supports subjects' descriptions that the Vedic recitations were "not external sounds but internal vibrations." Alpha1 coherence is reported during pure consciousness experiences during TM practice. Higher alpha1 coherence supports subjects' descriptions that they "experienced a depth of experience, rarely experienced even during deep TM practice." These data support the utility of listening to Vedic recitation to culture deep inner experiences.

  2. The influence of theta transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on working memory storage and processing functions.

    PubMed

    Jaušovec, Norbert; Jaušovec, Ksenija; Pahor, Anja

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to explore the role of the fronto-parietal brain network in working memory function--in temporary storage and manipulation of information. In a single blind sham controlled experiment 36 respondents solved different working memory tasks after theta transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) was applied to left frontal, left parietal and right parietal areas. Both verum tACS protocols stimulating parietal brain areas (target electrodes positioned at location P3, or P4) had a positive effect on WM storage capacity as compared with sham tACS, whereas no such influence was observed for the stimulation of the left frontal area (target electrode positioned at location F3). A second finding was that left parietal theta tACS had a more pronounced influence on backward recall than on forward recall, which was not related to task content (spatial or verbal). The influence of theta tACS on WM executive processes was most pronounced for right parietal stimulation. The results are discussed in the broad theoretical framework of the multicomponent model of working memory.

  3. Progressive Fracture of [0/90/ + or - Theta]s Composite Structure Under Uniform Pressure Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascalis K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Christos K.; Mouratidis, Ericos

    2007-01-01

    S-Glass/epoxy [0/90/plus or minus theta]s for theta =45 deg., 60 deg., and 75 deg. laminated fiber-reinforced composite stiffened plate was simulated to investigated for damage and fracture progression under uniform pressure. An integrated computer code was augmented for the simulation of the damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture and to structural collapse. Results show in detail the damage progression sequence and structural fracture resistance during different degradation stages. Damage through the thickness of the laminate initiated first at [0/90/plus or minus 45]s at 15.168 MPa (2200 psi), followed by [0/90/plus or minus 60]s at 16.96 MPa (2460 psi) and finally by [0/90/plus or minus 75]s at 19.3 MPa (2800 psi). After damage initiation happened the cracks propagate rapidly to structural fracture.

  4. Origami by frontal photopolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zeang; Wu, Jiangtao; Mu, Xiaoming; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H. Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2017-01-01

    Origami structures are of great interest in microelectronics, soft actuators, mechanical metamaterials, and biomedical devices. Current methods of fabricating origami structures still have several limitations, such as complex material systems or tedious processing steps. We present a simple approach for creating three-dimensional (3D) origami structures by the frontal photopolymerization method, which can be easily implemented by using a commercial projector. The concept of our method is based on the volume shrinkage during photopolymerization. By adding photoabsorbers into the polymer resin, an attenuated light field is created and leads to a nonuniform curing along the thickness direction. The layer directly exposed to light cures faster than the next layer; this nonuniform curing degree leads to nonuniform curing–induced volume shrinkage. This further introduces a nonuniform stress field, which drives the film to bend toward the newly formed side. The degree of bending can be controlled by adjusting the gray scale and the irradiation time, an easy approach for creating origami structures. The behavior is examined both experimentally and theoretically. Two methods are also proposed to create different types of 3D origami structures. PMID:28508038

  5. Origami by frontal photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zeang; Wu, Jiangtao; Mu, Xiaoming; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2017-04-01

    Origami structures are of great interest in microelectronics, soft actuators, mechanical metamaterials, and biomedical devices. Current methods of fabricating origami structures still have several limitations, such as complex material systems or tedious processing steps. We present a simple approach for creating three-dimensional (3D) origami structures by the frontal photopolymerization method, which can be easily implemented by using a commercial projector. The concept of our method is based on the volume shrinkage during photopolymerization. By adding photoabsorbers into the polymer resin, an attenuated light field is created and leads to a nonuniform curing along the thickness direction. The layer directly exposed to light cures faster than the next layer; this nonuniform curing degree leads to nonuniform curing-induced volume shrinkage. This further introduces a nonuniform stress field, which drives the film to bend toward the newly formed side. The degree of bending can be controlled by adjusting the gray scale and the irradiation time, an easy approach for creating origami structures. The behavior is examined both experimentally and theoretically. Two methods are also proposed to create different types of 3D origami structures.

  6. [Frontal fibrosing alopecia].

    PubMed

    Jouanique, C; Reygagne, P

    2014-04-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) was first described in 1994. It is characterized by scarring alopecia in bands involving the anterior area of the scalp. Alopecia of the eyebrows is frequently associated, as are pubic, facial and body hair alopecia. The clinical and histologic features are evocative of lichen planopilaris (LPP), and AFF is in fact regarded as a special pattern of LPP. Histology reveals a lymphocytic infiltrate located around the isthmus and follicular infundibulum associated with a decrease in the number of follicles, which are supplanted by fibrous tract. AFF most commonly affects post-menopausal women, but instances have been described in men and in young women. This orphan disease has increased in recent years, with more than 37 articles dedicated to this condition since it was first described in 1994. The pathophysiology remains unknown. The condition develops slowly with spontaneous stabilization over several years but it is impossible to predict the degree of expression prior to stabilization. In this article we review the various treatments proposed, for none of which formal proof of efficacy has been provided to date.

  7. Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning.

    PubMed

    Peterson, David A; Thaut, Michael H

    2007-02-02

    Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.

  8. Argos and Spitz group genes function to regulate midline glial cell number in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Stemerdink, C; Jacobs, J R

    1997-10-01

    The midline glia of the Drosophila embryonic nerve cord undergo a reduction in cell number after facilitating commissural tract morphogenesis. The numbers of midline glia entering apoptosis at this stage can be increased by a loss or reduction of function in genes of the spitz group or Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) pathway. Argos, a secreted molecule with an atypical EGF motif, is postulated to function as a DER antagonist. In this work, we assess the role of argos in the determination of midline glia cell number. Although all midline glia express DER, argos expression is restricted to the midline glia which do not enter apoptosis. Fewer midline glia enter apoptosis in embryos lacking argos function. Ectopic expression of argos is sufficient to remove all DER-expressing midline glia from the nerve cord, even those that already express argos. DER expression is not terminated in the midline glia after spitz group signaling triggers changes in gene expression. It is therefore likely that an attenuation of DER signaling by Argos is integrated with the augmentation of DER signaling by Spitz throughout the period of reduction of midline glia number. We suggest that signaling by Spitz but not Argos is restricted to adhesive junctions. In this manner, midline glia not forming signaling junctions remain sensitive to juxtacrine Argos signaling, while an autocrine Argos signal is excluded by the adhesive junction.

  9. Midline crossing is not required for subsequent pathfinding decisions in commissural neurons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Growth cone navigation across the vertebrate midline is critical in the establishment of nervous system connectivity. While midline crossing is achieved through coordinated signaling of attractive and repulsive cues, this has never been demonstrated at the single cell level. Further, though growth cone responsiveness to guidance cues changes after crossing the midline, it is unclear whether midline crossing itself is required for subsequent guidance decisions in vivo. In the zebrafish, spinal commissures are initially formed by a pioneer neuron called CoPA (Commissural Primary Ascending). Unlike in other vertebrate models, CoPA navigates the midline alone, allowing for single-cell analysis of axon guidance mechanisms. Results We provide evidence that CoPA expresses the known axon guidance receptors dcc, robo3 and robo2. Using loss of function mutants and gene knockdown, we show that the functions of these genes are evolutionarily conserved in teleosts and that they are used consecutively by CoPA neurons. We also reveal novel roles for robo2 and robo3 in maintaining commissure structure. When midline crossing is prevented in robo3 mutants and dcc gene knockdown, ipsilaterally projecting neurons respond to postcrossing guidance cues. Furthermore, DCC inhibits Robo2 function before midline crossing to allow a midline approach and crossing. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that midline crossing is not required for subsequent guidance decisions by pioneer axons and that this is due, in part, to DCC inhibition of Robo2 function prior to midline crossing. PMID:22672767

  10. Frontal Sinus Fractures: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Strong, E. Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Frontal sinus injuries may range from isolated anterior table fractures resulting in a simple aesthetic deformity to complex fractures involving the frontal recess, orbits, skull base, and intracranial contents. The risk of long-term morbidity can be significant. Optimal treatment strategies for the management of frontal sinus fractures remain controversial. However, it is critical to have a thorough understanding of frontal sinus anatomy as well as the current treatment strategies used to manage these injuries. A thorough physical exam and thin-cut, multiplanar (axial, coronal, and sagittal) computed tomography scan should be performed in all patients suspected of having a frontal sinus fracture. The most appropriate treatment strategy can be determined by assessing five anatomic parameters including the: frontal recess, anterior table integrity, posterior table integrity, dural integrity, and presence of a cerebrospinal fluid leak. A well thought out management strategy and meticulous surgical techniques are critical to success. The primary surgical goal is to provide a safe sinus while minimizing patient morbidity. This article offers an anatomically based treatment algorithm for the management of frontal sinus fractures and highlights the key steps to surgical repair. PMID:22110810

  11. Reconciling the different faces of hippocampal theta: The role of theta oscillations in cognitive, emotional and innate behaviors.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Tatiana; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Monaghan, Caitlin K; Poulter, Steven L; Cacucci, Francesca; Wills, Tom; Hasselmo, Michael E; Lever, Colin

    2017-09-05

    The theta oscillation (5-10Hz) is a prominent behavior-specific brain rhythm. This review summarizes studies showing the multifaceted role of theta rhythm in cognitive functions, including spatial coding, time coding and memory, exploratory locomotion and anxiety-related behaviors. We describe how activity of hippocampal theta rhythm generators - medial septum, nucleus incertus and entorhinal cortex, links theta with specific behaviors. We review evidence for functions of the theta-rhythmic signaling to subcortical targets, including lateral septum. Further, we describe functional associations of theta oscillation properties - phase, frequency and amplitude - with memory, locomotion and anxiety, and outline how manipulations of these features, using optogenetics or pharmacology, affect associative and innate behaviors. We discuss work linking cognition to the slope of the theta frequency to running speed regression, and emotion-sensitivity (anxiolysis) to its y-intercept. Finally, we describe parallel emergence of theta oscillations, theta-mediated neuronal activity and behaviors during development. This review highlights a complex interplay of neuronal circuits and synchronization features, which enables an adaptive regulation of multiple behaviors by theta-rhythmic signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ramanujan’s mock theta functions

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michael; Ono, Ken; Rolen, Larry

    2013-01-01

    In his famous deathbed letter, Ramanujan introduced the notion of a mock theta function, and he offered some alleged examples. Recent work by Zwegers [Zwegers S (2001) Contemp Math 291:268–277 and Zwegers S (2002) PhD thesis (Univ of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands)] has elucidated the theory encompassing these examples. They are holomorphic parts of special harmonic weak Maass forms. Despite this understanding, little attention has been given to Ramanujan’s original definition. Here, we prove that Ramanujan’s examples do indeed satisfy his original definition. PMID:23536292

  13. Foramen epiploicum mesh closure (FEMC) through a ventral midline laparotomy.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, T; Rötting, A; Wiemer, P; Schauvliege, S; Vanderperren, K; Ugahary, F; Martens, A

    2017-08-12

    Preventive laparoscopic closure of the epiploic foramen (EF) has previously been described, but methods for EF closure during laparotomy for treatment of colic are lacking. To describe the foramen epiploicum mesh closure (FEMC) technique through a ventral midline laparotomy in horses under general anaesthesia and its outcome. Terminal surgical experiment and in vivo study. In a pilot study, a standard ventral midline laparotomy was performed under general anaesthesia in 10 experimental horses and a three-dimensional expandable diabolo-shaped mesh construct was manually introduced through the EF into the omental vestibule. The laparotomy incision was routinely closed after which the horses were subjected to euthanasia. Subsequently, the cadavers were extensively manipulated and finally mesh position was verified during necropsy. Thereafter, a ventral midline laparotomy, with simulation of abdominal manipulations during colic surgery was performed on six experimental horses. A three-dimensional expandable diabolo-shaped mesh with a radiological marker was introduced as in the pilot study. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded during the post-operative period. Four weeks after the intervention, abdominal radiography and laparoscopy were performed in all six horses. Insertion of all 16 diabolo-shaped mesh constructs during laparotomy was uneventful. The 10 mesh constructs of the pilot study were positioned correctly at necropsy. No post-operative clinical or laboratory parameter alterations were noticed in the other six horses, apart from a transient leucocytosis and an increase in serum amyloid A. Abdominal radiography at 4 weeks revealed consistent positioning of the mesh marker. Laparoscopy confirmed that all six EFs were closed, without intestinal adhesions. Mesh insertion in clinical cases and during clean contaminated surgery was not investigated. The FEMC technique via laparotomy provides a fast, simple and reliable procedure to obliterate the EF and

  14. New suture materials for midline laparotomy closure: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Midline laparotomy closure carries a significant risk of incisional hernia. This study examines the behavior of two new suture materials, an elastic material, polyurethane (PUe), and a barbed polydioxanone (PDXb) suture thread in a rabbit model of midline incision closure. Methods Three 2-cm midline incisions were made in 68 New Zealand White rabbits. The incisions were closed by running suture using four 3/0 threads: polypropylene (PP) (Surgipro®, Covidien), PUe (Assuplus®, Assut Europe), PDX (Assufil®, Assut Europe) or PDXb (Filbloc®, Assut Europe). Animals in each suture group were euthanized 3 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Histological sections of the tissue-embedded sutures were subjected to morphological, collagen expression, macrophage response and uniaxial tensiometry studies. Results No signs of wound dehiscence or complications were observed. At 3 weeks, all sutures were surrounded by connective tissue composed mainly of collagen III. PUe showed greater collagen I expression than the other sutures. All sutures elicited a macrophage response that diminished from 3 weeks to 6 months (p < 0.001). This response was similar for the non-reabsorbable sutures (PP and PUe) yet PDXb showed a significantly greater response than the other reabsorbable suture (PDX) at 3 weeks (p < 0.01). At this early time point, the tensile strength of PUe was similar to that of control intact tissue (p > 0.05). Conclusion Three weeks after surgery, PUe revealed more collagen I deposition than the remaining materials and this translated to a similar biomechanical behavior to linea alba, that could avoid the appearance of short term dehiscences and thus reduce the incidence of incisional hernia. PDXb provides no additional advantages in their behavior regarding PDX suture. PMID:25231161

  15. Straight midline mandibulotomy: technique and results of treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Zohairy, Mohamed A

    2007-12-01

    Mandibulotomy is an important surgical approach to tumors of the oral cavity and oropharynx. However the approaches and complications associated with this procedure varies in many studies. The objective of this study is to discuss the feasibility of the technique and to evaluate its advantage and related complications. A prospective study of 23 consecutive patients undergoing planned straight midline mandibular osteotomies as part of the ablative surgery for intraoral carcinoma. Twelve patients had primary lesions affecting the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, four at floor of mouth, three at posterior two-thirds of the tongue, two at deep lobe of parotid, one at soft palate and one at tonsil. Thirteen cases had T3 tumours, seven had T2 lesions and three had T4 tumors. In 5 patients the mandibulotomy was combined with a marginal mandibulectomy. Nineteen patients received post-operative radiotherapy. Various flaps were used for reconstruction : Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap ( n=7 ) , tongue flap ( n=4 ) and radial forearm free vascular flap ( n=2 ) cases. Primary closure using remaining mucosa was achieved in 10 patients. Adequate margins were achieved in all patients as proved by histopathology. Primary healing of the osteotomy was noted in all patients and 5 ( 21.7 % ) patients had mandibulotomyrelated complications. One patient has lost one of the incisors adjacent to the mandibulotomy site during the operation. Dental problems with resorption of the alveolar margin and loosening of the teeth adjacent to the osteotomy were observed in 3 patients, one of them had lost his teeth. Straight midline mandibulotomy provides excellent exposure for oral and oropharyngeal tumours, it is an easy procedure with low complication rate. Key Words : Straight midline mandibulotomy - Mandibulotomy - Mandibular swing - Oral cavity and orophayngeal neoplasms - Rigid fixation.

  16. A new approach to preexisting vertical midline abdominal scars with crossover DIEP flap breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Frank; Somia, Naveen; Lam, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    Breast reconstruction using a free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap or a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is a challenge in patients with a vertical midline abdominal scar due to the poor perfusion of the lower abdominal skin ellipse across the midline. In such patients, only one half of the abdominal skin ellipse can be used with certainty, and this limits the amount of tissue available for reconstructing the breast. Two cases of breast reconstruction in patients with a lower midline abdominal scar are presented using the DIEP flap, in which the poor perfusion across the midline scar was overcome by a technique of crossover anastomoses between the two deep inferior epigastric pedicles. Reliable perfusion of the entire lower abdominal skin ellipse was achieved. This crossover anastomoses technique overcomes the poor perfusion imposed by the vertical midline abdominal scar and enables DIEP flap breast reconstruction to be offered to women with midline abdominal scars. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2010.

  17. Single-minded and the evolution of the ventral midline in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Linne, Viktoria; Eriksson, Bo Joakim; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2012-04-01

    In insects and crustaceans, ventral midline cells are present that subdivide the CNS into bilateral symmetric halves. In both arthropod groups unpaired midline neurons and glial cells have been identified that contribute to the embryonic patterning mechanisms. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, for example, the midline cells are involved in neural cell fate specification along the dorso-ventral axis but also in axonal pathfinding and organisation of the axonal scaffold. Both in insects and malacostracan crustaceans, the bHLH-PAS transcription factor single-minded is the master regulator of ventral midline development and homology has been suggested for individual midline precursors in these groups. The conserved arrangement of the axonal scaffold as well as the regular pattern of neural precursors in all euarthropod groups raises the question whether the ventral midline system is conserved in this phylum. In the remaining euarthropod groups, the chelicerates and myriapods, a single-minded homologue has been identified in the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum (chelicerate), however, the gene is not expressed in the ventral midline but in the median area of the ventral neuroectoderm. Here we show that At-sim is not required for ventral midline development. Furthermore, we identify sim homologues in representatives of arthropods that have not yet been analysed: the myriapod Strigamia maritima and a representative of an outgroup to the euarthropods, the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis. We compare the expression patterns to the A. tepidariorum sim homologue expression and furthermore analyse the nature of the arthropod midline cells. Our data suggest that in arthropods unpaired midline precursors evolved from the bilateral median domain of the ventral neuroectoderm in the last common ancestor of Mandibulata (insects, crustaceans, myriapods). We hypothesize that sim was expressed in this domain and recruited to ventral midline development. Subsequently, sim

  18. Does midline shift predict postoperative nausea in brain tumor patients undergoing awake craniotomy? A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, M W; McDonagh, David L; Phillips-Bute, Barbara; James, Michael L; Friedman, Allan H; Gan, Tong J

    2013-09-01

    The presence of midline shift on neuroradiologic studies in brain tumor patients represents mass effect from the tumor and surrounding edema. We hypothesized that baseline cerebral edema as measured by midline shift would increase postoperative nausea (PON). We studied the incidence of PON in brain tumor patients, with and without midline shift on preoperative magnetic resonance (MRI) or computed tomographic (CT) imaging, undergoing awake craniotomy. After IRB approval, we retrospectively extracted data from perioperative records between January 2005 and December 2010. Post-craniotomy nausea and pain scores were collected. Intraoperative anti-emetic, anesthetic, and analgesic regimens were assessed. Both the rescue anti-emetic and cumulative postoperative analgesic requirements were collected up to 12 hours postoperatively. The amount of midline shift on preoperative neuroimaging was gathered from radiology reports. Univariate comparisons between groups (no midline shift vs. midline shift) were made with t-tests for continuous variables, and chi-square tests for categorical variables. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of postoperative nausea. Limitations of this study include the retrospective design and the inability to gather accurate data regarding vomiting from the medical record. Data from 386 patients were available for analysis. Patients were divided into two groups: no midline shift (n = 283) and midline shift (n = 103). The mean midline shift distance was 5.96 mm (95% CI [5.32, 6.59]). There was no difference in the incidence of nausea or pain scores between the two groups. More malignant brain tumor patients were in the midline shift group, as determined by the postoperative histopathological diagnosis (P < 0.05). Patients in the midline shift group also had longer anesthesia and surgical times (P < 0.05). In patients undergoing a standardized anesthetic for awake craniotomy for tumor resection, the presence of preoperative

  19. Midline filum of the sellar dura: a useful landmark during endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Zada, Gabriel; Kim, Albert H; Governale, Lance S; Laws, Edward R

    2010-12-01

    During endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, identification and constant awareness of the midline is imperative to prevent injury to critical lateral structures, such as the internal carotid arteries. To describe the relevance of a midline filum of the sellar dura which, when present, can serve as a useful intraoperative anatomic marker. Intraoperative video recordings of twenty patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery were retrospectively reviewed to assess for the presence and location of a midline dural filum or apparent central dural vascular structure. Prospective intraoperative data were gathered on an additional 16 patients. A midline dural filum was identified in 18 of 36 patients (50%) undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. This structure was identified on the midline in all cases, as confirmed by intraoperative neuronavigation and comparison with the vomer. The midline dural filum was identified as a strand-like dural extension (13 patients) or as a small vascular dural structure usually exhibiting low pressure venous bleeding (5 patients). Samples of the midline dural filum were obtained from 2 patients for histopathological analysis, which demonstrated dense collagenous connective tissue without evidence of vessel wall or ductal epithelium. In addition to anatomic structures such as the vomer and midline sphenoid sinus septations, a midline dural filum serves as a useful marker during the sellar phase of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. Along with intraoperative neuronavigation and Doppler ultrasonography of the cavernous carotid arteries, identification of this structure may further aid in safeguarding against injury to critical paramedian structures.

  20. Familial recurrence of midline birth defects--a nationwide danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Oyen, Nina; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2009-07-01

    If birth defects resulting from fusion failure in the midline have a common etiology, as previously hypothesized, persons with a family history of 1 type of midline defect should have an increased risk of dissimilar midline defects. The authors examined this hypothesis by linking information from the National Patient Register, the Causes of Death Register, and the Danish Family Relations Database for all Danish residents registered in the Civil Registration System during 1977-2005. Linkage yielded a cohort of 1.7 million persons with 1 or more relatives, including 9,063 persons with 1 or more midline defects. The authors investigated familial clustering of midline defects by estimating relative risks of similar and dissimilar midline defects according to family history of midline defects. Given a history of similar defects in first-degree relatives, relative risks for neural tube defects, conotruncal defects, oral facial clefts, anal/rectal defects, and diaphragmatic defects were 8.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.1, 21.7), 7.7 (95% CI: 4.3, 13.8), 13.2 (95% CI: 10.8, 16.2), 10.3 (95% CI: 2.6, 41.1), and 11.2 (95% CI: 1.6, 79.7), respectively. However, given a dissimilar defect in a family member, the relative risk for any midline defect was null. Thus, similar defects but not dissimilar defects clustered in families, providing no evidence of a shared etiology for dissimilar midline defects.

  1. Midline Cervical Cleft: Review of an Uncommon Entity

    PubMed Central

    Puscas, Liana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Midline cervical cleft is a rare congenital malformation which nonetheless has a classic presentation. This study presents one of the largest single series of new patients with MCC and provides an exhaustive review and catalogue of publications from the international literature. Materials and Methods. Retrospective chart review performed in two academic medical centers and literature review performed with primary verification of all quoted references. Results. Ten patients with MCC were identified (8 boys and 2 girls). All patients presented with the classic findings of this congenital anomaly, and the length of the skin defect correlated with an increase in the patient's age. Surgical excision was complete in all cases. Thorough international literature review yielded only 195 verifiable previously reported cases. Conclusions. This is one of the largest series of new patients with midline cervical cleft presented in the world literature. Although rare (with less than 200 cases published to date) this entity does have a reliable presentation that should lead to rapid and accurate diagnosis. Complete surgical excision at an early age is appropriate since the anomaly increases in length commensurate with the patient's age. PMID:25983756

  2. Midline Brain Abnormalities Across Psychotic and Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Landin-Romero, Ramón; Amann, Benedikt L; Sarró, Salvador; Guerrero-Pedraza, Amalia; Vicens, Victor; Rodriguez-Cano, Elena; Vieta, Eduard; Salvador, Raymond; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Radua, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are known to have increased prevalence of abnormalities in midline brain structures, such as a failure of the septum pellucidum to fuse (cavum septum pellucidum) and the absence of the adhesio interthalamica. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these abnormalities across a large multidiagnostic sample. Presence of cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica was assessed in 639 patients with chronic schizophrenia, delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or a first episode of psychosis, mania or unipolar depression. This was compared with 223 healthy controls using logistic-regression-derived odds ratios (OR). Patients with psychotic or mood disorders showed an increased prevalence of both abnormalities (OR of cavum septum pellucidum = 2.1, OR of absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 2.6, OR of both cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 3.8, all P < .001). This increased prevalence was separately observed in nearly all disorders as well as after controlling for potential confounding factors. This study supports a general increased prevalence of midline brain abnormalities across mood and psychotic disorders. This nonspecificity may suggest that these disorders share a common neurodevelopmental etiology.

  3. Foramen magnum meningioma: The midline suboccipital subtonsillar approach.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, S; Ebner, F; Lepski, G; Tatagiba, M

    2016-06-01

    Foramen magnum meningiomas (FMMs) represent a technical challenge even for experienced neurosurgeons, because they grow in close contact with osteoarticular, nervous, and vascular structures that cannot be sacrificed or retracted during surgery. Our goal is to present our experience with 24 cases of surgically resected foramen magnum meningiomas used the midline suboccipital subtonsillar approach and discussed the present risks associated with the treatment of this condition. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent surgery treatment for foramen magnum meningiomas operated on between August 2005 and July 2013. A total of 24 cases were included. Data regarding age, sex, symptoms and sign types, locations, surgical aspects, postoperative new deficits, and follow-up are presented. There were 18 female and 6 male patients (mean age: 52 years). The symptom among most patients (14 patients) was cervico-occipital pain, dysphagia and gait unsteadiness in five, and paresthesia of the upper limbs in four. Total removal of the tumor was achieved in 20 patients, subtotal in two, and partial resection in four patients. Two patients had permanent deficits. Follow-up was 45.6 months (range, 6 months to 8 years), there was no recurrence among tumors totally removed but 1 patient of regrowth among the cases with subtotal removal. Our experience confirmed that the midline suboccipital subtonsillar approach was accurate in safely removing anterior, anterolateral, and posterior FMMs. There was no significant postoperative complication in the remainder of the patientes, and their conditions improved after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Midline Brain Abnormalities Across Psychotic and Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Landin-Romero, Ramón; Amann, Benedikt L.; Sarró, Salvador; Guerrero-Pedraza, Amalia; Vicens, Victor; Rodriguez-Cano, Elena; Vieta, Eduard; Salvador, Raymond; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Radua, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are known to have increased prevalence of abnormalities in midline brain structures, such as a failure of the septum pellucidum to fuse (cavum septum pellucidum) and the absence of the adhesio interthalamica. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these abnormalities across a large multidiagnostic sample. Presence of cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica was assessed in 639 patients with chronic schizophrenia, delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or a first episode of psychosis, mania or unipolar depression. This was compared with 223 healthy controls using logistic-regression-derived odds ratios (OR). Patients with psychotic or mood disorders showed an increased prevalence of both abnormalities (OR of cavum septum pellucidum = 2.1, OR of absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 2.6, OR of both cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 3.8, all P < .001). This increased prevalence was separately observed in nearly all disorders as well as after controlling for potential confounding factors. This study supports a general increased prevalence of midline brain abnormalities across mood and psychotic disorders. This nonspecificity may suggest that these disorders share a common neurodevelopmental etiology. PMID:26187283

  5. A case of bilateral frontal tumors without "frontal syndrome".

    PubMed

    Plaza, M; du Boullay, V; Perrault, A; Chaby, L; Capelle, L

    2014-01-01

    We report the longitudinal case study of a right-handed patient harboring two frontal tumors that benefited from bilateral simultaneous surgery. The tumors were WHO Grade II gliomas located in the left inferior frontal area (including the cingulate gyrus) and the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. The double tumor resection was guided by direct electrical stimulation of brain areas while the patient was awake. Neuropsychological assessments were administered before and after the surgery to analyse how the brain functions in the presence of two frontal gliomas that affect both hemispheres and reacts to a bilateral resection, which can brutally compromise the neuronal connectivity, progressively established during the infiltrating process. We showed that both the tumor infiltration and their bilateral resection did not lead to a "frontal syndrome" or a "dysexecutive syndrome" predicted by the localization models. However, a subtle fragility was observed in fine-grain language, memory and emotional skills. This case study reveals the significance of brain plasticity in the reorganization of cognitive networks, even in cases of bilateral tumors. It also confirms the clinical relevance of hodotopical brain models, which considers the brain to be organized in parallel-distributed networks around cortical centers and epicenters.

  6. Electroencephalographic frontal synchrony and caudal asynchrony during painful hand immersion in cold water.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Joshua; Choo, Hyunwoo J; Smith, Kelsey A; LeBlanc, Brian W; Saab, Carl Y

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies in our laboratory showed that cortical theta oscillations correlate with pain in rodent models. In this study, we sought to validate our pre-clinical data using EEG recordings in humans during immersion of the hand in ice cold water, a moderately noxious stimulus. Power spectral analysis shows that an increase in pain score is associated with an increase in power amplitude within a frequency range of 6-7Hz at the frontal (Fz) electrode. These results are consistent with our previous pre-clinical animal studies and the clinical literature. We also report a novel reduction in power at the caudal (O1) electrode within a broader 3-30Hz rand and decreased coherence between Fz and C3, C4 electrodes within the theta (4-8Hz) and low beta (13-21Hz) bands, while coherence (an indirect measure of functional connectivity) between Fz and O1 increased within the theta and alpha (8-12Hz) bands. We argue that pain is associated with EEG frontal synchrony and caudal asynchrony, leading to the disruption of cortico-cortical connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A theory of alpha/theta neurofeedback, creative performance enhancement, long distance functional connectivity and psychological integration.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John

    2009-02-01

    Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback protocol which increases the ratio of theta to alpha waves using auditory feedback with eyes closed. While originally the protocol was designed to induce hypnogogia, a state historically associated with creativity, the outcome was psychological integration, while subsequent applications focusing on raising the theta-alpha ratio, reduced depression and anxiety in alcoholism and resolved post traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). In optimal performance studies we confirmed associations with creativity in musical performance, but effects also included technique and communication. We extended efficacy to dance and social anxiety. Diversity of outcome has a counterpart in wide ranging associations between theta oscillations and behaviour in cognitive and affective neuroscience: in animals with sensory-motor activity in exploration, effort, working memory, learning, retention and REM sleep; in man with meditative concentration, reduced anxiety and sympathetic autonomic activation, as well as task demands in virtual spatial navigation, focussed and sustained attention, working and recognition memory, and having implications for synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. Neuroanatomical circuitry involves the ascending mescencephalic-cortical arousal system, and limbic circuits subserving cognitive as well as affective/motivational functions. Working memory and meditative bliss, representing cognitive and affective domains, respectively, involve coupling between frontal and posterior cortices, exemplify a role for theta and alpha waves in mediating the interaction between distal and widely distributed connections. It is posited that this mediation in part underpins the integrational attributes of alpha-theta training in optimal performance and psychotherapy, creative associations in hypnogogia, and enhancement of technical, communication and

  8. Hippocampo-cerebellar theta band phase synchrony in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wikgren, J; Nokia, M S; Penttonen, M

    2010-02-17

    Hippocampal functioning, in the form of theta band oscillation, has been shown to modulate and predict cerebellar learning of which rabbit eyeblink conditioning is perhaps the most well-known example. The contribution of hippocampal neural activity to cerebellar learning is only possible if there is a functional connection between the two structures. Here, in the context of trace eyeblink conditioning, we show (1) that, in addition to the hippocampus, prominent theta oscillation also occurs in the cerebellum, and (2) that cerebellar theta oscillation is synchronized with that in the hippocampus. Further, the degree of phase synchrony (PS) increased both as a response to the conditioning stimuli and as a function of the relative power of hippocampal theta oscillation. However, the degree of PS did not change as a function of either training or learning nor did it predict learning rate as the hippocampal theta ratio did. Nevertheless, theta band synchronization might reflect the formation of transient neural assemblies between the hippocampus and the cerebellum. These findings help us understand how hippocampal function can affect eyeblink conditioning, during which the critical plasticity occurs in the cerebellum. Future studies should examine cerebellar unit activity in relation to hippocampal theta oscillations in order to discover the detailed mechanisms of theta-paced neural activity.

