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Sample records for frozen beef burger

  1. Consumer's evaluation of the effects of gamma irradiation and natural antioxidants on general acceptance of frozen beef burger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, R. A.; Lima, A.; Andrade-Wartha, E. R.; Oliveira e Silva, A. M.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of addition of rosemary and oregano extracts on the sensory quality of irradiated beef burger was investigated. Batches of beef burgers were prepared with 400 ppm of rosemary or oregano extract and a group prepared with 200 ppm of synthetic butyl-hydroxytoluene (BHT)/butyl-hydroxy-anisol (BHA) was used as a control. Half of each formulation was irradiated at the maximum dose allowed for frozen meat (7 kGy). Samples were kept under frozen conditions (-20 °C) during the whole storage period, including during irradiation. Two analyses were performed after 20 and 90 days to verify the influence of the addition of the different types of antioxidants and the effect of irradiation and storage time on the acceptance of the product. Thirty-three and thirty-four untrained panelists were invited to participate in the first and second test, respectively. A structured hedonic scale ranging from 1 to 9 points was used in both analyses. BHT/BHA formulation obtained the highest score (6.73) and regarding the natural antioxidants, oregano received better acceptance (6.36). Irradiated samples formulated with oregano received a lower score, 6.03 in the first test and 5.06 in the second one, compared to the non-irradiated sample (6.36 and 5.79). In the second test (90 days), the sample formulated with BHT/BHA and which was irradiated received a higher score (6.59) when compared to the non-irradiated one (5.85). In both tests, the irradiated samples formulated with rosemary extract obtained a better score compared to the non-irradiated one, the scores being 5.00-3.82 and 5.00-3.76 in the first and second test, respectively. Our results allowed us to conclude that the natural antioxidants, rosemary and oregano extracts, present a good alternative for replacing synthetic additives in food industries, and that the irradiation process, in some cases, may help to enhance the sensory quality of food.

  2. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers.

  3. A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…

  4. Use of quantitative microbial risk assessment when investigating foodborne illness outbreaks: the example of a monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:- outbreak implicating beef burgers.

    PubMed

    Guillier, Laurent; Danan, Corinne; Bergis, Hélène; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Granier, Sophie; Rudelle, Sylvie; Beaufort, Annie; Brisabois, Anne

    2013-09-16

    A major community outbreak of salmonellosis occurred in France in October 2010. Classical epidemiological investigations led to the identification of beef burgers as the cause of the outbreak and the presence of the emerging monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:-. The objective of this study was to understand the events that led to this large outbreak, that is to say, what are the contributing factors associated with consumer exposure to Salmonella. To this end, intensive microbiological investigations on several beef burgers were conducted and a risk assessment model was built. The microbiological results confirm the presence of Salmonella in all analysed frozen burgers at high levels of contamination above 1000 MPN/g. These results in frozen burgers combined with a model of thermal destruction were used to estimate the dose ingested by the exposed persons. Most people that consumed cooked beef burgers were exposed from 1.6 to 3.1 log₁₀ (MPN). The number of sick people predicted with a dose-response relationship for Salmonella is consistent with the observed number of salmonellosis cases. The very high initial contamination level in frozen beef burgers is the primary cause of this large outbreak rather than bad cooking practices. Intensive investigations, modelling of the initial contamination and quantitative exposure and risk assessments are complementary to epidemiological investigation. They can be valuable elements for the assessment of missing information or the identification of the primary causes of outbreaks.

  5. Potentials of gum from Detarium microcarpum (DM) and Mucuna flagellipes (MF) seeds as raw beef burger stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Onweluzo, J C; Obanu, Z A; Okwandu, M C

    2004-01-01

    Raw beef burgers containing graded levels (0.25, 0.5, 0.75. and 1.0%) of polysaccharide gums extracted from Detarium microcarpum (DM) and Mucuna flagellipes (MF) were produced. Unstabilized beef burgers and beef burgers containing gum tragacanth (TR) were also produced simultaneously to serve as control. The raw beef burgers were evaluated for selected physicochemical and sensory properties so as to assess the stabilization potentials of DM and MF polysaccharide gums relative to the conventional TR. Beef burgers containing the polysaccharide gums had significantly (P < 0.05) lower shrinkage, higher water holding capacity (WHC), and better stability under ambient conditions (27 +/- 1 degrees C and RH 90.6%) then the unstabilized burgers. Among the stabilized burgers, DM gum burgers had lower (P < or = 0.05) shrinkage and higher WHC than MF and TR gums burgers. All the gum-stabilized beef burgers required 9-26% higher compression force indicating a less friable product than the unstabilized burgers. At 0.25 and 0.5% levels of gum incorporation DM gum burgers had comparable compression force with TR gum burgers and this was lower (P < or = 0.05) than the compression force of MF gum burgers. Sensory panel results indicated a lower score for finger feel in gum-stablized burgers than the unstabilized burgers. DM and TR gum burgers had comparable scores with TR gum burgers in all the sensory attributes tested. Overall acceptability score showed that all the gum-stabilized beef burgers were acceptable. It was evident from the study that polysaccharide gums from DM and MF seeds can serve as effective stabilizers in beef burgers without adverse effect on the quality of the product.

  6. Tetraplex PCR assay involving double gene-sites discriminates beef and buffalo in Malaysian meat curry and burger products.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, S M Azad; Asing; Nizar, Nina Naquiah Ahmad; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Ali, Lokman; Asaduzzaman, Md; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque

    2017-06-01

    Replacement of beef by buffalo and vice versa is frequent in global markets, but their authentication is challenging in processed foods due to the fragmentation of most biomarkers including DNA. The shortening of target sequences through use of two target sites might ameliorate assay reliability because it is highly unlikely that both targets will be lost during food processing. For the first time, we report a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting two different DNA regions in beef (106 and 120-bp) and buffalo (90 and 138-bp) mitochondrial genes to discriminate beef and buffalo in processed foods. All targets were stable under boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking conditions. A survey in Malaysian markets revealed 71% beef curries contained buffalo but there was no buffalo in beef burgers. The assay detected down to 0.01ng DNA and 1% meat in admixed and burger products.

  7. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage.

    PubMed

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-11-06

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life.

  8. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424

  9. Myoglobin as marker in meat adulteration: a UPLC method for determining the presence of pork meat in raw beef burger.

    PubMed

    Giaretta, Nicola; Di Giuseppe, Antonella M A; Lippert, Martina; Parente, Augusto; Di Maro, Antimo

    2013-12-01

    The identification of meat animal species used in raw burgers is very important with respect to economic and religious considerations. Therefore, international supervisory bodies have implemented procedures to control the employed meat species. In this paper we propose myoglobin as a powerful molecular marker to evaluate the presence of non-declared meat addition in raw beef burgers by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) for the separation and identification of edible animal species (beef, chicken, horse, ostrich, pig and water buffalo). Meat samples were pre-treated with sodium nitrite to transform oxymyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin to the more stable metmyoglobin. The developed method was validated, preparing mixtures with different percentages of pork and beef minced meat. The obtained results show that using myoglobin as marker, 5% (25 mg/500 mg) of pork or beef meat can be detected in premixed minced meat samples.

  10. A national survey of the microbiological quality of beef carcasses and frozen boneless beef in Australia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David; Jordan, David; Morris, Stephen; Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John

    2006-05-01

    The third national baseline microbiological survey of Australian beef carcasses and frozen boneless beef was conducted in 2004. Carcasses (n=1155) sampled at 27 slaughter establishments had a mean aerobic plate count (at 25 degrees C) of 1.3 log CFU/cm2. Escherichia coli was isolated from 8.0% of the cacasses, with a mean count of -0.8 log CFU/cm2 for positive samples. On samples from 24 boning (fabrication) plants (n=1082), the mean aerobic plate count for frozen boneless beef was 1.3 log CFU/g, and the mean count for the 1.8% of samples with detectable E. coli was 1.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157: H7 was isolated from 1 of 1,143 carcasses and from 0 of 1082 boneless samples. Salmonella was isolated from 0 of 1155 carcasses and from 1 of 1082 samples of boneless product. No Campylobacter spp. were isolated from carcasses or boneless beef. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 28.7% of beef carcasses and 20.3% of boneless beef samples, and positive samples had a mean count of 0.3 log CFU/cm2 and 0.8 log CFU/g, respectively.

  11. An Australian national survey of the microbiological quality of frozen boneless beef and beef primal cuts.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David; Bridger, Kathryn; Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John

    2012-10-01

    The fourth national baseline microbiological survey of Australian beef was conducted in 2011, including frozen boneless beef and, for the first time, samples from selected beef primal cuts. Cartons of frozen boneless beef (n = 1,165) sampled at 29 boning (fabrication) plants were found to have a mean total viable count of 2.2 log CFU/g, and the mean count for the 2.1% of samples with detectable Escherichia coli was 1.3 log CFU/g. The mean total viable counts for striploins (longissimus dorsi, n = 572) and outsides (biceps femoris, n = 572) were 1.3 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) respectively. E. coli isolates were obtained from 10.7 and 25.2% of striploins and outsides, respectively, with mean counts of -0.5 and -0.3 log CFU/cm(2) on positive samples. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacter were not isolated from any primal cut samples, and Salmonella was not isolated from any of the boneless product (E. coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter were not tested for). Listeria spp. were not detected in any of the boneless product, and one Listeria isolate was obtained on 1 (0.2%) of 572 striploin samples. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 3.4% of boneless beef samples, 7.7% of beef striploins, and 8.4% of beef outsides, with positive samples having mean log counts of 1.9 CFU/g, 0.2 CFU/cm(2), and 0.2 CFU/cm(2), respectively.

  12. Characteristics of restructured beef steak with different proportions of walnut during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2006-01-01

    Physicochemical (thawing loss, cooking loss, surface shrinkage, texture, colour and lipid oxidation) and sensory properties of restructured beef steak with different levels of added walnut (0%, 10% and 20%) were determined at various times during frozen storage up to 128 days. Cooking loss (CL), Kramer shear force (KSF) and binding strength (BS) of restructured beef decreased (P<0.05) as the proportion of walnut increased. Walnut enhanced (P<0.05) lightness and yellowness and reduced (P<0.05) redness. Frozen storage did not affect (P>0.05) CL, KSF and BS of restructured beef steak. Redness decreased (P<0.05) over storage for all samples. Lipid oxidation of restructured beef steak containing walnut was not a limiting factor for frozen stability of meat products. Frozen storage had no effect (P>0.05) on the sensory quality of restructured beef steak.

  13. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers.

  14. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-02-01

    Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies.

  15. Radiation Resistance of Asporogenous Bacteria in Frozen Beef

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    temperature was indicated as -300 C the range was +100 C. The temperature was monitored by means of a thermocouple and 2 appropriate recorder. When vacuum ... packaging was employed, sealing was at 125 mm mercury pressure. ,, Isolation procedure - Samples of ground beef were packaged in flexible polyethylene

  16. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    PubMed

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability.

  17. Temperature of frozen storage affects the nature and consequences of protein oxidation in beef patties.

    PubMed

    Utrera, Mariana; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2014-03-01

    The effect of three frozen storage temperatures (-8, -18 and -80 °C) on protein oxidation in beef patties was studied through the analysis of novel oxidation markers. Additionally, the connection between lipid and protein oxidation and the impact of the latter on particular quality traits (water holding capacity, color and texture) of subsequently processed beef patties (cooking/cold-stored) were investigated. Protein oxidation was measured as the loss of tryptophan fluorescence and formation of diverse lysine oxidation products (α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, α-aminoadipic acid and Schiff bases). Lipid oxidation was assessed by levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hexanal. A significant effect of storage temperature on protein oxidation was detected. Frozen storage increased the susceptibility of meat proteins to undergo further oxidation during processing. Timely interactions were found between lipid and protein oxidation. Plausible mechanisms by which oxidative damage to proteins may have an impact in particular quality traits are thoroughly discussed.

  18. Investigation of the Effects of Inulin and β-Glucan on the Physical and Sensory Properties of Low-Fat Beef Burgers Containing Vegetable Oils: Optimisation of the Formulation Using D-Optimal Mixture Design

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Roya; Khaksar, Ramin; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Amiri, Zohre; Komeili, Rozita; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study, the D-optimal mixture design methodology was applied to determine the optimised proportions of inulin, β-glucan and breadcrumbs in formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing pre-emulsified canola and olive oil blend. Also, the effect of each of the ingredients individually as well as their interactions on cooking characteristics, texture, colour and sensory properties of low-fat beef burgers were investigated. The results of this study revealed that the increase of inulin content in the formulations of burgers led to lower cooking yield, moisture retention and increased lightness, overall acceptability, mouldability and desired textural parameters. In contrast, incorporation of β-glucan increased the cooking yield, moisture retention and decreased lightness, overall acceptability, mouldability and desired textural parameters of burger patties. The interaction between inulin and β-glucan improved the cooking characteristics of the burgers without significantly negative effect on the colour or sensory properties. The results of the study clearly stated that the optimum mixture for the burger formulation consisted of (in g per 100 g): inulin 3.1, β-glucan 2.2 and breadcrumbs 2.7. The texture parameters and cooking characteristics were improved by using the mixture of inulin, β-glucan and breadcrumbs, without any negative effects on the sensory properties of the burgers. PMID:27904378

  19. Effects of soy hull pectin and insoluble fiber on physicochemical and oxidative characteristics of fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Miller, Danika K; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pectin and insoluble fiber isolated from soy hulls on water-holding capacity (WHC), texture, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. Beef patties were formulated with no dietary fiber (control), 1% soy hull pectin, insoluble fiber, or their mixture (1:1), respectively. The addition of soy hull pectin significantly decreased display weight loss and increased cook yield of both fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. In addition, no significant difference in hardness between fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties was observed for all dietary fiber treatments. However, incorporation of insoluble soy hull fiber decreased color and lipid oxidation stabilities of both fresh and frozen/thawed beef patties. Our results indicate that the incorporation of soy hull pectin could be an effective non-meat ingredient to minimize water loss and hardness defects of frozen beef patties.

  20. Protein oxidation during frozen storage and subsequent processing of different beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Utrera, Mariana; Parra, Vita; Estévez, Mario

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between protein and lipid oxidation and the impairment of the water holding capacity (WHC), redness and instrumental hardness occurring during 20 weeks of frozen storage (-18 °C) and subsequent processing (cooking, chilled storage) of psoas major, quadriceps femoris and longissimus dorsi beef patties. Patties were analyzed at sampling times upon thawing (weeks 0, 4, 8, 12 and 20) for lipid (TBARS, hexanal) and protein oxidation products (α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes, α-aminoadipic acid, Schiff bases). A significant impact of frozen storage on protein oxidation was found, which occurred concomitantly with a loss of WHC, redness and significant changes in the hardness of cooked patties. Heme-iron, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and to a lower extent, fatty acid composition, played a role in the oxidative stability of patties. Plausible mechanisms by which particular protein oxidation changes may lead to loss of WHC and impaired quality traits were discussed.

  1. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef. PMID:26761797

  2. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef.

  3. Oxidative damage to poultry, pork, and beef during frozen storage through the analysis of novel protein oxidation markers.

    PubMed

    Utrera, Mariana; Estévez, Mario

    2013-08-21

    The susceptibility of meats from different animal species (beef quadriceps femoris, porcine longissimus dorsi, and chicken pectoralis major) to undergo protein oxidation during frozen storage (20 weeks/-18 °C) was studied through the analysis of novel oxidation markers. Frozen storage induced protein carbonylation (α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes), carboxylation (α-aminoadipic acid), and formation of Schiff bases in meat from the three species. Major rates of protein and lipid oxidation products [thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and hexanal] were found in beef patties. Among the endogenous factors having a potential influence on the susceptibility of meat to undergo protein oxidation, heme iron seemed to play a major role. The present study illustrates the severe chemical modifications induced by oxidative stress during frozen storage of ground meat and provides original insight into the underlying mechanisms and factors.

  4. Quality Characteristics of Beef by Different Cooking Methods for Frozen Home Meal Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In-Guk; Yoo, Seon-Mi; Min, Sang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    Blanching beef for use in home meal replacements (HMR) is an important process that determines the final quality of the beef after the cooking process. Thermal pretreatment also minimizes the change in quality during the main cooking process or storage. In this study, beef samples were washed and sliced, then treated by immersion in boiling water (1-10 min), steaming (1-10 min), or pan-frying in oil (30-240 s). The color after each thermal treatment showed higher L* and b* values and lower a* values compared with the raw beef, except for the pan-frying thermal treatment. The total color difference (∆E) and pH value were significantly increased by panfrying (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the shear force of the beef samples, except for the sample pan-fried for 210 s. The nutritional content of beef was measured as the moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents, which were 69.96, 16.64, 3.49, and 1.13%, respectively, in raw beef. After thermal treatment, the crude protein and fat contents were increased, whereas the moisture and ash contents decreased. The mineral content, including Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca was highest after pan-frying. The heat treatment decreased microorganisms in all the samples. The total bacteria count in raw beef was 4.5-4.7 Log CFU/g, whereas the bacteria count decreased to 2.2-2.8 Log CFU/g after blanching. Thermophilic bacteria, coliform, mold, and yeast not detected in any thermally treated sample. PMID:26761864

  5. Frozen storage stability of beef patties incorporated with extracts from ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus).