  9. Respiration phase-locks to fast stimulus presentations: implications for the interpretation of posterior midline "deactivations".

    PubMed

    Huijbers, Willem; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Vinck, M; Hofman, Winnie F; Cabeza, Roberto; Daselaar, Sander M

    2014-09-01

    The posterior midline region (PMR)-considered a core of the default mode network-is deactivated during successful performance in different cognitive tasks. The extent of PMR-deactivations is correlated with task-demands and associated with successful performance in various cognitive domains. In the domain of episodic memory, functional MRI (fMRI) studies found that PMR-deactivations reliably predict learning (successful encoding). Yet it is unclear what explains this relation. One intriguing possibility is that PMR-deactivations are partially mediated by respiratory artifacts. There is evidence that the fMRI signal in PMR is particularly prone to respiratory artifacts, because of its large surrounding blood vessels. As respiratory fluctuations have been shown to track changes in attention, it is critical for the general interpretation of fMRI results to clarify the relation between respiratory fluctuations, cognitive performance, and fMRI signal. Here, we investigated this issue by measuring respiration during word encoding, together with a breath-holding condition during fMRI-scanning. Stimulus-locked respiratory analyses showed that respiratory fluctuations predicted successful encoding via a respiratory phase-locking mechanism. At the same time, the fMRI analyses showed that PMR-deactivations associated with learning were reduced during breath-holding and correlated with individual differences in the respiratory phase-locking effect during normal breathing. A left frontal region--used as a control region--did not show these effects. These findings indicate that respiration is a critical factor in explaining the link between PMR-deactivation and successful cognitive performance. Further research is necessary to demonstrate whether our findings are restricted to episodic memory encoding, or also extend to other cognitive domains.

  10. EEG theta/beta ratio as a potential biomarker for attentional control and resilience against deleterious effects of stress on attention.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Verkuil, Bart; Arias-Garcia, Elsa; Pantazi, Ioanna; van Schie, Charlotte

    2014-06-01

    Anxious stress compromises cognitive executive performance. This occurs, for instance, in cognitive performance anxiety (CPA), in which anxiety about one's cognitive performance causes that performance to actually deteriorate (e.g., test anxiety). This is thought to result from a prefrontal cortically (PFC) mediated failure of top-down attentional control over stress-induced automatic processing of threat-related information. In addition, stress-induced increased catecholamine influx into the PFC may directly compromise attentional function. Previous research has suggested that the ratio between resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) low- and high-frequency power (the theta/beta ratio) is related to trait attentional control, which might moderate these effects of stress on attentional function. The goals of the present study were to test the novel prediction that theta/beta ratio moderates the deleterious effects of CPA-like anxious stress on state attentional control and to replicate a previous finding that the theta/beta ratio is related to self-reported trait attentional control. After recording of baseline frontal EEG signals, 77 participants performed a stress induction or a control procedure. Trait attentional control was assessed with the Attentional Control Scale, whereas stress-induced changes in attentional control and anxiety were measured with self-report visual analogue scales. The hypothesized moderating influence of theta/beta ratio on the effects of stress on state attentional control was confirmed. Theta/beta ratio explained 28% of the variance in stress-induced deterioration of self-reported attentional control. The negative relationship between theta/beta ratio and trait attentional control was replicated (r = -.33). The theta/beta ratio reflects, likely prefrontally mediated, attentional control, and should be a useful biomarker for the study of CPA and other anxiety-cognition interactions.

  11. Reversal of theta rhythm flow through intact hippocampal circuits.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jesse; Amilhon, Bénédicte; Goutagny, Romain; Bott, Jean-Bastien; Manseau, Frédéric; Kortleven, Christian; Bressler, Steven L; Williams, Sylvain

    2014-10-01

    Activity flow through the hippocampus is thought to arise exclusively from unidirectional excitatory synaptic signaling from CA3 to CA1 to the subiculum. Theta rhythms are important for hippocampal synchronization during episodic memory processing; thus, it is assumed that theta rhythms follow these excitatory feedforward circuits. To the contrary, we found that theta rhythms generated in the rat subiculum flowed backward to actively modulate spike timing and local network rhythms in CA1 and CA3. This reversed signaling involved GABAergic mechanisms. However, when hippocampal circuits were physically limited to a lamellar slab, CA3 outputs synchronized CA1 and the subiculum using excitatory mechanisms, as predicted by classic hippocampal models. Finally, analysis of in vivo recordings revealed that this reversed theta flow was most prominent during REM sleep. These data demonstrate that communication between CA3, CA1 and the subiculum is not exclusively unidirectional or excitatory and that reversed inhibitory theta signaling also contributes to intrahippocampal synchrony.

  12. Effects of semantic relatedness on age-related associative memory deficits: the role of theta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Garcia, Maite; Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes

    2012-07-16

    Growing evidence suggests that age-related deficits in associative memory are alleviated when the to-be-associated items are semantically related. Here we investigate whether this beneficial effect of semantic relatedness is paralleled by spatio-temporal changes in cortical EEG dynamics during incidental encoding. Young and older adults were presented with faces at a particular spatial location preceded by a biographical cue that was either semantically related or unrelated. As expected, automatic encoding of face-location associations benefited from semantic relatedness in the two groups of age. This effect correlated with increased power of theta oscillations over medial and anterior lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and lateral regions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in both groups. But better-performing elders also showed increased brain-behavior correlation in the theta band over the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as compared to young adults. Semantic relatedness was, however, insufficient to fully eliminate age-related differences in associative memory. In line with this finding, poorer-performing elders relative to young adults showed significant reductions of theta power in the left IFG that were further predictive of behavioral impairment in the recognition task. All together, these results suggest that older adults benefit less than young adults from executive processes during encoding mainly due to neural inefficiency over regions of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). But this associative deficit may be partially compensated for by engaging preexistent semantic knowledge, which likely leads to an efficient recruitment of attentional and integration processes supported by the left PPC and left anterior PFC respectively, together with neural compensatory mechanisms governed by the right VLPFC.

  13. An integrative model of the intrinsic hippocampal theta rhythm

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal theta oscillations (4–12 Hz) are consistently recorded during memory tasks and spatial navigation. Despite several known circuits and structures that generate hippocampal theta locally in vitro, none of them were found to be critical in vivo, and the hippocampal theta rhythm is severely attenuated by disruption of external input from medial septum or entorhinal cortex. We investigated these discrepancies that question the sufficiency and robustness of hippocampal theta generation using a biophysical spiking network model of the CA3 region of the hippocampus that included an interconnected network of pyramidal cells, inhibitory basket cells (BC) and oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells. The model was developed by matching biological data characterizing neuronal firing patterns, synaptic dynamics, short-term synaptic plasticity, neuromodulatory inputs, and the three-dimensional organization of the hippocampus. The model generated theta power robustly through five cooperating generators: spiking oscillations of pyramidal cells, recurrent connections between them, slow-firing interneurons and pyramidal cells subnetwork, the fast-spiking interneurons and pyramidal cells subnetwork, and non-rhythmic structured external input from entorhinal cortex to CA3. We used the modeling framework to quantify the relative contributions of each of these generators to theta power, across different cholinergic states. The largest contribution to theta power was that of the divergent input from the entorhinal cortex to CA3, despite being constrained to random Poisson activity. We found that the low cholinergic states engaged the recurrent connections in generating theta activity, whereas high cholinergic states utilized the OLM-pyramidal subnetwork. These findings revealed that theta might be generated differently across cholinergic states, and demonstrated a direct link between specific theta generators and neuromodulatory states. PMID:28787026

  14. The neuronal mechanisms underlying improvement of impulsivity in ADHD by theta/beta neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Bluschke, Annet; Broschwitz, Felicia; Kohl, Simon; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Neurofeedback is increasingly recognized as an intervention to treat core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the large number of studies having been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness, it is widely elusive what neuronal mechanisms related to the core symptoms of ADHD are modulated by neurofeedback. 19 children with ADHD undergoing 8 weeks of theta/beta neurofeedback and 17 waiting list controls performed a Go/Nogo task in a pre-post design. We used neurophysiological measures combining high-density EEG recording with source localization analyses using sLORETA. Compared to the waiting list ADHD control group, impulsive behaviour measured was reduced after neurofeedback treatment. The effects of neurofeedback were very specific for situations requiring inhibitory control over responses. The neurophysiological data shows that processes of perceptual gating, attentional selection and resource allocation processes were not affected by neurofeedback. Rather, neurofeedback effects seem to be based on the modulation of response inhibition processes in medial frontal cortices. The study shows that specific neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity are modulated by theta/beta neurofeedback in ADHD. The applied neurofeedback protocol could be particularly suitable to address inhibitory control. The study validates assumed functional neuroanatomical target regions of an established neurofeedback protocol on a neurophysiological level. PMID:27514985

  15. Reduced ERPs and theta oscillations underlie working memory deficits in Toxoplasma gondii infected seniors.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread infections in humans. Recent studies give evidence for memory deficits in infected older adults. To investigate working memory dysfunction in infected elderly, a double-blinded electrophysiological study was conducted. 84 persons derived from a sample of 131 healthy participants with the mean age of 70 years were assigned to two groups of 42 non-infected and 42 infected individuals. The outcome measures were behavioral performance, target and response-related ERPs, and time-frequency wavelets during performance in a n-back working-memory task. The infected individuals showed a reduced rate of detected targets and diminished P3b amplitude both in target-locked as well as response-locked data compared to the non-infected group. Time-frequency decomposition of the EEG-signals revealed lower evoked power in the theta frequency range in the target-locked as well as in the response-locked data in infected individuals. The reported effects were comparable with differences between healthy young and old adults described previously. Taking together, the reduced working-memory performance accompanied by an attenuated P3b and frontal theta activity may suggest neurotransmitter imbalance like dopamine and norepinephrine in T. gondii infected individuals. In face of a high prevalence of T. gondii infection and the increasing ratio of older population their accelerated memory decline may have substantial socioeconomic consequences.

  16. Midline serotonergic neurones contribute to widespread synchronized activity in embryonic mouse hindbrain

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Peter N; McCabe, Annette K; Bosma, Martha M

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous, synchronous activity occurs in motor neurones of the embryonic mouse hindbrain at the stage when rhombomeric segmentation disappears (embryonic day 11.5). The mechanisms generating and synchronizing the activity, however, and the extent to which it is widespread in the hindbrain, are unknown. We show here that spontaneous activity is initiated in the midline of the hindbrain, and propagates laterally to encompass virtually the entire hindbrain synchronously and bilaterally. Separation of the midline region from lateral regions abolishes or slows activity laterally, but not medially. The early differentiating neurones of the midline raphe system are present in the rostral midline and express serotonin at E11.5. Their axons ramify extensively in the marginal zone, cross the midline, and extend at the midline both rostrally into the midbrain and caudally towards the caudal hindbrain. Blockers of serotonin receptors, specifically the 5-HT2A receptor, abolish synchronous activity in the hindbrain, while blockers of other neurotransmitter systems, including GABA and glutamate, do not. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor is expressed in the marginal regions in the entire medial-to-lateral extent of the hindbrain and in the midline commissural region. Thus, the serotonergic neurones of the developing midline raphe system may play a role in initiating and propagating spontaneous synchronous activity throughout the hindbrain. PMID:15932887

  17. Mastermind Mutations Generate a Unique Constellation of Midline Cells within the Drosophila CNS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Wheatley, Randi; Fulkerson, Eric; Tapp, Amanda; Estes, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Notch pathway functions repeatedly during the development of the central nervous system in metazoan organisms to control cell fate and regulate cell proliferation and asymmetric cell divisions. Within the Drosophila midline cell lineage, which bisects the two symmetrical halves of the central nervous system, Notch is required for initial cell specification and subsequent differentiation of many midline lineages. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we provide the first description of the role of the Notch co-factor, mastermind, in the central nervous system midline of Drosophila. Overall, zygotic mastermind mutations cause an increase in midline cell number and decrease in midline cell diversity. Compared to mutations in other components of the Notch signaling pathway, such as Notch itself and Delta, zygotic mutations in mastermind cause the production of a unique constellation of midline cell types. The major difference is that midline glia form normally in zygotic mastermind mutants, but not in Notch and Delta mutants. Moreover, during late embryogenesis, extra anterior midline glia survive in zygotic mastermind mutants compared to wild type embryos. Conclusions/Significance This is an example of a mutation in a signaling pathway cofactor producing a distinct central nervous system phenotype compared to mutations in major components of the pathway. PMID:22046261

  18. Comparison of two percutaneous intravenous "midline" catheters in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lacy, D E; Spencer, D A; Venkataraman, M; Ruiz, G; Weller, P H

    1996-01-01

    Administration of intravenous antibiotics in cystic fibrosis has been facilitated by the use of midline catheters; percutaneous lines inserted through a peripheral vein and advanced into a large but noncentral vein. In a randomized study, a 23-gauge silastic catheter (Vygon EC, Cirencester, United Kingdom) was compared with the Hydrocath (Viggo-Spectromed, Swindon, United Kingdom), a 22-gauge hydrophillic coated polyurethane catheter inserted using the Seldinger technique. Fifty eight courses of intravenous antibiotics were given, 28 through the Hydrocath (median age 11 years, range 1.5-17.5 years) and 30 through the silastic catheter, (median age 11 years, range 0.5-17.5). Mean line survival was equal. The Hydrocath took longer to insert and was associated with more pain on insertion. However, administration of antibiotics was easier through the Hydrocath and overall satisfaction was higher in those who had the Hydrocath. Both catheters performed well, but administration of antibiotics was easier through the Hydrocath.

  19. Congenital midline cervical cleft: can it be treated in newborn?

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Roya; Sahebpour, Alireza Alam; Ghasemi, Maryam

    2012-12-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare developmental anomaly of the anterior neck, mostly found in Caucasian females. Most authors consider it within the spectrum of branchial arch developmental abnormalities. There have been about 100 reported cases in the literature. However, there is no agreement on the age of surgery in this anomaly. In this report we present our experience of managing this anomaly in the early neonatal period in two neonates. One of them had concomitantly congenital heart disease. It is important to recognize this rare congenital anomaly in neonate. Although the exact time of surgery for CMCC is not mentioned, based on our results the earliest time of intervention is recommended since then the operating result will be excellent.

  20. A case of endobronchial NUT midline carcinoma with intraluminal growth.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Sho; Hirano, Satoshi; Mine, Sohtaro; Yoshida, Akihiko; Motoi, Toru; Ishii, Satoshi; Naka, Go; Takeda, Yuichiro; Igari, Toru; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2015-03-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, lethal form of differentiated squamous cell carcinoma characterized by chromosomal rearrangement of the NUT gene. Its highly aggressive nature commonly leads to unresectable and metastatic lesions. We report on a case of endobronchial NMC in a middle-aged man who was treated by bronchoscopic electrocautery followed by Ewing sarcoma-based chemotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The patient's disease continued to be stable 31 months after diagnosis. NMC is a challenging disease entity, which is difficult to diagnose and treat, and has a dismal overall survival. Most cases of NMC are widely metastatic or unresectable when diagnosed. This is the first reported case that involves intraluminal tumour growth of NMC and demonstrates the effectiveness of early intensive local therapy aided by bronchoscopic techniques. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Congenital Midline Cervical Cleft: Can It Be Treated in Newborn?

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Roya; Sahebpour, Alireza Alam; Ghasemi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare developmental anomaly of the anterior neck, mostly found in Caucasian females. Most authors consider it within the spectrum of branchial arch developmental abnormalities. There have been about 100 reported cases in the literature. However, there is no agreement on the age of surgery in this anomaly. Case Presentation In this report we present our experience of managing this anomaly in the early neonatal period in two neonates. One of them had concomitantly congenital heart disease. Conclusion It is important to recognize this rare congenital anomaly in neonate. Although the exact time of surgery for CMCC is not mentioned, based on our results the earliest time of intervention is recommended since then the operating result will be excellent. PMID:23431110

  2. Management of Frontal Sinus Tumors.

    PubMed

    Selleck, Anne Morgan; Desai, Dipan; Thorp, Brian D; Ebert, Charles S; Zanation, Adam M

    2016-08-01

    The most common primary tumors of the frontal sinus are osteomas and inverted papillomas, although a variety of other tumors involving this space have been reported. With the advent of new surgical techniques and instrumentation, an endoscopic approach to this region has become feasible. The preoperative assessment and decision making must take into account the complexity of frontal sinus anatomy, tumor type, tumor location, and associated attachments. These procedures allow adequate visualization, tumor removal, and postoperative monitoring, and preserve fairly normal sinus function. Open techniques may also be required and should be in the surgeon's armamentarium.

  3. Midline involvement as a risk factor for vulvar cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Stankevica, Jekaterina; Macuks, Ronalds; Baidekalna, Ieva; Donina, Simona

    2012-01-01

    This observational study was to identify risk factors for vulvar cancer recurrence. In the study 107 patients with primary vulvar cancer were analyzed. Surgical treatment consisted of radical excision of the primary tumor in combination with unilateral or bilateral superficial and deep inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy through separate incisions. Patients with deeper tumor invasion >1 mm or wider than 2 cm and/or groin lymphnode metastases were referred for adjuvant radiotherapy. Those with large primary vulvar tumors received neoadjuvant radiotherapy of 30 Gy followed by surgical treatment and adjuvant radiotherapy. Most of patients had only primary radiotherapy to the vulva and inguinal lymph nodes and only 34.5% of patients were eligible for surgical treatment. In 5 year follow-up period 25.2% (27) patients were alive without the disease, 15.0% (16) were alive with the disease and 59.8% (64) were dead. 60.7% (65) patients experienced local recurrence and 2.8% (3) patients had distant metastases. Median survival for patients without recurrent disease was 38.9 ± 3.2 months and 36.0 ± 2.6 months with no statistically significant difference. Patients with early stage vulvar cancer had longer mean survival rates-for stage I 53.1 ± 3.4 months, 38.4 ± 4.4 months for stage II and 33.4 ± 2.6 and 15.6 ± 5.2 months for patients with stage III and stage IV vulvar cancer, respectively. The only significant prognostic factor predicting vulvar cancer recurrence was involvement of the midline. Patients having midline involvement of vulvar cancer has lower recurrence risk, probably because of receiving more aggressive treatment. There is a tendency for lower vulvar cancer recurrence risk for patients over 70 years of age and patients who are receiving radiotherapy as an only treatment without surgery, but tendency for higher risk of recurrence in patients with multifocal vulvar cancer.

  4. Tobacco Smoking and the Resting Maternal Brain: A Preliminary Study of Frontal EEG

    PubMed Central

    Wilbanks, Haley E.; Von Mohr, Mariana; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Rutherford, Helena J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking has been attributed to a wide range of detrimental health consequences for both women and their children. In addition to its known physical health effects, smoking may also impact maternal neural responses and subsequent caregiving behavior. To begin investigating this issue, we employed electroencephalography (EEG) to examine resting neural oscillations of tobacco-smoking mothers (n = 35) and non-smoking mothers (n = 35). We examined seven EEG frequency bands recorded from frontal electrode sites (delta, theta, alpha, alpha1, alpha2, beta, and gamma). While no between-group differences were present in high-frequency bands (alpha2, beta, gamma), smokers showed greater spectral power in low-frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, alpha1) compared to non-smokers. This increased power in low-frequency bands of tobacco-smoking mothers is consistent with a less aroused state and may be one mechanism through which smoking might affect the maternal brain and caregiving behavior. PMID:27354838

  5. Frontal monitoring and parietal evidence: mechanisms of error correction

    PubMed Central

    Cebrian, Ana Navarro; Knight, Robert T.; Kayser, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    When we respond to a stimulus, our decisions are based not only on external stimuli but also on our ongoing performance. If the response deviates from our goals, monitoring and decision-making brain areas interact so that future behavior may change. By taking advantage of natural variation in error salience, as measured by the reaction time taken to correct an error (RTEC), here we argue that an evidence accumulation framework provides a potential underlying mechanism for this variable process of error identification and correction, as evidenced by covariation of frontal monitoring and parietal decision-making processes. We study two early EEG signals linked to monitoring within medial prefrontal cortex – the error-related negativity (ERN) and fronto-central theta activity – and a third EEG signal, the error positivity (Pe), that is thought to share the same parietal substrates as a signal (the P3b) proposed to reflect evidence accumulation. As predicted, our data show that on slow RTEC trials, frontal monitoring resources are less strongly employed, and the latency of the Pe is longer. Critically, the speed of the RTEC also covaries with the magnitude of subsequent neural (inter-trial alpha power) and behavioral (post-error slowing) adjustments following the correction. These results are synthesized to describe a timing diagram for adaptive decision-making after errors, and support a potential evidence accumulation mechanism in which error signaling is followed by rapid behavioral adjustments. PMID:27027420

  6. Lateral Ventricle Volume Asymmetry Predicts Midline Shift in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Arnold; Schmalfuss, Ilona; Heaton, Shelley C; Gabrielli, Andrea; Hannay, H Julia; Papa, Linda; Brophy, Gretchen M; Wang, Kevin K W; Büki, András; Schwarcz, Attila; Hayes, Ronald L; Robertson, Claudia S; Robicsek, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    Midline shift following severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) detected on computed tomography (CT) scans is an established predictor of poor outcome. We hypothesized that lateral ventricular volume (LVV) asymmetry is an earlier sign of developing asymmetric intracranial pathology than midline shift. This retrospective analysis was performed on data from 84 adults with blunt sTBI requiring a ventriculostomy who presented to a Level I trauma center. Seventy-six patients underwent serial CTs within 3 h and an average of three scans within the first 10 d of sTBI. Left and right LVVs were quantified by computer-assisted manual volumetric measurements. LVV ratios (LVR) were determined on the admission CT to evaluate ventricular asymmetry. The relationship between the admission LVR value and subsequent midline shift development was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and odds ratio (OR) and relative risk tests. Sixty patients had no >5 mm midline shift on the initial admission scan. Of these, 15 patients developed it subsequently (16 patients already had >5 mm midline shift on admission scans). For >5 mm midline shift development, admission LVR of >1.67 was shown to have a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 73.3% (area under the curve=0.782; p<0.0001). LVR of >1.67 as exposure yielded an OR of 7.56 (p<0.01), and a risk ratio of 4.42 (p<0.01) for midline shift development as unfavorable outcome. We propose that LVR captures LVV asymmetry and is not only related to, but also predicts the development of midline shift already at admission CT examination. Lateral ventricles may have a higher "compliance" than midline structures to developing asymmetric brain pathology. LVR analysis is simple, rapidly accomplished and may allow earlier interventions to attenuate midline shift and potentially improve ultimate outcomes.

  7. Crucial roles of Robo proteins in midline crossing of cerebellofugal axons and lack of their up-regulation after midline crossing

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Atsushi; Kumada, Tatsuro; Zhu, Yan; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Hatanaka, Yumiko; Muguruma, Keiko; Chen, Zhe; Tanabe, Yasuto; Torigoe, Makio; Yamauchi, Kenta; Oyama, Hiroshi; Nishida, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Fujio

    2008-01-01

    Background Robo1, Robo2 and Rig-1 (Robo3), members of the Robo protein family, are candidate receptors for the chemorepellents Slit and are known to play a crucial role in commissural axon guidance in the spinal cord. However, their roles at other axial levels remain unknown. Here we examine expression of Robo proteins by cerebellofugal (CF) commissural axons in the rostral hindbrain and investigate their roles in CF axon pathfinding by analysing Robo knockout mice. Results We analysed the expression of Robo proteins by CF axons originating from deep cerebellar neurons in rodent embryos, focusing on developmental stages of their midline crossing and post-crossing navigation. At the stage of CF axon midline crossing, mRNAs of Robo1 and Robo2 are expressed in the nuclear transitory zone of the cerebellum, where the primordium of the deep cerebellar nuclei are located, supporting the notion that CF axons express Robo1 and Robo2. Indeed, immunohistochemical analysis of CF axons labelled by electroporation to deep cerebellar nuclei neurons indicates that Robo1 protein, and possibly also Robo2 protein, is expressed by CF axons crossing the midline. However, weak or no expression of these proteins is found on the longitudinal portion of CF axons. In Robo1/2 double knockout mice, many CF axons reach the midline but fail to exit it. We find that CF axons express Rig-1 (Robo3) before they reach the midline but not after the longitudinal turn. Consistent with this in vivo observation, axons elicited from a cerebellar explant in co-culture with a floor plate explant express Rig-1. In Rig-1 deficient mouse embryos, CF axons appear to project ipsilaterally without reaching the midline. Conclusion These results indicate that Robo1, Robo2 or both are required for midline exit of CF axons. In contrast, Rig-1 is required for their approach to the midline. However, post-crossing up-regulation of these proteins, which plays an important role in spinal commissural axon guidance, does

  8. Conceptual Models of Frontal Cyclones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleman, Joe R.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion of weather models uses maps to illustrate the differences among three types of frontal cyclones (long wave, short wave, and troughs). Awareness of these cyclones can provide clues to atmospheric conditions which can lead toward accurate weather forecasting. (AM)

  9. Collaborative Writing: Online versus Frontal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Schwartz, Gali

    2007-01-01

    Students in higher education, most frequently, use the frontal approach while being asked to collaborate on a writing assignment. However, the difficulty in collaborative writing using conventional technologies such as pen and paper, board or computer is the limited ability to view the work of your peers during the process (Baeker, Glass,…

  10. Conceptual Models of Frontal Cyclones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleman, Joe R.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion of weather models uses maps to illustrate the differences among three types of frontal cyclones (long wave, short wave, and troughs). Awareness of these cyclones can provide clues to atmospheric conditions which can lead toward accurate weather forecasting. (AM)

  11. Theta-gamma coupling reflects the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes in speech perception in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Gao, Danqi; Li, Duan; Desroches, Amy S; Liu, Li; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-11-15

    This study investigates how the interaction of different brain oscillations (particularly theta-gamma coupling) modulates the bottom-up and top-down processes during speech perception. We employed a speech perception paradigm that manipulated the congruency between a visually presented picture and an auditory stimulus and asked participants to judge whether they matched or mismatched. A group of children (mean age 10 years, 5 months) participated in this study and their electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded while performing the experimental task. It was found that in comparison with mismatch condition, match condition facilitated speech perception by eliciting greater theta-gamma coupling in the frontal area and smaller theta-gamma coupling in the left temporal area. These findings suggested that a top-down facilitation effect from congruent visual pictures engaged different mechanisms in low-level sensory (temporal) regions and high-level linguistic and decision (frontal) regions. Interestingly, hemispheric asymmetry is with higher theta-gamma coupling in the match condition in the right hemisphere and higher theta-gamma coupling in the mismatch condition in the left hemisphere. This indicates that a fast global processing strategy and a slow detailed processing strategy were differentially adopted in the match and mismatch conditions. This study provides new insight into the mechanisms of speech perception from the interaction of different oscillatory activities and provides neural evidence for theories of speech perception allowing for top-down feedback connections. Furthermore, it sheds light on children's speech perception development by showing a similar pattern of integration of bottom-up and top-down information during speech perception as previous studies have revealed in adults.

  12. Preserved leftward movement in left unilateral spatial neglect due to frontal lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Ishiai, S; Watabiki, S; Lee, E; Kanouchi, T; Odajima, N

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with left unilateral spatial neglect after predominantly frontal lobe lesions were asked to extend a horizontal line leftwards to double its original length. In this line extension task, they readily executed movements in or towards the contralesional left space. They performed the task in the left and right hemispaces as well as in the midline. The mean extension lengths did not differ significantly among these three spatial conditions. These results suggest that directional hypokinesia takes little part in left unilateral spatial neglect due to frontal lobe lesions. It is considered that the patients could execute leftward movements as the task oriented their attention sufficiently to the left. Two of the three patients, like reported cases with frontal neglect, showed a typical exploratory deficit for the left space in the line cancellation test. Such a deficit found in the traditional tasks, however, does not mean the presence of directional hypokinesia. All three patients showed visual extinction on double simultaneous stimulation. An attentional mechanism seems to play a predominant part in unilateral spatial neglect due to frontal lesions. Images PMID:8089675

  13. Early reduction in prefrontal theta QEEG cordance value predicts response to venlafaxine treatment in patients with resistant depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bares, Martin; Brunovsky, Martin; Kopecek, Miloslav; Novak, Tomas; Stopkova, Pavla; Kozeny, Jiri; Sos, Peter; Krajca, Vladimir; Höschl, Cyril

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies of patients with unipolar depression have shown that early decrease of prefrontal EEG cordance in theta band can predict clinical response to various antidepressants. We have now examined whether decrease of prefrontal quantitative EEG (QEEG) cordance value after 1 week of venlafaxine treatment predicts clinical response to venlafaxine in resistant patients. We analyzed 25 inpatients who finished 4-week venlafaxine treatment. EEG data were monitored at baseline and after 1 week of treatment. QEEG cordance was computed at three frontal electrodes in theta frequency band. Depressive symptoms and clinical status were assessed using Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-S) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI). Eleven of 12 responders (reduction of MADRS >or=50%) and only 5 of 13 non-responders had decreased prefrontal QEEG cordance value after the first week of treatment (p=0.01). The decrease of prefrontal cordance after week 1 in responders was significant (p=0.03) and there was no significant change in non-responders. Positive and negative predictive values of cordance reduction for response were 0.7 and 0.9, respectively. The reduction of prefrontal theta QEEG cordance value after first week of treatment might be helpful in the prediction of response to venlafaxine.

  14. Analysis of the energetic parameters of a theta pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, G. H.; Farias, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    This work is devoted to study experimentally the performance of a theta pinch when the number of capacitors and turns of magnetic coil and the diameter of the glass tube are changed. To model the theta pinch a simple RLC circuit is used and the measurement of energy transmission from the bank of capacitors to the plasma is made using few experimental resources. In this work it was analyzed more than 2500 curves with a nonlinear procedure. Our results show that it is possible to design an optimized theta pinch making the appropriated choice of energetic parameters and therefore to reduce the stress of the system.

  15. Theta and Alpha Oscillations during the Retention Period of Working Memory by rTMS Stimulating the Parietal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Jin, Jing-Na; Wang, Xin; Qi, Hong-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Yin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Studies on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have shown that stimulating the parietal lobe, which plays a role in memory storage, can enhance performance during the “retention” process of working memory (WM). However, the mechanism of rTMS effect during this phase is still unclear. In this study, we stimulated the superior parietal lobe (SPL) using 5-Hz rTMS in 26 participants and recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed a delayed-recognition WM task. The analyses included the comparisons of event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) value variations in theta (4–7 Hz) and alpha (8–14 Hz) band frequencies between conditions (rTMS vs. sham), as well as the correlations between different brain areas. Following rTMS, the ERSP values of theta-band oscillations were significantly increased in the parietal and occipital-parietal brain areas (P < 0.05*), whereas the ERSP values of alpha-band oscillations were significantly decreased in the parietal area (P < 0.05*). The ERSP value variations of theta-band oscillations between the two conditions in the left parietal and left prefrontal areas were positively correlated with the response time (RT) variations (by using rTMS, the more subject RT decreased, the more ERSP value of theta oscillation increased). The ERSP value variations of alpha-band oscillations in the left parietal and bilateral prefrontal areas were negatively correlated with RT variations (by using rTMS, the more RT of the subject decreased, the more ERSP value of alpha oscillation decreased). Inter-sites phase synchronization of theta-band EEG between the left parietal and left prefrontal areas, as well as alpha-band EEG between the left parietal and bilateral prefrontal areas were enhanced by rTMS. These results indicated that activities of both parietal and prefrontal areas were required for information storage, and these activities were related to the behavioral responses. Moreover, the connectivity between these

  16. Theta and Alpha Oscillations during the Retention Period of Working Memory by rTMS Stimulating the Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Jin, Jing-Na; Wang, Xin; Qi, Hong-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Yin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Studies on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have shown that stimulating the parietal lobe, which plays a role in memory storage, can enhance performance during the "retention" process of working memory (WM). However, the mechanism of rTMS effect during this phase is still unclear. In this study, we stimulated the superior parietal lobe (SPL) using 5-Hz rTMS in 26 participants and recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed a delayed-recognition WM task. The analyses included the comparisons of event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) value variations in theta (4-7 Hz) and alpha (8-14 Hz) band frequencies between conditions (rTMS vs. sham), as well as the correlations between different brain areas. Following rTMS, the ERSP values of theta-band oscillations were significantly increased in the parietal and occipital-parietal brain areas (P < 0.05*), whereas the ERSP values of alpha-band oscillations were significantly decreased in the parietal area (P < 0.05*). The ERSP value variations of theta-band oscillations between the two conditions in the left parietal and left prefrontal areas were positively correlated with the response time (RT) variations (by using rTMS, the more subject RT decreased, the more ERSP value of theta oscillation increased). The ERSP value variations of alpha-band oscillations in the left parietal and bilateral prefrontal areas were negatively correlated with RT variations (by using rTMS, the more RT of the subject decreased, the more ERSP value of alpha oscillation decreased). Inter-sites phase synchronization of theta-band EEG between the left parietal and left prefrontal areas, as well as alpha-band EEG between the left parietal and bilateral prefrontal areas were enhanced by rTMS. These results indicated that activities of both parietal and prefrontal areas were required for information storage, and these activities were related to the behavioral responses. Moreover, the connectivity between these two

  17. Theta Pinch Coil Design for SSX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrock, J. E.; Han, J.; Kaur, M.; Brown, M. R.; Schaffner, D. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present the essential physics and design parameters behind a theta pinch coil used on SSX. The coil is used as an accelerator to drive flux behind a Taylor plume traveling about 30 km/sec. Operating between 25 and 40 kV on a time scale < 10 μs , the design focuses on minimizing the quarter cycle rise time (π/2√{ LC }) of the coil while maintaining the necessary precautions for working at high voltage. Our design works with 1.1 and 3.3 μF capacitors and a maximum stored electrical energy of U =1/2 CV2 = 880 J (at the lower capacitance). This electrical energy is converted into kinetic energy in the plume. Each plume has a mass greater than 30 μg , giving an initial kinetic energy of at least 14 J . At perfect efficiency, the upper bound of the plume velocity will be 240 km/sec using the lower capacitance circuit. Work supported by DOE OFES and ARPA-E ALPHA programs.

  18. Transabdominal midline reconstruction by minimally invasive surgery: technique and results.

    PubMed

    Costa, T N; Abdalla, R Z; Santo, M A; Tavares, R R F M; Abdalla, B M Z; Cecconello, I

    2016-04-01

    The introduction of the minimally invasive approach changed the way abdominal surgery was carried out. Open suture and mesh reinforcement in ventral hernia repair used to be the surgeon's choice of procedure. Although the laparoscopic approach, with defect bridging and mesh fixation, has been described since 1993, the procedure remains largely unchanged. Evidence shows that defect closure and retro-muscular mesh positioning have the best outcomes and are the best surgical practice. We therefore aimed to develop and demonstrate a procedure which combined the good results of open surgery using the Rives-Stoppa principles, particularly in terms of recurrence, with all the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Between October 2012 and February 2014, 15 post-bariatric surgery patients underwent laparoscopic midline incisional hernia repair. The peritoneal cavity was accessed through a 5-mm optical view cannula at the superior left quadrant. A suprapubic and two right and left lower quadrant cannulas were inserted for inferior access and dissection. The defect adhesions were released. The whole midline was closed with an endoscopic linear stapler, including the defect, from the lower abdomen, 4 cm below the umbilicus, until the epigastric region, including posterior sheath mechanical suturing and cutting in the same movement. A retrorectus space was created in which a retro-muscular mesh was deployed. Fixation was done using a hernia stapler against the posterior sheath from the peritoneal cavity to the abdominal wall muscles. Selection was based on xifo-umbilical incisional midline hernias post open bariatric surgery. Pregnant women, cancer patients, or patients with clinical contraindications were excluded. The patients mean age was 51.2 years (range 39-67). Four patients were men and eleven women. Two had well-compensated fibromyalgia, four had diabetes, and five had hypertension. The mean BMI was 29.5 kg/m2 (range 23-31.6). Surgery was performed successfully in all

  19. Transient Global Amnesia Deteriorates the Network Efficiency of the Theta Band

    PubMed Central

    Yi, SangHak; Lim, Jae-Sung; Jang, Jae-Won; Im, Chang-Hwan; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Acute perturbation of the hippocampus, one of the connector hubs in the brain, is a key step in the pathophysiological cascade of transient global amnesia (TGA). We tested the hypothesis that network efficiency, meaning the efficiency of information exchange over a network, is impaired during the acute stage of TGA. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to resting-state EEG data collected from 21 patients with TGA. The EEG data were obtained twice, once during the acute stage (< 24 hours after symptom onset) and once during the resolved stage (> 2 months after symptom onset) of TGA. Characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients of functional networks constructed using phase-locking values were computed and normalized as a function of the degree in the delta, theta, alpha, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma frequency bands of the EEG. We investigated whether the normalized characteristic path length (nCPL) and normalized clustering coefficients (nCC) differed significantly between the acute and resolved stages of TGA at each frequency band using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. For networks where the nCPL or nCC differed significantly between the two stages, we also evaluated changes in the connections of the brain networks. During the acute stage of TGA, the nCPL of the theta band networks with mean degrees of 8, 8.5, 9 and 9.5 significantly increased (P < 0.05). During the acute stage, the lost edges for these networks were mostly found between the anterior (frontal and anterior temporal) and posterior (parieto-occipital and posterior temporal) brain regions, whereas newly developed edges were primarily found between the left and right frontotemporal regions. The nCC of the theta band with a mean degree of 5.5 significantly decreased during the acute stage (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that TGA deteriorates the network efficiency of the theta frequency band. This effect might be related to the desynchronization between the anterior and posterior brain areas

  20. Mathematical cognitive style and arithmetic sign comprehension: a study of EEG alpha and theta activity.

    PubMed

    Earle, J B; Garcia-Dergay, P; Manniello, A; Dowd, C

    1996-01-01

    The localization of arithmetic sign comprehension was investigated using EEG spectral parameters as indicators of cortical engagement. Right-handed male subjects were selected on the basis of scores on the Mathematics Cognitive Style Survey and assigned to 2 groups, a 'left hemisphere oriented (LHO)' (N = 9) and 'right hemisphere oriented (RHO)' (N = 9) group. Subjects were presented with 4 conditions, a motoric baseline condition, two arithmetic fact retrieval tasks employing either a sign operator or verbal operator and a sign comprehension task which required subjects to fill in a missing sign (e.g. 6 ? 4 = 24). Both across subject correlational analysis of EEG alpha 1 asymmetry and performance as well as within subject analysis of condition means indicated a somewhat unique contribution of the right hemisphere to sign comprehension. LHO subjects exhibited greater relative left mid-temporal lobe activation than RHO subjects but less relative left frontal activation (theta band) than RHO subjects during the verbal operator task. It was tentatively concluded that this frontal lobe asymmetry difference was due to a mismatch in strategy preference and coding requirements among RHO subjects.

  1. Intrinsic Cornu Ammonis Area 1 Theta-Nested Gamma Oscillations Induced by Optogenetic Theta Frequency Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Butler, James L; Mendonça, Philipe R F; Robinson, Hugh P C; Paulsen, Ole

    2016-04-13

    Gamma oscillations (30-120 Hz) are thought to be important for various cognitive functions, including perception and working memory, and disruption of these oscillations has been implicated in brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus receives gamma frequency inputs from upstream regions (cornu ammonis area 3 and medial entorhinal cortex) and generates itself a faster gamma oscillation. The exact nature and origin of the intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is still under debate. Here, we expressed channel rhodopsin-2 under the CaMKIIα promoter in mice and prepared hippocampal slices to produce a model of intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillations. Sinusoidal optical stimulation of CA1 at theta frequency was found to induce robust theta-nested gamma oscillations with a temporal and spatial profile similar to CA1 gamma in vivo The results suggest the presence of a single gamma rhythm generator with a frequency range of 65-75 Hz at 32 °C. Pharmacological analysis found that the oscillations depended on both AMPA and GABAA receptors. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings revealed that excitatory neuron firing slightly preceded interneuron firing within each gamma cycle, suggesting that this intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is generated with a pyramidal-interneuron circuit mechanism. This study demonstrates that the cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) is capable of generating intrinsic gamma oscillations in response to theta input. This gamma generator is independent of activity in the upstream regions, highlighting that CA1 can produce its own gamma oscillation in addition to inheriting activity from the upstream regions. This supports the theory that gamma oscillations predominantly function to achieve local synchrony, and that a local gamma generated in each area conducts the signal to the downstream region. Copyright © 2016 Butler et al.

  2. Intrinsic Cornu Ammonis Area 1 Theta-Nested Gamma Oscillations Induced by Optogenetic Theta Frequency Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, James L.; Mendonça, Philipe R. F.; Robinson, Hugh P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma oscillations (30–120 Hz) are thought to be important for various cognitive functions, including perception and working memory, and disruption of these oscillations has been implicated in brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus receives gamma frequency inputs from upstream regions (cornu ammonis area 3 and medial entorhinal cortex) and generates itself a faster gamma oscillation. The exact nature and origin of the intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is still under debate. Here, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 under the CaMKIIα promoter in mice and prepared hippocampal slices to produce a model of intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillations. Sinusoidal optical stimulation of CA1 at theta frequency was found to induce robust theta-nested gamma oscillations with a temporal and spatial profile similar to CA1 gamma in vivo. The results suggest the presence of a single gamma rhythm generator with a frequency range of 65–75 Hz at 32°C. Pharmacological analysis found that the oscillations depended on both AMPA and GABAA receptors. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings revealed that excitatory neuron firing slightly preceded interneuron firing within each gamma cycle, suggesting that this intrinsic CA1 gamma oscillation is generated with a pyramidal–interneuron circuit mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study demonstrates that the cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) is capable of generating intrinsic gamma oscillations in response to theta input. This gamma generator is independent of activity in the upstream regions, highlighting that CA1 can produce its own gamma oscillation in addition to inheriting activity from the upstream regions. This supports the theory that gamma oscillations predominantly function to achieve local synchrony, and that a local gamma generated in each area conducts the signal to the downstream region. PMID:27076416

  3. Minilaparotomy left iliac fossa skin crease incision vs. midline incision for left-sided colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kam, M H; Seow-Choen, F; Peng, X H; Eu, K W; Tang, C L; Heah, S M; Ooi, B S

    2004-08-01

    Midline laparotomies offer excellent exposure but are associated with increased postoperative pain and longer recovery. A minilaparotomy resection of leftsided colorectal cancers was studied as an alternative approach. We performed a case-control retrospective review of 280 randomly selected patients (140 midline incisions; 140 left skin crease incisions) who underwent elective, curative resection of left-sided colorectal cancers. Patients in both groups were of comparable age and sex. The left skin crease incision was shorter (median length, 13.5 cm) than the midline incision (median length, 20.0 cm). Median operation time was less in the left skin crease group (75 min) than in the midline incision group (105 min). Similar types of operations were performed, including left hemicolectomies, sigmoid colectomies, anterior resections and ultra-low anterior resections. Adequacy of resection was confirmed by histological analysis, with no involvement of margins. The median numbers of lymph nodes removed were comparable: 10 for the skin crease incision group and 12 for the midline incision group. Postoperative parameters for the skin crease incision group showed that feeding, ambulation, narcotic use and hospital stay were significantly better than the parameters in the midline group. Complications of intestinal obstruction were also reduced in the skin crease incision group. The limited left skin crease incision provides adequate margins of clearance in colorectal cancers when compared to the midline incision, but has advantages of shorter operation time, earlier feeding and ambulation, and earlier discharge from hospital.

  4. Focal lesion at the midline of the prostate on transrectal ultrasonography: take it or leave it?

    PubMed

    Kim, Junwoo; Hwang, Sung Il; Lee, Hak Jong; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sangchul; Choe, Gheeyoung

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the detection rate of prostate cancers from targeted biopsy specimens of midline focal lesions and to investigate the ultrasonographic findings to reduce unnecessary additional targeted biopsies. Ninety-eight men with midline focal lesions detected on transrectal ultrasonography were enrolled. Additional targeted biopsies for midline focal lesions were performed after 12-core random systematic biopsies. Correlations between the ultrasonographic characteristics of midline focal lesions and the pathologic results were analyzed. Twenty of 98 targeted biopsy cores (20.4%) were positive for malignancy. In a univariate analysis, midline focal lesions without bulging contours (P=0.023), with involved margins (P=0.001), without hypoechoic perilesional rims (P=0.005), and with longer diameters (P=0.005) were statistically significant for cancer detection. In a multivariate analysis, involved margin (P=0.027), having longer diameter (P=0.011) or absence of hypoechoic perilesional rim (P=0.025) made a statistically significant contribution to cancer detection. Biopsy of midline focal lesions was not always non-significant in the detection of prostate cancer. Additional targeted biopsies should be considered in cases of midline focal lesions with involved margins but without hypoechoic perilesional rims.

  5. Frontal Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Concentrations Are Associated With Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Porges, Eric C.; Woods, Adam J.; Edden, Richard A.E.; Puts, Nicolaas A.J.; Harris, Ashley D.; Chen, Huaihou; Garcia, Amanda M.; Seider, Talia R.; Lamb, Damon G.; Williamson, John B.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the brain’s principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with perceptual and attentional functioning. Recent application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides in vivo evidence for decreasing GABA concentrations during adulthood. It is unclear, however, how age-related decrements in cerebral GABA concentrations contribute to cognitive decline, or whether previously reported declines in cerebral GABA concentrations persist during healthy aging. We hypothesized that participants with higher GABA concentrations in the frontal cortex would exhibit superior cognitive function and that previously reported age-related decreases in cortical GABA concentrations continue into old age. METHODS We measured GABA concentrations in frontal and posterior midline cerebral regions using a Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) 1H-MRS approach in 94 older adults without history or clinical evidence of mild cognitive impairment or dementia (mean age, 73 years). We administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment to assess cognitive functioning. RESULTS Greater frontal GABA concentrations were associated with superior cognitive performance. This relation remained significant after controlling for age, years of education, and brain atrophy. GABA concentrations in both frontal and posterior regions decreased as a function of age. CONCLUSIONS These novel findings from a large, healthy, older population indicate that cognitive function is sensitive to cerebral GABA concentrations in the frontal cortex, and GABA concentration in frontal and posterior regions continue to decline in later age. These effects suggest that proton MRS may provide a clinically useful method for the assessment of normal and abnormal age-related cognitive changes and the associated physiological contributors. PMID:28217759

  6. Diagnostic challenges, management and outcomes of midline low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Waqar, Mueez; Hanif, Shahid; Rathi, Nitika; Das, Kumar; Zakaria, Rasheed; Brodbelt, Andrew R; Walker, Carol; Jenkinson, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are slow-growing and diffusely infiltrating tumours constituting 25-30 % of adult gliomas. Rarely, these tumours may arise in the cerebral midline, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, tectum and brainstem. Here we present a contemporary experience with midline LGGs. Midline LGGs were identified from a retrospective database of adult patients who received a histological diagnosis of WHO grade II glioma between 2006 and 2012 at a single institution. Location, radiological data and clinical outcomes were collected. IDH1 status was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Eighteen patients with midline LGGs were identified, with a median age of 45. Most received biopsy upon diagnosis, though asymptomatic patients with tectal tumours underwent active surveillance. Oligodendroglial tumours were much less common than in a comparable group of lobar tumours (6 vs. 38 %, Fisher's exact test, p = 0.007). Only one tumour was immunopositive for IDH1 (1/17). Radiological diagnosis correlated with histology in only 71 % of patients. Median survival of midline LGGs was 48 months (3-90 months) and radiological features such as contrast enhancement, size and radiological diagnosis did not predict survival in this cohort. Median overall survival of midline LGGs was less than lobar LGGs (log-rank, p = 0.006), though differences became insignificant when considering only biopsied astrocytomas in both locations (log-rank, p = 0.491). Diagnosis of midline LGGs is complicated by both limitations of biopsy and imaging. Midline tumours have a poorer prognosis compared to lobar equivalents and survival differences are probably due to the absence of significant surgical intervention in midline locations.

  7. Theta synchronization and alpha desynchronization in a memory task.

    PubMed

    Klimesch, W; Doppelmayr, M; Schimke, H; Ripper, B

    1997-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that episodic encoding and retrieval processes are primarily reflected by a task-related increase in theta power. Individuals performed a recognition task with a total of 192 words. The electroencephalogram was recorded during the study and recognition phase. The results show that only those words that were later correctly recognized produced a significant increase in theta power during encoding. During the actual recognition processes too, a significant theta synchronization (increase in band power) was found for correctly remembered words only. In contrast to the theta band, remembered and not remembered words revealed a complex pattern of desynchronization in the lower and upper alpha band that was different during encoding and recognition.

  8. Reversed theta sequences of hippocampal cell assemblies during backward travel.

    PubMed

    Cei, Anne; Girardeau, Gabrielle; Drieu, Céline; Kanbi, Karim El; Zugaro, Michaël

    2014-05-01

    Hippocampal cell assemblies coding for past, present and future events form theta-timescale (~100 ms) sequences that represent spatio-temporal episodes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We recorded hippocampal and entorhinal cortical activity as rats experienced backward travel on a model train. Although the firing fields of place cells remained stable, the order in which they were activated in the theta sequence was reversed during backward travel. Thus, hippocampal cell assemblies coordinated their relative timing to correctly predict the sequential traversal of place fields in reverse order. At the single-cell level, theta phase represented distance traveled through the field, even though the head of the rat was oriented opposite to travel direction and entorhinal head-direction cells maintained their preferred firing direction. Our results challenge most theoretical models of theta sequence generation in the hippocampus.

  9. Subcutaneous midline suprasternal mass in a ten-month-old girl.

    PubMed

    Larralde, Margarita; Sánchez Moya, Ana Isabel; Abad, Maria Eugenia; Luna, Paula C; Heinen, Fernando; Casas, Gabriel

    2010-06-15

    A ten-month-old girl presented to our clinic with a progressively enlarging congenital mass at the midline suprasternal location. Histopathologic examination revealed a benign cyst with stratified squamous keratinized epithelium with numerous eccrine glands in the sinus wall. The diagnosis was compatible with dermoid cyst. Dermoid cysts of the trunk are rare lesions, but a midline location is characteristic for these congenital masses. A dermoid cyst should be high on the list of differential diagnoses given a unilocular midline cyst in a neonate.

  10. A case of congenital midline cervical cleft with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Shinichiro; Uotani, Hideyuki; Okami, Hideo; Tsukada, Kazuhiro; Futatani, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Ikuo

    2003-07-01

    A congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare developmental anomaly. It may represent failure of the branchial arches to fuse in the midline and presents at birth with a ventral midline defect of the skin of the neck. Congenital heart disease along with CMCC is rarer, and most of the cases reported are associated with chest wall defects or thoracic ectopia cordis. The authors report a case of a 5-month-old girl with CMCC and an atrial septal defect (ASD) and discuss the clinical presentation, embryologic development, and treatment.

  11. Responses of single units in the midline medulla to stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    PubMed

    King, K A; McCall, R B

    1992-10-01

    Single units in the midline medulla were characterized as sympathoexcitatory (SE), sympathoinhibitory (SI) or serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Post-stimulatory changes in the firing patterns of sympathoexcitatory, sympathoinhibitory and 5-HT units were observed during single shock stimulation of the pressor area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Excitation, inhibition, or no change in cell firing patterns were observed for each cell type, but each cell showed only one type of response to stimulation. No midline neurons were antidromically activated by stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla. These results are discussed in relation to neuronal pathways between the RVLM and the midline medulla involved in the generation of sympathetic activity.

  12. Frontal fibrosing alopecia treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Raymond; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Summary Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a rare dermatologic disease that causes scarring and hair loss and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. FFA patients typically present with hair loss in the frontal scalp region and eyebrows which may be associated with sensations of itching or burning. FFA is a clinically distinct variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP) that affects predominantly postmenopausal women, although men and premenopausal women may also be affected. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary to prevent definitive scarring and permanent hair loss. Data from retrospective studies indicate that 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5aRIs) are effective in stabilizing the disease. In our clinical experience, we have seen optimal results treating FFA patients with oral finasteride in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine, topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus) and excimer laser in patients with signs of active inflammation. PMID:27904832

  13. Optogenetic Activation of Septal Glutamatergic Neurons Drive Hippocampal Theta Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer; Manseau, Frédéric; Ducharme, Guillaume; Amilhon, Bénédicte; Vigneault, Erika; El Mestikawy, Salah; Williams, Sylvain

    2016-03-09

    The medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) has an essential role for theta rhythm generation in the hippocampus and is critical for learning and memory. The MS-DBB contains cholinergic, GABAergic, and recently described glutamatergic neurons, but their specific contribution to theta generation is poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons in theta rhythm using optogenetic activation and electrophysiological recordings performed in in vitro preparations and in freely behaving mice. The experiments in slices suggest that MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons provide prominent excitatory inputs to a majority of local GABAergic and a minority of septal cholinergic neurons. In contrast, activation of MS-DBB glutamatergic fiber terminals in hippocampal slices elicited weak postsynaptic responses in hippocampal neurons. In the in vitro septo-hippocampal preparation, activation of MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons did increase the rhythmicity of hippocampal theta oscillations, whereas stimulation of septo-hippocampal glutamatergic fibers in the fornix did not have an effect. In freely behaving mice, activation of these neurons in the MS-DBB strongly synchronized hippocampal theta rhythms over a wide range of frequencies, whereas activation of their projections to the hippocampus through fornix stimulations had no effect on theta rhythms, suggesting that MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons played a role in theta generation through local modulation of septal neurons. Together, these results provide the first evidence that MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons modulate local septal circuits, which in turn contribute to theta rhythms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363016-08$15.00/0.

  14. Thalamic T-type Ca²+ channels mediate frontal lobe dysfunctions caused by a hypoxia-like damage in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongjin; Woo, Jeonghoon; Park, Young-Gyun; Chae, Sujin; Jo, Seonmi; Choi, Jeong Woo; Jun, Hong Young; Yeom, Young Il; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Shin, Hee-Sup; Kim, Daesoo

    2011-03-16

    Hypoxic damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in the frontal lobe dysfunction found in various neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying subcortical mechanisms, however, have not been well explored. In this study, we induced a PFC-specific hypoxia-like damage by cobalt-wire implantation to demonstrate that the role of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) is critical for the development of frontal lobe dysfunction, including frontal lobe-specific seizures and abnormal hyperactivity. Before the onset of these abnormalities, the cross talk between the MD and PFC nuclei at theta frequencies was enhanced. During the theta frequency interactions, burst spikes, known to depend on T-type Ca(2+) channels, were increased in MD neurons. In vivo knockout or knockdown of the T-type Ca(2+) channel gene (Ca(V)3.1) in the MD substantially reduced the theta frequency MD-PFC cross talk, frontal lobe-specific seizures, and locomotor hyperactivity in this model. These results suggest a two-step model of prefrontal dysfunction in which the response to a hypoxic lesion in the PFC results in abnormal thalamocortical feedback driven by thalamic T-type Ca(2+) channels, which, in turn, leads to the onset of neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This study provides valuable insights into preventing the development of neuropsychiatric disorders arising from irreversible PFC damage.

  15. The Gross Appearance of a NUT Midline Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Jason K; Purgina, Bibianna; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder; Gomes, Marcio M; Lai, Chi

    2016-02-01

    The NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a recently described and highly aggressive tumor that usually involves the head and neck and anterior mediastinum. Most patients with NMC present with metastases and are often treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. As a consequence, surgical specimens are often piecemeal excisions demonstrating treatment effect. In this report, we provide what is to the best of our knowledge the first complete gross description of NMC resected in toto and without prior treatment. The patient in this case underwent a pneumonectomy for a lung mass with curative intent. On gross examination, the tumor was found to be arising from the mediastinum with a smooth border, and demonstrated only minimal invasion of the surrounding structures. However, lymphovascular invasion was present throughout and there was extensive involvement of surrounding lymph nodes. The gross appearance of the tumor in this case reaffirms that NMC is an aggressive malignancy that usually metastasizes before it invades locally. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Pathologic Characteristics of NUT Midline Carcinoma Arising in the Mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Andrew G.; French, Christopher A.; Cameron, Michael J.; Fletcher, Christopher D.; Jackman, David M.; Lathan, Christopher S.; Sholl, Lynette M.

    2012-01-01

    NUT midline carcinomas (NMC) comprise a group of highly aggressive tumors that have been reported primarily in the head, neck, and mediastinum of younger individuals. These tumors overexpress the nuclear protein in testis (NUT), most commonly due to a chromosomal translocation that fuses the NUT gene on chromosome 15 with the BRD4 gene on chromosome 19. Although the earliest recognized cases were described in the thymus or mediastinum, an extensive survey for NMC among malignant thymic or other mediastinal neoplasms has not been reported. We examined NUT expression in 114 cases of poorly differentiated carcinomas or unclassified mediastinal malignancies using a clinically validated NUT-specific monoclonal antibody. Four of 114 (3.5%) cases showed nuclear NUT expression. A NUT translocation was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 3 of these cases. These tumors arose in two male and two female adults with a median age of 50 (range 28 to 68). Three of the tumors were originally diagnosed as undifferentiated epithelioid or round cell malignant neoplasms; one tumor contained focal squamous differentiation and was originally diagnosed as a poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma of probable thymic origin. We find that the incidence of NMC within the mediastinum, particularly amongst undifferentiated tumors, is similar to that reported at other anatomic sites. NMC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any poorly-differentiated epithelioid mediastinal tumor, regardless of age. PMID:22790861

  17. Theta-Alpha Oscillations Bind the Hippocampus, Prefrontal Cortex, and Striatum during Recollection: Evidence from Simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Herweg, Nora A; Apitz, Thore; Leicht, Gregor; Mulert, Christioph; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Bunzeck, Nico

    2016-03-23

    Recollection of contextual information represents the core of human recognition memory. It has been associated with theta (4-8 Hz) power in electrophysiological recordings and, independently, with BOLD effects in a network including the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Although the notion of the hippocampus coordinating neocortical activity by synchronization in the theta range is common among theoretical models of recollection, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is scarce. To address this apparent gap in our understanding of memory processes, we combined EEG and fMRI during a remember/know recognition task. We can show that recollection-specific theta-alpha (4-13 Hz) effects are correlated with increases in hippocampal connectivity with the PFC and, importantly, the striatum, areas that have been linked repeatedly to retrieval success. Together, our results provide compelling evidence that low-frequency oscillations in the theta and alpha range provide a mechanism to functionally bind the hippocampus, PFC, and striatum during successful recollection. Low-frequency oscillations are supposed to drive the binding of information across a large-scale network centered on the hippocampus, which supports mnemonic functions. The electrophysiological means to investigate this phenomenon in humans (EEG/MEG), however, are inherently limited by their spatial resolution and therefore do not allow a precise localization of the brain regions involved. By combining EEG with BOLD-derived estimates of hippocampal connectivity during recognition, we can identify the striatum and specific areas in the medial and lateral PFC as part of a circuit linked to low-frequency oscillations (4-13 Hz) that promotes hippocampus-dependent context retrieval. Therefore, the current study closes an apparent gap in our understanding of the network dynamics of memory retrieval. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363579-09$15.00/0.

  18. Analytical Insights on Theta-Gamma Coupled Neural Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of a quadratic integrate-and-fire neuron, spiking in the gamma (30–100 Hz) range, coupled to a delta/theta frequency (1–8 Hz) neural oscillator. Using analytical and semianalytical methods, we were able to derive characteristic spiking times for the system in two distinct regimes (depending on parameter values): one regime where the gamma neuron is intrinsically oscillating in the absence of theta input, and a second one in which gamma spiking is directly gated by theta input, i.e., windows of gamma activity alternate with silence periods depending on the underlying theta phase. In the former case, we transform the equations such that the system becomes analogous to the Mathieu differential equation. By solving this equation, we can compute numerically the time to the first gamma spike, and then use singular perturbation theory to find successive spike times. On the other hand, in the excitable condition, we make direct use of singular perturbation theory to obtain an approximation of the time to first gamma spike, and then extend the result to calculate ensuing gamma spikes in a recursive fashion. We thereby give explicit formulas for the onset and offset of gamma spike burst during a theta cycle, and provide an estimation of the total number of spikes per theta cycle both for excitable and oscillator regimes. PMID:23945442

  19. Electroencephalographic theta activity and cognition in schizophrenia: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Wichniak, Adam; Okruszek, Łukasz; Linke, Magdalena; Jarkiewicz, Michał; Jędrasik-Styła, Małgorzata; Ciołkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Jernajczyk, Wojciech; Jarema, Marek

    2015-04-01

    MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) is a contemporary standard for assessment of cognitive functions in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to examine the association between electroencephalographic spectral power and a wide range of cognitive functions measured with MCCB. Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia (27 male, mean age 28.2 ± 5.2 years) underwent EEG recordings and were assessed with MCCB. The EEG recordings were visually inspected and manually cleaned from artifacts and subjected to spectral analysis with EEGlab. Absolute and relative power as percentage of total spectral power were computed for frequency ranges from 0.5 to 30 Hz. To compare spectral power in patients with various cognitive functioning, patients from best and worst MCCB quartiles were selected. Superior cognitive performance was associated with less power of theta waves. Six MCCB cognitive tests showed significant correlations with absolute theta power and three tests with relative theta power. The correlation coefficients between MCCB composite score and theta power were rp = -0.45 for absolute and rp = -0.36 for relative values. Increased theta power was linked especially to memory deficits. These preliminary results suggest that electroencephalographic resting state theta power is an indicator of cognitive deficit in patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Flexible theta sequence compression mediated via phase precessing interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Angus; van Rossum, Mark CW; Nolan, Matthew F

    2016-01-01

    Encoding of behavioral episodes as spike sequences during hippocampal theta oscillations provides a neural substrate for computations on events extended across time and space. However, the mechanisms underlying the numerous and diverse experimentally observed properties of theta sequences remain poorly understood. Here we account for theta sequences using a novel model constrained by the septo-hippocampal circuitry. We show that when spontaneously active interneurons integrate spatial signals and theta frequency pacemaker inputs, they generate phase precessing action potentials that can coordinate theta sequences in place cell populations. We reveal novel constraints on sequence generation, predict cellular properties and neural dynamics that characterize sequence compression, identify circuit organization principles for high capacity sequential representation, and show that theta sequences can be used as substrates for association of conditioned stimuli with recent and upcoming events. Our results suggest mechanisms for flexible sequence compression that are suited to associative learning across an animal’s lifespan. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20349.001 PMID:27929374

  1. Hensen's node gives rise to the ventral midline of the foregut: implications for organizing head and heart development.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Margaret L; Lawson, Aaron; Stadt, Harriett A; Kumiski, Donna H; Wallis, Kathleen T; McCraney, Eileen; Waldo, Karen L; Li, Yin-Xiong; Schoenwolf, Gary C

    2003-01-15

    Patterning of the ventral head has been attributed to various cell populations, including endoderm, mesoderm, and neural crest. Here, we provide evidence that head and heart development may be influenced by a ventral midline endodermal cell population. We show that the ventral midline endoderm of the foregut is generated directly from the extreme rostral portion of Hensen's node, the avian equivalent of the Spemann organizer. The endodermal cells extend caudally in the ventral midline from the prechordal plate during development of the foregut pocket. Thus, the prechordal plate appears as a mesendodermal pivot between the notochord and the ventral foregut midline. The elongating ventral midline endoderm delimits the right and left sides of the ventral foregut endoderm. Cells derived from the midline endoderm are incorporated into the endocardium and myocardium during closure of the foregut pocket and fusion of the bilateral heart primordia. Bilateral ablation of the endoderm flanking the midline at the level of the anterior intestinal portal leads to randomization of heart looping, suggesting that this endoderm is partitioned into right and left domains by the midline endoderm, thus performing a function similar to that of the notochord in maintaining left-right asymmetry. Because of its derivation from the dorsal organizer, its extent from the forebrain through the midline of the developing face and pharynx, and its participation in formation of a single midline heart tube, we propose that the ventral midline endoderm is ideally situated to function as a ventral organizer of the head and heart.