    PubMed

    Reihani, S F S; Tan, Thuan-Chew; Huda, Nurul; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-07-15

    In Malaysia, fresh ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus) are eaten raw with rice. In this study, beef patties incorporated with extracts of ulam raja (UREX) and commercial green tea extract (GTE) added individually at 200 and 500 mg/kg were stored at -18°C for up to 10 weeks. Lipid oxidation, cooking yield, physicochemical properties, textural properties, proximate composition and sensory characteristics of the beef patties were compared between those incorporated with UREX, GTE and the control (pure beef patty). Incorporation of UREX or GTE at 500 mg/kg into beef patties reduced the extent of lipid oxidation significantly (P<0.05). UREX showed a strong lipid oxidation inhibitory effect, comparable with GTE. In addition, a significant improvement (P<0.05) in cooking yield and textural properties was also recorded. However, incorporation of UREX and GTE into beef patties showed no significant influence (P>0.05) on the colour, pH, proximate composition and overall sensory acceptability of the patties.

  6. Effect of sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and temperature on desorption isotherms of previously frozen beef.

    PubMed

    Kabil, Emre; Aktaş, Nesimi; Balcı, Ercan

    2012-04-01

    Moisture desorption isotherms of beef were determined in the relative humidity range of 23 to 90% at 5, 15 and 25°C and at 2.5% NaCl and 2.5% NaCl+150 ppm NaNO(2) content. Desorption isotherms were found to be typical type II sigmoid. The water content at equilibrium was higher in beef with NaCl and NaCl+NaNO(2) than control samples. Experimental data were fitted to various mathematical models and it was found that the Peleg model was best in describing the equilibrium moisture content relationship for beef samples over the entire range of temperatures. The net isosteric heat of sorption was estimated from equilibrium desorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of desorption were found to increase with decreasing moisture content.

  7. Trained sensory panel and consumer evaluation of the effects of gamma irradiation on palatability of vacuum-packaged frozen ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-12-01

    The objectives for this experiment were to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on 1) the palatability of vacuum-packaged frozen ground beef patties by trained sensory panel and 2) consumer evaluation of the taste of hamburgers made with those patties. Boxes (4.5 kg) of frozen (-28 degrees C) ground beef patties (113.4 g/patty, 19% fat) from a commercial supplier were irradiated at a commercial gamma irradiation facility at one of three levels (0, 3.0, or 4.5 kGy). All boxes were stored at 28 degrees C for 27 to 29 d after irradiation before evaluation by a trained descriptive attribute sensory panel and for 62 to 104 d after irradiation before consumer evaluation. The trained panel evaluated grilled patties for ground beef aroma intensity, off-aroma, and off-flavor on 4-point scales (4 = intense, none, and none; 1 = none, intense, and intense, respectively) and ground beef flavor intensity, tenderness, and juiciness on 8-point scales (8 = extremely intense, tender, or juicy; 1 = extremely bland, tough, or dry). Control patties had more intense (P<.05) ground beef aroma (3.1 vs 2.6), less off-aroma (3.3 vs 2.6), and more intense ground beef flavor (4.9 vs. 4.3) than irradiated patties. However, there were no differences (P>.05) in any sensory trait between frozen ground beef patties treated with 3.0 or 4.5 kGy of gamma irradiation. There were no differences (P>.05) among treatments for tenderness (6.3, 6.6, and 6.7) or juiciness ratings (5.7, 5.9, and 5.9), respectively, for 0, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy. The consumers evaluated taste of a hamburger that included their choice of condiments on a 10-point scale (10 = excellent; 1 = terrible). Hamburgers made with patties treated with 4.5 kGy were rated lower (P<.05) in taste than hamburgers made with either control patties or those treated with 3.0 kGy (6.5, 6.6, and 6.2, respectively, for 0, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy); however, all doses were rated at some level of "fair." These results imply that hamburgers made from ground

  8. Robust linear and non-linear models of NIR spectroscopy for detection and quantification of adulterants in fresh and frozen-thawed minced beef.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Noha; Sun, Da-Wen

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a fast and non-destructive tool for detecting and quantifying different adulterants in fresh and frozen-thawed minced beef. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were built under cross validation and tested with different independent data sets, yielding determination coefficients (R(P)(2)) of 0.96, 0.94 and 0.95 with standard error of prediction (SEP) of 5.39, 5.12 and 2.08% (w/w) for minced beef adulterated by pork, fat trimming and offal, respectively. The performance of the developed models declined when the samples were in a frozen-thawed condition, yielding R(P)(2) of 0.93, 0.82 and 0.95 with simultaneous augments in the SEP of 7.11, 9.10 and 2.38% (w/w), respectively. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and non-linear regression models (logistic, probit and exponential regression) were developed at the most relevant wavelengths to discriminate between the pure (unadulterated) and adulterated minced beef. The classification accuracy resulting from both types of models was quite high, especially the LDA, PLS-DA and exponential regression models which yielded 100% accuracy. The current study demonstrated that the VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be utilized securely to detect and quantify the amount of adulterants added to the minced beef with acceptable precision and accuracy.

  9. Inactivation of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in frozen ground beef patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cluster of illnesses linked to contamination of ground beef with an E. coli serotype O26 strain, and the subsequent recall, reinforces the need for additional research on control of STEC in beef. Ground beef (percent lean:fat = 70:30 and 93:7) was inoculated with about 7.0 log CFU/g of a serotype...

  10. Detection of adulteration in fresh and frozen beefburger products by beef offal using mid-infrared ATR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Downey, Gerard; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2014-02-01

    A series of authentic and offal-adulterated beefburger samples was produced. Authentic product (36 samples) comprised either only lean meat and fat (higher quality beefburgers) or lean meat, fat, rusk and water (lower quality product). Beef offal adulterants comprised heart, liver, kidney and lung. Adulterated formulations (46 samples) were produced using a D-optimal experimental design. Fresh and frozen-then-thawed samples were modelled, separately and in combination, by a classification (partial least squares discriminant analysis) and class-modelling (soft independent modelling of class analogy) approach. With the former, 100% correct classification accuracies were obtained separately for fresh and frozen-then-thawed material. Separate class-models for fresh and frozen-then-thawed samples exhibited high sensitivities (0.94 to 1.0) but lower specificities (0.33-0.80 for fresh samples and 0.41-0.87 for frozen-then-thawed samples). When fresh and frozen-then-thawed samples were modelled together, sensitivity remained 1.0 but specificity ranged from 0.29 to 0.91. Results indicate a role for this technique in monitoring beefburger compliance to label.

  11. Identification and quantification of turkey meat adulteration in fresh, frozen-thawed and cooked minced beef by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alamprese, Cristina; Amigo, José Manuel; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-11-01

    This work aims at the development of a method based on FT-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the identification and quantification of minced beef meat adulteration with turkey meat. Samples were analyzed as raw, frozen-thawed and cooked. Different multivariate regression and class-modeling strategies were evaluated. PLS regression models with R(2) in prediction higher than 0.884 and RMSEP lower than 10.8% were developed. PLS-DA applied to discriminate each type of sample in two classes (adulteration threshold=20%) showed values of sensitivity and specificity in prediction higher than 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Thus, the study demonstrates that FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with suitable chemometric strategies is a reliable tool for the identification and quantification of minced beef adulteration with turkey meat not only in fresh products, but also in frozen-thawed and cooked samples. This achievement is of crucial importance in the meat industry due to the increasing number of processed meat products, in which technological treatments can mask a possible inter-species adulteration.

  12. Nitrite-embedded packaging film effects on fresh and frozen beef color development and stability as influenced by meat age and muscle type.

    PubMed

    Claus, James R; Du, Chen

    2013-11-01

    Muscles (Longissimus lumborum, LL; Psoas major, PM, semitendinosus, ST) were aged (2, 9d postmortem), cut into steaks, anaerobically packaged (nitrite-embedded film, NEF), and displayed (fresh, 19d; frozen, 39d). Fresh NEF increased (P<0.05) in redness (first 48h). Upon opening fresh NEF (d 6) and overwrapping in PVC film, redness declined (P<0.05). NEF cooked LL had more red surface compared to non-NEF. Meat age influenced NEF color. Intact NEF maintained acceptable red color throughout display. Residual nitrite and nitrate associated with fresh NEF and nitrate in NEF cooked LL were found (P<0.05) in the outer layer. Consideration should be given to providing sufficient time for nitric oxide myoglobin development when using NEF which may be influenced by meat age and muscle differences. NEF packaging has potential to extend fresh beef color display life. NEF appears to offer the opportunity to display bright red beef in frozen display by limiting typical effects of photooxidation.

  13. Effect of frozen storage, different thawing methods and cooking processes on the survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercially shaped beef patties.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-03-01

    The effect of common handling practices (i.e., freezing, thawing and cooking) of beef patties on the survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7, was evaluated. Inoculated ground beef was stored at -22 °C for 5 and 75 days. After thawing at 4 °C/16 h, 20 °C/12 h, in microwave/22-24 min, or without prior thawing, beef patties (90 g) were shaped and cooked in oven-broiler or in pan-grill to internal temperatures of 60 °C or 71 °C. Cooking in oven-broiler was more effective compared to pan-grill, especially when cooked to 71 °C. Defrosting methods did not affect significantly (P ≥ 0.05) the survival of the pathogens during subsequent cooking. Frozen storage for 75 days enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7, as the pathogen survived 3.1 logCFU/g when cooked in oven-broiler at 71 °C. Results may supplement the existing guidelines for the appropriate practices, associated with freezing, thawing and cooking of patties in households or catering services.

  14. Quantitative risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in frozen ground beef patties consumed by young children in French households.

    PubMed

    Delignette-Muller, M L; Cornu, M

    2008-11-30

    A quantitative risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in frozen ground beef patties consumed by children under 10 years of age in French households was conducted by a national study group describing an outbreak which occurred in France in 2005. Our exposure assessment model incorporates results from French surveys on consumption frequency of ground beef patties, serving size and consumption preference, microbial destruction experiments and microbial counts on patties sampled from the industrial batch which were responsible for the outbreak. Two different exposure models were proposed, respectively for children under the age of 5 and for children between 5 and 10 years. For each of these two age groups, a single-hit dose-response model was proposed to describe the probability of hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) as a function of the ingested dose. For each group, the single parameter of this model was estimated by Bayesian inference, using the results of the exposure assessment and the epidemiological data collected during the outbreak. Results show that children under 5 years of age are roughly 5 times more susceptible to the pathogen than children over 5 years. Exposure and dose-response models were used in a scenario analysis in order to validate the use of the model and to propose appropriate guidelines in order to prevent new outbreaks. The impact of the cooking preference was evaluated, showing that only a well-done cooking notably reduces the HUS risk, without annulling it. For each age group, a relation between the mean individual HUS risk per serving and the contamination level in a ground beef batch was proposed, as a tool to help French risk managers.

  15. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen beef, or both, but not including beef byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  16. Detailed evaluation of a newly attained fungal pigment from Monascus purpureus in meat burgers.

    PubMed

    El-Kholie, Emad M; El Shaer, Magda K; Abdelreheem, Mohammed A T; Gharib, Mai A

    2012-11-01

    Beef burgers with red pigment extracted from Monascus purpureus, used as a natural colouring agent, were examined for chemical compositions, physical properties, microbiological aspects and organoleptic evaluation. Beef burgers with Monascus pigment showed higher nutritional values compared with control samples. Nutritional values were proportionally enhanced by increasing pigment concentration. Synthetic dye samples had the lowest values of nutrients. Cooking loss percentage and water holding capacity were lower in all treatments compared with control samples, and vice versa for plasticity. The initial total bacterial count, Staphylococcus aureus count and coliform count were determined. Extending storage period up to 90 days severely reduced all tested microorganisms. By increasing the M. pigment concentration, the colour was significantly increased. Insignificant differences in colours were noticed among various treatments. Flavour and body and texture scores were insignificantly different. Microbial inhibition percentage of beef burger samples was increased by increasing the Monascus pigment concentration up to 0.8 g/kg.

  17. Use of lactic acid with electron beam irradiation for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 VTEC E. coli, and Salmonella serovars on fresh and frozen beef.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuliu; Kundu, Devapriya; Holley, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid pre-treatment was examined to enhance the antimicrobial action of electron (e-) beam irradiation of beef trim. Meat samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 VTEC E. coli or Salmonella cocktails and treated with 5% lactic acid at 55 °C. Samples were packaged aerobically or vacuum-packed, kept at 4 °C and treated with 1 kGy e-beam energy. Frozen samples were treated with 1, 3 or 7 kGy and stored at -20 °C for ≤ 5 d. Lactic acid enhanced the antimicrobial action of 1 kGy e-beam treatment against Salmonella by causing an additional <1.8 log CFU/g reduction. One kGy treatment of refrigerated samples reduced VTEC E. coli viability by 4.5 log CFU/g, and while lactic acid did not improve the reduction, after freezing additive effects were found. After 3 kGy irradiation, Salmonella was reduced by 2 and 4 log CFU/g in the irradiated and lactic acid plus irradiated samples, respectively. Lactic acid pre-treatment was of limited value with 1 kGy treatment for improving control of toxigenic E. coli in fresh beef trim, however, it would be useful with low dose irradiation for controlling both VTEC E. coli and Salmonella in frozen product.

  18. Shiga-toxin producing 0157:H7 and non-0157:H7 Escherichia coli cells within refrigerated, frozen, or frozen then thawed ground beef patties cooked on commercial open-flame gas or clam-shell electric grills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the possible effect of both fat and grill type on the fate of serotype O157:H7 strains of Escherichia coli (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing strains of E. coli (STEC) in cooked ground beef patties. Both high fat and low fat ground beef (percent lean:fat = ca. 70:30 and 93:7, ...

  19. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and...

  20. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and...

  1. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and...

  2. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and...

  3. Reduction operators of Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Pocheketa, Oleksandr A; Popovych, Roman O

    2013-02-01

    The solution of the problem on reduction operators and nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation is systematically treated and completed. A new proof of the theorem on the special "no-go" case of regular reduction operators is presented, and the representation of the coefficients of operators in terms of solutions of the initial equation is constructed for this case. All possible nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation to single ordinary differential equations are exhaustively described. Any Lie reduction of the Burgers equation proves to be equivalent via the Hopf-Cole transformation to a parameterized family of Lie reductions of the linear heat equation.

  4. Reduction operators of Burgers equation

    PubMed Central

    Pocheketa, Oleksandr A.; Popovych, Roman O.

    2013-01-01

    The solution of the problem on reduction operators and nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation is systematically treated and completed. A new proof of the theorem on the special “no-go” case of regular reduction operators is presented, and the representation of the coefficients of operators in terms of solutions of the initial equation is constructed for this case. All possible nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation to single ordinary differential equations are exhaustively described. Any Lie reduction of the Burgers equation proves to be equivalent via the Hopf–Cole transformation to a parameterized family of Lie reductions of the linear heat equation. PMID:23576819

  5. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in pork burger patties.

    PubMed

    Gurman, P M; Ross, T; Holds, G L; Jarrett, R G; Kiermeier, A

    2016-02-16

    Predictive models, to estimate the reduction in Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration in beef burgers, have been developed to inform risk management decisions; no analogous model exists for Salmonella spp. in pork burgers. In this study, "Extra Lean" and "Regular" fat pork minces were inoculated with Salmonella spp. (Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:-, Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Typhimurium) and formed into pork burger patties. Patties were cooked on an electric skillet (to imitate home cooking) to one of seven internal temperatures (46, 49, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64 °C) and Salmonella enumerated. A generalised linear logistic regression model was used to develop a predictive model for the Salmonella concentration based on the internal endpoint temperature. It was estimated that in pork mince with a fat content of 6.1%, Salmonella survival will be decreased by -0.2407log10 CFU/g for a 1 °C increase in internal endpoint temperature, with a 5-log10 reduction in Salmonella concentration estimated to occur when the geometric centre temperature reaches 63 °C. The fat content influenced the rate of Salmonella inactivation (P=0.043), with Salmonella survival increasing as fat content increased, though this effect became negligible as the temperature approached 62 °C. Fat content increased the time required for patties to achieve a specified internal temperature (P=0.0106 and 0.0309 for linear and quadratic terms respectively), indicating that reduced fat pork mince may reduce the risk of salmonellosis from consumption of pork burgers. Salmonella serovar did not significantly affect the model intercepts (P=0.86) or slopes (P=0.10) of the fitted logistic curve. This predictive model can be applied to estimate the reduction in Salmonella in pork burgers after cooking to a specific endpoint temperature and hence to assess food safety risk.