  2. Interpretation of the Theta+ as an isotensor pentaquark with weakly decaying partners

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Capstick; Philip R. Page; Winston Roberts

    2003-09-25

    The {Theta}{sup +}(1540), recently observed at LEPS, DIANA and CLAS, is hypothesized to be an isotensor resonance. This implies the existence of a multiplet where the {Theta}{sup ++}, {Theta}{sup +} and {Theta}{sup 0} have isospin-violating strong decays, and the {Theta}{sup +++} and {Theta}{sup -} have weak decays and so are long-lived. Production mechanisms for these states are discussed. The J{sup P} assignment of the {Theta} is most likely 1/2{sup -} or 3/2{sup -} or 5/2{sup -}.

  3. Ventral midline blanching in the setting of segmental infantile hemangiomas: clinical observations and pathogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Dana F; Sybert, Virginia P; Vanderhooft, Sheryll L; Siegel, Dawn; Drolet, Beth A; Frieden, Ilona J; Mathes, Erin F D

    2015-01-01

    Areas of blanched skin in children may be seen as an independent finding or in association with vascular birthmarks. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify and describe infants with areas of ventral midline blanching in the presence of segmental infantile hemangiomas. We identified nine full-term infants with partial or full segmental hemangiomas and areas of midline ventral blanching. Additional ventral wall defects were seen in five patients. Six had cardiac anomalies and six had intracranial anomalies. Five were diagnosed with definite PHACE (posterior fossa, hemangioma, arterial, cardiac, and eye abnormalities) syndrome and three had possible PHACE syndrome. Eight were complicated by ulceration. Treatment varied according to the case. Ventral blanching, even in the absence of overt midline defects, can be seen in infants with segmental hemangiomas at risk for PHACE syndrome. We hypothesize that midline blanching may represent a minor manifestation of a developmental ventral defect. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hypotensive but not normotensive haemorrhage increases tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA in caudal midline medulla.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heidi J; Henderson, Luke A; Keay, Kevin A

    2006-05-08

    Severe blood loss triggers shock, a precipitous hypotension and bradycardia. The integrity of (i) neurons in the vasodepressor region of the caudal midline medulla and (ii) central 5-HT neurotransmission are critical for the expression of haemorrhagic shock. This study investigated whether progressive blood loss triggers altered synthesis of 5-HT in the vasodepressor region of the caudal midline medulla by measuring changes in relative expression levels of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TpH 2) mRNA, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of neuronal 5-HT. Hypotensive but not normotensive haemorrhage triggered a significant increase in TpH 2 mRNA in the vasodepressor region of the caudal midline medulla, identifying an important role for 5-HT-containing caudal midline medullary neurons in haemorrhagic shock.

  5. Serotonergic fibers distribution in the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei in the rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris).

    PubMed

    Silva, Alane de Medeiros; de Santana, Melquisedec Abiaré Dantas; Morais, Paulo Leonardo Araújo de Góis; de Sousa, Twyla Barros; Engelberth, Rovena Clara Galvão Januário; Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Campêlo, Clarissa Loureiro das Chagas; Cavalcante, Jeferson Sousa; Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Costa, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva

    2014-10-24

    The thalamic midline/intralaminar complex is part of the higher-order thalamus, which receives little sensory input, and instead forms extensive cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways. The midline thalamic nuclei connect with the medial prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal lobe. On the other hand, the intralaminar nuclei connect with the fronto-parietal cortex. Taking into account this connectivity pattern, it is not surprising that the midline/intralaminar complex has been implicated in a broad variety of cognitive functions, including memory process, attention and orientation, and also reward-based behavior. Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that exerts different post-synaptic roles. Serotonergic neurons are almost entirely restricted to the raphe nuclei and the 5-HT fibers are distributed widely throughout the brain, including the midline/intralaminar complex. The present study comprises a detailed description of the morphologic features and semiquantitative analysis of 5-HT fibers distribution in the midline/intralaminar complex in the rock cavy, a typical rodent of the Northeast region of Brazil, which has been used by our group as an anatomical model to expand the comprehension about phylogeny on the nervous system. The 5-HT fibers in the midline/intralaminar nuclei of the rock cavy were classified into three distinct categories: (1) beaded fibers, which are relatively fine and endowed with large varicosities; (2) fine fibers, with thin axons and small varicosities uniformly distributed in whole axon; and (3) stem axons, showing thick non-varicose axons. Moreover, the density of 5-HT fibers is variable among the analyzed nuclei. On the basis of this diversity of the morphological fibers and the differential profile of optical density among the midline/intralaminar nuclei of the rock cavy, we conclude that the serotonergic system uses a diverse morphologic apparatus to exert a large functional repertory in the midline/intralaminar thalamic nuclei.

  6. A boy with an unusual association of ventral midline anomalies including a trunk-like umbilicus.

    PubMed

    Van Esch, Hilde; Mariën, Paul; De Smedt, Maryse; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2004-10-01

    We report a boy with a rare association of congenital anomalies including facial dysmorphism with a very large fontanel and cleft palate, thoracic deformity, right-sided aortic arch, hypoplastic genitals, abdominal wall hypoplasia and a very rare umbilical abnormality, previously unreported. All anomalies are positioned on the midline suggesting a midline ventral developmental field defect. Different diagnoses were considered in this patient, including the pentalogy of Cantrell and Donnai-Barrow syndrome. However, none can account for all the abnormalities seen.

  7. Demystifying NUT midline carcinoma: radiologic and pathologic correlations of an aggressive malignancy.

    PubMed

    Bair, Ryan J; Chick, Jeffrey F; Chauhan, Nikunj R; French, Christopher; Madan, Rachna

    2014-10-01

    NUT midline carcinoma is a rare poorly differentiated aggressive subtype of squamous cell carcinoma. To date, fewer than 100 total cases have been reported. Given the rarity of this disease process and lack of pathognomonic imaging findings, a definitive diagnosis based solely on imaging findings alone is untenable. Select cases are used to emphasize the particularly infiltrative and aggressive nature of NUT midline carcinoma, which shows a complete disregard for normal tissue boundaries and rapid progression during brief intervals.

  8. Midline lumbar fusion using cortical bone trajectory screws. Preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Bielecki, Mateusz; Prokopienko, Marek; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Czernicki, Tomasz; Marchel, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) using cortical bone trajectory is an alternative method of transpedicular spinal fusion for degenerative disease. The new entry points’ location and screwdriving direction allow the approach-related morbidity to be reduced. Aim To present our preliminary experience with the MIDLF technique on the first 5 patients with lumbar degenerative disease and with follow-up of at least 6 months. Material and methods Retrospective analysis was performed on the first 5 patients with foraminal (4) or central (1) stenosis operated on between December 2014 and February 2015. Three patients were fused at L4–L5 and two at the L5–S1 level. Results No intra- or post-operative complications occurred with this approach. An improvement regarding the leading symptom in the early postoperative period (sciatica 4/4, claudication 1/1) was achieved in all patients. The mean improvements in the visual analogue scale for low back and leg pain were 2.2 and 4.8 respectively. The mean Oswestry Disability Index scores were 52% (range: 16–82%) before surgery and 33% (range: 12–56%) at 3-month follow-up (mean improvement 19%). At the most recent follow-up, 4 patients reported the maintenance of the satisfactory result. The early standing and follow-up X-rays showed satisfactory screw placement in all patients. Conclusions In our initial experience, the MIDLF technique seems to be an encouraging alternative to traditional transpedicular trajectory screws when short level lumbar fusion is needed. Nevertheless, longer observations on larger groups of patients are needed to reliably evaluate the safety of the method and the sustainability of the results. PMID:27829938

  9. The Anterior Midline Field: coercion or decision making?

    PubMed

    Pylkkänen, Liina; Martin, Andrea E; McElree, Brian; Smart, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    To study the neural bases of semantic composition in language processing without confounds from syntactic composition, recent magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have investigated the processing of constructions that exhibit some type of syntax-semantics mismatch. The most studied case of such a mismatch is complement coercion; expressions such as the author began the book, where an entity-denoting noun phrase is coerced into an eventive meaning in order to match the semantic properties of the event-selecting verb (e.g., 'the author began reading/writing the book'). These expressions have been found to elicit increased activity in the Anterior Midline Field (AMF), an MEG component elicited at frontomedial sensors at approximately 400 ms after the onset of the coercing noun [Pylkkänen, L., & McElree, B. (2007). An MEG study of silent meaning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 11]. Thus, the AMF constitutes a potential neural correlate of coercion. However, the AMF was generated in ventromedial prefrontal regions, which are heavily associated with decision-making. This raises the possibility that, instead of semantic processing, the AMF effect may have been related to the experimental task, which was a sensicality judgment. We tested this hypothesis by assessing the effect of coercion when subjects were simply reading for comprehension, without a decision-task. Additionally, we investigated coercion in an adjectival rather than a verbal environment to further generalize the findings. Our results show that an AMF effect of coercion is elicited without a decision-task and that the effect also extends to this novel syntactic environment. We conclude that in addition to its role in non-linguistic higher cognition, ventromedial prefrontal regions contribute to the resolution of syntax-semantics mismatches in language processing.

  10. Ectopic sonic hedgehog signaling impairs telencephalic dorsal midline development: implication for human holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Litingtung, Ying; Chiang, Chin

    2007-06-15

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common developmental anomaly of the human forebrain, and in its severe form, the cerebral hemispheres fail to completely separate into two distinct halves. Although disruption of ventral forebrain induction is thought to underlie most HPE cases, a subset of HPE patients exhibits preferential dysgenesis of forebrain dorsal midline structures with unknown etiology. In this study, we show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) lacking cholesterol moiety in one allele (ShhN/+) in mice can elicit ectopic Shh signaling in early telencephalon to induce ventral progenitor marker expression in the cortical region and impair telencephalic dorsal midline development. Prolonged ectopic ShhN signaling impaired Bmp and Wnt signaling from the dorsal patterning center through upregulation of Fgf8, leading to augmented cell proliferation, decreased cell death and impaired roof plate morphogenesis. Accordingly, ShhN/+ mutant telencephalic dorsal midline structures, including cortical hem, hippocampus and choroid plexus, either failed to form or were hypoplastic. Strikingly, ShhN/+ mutants displayed a spectrum of phenotypic features such as failure of anterior cerebral hemisphere to divide, hydrocephalus and cleft palate which have been observed in a human patient with milder HPE predicted to produce SHHN protein due to a truncation mutation in one SHH allele. We propose that elevated ectopic Shh signaling can impair dorsal telencephalic midline morphogenesis, and lead to non-cleavage of midline structures mimicking human HPE with dorsal midline defects.

  11. Flamingo, a seven-pass transmembrane cadherin, cooperates with Netrin/Frazzled in Drosophila midline guidance.

    PubMed

    Organisti, Cristina; Hein, Irina; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    During central nervous system development, several guidance cues and receptors, as well as cell adhesion molecules, are required for guiding axons across the midline and along the anterior-posterior axis. In Drosophila, commissural axons sense the midline attractants Netrin A and B (Net) through Frazzled (Fra) receptors. Despite their importance, lack of Net or fra affects only some commissures, suggesting that additional molecules can fulfill this function. Recently, planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins have been implicated in midline axon guidance in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems. Here, we report that the atypical cadherin and PCP molecule Flamingo/Starry night (Fmi/Stan) acts jointly with Net/Fra signaling during midline development. Additional removal of fmi strongly increases the guidance defects in Net/fra mutants. Rescue and domain deletion experiments suggest that Fmi signaling facilitates commissural pathfinding potentially by mediating axonal fasciculation in a partly homophilic manner. Altogether, our results indicate that contact-mediated cell adhesion via Fmi acts in addition to the Net/Fra guidance system during axon pathfinding across the midline, underlining the importance of PCP molecules during vertebrates and invertebrates midline development.

  12. A comparison of kneeling ability after lateral or midline incisions in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Nicholas; Milne, Lachlan; Kuster, Markus

    2016-12-01

    Kneeling is often impaired following total knee replacement. There is no clinical study comparing a lateral to a midline skin incision with regard to kneeling. Patients with a well-functioning total knee replacement enrolled in the trial. The participants with a lateral skin incision were matched with those with a standard midline incision. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study: 10 had a lateral skin incision, and 12 had a midline incision. Those with a lateral skin incision had a significantly higher Forgotten Joint Score than with a midline skin incision (Difference of Means Lateral vs Midline = 10.9 [p value 0.0098]), and an improved ability to kneel at 110 degrees of flexion (Kneeling Ability Test; Difference of Means Lateral vs Midline = 41.7 [p value 0.020]). These results suggest that a lateral skin incision may provide reduced joint awareness and improved kneeling ability. Further investigation with a randomised controlled trial is needed.

  13. Midline crossing by gustatory receptor neuron axons is regulated by fruitless, doublesex and the Roundabout receptors.

    PubMed

    Mellert, David J; Knapp, Jon-Michael; Manoli, Devanand S; Meissner, Geoffrey W; Baker, Bruce S

    2010-01-01

    Although nervous system sexual dimorphisms are known in many species, relatively little is understood about the molecular mechanisms generating these dimorphisms. Recent findings in Drosophila provide the tools for dissecting how neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation are modulated by the Drosophila sex-determination regulatory genes to produce nervous system sexual dimorphisms. Here we report studies aimed at illuminating the basis of the sexual dimorphic axonal projection patterns of foreleg gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs): only in males do GRN axons project across the midline of the ventral nerve cord. We show that the sex determination genes fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx) both contribute to establishing this sexual dimorphism. Male-specific Fru (Fru(M)) acts in foreleg GRNs to promote midline crossing by their axons, whereas midline crossing is repressed in females by female-specific Dsx (Dsx(F)). In addition, midline crossing by these neurons might be promoted in males by male-specific Dsx (Dsx(M)). Finally, we (1) demonstrate that the roundabout (robo) paralogs also regulate midline crossing by these neurons, and (2) provide evidence that Fru(M) exerts its effect on midline crossing by directly or indirectly regulating Robo signaling.

  14. Congenital midline cervical cleft: A retrospective case series of 8 children.

    PubMed

    Achard, Sophie; Leroy, Xavier; Fayoux, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft is a rare developmental abnormality of the ventral neck of unclear etiology. It consists of a midline skin defect. This study reports a case series of 8 patients with congenital midline cervical cleft. Retrospective review chart including all children referred with congenital midline cervical cleft over 5 years in tertiary center. The study was conducted to determine the presence of associated malformations, to specify the cleft pathology, to analyze the nature of associated cysts, and to discuss surgical procedure. Eight patients ranged from 3 days to 5 years. Two had an associated cervical midline cyst, 3 had a significant micrognatia. Pathological observations were in favor of a branchial origin. There was no recurrence of cervical contraction after a mean follow-up of 20 months. Congenital midline cervical cleft is a rare and generally isolated congenital malformation. It does not require either extensive assessment or specific genetic. Described associated cysts might be part of the cleft and not bronchogenic or thyroglossal cysts. Early surgical excision reduces cervical contracture, but linear or Z-plasty closure is still debated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A strategic approach for DIEP flap breast reconstruction in patients with a vertical midline abdominal scar.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chang-Cheng; Huang, Jung-Ju; Wu, Chih-Wei; Craft, Randall O; Liem, Anita A May-Ling; Shen, Jen-Hsiang; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2014-09-01

    Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps have become broadly accepted for autologous breast reconstruction. Our aim was to analyze outcomes and describe technical strategies to improve survival when harvesting the entire DIEP flap with a midline scar. We retrospectively reviewed charts from March of 2000 to November of 2007; 186 DIEP flaps in 183 patients were used for breast reconstruction, including 18 flaps (9.68%) in 17 patients with previous lower midline abdomen scars. The patients were classified into 3 groups. Group 1: hemi-DIEP flaps (n=5);. group 2: DIEP flaps that included tissue crossing the midline (n=10); and group 3: entire-DIEP flaps (with zone IV) (n=3). Reexploration for venous congestion and partial flap loss were encountered in 1 patient in group 1. Average flap-used ratio was 68.75±8.95% in group 2. Three flaps developed partial loss and underwent subsequent debridement. In group 3, entire DIEP flaps were designed with higher, bilateral superficial inferior epigastric venous drainages and intraflap pedicle-to-pedicle anastomosis. The first 2 cases underwent partial flap loss and debridement. The third case of bipedicle anastomosis achieved complete flap survival. The hemi-DIEP flap is a safer method for the patient with a lower abdominal midline scar but limits the reconstructive volume. Carefully evaluating the perfusion across midline scar intraoperatively is crucial for deciding how much contralateral tissue should be discarded. Double pedicles anastomosis is an assurance for using entire DIEP flap with lower midline scar.

  16. Comparison of modified Cherney incision and vertical midline incision for management of early stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, San Hui; Yim, Ga Won; Lee, Dae Woo; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Jae Wook; Kim, Young Tae

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare operative feasibility and surgical outcome of the modified Cherney incision and vertical midline incision in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Between March 2005 and December 2007, retrospective data of 78 patients (n=17; modified Cherney incision, n=61; vertical midline incision) with early stage cervical cancer who received radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were reviewed. Baseline characteristics of patients who underwent modified Cherney incision and vertical midline incision were similar except for age (mean+/-SD: 32.3+/-3.4 yr vs. 52.5+/-8.4 yr, p<0.001). Patients who received modified Cherney incision had earlier initiation of soft diet (mean+/-SD: 46.5+/-19.5 hr vs. 56.4+/-25.4 hr, p<0.016) and shorter hospital stay compared to those who received vertical midline incision (mean+/-SD: 18.0+/-4.8 days vs. 21.7+/-3.7 days, p<0.042). There was no difference in the number of dissected pelvic lymph nodes, hemoglobin change, postoperative pain, postoperative ileus, Foley indwelling duration, and perioperative complications. Excluding the selection bias for age, there was no significant difference of the clinical outcome between the modified Cherney incision group and the vertical midline incision group. Modified Cherney incision can be cosmetically performed in young age women obtaining equal number of lymph nodes without increased operative morbidity compared to vertical midline incision.

  17. Review of stoma site and midline incisional hernias after stoma reversal.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mylan T; Phatak, Uma R; Li, Linda T; Hicks, Stephanie C; Moffett, Jennifer M; Arita, Nestor A; Berger, Rachel L; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of incisional hernias after stoma reversal is not well reported. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature reporting data on incisional hernias after stoma reversal. We evaluated both the incidence of stoma site and midline incisional hernias. A systematic review identified studies published between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2012, reporting the incidence of incisional hernia after stoma reversal at either the stoma site or at the midline incision (in cases requiring laparotomy). Pediatric studies were excluded. Assessment of risk of bias, detection method, and essential study-specific characteristics (follow-up duration, stoma type, age, body mass index, and so forth) was done. Sixteen studies were included in the analysis; 1613 patients had 1613 stomas formed. Fifteen studies assessed stoma site hernias and five studies assessed midline incisional hernias. The median (range) incidence of stoma site incisional hernias was 8.3% (range 0%-33.9%) and for midline incisional hernias was 44.1% (range 8.7%-58.1%). When evaluating only studies with a low risk of bias, the incidence for stoma site incisional hernias is closer to one in three and for midline incisional hernias is closer to one in two. Stoma site and midline incisional hernias are significant clinical complications of stoma reversals. The quality of studies available is poor and heterogeneous. Future prospective randomized controlled trials or observational studies with standardized follow-up and outcome definitions/measurements are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mushroom body defect is required in parallel to Netrin for midline axon guidance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cate, Marie-Sophie; Gajendra, Sangeetha; Alsbury, Samantha; Raabe, Thomas; Tear, Guy; Mitchell, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    The outgrowth of many neurons within the central nervous system is initially directed towards or away from the cells lying at the midline. Recent genetic evidence suggests that a simple model of differential sensitivity to the conserved Netrin attractants and Slit repellents is insufficient to explain the guidance of all axons at the midline. In the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord, many axons still cross the midline in the absence of the Netrin genes (NetA and NetB) or their receptor frazzled. Here we show that mutation of mushroom body defect (mud) dramatically enhances the phenotype of Netrin or frazzled mutants, resulting in many more axons failing to cross the midline, although mutations in mud alone have little effect. This suggests that mud, which encodes a microtubule-binding coiled-coil protein homologous to NuMA and LIN-5, is an essential component of a Netrin-independent pathway that acts in parallel to promote midline crossing. We demonstrate that this novel role of Mud in axon guidance is independent of its previously described role in neural precursor development. These studies identify a parallel pathway controlling midline guidance in Drosophila and highlight a novel role for Mud potentially acting downstream of Frizzled to aid axon guidance. PMID:26893348

  19. Inclusion of tissue beyond a midline scar in the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Henry, Steven L; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Misra, Alok; Huang, Jung-Ju; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2011-09-01

    A lower abdominal midline scar is known to restrict the amount of tissue that can be included in a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap. However, reconstructive demands have occasionally led us to include substantial territory beyond the scar. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with such flaps and to determine whether a meaningful amount of tissue can be reliably harvested across a midline scar. Within a series of 125 DIEP flaps harvested across the entire lower abdomen (zones I-IV), 11 contained a midline scar. These 11 cases were compared with the remaining 114 in terms of (1) the amount of tissue beyond the scar that could be retained with the flap based on intraoperative assessment of vascularity and (2) postoperative complications. A significantly smaller percentage of the flap volume could be retained in scarred abdomens (70% of the harvested ellipse [ie, 20% beyond the midline]) versus unscarred abdomens (83%; P = 0.01). Complications were more frequent in the flaps with scars (55% vs. 25%; P = 0.04), although most of these complications were easily manageable and acceptable outcomes were achieved in all 11 cases. The rate of complications is significantly higher when tissue across a midline scar is included in a DIEP flap. However, in our experience, these complications are relatively mild, and in most cases, a substantial amount of tissue beyond the midline can be used, thereby increasing the volume available for reconstruction without resorting to dual-supply procedures.

  20. Frontal cutaneous meningioma - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Leonor; Coutinho, Ines; Cardoso, José Carlos; Garcia, Helena; Cordeiro, Margarida Robalo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous meningiomas are rare tumors most commonly located on the scalp. We report the case of a 55-year-old male who presented with a 2x3 cm tumoral lesion on the forehead. The lesion was hard, adherent and covered by normal skin. Incisional biopsy revelead a proliferation of monomorphic round cells, organized in nests and focally forming pseudovascular spaces. Immunohistochemical study revealed positivity for epithelial antigen membrane and vimentin. Vascular markers, cytokeratins and S100 protein were negative. A brain CT scan did not show any evidence of intracranial meningioma. The authors describe the case of a cutaneous frontal meningioma in probable relation with previous cranioencephalic trauma. PMID:26312695

  1. Quantum modular forms, mock modular forms, and partial theta functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimport, Susanna

    Defined by Zagier in 2010, quantum modular forms have been the subject of an explosion of recent research. Many of these results are aimed at discovering examples of these functions, which are defined on the rational numbers and have "nice" modularity properties. Though the subject is in its early stages, numerous results (including Zagier's original examples) show these objects naturally arising from many areas of mathematics as limits of other modular-like functions. One such family of examples is due to Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades, who connected these new objects to partial theta functions (introduced by Rogers in 1917) and mock modular forms (about which there is a rich theory, whose origins date back to Ramanujan in 1920). In this thesis, we build off of the work of Folsom, Ono, and Rhoades by providing an infinite family of quantum modular forms of arbitrary positive half-integral weight. Further, this family of quantum modular forms "glues" mock modular forms to partial theta functions and is constructed from a so-called "universal" mock theta function by extending a method of Eichler and Zagier (originally defined for holomorphic Jacobi forms) into a non-holomorphic setting. In addition to the infinite family, we explore the weight 1/2 and 3/2 functions in more depth. For both of these weights, we are able to explicitly write down the quantum modular form, as well as the corresponding "errors to modularity," which can be shown to be Mordell integrals of specific theta functions and, as a consequence, are real-analytic functions. Finally, we turn our attention to the partial theta functions associated with these low weight examples. Berndt and Kim provide asymptotic expansions for a certain class of partial theta functions as q approaches 1 radially within the unit disk. Here, we extend this work to not only obtain asymptotic expansions for this class of functions as q approaches any root of unity, but also for a certain class of derivatives of these functions

  2. Harnessing the power of theta: natural manipulations of cognitive performance during hippocampal theta-contingent eyeblink conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Loren C.; Cicchese, Joseph J.; Berry, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobiological oscillations are regarded as essential to normal information processing, including coordination and timing of cells and assemblies within structures as well as in long feedback loops of distributed neural systems. The hippocampal theta rhythm is a 3–12 Hz oscillatory potential observed during cognitive processes ranging from spatial navigation to associative learning. The lower range, 3–7 Hz, can occur during immobility and depends upon the integrity of cholinergic forebrain systems. Several studies have shown that the amount of pre-training theta in the rabbit strongly predicts the acquisition rate of classical eyeblink conditioning and that impairment of this system substantially slows the rate of learning. Our lab has used a brain-computer interface (BCI) that delivers eyeblink conditioning trials contingent upon the explicit presence or absence of hippocampal theta. A behavioral benefit of theta-contingent training has been demonstrated in both delay and trace forms of the paradigm with a two- to four-fold increase in learning speed. This behavioral effect is accompanied by enhanced amplitude and synchrony of hippocampal local field potential (LFP)s, multi-unit excitation, and single-unit response patterns that depend on theta state. Additionally, training in the presence of hippocampal theta has led to increases in the salience of tone-induced unit firing patterns in the medial prefrontal cortex, followed by persistent multi-unit activity during the trace interval. In cerebellum, rhythmicity and precise synchrony of stimulus time-locked LFPs with those of hippocampus occur preferentially under the theta condition. Here we review these findings, integrate them into current models of hippocampal-dependent learning and suggest how improvement in our understanding of neurobiological oscillations is critical for theories of medial temporal lobe processes underlying intact and pathological learning. PMID:25918501

  3. Amyloid Beta Peptides Differentially Affect Hippocampal Theta Rhythms In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Lerma, Armando I.; Ordaz, Benito; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) is responsible for the early cognitive dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease. Both cholinergically and glutamatergically induced hippocampal theta rhythms are related to learning and memory, spatial navigation, and spatial memory. However, these two types of theta rhythms are not identical; they are associated with different behaviors and can be differentially modulated by diverse experimental conditions. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether or not application of soluble Aβ alters the two types of theta frequency oscillatory network activity generated in rat hippocampal slices by application of the cholinergic and glutamatergic agonists carbachol or DHPG, respectively. Due to previous evidence that oscillatory activity can be differentially affected by different Aβ peptides, we also compared Aβ25−35 and Aβ1−42 for their effects on theta rhythms in vitro at similar concentrations (0.5 to 1.0 μM). We found that Aβ25−35 reduces, with less potency than Aβ1−42, carbachol-induced population theta oscillatory activity. In contrast, DHPG-induced oscillatory activity was not affected by a high concentration of Aβ25−35 but was reduced by Aβ1−42. Our results support the idea that different amyloid peptides might alter specific cellular mechanisms related to the generation of specific neuronal network activities, instead of exerting a generalized inhibitory effect on neuronal network function. PMID:23878547

  4. Recognition memory and theta-gamma interactions in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Trimper, John B; Stefanescu, Roxana A; Manns, Joseph R

    2014-03-01

    Neuronal oscillations and cross-frequency interactions in the rat hippocampus relate in important ways to memory processes and serve as a model for studying oscillatory activity in cognition more broadly. We report here that hippocampal synchrony (CA3-CA1 coherence) increased markedly in the low gamma range as rats were exploring novel objects, particularly those for which the rat subsequently showed good memory. The gamma synchrony varied across phases of the theta rhythm such that coherence was highest at the falling slope and trough of the theta wave. Further, the shape of the theta wave was more asymmetric and elongated at the falling slope during exploration of objects for which the rat subsequently showed good memory as compared with objects for which the rat subsequently showed poor memory. The results showed a strong association between event-related gamma synchrony in rat hippocampus and memory encoding for novel objects. In addition, a novel potential mechanism of cross-frequency interactions was observed whereby dynamic alterations in the shape of theta wave related to memory in correspondence with the strength of gamma synchrony. These findings add to our understanding of how theta and gamma oscillations interact in the hippocampus in the service of memory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    PubMed

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  6. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task.

    PubMed

    Neo, Phoebe S-H; Thurlow, Jane K; McNaughton, Neil

    2011-12-01

    The medial right frontal cortex is implicated in fast stopping of an initiated motor action in the stop-signal task (SST). To assess whether this region is also involved in the slower behavioural inhibition induced by goal conflict, we tested for effects of goal conflict (when stop and go tendencies are balanced) on low-frequency rhythms in the SST. Stop trials were divided, according to the delays at which the stop signal occurred, into short-, intermediate-, and long-delay trials. Consistent with goal-conflict processing, intermediate-delay trials were associated with greater 7-8 Hz EEG power than short- or long-delay trials at medial right frontal sites (Fz, F4, and F8). At F8, 7-8 Hz power was linked to high trait anxiety and neuroticism. A separate 4-7 Hz power increase was also seen in stop, relative to go, trials, but this was independent of delay, was maximal at the central midline site Cz, and predicted faster stopping. Together with previous data on the SST, these results suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms. We propose a hierarchical model of the control of stopping that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition.

  7. Theta oscillations regulate the speed of locomotion via a hippocampus to lateral septum pathway.

    PubMed

    Bender, Franziska; Gorbati, Maria; Cadavieco, Marta Carus; Denisova, Natalia; Gao, Xiaojie; Holman, Constance; Korotkova, Tatiana; Ponomarenko, Alexey

    2015-10-12

    Hippocampal theta oscillations support encoding of an animal's position during spatial navigation, yet longstanding questions about their impact on locomotion remain unanswered. Combining optogenetic control of hippocampal theta oscillations with electrophysiological recordings in mice, we show that hippocampal theta oscillations regulate locomotion. In particular, we demonstrate that their regularity underlies more stable and slower running speeds during exploration. More regular theta oscillations are accompanied by more regular theta-rhythmic spiking output of pyramidal cells. Theta oscillations are coordinated between the hippocampus and its main subcortical output, the lateral septum (LS). Chemo- or optogenetic inhibition of this pathway reveals its necessity for the hippocampal regulation of running speed. Moreover, theta-rhythmic stimulation of LS projections to the lateral hypothalamus replicates the reduction of running speed induced by more regular hippocampal theta oscillations. These results suggest that changes in hippocampal theta synchronization are translated into rapid adjustment of running speed via the LS.

  8. Sonographic monitoring of midline shift predicts outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kiphuth, Ines C; Huttner, Hagen B; Breuer, Lorenz; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and the evolution of subsequent perihemorrhagic edema lead to midline shift (MLS), which can be assessed by transcranial duplex sonography (TDS). In this observational study, we monitored MLS with TDS in patients with supratentorial ICH up to day 14 after the ictus, and then correlated MLS with the outcome 6 months after hospital discharge. Sixty-eight patients with spontaneous ICH (volume >20 cm(3)) were admitted during a 1-year period between April 2009 and April 2010. Sixty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were eligible for analysis. TDS to measure MLS was performed upon admission and then subsequently, using serial examinations in 24-hour intervals up to day 14. Statistical tests were used to determine cut-off values for functional outcome and mortality after 6 months. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score upon admission was 21 and the mean hematoma volume was 52 cm(3). NIHSS score, functional outcome, hematoma volume and MLS were correlated in the examined patient cohort. ICH score upon admission, hematoma volume and the extent of MLS on days 1-14 were predictive of functional outcome and death. Values of MLS showed two peaks, the first between day 2 and day 5 and the second between day 12 and day 14, indicating that edema progresses not only during the acute but also during the subacute phase. Depending on the time point, an MLS of 4.5-7.5 mm or greater indicated an impending failure of conservative therapy. An MLS of 12 mm or greater at any time indicated mortality with a sensitivity of 69%, a specificity of 100% and positive and negative predictive values of 100 and 74%, respectively. MLS seems to be a crucial factor for outcome after ICH. Apart from the hematoma volume itself, edema adds to the intracranial pressure. To monitor MLS in early patient management after ICH, TDS is a useful noninvasive bedside alternative, avoiding increased radiation exposure and repeated

  9. Quantum Theta Functions and Gabor Frames for Modulation Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luef, Franz; Manin, Yuri I.

    2009-06-01

    Representations of the celebrated Heisenberg commutation relations in quantum mechanics (and their exponentiated versions) form the starting point for a number of basic constructions, both in mathematics and mathematical physics (geometric quantization, quantum tori, classical and quantum theta functions) and signal analysis (Gabor analysis). In this paper we will try to bridge the two communities, represented by the two co-authors: that of noncommutative geometry and that of signal analysis. After providing a brief comparative dictionary of the two languages, we will show, e.g. that the Janssen representation of Gabor frames with generalized Gaussians as Gabor atoms yields in a natural way quantum theta functions, and that the Rieffel scalar product and associativity relations underlie both the functional equations for quantum thetas and the Fundamental Identity of Gabor analysis.

  10. Reduction of Midline Shift Following Decompressive Hemicraniectomy for Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang-Beom; Kwon, Sun U.; Park, Jung Cheol; Lee, Deok Hee; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Kim, Yeon-Jung; Ahn, Jae-Sung; Kwun, Byung-Duk; Kang, Dong-Wha; Choi, H. Alex; Lee, Kiwon; Kim, Jong S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hemicraniectomy is a decompressive surgery used to remove a large bone flap to allow edematous brain tissue to bulge extracranially. However, early indicators of the decompressive effects of hemicraniectomy are unclear. We investigated whether reduction of midline shift following hemicraniectomy is associated with improved consciousness and survival in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions. Methods We studied 70 patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions (MMI) who underwent hemicraniectomies. Midline shift was measured preoperatively and postoperatively using computed tomography (CT). Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale on postoperative day 1. Patient survival was assessed six months after stroke onset. Results The median time interval between preoperative and postoperative CT was 8.3 hours (interquartile range, 6.1–10.2 hours). Reduction in midline shift was associated with higher postoperative Glasgow Coma Scale scores (P<0.05). Forty-three patients (61.4%) were alive at six months after the stroke. Patients with reductions in midline shifts following hemicraniectomy were more likely to be alive at six months post-stroke than those without (P<0.001). Reduction of midline shift was associated with lower mortality at six months after stroke, after adjusting for age, sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and preoperative midline shift (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.62–0.81; P<0.001). Conclusions Reduction in midline shift following hemicraniectomy was associated with improved consciousness and six-month survival in patients with MMI. Hence, it may be an early indicator of effective decompression following hemicraniectomy. PMID:27733025

  11. NUT midline carcinoma: an imaging case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Polsani, Aruna; Braithwaite, Kiery A; Alazraki, Adina L; Abramowsky, Carlos; Shehata, Bahig M

    2012-02-01

    NUT midline carcinoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that has primarily been reported in children and young adults. The tumor is characterized by a rearrangement on the nuclear protein in testis (NUT) gene, located on chromosome 15q14, resulting in the BRD4-NUT fusion oncogene. This carcinoma most commonly presents in the midline and displays an invariably lethal clinical course. To highlight the imaging features of NUT midline carcinoma. IRB approval was obtained for chart review. We retrospectively reviewed the chart and imaging studies of three children. All three cases were diagnosed by karyotyping and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Cross-sectional imaging including CT, MRI and, in one patient, PET was available for review. Two out of three children presented with midline and multifocal disease. The third case had a medial left thigh mass and no metastatic disease at initial presentation. The common imaging features include heterogeneous low density on CT and T1 hypointensity and low-level T2 hyperintensity on MRI with heterogeneous enhancement. All cases were confirmed pathologically and by molecular studies. NUT midline carcinoma usually presents in the midline, either in the head, neck or chest. We present three cases with the bulk of the tumor below the diaphragm, which is seen in the minority of patients with NUT midline carcinoma, according to the available literature. Metastatic disease is common at initial presentation and can be quite extensive. The most striking feature of this disease is its aggressive nature with exponential interval growth of tumor.

  12. Some aspects on the structure and reaction of {theta}+

    SciTech Connect

    Hosaka, Atsushi

    2006-11-02

    In this report, we discuss some aspects of the present theoretical status of the pentaquarks. In the first part we discuss the importance of the pion interaction due to spontaneous symmetry breaking of chiral symmetry, which affects the basic property such as the parity of {theta}+. In the second part we show some calculations for the photoproduction of {theta}+ and {lambda}(1520) in the effective Lagrangian approach. Within the minimal setup of the model, we make comments in comparison with the present controversial experimental results.

  13. Overview of Frontal Sinus Pathology and Management.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Alejandro; Baredes, Soly; Setzen, Michael; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-08-01

    The frontal sinus is the most complex of all paranasal sinuses. Given its proximity to the cranial vault and orbit, frontal sinus pathology can progress to involve these structures and lead to significant morbidity, or even mortality. Surgical management of the frontal sinus is technically challenging. Various open and endoscopic surgical techniques are available to the otolaryngologist. This article presents an overview of the major disease entities that affect the frontal sinus, with a special emphasis on treatment principles and surgical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Roundabout controls axon crossing of the CNS midline and defines a novel subfamily of evolutionarily conserved guidance receptors.

    PubMed

    Kidd, T; Brose, K; Mitchell, K J; Fetter, R D; Tessier-Lavigne, M; Goodman, C S; Tear, G

    1998-01-23

    The robo gene in Drosophila was identified in a large-scale mutant screen for genes that control the decision by axons to cross the CNS midline. In robo mutants, too many axons cross and recross the midline. Here we show that robo encodes an axon guidance receptor that defines a novel subfamily of immunoglobulin superfamily proteins that is highly conserved from fruit flies to mammals. For those axons that never cross the midline, Robo is expressed on their growth cones from the outset; for the majority of axons that do cross the midline, Robo is expressed at high levels on their growth cones only after they cross the midline. Transgenic rescue experiments reveal that Robo can function in a cell-autonomous fashion. Robo appears to function as the gatekeeper controlling midline crossing.

  15. The Drosophila SOX-domain protein Dichaete is required for the development of the central nervous system midline.

    PubMed

    Soriano, N S; Russell, S

    1998-10-01

    SOX-domain proteins are a class of developmentally important transcriptional regulators related to the mammalian testis determining factor SRY. In common with other SOX-domain genes, the Drosophila Dichaete gene has a dynamic expression profile in the developing central nervous system, including cells of the ventral midline. We find defects in the differentiation of midline glia and concomitant axonal defects in Dichaete mutants that are rescued by driving Dichaete expression in the midline. Since Dichaete is required for the correct specification or differentiation of midline glia, we have used the ventral midline as a model system to study SOX gene function in vivo and demonstrate a genetic interaction between Dichaete and the POU domain gene ventral veinless. In mammals, a protein related to Dichaete, SOX2, also interacts with POU transcription factors. The midline phenotypes of Dichaete mutations are rescued by expression of mouse SOX2. Our data suggest that SOX gene structure, function and interactions have been conserved during evolution.

  16. Disrupting frontal eye-field activity impairs memory recall.

    PubMed

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Cazzoli, Dario; Kalla, Roger; Müri, René; Mast, Fred W

    2016-04-13

    A large body of research demonstrated that participants preferably look back to the encoding location when retrieving visual information from memory. However, the role of this 'looking back to nothing' is still debated. The goal of the present study was to extend this line of research by examining whether an important area in the cortical representation of the oculomotor system, the frontal eye field (FEF), is involved in memory retrieval. To interfere with the activity of the FEF, we used inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). Before stimulation was applied, participants encoded a complex scene and performed a short-term (immediately after encoding) or long-term (after 24 h) recall task, just after cTBS over the right FEF or sham stimulation. cTBS did not affect overall performance, but stimulation and statement type (object vs. location) interacted. cTBS over the right FEF tended to impair object recall sensitivity, whereas there was no effect on location recall sensitivity. These findings suggest that the FEF is involved in retrieving object information from scene memory, supporting the hypothesis that the oculomotor system contributes to memory recall.

  17. Fryns syndrome with atypical findings--with large midline cleft on forehead but normal cranial MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Demirel, G; Oguz, S S; Celik, I H; Yilmaz, Y; Uras, N; Erdeve, O; Dilmen, U

    2010-01-01

    We report a newborn with Fryns syndrome and atypical findings like a large midline cleft on forehead. Abnormal findings included congenital left diaphragmatic hernia, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, anteverted nostrils, cleft palate, low set ears, tapered fingers, macrocephaly, congenital heart defect, midline defects and renal anomalies. This is the first case that has a midline cleft on forehead with normal cranial MRI findings.

  18. Midline lesions of the prostate: role of MRI/TRUS fusion biopsy and implications in Gleason risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Muthigi, Akhil; Sidana, Abhinav; George, Arvin K; Kongnyuy, Michael; Shakir, Nabeel; Kadakia, Meet; Maruf, Mahir; Frye, Thomas P; Mertan, Francesca; Su, Daniel; Merino, Maria J; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    MRI-TRUS fusion biopsy (FBx) has proven efficacy in targeting suspicious areas that are traditionally missed by systematic 12-core biopsy (SBx). Midline prostate lesions are undersampled during SBx, as traditional approaches aim laterally during TRUS biopsy. The aim of our study was to determine the utility of FBx for targeting midline lesions identified on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). A review was performed of a prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing mpMRI followed by FBx and SBx from 2007 to 2015. Midline location was defined as any lesion crossing the midline on axial imaging and involving both prostatic lobes. Index lesion was defined as lesion with highest Gleason score on biopsy. Patient demographic, imaging, and histopathologic data were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine independent predictors of having clinically significant (CS) cancer (Gleason ≥ 7) in midline lesions. Out of 1266 patients, we identified 202 suspicious midline lesions in 190 patients [median (IQR) age 63 (10) years; PSA 7.6 (6.6)]. Eighty-eight (46.3 %) patients had cancer detection on FBx of midline lesion. A midline target represented the index lesion of the prostate in 63/190 (33.2 %) patients. Risk category upgrading based on FBx of a midline lesion compared to SBx occurred in 45/190 patients (23.7 %). On multivariate analysis, higher PSA (p = .001), lower MRI-derived prostate volume (p < .001), and moderate-high or high suspicion on mpMRI (p = .014) predicted CS cancer in midline lesions. MRI-TRUS FBx facilitates sampling of midline lesions. Integration of mpMRI and FBx for targeting of midline lesions improves detection of CS prostate cancer.

  19. Regeneration and maintenance of the planarian midline is regulated by a slit orthologue.

    PubMed

    Cebrià, Francesc; Guo, Tingxia; Jopek, Jessica; Newmark, Phillip A

    2007-07-15

    Several families of evolutionarily conserved axon guidance cues orchestrate the precise wiring of the nervous system during embryonic development. The remarkable plasticity of freshwater planarians provides the opportunity to study these molecules in the context of neural regeneration and maintenance. Here we characterize a homologue of the Slit family of guidance cues from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Smed-slit is expressed along the planarian midline, in both dorsal and ventral domains. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting Smed-slit results in the collapse of many newly regenerated tissues at the midline; these include the cephalic ganglia, ventral nerve cords, photoreceptors, and the posterior digestive system. Surprisingly, Smed-slit RNAi knockdown animals also develop morphologically distinguishable, ectopic neural structures near the midline in uninjured regions of intact and regenerating planarians. These results suggest that Smed-slit acts not only as a repulsive cue required for proper midline formation during regeneration but that it may also act to regulate the behavior of neural precursors at the midline in intact planarians.

  20. Commissureless regulation of axon outgrowth across the midline is independent of Rab function.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Daan M; Banerji, Oishik; Tear, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Nervous system function requires that neurons within neural circuits are connected together precisely. These connections form during the process of axon guidance whereby each neuron extends an axon that migrates, often large distances, through a complex environment to reach its synaptic target. This task can be simplified by utilising intermediate targets to divide the route into smaller sections. This requires that axons adapt their behaviour as they migrate towards and away from intermediate targets. In the central nervous system the midline acts as an intermediate target for commissural axons. In Drosophila commissural axons switch from attraction towards to extension away from the midline by regulating the levels of the Roundabout receptor on their cell surface. This is achieved by Commissureless which directs Roundabout to an intracellular compartment in the soma prior to reaching the midline. Once across the midline Roundabout is allowed to reach the surface and acts as a receptor for the repellent ligand Slit that is secreted by cells at the midline. Here we investigated candidate intracellular mechanisms that may facilitate the intracellular targeting of Commissureless and Roundabout within the soma of commissural neurons. Using modified forms of Commissureless or Rabs we show that neither ubiquitination nor Rab activity are necessary for the intracellular targeting of Commissureless. In addition we reveal that axon outgrowth of many populations of neurons within the Drosophila central nervous system is also independent of Rab activity.

  1. Dbx1 triggers crucial molecular programs required for midline crossing by midbrain commissural axons.

    PubMed

    Inamata, Yasuyuki; Shirasaki, Ryuichi

    2014-03-01

    Axon guidance by commissural neurons has been well documented, providing us with a molecular logic of how midline crossing is achieved during development. Despite these advances, knowledge of the intrinsic genetic programs is still limited and it remains obscure whether the expression of a single transcription factor is sufficient to activate transcriptional programs that ultimately enable midline crossing. Here, we show in the mouse that the homeodomain transcription factor Dbx1 is expressed by a subset of progenitor cells that give rise to commissural neurons in the dorsal midbrain. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses indicate that the expression of Dbx1 alone is sufficient and necessary to trigger midline crossing in vivo. We also show that Robo3 controls midline crossing as a crucial downstream effector of the Dbx1-activated molecular programs. Furthermore, Dbx1 suppresses the expression of the transcriptional program for ipsilateral neuron differentiation in parallel. These results suggest that a single transcription factor, Dbx1, has an essential function in assigning midline-crossing identity, thereby contributing crucially to the establishment of the wiring laterality in the developing nervous system.

  2. Gli3 controls corpus callosum formation by positioning midline guideposts during telencephalic patterning.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Dario; Hasenpusch-Theil, Kerstin; Benadiba, Carine; Yu, Tian; Basson, M Albert; Price, David J; Lebrand, Cécile; Theil, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) represents the major forebrain commissure connecting the 2 cerebral hemispheres. Midline crossing of callosal axons is controlled by several glial and neuronal guideposts specifically located along the callosal path, but it remains unknown how these cells acquire their position. Here, we show that the Gli3 hypomorphic mouse mutant Polydactyly Nagoya (Pdn) displays agenesis of the CC and mislocation of the glial and neuronal guidepost cells. Using transplantation experiments, we demonstrate that agenesis of the CC is primarily caused by midline defects. These defects originate during telencephalic patterning and involve an up-regulation of Slit2 expression and altered Fgf and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Mutations in sprouty1/2 which mimic the changes in these signaling pathways cause a disorganization of midline guideposts and CC agenesis. Moreover, a partial recovery of midline abnormalities in Pdn/Pdn;Slit2(-/-) embryos mutants confirms the functional importance of correct Slit2 expression levels for callosal development. Hence, Gli3 controlled restriction of Fgf and Wnt/β-catenin signaling and of Slit2 expression is crucial for positioning midline guideposts and callosal development.

  3. Automated midline shift and intracranial pressure estimation based on brain CT images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenan; Belle, Ashwin; Cockrell, Charles; Ward, Kevin R; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-04-13

    In this paper we present an automated system based mainly on the computed tomography (CT) images consisting of two main components: the midline shift estimation and intracranial pressure (ICP) pre-screening system. To estimate the midline shift, first an estimation of the ideal midline is performed based on the symmetry of the skull and anatomical features in the brain CT scan. Then, segmentation of the ventricles from the CT scan is performed and used as a guide for the identification of the actual midline through shape matching. These processes mimic the measuring process by physicians and have shown promising results in the evaluation. In the second component, more features are extracted related to ICP, such as the texture information, blood amount from CT scans and other recorded features, such as age, injury severity score to estimate the ICP are also incorporated. Machine learning techniques including feature selection and classification, such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs), are employed to build the prediction model using RapidMiner. The evaluation of the prediction shows potential usefulness of the model. The estimated ideal midline shift and predicted ICP levels may be used as a fast pre-screening step for physicians to make decisions, so as to recommend for or against invasive ICP monitoring.

  4. Automated Midline Shift and Intracranial Pressure Estimation based on Brain CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Cockrell, Charles; Ward, Kevin R.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an automated system based mainly on the computed tomography (CT) images consisting of two main components: the midline shift estimation and intracranial pressure (ICP) pre-screening system. To estimate the midline shift, first an estimation of the ideal midline is performed based on the symmetry of the skull and anatomical features in the brain CT scan. Then, segmentation of the ventricles from the CT scan is performed and used as a guide for the identification of the actual midline through shape matching. These processes mimic the measuring process by physicians and have shown promising results in the evaluation. In the second component, more features are extracted related to ICP, such as the texture information, blood amount from CT scans and other recorded features, such as age, injury severity score to estimate the ICP are also incorporated. Machine learning techniques including feature selection and classification, such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs), are employed to build the prediction model using RapidMiner. The evaluation of the prediction shows potential usefulness of the model. The estimated ideal midline shift and predicted ICP levels may be used as a fast pre-screening step for physicians to make decisions, so as to recommend for or against invasive ICP monitoring. PMID:23604268

  5. A subgluteal approach to the sciatic nerve in adults at 10 cm from the midline.

    PubMed

    Franco, Carlo D; Choksi, Nandak; Rahman, Abed; Voronov, Gennadiy; Almachnouk, Mohammad H

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 we introduced the concept of a sciatic nerve block performed in the midgluteal area at a fixed distance from the midline in all adults regardless of gender and/or body size. The anatomic basis for that study suggested that a subgluteal block could also be accomplished in a similar fashion. After informed consent, 20 patients were prospectively recruited. Patients were positioned in lateral decubitus. The needle insertion site was located in the subgluteal fold at 10 cm from the midline. The needle was advanced parallel to the midline until a sciatic nerve response was elicited. With a visible response at 0.5 mA, 30 mL 1.5% mepivacaine plus 1:200,000 epinephrine was slowly injected. Sensory anesthesia was tested on the plantar and dorsal aspects of the foot as well as the posterior thigh. Residents performed all blocks. The approach was 100% successful in locating the sciatic nerve with 3 attempts or less from a site located 10 cm from the midline. The block provided successful surgical anesthesia in 90% of the cases; 2 cases required local anesthetic supplementation. Only 3 patients developed anesthesia of the posterior thigh within 30 minutes of injection. This report shows that a sciatic nerve block can be performed in the subgluteal area at 10 cm from the midline in adult patients of both sexes and various sizes. Anesthesia of the posterior thigh is not consistently accomplished with this approach.

  6. Excitatory Amplification Through Divergent-Convergent Circuits: The Role of the Midline Thalamus in Limbic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, David M; Zhang, DeXing; Bertram, Edward H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The midline thalamic nuclei are an important component of limbic seizures. Although the anatomic connections and excitatory influences of the midline thalamus are well known, its physiological role in limbic seizures is unclear. We examined the role of the midline thalamus on two circuits that are involved in limbic seizures: (a) the subiculum-prefrontal cortex (SB-PFC), and (b) the piriform cortex-entorhinal cortex (PC-EC). Methods Evoked field potentials for both circuits were obtained in anesthetized rats, and the likely direct monosynaptic and polysynaptic contributions to the responses were identified. Seizures were generated in both circuits by 20 Hz stimulus trains. Once stable seizures and evoked potentials were established, the midline thalamus was inactivated through an injection of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), and the effects on the evoked responses and seizures were analyzed. Results Inactivation of the midline thalamus suppressed seizures in both circuits. Seizure suppression was associated with a significant reduction in the late thalamic component but no significant change in the early direct monosynaptic component. Injections that did not suppress the seizures did not alter the evoked potentials. Conclusions Suppression of the late thalamic component of the evoked potential at the time of seizure suppression suggests that the thalamus facilitates seizure induction by extending the duration of excitatory drive through a divergent-convergent excitatory amplification system. This work may have broader implications for understanding signaling in the limbic system. PMID:21554957

  7. The effect of midline crossing of lateral supraglottic cancer on contralateral cervical lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Taner; Süslü, Nilda; Atay, Gamze; Günaydın, Rıza Önder; Bajin, Münir Demir; Özer, Serdar

    2015-05-01

    The degree of midline crossing of lateral supraglottic cancer does not significantly change its rate of contralateral cervical metastasis. The rate of occult metastasis is too high to take the risk of contralateral regional recurrence. We support routine bilateral neck dissection even in lateral supraglottic cancers with no or minimal midline crossing. Data on the rate of contralateral cervical metastasis of laterally located supraglottic cancer, the effect of its degree of midline crossing on contralateral cervical metastasis, and its treatment are still controversial. This was a retrospective cohort, chart review involving 305 surgically treated patients with T1-3 squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. In all, 184 patients had bilateral neck dissection; 86 N0 contralateral necks were followed up. Thirty-five patients who needed postoperative radiation therapy because of the primary tumor or ipsilateral neck dissection specimen also received radiation therapy to the contralateral neck. The degree of midline crossing at the epiglottis was measured on a laryngectomy specimen with a ruler and expressed as 'no,' '<5 mm' or '≥5 mm.' The rates of occult and overall contralateral metastasis in our series were 16% and 28%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between contralateral neck metastasis and recurrence rates in the neck dissection, follow-up, and irradiation groups according to the degree of midline crossing.

  8. Role of gravity-based information on the orientation and localization of the perceived body midline.

    PubMed

    Ceyte, Hadrien; Cian, Corinne; Nougier, Vincent; Olivier, Isabelle; Trousselard, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The present study focused on the influence of gravity-based information on the orientation and localization of the perceived body midline. The orientation was investigated by the rolling adjustment of a rod on the subjects' Z-axis and the localization by the horizontal adjustment of a visual dot as being straight ahead. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of the dissociation between the Z-axis and the direction of gravity by placing subjects in roll tilt and supine postures. In roll tilt, the perception of the body midline orientation was deviated in the direction of body tilt and the perception of its localization was deviated in the opposite direction. In the supine body orientation, estimates of the Z-axis and straight-ahead remained veridical as when the body was upright. Experiment 2 highlighted the relative importance of the otolithic and tactile information using diffuse pressure stimulation. The estimation of body midline orientation was modified contrarily to the estimation of its localization. Thus, subjects had no absolute representation of their egocentric space. The main hypothesis regarding the dissociation between the orientation and localization of the body midline may be related to a difference in the integration of sensory information. It can be suggested that the horizontal component of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) contributed to the perceived localization of the body midline, whereas its orientation was mainly influenced by tactile information.

  9. Clinical Utilization of M Spring for the Space Closure of Midline Diastema – Clinical Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Hanumanth; Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Arani, Nandakumar; Keerthi, V. Naga

    2016-01-01

    People approach orthodontist mainly for aesthetic purpose, midline diastema is one of the condition which causes aesthetic compromise. The midline diastema can be caused by various reasons such as high frenal attachment, midline pathology, etc. In the field of orthodontics, relapse rate is high while treating midline diastema. This relapse can be reduced only when there is bodily movement of the incisors in mesial direction. In this article, two cases of midline diastema are selected. Both the cases were treated using “M” spring which has three coils; two at periphery and one at the center and each coil was of 3mm diameter. “M” spring was fabricated using round 0.018” AJ Wilcock wire for one case and 0.017 X 0.025 TMA for another case. For both cases the duration of treatment was for six weeks. IOPA was taken after six weeks, the case in which rectangular wire was used; there was bodily movement of the central incisor in mesial direction. Whereas in round wire technique, predominantly tipping type of tooth movement was seen. The rectangular wire has two point contacts, because of which bodily movement was obtained. This technique of using rectangular wire to fabricate “M” spring has less inventory and chair side time. PMID:27135014

  10. Influence of basal cisterns, midline shift and pathology on outcome in head injury.

    PubMed

    Athiappan, S; Muthukumar, N; Srinivasan, U S

    1993-05-01

    The relationship of outcome to the basal cisterns, midline shift and pathology as seen on initial CT scan was assessed in 107 moderate and severe head injured patients. The mortality rates were 82 cases (76%) and 29 cases (27%) among those with obliterated and normal basal cisterns, and 74 cases (69%) and 42 cases (39%) when the midline shift was present and absent, respectively. The state of the cisterns and midline shift was correlated with the type of intracranial pathology and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores. The state of the cisterns and midline shift was more important for those with single contusions and intra-cerebral haematoma (ICH) than for those with multiple lesions, extradural haematoma, subdural haematoma, diffuse cerebral oedema and normal CT scan. The state of the above two parameters when correlated with GCS score, showed that they were important for those with higher GCS scores. This indicates that the status of the cisterns and midline shift is correlated with the type of pathology and GCS score rather than these parameters taken alone in prediction.

  11. Punctate midline myelotomy: a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of pain in inextirpable abdominal and pelvic cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, Dun; Andrén-Sandberg, Ake

    2007-01-01

    The midline of the dorsal column contains a pathway that may be more important for transmitting visceral nociceptive signals than the spinothalamic tract. Punctate midline myelotomy, a neuroablative operation with the intent of interrupting the midline of the dorsal column, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of otherwise intractable abdominal and pelvic cancer pain. The indications, technical procedure, outcomes, and complications of all published clinical studies of punctate midline myelotomy are reviewed. The lesion level of the spinal cord and the depth of the incision are discussed, with the focus on the feasibility of this technique.

  12. Is Bilateral Lymphadenectomy For Midline Squamous Carcinoma Of The Vulva Always Necessary? An Analysis From Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 173

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Robert L.; Ali, Shamshad; Levenback, Charles F.; Gold, Michael A.; Fowler, Jeffrey M.; Judson, Patricia L.; Bell, Maria C.; De Geest, Koen; Spirtos, Nick M.; Potkul, Ronald K.; Leitao, Mario M.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Rossi, Emma C.; Lentz, Samuel S.; Burke, James J.; Van Le, Linda; Trimble, Cornelia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine which patients with near midline lesions may safely undergo unilateral groin dissection based on clinical exam and lymphoscintigraphy (LSG) results. Methods Patients participating in GOG-173 underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization with blue dye, and radiocolloid with optional LSG before definitive inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy (LND). This analysis interrogates the reliability of LSG alone relative to primary tumor location in those patients who had an interpretable LSG and at least one SLN identified. Primary tumor location was categorized as lateral (>2 cm from midline), midline, or lateral ambiguous (LA) if located within 2 cm., but not involving the midline. Results Two-hundred-thirty-four patients met eligibility criteria. Sixty-four had lateral lesions, and underwent unilateral LND. All patients with LA (N=65) and midline (N=105) tumors underwent bilateral LND. Bilateral drainage by LSG was identified in 14/64 (22%) patients with lateral tumors, 38/65 (58%) with LA tumors and in 73/105 (70%) with midline tumors. At mapping, no SLNs were found in contralateral groins among those patients with LA and midline tumors who had unilateral-only LSGs. However, in these patients groin metastases were found in 4/32 patients with midline tumors undergoing contralateral dissection; none were found in 27 patients with LA tumors. Conclusion The likelihood of detectable bilateral drainage using preoperative LSG decreases as a function of distance from midline. Patients with LA primaries and unilateral drainage on LSG may safely undergo unilateral SLN. PMID:23201592

  13. Is bilateral lymphadenectomy for midline squamous carcinoma of the vulva always necessary? An analysis from Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 173.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Robert L; Ali, Shamshad; Levenback, Charles F; Gold, Michael A; Fowler, Jeffrey M; Judson, Patricia L; Bell, Maria C; De Geest, Koen; Spirtos, Nick M; Potkul, Ronald K; Leitao, Mario M; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N; Rossi, Emma C; Lentz, Samuel S; Burke, James J; Van Le, Linda; Trimble, Cornelia L

    2013-02-01

    To determine which patients with near midline lesions may safely undergo unilateral groin dissection based on clinical exam and lymphoscintigraphy (LSG) results. Patients participating in GOG-173 underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization with blue dye, and radiocolloid with optional LSG before definitive inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy (LND). This analysis interrogates the reliability of LSG alone relative to primary tumor location in those patients who had an interpretable LSG and at least one SLN identified. Primary tumor location was categorized as lateral (>2cm from midline), midline, or lateral ambiguous (LA) if located within 2cm, but not involving the midline. Two-hundred-thirty-four patients met eligibility criteria. Sixty-four had lateral lesions, and underwent unilateral LND. All patients with LA (N=65) and midline (N=105) tumors underwent bilateral LND. Bilateral drainage by LSG was identified in 14/64 (22%) patients with lateral tumors, 38/65 (58%) with LA tumors and in 73/105 (70%) with midline tumors. At mapping, no SLNs were found in contralateral groins among those patients with LA and midline tumors who had unilateral-only LSGs. However, in these patients groin metastases were found in 4/32 patients with midline tumors undergoing contralateral dissection; none were found in 27 patients with LA tumors. The likelihood of detectable bilateral drainage using preoperative LSG decreases as a function of distance from midline. Patients with LA primaries and unilateral drainage on LSG may safely undergo unilateral SLN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perfusion MRI Indexes Variability in the Functional Brain Effects of Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gratton, Caterina; Lee, Taraz G.; Nomura, Emi M.; D’Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an important tool for testing causal relationships in cognitive neuroscience research. However, the efficacy of TMS can be variable across individuals and difficult to measure. This variability is especially a challenge when TMS is applied to regions without well-characterized behavioral effects, such as in studies using TMS on multi-modal areas in intrinsic networks. Here, we examined whether perfusion fMRI recordings of Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF), a quantitative measure sensitive to slow functional changes, reliably index variability in the effects of stimulation. Twenty-seven participants each completed four combined TMS-fMRI sessions during which both resting state Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) and perfusion Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) scans were recorded. In each session after the first baseline day, continuous theta-burst TMS (TBS) was applied to one of three locations: left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L dlPFC), left anterior insula/frontal operculum (L aI/fO), or left primary somatosensory cortex (L S1). The two frontal targets are components of intrinsic networks and L S1 was used as an experimental control. CBF changes were measured both before and after TMS on each day from a series of interleaved resting state and perfusion scans. Although TBS led to weak selective increases under the coil in CBF measurements across the group, individual subjects showed wide variability in their responses. TBS-induced changes in rCBF were related to TBS-induced changes in functional connectivity of the relevant intrinsic networks measured during separate resting-state BOLD scans. This relationship was selective: CBF and functional connectivity of these networks were not related before TBS or after TBS to the experimental control region (S1). Furthermore, subject groups with different directions of CBF change after TBS showed distinct modulations in the functional interactions of targeted networks. These results suggest

  15. Presence of state transitions in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta

    PubMed Central

    Cheregi, Otilia; Kotabová, Eva; Prášil, Ondřej; Schröder, Wolfgang P.; Kaňa, Radek; Funk, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Plants and algae have developed various regulatory mechanisms for optimal delivery of excitation energy to the photosystems even during fluctuating light conditions; these include state transitions as well as non-photochemical quenching. The former process maintains the balance by redistributing antennae excitation between the photosystems, meanwhile the latter by dissipating excessive excitation inside the antennae. In the present study, these mechanisms have been analysed in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta. Photoprotective non-photochemical quenching was observed in cultures only after they had entered the stationary growth phase. These cells displayed a diminished overall photosynthetic efficiency, measured as CO2 assimilation rate and electron transport rate. However, in the logarithmic growth phase G. theta cells redistributed excitation energy via a mechanism similar to state transitions. These state transitions were triggered by blue light absorbed by the membrane integrated chlorophyll a/c antennae, and green light absorbed by the lumenal biliproteins was ineffective. It is proposed that state transitions in G. theta are induced by small re-arrangements of the intrinsic antennae proteins, resulting in their coupling/uncoupling to the photosystems in state 1 or state 2, respectively. G. theta therefore represents a chromalveolate algae able to perform state transitions. PMID:26254328

  16. Classical Conditioning of Hippocampal Theta Patterns in the Rat.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    associated with changes in performance of learned tasks , 1,4,5, 8,9 there have been very few studies of neurona l plasticity of the hippocampus It self...rapid development of a conditioned hippocampal theta response to a visual sti mulus demonstrates tha t there is considerable neurona l plasticity in the

  17. Presence of state transitions in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta.

    PubMed

    Cheregi, Otilia; Kotabová, Eva; Prášil, Ondřej; Schröder, Wolfgang P; Kaňa, Radek; Funk, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    Plants and algae have developed various regulatory mechanisms for optimal delivery of excitation energy to the photosystems even during fluctuating light conditions; these include state transitions as well as non-photochemical quenching. The former process maintains the balance by redistributing antennae excitation between the photosystems, meanwhile the latter by dissipating excessive excitation inside the antennae. In the present study, these mechanisms have been analysed in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta. Photoprotective non-photochemical quenching was observed in cultures only after they had entered the stationary growth phase. These cells displayed a diminished overall photosynthetic efficiency, measured as CO2 assimilation rate and electron transport rate. However, in the logarithmic growth phase G. theta cells redistributed excitation energy via a mechanism similar to state transitions. These state transitions were triggered by blue light absorbed by the membrane integrated chlorophyll a/c antennae, and green light absorbed by the lumenal biliproteins was ineffective. It is proposed that state transitions in G. theta are induced by small re-arrangements of the intrinsic antennae proteins, resulting in their coupling/uncoupling to the photosystems in state 1 or state 2, respectively. G. theta therefore represents a chromalveolate algae able to perform state transitions.