  6. Fate of Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Escherichia coli cells within refrigerated, frozen, or frozen then thawed ground beef patties cooked on a commercial open-flame gas or a clamshell electric grill.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Phillips, John; Chen, Vivian; Eblen, Denise R; Cook, L Victor; Mohr, Tim B; Esteban, Emilio; Bauer, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    Both high-fat and low-fat ground beef (percent lean:fat = ca. 70:30 and 93:7, respectively) were inoculated with a 6-strain cocktail of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) or a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 (ca. 7.0 log CFU/g). Patties were pressed (ca. 2.54 cm thick, ca. 300 g each) and then refrigerated (4°C, 18 to 24 h), or frozen (-18°C, 3 weeks), or frozen (-18°C, 3 weeks) and then thawed (4°C for 18 h or 21°C for 10 h) before being cooked on commercial gas or electric grills to internal temperatures of 60 to 76.6°C. For E. coli O157:H7, regardless of grill type or fat level, cooking refrigerated patties to 71.1 or 76.6°C decreased E. coli O157:H7 numbers from an initial level of ca. 7.0 log CFU/g to a final level of ≤1.0 log CFU/g, whereas decreases to ca. 1.1 to 3.1 log CFU/g were observed when refrigerated patties were cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 71.1 or 76.6°C, E. coli O157:H7 numbers decreased to ca. 1.7 or ≤0.7 log CFU/g. Likewise, pathogen numbers decreased to ca. 0.7 to 3.7 log CFU/g in patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For STEC, regardless of grill type or fat level, cooking refrigerated patties to 71.1 or 76.6°C decreased pathogen numbers from ca. 7.0 to ≤0.7 log CFU/g, whereas decreases to ca. 0.7 to 3.6 log CFU/g were observed when refrigerated patties were cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. For patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 71.1 or 76.6°C, STEC numbers decreased to a final level of ca. 1.5 to ≤0.7 log CFU/g. Likewise, pathogen numbers decreased from ca. 7.0 to ca. 0.8 to 4.3 log CFU/g in patties that were frozen or freeze-thawed and cooked to 60.0 or 65.5°C. Thus, cooking ground beef patties that were refrigerated, frozen, or freeze-thawed to internal temperatures of 71.1 and 76.6°C was effective for eliminating ca. 5.1 to 7.0 log CFU of E. coli O157:H7 and STEC per g.

  7. Multidimensional Potential Burgers Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boritchev, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    We consider the multidimensional generalised stochastic Burgers equation in the space-periodic setting: partial {u}/partial t+(nabla f({u}) \\cdot nabla) {u}-ν Δ {u}= nabla η, quad t ≥ 0, {x} in{T}^d=({R}/ {Z})^d, under the assumption that u is a gradient. Here f is strongly convex and satisfies a growth condition, ν is small and positive, while η is a random forcing term, smooth in space and white in time. For solutions u of this equation, we study Sobolev norms of u averaged in time and in ensemble: each of these norms behaves as a given negative power of ν. These results yield sharp upper and lower bounds for natural analogues of quantities characterising the hydrodynamical turbulence, namely the averages of the increments and of the energy spectrum. These quantities behave as a power of the norm of the relevant parameter, which is respectively the separation ℓ in the physical space and the wavenumber k in the Fourier space. Our bounds do not depend on the initial condition and hold uniformly in {ν}. We generalise the results obtained for the one-dimensional case in [10], confirming the physical predictions in [4, 30]. Note that the form of the estimates does not depend on the dimension: the powers of {ν, |{{k}}|, ℓ} are the same in the one- and the multi-dimensional setting.

  8. Finding horse meat in beef products--a global problem.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, P J

    2013-06-01

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) oversees the implementation of food safety controls in Ireland which are set out in EU and Irish law. The FSAI, a science-based consumer protection organization, has nurtured a close relationship with the scientific community allowing it to utilize the best scientific advice available to underpin risk assessments. In early 2013, a 2-month long investigation in to the authenticity of beef products culminated in the publication of results that demonstrated the presence of horse meat in a frozen burger produced in Ireland. The events that followed revealed a pan-European food fraud which will likely result in significant changes in the way this small section of the meat industry will be regulated in the future in the EU. Although revelations of implicated products and food businesses have relented, the EU-wide investigation is continuing in an effort to determine how a food fraud of this scale could have occurred in such a highly regulated industry and who was involved. The FSAI initially received some criticism after publication of the results, but was also commended for its scientific approach as well as its openness and transparency. The end result of this incident is likely to be that the complexity of the food chain will be addressed again and DNA-based or similar methods will become a regular feature in verifying the authenticity of meat-based foods.

  9. Texture of Frozen Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  10. Frozen Frozen CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    2 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of frozen carbon dioxide in the south polar residual cap of Mars. Much of the south polar residual cap exhibits terrain that resembles stacks of sliced Swiss cheese, but this portion of the cap lacks the typical, circular depressions that characterize much of the region. Carbon dioxide on Mars freezes at a temperature of around 148 Kelvins, which is -125oC or about -193oF.

    Location near: 87.2oS, 28.4oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  11. Viscosity-dependent inertial spectra of the Burgers and Korteweg–deVries–Burgers equations

    PubMed Central

    Chorin, Alexandre J.; Hald, Ole H.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the inertial range spectrum of the Burgers equation has a viscosity-dependent correction at any wave number when the viscosity is small but not zero. We also calculate the spectrum of the Korteweg–deVries–Burgers equation and show that it can be partially mapped onto the inertial spectrum of a Burgers equation with a suitable effective diffusion coefficient. These results are significant for the understanding of turbulence. PMID:15753299

  12. Reflections on "Replicating Milgram" (Burger, 2009).

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur G

    2009-01-01

    In "Replicating Milgram: Would People Still Obey Today?" Jerry M. Burger reported a high base rate of obedience, comparable to that observed by Stanley Milgram (1974). Another condition, involving a defiant confederate, failed to significantly reduce obedience. This commentary discusses the primary contributions of Burger's study in terms of (a) its novel methodological variation on Milgram's original paradigm (the "150-volt solution") and (b) its attention to ethical concerns so as to minimize participant discomfort and ensure institutional review board approval. Burger's technique could unlock research on behavioral aspects of obedience, which has been essentially muted for several decades. However, Burger's intensive efforts to improve the ethics of the study may be exaggerated, are uncertain in their effectiveness, and pose impractical demands. Different procedures used by Milgram and Burger in the modeled refusal condition preclude a clear explanation for the results and challenge Burger's emphasis on the comparability of his and Milgram's experiments. This study documents the complexities of extending research on destructive obedience in the context of contemporary ethical guidelines.

  13. Comparison of the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties from internet and local retail markets.

    PubMed

    Pao, S; Ettinger, M R

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluated the microbial quality of ground beef and ground beef patties sold at local (Virginia) and Internet (U.S.) retail markets. A total of 152 ground beef products, consisting of locally purchased raw ground beef (LRG) and frozen beef patties (LFP) and Internet-procured frozen ground beef (IFG) and frozen beef patties (IFP), were tested. Results showed that LFP had significantly lower levels of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and coliforms than LRG, IFG, and IFP. Furthermore, IFG had greater numbers of Escherichia coli than LRG and LFP. No sample was contaminated with E. coli 0157: H7, but one duplicate set of summer LFP samples contained Salmonella. Listeria spp. were present in 25 and 29% of samples from local and Internet markets, respectively. About 5.0, 11.1, 10.5, and 7.9% of LRG, LFP, IFG, and IFP samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes. This study identified differences in microbial quality between local and Internet products. Careful handling and thorough cooking of ground beef products, regardless of market source, are recommended to prevent foodborne illness.

  14. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) in frozen ground beef patties following cooking on commerical open-flame gas and electric clam-shell grills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both the prevalence and levels of serotype O157:H7 strains of Escherichia coli (ECOH) are quite low, yet this pathogen continues to cause food borne illness due to consumption of undercooked ground/non-intact beef. Thus, further studies are warranted to comparatively quantify thermal destruction of ...

  15. Frozen shoulder.

    PubMed Central

    Anton, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    The frozen shoulder is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability. Most patients slowly improve over 12 to 24 months. Some have prolonged loss of movement, pain, and associated disability. Treatments include physiotherapy, corticosteroid injections, and manipulation. Clinical trials of these treatments have produced conflicting results. PMID:8374364

  16. Analytic Solutions of the Vector Burgers Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerney, Steven; Schmahl, Edward J.; Musielak, Z. E.

    1996-01-01

    The well-known analytical solution of Burgers' equation is extended to curvilinear coordinate systems in three dimensions by a method that is much simpler and more suitable to practical applications than that previously used. The results obtained are applied to incompressible flow with cylindrical symmetry, and also to the decay of an initially linearly increasing wind.

  17. Reflections on "Replicating Milgram" (Burger, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur G.

    2009-01-01

    In "Replicating Milgram: Would People Still Obey Today?" Jerry M. Burger (see record 2008-19206-001) reported a high base rate of obedience, comparable to that observed by Stanley Milgram (1974). Another condition, involving a defiant confederate, failed to significantly reduce obedience. This commentary discusses the primary contributions of…

  18. Swan Song for the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, Robert L., Jr.; Ramarui, Cornelis O.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews a collection of decisions rendered by the Burger Court during its waning months. The decisions involve (1) criminal procedures, (2) racial bias in jury selection, (3) search and seizure, and (4) the exclusion of jurors who have reservations about the death penalty. (JDH)

  19. Burger V. Brennan: A Debate on Obscenity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Terry W.

    Two 1973 Supreme Court rulings, "Miller v. California" and "Paris Adult Theatre I v. Slaton," consider the problem of obscenity in light of the First Amendment. Chief Justice Burger's stand, which represented that of a five-man majority, was based on the presumption that obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment because…

  20. The Burger Court and the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Philip R.

    This report discusses recent cases involving freedom of the press that have been heard before the Burger court of the United States Supreme Court. The report discerns a trend toward treating the press like an ordinary citizen; this is a reversal of the view of the Warren court that the First Amendment creates special rights for the press so that…

  1. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  2. Algorithm refinement for the stochastic Burgers' equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, John B.; Foo, Jasmine; Garcia, Alejandro L. . E-mail: algarcia@algarcia.org

    2007-04-10

    In this paper, we develop an algorithm refinement (AR) scheme for an excluded random walk model whose mean field behavior is given by the viscous Burgers' equation. AR hybrids use the adaptive mesh refinement framework to model a system using a molecular algorithm where desired while allowing a computationally faster continuum representation to be used in the remainder of the domain. The focus in this paper is the role of fluctuations on the dynamics. In particular, we demonstrate that it is necessary to include a stochastic forcing term in Burgers' equation to accurately capture the correct behavior of the system. The conclusion we draw from this study is that the fidelity of multiscale methods that couple disparate algorithms depends on the consistent modeling of fluctuations in each algorithm and on a coupling, such as algorithm refinement, that preserves this consistency.

  3. Linearized Implicit Numerical Method for Burgers' Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundan, Vijitha; Awasthi, Ashish

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a novel numerical scheme based on method of lines (MOL) is proposed to solve the nonlinear time dependent Burgers' equation. The Burgers' equation is semi discretized in spatial direction by using MOL to yield system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations in time. The resulting system of nonlinear differential equations is integrated by an implicit finite difference method. We have not used Cole-Hopf transformation which gives less accurate solution for very small values of kinematic viscosity. Also, we have not considered nonlinear solvers that are computationally costlier and take more running time.In the proposed scheme nonlinearity is tackled by Taylor series and the use of fully discretized scheme is easy and practical. The proposed method is unconditionally stable in the linear sense. Furthermore, efficiency of the proposed scheme is demonstrated using three test problems.

  4. R.E. Burger Plant, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2007-10-15

    First Energy's R.E. Burger Plant at Shadyside, OH has hosted a number of R & D projects over the years, but none as large as the demonstration of Powerspan's 30-MW Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) multipollutant removal process a few years ago. Credit Powerspan for scaling up the demo unit and for adding CO{sub 2} as a target of a new pilot process called ECO{sub 2}.

  5. Markovian Solutions of Inviscid Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabanol, Marie-Line; Duchon, Jean

    2004-01-01

    For solutions of (inviscid, forceless, one dimensional) Burgers equation with random initial condition, it is heuristically shown that a stationary Feller-Markov property (with respect to the space variable) at some time is conserved at later times, and an evolution equation is derived for the infinitesimal generator. Previously known explicit solutions such as Frachebourg-Martin's (white noise initial velocity) and Carraro-Duchon's Lévy process intrinsic-statistical solutions (including Brownian initial velocity) are recovered as special cases.

  6. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  7. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  8. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  9. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  10. 9 CFR 381.160 - (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. 381.160 Section 381.160 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.160 (Kind) burgers; (Kind) patties. Such product consists of 100 percent poultry of the...

  11. Entropic lattice Boltzmann model for Burgers's equation.

    PubMed

    Boghosian, Bruce M; Love, Peter; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2004-08-15

    Entropic lattice Boltzmann models are discrete-velocity models of hydrodynamics that possess a Lyapunov function. This feature makes them useful as nonlinearly stable numerical methods for integrating hydrodynamic equations. Over the last few years, such models have been successfully developed for the Navier-Stokes equations in two and three dimensions, and have been proposed as a new category of subgrid model of turbulence. In the present work we develop an entropic lattice Boltzmann model for Burgers's equation in one spatial dimension. In addition to its pedagogical value as a simple example of such a model, our result is actually a very effective way to simulate Burgers's equation in one dimension. At moderate to high values of viscosity, we confirm that it exhibits no trace of instability. At very small values of viscosity, however, we report the existence of oscillations of bounded amplitude in the vicinity of the shock, where gradient scale lengths become comparable with the grid size. As the viscosity decreases, the amplitude at which these oscillations saturate tends to increase. This indicates that, in spite of their nonlinear stability, entropic lattice Boltzmann models may become inaccurate when the ratio of gradient scale length to grid spacing becomes too small. Similar inaccuracies may limit the utility of the entropic lattice Boltzmann paradigm as a subgrid model of Navier-Stokes turbulence.

  12. Shelf life of ground beef patties treated by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W T; Weese, J O

    1998-10-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbial populations in ground beef patties vacuum package and irradiated frozen at target doses of 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy were determined. Irradiated samples were stored at 4 or -18 degrees C for 42 days, and mesophilic aerobic plate counts (APCs) were periodically determined. Fresh ground beef (initial APC of 10(2) CFU/g) treated with 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy was acceptable (< 10(7) CFU/g) for 42 days at 4 degrees C. The 1.0 kGy-treated beef samples were acceptable microbiologically (< 10(7) CFU/g) after 42 days but developed an unacceptable off-odor after 21 days. Shelf life diminished in fresh ground beef patties with an initial APC of 10(4) CFU/g. Only beef patties treated with 7.0 kGy were found to be acceptable at 42 days. Beef patties treated at 1.0 and 3.0 kGy reached spoilage APC levels (> 10(7) CFU/g) by day 14 and 21, respectively, whereas patties treated at 5.0 kGy did not spoil until 42 days. The nonirradiated control samples for both batches of ground beef spoiled within 7 days. Microbial counts in ground beef patties stored at -18 degrees C did not change over the 42-day period. Shelf life of ground beef patties stored at 4 degrees C may be extended with gamma radiation, especially at 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial microbial load in ground beef samples was an important shelf life factor.

  13. 7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.121 Imported beef or...

  14. Spectrum and energy transfer in steady Burgers turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.; Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    The spectrum, energy transfer, and spectral interactions in steady Burgers turbulence are studied using numerically generated data. The velocity field is initially random and the turbulence is maintained steady by forcing the amplitude of a band of low wavenumbers to be invariant in time, while permitting the phase to change as dictated by the equation. The spectrum, as expected, is very different from that of Navier-Stokes turbulence. It is demonstrated that the far range of the spectrum scales as predicted by Burgers. Despite the difference in their spectra, in matters of the spectral energy transfer and triadic interactions Burgers turbulence is similar to Navier-Stokes turbulence.

  15. Turbulence for the generalised Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boritchev, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    This survey reviews rigorous results obtained by A. Biryuk and the author on turbulence for the generalised space-periodic Burgers equation \\displaystyle u_t+f'(u)u_x=ν uxx+η,\\qquad x \\in S^1={R}/{Z}, where f is smooth and strongly convex, and the constant 0<ν\\ll 1 corresponds to the viscosity coefficient. Both the unforced case ( η=0) and the case when η is a random force which is smooth with respect to x and irregular (kick or white noise) with respect to t are considered. In both cases sharp bounds of the form Cν-δ, δ≥slant 0, are obtained for the Sobolev norms of u averaged over time and over the ensemble, with the same value of δ for upper and lower bounds. These results yield sharp bounds for small-scale quantities characterising turbulence, confirming the physical predictions. Bibliography: 56 titles.

  16. Burgers approximation for two-dimensional flow past an ellipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrepaal, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    A linearization of the Navier-Stokes equation due to Burgers in which vorticity is transported by the velocity field corresponding to continuous potential flow is examined. The governing equations are solved exactly for the two dimensional steady flow past an ellipse of arbitrary aspect ratio. The requirement of no slip along the surface of the ellipse results in an infinite algebraic system of linear equations for coefficients appearing in the solution. The system is truncated at a point which gives reliable results for Reynolds numbers R in the range 0 R 5. Predictions of the Burgers approximation regarding separation, drag and boundary layer behavior are investigated. In particular, Burgers linearization gives drag coefficients which are closer to observed experimental values than those obtained from Oseen's approximation. In the special case of flow past a circular cylinder, Burgers approximation predicts a boundary layer whose thickness is roughly proportional to R-1/2.