  18. Interindividual Differences in Alpha and Theta Power Reflect Memory Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimesch, W.; Vogt, F.; Doppelmayr, M.

    1999-01-01

    Tested whether tonic EEG power is related to memory performance by analyzing ongoing EEG for 60 subjects in 5 experimental conditions. Subjects with good memory performance had significantly larger upper alpha power, but less theta and lower alpha power. Also discusses findings for subjects good at calculation. (SLD)

  19. A Low energy neutrino factory for large theta(13)

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; Mena, Olga; Pascoli, Silvia; /Durham U., IPPP

    2007-01-01

    If the value of {theta}{sub 13} is within the reach of the upcoming generation of long-baseline experiments, T2K and NOvA, they show that a low-energy neutrino factory, with peak energy in the few GeV range, would provide a sensitive tool to explore CP-violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy. They consider baselines with typical length 1000-1500 km. The unique performance of the low energy neutrino factory is due to the rich neutrino oscillation pattern at energies between 1 and 4 GeV at baselines {Omicron}(1000) km. They perform both a semi-analytical study of the sensitivities and a numerical analysis to explore how well this setup can measure {theta}{sub 13}, CP-violation, and determine the type of mass hierarchy and the {theta}{sub 23} quadrant. A low energy neutrino factory provides a powerful tool to resolve ambiguities and make precise parameter determinations, for both large and fairly small values of the mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}.

  20. Can prefrontal theta cordance differentiate between depression recovery and dissimulation?

    PubMed

    Kopecek, Miloslav; Sos, Peter; Brunovsky, Martin; Bares, Martin; Stopkova, Pavla; Krajca, Vladimir

    2007-08-01

    We present a case report of a 37-year old woman diagnosed with depressive disorder, first episode, who was admitted into a psychiatric hospital after a failed suicidal attempt. She responded to antidepressant therapy, as evidenced by a >50% reduction in MADRS total score. She was discharged after 4 weeks of treatment, denying any suicidal ideations. The following day the patient committed suicide; she burned herself to death. It is very likely that the patient dissimulated her symptoms and ideations. Subsequently, her quantitative EEG records were retrospectively analyzed. An increase of prefrontal theta cordance value after the first week of mirtazapine therapy was found. Recently three small studies have revealed that decrease of prefrontal theta cordance after 1 week of antidepressant administration can predict clinical response in patients with unipolar depression. In our previous study the absence of a decreased theta prefrontal cordance was associated with lack of treatment response with NPV 1.0 (Bares et al., 2007). Thus, we hypothesize that prefrontal theta cordance could become an objective marker of change of depressive symptoms, independent of patients' compliance and symptom dissimulation, more precise than objective and self-rated depression rating scales.

  1. Theta oscillations locked to intended actions rhythmically modulate perception

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Alice; Ambrogioni, Luca; Medendorp, W Pieter; Maris, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing brain oscillations are known to influence perception, and to be reset by exogenous stimulations. Voluntary action is also accompanied by prominent rhythmic activity, and recent behavioral evidence suggests that this might be coupled with perception. Here, we reveal the neurophysiological underpinnings of this sensorimotor coupling in humans. We link the trial-by-trial dynamics of EEG oscillatory activity during movement preparation to the corresponding dynamics in perception, for two unrelated visual and motor tasks. The phase of theta oscillations (~4 Hz) predicts perceptual performance, even >1 s before movement. Moreover, theta oscillations are phase-locked to the onset of the movement. Remarkably, the alignment of theta phase and its perceptual relevance unfold with similar non-monotonic profiles, suggesting their relatedness. The present work shows that perception and movement initiation are automatically synchronized since the early stages of motor planning through neuronal oscillatory activity in the theta range. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25618.001 PMID:28686161

  2. Theta-Coupled Periodic Replay in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Fuentemilla, Lluís; Penny, Will D.; Cashdollar, Nathan; Bunzeck, Nico; Düzel, Emrah

    2010-01-01

    Summary Working memory allows information from transient events to persist as active neural representations [1] that can be used for goal-directed behaviors such as decision making and learning [2, 3]. Computational modeling based on neuronal firing patterns in animals suggests that one putative mechanism enabling working memory is periodic reactivation (henceforth termed “replay”) of the maintained information coordinated by neural oscillations at theta (4–8 Hz) and gamma (30–80 Hz) frequency [4–6]. To investigate this possibility, we trained multivariate pattern classifier decoding algorithms on oscillatory brain responses to images depicting natural scenes, recorded with high temporal resolution via magnetoencephalography. These classifiers were applied to brain activity recorded during the subsequent five second maintenance of the scenes. This decoding revealed replay during the entire maintenance interval. Replay was specific to whether an indoor or an outdoor scene was maintained and whether maintenance centered on configural associations of scene elements or just single scene elements. Replay was coordinated by the phase of theta and the amount of theta coordination was correlated with working memory performance. By confirming the predictions of a mechanistic model and linking these to behavioral performance in humans, these findings identify theta-coupled replay as a mechanism of working memory maintenance. PMID:20303266

  3. Holomorphic projections and Ramanujan’s mock theta functions

    PubMed Central

    Imamoğlu, Özlem; Raum, Martin; Richter, Olav K.

    2014-01-01

    We use spectral methods of automorphic forms to establish a holomorphic projection operator for tensor products of vector-valued harmonic weak Maass forms and vector-valued modular forms. We apply this operator to discover simple recursions for Fourier series coefficients of Ramanujan’s mock theta functions. PMID:24591582

  4. Auto power and coherence analysis of delta-theta band EEG during the waking-sleeping transition period.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, T; Hayashi, M; Hori, T

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the spatio-temporal variation of delta and theta band EEGs during the waking-sleeping transition period, auto power and coherence analyses of scalp EEGs were carried out on 12 male subjects. The 7 auto power and 21 coherence values obtained from the 7 areas were studied every 20 s from 5 min before stage 1 onset to 24 min after stage 1 onset. The consecutive samples of spectra were computed for two frequency bands (delta: 2.5-3.5 Hz; theta: 4.0-7.5 Hz). Auto power started to increase after stage 1 onset and terminated 8.4 min after stage 2 onset. Topograms of each band power changed with progression towards deep sleep from the flat or relatively low voltage pattern without any focus to the frontopolar-parietal pattern or the fronto-parietal dominant pattern. Principal component analysis of the coherence values revealed generalized and localized components in each band. The generalized component was distributed across scalp areas, while the localized component was distributed in frontopolar-frontal areas. The generalized component decreased to the plateau level of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep 5.4 min after stage 2 onset. The localized component started to increase after stage 1 onset and reached the plateau level of NREM sleep 2.4 min after stage 2 onset. These results indicate that the delta-theta band EEG structures of the waking-sleeping transition period may not be uniform across the scalp areas and the hypnagogic period may start after stage 1 onset and continue for 8.4 min after stage 2 onset.

  5. Transient global amnesia and left frontal haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Jacome, D. E.; Yanez, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    A patient developed spontaneous, acute, dominant frontal lobe haemorrhage neighbouring on a zone of pre-existing post-traumatic encephalomalacia manifesting clinically as transient global amnesia. Amnesia can be secondary to disease of the frontal lobe, affecting pathways interconnecting the basal forebrain and hippocampus of the temporal lobe. Images Figure 1 PMID:3174526

  6. Congenital midline cervical cleft: clinical approach to a congenital anterior neck defect.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Bedeschi, Maria Francesca; Cantarella, Giovanna; Colombo, Lorenzo; Agosti, Viola; Amodeo, Ilaria; Fumagalli, Monica; Mazzola, Isabella; Mosca, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    Numerous malformations can affect the anterior part of the neck presenting at birth as a real diagnostic challenge for the pediatrician or the primary care physician who initially evaluate the baby. Congenital midline cervical cleft represents a rare defect of the midline neck, which is sometimes wrongly diagnosed as a thyroglossal duct anomaly, dermoid cyst, branchial cleft anomaly or "birthmark". A prompt clinical diagnosis and surgical treatment during early infancy are essential to ensure both functional and aesthetic outcome. We report a case of a female neonate with a midline cervical cleft diagnosed immediately after birth. The main features of other congenital anomalies of the anterior neck are also discussed referring to their embryologic origin. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  7. Interneural and intervascular extension for increased exposure in midline vertical incisions.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, P

    1986-08-01

    In instances in which wide upper lateral abdominal exposure is required, standard midline incisions are occasionally inadequate. The typical invered "U" incision violates the nerve and blood supply to the abdominal wall. An interneural and intervascular incision which is used either as an extension of the midline incision or bilaterally as the primary incision is described herein. The interneural and intervascular extension begins at the costal margin and curves medially with severance of the full thickness abdominal wall to join the vertical midline incision. This extension raises a triangular flap of abdominal wall with a base on the costal cartilage and apex at the junction of the two incisions. In a series of seven patients, no interneural and intervascular incision resulted in wound hernia or delayed wound healing postoperatively. This approach provides superior lateral abdominal exposure and by paralleling nerve and vascular distribution, follows sound anatomic principles for minimizing pain and promoting subsequent wound healing.

  8. Oral findings in Midline Syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tallón-Walton, Victòria; Nieminen, Pekka; Arte, Sirpa; Ustrell-Torrent, Josep Maria; Carvalho-Lobato, Patricia; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina

    2010-07-01

    We describe a female patient with a midline syndrome. The patient presents agenesis of the corpus callosum, encephalocele, iris coloboma, hypertelorism, submucosal cleft palate and dental anomalies. Despite being very characteristic, her phenotypical traits do not coincide exactly with those reported to date in the literature. The karyotype and the molecular cytogenetic study do not show mutations. We identify the presence of dental anomalies in the mother and other family members, not being identified MSX1 and PAX9 mutations that could the related with their etiology. Despite the fact that dental agenesis has been related to a large number of other malformation syndromes and congenital conditions, dental anomalies have only rarely been mentioned when reporting midline syndromes. These dental phenotypical traits, present in the patient and her family, could be considered part of the midline syndrome in carriers as well as in the patients.

  9. FGF-dependent midline-derived progenitor cells in hypothalamic infundibular development.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Caroline Alayne; Ohyama, Kyoji; Manning, Liz; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Sang, Helen; Placzek, Marysia

    2011-06-01

    The infundibulum links the nervous and endocrine systems, serving as a crucial integrating centre for body homeostasis. Here we describe that the chick infundibulum derives from two subsets of anterior ventral midline cells. One set remains at the ventral midline and forms the posterior-ventral infundibulum. A second set migrates laterally, forming a collar around the midline. We show that collar cells are composed of Fgf3(+) SOX3(+) proliferating progenitors, the induction of which is SHH dependent, but the maintenance of which requires FGF signalling. Collar cells proliferate late into embryogenesis, can generate neurospheres that passage extensively, and differentiate to distinct fates, including hypothalamic neuronal fates and Fgf10(+) anterior-dorsal infundibular cells. Together, our study shows that a subset of anterior floor plate-like cells gives rise to Fgf3(+) SOX3(+) progenitor cells, demonstrates a dual origin of infundibular cells and reveals a crucial role for FGF signalling in governing extended infundibular growth.

  10. Axonal commissures in the central nervous system: how to cross the midline?

    PubMed

    Nawabi, Homaira; Castellani, Valérie

    2011-08-01

    Organisms with bilateral symmetry elaborate patterns of neuronal projections connecting both sides of the central nervous system at all levels of the neuraxis. During development, these so-called commissural projections navigate across the midline to innervate their contralateral targets. Commissural axon pathfinding has been extensively studied over the past years and turns out to be a highly complex process, implicating modulation of axon responsiveness to the various guidance cues that instruct axon trajectories towards, within and away from the midline. Understanding the molecular mechanisms allowing these switches of response to take place at the appropriate time and place is a major challenge for current research. Recent work characterized several instructive processes controlling the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of the guidance molecular machinery. These findings illustrate the molecular strategies by which commissural axons modulate their sensitivity to guidance cues during midline crossing and show that regulation at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels are crucial for commissural axon guidance.

  11. Intraoral midline mandibulotomy improves laryngeal access for transoral resection of laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Saini, Alok T; Parasher, Arjun K; Kass, Jason I; Altman, Kenneth W; Miles, Brett A

    2016-01-01

    Intraoral midline mandibulotomy is a technique that can be used to increase exposure for transoral endoscopic laser microsurgery (TLS). We describe the case of a 51 year old male with persistent T1 glottic carcinoma. At initial diagnosis, he had been referred for curative radiotherapy as laryngeal access was not sufficient for TLS. For treatment of his recurrence, we describe the technique of performing a midline mandibular osteotomy to improve access to the larynx allowing for safe and effective transoral endoscopic laser microsurgery. Surgical access to the larynx was greatly improved, and we were able to perform TLS in a case that would have otherwise not been amenable to TLS. An intraoral midline mandibulotomy can improve access to the larynx and allow for successful transoral resection of laryngeal cancer in patients with otherwise inaccessible tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Slow-Theta-to-Gamma Phase–Amplitude Coupling in Human Hippocampus Supports the Formation of New Episodic Memories

    PubMed Central

    Lega, Bradley; Burke, John; Jacobs, Joshua; Kahana, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Phase–amplitude coupling (PAC) has been proposed as a neural mechanism for coordinating information processing across brain regions. Here we sought to characterize PAC in the human hippocampus, and in temporal and frontal cortices, during the formation of new episodic memories. Intracranial recordings taken as 56 neurosurgical patients studied and recalled lists of words revealed significant hippocampal PAC, with slow-theta activity (2.5–5 Hz) modulating gamma band activity (34–130 Hz). Furthermore, a significant number of hippocampal electrodes exhibited greater PAC during successful than unsuccessful encoding, with the gamma activity at these sites coupled to the trough of the slow-theta oscillation. These same conditions facilitate LTP in animal models, providing a possible mechanism of action for this effect in human memory. Uniquely in the hippocampus, phase preference during item encoding exhibited a biphasic pattern. Overall, our findings help translate between the patterns identified during basic memory tasks in animals and those present during complex human memory encoding. We discuss the unique properties of human hippocampal PAC and how our findings relate to influential theories of information processing based on theta–gamma interactions. PMID:25316340

  13. Frontal information flow and connectivity in psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Joshi, Anand A; Joshi, Shantanu; Chang, Yu-Teng; Schug, Robert A; Wheland, David; Leahy, Richard; Narr, Katherine L

    2012-11-01

    Despite accumulating evidence of structural deficits in individuals with psychopathy, especially in frontal regions, our understanding of systems-level disturbances in cortical networks remains limited. We applied novel graph theory-based methods to assess information flow and connectivity based on cortical thickness measures in 55 individuals with psychopathy and 47 normal controls. Compared with controls, the psychopathy group showed significantly altered interregional connectivity patterns. Furthermore, bilateral superior frontal cortices in the frontal network were identified as information flow control hubs in the psychopathy group in contrast to bilateral inferior frontal and medial orbitofrontal cortices as network hubs of the controls. Frontal information flow and connectivity may have a significant role in the neuropathology of psychopathy.

  14. Multiple Notch signaling events control Drosophila CNS midline neurogenesis, gliogenesis and neuronal identity

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Scott R.; Stagg, Stephanie B.; Crews, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    The study of how transcriptional control and cell signaling influence neurons and glia to acquire their differentiated properties is fundamental to understanding CNS development and function. The Drosophila CNS midline cells are an excellent system for studying these issues because they consist of a small population of diverse cells with well-defined gene expression profiles. In this paper, the origins and differentiation of midline neurons and glia were analyzed. Midline precursor (MP) cells each divide once giving rise to two neurons; here, we use a combination of single-cell gene expression mapping and time-lapse imaging to identify individual MPs, their locations, movements and stereotyped patterns of division. The role of Notch signaling was investigated by analyzing 37 midline-expressed genes in Notch pathway mutant and misexpression embryos. Notch signaling had opposing functions: it inhibited neurogenesis in MP1,3,4 and promoted neurogenesis in MP5,6. Notch signaling also promoted midline glial and median neuroblast cell fate. This latter result suggests that the median neuroblast resembles brain neuroblasts that require Notch signaling, rather than nerve cord neuroblasts, the formation of which is inhibited by Notch signaling. Asymmetric MP daughter cell fates also depend on Notch signaling. One member of each pair of MP3–6 daughter cells was responsive to Notch signaling. By contrast, the other daughter cell asymmetrically acquired Numb, which inhibited Notch signaling, leading to a different fate choice. In summary, this paper describes the formation and division of MPs and multiple roles for Notch signaling in midline cell development, providing a foundation for comprehensive molecular analyses. PMID:18701546

  15. Cancer of unknown primary patients with midline nodal distribution: midway between poor and favourable prognosis?

    PubMed

    Pentheroudakis, George; Stoyianni, Aikaterini; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2011-04-01

    Midline nodal cancer of unknown primary (CUP) has varying definitions and an unclear natural history compared to that of extragonadal germ cell cancer (EGCC) and neuroendocrine tumors. We systematically reviewed all published series of patients with midline nodal CUP using three distinct definitions and presented our own retrospective cohort. Sixty four fit patients (median age 64) with poorly differentiated carcinoma or adenocarcinoma in midline nodal areas were treated from 1998 to 2008 at our center. Only two patients had elevated serum germ cell markers. Forty-eight percentage of patients responded to platinum-based chemotherapy (CR 11%). The median survival was 12 months (2-year survival 18%). Good PS (Hazard Ratio HR 0.287, p=0.058) and administration of platinum (HR 0.340, p=0.08) predicted for more favourable outcome. A subgroup of 15 male patients selected with stricter criteria had a CR rate of 33% and median survival of 18 months (2-year survival 24%). We identified 10 series of midline nodal CUP patients defined with discordant criteria. Despite high response rates (35-65%) to platinum chemotherapy, the median survival clustered around 12 months. Predictive factors for superior survival were low tumor bulk, patient fitness, female gender, carcinomatous histology, and absence of visceral metastases. There were differences between midline nodal CUP patients and EGCC as well as neuroendocrine tumors (age, tumor markers, response to therapy, long-term survival). Midline nodal CUP patients are poorly defined, fare less well than EGCC or neuroendocrine cancer and probably constitute a heterogeneous entity with a minority harbouring atypical germ cell cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hierarchical Organization of Gamma and Theta Oscillatory Dynamics in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kirihara, Kenji; Rissling, Anthony J.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Braff, David L.; Light, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia patients have deficits across a broad range of important cognitive and clinical domains. Synchronization of oscillations in the gamma frequency range (~40 Hz) is associated with many normal cognitive functions and underlies at least some of the deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that gamma oscillations are modulated by the phase of theta waves, and this cross-frequency coupling indicates that a complex and hierarchical organization governs neural oscillatory dynamics. The aims of the present study were to determine if schizophrenia patients have abnormalities in the amplitude, synchrony, and cross-frequency coupling of gamma and theta oscillations in response to gamma-frequency steady-state stimulation and if abnormal neural oscillatory dynamics are associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Methods Schizophrenia patients (n = 234) and healthy control subjects (n = 188) underwent EEG testing in response to 40-Hz auditory steady-state stimulation. Cognitive functions were assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced gamma intertrial phase coherence, increased theta amplitude, and intact cross-frequency coupling relative to healthy control subjects. In schizophrenia patients, increased theta amplitude was associated with poor verbal memory performance. Conclusions Results suggest that schizophrenia patients have specific alterations in both gamma and theta oscillations but these deficits occur in the context of an intact hierarchical organization of their cross-frequency modulation in response to 40 Hz steady-state stimulation. Cortical oscillatory dynamics may be useful for understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie the disparate cognitive and functional impairments of schizophrenia. PMID:22361076

  17. Hierarchical organization of gamma and theta oscillatory dynamics in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Kenji; Rissling, Anthony J; Swerdlow, Neal R; Braff, David L; Light, Gregory A

    2012-05-15

    Schizophrenia patients have deficits across a broad range of important cognitive and clinical domains. Synchronization of oscillations in the gamma frequency range (~40 Hz) is associated with many normal cognitive functions and underlies at least some of the deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that gamma oscillations are modulated by the phase of theta waves, and this cross-frequency coupling indicates that a complex and hierarchical organization governs neural oscillatory dynamics. The aims of the present study were to determine if schizophrenia patients have abnormalities in the amplitude, synchrony, and cross-frequency coupling of gamma and theta oscillations in response to gamma-frequency steady-state stimulation and if abnormal neural oscillatory dynamics are associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 234) and healthy control subjects (n = 188) underwent electroencephalography testing in response to 40-Hz auditory steady-state stimulation. Cognitive functions were assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced gamma intertrial phase coherence, increased theta amplitude, and intact cross-frequency coupling relative to healthy control subjects. In schizophrenia patients, increased theta amplitude was associated with poor verbal memory performance. Results suggest that schizophrenia patients have specific alterations in both gamma and theta oscillations, but these deficits occur in the context of an intact hierarchical organization of their cross-frequency modulation in response to 40-Hz steady-state stimulation. Cortical oscillatory dynamics may be useful for understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie the disparate cognitive and functional impairments of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypnosis decouples cognitive control from conflict monitoring processes of the frontal lobe.

    PubMed

    Egner, Tobias; Jamieson, Graham; Gruzelier, John

    2005-10-01

    Hypnosis can profoundly alter sensory awareness and cognitive processing. While the cognitive and behavioral phenomena associated with hypnosis have long been thought to relate to attentional processes, the neural mechanisms underlying susceptibility to hypnotic induction and the hypnotic condition are poorly understood. Here, we tested the proposal that highly hypnotizable individuals are particularly adept at focusing attention at baseline, but that their attentional control is compromised following hypnosis due to a decoupling between conflict monitoring and cognitive control processes of the frontal lobe. Employing event-related fMRI and EEG coherence measures, we compared conflict-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and control-related activity in the lateral frontal cortex (LFC) during Stroop task performance between participants of low and high hypnotic susceptibility, at baseline and after hypnotic induction. The fMRI data revealed that conflict-related ACC activity interacted with hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility, in that highly susceptible participants displayed increased conflict-related neural activity in the hypnosis condition compared to baseline, as well as with respect to subjects with low susceptibility. Cognitive-control-related LFC activity, on the other hand, did not differ between groups and conditions. These data were complemented by a decrease in functional connectivity (EEG gamma band coherence) between frontal midline and left lateral scalp sites in highly susceptible subjects after hypnosis. These results suggest that individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility are linked with the efficiency of the frontal attention system, and that the hypnotized condition is characterized by a functional dissociation of conflict monitoring and cognitive control processes.

  19. Intrinsic functional architecture of the macaque dorsal and ventral lateral frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Goulas, Alexandros; Stiers, Peter; Hutchison, R Matthew; Everling, Stefan; Petrides, Michael; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-03-01

    Investigations of the cellular and connectional organization of the lateral frontal cortex (LFC) of the macaque monkey provide indispensable knowledge for generating hypotheses about the human LFC. However, despite numerous investigations, there are still debates on the organization of this brain region. In vivo neuroimaging techniques such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to define the functional circuitry of brain areas, producing results largely consistent with gold-standard invasive tract-tracing techniques and offering the opportunity for cross-species comparisons within the same modality. Our results using resting-state fMRI from macaque monkeys to uncover the intrinsic functional architecture of the LFC corroborate previous findings and inform current debates. Specifically, within the dorsal LFC, we show that 1) the region along the midline and anterior to the superior arcuate sulcus is divided in two areas separated by the posterior supraprincipal dimple, 2) the cytoarchitectonically defined area 6DC/F2 contains two connectional divisions, and 3) a distinct area occupies the cortex around the spur of the arcuate sulcus, updating what was previously proposed to be the border between dorsal and ventral motor/premotor areas. Within the ventral LFC, the derived parcellation clearly suggests the presence of distinct areas: 1) an area with a somatomotor/orofacial connectional signature (putative area 44), 2) an area with an oculomotor connectional signature (putative frontal eye fields), and 3) premotor areas possibly hosting laryngeal and arm representations. Our results illustrate in detail the intrinsic functional architecture of the macaque LFC, thus providing valuable evidence for debates on its organization.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Resting-state functional MRI is used as a complementary method to invasive techniques to inform current debates on the organization of the macaque lateral frontal cortex. Given that the macaque

  20. Sternal bands for closure of midline sternotomy leads to better wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Susmit; Sau, Indrajit; Mohan, Man; Hazari, Kunal; Basu, Rajarshi; Kaul, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    Midline sternotomy is the most common incision for cardiac surgery, but problems of wound healing and sternal instability are still matters of concern. The use of stainless steel wires only was compared with the use of wires plus sternal bands for closure of midline sternotomy wounds in a 2-year period. Of 370 patients in whom only stainless steel wires were used, 14 (3.78%) required re-operation for dehiscence. Only 3 (0.76%) of 395 patients in whom sternal bands were also used, required re-operation for dehiscence. The difference was highly significant. It was concluded that use of sternal bands leads to a more stable union.

  1. Reduced Theta Connectivity during Set-Shifting in Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Doesburg, Sam M; Vidal, Julie; Taylor, Margot J

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a characterized by deficits in social cognition and executive function. An area of particular difficulty for children with ASD is cognitive flexibility, such as the ability to shift between attentional or response sets. The biological basis of such deficits remains poorly understood, although atypical development of structural and functional brain connectivity have been reported in ASD, suggesting that disruptions of normal patterns of inter-regional communication may contribute to cognitive problems in this group. The present magnetoencephalography study measured inter-regional phase synchronization while children with ASD and typically developing matched controls (6-14 years of age) performed a set-shifting task. Reduced theta-band phase synchronization was observed in children with ASD during extradimensional set-shifting. This reduction in task-dependent inter-regional connectivity encompassed numerous areas including multiple frontal lobe regions, and indicates that problems with communication among brain areas may contribute to difficulties with executive function in ASD.

  2. Interhemispheric Plasticity following Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Chronic Poststroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Griffis, Joseph C.; Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of noninvasive neurostimulation on brain structure and function in chronic poststroke aphasia are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to residual language-responsive cortex in chronic patients using functional and anatomical MRI data acquired before and after iTBS. Lateralization index (LI) analyses, along with comparisons of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation and connectivity during covert verb generation, were used to assess changes in cortical language function. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess effects on regional grey matter (GM). LI analyses revealed a leftward shift in IFG activity after treatment. While left IFG activation increased, right IFG activation decreased. Changes in right to left IFG connectivity during covert verb generation also decreased after iTBS. Behavioral correlations revealed a negative relationship between changes in right IFG activation and improvements in fluency. While anatomical analyses did not reveal statistically significant changes in grey matter volume, the fMRI results provide evidence for changes in right and left IFG function after iTBS. The negative relationship between post-iTBS changes in right IFG activity during covert verb generation and improvements in fluency suggests that iTBS applied to residual left-hemispheric language areas may reduce contralateral responses related to language production and facilitate recruitment of residual language areas after stroke. PMID:26881111

  3. Hippocampal theta (3-8Hz) activity during classical eyeblink conditioning in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nokia, Miriam S; Penttonen, Markku; Korhonen, Tapani; Wikgren, Jan

    2008-07-01

    In 1978, Berry and Thompson showed that the amount of theta (3-8Hz) activity in the spontaneous hippocampal EEG predicted learning rate in subsequent eyeblink conditioning in rabbits. More recently, the absence of theta activity during the training trial has been shown to have a detrimental effect on learning rate. Here, we aimed to further explore the relationship between theta activity and classical eyeblink conditioning by determining how the relative power of hippocampal theta activity [theta/(theta+delta) ratio] changes during both unpaired control and paired training phases. We found that animals with a higher hippocampal theta ratio immediately before conditioning learned faster and also that in these animals the theta ratio was higher throughout both experimental phases. In fact, while the hippocampal theta ratio remained stable in the fast learners as a function of training, it decreased in the slow learners already during unpaired training. In addition, the presence of hippocampal theta activity enhanced the hippocampal model of the conditioned response (CR) and seemed to be beneficial for CR performance in terms of peak latency during conditioning, but did not have any effect when the animals showed asymptotic learning. Together with earlier findings, these results imply that the behavioral state in which hippocampal theta activity is absent is detrimental for learning, and that the behavioral state in which hippocampal theta activity dominates is beneficial for learning, at least before a well-learned state is achieved.

  4. Modulation of Hippocampal Theta Oscillations and Spatial Memory by Relaxin-3 Neurons of the Nucleus Incertus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Sherie; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco E.; Hossain, M. Akhter; Lin, Feng; Kuei, Chester; Liu, Changlu; Wade, John D.; Sutton, Steven W.; Nunez, Angel; Gundlach, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal theta rhythm is thought to underlie learning and memory, and it is well established that "pacemaker" neurons in medial septum (MS) modulate theta activity. Recent studies in the rat demonstrated that brainstem-generated theta rhythm occurs through a multisynaptic pathway via the nucleus incertus (NI), which is the primary source of the…

  5. Modulation of Hippocampal Theta Oscillations and Spatial Memory by Relaxin-3 Neurons of the Nucleus Incertus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Sherie; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco E.; Hossain, M. Akhter; Lin, Feng; Kuei, Chester; Liu, Changlu; Wade, John D.; Sutton, Steven W.; Nunez, Angel; Gundlach, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal theta rhythm is thought to underlie learning and memory, and it is well established that "pacemaker" neurons in medial septum (MS) modulate theta activity. Recent studies in the rat demonstrated that brainstem-generated theta rhythm occurs through a multisynaptic pathway via the nucleus incertus (NI), which is the primary source of the…

  6. Resting posterior minus frontal EEG slow oscillations is associated with extraversion and DRD2 genotype.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Saskia; Wacker, Jan; Odorfer, Thorsten; Reif, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Herrmann, Martin J

    2011-07-01

    The agency facet of extraversion has been hypothesized to be based on individual differences in dopamine activity. Recent work suggests that resting posterior minus frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) slow oscillations (delta, theta) is both consistently associated with extraversion and sensitive to dopamine D2 receptor antagonist-induced changes in dopaminergic activity. Here we examine for the first time the interrelations between polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene (rs1800497 [previously termed TAQ1A], rs1076560, rs1799732 [-141C Ins/Del]), extraversion and resting posterior minus frontal (Pz-Fz) slow oscillations. As predicted, we found an association between DRD2 and resting Pz-Fz slow oscillations in a sample of 141 individuals participating in an eyes-closed resting EEG session. Moreover, we replicated the association between extraversion and Pz-Fz slow oscillations. Our findings strongly suggest that the posterior-frontal distribution of slow oscillations constitutes a useful brain-based intermediate phenotype for investigating the dopaminergic basis of extraversion.

  7. Spinal canal narrowing during simulated frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C; Panjabi, Manohar M; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Pearson, Adam M; Elena Gimenez, S; Maak, Travis G

    2006-06-01

    Between 23 and 70% of occupants involved in frontal impacts sustain cervical spine injuries, many with neurological involvement. It has been hypothesized that cervical spinal cord compression and injury may explain the variable neurological profile described by frontal impact victims. The goals of the present study, using a biofidelic whole cervical spine model with muscle force replication, were to quantify canal pinch diameter (CPD) narrowing during frontal impact and to evaluate the potential for cord compression. The biofidelic model and a sled apparatus were used to simulate frontal impacts at 4, 6, 8, and 10 g horizontal accelerations of the T1 vertebra. The CPD was measured in the intact specimen in the neutral posture (neutral posture CPD), under static sagittal pure moments of 1.5 Nm (pre-impact CPD), during dynamic frontal impact (dynamic impact CPD), and again under static pure moments following each impact (post-impact CPD). Frontal impact caused significant (P<0.05) dynamic CPD narrowing at C0-dens, C2-C3, and C6-C7. The narrowest dynamic CPD was observed at C0-dens during the 10 g impact and was 25.9% narrower than the corresponding neutral posture CPD. Interpretation of the present results indicate that the neurological symptomatology reported by frontal impact victims is most likely not due to cervical spinal cord compression. Cord compression due to residual spinal instability is also not likely.

  8. Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age…

  9. Effects of roundabout on growth cone dynamics, filopodial length, and growth cone morphology at the midline and throughout the neuropile.

    PubMed

    Murray, M J; Whitington, P M

    1999-09-15

    roundabout (robo) encodes an axon guidance receptor that controls midline crossing in the Drosophila CNS. In robo mutants, axons that normally project ipsilaterally can cross and recross the midline. Growth cones expressing Robo are believed to be repelled from the midline by the interaction of Robo and its ligand Slit, an extracellular protein expressed by the midline glia. To help understand the cellular basis for the midline repulsion mediated by Robo, we used time-lapse observations to compare the growth cone behavior of the ipsilaterally projecting motorneuron RP2 in robo and wild-type embyros. In wild-type embryos, filopodia can project across the midline but are quickly retracted. In robo mutants, medial filopodia can remain extended for longer periods and can develop into contralateral branches. In many cases RP2 produces both ipsilateral and contralateral branches, both of which can extend into the periphery. The growth cone also exhibits longer filopodia and more extensive branching both at the midline and throughout the neuropile. Cell injections in fixed stage 13 embryos confirmed and quantified these results for both RP2 and the interneuron pCC. The results suggest that Robo both repels growth cones at the midline and inhibits branching throughout the neuropile by promoting filopodial retraction.

  10. Midline Crossing: Developmental Trend from 3 to 10 Years of Age in a Preferential Card-Reaching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, M.; Doyen, A.-L.; Lamard, C.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed 110 left-handed and 322 right-handed children aged from 3 to 10 years, using Bishop's card-reaching task. Manual body midline crossings were observed. A regular developmental trend was observed from 3 to 10 years: older children crossed the body midline more frequently when reaching for cards than did younger children. The factor age…

  11. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  12. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  13. To Know or Not to Know? Theta and Delta Reflect Complementary Information about an Advanced Cue before Feedback in Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhaofeng; Peng, Xiaozhe; Yang, Tiantian; Li, Peng; Cong, Fengyu; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate brain activity during the reinforcement learning process in social contexts is a topic of increasing research interest. Previous studies have mainly focused on using electroencephalograms (EEGs) for feedback evaluation in reinforcement learning tasks by measuring event-related potentials. Few studies have investigated the time–frequency (TF) profiles of a cue that manifested whether a following feedback is available or not after decision-making. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the TF profiles of the cue interact with different agents to whom the feedback related. In this study we used the TF approach to test EEG oscillations of the cue stimuli in three agents (‘Self’, ‘Other’, and ‘Computer’) conditions separately. The results showed that the increased central-posterior delta power was elicited by the feedback unavailable cues more so than with the feedback available cue within 200–350 ms after the onset of the cue, but only in the self-condition. Moreover, a frontal-central theta oscillation had enhanced power when following the feedback unavailable cue as opposed to the feedback available cue across three agencies. These findings demonstrated that the cue for knowing an outcome produced reward prediction error-like signals, which were mirrored by the delta and theta oscillations during decision-making. More importantly, the present study demonstrated that the theta and delta oscillations reflected separable components of the advanced cue processing before the feedback in decision-making. PMID:27766090

  14. Defining the location of the dental midline is critical for oral esthetics in camouflage orthodontic treatment of facial asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Kai, Risako; Umeki, Daisuke; Sekiya, Toshiko; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2016-12-01

    When considering camouflage orthodontic treatment of a malocclusion associated with significant facial asymmetry, it is important to define the location of the dental midline. The patient, a 19-year-old Japanese woman, had an anterior open bite and a dental midline discrepancy associated with facial asymmetry. A nonsurgical treatment plan was considered. The main treatment objective was to correct the anterior open bite and the dental midlines in both arches. The dental midline discrepancy was eliminated, and proper overjet and overbite were achieved. Although the facial asymmetry remained, oral esthetics dramatically improved and a favorable occlusion was obtained. The results suggest that appropriately defining the location of the dental midline is critical for successful camouflage treatment of facial asymmetry. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Personality Functioning and the Cortical Midline Structures – An Exploratory fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Cornelius; Hinrichs, Jens; Bahmer, Judith; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent neuroscience studies explored the neuronal mechanisms underlying our sense of self. Thereby the cortical midline structures and their anterior and posterior regions have been shown to be central. What remains unclear though is how both, self and cortical midline structures, are related to the identity of the self which is of central importance in especially personality disorders. Methods Conducting an exploratory study with a dimensional approach, we here compared subjects with high and low level of personality functioning and identity integration as measured in a standardized way in fMRI during both, emotion- and reward-related tasks. Results Low levels of personality functioning and identity integration were predicted by significantly decreased degrees of deactivation in the anterior and posterior cortical midline structures. Conclusions Though exploratory our results show for the first time direct relationship between cortical midline structures and personality functioning in terms of identity integration. This does not only contribute to our understanding of the neuronal mechanism underlying self and identity but carries also major implications for the treatment of patients with personality disorders. PMID:23189175

  16. Maxillary Midline diastema closure after replacement of primary teeth with implant prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saqabi, Farah Y; Fenlon, Michael R; Bavisha, Kalpesh A

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message This case shows an excellent esthetic treatment outcome using implant-retained crowns replacing maxillary laterals and canines in hypodontia patient with unusual incidence of spontaneous diastema closure after the placement of implants. To our knowledge, this is the first case report showing maxillary midline diastema closure after implant placement. PMID:25984308

  17. Transient Relay Function of Midline Thalamic Nuclei during Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Takashima, Atsuko; Rutters, Femke; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that thalamic midline nuclei play a transient role in memory consolidation, we reanalyzed a prospective functional MRI study, contrasting recent and progressively more remote memory retrieval. We revealed a transient thalamic connectivity increase with the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and a…

  18. Two deltaC splice-variants have distinct signaling abilities during somitogenesis and midline patterning

    PubMed Central

    Mara, Andrew; Schroeder, Joshua; Holley, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Notch signaling is required for many developmental processes, yet differences in the signaling abilities of various Notch ligands are poorly understood. Here, we have isolated a splice variant of the zebrafish Notch ligand deltaC in which the inclusion of the last intron leads to a truncation of the C-terminal 39 amino acids (deltaCtv2). We show that, unlike deltaCtv1, deltaCtv2 cannot function effectively in somitogenesis but has an enhanced ability to signal during midline development. Additionally, over-expression of deltaCtv2 preferentially affects anterior midline development, while another Notch ligand, deltaD, shows a posterior bias. Using chimeric Deltas we show that the intracellular domain is responsible for the strength of signal in midline development, while the extracellular domain influences the anterior-posterior bias of the effect. Together our data show that different deltas can signal in biologically distinct ways in both midline formation and somitogenesis. Moreover, it illustrates the importance of cell-type-dependent modifiers of Notch signaling in providing ligand specificity. PMID:18430417

  19. Transient Relay Function of Midline Thalamic Nuclei during Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Takashima, Atsuko; Rutters, Femke; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that thalamic midline nuclei play a transient role in memory consolidation, we reanalyzed a prospective functional MRI study, contrasting recent and progressively more remote memory retrieval. We revealed a transient thalamic connectivity increase with the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and a…

  20. Cooperation or competition of the two hemispheres in processing characters presented at vertical midline.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Dittmer, Marie; Smigasiewicz, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how the hemispheres interact in processing of stimuli presented at vertical midline. Processing might be mutually independent or cooperative. Here we measured target identification and visually evoked EEG potentials while stimulus streams containing two targets, T1 and T2, were either presented at vertical midline above and below fixation, or laterally, left and right. With left and right streams, potentials evoked by filler stimuli and by T2 were earlier at the right than the left visual cortex, and T2 was better identified left than right, confirming earlier results and suggesting better capabilities of the right hemisphere in this task. With streams above and below fixation, EEG potentials evoked by filler stimuli and by T2 were likewise earlier at the right than the left hemisphere, and T2 was generally identified as well as, but not better than left T2, in one target constellation even worse (T2 in lower stream preceded by T1 in upper stream). These results suggest right-hemisphere preference for this task even with stimuli at vertical midline, and no added value through hemispheric cooperation. Lacking asymmetry for T1 amidst asymmetries for filler stimuli and for T2 might indicate alternating access of the hemispheres to midline stimuli as one means of hemispheric division of labor.

  1. Clinical and Imaging Features of a Congenital Midline Cervical Cleft in a Neonate: A Rare Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Goldfisher, Rachelle; Bawa, Pritish; Ibrahim, Zachary; Amodio, John

    2015-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare congenital anomaly. CMCC and its complications and treatment have been well described in ENT, dermatology, and pediatric surgery literature. However, to our knowledge, the imaging work-up has not been reported in the literature thus far. We present a case of CMCC in a neonate with description of clinical presentation and imaging features.

  2. Alpha-fetoprotein elevation in NUT midline carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Lorenzo; Palesandro, Erica; Moretti, Marina; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Alessandra; Carnevale Schianca, Fabrizio; Aglietta, Massimo; Grignani, Giovanni

    2017-04-13

    Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma is a rarely diagnosed and potentially under-recognized type of squamous carcinoma that is considered one of the most aggressive human solid tumors. Alpha-fetoprotein elevation has been associated with chronic liver diseases and a limited number of cancers. In particular, in presence of a mediastinal mass in a young man, alpha-fetoprotein elevation is considered nearly pathognomonic of a non-seminoma germ-cell tumor. A 22-year old man without any comorbidity was diagnosed with a large mediastinal mass with skeletal and lymph node metastases. The clinical picture was dominated by a life-threatening superior vena cava syndrome with elevated alpha-fetoprotein and lactate dehydrogenase that supported the diagnostic suspicion of mediastinal germ-cell tumor. However, a biopsy showed a poorly-differentiated and diffusely necrotic carcinoma. We eventually reached the diagnosis of the peculiar entity of NUT midline carcinoma, but the differential diagnosis was quite challenging also because alpha-fetoprotein is not reported as a marker of NUT midline carcinoma. Notably, alpha-fetoprotein levels correlated with disease course. The life-threatening aggressiveness of NUT midline carcinoma mandates to reach the right diagnosis in the shortest possible time. In this regard, poorly differentiated carcinomas lacking glandular differentiation mandate testing for NUT expression by immunohistochemistry. Awareness of a potentially misleading tumor marker elevation can help to broaden the differential diagnosis and establish the most appropriate treatment.

  3. Clinical and Imaging Features of a Congenital Midline Cervical Cleft in a Neonate: A Rare Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Bawa, Pritish; Ibrahim, Zachary; Amodio, John

    2015-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare congenital anomaly. CMCC and its complications and treatment have been well described in ENT, dermatology, and pediatric surgery literature. However, to our knowledge, the imaging work-up has not been reported in the literature thus far. We present a case of CMCC in a neonate with description of clinical presentation and imaging features. PMID:26078904

  4. FGF signaling is required for brain left-right asymmetry and brain midline formation.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Judith M; Yost, H Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Early disruption of FGF signaling alters left-right (LR) asymmetry throughout the embryo. Here we uncover a role for FGF signaling that specifically disrupts brain asymmetry, independent of normal lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) asymmetry. When FGF signaling is inhibited during mid-somitogenesis, asymmetrically expressed LPM markers southpaw and lefty2 are not affected. However, asymmetrically expressed brain markers lefty1 and cyclops become bilateral. We show that FGF signaling controls expression of six3b and six7, two transcription factors required for repression of asymmetric lefty1 in the brain. We found that Z0-1, atypical PKC (aPKC) and β-catenin protein distribution revealed a midline structure in the forebrain that is dependent on a balance of FGF signaling. Ectopic activation of FGF signaling leads to overexpression of six3b, loss of organized midline adherins junctions and bilateral loss of lefty1 expression. Reducing FGF signaling leads to a reduction in six3b and six7 expression, an increase in cell boundary formation in the brain midline, and bilateral expression of lefty1. Together, these results suggest a novel role for FGF signaling in the brain to control LR asymmetry, six transcription factor expressions, and a midline barrier structure.

  5. Endoscopic anatomic characterization of the frontal recess and its implications in frontal sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Bing, Zhou; Demin, Han; Huachao, Liu; Qian, Huang; Luo, Zhang; Ming, Liu; Yongjie, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the anatomic features of the frontal recess by transnasal endoscopy (nasoscope), to analyze its implications in endoscopic frontal sinus surgery and to discuss the issues that may be experienced during such operations. The patients included in this analysis were adults with chronic sinusitis or nasal polyp (n = 301, 562 sides) hospitalized in our hospital from August 1998 to April 2001. Chronic frontal sinusitis was confirmed in 280 cases (479 sides) by coronal and axial CT scan. Patients with a previous surgical history were excluded from the analysis. The surgical outcomes of these patients and CT imaging data were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The drainage pattern of the frontal sinus was identified based on CT scans preoperatively. Endoscopic frontal sinus surgery was performed in 250 cases (421 sides). The anatomic features of the frontal recess under nasoscope were classified into 2 types. The coronal CT results confirmed the position of the frontal sinus ostium between the uncinate process and the middle turbinate in 203 sides (48.2%) of all operated patients and the ostium was found to be located between the uncinate process and the lamina papyracea in 218 sides (51.8%). According to the location of the frontal sinus ostium, we grouped the anatomic features of the frontal recess into 2 types. Type I was documented in 203 sides (48.2%) and type II was seen in 218 sides (51.8%). The anatomic features of the frontal recess under nasoscope and their classification are very important and helpful for endoscopic frontal sinsus surgery. The upper part of the uncinate process is a dependable anatomic landmark for the localization of the frontal sinus ostium in CT scan and endoscopic frontal sinus surgery.

  6. Prestimulus theta in the human hippocampus predicts subsequent recognition but not recall.

    PubMed

    Merkow, Maxwell B; Burke, John F; Stein, Joel M; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Human theta (4-8 Hz) activity in the medial temporal lobe correlates with memory formation; however, the precise role that theta plays in the memory system remains elusive (Hanslmayr and Staudigl, ). Recently, prestimulus theta activity has been associated with successful memory formation, although its specific cognitive role remains unknown (e.g., Fell et al., 2011). In this report, we demonstrate that prestimulus theta in the hippocampus indexes encoding that supports old-new recognition memory but not recall. These findings suggest that human hippocampal prestimulus theta may preferentially participate in the encoding of item information, as opposed to associative information.

  7. Prestimulus theta in the human hippocampus predicts subsequent recognition but not recall

    PubMed Central

    Merkow, Maxwell B.; Burke, John F.; Stein, Joel M.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Human theta (4−8 Hz) activity in the medial temporal lobe correlates with memory formation; however, the precise role that theta plays in the memory system remains elusive (Hanslmayr and Staudigl, 2013). Recently, prestimulus theta activity has been associated with successful memory formation, although its specific cognitive role remains unknown (e.g. Fell et al., 2011). In this report, we demonstrate that prestimulus theta in the hippocampus indexes encoding that supports old–new recognition memory but not recall. These findings suggest that human hippocampal prestimulus theta may preferentially participate in the encoding of item information, as opposed to associative information. PMID:25074395

  8. Theta oscillations predict the detrimental effects of memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Staudigl, Tobias; Aslan, Alp; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz

    2010-09-01

    Retrieving a target item from episodic memory typically enhances later memory for the retrieved item but causes forgetting of competing irrelevant memories. This finding is termed retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) and is assumed to be the consequence of an inhibitory mechanism resolving retrieval competition. In the present study, we examined brain oscillatory processes related to RIF, as induced by competitive memory retrieval. Contrasting a competitive with a noncompetitive retrieval condition, we found a stronger increase in early evoked theta (4-7 Hz) activity, which specifically predicted RIF, but not retrieval-induced enhancement. Within the cognitive framework of RIF, these findings suggest that theta oscillations reflect arising interference and its resolution during competitive retrieval in episodic memory. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://cabn.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  9. A model code for the radiative theta pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Saw, S. H.; Lee, P. C. K.; Akel, M.; Damideh, V.; Khattak, N. A. D.; Mongkolnavin, R.; Paosawatyanyong, B.

    2014-07-15

    A model for the theta pinch is presented with three modelled phases of radial inward shock phase, reflected shock phase, and a final pinch phase. The governing equations for the phases are derived incorporating thermodynamics and radiation and radiation-coupled dynamics in the pinch phase. A code is written incorporating correction for the effects of transit delay of small disturbing speeds and the effects of plasma self-absorption on the radiation. Two model parameters are incorporated into the model, the coupling coefficient f between the primary loop current and the induced plasma current and the mass swept up factor f{sub m}. These values are taken from experiments carried out in the Chulalongkorn theta pinch.

  10. On a Quantization of the Classical theta-Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezhnev, Yurii V.

    2015-04-01

    The Jacobi theta-functions admit a definition through the autonomous differential equations (dynamical system); not only through the famous Fourier theta-series. We study this system in the framework of Hamiltonian dynamics and find corresponding Poisson brackets. Availability of these ingredients allows us to state the problem of a canonical quantization to these equations and disclose some important problems. In a particular case the problem is completely solvable in the sense that spectrum of the Hamiltonian can be found. The spectrum is continuous, has a band structure with infinite number of lacunae, and is determined by the Mathieu equation: the Schrödinger equation with a periodic cos-type potential.

  11. A model code for the radiative theta pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Saw, S. H.; Lee, P. C. K.; Akel, M.; Damideh, V.; Khattak, N. A. D.; Mongkolnavin, R.; Paosawatyanyong, B.

    2014-07-01

    A model for the theta pinch is presented with three modelled phases of radial inward shock phase, reflected shock phase, and a final pinch phase. The governing equations for the phases are derived incorporating thermodynamics and radiation and radiation-coupled dynamics in the pinch phase. A code is written incorporating correction for the effects of transit delay of small disturbing speeds and the effects of plasma self-absorption on the radiation. Two model parameters are incorporated into the model, the coupling coefficient f between the primary loop current and the induced plasma current and the mass swept up factor fm. These values are taken from experiments carried out in the Chulalongkorn theta pinch.

  12. SU-E-T-81: A Study On Correlation Between Gamma Analysis for Midline and Lateralized Tumors Using VMAT

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; Anjana

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the fluence for the midline and lateralized tumors for VMAT technique using 2D seven29 detector array combined with the Octavius phantom. Methods: 60 cases that are already being treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) have selected for this study. This includes tumors situated at the medial and lateral. Medial refers to the tumor situated at the midline of the body and lateral means toward the side or away from the midline of the body. Verification plans were created for each treatment plan in Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (version10, Varian medical systems, Palo Alto,CA) with the 2D Seven29 detector array and the Octavius phantom(PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Measurements were performed on a Varian Clinac 2100 iX, linear accelerator equipped with a millennium 120 leaf collimator. Analysis was done by comparing the fluence measured for the tumors situated on the midline and tumors situated laterally. Results: Fluence measured for all the delivered plans were analyzed using Verisoft software (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). The gamma pass percentage for midline tumors were found to be higher compared with the lateralized ones. The standard deviation between gamma values for midline and lateralized tumors is 2.18 and 3.5 respectively. Also the standard deviation between the point doses for midline and lateralized tumors is 0.38 and 0.29 respectively. The average gamma passing rate for midline tumors is 96.55% and for lateralized tumors are 94.94% for 3%DD and 3mm DTA criteria. From the T test, it was found that there is no significant difference between the gamma pass percentage between midline and lateralized tumors with p value of 0.28. Conclusion: There is no particular correlation found in the gamma pass criteria for midline and lateralized tumors.

  13. The Drosophila melanogaster T-box genes midline and H15 are conserved regulators of heart development.

    PubMed

    Miskolczi-McCallum, Cindy M; Scavetta, Rick J; Svendsen, Pia C; Soanes, Kelly H; Brook, William J

    2005-02-15

    The Drosophila melanogaster genes midline and H15 encode predicted T-box transcription factors homologous to vertebrate Tbx20 genes. All identified vertebrate Tbx20 genes are expressed in the embryonic heart and we find that both midline and H15 are expressed in the cardioblasts of the dorsal vessel, the insect organ equivalent to the vertebrate heart. The midline mRNA is first detected in dorsal mesoderm at embryonic stage 12 in the two progenitors per hemisegment that will divide to give rise to all six cardioblasts. Expression of H15 mRNA in the dorsal mesoderm is detected first in four to six cells per hemisegment at stage 13. The expression of midline and H15 in the dorsal vessel is dependent on Wingless signaling and the transcription factors tinman and pannier. We find that the selection of two midline-expressing cells from a pool of competent progenitors is dependent on Notch signaling. Embryos deleted for both midline and H15 have defects in the alignment of the cardioblasts and associated pericardial cells. Embryos null for midline have weaker and less penetrant phenotypes while embryos deficient for H15 have morphologically normal hearts, suggesting that the two genes are partially redundant in heart development. Despite the dorsal vessel defects, embryos mutant for both midline and H15 have normal numbers of cardioblasts, suggesting that cardiac cell fate specification is not disrupted. However, ectopic expression of midline in the dorsal mesoderm can lead to dramatic increases in the expression of cardiac markers, suggesting that midline and H15 participate in cardiac fate specification and may normally act redundantly with other cardiogenic factors. Conservation of Tbx20 expression and function in cardiac development lends further support for a common ancestral origin of the insect dorsal vessel and the vertebrate heart.

  14. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the possibility that the hippocampus performs the function of alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature, using unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits. The results indicate that the hippocampal theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hyppocampal neuron which is, in turn, connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  15. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the possibility that the hippocampus performs the function of alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature, using unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits. The results indicate that the hippocampal theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hyppocampal neuron which is, in turn, connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  16. Theta Coordinated Error-Driven Learning in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Ketz, Nicholas; Morkonda, Srinimisha G.; O'Reilly, Randall C.

    2013-01-01

    The learning mechanism in the hippocampus has almost universally been assumed to be Hebbian in nature, where individual neurons in an engram join together with synaptic weight increases to support facilitated recall of memories later. However, it is also widely known that Hebbian learning mechanisms impose significant capacity constraints, and are generally less computationally powerful than learning mechanisms that take advantage of error signals. We show that the differential phase relationships of hippocampal subfields within the overall theta rhythm enable a powerful form of error-driven learning, which results in significantly greater capacity, as shown in computer simulations. In one phase of the theta cycle, the bidirectional connectivity between CA1 and entorhinal cortex can be trained in an error-driven fashion to learn to effectively encode the cortical inputs in a compact and sparse form over CA1. In a subsequent portion of the theta cycle, the system attempts to recall an existing memory, via the pathway from entorhinal cortex to CA3 and CA1. Finally the full theta cycle completes when a strong target encoding representation of the current input is imposed onto the CA1 via direct projections from entorhinal cortex. The difference between this target encoding and the attempted recall of the same representation on CA1 constitutes an error signal that can drive the learning of CA3 to CA1 synapses. This CA3 to CA1 pathway is critical for enabling full reinstatement of recalled hippocampal memories out in cortex. Taken together, these new learning dynamics enable a much more robust, high-capacity model of hippocampal learning than was available previously under the classical Hebbian model. PMID:23762019

  17. Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation affects brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dan Cao; Yingjie Li; Ling Wei; Yingying Tang

    2016-08-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in the emotional processing as well as in the functional brain network. Hyperactivity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would be found in anxious participants. However, it is still unclear what the role of PFC played in a resting functional network. Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) is an effective tool to create virtual lesions on brain regions. In this paper, we applied cTBS over right prefrontal area, and investigated the effects of cTBS on the brain activity for functional connectivity by the method of graph theory. We recorded 64-channels EEG on thirteen healthy participants in the resting condition and emotional tasks before and after 40 s of cTBS. This work focused on the effect of cTBS on cortical activities in the resting condition by calculating the coherence between EEG channels and building functional networks before and after cTBS in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. Results revealed that 1) The functional connectivity after cTBS was significantly increased compared with that before cTBS in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands in the resting condition; 2) The efficiency-cost reached the maximum before and after cTBS both with the cost about 0.3 in the bands above, which meant that the information transmission of functional brain network with this cost was highly efficient; 3) the clustering coefficient and path length after cTBS was significantly increased in delta, theta and beta bands. In conclusion, cTBS over PFC indeed enhanced the functional connectivity in the resting condition. In addition, the information transmission in the resting brain network was highly efficient with the cost about 0.3.

  18. Cold iron cos THETA magnet option for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, P.

    1985-01-01

    We review first the evolution over the past several years of a cold iron, high field cos THETA magnet design option for the SSC. We note the collaborative approach pursued by BNL and LBL on the 2-in-1 option, and the culmination of this effort in the tests of the BNL 4.5 m model magnets. Next, we discuss the subsequent 1-in-1 option being pursued jointly by BNL, Fermilab and LBL.

  19. The role of REM sleep theta activity in emotional memory

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Isabel C.; Rathore, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    While non-REM (NREM) sleep has been strongly implicated in the reactivation and consolidation of memory traces, the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep remains unclear. A growing body of research on humans and animals provide behavioral evidence for a role of REM sleep in the strengthening and modulation of emotional memories. Theta activity—which describes low frequency oscillations in the local field potential within the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex—is a prominent feature of both wake and REM sleep in humans and rodents. Theta coherence between the hippocampus and amygdala drives large-scale pontine-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, the density of which predicts increases in plasticity-related gene expression. This could potentially facilitate the processing of emotional memory traces within the hippocampus during REM sleep. Further, the timing of hippocampal activity in relation to theta phase is vital in determining subsequent potentiation of neuronal activity. This could allow the emotionally modulated strengthening of novel and gradual weakening of consolidated hippocampal memory traces during REM sleep. Hippocampal theta activity is also correlated with REM sleep levels of achetylcholine - which is thought to reduce hippocampal inputs in the neocortex. The additional low levels of noradrenaline during REM sleep, which facilitate feedback within the neocortex, could allow the integration of novel memory traces previously consolidated during NREM sleep. We therefore propose that REM sleep mediates the prioritized processing of emotional memories within the hippocampus, the integration of previously consolidated memory traces within the neocortex, as well as the disengagement of consolidated neocortical memory traces from the hippocampus. PMID:26483709

  20. The role of REM sleep theta activity in emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Isabel C; Rathore, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    While non-REM (NREM) sleep has been strongly implicated in the reactivation and consolidation of memory traces, the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep remains unclear. A growing body of research on humans and animals provide behavioral evidence for a role of REM sleep in the strengthening and modulation of emotional memories. Theta activity-which describes low frequency oscillations in the local field potential within the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex-is a prominent feature of both wake and REM sleep in humans and rodents. Theta coherence between the hippocampus and amygdala drives large-scale pontine-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, the density of which predicts increases in plasticity-related gene expression. This could potentially facilitate the processing of emotional memory traces within the hippocampus during REM sleep. Further, the timing of hippocampal activity in relation to theta phase is vital in determining subsequent potentiation of neuronal activity. This could allow the emotionally modulated strengthening of novel and gradual weakening of consolidated hippocampal memory traces during REM sleep. Hippocampal theta activity is also correlated with REM sleep levels of achetylcholine - which is thought to reduce hippocampal inputs in the neocortex. The additional low levels of noradrenaline during REM sleep, which facilitate feedback within the neocortex, could allow the integration of novel memory traces previously consolidated during NREM sleep. We therefore propose that REM sleep mediates the prioritized processing of emotional memories within the hippocampus, the integration of previously consolidated memory traces within the neocortex, as well as the disengagement of consolidated neocortical memory traces from the hippocampus.