  17. The Many Voices of the Burger Court and School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, H. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Unlike the Warren Court, the Burger Court has had a lack of unanimity on school desegregation cases and the court has been divided. As a result there is no clear direction evident in the court's decisions. (IRT)

  18. Effect of Novel Quick Freezing Techniques Combined with Different Thawing Processes on Beef Quality

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seon-Mi; Han, Gui-Jung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality of beef. Meat samples were frozen using natural convection freezing (NF), individual quick freezing (IQF), or cryogenic freezing (CF) techniques, followed by natural convection thawing (NCT) or running water thawing (RT). The meat was frozen until the core temperature reached -12℃ and then stored at -24℃, followed by thawing until the temperature reached 5℃. Quality parameters, such as the pH, water binding properties, CIE color, shear force, and microstructure of the beef were elucidated. Although the freezing and thawing combinations did not cause remarkable changes in the quality parameters, rapid freezing, in the order of CF, IQF, and NF, was found to minimize the quality deterioration. In the case of thawing methods, NCT was better than RT and the meat quality was influence on the thawing temperature rather than the thawing rate. Although the microstructure of the frozen beef exhibited an excessive loss of integrity after the freezing and thawing, it did not cause any remarkable change in the beef quality. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CF and NCT form the best combination for beef processing; however, IQF and NCT may have practical applications in the frozen food industry. PMID:26761674

  19. Effect of Novel Quick Freezing Techniques Combined with Different Thawing Processes on Beef Quality.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeon-Ji; Jang, Min-Young; Jung, You-Kyoung; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Sim, Jun-Bo; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Seon-Mi; Han, Gui-Jung; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality of beef. Meat samples were frozen using natural convection freezing (NF), individual quick freezing (IQF), or cryogenic freezing (CF) techniques, followed by natural convection thawing (NCT) or running water thawing (RT). The meat was frozen until the core temperature reached -12℃ and then stored at -24℃, followed by thawing until the temperature reached 5℃. Quality parameters, such as the pH, water binding properties, CIE color, shear force, and microstructure of the beef were elucidated. Although the freezing and thawing combinations did not cause remarkable changes in the quality parameters, rapid freezing, in the order of CF, IQF, and NF, was found to minimize the quality deterioration. In the case of thawing methods, NCT was better than RT and the meat quality was influence on the thawing temperature rather than the thawing rate. Although the microstructure of the frozen beef exhibited an excessive loss of integrity after the freezing and thawing, it did not cause any remarkable change in the beef quality. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CF and NCT form the best combination for beef processing; however, IQF and NCT may have practical applications in the frozen food industry.

  20. Behaviour of non-stressed and stressed Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni cells on fresh chicken burger meat packaged under modified atmosphere and inoculated with protective culture.

    PubMed

    Melero, Beatriz; Diez, Ana M; Rajkovic, Andreja; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi

    2012-08-17

    Numerous investigations have provided evidence that chicken products are a source of Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. Different strategies applied in final products are needed to prevent consumers' contamination. In this work, the combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and protective culture to control the growth of freeze stressed and non-stressed L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni on fresh chicken meat burger was studied. Meat burgers were inoculated with L. monocytogenes, C. jejuni and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides PCK 18, as protective strain against L. monocytogenes. Prior to the addition of the protective culture, half of the L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni - inoculated meat was frozen at -18°C for 48 h to subject cells to stress. Following the addition of the protective culture, meat burgers were packaged in air or MAP (50% CO(2)/50% O(2)) and stored under refrigeration conditions. L. monocytogenes counts were not reduced by the freezing temperature applied; however, the addition of Lc. pseudomesenteroides PCK 18 reduced its counts for 0.90 log cfu/g when chicken meat burgers were packaged under MAP. Furthermore, freezing stress was an effective strategy to reduce C. jejuni counts but only in combination with a high-O(2) MAP, it was completely eliminated. Chicken meat burgers' shelf-life under aerobic packaging conditions was reduced by the effect of freeze-thawing, while the use of MAP extended the product's shelf-life till 21days. Therefore, the combination of freezing, protective culture and MAP could extend the shelf-life and enhance the food safety of this kind of chicken products.

  1. Classification of organic beef freshness using VNIR hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Stuart O J; Kirchner, Sascha M; Porley, Victoria; Retz, Stefanie; von Gersdorff, Gardis; Hensel, Oliver; Weygandt, Martin; Sturm, Barbara

    2017-02-08

    Consumer trust in the food industry is heavily reliant upon accurate labelling of meat products. As such, methods, which can verify whether meat is correctly labelled are of great value to producers, retailers, and consumers. This paper illustrates two approaches to classify between, fresh and frozen thawed, and in a novel manner matured and matured frozen-thawed, as well as fresh and matured beef using the 500-1010nm waveband, captured using hyperspectral imaging, and CIELAB measurements. The results show successful classification based upon CIELAB between 1) fresh and frozen-thawed (CCR=0.93), and 2) fresh and matured (CCR=0.92). With successful classification between matured and matured frozen-thawed beef using the entire spectral range (CCR=1.00). The performance of reduced spectral models is also investigated. Overall it was found that CIELAB co-ordinates can be used for successful classification for all comparisons except between matured and matured frozen-thawed. Biochemical and physical changes of the meat are thoroughly discussed for each condition.

  2. Rapid detection of irradiated frozen hamburgers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    DNA comet assay can be employed as a rapid and inexpensive screening test to check whether frozen ground beef patties (hamburgers) have been irradiated as a means to increase their safety by eliminating pathogenic bacteria, e.g. E. coli O157:H7. Such a detection procedure will provide an additional check on compliance with existing regulations, e.g. enforcement of labelling and rules in international trade. Frozen ready prepared hamburgers from the market place were `electron irradiated' with doses of 0, 1.3, 2.7, 4.5 and 7.2kGy covering the range of potential commercial irradiation. DNA fragmentation in the hamburgers was made visible within a few hours using the comet assay, and non-irradiated hamburgers could be easily discerned from the irradiated ones. Even after 9 months of frozen storage, irradiated hamburgers could be identified. Since DNA fragmentation may also occur with other food processes (e.g. temperature abuse), positive screening tests shall be confirmed using a validated method to specifically prove an irradiation treatment, e.g. EN 1784 or EN 1785.

  3. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  4. Residual triose phosphate isomerase activity and color measurements to determine adequate cooking of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Sair, A I; Booren, A M; Berry, B W; Smith, D M

    1999-02-01

    The objectives were to (i) compare the use of triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) activity and internal color scores for determination of cooking adequacy of beef patties and (ii) determine the effect of frozen storage and fat content on residual TPI activity in ground beef. Ground beef patties (24.4% fat) were cooked to five temperatures ranging from 60.0 to 82.2 degrees C. TPI activity decreased as beef patty cooking temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, no difference (P > 0.05) in activity (6.3 U/kg meat) was observed in patties cooked to 71.1 degrees C and above. Degree of doneness color scores, a* values and b* values, of ground beef patties decreased as internal temperature was increased from 60.0 to 71.1 degrees C; however, temperature had no effect on L* values. TPI activity in raw ground beef after five freeze-thaw cycles did not differ from the control. Three freeze-thaw cycles of raw ground beef resulted in a 57.2% decrease in TPI activity after cooking. TPI activity of cooked beef increased during 2 months of frozen storage, but TPI activity in ground beef stored for 3 months or longer did not differ from the unfrozen control. While past research has shown color to be a poor indicator of adequate thermal processing, our results suggest that undercooked ground beef patties could be distinguished from those that had been adequately cooked following U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines using residual TPI activity as a marker.

  5. Evaluation of Frozen Beef Patties Containing Soy Protein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    condiments, and mignt be due to the effect of the bun absorbing the juices . Effect of Storage. Storage of the patties did not consistently affect...the toughest of all the patties evaluated. This may be explained in part by (a) patties containing soy protein appeared to retain more juices during...preparation and uses in domminuted meat products. Meat Hugiene Abstr. 8(6): 1. Hesseltine, Clifford W. 1967. Fermented products - Miso, Sufu and

  6. Effect of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on moisture retention of cooked ground beef patties and enhanced strip loins.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) on water holding capacity characteristics of enhanced beef strip loins. Sixty, frozen strip loins, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement with dietary program serving as the first factor and use of ExGP as the second factor, were thawed, injected with an enhancement solution, and stored for 7 days. Loins from ExGP cattle possessed the ability to bind more (P < 0.05) water before pumping and bind less (P < 0.05) water after pumping and storage. Loin pH across treatments was similar (P > 0.10) before injection, but increased post-injection and after storage (P < 0.01). Treatments did not affect loin purge loss, steak cook loss, and expressible moisture (P > 0.10). The Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and use of ExGPs minimally impacted water holding capacity of enhanced frozen/thawed beef strip loins.

  7. A discrete model of a modified Burgers' partial differential equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, R. E.; Shoosmith, J. N.

    1990-01-01

    A new finite-difference scheme is constructed for a modified Burger's equation. Three special cases of the equation are considered, and the 'exact' difference schemes for the space- and time-independent forms of the equation are presented, along with the diffusion-free case of Burger's equation modeled by a difference equation. The desired difference scheme is then obtained by imposing on any difference model of the initial equation the requirement that, in the appropriate limits, its difference scheme must reduce the results of the obtained equations.

  8. Long-term red meat preservation using chilled and frozen storage combinations: A review.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Cassius E O; Holman, Benjamin W B; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews current literature relating to the effects of chilled and frozen storage on the quality characteristics of red meat (lamb and beef). These characteristics include tenderness (shear force), juiciness (fluid losses), flavour (lipid oxidation), colour and microbial loading. Research suggests that chilled storage of red meat can improve certain properties, such as shear force and species-specific flavour, to threshold levels before the effects on flavour and colour become deleterious, and key microbial species proliferate to spoilage levels. For frozen red meat, the negative effects upon quality traits are prevented when stored for shorter durations, although chilled storage conditions prior to freezing and retail display post-thawing can both positively and negatively affect these traits. Here, we review the effects of different chilled, frozen and combined chilled and frozen storage practices (particularly the chilled-then-frozen combination) on meat quality and spoilage traits, in order to contribute to superior management of these traits during product distribution.

  9. Improving pork burgers quality using Zingiber officinale Roscoe powder (ginger).

    PubMed

    Mancini, Simone; Paci, Gisella; Fratini, Filippo; Torracca, Beatrice; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Preziuso, Giovanna

    2017-03-08

    Pork burgers were evaluated for physical-chemical characteristics, fatty acids profile, lipid oxidation, antioxidant capacity, microbiological growth and sensory evaluation during storage time of seven days at 4°C as function of three formulations as only meat (control, B) and meat added with ginger powder at the percentage of 1 and 2% (BG1 and BG2). BG1 and BG2 were less redness than control ones with incremented yellow hue. These modifications in color parameters did not modify sensory characteristics of burgers. PUFA were incremented (both PUFAω3 and PUFAω6) by the addition of ginger. Furthermore, BG1 and BG2 burgers showed to be less sensitive to lipid oxidation and to possess an increase in antioxidant capacity. Microbial growth evaluation of total aerobic count and Pseudomonas spp. showed that ginger powder delayed in time the bacterial contamination. Results highlighted that the presence of ginger led to an enhanced shelf life and health characteristics of burgers (increasing peroxidisability, ratio hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic and ratio ω3/ω6; reducing atherogenicity and thrombogenicity).

  10. Effect of rapid thawing on the meat quality attributes of USDA Select beef strip loin steaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the meat quality effects of rapidly thawing steaks in a water bath. Frozen beef strip loins (n = 24) were cut into steaks sequentially from the rib end and identified by anatomical location (anterior, middle, posterior) within the loin. Within location,...

  11. Epidemiological and microbiological investigation of a large outbreak of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:- in schools associated with imported beef in Poitiers, France, October 2010.

    PubMed

    Raguenaud, M E; Le Hello, S; Salah, S; Weill, F X; Brisabois, A; Delmas, G; Germonneau, P

    2012-10-04

    An outbreak due to the emerging monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:- occurred in four schools in Poitiers in October 2010. Food trace-back investigation led to the identification of beef burgers as the cause of the outbreak and their subsequent withdrawal. The Institute for Public Health Surveillance conducted a retrospective epidemiological investigation to assess the extent of the outbreak and describe cases. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by students and personnel attending each of the four schools affected. Clinical cases were defined as anyone having eaten at the school when the beef burgers were served and reporting diarrhoea or fever with at least one digestive symptom (nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain), within five days after the incriminated school meal or with unknown date of onset within a 15-day period after the incriminated school meal. Of 1,559 persons exposed, 554 clinical cases were identified corresponding to an overall attack rate of 35.5%. Of 554 clinical cases, a total of 286 (53%) sought medical care and 31 (6%) were hospitalised for more than 24 hours. This multi-school outbreak is one of the biggest food-borne outbreaks of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:- described in France. Prompt notification of cases and rapid identification and withdrawal of the incriminated batch of beef burgers was crucial to limit the extension of this outbreak.

  12. Beef Quality Assurance in Feedlots.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A; Thomson, Daniel U; Lee, Tiffany L

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses the Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) program, which was created by beef producers and veterinarians. The program has evolved from antibiotic residue avoidance to include animal handling, cattle comfort, food safety, and much more. It provides guidance to producers and veterinarians on best management practices and allows the beef industry to be transparent about the practices used. Veterinarians are key to helping producers implement BQA in their beef operations.

  13. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Outbreak-Associated Beef Patties.

    PubMed

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George

    2016-07-01

    An outbreak of five cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection that occurred in Canada in 2012 was linked to frozen beef patties seasoned with garlic and peppercorn. Unopened retail packs of beef patties from the implicated production lot were recovered and analyzed to enumerate E. coli O157, other E. coli strains, and total coliforms. E. coli O157 was not recovered by direct enumeration on selective agar media. E. coli O157 in the samples was estimated at 3.1 most probable number per 140 g of beef patty, other E. coli was 11 CFU/g, and coliforms were 120 CFU/g. These results indicate that the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef at levels below 0.1 CFU/g may cause outbreaks. However, the roles of temperature abuse, undercooking, and crosscontamination in amplifying the risk are unknown.

  14. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    PubMed

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  15. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production.

  16. A lattice Boltzmann model for the Burgers-Fisher equation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Yan, Guangwu

    2010-06-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model is developed for the one- and two-dimensional Burgers-Fisher equation based on the method of the higher-order moment of equilibrium distribution functions and a series of partial differential equations in different time scales. In order to obtain the two-dimensional Burgers-Fisher equation, vector sigma(j) has been used. And in order to overcome the drawbacks of "error rebound," a new assumption of additional distribution is presented, where two additional terms, in first order and second order separately, are used. Comparisons with the results obtained by other methods reveal that the numerical solutions obtained by the proposed method converge to exact solutions. The model under new assumption gives better results than that with second order assumption.

  17. A Jacobi collocation approximation for nonlinear coupled viscous Burgers' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doha, Eid H.; Bhrawy, Ali H.; Abdelkawy, Mohamed A.; Hafez, Ramy M.

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a numerical approximation of the initial-boundary nonlinear coupled viscous Burgers' equation based on spectral methods. A Jacobi-Gauss-Lobatto collocation (J-GL-C) scheme in combination with the implicit Runge-Kutta-Nyström (IRKN) scheme are employed to obtain highly accurate approximations to the mentioned problem. This J-GL-C method, based on Jacobi polynomials and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature integration, reduces solving the nonlinear coupled viscous Burgers' equation to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equation which is far easier to solve. The given examples show, by selecting relatively few J-GL-C points, the accuracy of the approximations and the utility of the approach over other analytical or numerical methods. The illustrative examples demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and versatility of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Fluesorbent FGD at the Burger and Lausche plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    While large, capital-intensive coal-fired power plants have a number of waste-free flue gas desulfurization options available, few economical choices exist for operators of more moderately-sized industrial and institutional boilers. The Fluesorbent technology, a simple duct-injection process designed for waste-free operation and low capital costs, was designed to fill this gap. Its unique feature is the use of expanded vermiculite or perlite with the injected lime. This enables 85% SO{sub 2} removal at reasonable lime consumption rates and results in a valuable agricultural by-product, instead of a waste. A 6,500-acfm Fluesorbent pilot plant was recently tested at Ohio Edison`s Burger station with promising results. Plans are currently underway for the first permanent Fluesorbent installation on two coal-fired boilers at Ohio University`s Lausche heating plant. This paper describes the Burger plant results and the Lausche plant plans.

  19. Fluesorbent FGD at the Burger and Lausche plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.

    1998-07-01

    While large, capital-intensive coal-fired power plants have a number of waste-free flue gas desulfurization options available, few economical choices exist for operators of more moderately-sized industrial and institutional boilers. The Fluesorbent technology, a single duct-injection process designed for waste-free operation and low capital costs, was designed to fill this gap. Its unique feature is the use of expanded vermiculite or perlite with the injected lime. This enables 85% SO{sub 2} removal at reasonable lime consumption rates and results in a valuable agricultural by-product, instead of a waste. A 6,500-acfm Fluesorbent pilot plant was recently tested at Ohio Edison's Burger station with promising results. Plans are currently underway for the first permanent Fluesorbent installation on two coal-fired boilers at Ohio University's Lausche heating plant. This paper describes the Burger plant results and the Lausche plant plans.

  20. Fresh Frozen Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    therapeutic means). FFP can be prepared either by separation from whole blood or collection via plasmapheresis . Fresh frozen plasma contains the...FFP can be further separated into cryoprecipitate and what is known as “cryo-poor plasma,” a product rarely used for therapeutic means. Plasma is the

  1. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  2. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  3. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  4. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  5. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  6. 7 CFR 1260.120 - Beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef products. 1260.120 Section 1260.120 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.120 Beef products. Beef products means edible...

  7. Effect of erythorbate, storage and high-oxygen packaging on premature browning in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Suman, S P; Faustman, C; Lee, S; Tang, J; Sepe, H A; Vasudevan, P; Annamalai, T; Manojkumar, M; Marek, P; Venkitanarayanan, K S

    2005-02-01

    Premature browning (PMB) was investigated in ground beef patties with (0.04%, w/w) and without erythorbate. In Experiment 1, patties were stored at 4 °C for 48 h; at -18 °C for 21 days; or at -18 °C for 21 days, thawed at 4 °C for 24 h; and cooked. Bulk ground beef was stored at -18 °C for 24 days, thawed for 24 h at 4 °C, and patties prepared and cooked immediately. In Experiment 2, fresh patties were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable film or packaged in 80% O(2)/20% N(2) (MAP), and stored for 48 h at 4 °C, or at -18 °C for 21 days, and cooked. Total reducing activity and color (L*, a* and b* values) were measured immediately prior to cooking. Patties were cooked to internal temperatures of 60, 66, 71 and 77 °C and internal cooked color was measured. Total reducing activity was higher for the erythorbate treatment than controls for all storage conditions (P<0.05). a* Values of cooked patties were higher for erythorbate than control treatments under all storage and packaging conditions at 60 and 66 °C (P<0.05). The presence of erythorbate in ground beef patties appeared to maintain red color at cooked internal temperatures of 60 and 66 °C. Frozen bulk storage appeared to increase the susceptibility of ground beef to PMB when compared to fresh and frozen patties. Patties cooked directly from frozen state appeared less susceptible to PMB than frozen-thawed and bulk storage. Ground beef appeared predisposed to PMB when stored in high-oxygen MAP at 4 °C for 48 h.

  8. Beef grading by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  9. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  10. Curation of Frozen Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, L. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bastien, R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Astromaterials Curator are charged by NPD 7100.10D with the curation of all of NASA s extraterrestrial samples, including those from future missions. This responsibility includes the development of new sample handling and preparation techniques; therefore, the Astromaterials Curator must begin developing procedures to preserve, prepare and ship samples at sub-freezing temperatures in order to enable future sample return missions. Such missions might include the return of future frozen samples from permanently-shadowed lunar craters, the nuclei of comets, the surface of Mars, etc. We are demonstrating the ability to curate samples under cold conditions by designing, installing and testing a cold curation glovebox. This glovebox will allow us to store, document, manipulate and subdivide frozen samples while quantifying and minimizing contamination throughout the curation process.

  11. The triacylglycerol preparation of conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Chae, S H; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Johnson, D; Maxim, J; Smith, S B

    2009-04-01

    It is proposed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) would depress the lipid oxidation caused by irradiation of cooked, aerobically stored ground beef patties. The free fatty acid (FFA-CLA) and triacylglycerol (TAG-CLA) preparations of CLA were added at 0%, 1%, 2%, or 4% during the grinding process. Patties were irradiated at 1.5-2.0kGy and frozen at -20°C. Subsequently, the patties were tempered to 4°C, cooked to 70°C and held at 4°C for 7d. Enrichment of ground beef with CLA increased the cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomers in ground beef patties, even after cooking. Weight loss (P=0.03) and percentage fat (P=0.05) were higher in irradiated beef patties than in control patties. Irradiation decreased the concentration of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in the ground beef by over 60% (P=0.07), whereas thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were higher (P=0.004) in irradiated beef patties than in control patties. The 1% concentration of added TAG-CLA reduced TBARS in irradiated ground beef patties, whereas 2% and 4% FFA-CLA depressed TBARS (CLA type×percentage interaction P=0.04). Irradiation increased the cardboard and painty aromatic attributes (P⩽0.05), and FFA-CLA preparation increased the painty aromatic attribute and afterburn aftertaste, but these effects were not observed with the TAG-CLA preparation (CLA type×treatment interaction P<0.04). Adding 1% TAG-CLA to ground beef during grinding can reduce lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties without the negative aftertastes associated with the FFA-CLA preparation.

  12. Warren E. Burger: Editor-In-Chief Justice of the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Thomas A.

    A study attempted to ascertain whether Supreme Court Justice Warren Burger demonstrated a particularly unfavorable attitude toward the press in a pattern of press-related decisions. Sixty press freedom cases located through the indexes of the official "United States Reports" were examined. Hypothesis 1 predicted that Burger assigned…

  13. On the Burgers vector of a wave dislocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Mark R.

    2009-09-01

    Following Nye and Berry's analogy with crystal dislocations, an approach to the Burgers vector of a wave dislocation (phase singularity, optical vortex) is proposed. It is defined to be a regularized phase gradient evaluated at the phase singularity, and is computed explicitly. The screw component of this vector is naturally related to the helicoidal twisting of wavefronts along a vortex line, and is related to the helicity of the phase gradient. The edge component is related to the nearby current flow (defined by the phase gradient) perpendicular to the vortex, and the distribution of this component is found numerically for random two-dimensional monochromatic waves.

  14. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    MedlinePlus

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... Tapeworm infection is caused by eating the raw or undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry ...

  15. Was Warren Burger Richard Nixon's Revenge? A Study of the Chief Justice's Attitudes toward the News Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, James M.

    The suggestion that Warren Burger's appointment to the Supreme Court was Richard Nixon's revenge upon the press is supported by some of Burger's judicial decisions and attitudes toward the press outside the courtroom, but not all of his decisions were against the news media. Burger's decision not to allow court clerks to speak to reporters, and…

  16. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... extenders. When beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) is used in the preparation of chopped or ground beef..., binders, or extenders. Beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) may be used in the preparation of hamburger... levels of up to 65 ppm may be used as a binder. Beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) may be used in...

  17. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... extenders. When beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) is used in the preparation of chopped or ground beef..., binders, or extenders. Beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) may be used in the preparation of hamburger... levels of up to 65 ppm may be used as a binder. Beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) may be used in...

  18. Frozen Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  19. Inverting Glacial Isostatic Adjustment beyond linear viscoelasticity using Burgers rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Fleitout, L.; Metivier, L.; Rouby, H.

    2014-12-01

    In Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) inverse modeling, the usual assumption for the mantle rheology is the Maxwell model, which exhibits constant viscosity over time. However, mineral physics experiments and post-seismic observations show evidence of a transient component in the deformation of the shallow mantle, with a short-term viscosity lower than the long-term one. In these studies, the resulting rheology is modeled by a Burgers material: such rheology is indeed expected as the mantle is a mixture of materials with different viscosities. We propose to apply this rheology for the whole viscoelastic mantle, and, using a Bayesian MCMC inverse formalism for GIA during the last glacial cycle, study its impact on estimations of viscosity values, elastic thickness of the lithosphere, and ice distribution. To perform this inversion, we use a global dataset of sea level records, the geological constraints of ice-sheet margins, and present-day GPS data as well as satellite gravimetry. Our ambition is to present not only the best fitting model, but also the range of possible solutions (within the explored space of parameters) with their respective probability of explaining the data. Our first results indicate that compared to the Maxwell models, the Burgers models involve a larger lower mantle viscosity and thicker ice over Fennoscandia and Canada.

  20. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and... CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas. (a) Identity—(1) Product definition. Frozen peas is the food in “package” form as that term...

  1. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  2. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  3. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  4. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  5. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  6. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  7. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  8. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  9. The Canadian Beef Industry

    PubMed Central

    Fredeen, H.

    1980-01-01

    The cattle industry in Canada has changed greatly over the past several decades. Size of the national dairy herd has reduced steadily but this reduction has been more than offset by an increase in the beef herd. As the dairy herd has decreased, the role of the Holstein has increased. The genetic improvement of the Canadian Holstein, based on selection procedures emphasizing progeny performance and mediated through increasing use of artificial insemination, has earned the breed a strong international reputation. This is reflected by the increasing international demand for semen. The strongest growth of the national beef herd occurred during a period of brisk import activity. Several of the new nonBritish breeds are now well established. Their advent on the Canadian scene rekindled interest in crossbreeding and systematic crossbreeding programs designed to make controlled use of heterozygosity are in the process of development. The new breeds of major importance at this time combine rapid growth rate with desirable carcass characteristics, specifically lean content. This, coupled with the carcass grade standards inaugurated in 1972, has resulted in improved efficiency of lean meat production. Importation activity has waned and a review of the production credentials of breeds not yet in Canada suggests little likelihood that they will contribute meaningfully to Canadian production. The numerous beef breeds now in Canada are presently undergoing a process of applied evaluation and relatively few of them seem destined to make a lasting contribution. The future of the cattle industry will be determined largely by economic developments. However, the ability of the ruminant to utilize food materials that do not compete directly with human demands should ensure an enduring future. PMID:7363257

  10. Trigonometric quadratic B-spline subdomain Galerkin algorithm for the Burgers' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, Buket; Dag, Idris; Gorgulu, Melis Zorsahin

    2015-12-01

    A variant of the subdomain Galerkin method has been set up to find numerical solutions of the Burgers' equation. Approximate function consists of the combination of the trigonometric B-splines. Integration of Burgers' equation has been achived by aid of the subdomain Galerkin method based on the trigonometric B-splines as an approximate functions. The resulting first order ordinary differential system has been converted into an iterative algebraic equation by use of the Crank-Nicolson method at successive two time levels. The suggested algorithm is tested on somewell-known problems for the Burgers' equation.

  11. Salmonella risk in imported fresh beef, beef preparations, and beef products.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, P; Ranta, J; Maijala, R

    2006-08-01

    Additional guarantees (AGs) for Salmonella in imported defined animal-derived foods were agreed on for Finland when it was admitted to the European Community. The aim of this project was to evaluate the impact of these AGs on the prevalence of Salmonella in the Finnish beef supply and the adequacy of their scope. According to the quantitative Bayesian model, the efficacy of AGs was mainly dependent on the proportions of different beef categories imported and the true prevalence in the countries of origin. According to the model, AGs were able to reach their target in the referred year 1999 and kept the true Salmonella prevalence of beef imports below 1% with quantified uncertainty. The extension of AGs to all imported fresh beef would have reduced the Salmonella prevalence of beef imports from three- to fourfold, whereas expanding the implementation of AGs to all imports of fresh beef, beef preparations, and beef products would have resulted in a sixfold decrease. If current AGs targeting fresh beef intended to be sold as fresh or to be processed by the Finnish industry with processes not achieving 70 degrees C were not implemented, the 95% credible interval of Salmonella prevalence in the Finnish beef supply would be 0.2 to 1.3% (mean, 0.6%) instead of 0.1 to 1.2% (mean, 0.5%). However, if the prevalence in the exporting countries were to rise or the main import countries and/or magnitudes were to change, AGs would be of greater importance.

  12. Karhunen-Loeve expansion of Burgers' model of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, D. H.; Adrian, R. J.; Stewart, D. S.; Sung, H. J.; Moin, P.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of the Karhunen-Loeve expansion of a strongly inhomogeneous random process are examined with emphasis on applications to turbulent flow fields. The ability of the KL expansion to represent functions that have both slow and rapid variations in a relatively small number of expansion terms is tested on a one-dimensional model based on the forced Burgers' equation. The rate of the convergence of the expansion is evaluated, and its dependence on the Reynolds number is determined. It is shown that the KL eigenfunctions possess wall boundary layers attached to outer structures that are independent of the Reynolds number (at high Reynolds numbers). It is also shown that the spectrum of eigenvalues is broad at large Reynolds numbers, requiring many terms to represent higher-order derivatives of the function.

  13. Subensemble decomposition and Markov process analysis of Burgers turbulence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Xiong; She, Zhen-Su

    2011-08-01

    A numerical and statistical study is performed to describe the positive and negative local subgrid energy fluxes in the one-dimensional random-force-driven Burgers turbulence (Burgulence). We use a subensemble method to decompose the field into shock wave and rarefaction wave subensembles by group velocity difference. We observe that the shock wave subensemble shows a strong intermittency which dominates the whole Burgulence field, while the rarefaction wave subensemble satisfies the Kolmogorov 1941 (K41) scaling law. We calculate the two subensemble probabilities and find that in the inertial range they maintain scale invariance, which is the important feature of turbulence self-similarity. We reveal that the interconversion of shock and rarefaction waves during the equation's evolution displays in accordance with a Markov process, which has a stationary transition probability matrix with the elements satisfying universal functions and, when the time interval is much greater than the corresponding characteristic value, exhibits the scale-invariant property.

  14. Pointwise estimates for solutions of fractal Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Tomasz; Serafin, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we provide two-sided estimates and uniform asymptotics for the solution of d-dimensional critical fractal Burgers equation ut -Δ α / 2 u + b ṡ ∇ (u | u|q) = 0, α ∈ (1 , 2), b ∈Rd for q = (α - 1) / d and u0 ∈L1 (Rd). We consider also q > (α - 1) / d under additional condition u0 ∈L∞ (Rd). In both cases we assume u0 ≥ 0, which implies that the solution is non-negative. The estimates are given in the terms of the function Ptu0, where Pt denotes the semigroup for the operator ∂t -Δ α / 2.

  15. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF... Association Louisiana Beef Industry Council Maryland Beef Council Michigan Beef Industry Commission...

  16. The effects of freezing and thawing rates on tenderness, sensory quality, and retail display of beef subprimals.

    PubMed

    Hergenreder, J E; Hosch, J J; Varnold, K A; Haack, A L; Senaratne, L S; Pokharel, S; Beauchamp, C; Lobaugh, B; Calkins, C R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate processing methods for frozen beef subprimals; the effects of freezing and thawing rates on tenderness, sensory properties, and retail display were evaluated. There were 6 treatments: fresh, never frozen 14 d wet aged (14D); fresh, never frozen 21 d wet aged (21D); blast frozen-fast thawed (BF); blast frozen-slow thawed (BS); conventionally frozen-fast thawed (CF); and conventionally frozen-slow thawed (CS). All frozen beef subprimals were aged for 14 d before freezing. Three beef subprimal cuts, rib eye roll (n=90), strip loin (n=90), and top sirloin butt (n=90), were used with 3 replications of 5 samples per treatment per week (total of 9 wk, n=270). Blast freezing occurred by placing spacers between the boxes of meat on pallets at -28°C with high air velocity for 3 to 5 d. Conventional freezing occurred with boxes of meat stacked on pallets and placed in a -28°C freezer with minimal air movement for at least 10 d. Fast thawing of subprimals (to an internal temperature of -1°C to 1°C) occurred by immersion in a circulating water bath (<12°C) for 21 h, and slow thawing of subprimals occurred over a 2-wk period by placing individual subprimals on tables at 0°C. Steaks (2.5 cm thick) were cut from the longissimus thoracis (LT), longissimus lumborum (LL), and gluteus medius (GM) for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), trained sensory evaluation, and retail display. For LL and GM beef steaks, frozen treatments were equal or lower in WBS values to 14D and 21D beef steaks. No differences were detected in WBS among the treatments applied to GM beef steaks (P=0.08). There were no differences in sensory tenderness among the LL, LT, and GM (P>0.05). All LL and LT beef steaks had approximately 4 d to 40% discoloration, and all GM steaks had over 3 d to 40% discoloration. Steaks from the LL and LT began to discolor at about 3 d, and the GM began to discolor after 1 d. For all beef subprimals, purge loss during storage and

  17. Thermalized solution of the Galerkin-truncated Burgers equation: From the birth of local structures to thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Peihua; Zhang, Jiazhong; Cao, Shengli; Prants, S. V.; Liu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Discrepancy between truncated and exact solutions of the inviscid Burgers equation is studied by the pseudo-spectral method with setting all the Fourier modes with the wavenmubers beyond a truncated wavenumber KG to be zero. A localized short-wavelength oscillation, called as a "tyger", appears at occurrence of the shock in the truncated solution. The "tyger" shows very different shapes depending on the way of truncation of the nonlinear term. Moreover, the birth of the "tyger" is related to a period-doubling bifurcation which is illustrated by a map constructed by an iterative method at the center of the "tyger". In order to study the process of stability loss of the truncated wave solution, a perturbed wave is derived. The truncated wave solution loses its stability in every oscillator mode of the perturbed wave. Finally, the long-term process of thermalization is displayed by the perturbed wave coupled with a frozen wave profile containing a symmetric pair of shocks. Thermalization appears from the both sides of small structures around the center without symmetry breaking. The phenomenon of the birth of "a tyger" and its following thermalization can be understood from the view of stability loss of the truncated wave solution.

  18. From Tilton to Ewing: Some Major Higher Education Decisions of the Burger Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Some of the major Supreme Court decisions affecting higher education during Warren E. Burger's tenure as Chief Justice are outlined. His votes and those of Associate Justice William H. Rehnquist are noted. (MLW)

  19. Evaluation of Physicochemical Deterioration and Lipid Oxidation of Beef Muscle Affected by Freeze-thaw Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. H.; Hossain, M. M.; Rahman, S. M. E.; Amin, M. R.; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the deterioration of physicochemical quality of beef hind limb during frozen storage at −20℃, affected by repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of three successive freeze-thaw cycles on beef hind limb were investigated comparing with unfrozen beef muscle for 80 d by keeping at −20±1℃. The freeze-thaw cycles were subjected to three thawing methods and carried out to select the best one on the basis of deterioration of physicochemical properties of beef. As the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased, drip loss decreased and water holding capacity (WHC) increased (p<0.05) till two cycles and then decreased. Cooking loss increased in cycle one and three but decreased in cycle two. Moreover, drip loss, WHC and cooking loss affected (p<0.05) by thawing methods within the cycles. However, pH value decreased (p<0.05), but peroxide value (p<0.05), free fatty acids value (p<0.05) and TBARS value increased (p<0.05) significantly as the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased. Moreover, significant (p<0.05) interactive effects were found among the thawing methods and repeated cycles. As a result, freeze-thaw cycles affected the physicochemical quality of beef muscle, causing the degradation of its quality. PMID:26877637

  20. Traveling wave solution of fractional KdV-Burger-Kuramoto equation describing nonlinear physical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. K.; Ray, S. Saha

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, KdV-Burger-Kuramoto equation involving instability, dissipation, and dispersion parameters is solved numerically. The numerical solution for the fractional order KdV-Burger-Kuramoto (KBK) equation has been presented using two-dimensional Legendre wavelet method. The approximate solutions of nonlinear fractional KBK equation thus obtained by Legendre wavelet method are compared with the exact solutions. The present scheme is very simple, effective and convenient for obtaining numerical solution of the KBK equation.