  1. Laminar profile of spontaneous and evoked theta: Rhythmic modulation of cortical processing during word integration.

    PubMed

    Halgren, Eric; Kaestner, Erik; Marinkovic, Ksenija; Cash, Sydney S; Wang, Chunmao; Schomer, Donald L; Madsen, Joseph R; Ulbert, Istvan

    2015-09-01

    Theta may play a central role during language understanding and other extended cognitive processing, providing an envelope for widespread integration of participating cortical areas. We used linear microelectrode arrays in epileptics to define the circuits generating theta in inferotemporal, perirhinal, entorhinal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In all locations, theta was generated by excitatory current sinks in middle layers which receive predominantly feedforward inputs, alternating with sinks in superficial layers which receive mainly feedback/associative inputs. Baseline and event-related theta were generated by indistinguishable laminar profiles of transmembrane currents and unit-firing. Word presentation could reset theta phase, permitting theta to contribute to late event-related potentials, even when theta power decreases relative to baseline. Limited recordings during sentence reading are consistent with rhythmic theta activity entrained by a given word modulating the neural background for the following word. These findings show that theta occurs spontaneously, and can be momentarily suppressed, reset and synchronized by words. Theta represents an alternation between feedforward/divergent and associative/convergent processing modes that may temporally organize sustained processing and optimize the timing of memory formation. We suggest that words are initially encoded via a ventral feedforward stream which is lexicosemantic in the anteroventral temporal lobe; its arrival may trigger a widespread theta rhythm which integrates the word within a larger context.

  2. A Modified Theta Projection Model for Creep Behavior of Metals and Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish; Singh, I. V.; Mishra, B. K.; Ahmad, S.; Venugopal Rao, A.; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a modified theta projection model is proposed for the constitutive modeling of creep behavior of metals and alloys. In the conventional theta projection model, strain hardening exponent is a function of time and theta, whereas in the modified theta projection model, the exponent is taken as a function of time, theta, and applied stress. The results obtained by the modified theta projection model for Al 2124 T851 alloy at constant uniaxial tensile stress are compared with the experimental results and with the predictions of the conventional theta projection method. The creep behavior of Al 7075 T651 alloy is also predicted using modified and conventional theta projection model and compared with the available experimental data. It is observed that the modified theta projection model captures the creep behavior more accurately as compared to the conventional theta projection model. The modified theta projection model can be used to predict the creep strain of pure metals and class M alloys (similar creep behavior to pure metals) for intermediate range of stress and temperature.

  3. Sparing a Craniotomy: The Role of Intraoperative Methylene Blue in Management of Midline Dermoid Cysts.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Alannah L; Jones, Christine M; Ceschini, Ashley S; Henry, Cathy R; Mackay, Donald R; Samson, Thomas D

    2017-06-01

    Midline nasal dermoid cysts are rare congenital anomalies that extend intracranially in approximately 10 percent of cases. Cysts with intracranial extension require a craniotomy to avoid long-term complications, including meningitis, abscesses, and cavernous sinus thrombosis. Current guidelines recommend preoperative imaging with either magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography to determine appropriate management. Patients who underwent excision of a midline nasal dermoid cyst between January 1995 and September 2016 were identified using Current Procedural Terminology codes. In cases with equivocal imaging findings or uncertain stalk extent during surgical dissection, methylene blue was used intraoperatively. Demographics, preoperative imaging findings, intraoperative dye findings, surgical approach, and complications were collected. A total of 66 midline dermoid cyst excisions were identified; 17 (25.8 percent) had intracranial extension requiring craniotomy. Preoperative imaging showed a subcutaneous cyst in 41 (62.1 percent), intraosseous tracking in three (4.5 percent), and intracranial extension in 15 (22.7 percent). Twelve patients (18.2 percent) had preoperative imaging that was inconsistent with intraoperative findings. Methylene blue was used in 17 cases and indigo carmine was used in one case. Intraoperative dye findings changed management in five cases, and in three cases a craniotomy was avoided without evidence of cyst recurrence. This report is the largest published series of midline dermoid cysts with intracranial extension. In almost 20 percent of cases, preoperative imaging was not consistent with intraoperative findings. Given disparate radiographic and intraoperative findings, methylene blue is a valuable tool that can facilitate appropriate, morbidity-sparing management of midline dermoid cysts. Therapeutic, IV.

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Tension Reduction at the Midline Closure During Abdominal Component Separation.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ahmed M; Hartmann, Emily; Talaat, Ahmed; Alfotooh, Ashraf Abo; Omar, Omar S; Mareei, Sayed; Sanchez, Ruston; Kempton, Steve J

    2017-05-01

    Abdominal component separation is used commonly for closure of midline abdominal wounds. The value of each step in reducing tension has not been studied. Our aim was to test whether component separation decreases tension in the midline closure and to quantify the value of each procedural step. Tension required to bring the rectus muscle to midline was measured using tensiometry after subcutaneous dissection (step 1), external oblique muscle release (step 2), separation of the internal and external oblique muscles (step 3), and internal oblique muscle release (step 4). Measurements were taken in the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the abdominal midline. Distance to midline was also measured after each surgical step. Tension (measured as percent change) and distance were analyzed using Student's t-test with significance set at p < 0.05. In 41 hemi-abdominal defects, tension decreased in middle, upper, and lower thirds of the abdomen by 22.5%, 24.3%, and 34.8% after step 1; 33.4%, 31.8%, and 39.8% after step 2; 26.5%, 22.2%, and 27.4% after step 3; and 33.2%, 28.2%, and 23.5% after step 4. Mean distance change was 0.97 cm, 1.97 cm, 2.22 cm, and 2.59 cm after steps 1 to 4, respectively. This study shows through a quantitative measure of tension that all steps of the component separation procedure decrease wound tension to variable degrees, with the release of the external and internal oblique muscles being the more effective steps. An internal oblique release is a useful and simple adjunct to the classical component separation procedure. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel classification scheme for advanced laryngeal cancer midline involvement: implications for the contralateral neck.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Arne; Olze, Heidi; Thieme, Nadine; Stromberger, Carmen; Sander, Steffen; Münscher, Adrian; Bier, Johannes; Knopke, Steffen

    2017-08-01

    There are insufficient data concerning risk factors for contralateral regional metastases in laryngeal cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and risk factors for contralateral lymph node metastases and their dependence on midline involvement of the primary tumor in patients with advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. 58 consecutive patients (8 females, 50 males; mean age 64.2 ± 9.8 years; AJCC stage III disease in 43.1%, IVA disease in 54.4%) undergoing primary total laryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection between 2002 and 2016 have been retrospectively investigated at one of the largest university medical centers in Europe. Preoperative staging computed tomography (CT) scans were analyzed for midline involvement of the primary laryngeal cancer. As a result, a classification scheme has been established (type A: clear, type B: involved, type C: exceeded, and type D: bilateral/origin side indeterminable). Contralateral lymph node metastases (pN2c necks) were found in six cases (10.3%), from which four were diagnosed with type D (23.5% of type D cases), and one each with type B and type C midline involvement. In cases with no midline involvement (type A), a risk ratio reduction of 100% was seen. CT-based midline typing resulted in fourfold increased sensitivity for predicting contralateral metastases compared to conventional staging. Positive nodal status (pN+) significantly reduced overall and disease-free survival (HR 2.706, p < 0.05). As a consequence, for type A category, a contralateral neck dissection might be avoidable accompanied by a reduction in surgical complications and operating time.

  6. The forensic importance of frontal sinus radiographs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Caputo, Isamara Geandra Cavalcanti; Devito, Karina Lopes; Botelho, Tessa de Luscena; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The identification of unidentified human remains through the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs has found wide acceptance in recent years. Reported here is the forensic case of an unidentified adult male who had died as the result of a traffic accident, after which the body was identified by matching images of ante- and postmortem radiographs of the frontal sinus. A general discussion on identification using frontal sinus radiographs is presented, highlighting the reliability of this method, in reference to the uniqueness of the frontal sinus in humans. However, it also notes a few difficulties, especially in reference to the X-ray technique in cases where antemortem radiographs are available and a potentially larger number of anatomical, pathological or traumatic features are present. The comparison of frontal sinus outlines is recommended when it may become necessary to provide quantitative substantiation for forensic identification based on these structures.

  7. Frontal sinus recognition for human identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falguera, Juan Rogelio; Falguera, Fernanda Pereira Sartori; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu

    2008-03-01

    Many methods based on biometrics such as fingerprint, face, iris, and retina have been proposed for person identification. However, for deceased individuals, such biometric measurements are not available. In such cases, parts of the human skeleton can be used for identification, such as dental records, thorax, vertebrae, shoulder, and frontal sinus. It has been established in prior investigations that the radiographic pattern of frontal sinus is highly variable and unique for every individual. This has stimulated the proposition of measurements of the frontal sinus pattern, obtained from x-ray films, for skeletal identification. This paper presents a frontal sinus recognition method for human identification based on Image Foresting Transform and shape context. Experimental results (ERR = 5,82%) have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  9. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: a review.

    PubMed

    Mubarik, Ateeq; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-01-01

    To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. This was a qualitative review of the literature. Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood. When schizophrenia is studied as an essential topic in the field of neuropsychiatry, neuroscientists find that the frontal lobe is the most commonly involved area of the human brain. A clear picture of how this lobe is affected in schizophrenia is still lacking. We therefore recommend that further research be conducted to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of this psychiatric dilemma.

  10. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  11. Theta Series, Wall-Crossing and Quantum Dilogarithm Identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Pioline, Boris

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by mathematical structures which arise in string vacua and gauge theories with N=2 supersymmetry, we study the properties of certain generalized theta series which appear as Fourier coefficients of functions on a twisted torus. In Calabi-Yau string vacua, such theta series encode instanton corrections from k Neveu-Schwarz five-branes. The theta series are determined by vector-valued wave-functions, and in this work we obtain the transformation of these wave-functions induced by Kontsevich-Soibelman symplectomorphisms. This effectively provides a quantum version of these transformations, where the quantization parameter is inversely proportional to the five-brane charge k. Consistency with wall-crossing implies a new five-term relation for Faddeev's quantum dilogarithm {Φ_b} at b = 1, which we prove. By allowing the torus to be non-commutative, we obtain a more general five-term relation valid for arbitrary b and k, which may be relevant for the physics of five-branes at finite chemical potential for angular momentum.

  12. Impaired theta-gamma coupling in APP-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhong, Wewei; Brankačk, Jurij; Weyer, Sascha W.; Müller, Ulrike C.; Tort, Adriano B. L.; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is critically involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, but its physiological functions remain elusive. Importantly, APP knockout (APP-KO) mice exhibit cognitive deficits, suggesting that APP plays a role at the neuronal network level. To investigate this possibility, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the posterior parietal cortex, dorsal hippocampus and lateral prefrontal cortex of freely moving APP-KO mice. Spectral analyses showed that network oscillations within the theta- and gamma-frequency bands were not different between APP-KO and wild-type mice. Surprisingly, however, while gamma amplitude coupled to theta phase in all recorded regions of wild-type animals, in APP-KO mice theta-gamma coupling was strongly diminished in recordings from the parietal cortex and hippocampus, but not in LFPs recorded from the prefrontal cortex. Thus, lack of APP reduces oscillatory coupling in LFP recordings from specific brain regions, despite not affecting the amplitude of the oscillations. Together, our findings reveal reduced cross-frequency coupling as a functional marker of APP deficiency at the network level. PMID:26905287

  13. New Perspectives on Southern Ocean Frontal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The frontal structure of the Southern Ocean is investigated using a the Wavelet/Higher Order Statistics Enhancement (WHOSE) frontal detection method, introduced in Chapman (2014). This methodology is applied to 21 years of daily gridded sea-surface height (SSH) data to obtain daily maps of the locations of the fronts. By forming frontal occurrence frequency maps and then approximating these occurrence-maps by a superposition of simple functions, the time-mean locations of the fronts, as well as a measure of their capacity to meander, are obtained and related to the frontal locations found by previous studies. The spatial and temporal variability of the frontal structure is then considered. The number of fronts is found to be highly variable throughout the Southern Ocean, increasing (`splitting') downstream of large bathymetric features and decreasing (`merging') in regions where the fronts are tightly controlled by the underlying topography. In contrast, frontal meandering remains relatively constant. Contrary to many previous studies, little no southward migration of the fronts over the 1993-2014 time period is found, and there is only weak sensitivity to atmospheric forcing related to SAM or ENSO. Finally, the implications of splitting and merging for the flux of tracers will be discussed.

  14. Reduplicative paramnesia after a right frontal lesion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Koomi; Shinbo, Michiko; Kanai, Hinako; Nagumo, Yumi

    2011-03-01

    To report a case of reduplicative paramnesia after a focal lesion localized in the right frontal subcortical region. It is suggested that a right frontal subcortical lesion alone may be sufficient to cause cognitive disturbance that can develop into reduplicative paramnesia. Clinical data have been scarce. We describe the clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroradiologic findings of a 69-year-old man with reduplicative paramnesia after a right frontal subcortical lesion. Observation and neuropsychological study showed visuospatial impairment, visual-dominant memory disturbance, anosognosia for cognitive disturbance, and mild frontal dysfunction with paranoid personality. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study showed a lesion localized in the right inferior posterior frontal subcortical area, and we could define 5 neural pathways involved with the lesion. We supposed that 4 of these were potentially related to reduplicative paramnesia: the medial inferior component of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and the fronto-occipital fasciculus, which are related to visuospatial processing; the anterior thalamic radiation, which is concerned with memory processes; and the uncinate fasciculus, which may be related to abnormal feelings of hyperfamiliarity. A localized lesion in the right inferior posterior frontal subcortical area can cause cognitive dysfunction that may develop into reduplicative paramnesia. Paranoid personality and the change of the patient's hospital room might have triggered the reduplicative delusion in this case.

  15. Beyond the sniffer: frontal sinuses in Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Abigail A; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2014-11-01

    Paranasal sinuses are some of the most poorly understood features of mammalian cranial anatomy. They are highly variable in presence and form among species, but their function is not well understood. The best-supported explanations for the function of sinuses is that they opportunistically fill mechanically unnecessary space, but that in some cases, sinuses in combination with the configuration of the frontal bone may improve skull performance by increasing skull strength and dissipating stresses more evenly. We used CT technology to investigate patterns in frontal sinus size and shape disparity among three families of carnivores: Canidae, Felidae, and Hyaenidae. We provide some of the first quantitative data on sinus morphology for these three families, and employ a novel method to quantify the relationship between three-dimensional sinus shape and skull shape. As expected, frontal sinus size and shape were more strongly correlated with frontal bone size and shape than with the morphology of the skull as a whole. However, sinus morphology was also related to allometric differences among families that are linked to biomechanical function. Our results support the hypothesis that frontal sinuses most often opportunistically fill space that is mechanically unnecessary, and they can facilitate cranial shape changes that reduce stress during feeding. Moreover, we suggest that the ability to form frontal sinuses allows species to modify skull function without compromising the performance of more functionally constrained regions such as the nasal chamber (heat/water conservation, olfaction), and braincase (housing the brain and sensory structures).

  16. Mind the movement: Frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral motivation, bilateral frontal activation for behavior.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Müller, Mathias; Mühlberger, Andreas; Hewig, Johannes

    2017-06-15

    Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown. Wacker and colleagues formulated a theory related to the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory by Gray & McNaughton. Here, relative left frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral activation system and behavior, while relative right frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral inhibition system, representing the experience of conflict. These theories were investigated with a newly developed paradigm where participants were able to move around freely in a virtual T maze via joystick while having their EEG recorded. Analyzing the influence of frontal brain activation during this virtual reality task on observable behavior for 30 participants, we found more relative left frontal brain activation during approach behavior and more relative right brain activation for withdrawal behavior of any kind. Additionally, there was more bilateral frontal brain activation when participants were engaged in behavior compared to doing nothing. Hence, this study provides evidence for the idea that frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral approach or avoidance motivation, and bilateral frontal activation stands for behavior. Additionally, observable behavior is not only determined by frontal asymmetry, but also by relevant traits. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Genome-wide association study of theta band event-related oscillations identifies serotonin receptor gene HTR7 influencing risk of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Zlojutro, Mark; Manz, Niklas; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Xuei, Xiaoling; Flury-Wetherill, Leah; Koller, Daniel; Bierut, Laura J; Goate, Alison; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John; Rice, John P; Schuckit, Marc A; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Porjesz, Bernice; Almasy, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Event-related brain oscillations (EROs) represent highly heritable neuroelectrical correlates of human perception and cognitive performance that exhibit marked deficits in patients with various psychiatric disorders. We report the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of an ERO endophenotype-frontal theta ERO evoked by visual oddball targets during P300 response in 1,064 unrelated individuals drawn from a study of alcohol dependence. Forty-two SNPs of the Illumina HumanHap 1 M microarray were selected from the theta ERO GWAS for replication in family-based samples (N = 1,095), with four markers revealing nominally significant association. The most significant marker from the two-stage study is rs4907240 located within ARID protein 5A gene (ARID5A) on chromosome 2q11 (unadjusted, Fisher's combined P = 3.68 × 10⁻⁶). However, the most intriguing association to emerge is with rs7916403 in serotonin receptor gene HTR7 on chromosome 10q23 (combined P = 1.53 × 10⁻⁴), implicating the serotonergic system in the neurophysiological underpinnings of theta EROs. Moreover, promising SNPs were tested for association with diagnoses of alcohol dependence (DSM-IV), revealing a significant relationship with the HTR7 polymorphism among GWAS case-controls (P = 0.008). Significant recessive genetic effects were also detected for alcohol dependence in both case-control and family-based samples (P = 0.031 and 0.042, respectively), with the HTR7 risk allele corresponding to theta ERO reductions among homozygotes. These results suggest a role of the serotonergic system in the biological basis of alcohol dependence and underscore the utility of analyzing brain oscillations as a powerful approach to understanding complex genetic psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Comparison of numerical techniques for the evaluation of the Doppler broadening functions psi(x,theta) and chi(x,theta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, R. B., Jr.; Semler, T. T.

    1972-01-01

    Several approximations to the Doppler broadening functions psi(x, theta) and chi(x, theta) are compared with respect to accuracy and speed of evaluation. A technique, due to A. M. Turning (1943), is shown to be at least as accurate as direct numerical quadrature and somewhat faster than Gaussian quadrature. FORTRAN 4 listings are included.

  19. Msxb is a core component of the genetic circuitry specifying the dorsal and ventral neurogenic midlines in the ascidian embryo.

    PubMed

    Roure, Agnès; Darras, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The tail ascidian larval peripheral nervous system is made up of epidermal sensory neurons distributed more or less regularly in ventral and dorsal midlines. Their formation occurs in two-steps: the ventral and dorsal midlines are induced as neurogenic territories by Fgf9/16/20 and Admp respectively. The Delta2/Notch interaction then controls the number of neurons that form. The genetic machinery acting between the inductive processes taking place before gastrulation and neuron specification at tailbud stages are largely unknown. The analysis of seven transcription factors expressed in the forming midlines revealed an unexpected complexity and dynamic of gene expression. Their systematic overexpression confirmed that these genes do not interact following a linear cascade of activation. However, the integration of our data revealed the distinct key roles of the two upstream factors Msxb and Nkx-C that are the earliest expressed genes and the only ones able to induce neurogenic midline and ESN formation. Our data suggest that Msxb would be the primary midline gene integrating inputs from the ventral and dorsal inducers and launching a pan-midline transcriptional program. Nkx-C would be involved in tail tip specification, in maintenance of the pan-midline network and in a posterior to anterior wave controlling differentiation.

  20. Irregular Speech Rate Dissociates Auditory Cortical Entrainment, Evoked Responses, and Frontal Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Stephanie J.; Ince, Robin A.A.; Gross, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The entrainment of slow rhythmic auditory cortical activity to the temporal regularities in speech is considered to be a central mechanism underlying auditory perception. Previous work has shown that entrainment is reduced when the quality of the acoustic input is degraded, but has also linked rhythmic activity at similar time scales to the encoding of temporal expectations. To understand these bottom-up and top-down contributions to rhythmic entrainment, we manipulated the temporal predictive structure of speech by parametrically altering the distribution of pauses between syllables or words, thereby rendering the local speech rate irregular while preserving intelligibility and the envelope fluctuations of the acoustic signal. Recording EEG activity in human participants, we found that this manipulation did not alter neural processes reflecting the encoding of individual sound transients, such as evoked potentials. However, the manipulation significantly reduced the fidelity of auditory delta (but not theta) band entrainment to the speech envelope. It also reduced left frontal alpha power and this alpha reduction was predictive of the reduced delta entrainment across participants. Our results show that rhythmic auditory entrainment in delta and theta bands reflect functionally distinct processes. Furthermore, they reveal that delta entrainment is under top-down control and likely reflects prefrontal processes that are sensitive to acoustical regularities rather than the bottom-up encoding of acoustic features. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The entrainment of rhythmic auditory cortical activity to the speech envelope is considered to be critical for hearing. Previous work has proposed divergent views in which entrainment reflects either early evoked responses related to sound encoding or high-level processes related to expectation or cognitive selection. Using a manipulation of speech rate, we dissociated auditory entrainment at different time scales. Specifically, our

  1. Irregular Speech Rate Dissociates Auditory Cortical Entrainment, Evoked Responses, and Frontal Alpha.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Stephanie J; Ince, Robin A A; Gross, Joachim; Kayser, Christoph

    2015-11-04

    The entrainment of slow rhythmic auditory cortical activity to the temporal regularities in speech is considered to be a central mechanism underlying auditory perception. Previous work has shown that entrainment is reduced when the quality of the acoustic input is degraded, but has also linked rhythmic activity at similar time scales to the encoding of temporal expectations. To understand these bottom-up and top-down contributions to rhythmic entrainment, we manipulated the temporal predictive structure of speech by parametrically altering the distribution of pauses between syllables or words, thereby rendering the local speech rate irregular while preserving intelligibility and the envelope fluctuations of the acoustic signal. Recording EEG activity in human participants, we found that this manipulation did not alter neural processes reflecting the encoding of individual sound transients, such as evoked potentials. However, the manipulation significantly reduced the fidelity of auditory delta (but not theta) band entrainment to the speech envelope. It also reduced left frontal alpha power and this alpha reduction was predictive of the reduced delta entrainment across participants. Our results show that rhythmic auditory entrainment in delta and theta bands reflect functionally distinct processes. Furthermore, they reveal that delta entrainment is under top-down control and likely reflects prefrontal processes that are sensitive to acoustical regularities rather than the bottom-up encoding of acoustic features. The entrainment of rhythmic auditory cortical activity to the speech envelope is considered to be critical for hearing. Previous work has proposed divergent views in which entrainment reflects either early evoked responses related to sound encoding or high-level processes related to expectation or cognitive selection. Using a manipulation of speech rate, we dissociated auditory entrainment at different time scales. Specifically, our results suggest that

  2. Open reduction internal fixation for midline mandibulotomy: lag screws vs plates.

    PubMed

    Danan, Deepa; Mukherjee, Sugoto; Jameson, Mark J; Shonka, David C

    2014-12-01

    Midline mandibulotomy is a common approach for resection of head and neck oral cavity and oropharyngeal tumors; however, there are limited data available on the outcomes of lag screw vs plate fixation. To compare outcomes for midline mandibulotomy open reduction and internal fixation using plates vs lag screw technique. Retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care academic medical center of patients undergoing midline mandibulotomy for head and neck tumor resection over a 6-year period. Mandibular fixation using lag screws or plates. The medical records and computed tomographic (CT) scans of patients undergoing midline mandibulotomy for head and neck tumor resection over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. The postoperative CT scans were reviewed by a neuroradiologist who graded the fusion site on a scale of 0 to 2 using a 2-pass method. The rates and grades of union were compared, as well as several factors that affect healing, for fixations performed with plates vs lag screws. Thirty-seven patients were included. The overall rate of radiologic union was 90% (9 out of 10) for lag screw technique and 41% (11 out of 27) for plates (P = .01). The average grade of radiologic union was 1.3 for lag screws and 0.67 for plates (P = .04). Hardware exposure occurred in 4 (15%) of the plate group and fistulae formed in 3 (11%); neither complication occurred in the lag screw group. In univariate analysis, both presence of dentition (odds ratio [OR], 5.50 [95% CI, 1.33-22.73]; P = .02) and plate technique (OR, 13.09 [95% CI, 1.45-11.62]; P = .02) were significantly associated with nonunion. In multivariate analysis, plate technique had an OR of 8.32 (95% CI, 0.85-81.75) for nonunion (P = .07). Fixation of midline mandibulotomy with lag screws results in a significantly increased rate of radiologic union compared with plates. Lag screws were also significantly better at achieving radiologic union in patients who underwent postoperative radiation

  3. Midline Extraperitoneal Approach to Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection in Testicular Cancer: Minimizing Surgical Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Syan-Bhanvadia, Sumeet; Bazargani, Soroush T; Clifford, Thomas G; Cai, Jie; Miranda, Gus; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2017-03-18

    Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is an important component of the management of testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) but carries significant surgical morbidity. To describe our experience with a midline extraperitoneal (EP) approach to RPLND for seminomatous and nonseminomatous GCT. From 2010 to 2015, 122 consecutive patients underwent RPLND from a prospective database. Patients requiring aortic resection or retrocrural dissection or with intraperitoneal disease were excluded. The remaining 69 patients underwent midline EP-RPLND. Open midline EP-RPLND was performed using a standardized technique. Perioperative and long-term outcomes were analyzed. Complications were graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification. A descriptive analysis using SAS software was performed. A total of 68 patients underwent midline EP-RPLND successfully (98.6%). The median age was 28 yr (range 17-55). On preoperative imaging the size of the retroperitoneal mass or lymphadenopathy was <2cm in 29 patients, 2-4.9cm in 15 patients, and >5cm in 24 patients, of which 19 were >10cm. The median estimated blood loss was 325ml (interquartile range [IQR] 200-612.5). The median number of lymph nodes resected was 36 (IQR 24.5-49); the median number of positive nodes was one (IQR 0-4). The median time for return of bowel function was 2 d (IQR 1-2) and hospital stay 3 d (IQR 3-4). There were no cases of ileus. Eleven patients had 12 (17.6%) 90-d complications. Of these, six (55%) were Clavien grade 1, five (45%) were grade 2, and one was grade 3b (1.5%). Antegrade ejaculation rates were 91.6% in the primary group and 96.8% in the post-chemotherapy group. Midline EP-RPLND can be performed safely without compromising the completeness of the resection. This approach is associated with rapid return of bowel function, minimal rates of ileus, and short hospital stay. A midline extraperitoneal approach for retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in testicular cancer is safe and effective and leads to

  4. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2014-05-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions.

  5. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Ranta, Marin E.; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L.; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. (2009) in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. PMID:23897577

  6. Radioactive 2-DG incorporation patterns in the mesial frontal cortex of task-performing monkeys.

    PubMed

    Matsunami, K; Kawashima, T

    1995-11-01

    The pattern of radioactive 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake in the rostral mesial cortex was investigated in seven hemispheres of four task-performing monkeys (a delayed-response task performed with a forelimb). A two-dimensional 2-DG map was constructed from frontal sections. Blob-like 2-DG incorporation sites (2-DG active sites) were observed in single frontal sections, e.g., in the anterior cingulate gyrus (CiG) and supplementary and primary motor cortices in the mesial surface, and around the superior precentral sulcus in the premotor area. Blob-like 2-DG incorporation sites were also observed in the medial part of the dorsal frontal cortex near the midline. However, most of these blob-like 2-DG active sites were revealed in fact not to be blobs. They formed rostrocaudally continuous streaks when they were constructed in a two-dimensional map. Streaks fused with one another in some areas, and gave off branches in other areas. These 2-DG uptake patterns were similar between the paired left and right hemispheres of three brains. It is highly probable that these 2-DG active streaks (or blobs) reflected neuronal activity related to somatomotor and/or eye movements, because the 2-DG-labeled areas included motor, premotor, supplementary motor, and possibly part of the supplementary eye fields. It is also probable that this 2-DG incorporation was related to cognitive or memory functions, because neuronal activity related to performance of a delayed-response was reported in the rostral mesial cortex and in the CiG.

  7. Midline brain-in-brain malformation associated with bilateral perirolandic cortical abnormalities: an image review of this rare disorder.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Antonio José; Santana, Pedro José; Maia, Antonio Carlos Martins

    2012-12-01

    A midline brain-in-brain malformation was recently reported, but appropriate classification of this malformation remains uncertain. We describe a child with a complex brain malformation that was not restricted to the midline structures, enlarging the neuroanatomical spectrum of this pseudotumoral midline dysplasia associated with corpus callosum dysgenesis, azygos anterior cerebral artery, absent septum pellucidum and bilateral perirolandic cortical abnormalities. The spectrum of fusion of the cerebral hemispheres and associated brain hemispherical abnormalities is not completely understood. Our data are in line with previous arguments that this malformation could be an additional variant in the spectrum of holoprosencephaly.

  8. A network centred on the inferior frontal cortex is critically involved in levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Cerasa, Antonio; Koch, Giacomo; Donzuso, Giulia; Mangone, Graziella; Morelli, Maurizio; Brusa, Livia; Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Ponzo, Viviana; Picazio, Silvia; Passamonti, Luca; Salsone, Maria; Augimeri, Antonio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Quattrone, Aldo

    2015-02-01

    -induced dyskinesias. This abnormal pattern of connectivity was evident only during the ON phase of levodopa treatment and the degree of such alteration correlated with motor disability. The repetitive TMS experiments showed that a session of continuous but not intermittent or sham theta burst stimulation applied over the inferior frontal cortex was able to reduce the amount of dyskinesias induced by a supramaximal single dose of levodopa, suggesting that this area may play a key role in controlling the development of dyskinesias. Our combined resting state functional magnetic resonance and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies demonstrate that pathophysiological mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesias may extend beyond the 'classical' basal ganglia dysfunctions model, including the modulation performed by the neural network centred on the inferior frontal cortex.

  9. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    PubMed

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  10. Metamemory for faces following frontal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Jasmeet K; Kaszniak, Alfred W; Rapcsak, Steven Z

    2005-10-01

    Previous research has provided evidence of metamemory impairments in patients with frontal lobe damage on verbal episodic memory tasks. In the present study, we employed metamemory paradigms to investigate whether patients with frontal lesions show monitoring deficits on semantic memory tasks involving facial stimuli. Patients with frontal lobe damage and healthy control subjects made memory decisions to famous faces in a retrospective confidence judgment task and in a prospective feeling-of-knowing (FOK) task. Results indicated that frontal patients performed worse than controls on the retrospective confidence task, but there were no differences between the groups on the FOK task. These findings suggest that metamemory deficits in frontal patients are not confined to specific stimulus domains (words vs. faces) or memory systems (episodic vs. semantic). In addition, the dissociation between retrospective confidence judgments and FOK accuracy documented in this study and also in a recent report by Schnyer et al. suggesting that metamemory should not be considered a unitary function with a single neuroanatomic substrate.

  11. Music shifts frontal EEG in depressed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Field, T; Martinez, A; Nawrocki, T; Pickens, J; Fox, N A; Schanberg, S

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have found that positive affect is associated with greater relative left frontal EEG activation and negative affect is associated with greater relative right frontal EEG activation. Further, chronically depressed adults typically display stable right frontal EEG activation. The present study investigated the effects of music on mood state and right frontal EEG activation associated with chronic depression. Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. These adolescents were compared with a control sample of chronically depressed female adolescents who were simply asked to sit and relax their minds and their muscles for the same time period. EEG was recorded during baseline, music, and postmusic for three minutes each, and saliva samples were collected before and after the session to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone (cortisol) levels. No group differences or changes were noted for observed or reported mood state. However, cortisol levels decreased and relative right frontal activation was significantly attenuated during and after the music procedure. It was concluded that music had positive effects on the physiological and biochemical measures even though observed and self-reported mood did not change.

  12. [Frontal dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vera-Cuesta, H; Vera-Acosta, H; Alvarez-González, L