  1. [Hendrik Burger, editor-in-chief of the Dutch Journal of Medicine 1904- 1913].

    PubMed

    van't Hof, S E

    2007-07-28

    Hendrik Burger (1864-1957) became the sixth editor-in-chief of the Journal before gaining international fame as a professor of otorhinolaryngology. He was more a teacher than researcher, and his clinic in Amsterdam became an internationally renowned training centre. He advocated better public healthcare for children who were deaf/mute or had impaired hearing and founded schools for these children. A prolific writer, Burger contributed more than 400 papers to the Journal.

  2. Effect of ground poppy seed as a fat replacer on meat burgers.

    PubMed

    Gök, Veli; Akkaya, Levent; Obuz, Ersel; Bulut, Sait

    2011-12-01

    Poppy seed paste was used in koefte production as an animal fat replacer and efficacy of using poppy seed was investigated. The use of ground poppy seed in formulation of meat burgers had no effect on the moisture content of uncooked meat burgers; however, it did have a significant effect (p<0.05) on the fat content of meat burgers. Ground poppy seed addition significantly affected (p<0.05) cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention of meat burgers. Ground poppy seed addition significantly decreased (p<0.05) saturated fatty acid contents as the amount of ground poppy seed increased in meat burgers. A strong significant decrease (p<0.05) on the cholesterol content of meat burgers with ground poppy seed addition was observed. Samples having 20% ground poppy seed had significantly better texture and juiciness score (p<0.05) than any other sample which could be explained by increased moisture retention. Replacing animal fat with ground poppy seed paste is effective and may pave the way for an innovative meat product.

  3. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    PubMed

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  4. Honey inhibits lipid oxidation in ready-to-eat ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J E; Sepe, H A; Miano, C L; Brannan, R G; Alderton, A L

    2005-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of clover (CH) and wildflower honeys (WH) in delaying lipid oxidation in cooked and reheated ground beef patties stored in refrigerated and frozen states. CH and WH (5%, 10%, or 15% w/w) were each mixed separately into ground beef chuck (18% fat) and formed into 30g patties mixed with 1% salt (w/w). A control (CON) with no honey and a control with sodium tripolyphosphate (STP; 0.25% w/w) were used for comparison. Patties were cooked to 71°C, overwrapped with oxygen-permeable PVC film and either stored refrigerated (4°C) for 12 days or frozen (-18°C) for 45 days. Cook yield, pH and water activity were measured on day 0. On designated sampling days, patties were reheated to 71°C. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) were measured spectrophotometrically to assess lipid oxidation. TBARS and LOOH of ready-to-eat (RTE) ground beef patties containing either CH or WH were lower (P<0.01) than CON patties following storage; however, STP patties had lower TBARS values than honey-containing patties (P<0.01). WH and CH at 15% were equally effective in suppressing LOOH compared to STP in refrigerated and frozen patties. All honey concentrations improved cook yield, with 10% WH being more effective than STP. Both CH and WH delayed lipid oxidation in RTE ground beef patties stored at 4°C and -18°C, with WH decreasing LOOH formation in refrigerated patties as effectively as STP. Honey may be a natural alternative to phosphates to delay lipid oxidation.

  5. Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat burgers sampled anonymously at the point of sale in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Gillespie, I A; Mitchell, R T

    2001-12-01

    During May and June 1999 a microbiological study of ready-to-eat burgers purchased anonymously from burger outlets (combined take-away and burger restaurants, take-away-only fixed premises, mobile vendors, temporary stalls and other burger outlets) was undertaken. The intention was to determine the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat burgers as purchased by customers of take-away premises and to ascertain, where information was available, whether the Chief Medical Officer's advice on cooking burgers was being followed. Examination of 3,128 ready-to-eat burgers found that 2,868 (92%) were of acceptable quality and 260 (8%) were of unsatisfactory quality. Unsatisfactory results were mostly due to high aerobic colony counts (ACCs). Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli O157 were not detected in any of the samples examined. Acceptable microbiological quality of ready-to-eat burgers was associated with outlets, such as combined take-away and burger restaurants and in particular national franchise outlets, which had management food hygiene training and hazard analysis in place. Poor microbiological quality was associated with undercooking and local outlets as indicated by Local Authority Inspectors' Consumers at Risk scores.

  6. Generalized Magnetic Field Effects in Burgers' Nanofluid Model

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, M. M.; Yang, Z.; Awais, Muhammad; Nawaz, Maria; Hayat, Tasawar

    2017-01-01

    Analysis has been conducted to present the generalized magnetic field effects on the flow of a Burgers' nanofluid over an inclined wall. Mathematical modelling for hydro-magnetics reveals that the term “σB02u/ρ” is for the Newtonian model whereas the generalized magnetic field term (as mentioned in Eq 4) is for the Burgers’ model which is incorporated in the current analysis to get the real insight of the problem for hydro-magnetics. Brownian motion and thermophoresis phenomenon are presented to analyze the nanofluidics for the non-Newtonian fluid. Mathematical analysis is completed in the presence of non-uniform heat generation/absorption. The constructed set of partial differential system is converted into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential system by employing the suitable transformations. Homotopy approach is employed to construct the analytical solutions which are shown graphically for sundr5y parameters including Deborah numbers, magnetic field, thermophoresis, Brownian motion and non-uniform heat generation/absorption. A comparative study is also presented showing the comparison of present results with an already published data. PMID:28045965

  7. Enhanced energy fluxes via phase precession in forced Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Brendan; Bustamante, Miguel; Buzzicotti, Michele; Biferale, Luca

    2016-11-01

    We present a study of phase dynamics in the non-linear forced Burgers' equation. We uncover a connection between energy flux across scales and the evolution of triad phase combinations in Fourier space. As this energy is dissipated at small scales, real-space shock structures are associated with entangled correlations amongst the phase precession dynamics and the amplitude evolution of triads in Fourier space. We compute precession frequencies of the triad phases, which show a non-Gaussian distribution with multiple peaks and fat tails, with significant correlation between precession frequencies and amplitude growth. The observed fat tails and non-zero precession frequencies are two key criteria for enhancing energy fluxes via precession resonance. We search for this resonance by varying the forcing strength and frequency and, additionally, by modifying the dimension of the underlying system via fractal Fourier decimation. Supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology, Action MP1305) and SFI (Science Foundation Ireland, research Grant No. 12/IP/1491).

  8. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  9. Microheterogeneity in Frozen Protein Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyoprotectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyoprotectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (−20 < TF < 0°C) on the MH generated within a frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10 wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20 wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (−16 < TF < −10°C). In the 30 wt% trehalose solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (−12 < TF < −10°C) was needed to ensure a fairly homogeneous FCL. The method developed here will be helpful for the development of uniformly frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability. PMID:25888798

  10. Microheterogeneity in frozen protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-06-20

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyo-protectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyo-protectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (-20frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (-16frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability.

  11. Differential abundance of sarcoplasmic proteome explains animal effect on beef Longissimus lumborum color stability.

    PubMed

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Li, Shuting; Rentfrow, Gregg; Beach, Carol M; Silva, Teofilo J P; Wheeler, Tommy L; Shackelford, Steven D; Grayson, Adria; McKeith, Russell O; King, D Andy

    2015-04-01

    The sarcoplasmic proteome of beef Longissimus lumborum demonstrating animal-to-animal variation in color stability was examined to correlate proteome profile with color. Longissimus lumborum (36 h post-mortem) muscles were obtained from 73 beef carcasses, aged for 13 days, and fabricated to 2.5-cm steaks. One steak was allotted to retail display, and another was immediately vacuum packaged and frozen at -80°C. Aerobically packaged steaks were stored under display, and color was evaluated on days 0 and 11. The steaks were ranked based on redness and color stability on day 11, and ten color-stable and ten color-labile carcasses were identified. Sarcoplasmic proteome of frozen steaks from the selected carcasses was analyzed. Nine proteins were differentially abundant in color-stable and color-labile steaks. Three glycolytic enzymes (phosphoglucomutase-1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase M2) were over-abundant in color-stable steaks and positively correlated (P<0.05) to redness and color stability. These results indicated that animal variations in proteome contribute to differences in beef color.

  12. Acid phosphatase activity and color changes in consumer-style griddle-cooked ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Lyon, B G; Davis, C E; Windham, W R; Lyon, C E

    2001-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration have issued temperature requirements to help consumers cook beef patty products that are free of pathogens. Verification of end-point temperature (EPT) is needed in cooked meat products due to concerns over outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was studied as a potential method for determination of EPT in ground beef patties cooked nonfrozen, patties frozen 7 days and thawed at room temperature 4 h in a refrigerator or by microwave, and patties made from ground beef frozen in store packages, then thawed in a refrigerator overnight. Pressed-out meat juices were analyzed from patties (n = 314) cooked to 57.2 degrees C (135 degrees F). 65.6 degrees C (150 degrees F), 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F), and 79.4 degrees C (175 degrees F) target EPTs. Expressed meat juice and internal meat patty color decreased in redness as EPT increased. Freezing whole packs with slow refrigerator or room temperature thawing caused significantly greater loss of redness in expressed cooked meat juice than did other handling methods. Log10 ACP had a significant linear (R2 = 0.99) response to EPT. Results show that the 3- to 5-min ACP test could be used to verify EPT in griddle-cooked hamburger patties.

  13. [Rapid frozen sections in neuropathology].

    PubMed

    Haybaeck, J; von Campe, G; Hainfellner, J A

    2012-09-01

    Neuropathological evaluation of frozen sections requires a) special expertise in neuropathological specimen assessment and neurooncology as well as b) a trustful and open communication culture with the neurosurgeons. In addition to frozen sections, cytological examinations of smear and touch preparations as supporting methods are available to reach a correct diagnosis: these additional methods should therefore be performed whenever possible. Besides evaluation of biopsy specimens, appraisal of resection specimens and resection margin controls are of high clinical relevance. In the case of diffusely infiltrating central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms, in particular gliomas, resection margin control is often not feasible in contrast to other types of solid tumor.

  14. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    PubMed

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones.

  15. Autophagy during beef aging

    PubMed Central

    García-Macia, Marina; Sierra, Verónica; Palanca, Ana; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio; de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Rodríguez-González, Susana; Oliván, Mamen; Coto-Montes, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of muscle into meat is a complex process of major concern for meat scientists due to its influence on the final meat quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of autophagic processes in the conversion of muscle into meat. Our findings demonstrated, for the first time, the occurrence of autophagic processes in the muscle tissue at early postmortem period (2 h to 24 h) in both beef breeds studied (Asturiana de los Valles and Asturiana de la Montaña) showing significant time-scale differences between breeds, which could indicate a role of this process in meat maturation. These breeds have different physiological features: while Asturiana de los Valles is a meat-specialized breed showing high growth rate, an elevated proportion of white fibers in the muscle and low intramuscular fat level, Asturiana de la Montaña is a small- to medium-sized rustic breed adapted to less-favored areas, showing more red fibers in the muscle and a high intramuscular fat content. PMID:24225649

  16. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonellae, and Campylobacter jejuni in raw ground beef by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Clavero, M R; Monk, J D; Beuchat, L R; Doyle, M P; Brackett, R E

    1994-01-01

    Raw ground beef patties inoculated with stationary-phase cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonellae, or Campylobacter jejuni were subjected to gamma irradiation (60Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 2.52 kGy. The influence of two levels of fat (8 to 14% [low fat] and 27 to 28% [high fat]) and temperature (frozen [-17 to -15 degrees C] and refrigerated [3 to 5 degrees C]) on the inactivation of each pathogen by irradiation was investigated. In ascending order of irradiation resistance, the D10 values ranged from 0.175 to 0.235 kGy (C. jejuni), from 0.241 to 0.307 kGy (E. coli O157:H7), and from 0.618 to 0.800 kGy (salmonellae). Statistical analysis revealed that E. coli O157:H7 had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher D10 value when irradiated at -17 to -15 degrees C than when irradiated at 3 to 5 degrees C. Regardless of the temperature during irradiation, the level of fat did not have a significant effect on the D10 value. Salmonellae behaved like E. coli O157:H7 in low-fat beef, but temperature did not have a significant effect when the pathogen was irradiated in high-fat ground beef. Significantly higher D10 values were calculated for C. jejuni irradiated in frozen than in refrigerated low-fat beef. C. jejuni was more resistant to irradiation in low-fat beef than in high-fat beef when treatment was at -17 to -15 degrees C. Regardless of the fat level and temperature during inactivation, these pathogens were highly sensitive to gamma irradiation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8031098

  17. A Preliminary Study of the Burgers Equation with Symbolic Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derickson, Russell G.; Pielke, Roger A.

    2000-07-01

    A novel approach based on recursive symbolic computation is introduced for the approximate analytic solution of the Burgers equation. Once obtained, appropriate numerical values can be inserted into the symbolic solution to explore parametric variations. The solution is valid for both inviscid and viscous cases, covering the range of Reynolds number from 500 to infinity, whereas current direct numerical simulation (DNS) methods are limited to Reynolds numbers no greater than 4000. What further distinguishes the symbolic approach from numerical and traditional analytic techniques is the ability to reveal and examine direct nonlinear interactions between waves, including the interplay between inertia and viscosity. Thus, preliminary efforts suggest that symbolic computation may be quite effective in unveiling the “anatomy” of the myriad interactions that underlie turbulent behavior. However, due to the tendency of nonlinear symbolic operations to produce combinatorial explosion, future efforts will require the development of improved filtering processes to select and eliminate computations leading to negligible high order terms. Indeed, the initial symbolic computations present the character of turbulence as a problem in combinatorics. At present, results are limited in time evolution, but reveal the beginnings of the well-known “saw tooth” waveform that occurs in the inviscid case (i.e., Re=∞). Future efforts will explore more fully developed 1-D flows and investigate the potential to extend symbolic computations to 2-D and 3-D. Potential applications include the development of improved subgrid scale (SGS) parameterizations for large eddy simulation (LES) models, and studies that complement DNS in exploring fundamental aspects of turbulent flow behavior.

  18. Resolving disputes over frozen embryos.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J A

    1989-01-01

    The relation between respect for family and reproductive choice and use of IVF technology is in dispute in recent legal cases on the disposition of frozen embryos. Couples in IVF programs should be encouraged to stipulate in advance binding instructions regarding the disposition of such embryos.

  19. Frozen Scope and Grammatical Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The literature on quantifier scope has repeatedly observed that some otherwise expected permutations of scope taking elements are unavailable. Various methods have been proffered explaining these facts. This thesis aims to unify three disparate areas where the scope of operators seems to be frozen: the interaction of universal quantifiers with…

  20. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  1. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  2. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  3. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  4. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  5. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  6. Another Look at the Burger Court and Freedom of Expression: A Textual Approach to First Amendment Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Ruth

    An analysis of the Supreme Court's First Amendment decisions under Chief Justice Warren Burger does not indicate any pattern of repudiation of doctrinal advances made by earlier courts. Like its predecessors, the Burger Court has dealt most frequently with First Amendment cases requiring definition and interpretation of government abridgement. In…

  7. The Legacy of the Burger Court and the Schools, 1969-1986. NOLPE Monograph/Book Series No. 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacca, Richard S.; Hudgins, H. C., Jr.

    This book is limited to a study of the education opinions of the Supreme Court during the time that Warren Earl Burger served as Chief Justice. Over 100 opinions having direct bearing on education were issued during the Burger years, a total greater than in the entire Court's history. The first chapter presents the history of the establishment of…

  8. Exact solution of an electroosmotic flow for generalized Burgers fluid in cylindrical domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood; Farooq, Asma; Khan, Waqar Azeem; Hussain, Mazhar

    The present paper reports a theoretical study of the dynamics of an electroosmotic flow (EOF) in cylindrical domain. The Cauchy momentum equation is first simplified by incorporating the electrostatic body force in the electric double layer and the generalized Burgers fluid constitutive model. The electric potential distribution is given by the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. After solving the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the Cauchy momentum equation with electrostatic body force is solved analytically by using the temporal Fourier and finite Hankel transforms. The effects of important involved parameters are examined and presented graphically. The results obtained reveal that the magnitude of velocity increases with increase of the Debye-Huckel and electrokinetic parameters. Further, it is shown that the results presented for generalized Burgers fluid are quite general so that results for the Burgers, Oldroyd-B, Maxwell and Newtonian fluids can be obtained as limiting cases.

  9. Complex PT-symmetric nonlinear Schrödinger equation and Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenya

    2013-04-28

    The complex -symmetric nonlinear wave models have drawn much attention in recent years since the complex -symmetric extensions of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation were presented in 2007. In this review, we focus on the study of the complex -symmetric nonlinear Schrödinger equation and Burgers equation. First of all, we briefly introduce the basic property of complex symmetry. We then report on exact solutions of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equations (known as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates) with several complex -symmetric potentials. Finally, some complex -symmetric extension principles are used to generate some complex -symmetric nonlinear wave equations starting from both -symmetric (e.g. the KdV equation) and non- -symmetric (e.g. the Burgers equation) nonlinear wave equations. In particular, we discuss exact solutions of some representative ones of the complex -symmetric Burgers equation in detail.

  10. Analytical study on the SGS force around an elliptic Burgers vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiromichi

    2016-11-01

    The subgrid-scale (SGS) force around an elliptic Burgers vortex is analytically examined. In turbulence, there are a lot of vortex-tubes whose cross sections are known to be approximated as the ellipse. In this study, the biaxial elliptic Burgers vortex is produced by adding the compressive and extensional background straining flow to the conventional Burgers vortex. By using a filtering operation, we revealed that the energy transfer by the Reynolds stress term applying the Bardina model exhibits negative correlation to that by the true SGS stress term. However, it has been recently reported that a combination of the Bardina Reynolds term and the eddy viscosity model gives good performance even for the coarse LES of turbulent channel flows. In order to understand that, we discuss some SGS forces: by the true SGS stress tensor, by the eddy viscosity model, by the modified Leonard term and by the Bardina Reynolds term. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26420122.

  11. Simulation of the Burgers equation by NMR quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhiying; Cory, David G.; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2006-10-15

    We report on the implementation of Burgers equation as a type-II quantum computation on a NMR quantum-information processor. Since the flow field evolving under the Burgers equation develops sharp features over time, this is a better test of liquid-state NMR implementations of type-II quantum computers than the previous examples using the diffusion equation. In particular, we show that Fourier approximations used in the encoding step are not the dominant error. Small systematic errors in the collision operator accumulate and swamp all other errors. We propose, and demonstrate, that the accumulation of this error can be avoided to a large extent by replacing the single collision operator with a set of operators with random errors and similar fidelities. Experiments have been implemented on 16 two-qubit sites for eight successive time steps for the Burgers equation.

  12. Evaluation of combined effects of ageing period and freezing rate on quality attributes of beef loins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuan H Brad; Liesse, Charlotte; Kemp, Robert; Balan, Prabhu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the combined effects of ageing period and different freezing rates on meat quality attributes of beef loins. Pairs of loins (M. longissimus at 1 day post mortem) from 12 carcasses were divided into four equal portions and randomly assigned to four ageing/freezing treatments (aged only, frozen only, and 3 or 4 weeks ageing at -1.5°C then frozen). Two freezing methods (fast freezing by calcium chloride immersion or slow freezing by air freezer at -18°C) were applied to the loin sections. Fast freezing had no effect on shear force (P>0.05), but significantly improved the water-holding capacity of the aged/frozen loins by reducing purge and drip losses. Ageing-then-freezing significantly improved shear force values of loins compared to both the aged only and frozen only loins. These observations suggest that fast freezing will add more value to the aged/frozen/thawed meat by minimising the amount of water-loss due to the freezing/thawing process.

  13. Application of cranberry concentrate (Vaccinium macrocarpon) to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef and its antimicrobial mechanism related to the downregulated slp, hdeA and cfa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vivian C H; Qiu, Xujian; de los Reyes, Benildo G; Lin, Chih-Sheng; Pan, Yingjie

    2009-02-01

    The possible use of cranberry concentrate (CC) as a natural food preservative was studied by examining its antimicrobial effect on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in ground beef, its organoleptical effect on beef patties, and its antimicrobial mechanism on the gene regulation level. Inoculated ground beef was added with CC and stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. Bacteria were detected on day 0, 1, 3, and 5. Cranberry concentrate (2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% w/w) reduced total aerobic bacteria 1.5 log, 2.1 log, and 2.7 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 0.4 log, 0.7 log, and 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively, when compared to the control on day 5. Fifty panelists evaluated the burgers supplemented with CC. No differences in appearance, flavor, and taste were found among burgers with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% CC. The expression of E. coli O157:H7 cyclopropane fatty acyl phospholipid synthase (cfa), hypothetical protein (hdeA), outer membrane porin protein C (ompC), hyperosmotically inducible periplasmic protein (osmY), and outer membrane protein induced after carbon starvation (slp) genes with or without CC (2.5% v/v) treatment was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to the control, slp, hdeA, and cfa were markedly downregulated, ompC was slightly downregulated, while osmY was slightly affected.

  14. Fronts in randomly advected and heterogeneous media and nonuniversality of Burgers turbulence: Theory and numerics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Kerstein, Alan R.

    2008-11-01

    A recently established mathematical equivalence—between weakly perturbed Huygens fronts (e.g., flames in weak turbulence or geometrical-optics wave fronts in slightly nonuniform media) and the inviscid limit of white-noise-driven Burgers turbulence—motivates theoretical and numerical estimates of Burgers-turbulence properties for specific types of white-in-time forcing. Existing mathematical relations between Burgers turbulence and the statistical mechanics of directed polymers, allowing use of the replica method, are exploited to obtain systematic upper bounds on the Burgers energy density, corresponding to the ground-state binding energy of the directed polymer and the speedup of the Huygens front. The results are complementary to previous studies of both Burgers turbulence and directed polymers, which have focused on universal scaling properties instead of forcing-dependent parameters. The upper-bound formula can be heuristically understood in terms of renormalization of a different kind from that previously used in combustion models, and also shows that the burning velocity of an idealized turbulent flame does not diverge with increasing Reynolds number at fixed turbulence intensity, a conclusion that applies even to strong turbulence. Numerical simulations of the one-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation using a Lagrangian finite-element method confirm that the theoretical upper bounds are sharp within about 15% for various forcing spectra (corresponding to various two-dimensional random media). These computations provide a quantitative test of the replica method. The inferred nonuniversality (spectrum dependence) of the front speedup is of direct importance for combustion modeling.

  15. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality of the cream used shall meet the requirements of cream acceptable for the manufacture of U.S. Grade AA...

  16. 5 CFR 1650.3 - Frozen accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen accounts. 1650.3 Section 1650.3... SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.3 Frozen accounts. (a) All withdrawals from the TSP are subject to the rules... participant may not withdraw any portion of his or her account balance if the account is frozen due to...

  17. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually or... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat...

  18. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually or... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat...

  19. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually or... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat...

  20. Suitability of selective plating media for recovering heat- or freeze-stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 from tryptic soy broth and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Rocelle, M; Clavero, S; Beuchat, L R

    1995-09-01

    The efficacy of tryptic soy agar (TSA), modified sorbitol MacConkey agar (MSMA), modified eosin methylene blue (MEMB) agar, and modified SD-39 (MSD) agar in recovering a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and five non-O157 strains of E. coli heated in tryptic soy broth at 52, 54, or 56 degrees C for 10, 20, and 30 min was determined. Nonselective TSA supported the highest recovery of heated cells. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower recovery of heat-stressed cells was observed on MSMA than on TSA, MEMB agar, or MSD agar. The suitability of MEMB agar or MSD agar for recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated or frozen (-20 degrees C) low- or high-fat ground beef was determined. Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated ground beef was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher on TSA than on MEMB agar, which in turn supported higher recovery than MSD agar did; MSMA was inferior. Recovery from frozen ground beef was also higher on MEMB and MSD agars than on MSMA. Higher populations were generally recovered from high-fat beef than from low-fat beef, but the relative performance of the recovery media was the same. The inability of MSMA to recover stressed cells of E. coli O157:H7 underscores the need to develop a better selective medium for enumerating E. coli O157:H7.

  1. Suitability of selective plating media for recovering heat- or freeze-stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 from tryptic soy broth and ground beef.

    PubMed Central

    Rocelle, M; Clavero, S; Beuchat, L R

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of tryptic soy agar (TSA), modified sorbitol MacConkey agar (MSMA), modified eosin methylene blue (MEMB) agar, and modified SD-39 (MSD) agar in recovering a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and five non-O157 strains of E. coli heated in tryptic soy broth at 52, 54, or 56 degrees C for 10, 20, and 30 min was determined. Nonselective TSA supported the highest recovery of heated cells. Significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower recovery of heat-stressed cells was observed on MSMA than on TSA, MEMB agar, or MSD agar. The suitability of MEMB agar or MSD agar for recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated or frozen (-20 degrees C) low- or high-fat ground beef was determined. Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 from heated ground beef was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher on TSA than on MEMB agar, which in turn supported higher recovery than MSD agar did; MSMA was inferior. Recovery from frozen ground beef was also higher on MEMB and MSD agars than on MSMA. Higher populations were generally recovered from high-fat beef than from low-fat beef, but the relative performance of the recovery media was the same. The inability of MSMA to recover stressed cells of E. coli O157:H7 underscores the need to develop a better selective medium for enumerating E. coli O157:H7. PMID:7574637

  2. Determination of Burgers vectors in close-packed metals using g.b = 2 contrast.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kestenbach, H.-J.; Hren, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Reexamination of dislocation images giving double contrast in the electron microscope for g.b = 2 as a possible means for Burgers vector determinations. In fcc foils which have been cut parallel to an active slip plane, the g.b = 2 criterion provides a quick positive Burgers vector analysis which can be carried out during observation. The method is also applicable to basal dislocations in hcp. A comparison between calculated two-beam profiles and experimental images in aluminum is discussed, and several commonly observed characteristics of g.b = 2 contrast are described.

  3. Scaling Laws for the Multidimensional Burgers Equation with Quadratic External Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonenko, N. N.; Ruiz-Medina, M. D.

    2006-07-01

    The reordering of the multidimensional exponential quadratic operator in coordinate-momentum space (see X. Wang, C.H. Oh and L.C. Kwek (1998). J. Phys. A.: Math. Gen. 31:4329-4336) is applied to derive an explicit formulation of the solution to the multidimensional heat equation with quadratic external potential and random initial conditions. The solution to the multidimensional Burgers equation with quadratic external potential under Gaussian strongly dependent scenarios is also obtained via the Hopf-Cole transformation. The limiting distributions of scaling solutions to the multidimensional heat and Burgers equations with quadratic external potential are then obtained under such scenarios.

  4. The Statistics of Burgers Turbulence Initialized with Fractional Brownian Noise Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Reade

    The statistics of the solution to the inviscid Burgers equation are investigated when the initial velocity potential is fractional Brownian motion. Using the theory of large deviations for Gaussian processes, we characterize the tails of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the velocity, the distance between shocks, and the shock strength. These PDFs are shown to decay like ``stretched'' exponentials of the form . Our method of proof can also be used to extend these results to a much larger class of Gaussian potentials. This work generalizes the results of Avellaneda and E [2, 3] on the inviscid Burgers equation with white-noise initial data.

  5. Periodic boundary conditions for KdV-Burgers equation on an interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samokhin, Alexey

    2017-03-01

    For the KdV-Burgers equation on a finite interval the development of a regular profile starting from a constant one under a periodic perturbation on the boundary is studied. The equation describes a medium which is both dissipative and dispersive. For an appropriate combination of dispersion and dissipation the asymptotic profile looks like a periodical chain of shock fronts with a decreasing amplitude (similarly to the Burgers equation case). But due to dispersion each such front is followed by increasing oscillation leading to the next shock-like the ninth wave in rough seas. The development of such a profile is preceded by an initial shock of a constant height.

  6. Asymptotic behavior for the viscous Burgers equation with a stationary source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jaywan; Kwon, Ohsang

    2016-10-01

    Long-time asymptotic behavior for the viscous Burgers equation on the real line is considered. When there is a non-negative and compactly supported Radon measure as a stationary source, we prove that solutions of the viscous Burgers equation converge to a positive, bounded, and nondecreasing steady state by finding an almost optimal convergence order. The non-integrability of the steady state only allows local convergence on compact subsets, hence a Véron-type argument must be modified by adopting a proper weight function.

  7. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  8. Canadian beef quality audit.

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    aged. Based on January 1996 prices, the economic analysis showed that the Canadian beef industry lost $70.52 per head or $189.6 million annually from quality nonconformities. Methods identified to reduce these nonconformities included improvements in management, animal identification, handling, genetic selection, marketing, grading, and information transfer. PMID:9105719

  9. The JLab Frozen Spin Target

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, C. D.

    2009-08-04

    A polarized, frozen spin target has been designed and constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol are polarized via dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to approximately 90% using microwaves and an external, 5 T solenoid magnet. The target sample is then cooled to approximately 30 mK while an internal 0.56 T superconducting magnet is used to maintain the polarization. Relaxation times in excess of 3500 hours have been observed.

  10. Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kôji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao

    Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10°C for 50 min, or at 0°C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20°C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10°C and -5°C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5°C and -1°C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10°C to -l°C.

  11. Health Implications of Beef Intramuscular Fat Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Despite several issues in relation to human health, beef is still a most popular meat product among large section of society due to the presence of high quality protein and other nutrients. The current paper reviews numerous studies that provide nutritional profiles and health implications of high marbled beef consumption. In relation to lipid content of beef, intramuscular fat contains high level of PUFA and MUFA compared to other beef fat. Level and composition of intramuscular fat varies depending on breed and feeding regime. Literature suggests that the marbling is more complex than the development of subcutaneous fat and marbling not only provides good fatty acids but also contributes to the higher eating quality of beef. Finally, the current work emphasize that meat plays a pivotal role in nutritious diets, high quality marbled beef is not only of excellent eating quality but also contain more beneficial fatty acids. PMID:27857532

  12. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... beef, or both, but not including beef byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  13. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... beef, or both, but not including beef byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  14. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... beef, or both, but not including beef byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  15. A control problem for Burgers' equation with bounded input/output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, John A.; Kang, Sungkwon

    1990-01-01

    A stabilization problem for Burgers' equation is considered. Using linearization, various controllers are constructed which minimize certain weighted energy functionals. These controllers produce the desired degree of stability for the closed-loop nonlinear system. A numerical scheme for computing the feedback gain functional is developed and several numerical experiments are performed to show the theoretical results.

  16. New iterative method for fractional gas dynamics and coupled Burger's equations.

    PubMed

    Al-Luhaibi, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the approximate analytical solutions to solve the nonlinear gas dynamics and coupled Burger's equations with fractional time derivative. By using initial values, the explicit solutions of the equations are solved by using a reliable algorithm. Numerical results show that the new iterative method is easy to implement and accurate when applied to time-fractional partial differential equations.

  17. Comment on ``Connection between the Burgers equation with an elastic forcing term and a stochastic process''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    2006-08-01

    In the above mentioned paper by E. Moreau and O. Vallée [Phys. Rev. E 73, 016112 (2006)], the one-dimensional Burgers equation with an elastic (attractive) forcing term has been claimed to be connected with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We point out that this connection is valid only in the case of repulsive forcing.

  18. Exact solutions and conservation laws of the system of two-dimensional viscous Burgers equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim

    2016-10-01

    Fluid turbulence is one of the phenomena that has been studied extensively for many decades. Due to its huge practical importance in fluid dynamics, various models have been developed to capture both the indispensable physical quality and the mathematical structure of turbulent fluid flow. Among the prominent equations used for gaining in-depth insight of fluid turbulence is the two-dimensional Burgers equations. Its solutions have been studied by researchers through various methods, most of which are numerical. Being a simplified form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and its wide range of applicability in various fields of science and engineering, development of computationally efficient methods for the solution of the two-dimensional Burgers equations is still an active field of research. In this study, Lie symmetry method is used to perform detailed analysis on the system of two-dimensional Burgers equations. Optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras up to conjugacy is derived and used to obtain distinct exact solutions. These solutions not only help in understanding the physical effects of the model problem but also, can serve as benchmarks for constructing algorithms and validation of numerical solutions of the system of Burgers equations under consideration at finite Reynolds numbers. Independent and nontrivial conserved vectors are also constructed.

  19. Combined effect of MAP and active compounds on fresh blue fish burger.

    PubMed

    Del Nobile, M A; Corbo, M R; Speranza, B; Sinigaglia, M; Conte, A; Caroprese, M

    2009-11-15

    The combined effects of three essential oils [thymol, lemon extract and grapefruit seed extract (GFSE)] and modified atmosphere packaging conditions (MAP) on quality retention of blue fish burgers was studied and discussed. In particular, samples were packaged in air and in three different gas mix compositions: 30:40:30 O(2):CO(2):N(2), 50:50 O(2):CO(2) and 5:95 O(2):CO(2). During a 28-day storage period at 4 degrees C, the nutritional, microbiological and sensorial quality of the packed products was assessed. The potential development of biogenic amines was also evaluated. The obtained results highlight the possibility to improve the microbial quality of blue fish burgers by using very small amount of thymol (110ppm), GFSE (100ppm) and lemon extract (120ppm) in combination with MAP. Based primarily on microbiological results, the combined use of the tested natural preservatives and a packaging system characterized by a high CO(2)-concentration, was able to guarantee the microbial acceptability of fish burgers until the 28th day of storage at 4 degrees C. On the other hand, results from sensory analyses showed that sensorial quality was the sub-index that limited the burgers shelf life (to about 22-23days), even if the proposed strategy was also effective in minimizing the sensory quality loss of the product having no effect on its nutritional quality.

  20. Constructing "Childhood" and Creating "Children" in the 1950s: Isabel Burger and Charlotte Chorpenning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodson, Stephani Etheridge

    2000-01-01

    Examines the social construction of "childhood" and of "children" within two important theoretical texts published in the 1950s: Isabel Burger's "Creative Play Acting: Learning through Drama" and Charlotte Chorpenning's "Twenty-One Years with Children's Theatre." Finds several interrelated constructs,…

  1. The Burger Court: Its Liberal/Conservative Attitude Toward Educational Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Morte, Michael W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the Burger court's liberal/conservative orientation in 65 cases grouped in the following areas: racial discrimination, separation of church and state, due process for teachers, freedom of expression, school finance, due process and equal protection for students, and school board members' liability. (Author/IRT)

  2. The Warren Court and the Burger Court: Some Comparisons of Education-Related Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Charles F.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the records of the Warren Court and the Burger Court on education-related cases concerning religion and the schools, teachers' loyalty, due process and racial segregation, freedom of expression, civil rights, and equal protection under the law. Reports the voting record of individual justices. (Author/MLF)

  3. The Supreme Court in Transition: From Warren to Burger to Rehnquist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, David M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the characteristics and landmark cases of the Warren, and Burger eras of the U.S. Supreme Court. Describes the changes taking place under Chief Justice Rehnquist and assesses the future of the Supreme Court with the addition of Justice Antonin Scalia. Maintains that the trend toward judicial activism will continue. (JDH)

  4. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  5. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  6. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  7. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  8. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  9. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  10. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  11. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    PubMed

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    PubMed Central

    Abdalrahman, Lubna S.; Wells, Harrington; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts), and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80%) followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50%) then pork 43/99 (43.3%). No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products. PMID:25927961

  13. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  14. Assessing the sustainability of beef production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a major food source, beef production provides an important service to our economy. Production of cattle and the associated feed crops also impact our environment, and this impact is not well understood. Although several studies have assessed the carbon footprint of beef, there are other environme...

  15. Protein changes in frozen fish.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Z; Olley, J; Kostuch, S

    1976-09-01

    Storage of frozen fish brings about a decrease of extractability of myofibrillar proteins. There is also deterioration of the texture and functional properties of the flesh. In model systems, aggregation of myosin, actin, tropomyosin, and whole myofibrils have been described. These changes are caused by concurrent action of partial dehydration due to the freezing out of water, exposure of the proteins to inorganic salts which are concentrated in the remaining nonfrozen fluid, interactions with free fatty acids liberated from phospholipids and with lipid oxidation products, and cross-linking by formaldehyde produced in some species of fish as a result of enzymic decomposition of trimethylamine oxide. The extent of protein alterations increases with time and temperature of storage as well as with advanced disintegration of the tissues and intermixing of their components. The role played by the individual factors and the significance of different types of bonds, i.e., hydrophobic adherences, ionic bonds, and covalent cross-links in particular cases are not yet fully disclosed. Retardation of the deteriorative changes of proteins in frozen fish is possible by avoiding high storage temperatures and oxidation of lipids, removing hematin compounds and other constituents promoting cross-linking reactions, and by adding cryoprotectors like sugars, several organic acids, amino acids, or peptides.

  16. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties.

  17. K-P-Burgers equation in negative ion-rich relativistic dusty plasma including the effect of kinematic viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, A. N.; Deka, M. K.; Sarma, J.; Saikia, D.; Adhikary, N. C.

    2016-10-01

    The stationary solution is obtained for the K-P-Burgers equation that describes the nonlinear propagations of dust ion acoustic waves in a multi-component, collisionless, un-magnetized relativistic dusty plasma consisting of electrons, positive and negative ions in the presence of charged massive dust grains. Here, the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (K-P) equation, three-dimensional (3D) Burgers equation, and K-P-Burgers equations are derived by using the reductive perturbation method including the effects of viscosity of plasma fluid, thermal energy, ion density, and ion temperature on the structure of a dust ion acoustic shock wave (DIASW). The K-P equation predictes the existences of stationary small amplitude solitary wave, whereas the K-P-Burgers equation in the weakly relativistic regime describes the evolution of shock-like structures in such a multi-ion dusty plasma.

  18. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.115 - Qualified State beef council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef council. 1260.115 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.115 Qualified State beef...

  20. Introduction to Beef Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to beef production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the beef industry; (2) breeds of beef cattle; (3) principles of beef cattle selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (7)…

  1. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and... adjustments are required by the Beef Promotion and Research Order (Order) and will result in a decrease...

  2. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion.... These adjustments are required by the Beef Promotion and Research Order (Order) and would result in...

  3. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  4. Analysis of stress-induced Burgers vector anisotropy in pressurized tube specimens of irradiated ferritic-martensitic steel: JLF-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Shibayama, T.

    1998-09-01

    A procedure for determining the Burgers vector anisotropy in irradiated ferritic steels allowing identification of all a<100> and all a/2<111> dislocations in a region of interest is applied to a pressurized tube specimen of JLF-1 irradiated at 430 C to 14.3 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV) or 61 dpa. Analysis of micrographs indicates large anisotropy in Burgers vector populations develop during irradiation creep.

  5. Protein oxidation in emulsified cooked burger patties with added fruit extracts: Influence on colour and texture deterioration during chill storage.

    PubMed

    Ganhão, Rui; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2010-07-01

    The influence of protein oxidation, as measured by the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) method, on colour and texture changes during chill storage (2 degrees C, 12days) of cooked burger patties was studied. Extracts from arbutus-berries (Arbutus unedoL., AU), common hawthorns (Crataegus monogynaL., CM), dog roses (Rosa caninaL., RC) and elm-leaf blackberries (Rubus ulmifoliusSchott., RU) were prepared, added to burger patties (3% of total weight) and evaluated as inhibitors of protein oxidation and colour and texture changes. Negative (no added extract, C) and positive control (added quercetin; 230mg/kg, Q) groups were also considered. The significant increase of protein carbonyls during chill storage of control burger patties reflect the intense oxidative degradation of the muscle proteins. Concomitantly, an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness was found to take place in burger patties throughout refrigerated storage. Most fruit extracts as well as Q significantly reduced the formation of protein carbonyls and inhibited colour and texture deterioration during chill storage. Likely mechanisms through which protein oxidation could play a major role on colour and texture changes during chill storage of burger patties are discussed. Amongst the extracts, RC was most suitable for use as a functional ingredient in processed meats since it enhanced oxidative stability, colour and texture properties of burger patties with no apparent drawbacks.

  6. An efficient method for systems of variable coefficient coupled Burgers' equation with time-fractional derivative.

    PubMed

    Aminikhah, Hossein; Malekzadeh, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    A new homotopy perturbation method (NHPM) is applied to system of variable coefficient coupled Burgers' equation with time-fractional derivative. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo fractional derivative sense. The concept of new algorithm is introduced briefly, and NHPM is examined for two systems of nonlinear Burgers' equation. In this approach, the solution is considered as a power series expansion that converges rapidly to the nonlinear problem. The new approximate analytical procedure depends on two iteratives. The modified algorithm provides approximate solutions in the form of convergent series with easily computable components. Results indicate that the introduced method is promising for solving other types of systems of nonlinear fractional-order partial differential equations.

  7. Variable-Coefficient Forced Burgers System in Nonlinear Fluid Mechanics and its Possibly Observable Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Ge; Tian, Bo

    The forced Burgers equation works as a testing ground for a real turbulence, and as the qualitative model for a wide variety of problems including charge density waves, vortex lines in superconductors, disordered solids and epitaxial growth, etc. Its variable-coefficient generalizations call for better modeling of the physical situations. In this paper, we investigate a variable-coefficient generalization of the forced Burgers equation, and obtain several sets of exact soliton-like and other exact analytic solutions, via the extension of a generalized hyperbolic-function method with computerized symbolic computation. We also discuss the Wu method. We find some possibly observable effects, which might be discovered with the relevant experiments.

  8. The first bite: Imaginaries, promotional publics and the laboratory grown burger

    PubMed Central

    O’Riordan, Kate; Fotopoulou, Aristea; Stephens, Neil

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyse a 2013 press conference hosting the world’s first tasting of a laboratory grown hamburger. We explore this as a media event: an exceptional performative moment in which common meanings are mobilised and a connection to a shared centre of reality is offered. We develop our own theoretical contribution – the promotional public – to characterise the affirmative and partial patchwork of carefully selected actors invoked during the burger tasting. Our account draws on three areas of analysis: interview data with the scientists who developed the burger, media analysis of the streamed press conference itself and media analysis of social media during and following the event. We argue that the call to witness an experiment is a form of promotion and that such promotional material also offers an address that invokes a public with its attendant tensions. PMID:27029766

  9. Approximate analytical solution of the nonlinear fractional KdV-Burgers equation: A new iterative algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ajou, Ahmad; Arqub, Omar Abu; Momani, Shaher

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, explicit and approximate solutions of the nonlinear fractional KdV-Burgers equation with time-space-fractional derivatives are presented and discussed. The solutions of our equation are calculated in the form of rabidly convergent series with easily computable components. The utilized method is a numerical technique based on the generalized Taylor series formula which constructs an analytical solution in the form of a convergent series. Five illustrative applications are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and the leverage of the present method. Graphical results and series formulas are utilized and discussed quantitatively to illustrate the solution. The results reveal that the method is very effective and simple in determination of solution of the fractional KdV-Burgers equation.

  10. The first bite: Imaginaries, promotional publics and the laboratory grown burger.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, Kate; Fotopoulou, Aristea; Stephens, Neil

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we analyse a 2013 press conference hosting the world's first tasting of a laboratory grown hamburger. We explore this as a media event: an exceptional performative moment in which common meanings are mobilised and a connection to a shared centre of reality is offered. We develop our own theoretical contribution - the promotional public - to characterise the affirmative and partial patchwork of carefully selected actors invoked during the burger tasting. Our account draws on three areas of analysis: interview data with the scientists who developed the burger, media analysis of the streamed press conference itself and media analysis of social media during and following the event. We argue that the call to witness an experiment is a form of promotion and that such promotional material also offers an address that invokes a public with its attendant tensions.

  11. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  12. Conservation laws and exact solutions of system of Boussinesq-Burgers equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbulut, Arzu; Kaplan, Melike; Taşcan, Filiz

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study conservation laws that is one of the applications of symmetries. Conservation laws has important place for differential equations and their solutions, also in all physics applications. This study deals with conservation laws of Boussinessq-Burgers equation. We used Noether approach and conservation theorem approach for finding conservation laws for this equation. Also finally, we found exact solutions of this equation by using the modified simple equation method.

  13. KdV-Burgers equation in the modified continuum model considering anticipation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaqing; Zheng, Pengjun; Zhu, Keqiang; Ge, Hongxia

    2015-11-01

    The new continuum model mentioned in this paper is developed based on optimal velocity car-following model, which takes the drivers' anticipation effect into account. The critical condition for traffic flow is derived, and nonlinear analysis shows density waves occur in traffic flow because of the small disturbance. Near the neutral stability line, the KdV-Burgers equation is derived and one of the solutions is given. Numerical simulation is carried out to show the local cluster described by the model.

  14. Partial implicitization. [numerical stability of Burger equation model for Navier-Stokes equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The steady-state solution to the full Navier-Stokes equations for complicated flows is generally difficult to obtain. The Burgers (1948) equation is used as a model of the Navier-Stokes equations. The steady-state solution is obtained by a one-step explicit technique resulting from a partial implicitization of the difference equation. Stability analysis shows that the technique is unconditionally stable, and numerical tests show the technique to be accurate.

  15. Jin–Xin relaxation solution to the spatially-varying Burgers equation in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungkasi, Sudi; Laras, Fioretta

    2017-01-01

    We consider the spatially-varying Burgers equation in one dimension. We take the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume method and Jin–Xin relaxation method in solving the equation. According to our research, the Jin–Xin relaxation method produces a more accurate solution, as they produce smaller error than the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume method. However, the Lax–Friedrichs finite volume method is faster in computation than the Jin–Xin method.

  16. On multi-graded-index soliton solutions for the Boussinesq-Burgers equations in optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Gawad, H. I.; Tantawy, M.

    2017-02-01

    Very recently, multi-solitary long waves for the homogeneous Boussinesq-Burgers equations (BBEs) were studied. Here its found that the time dependent coefficients (BBEs), shows multi-graded-index solitons waves, which are graded refractive index profile and can offer a new route for high-power lasers and transmission. They should increase data rates in low-cost telecommunications systems. Further, that (BBEs) show long periodic solitons waves in communications and television antennas.

  17. Exponential Ergodicity of Stochastic Burgers Equations Driven by α-Stable Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhao; Xu, Lihu; Zhang, Xicheng

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we prove the strong Feller property and the exponential ergodicity of stochastic Burgers equations driven by α/2-subordinated cylindrical Brownian motions with α∈(1,2). To prove the results, we truncate the nonlinearity and use the derivative formula for SDEs driven by α-stable noises established in (Zhang in Stoch. Process. Appl. 123(4):1213-1228, 2013).

  18. Testing the frozen flow approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the frozen-flow approximation (FFA), recently proposed by Matarrese, et al. (1992), for following the nonlinear evolution of cosmological density fluctuations under gravitational instability. We compare a number of statistics between results of the FFA and n-body simulations, including those used by Melott, Pellman & Shandarin (1993) to test the Zel'dovich approximation. The FFA performs reasonably well in a statistical sense, e.g. in reproducing the counts-in-cell distribution, at small scales, but it does poorly in the crosscorrelation with n-body which means it is generally not moving mass to the right place, especially in models with high small-scale power.

  19. Effect of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) and ascorbic acid on physical characteristics and oxidative status of fresh and stored rabbit burgers.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Simone; Preziuso, Giovanna; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Szendrő, Zsolt; Fratini, Filippo; Paci, Gisella

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Curcuma longa powder and ascorbic acid on some quality traits of rabbit burgers. The burgers (burgers control with no additives; burgers with 3.5 g of turmeric powder/100g meat; burgers with 0.1g of ascorbic acid/100g meat) were analyzed at Days 0 and 7 for pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, fatty acid profile, TBARS, antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) and microbial growth. The addition of turmeric powder modified the meat color, produced an antioxidant capacity similar to ascorbic acid and determined a lower cooking loss than other formulations. Turmeric powder might be considered as a useful natural antioxidant, increasing the quality and extending the shelf life of rabbit burgers.

  20. Functional proteomic and interactome analysis of proteins associated with beef tenderness in angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef is a source of high quality protein for the human population, and beef tenderness has significant influence on beef palatability, consumer expectation and industry profitability. To further elucidate the factors affecting beef tenderness, functional proteomics and bioinformatics interactome ana...

  1. Expression Marker-Based Strategy to Improve Beef Quality

    PubMed Central

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Picard, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    For beef cattle research, a main objective is to control concomitantly the development of muscles and the qualities of beef cuts. Beef quality is a complex phenotype that is only detectable after slaughter and is highly variable. The beef industry is in need of tools to estimate beef quality of live cattle or online in abattoirs, with specific attention towards sensory attributes (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, and colour). Identification of relevant genetic and genomic markers is ongoing, especially for tenderness—a top priority quality attribute. In this paper, we describe the steps of an expression marker-based strategy to improve beef sensory quality, from the discovery of biomarkers that identify consistent beef and the biological functions governing beef tenderness to the integration of the knowledge into detection tests for desirable animals. These tools should soon be available for the management of sensory quality in the beef production chain for meeting market's demands and assuring good quality standards. PMID:27066527

  2. Stochastic heat and Burgers equations and their singularities. II. Analytical properties and limiting distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ian M.; Truman, Aubrey; Zhao, Huaizhong

    2005-04-01

    We study the inviscid limit, μ →0, of the stochastic viscous Burgers equation, for the velocity field vμ(x,t), t >0, x εRd, (∂vμ/∂t)+(vμ.∇)vμ=-∇c(x,t)-ε∇k(x,t)Ẇt+(μ2/2)Δvμ, for small ε, with vμ(x,0)≡∇S0(x) for some given S0, Ẇt representing white noise. Here we use the Hopf-Cole transformation, vμ=-μ2∇lnuμ, where uμ satisfies the stochastic heat equation of Stratonovich-type and the Feynmac-Kac Truman-Zhao formula for uμ, where dutμ(x )=[(μ2/2)Δutμ(x)+μ-2c(x,t)utμ(x)]dt+εμ-2k(x,t)utμ(x)∘dWt, with u0μ(x)=T0(x)exp(-S0(x)/μ2), S0 as before and T0 a smooth positive function. In an earlier paper, Davies, Truman, and Zhao [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3293 (2002)], an exact solution of the stochastic viscous Burgers equation was used to show how the formal "blow-up" of the Burgers velocity field occurs on random shockwaves for the vμ =0 solution of Burgers equation coinciding with the caustics of a corresponding Hamiltonian system with classical flow map Φ. Moreover, the uμ =0 solution of the stochastic heat equation has its wavefront determined by the behavior of the Hamilton principal function of the corresponding stochastic mechanics. This led in particular to the level surface of the minimizing Hamilton-Jacobi function developing cusps at points corresponding to points of intersection of the corresponding prelevel surface with the precaustic, "pre" denoting the preimage under Φ determined algebraically. These results were primarily of a geometrical nature. In this paper we consider small ε and derive the shape of the random shockwave for the inviscid limit of the stochastic Burgers velocity field and also give the equation determining the random wavefront for the stochastic heat equation both correct to first order in ε. In the case c (x,t)=1/2xTΩ2x, ∇k(x,t)=-a(t), we obtain the exact random shockwave and prove that its shape is unchanged by the addition of noise, it merely being displaced by a random Brownian vector

  3. 78 FR 2946 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... standards covered by these proposed revisions are: frozen asparagus, frozen lima beans, frozen speckled butter beans, frozen cooked squash, frozen summer squash, frozen sweet potatoes, frozen turnip greens... document. United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Lima Beans Update address for AMS. Change...

  4. Detection and genome characterization of bovine polyomaviruses in beef muscle and ground beef samples from Germany.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, Donina; Ehlers, Bernhard; Mäde, Dietrich; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Seidler, Tassilo; Johne, Reimar

    2017-01-16

    Polyomaviruses are small, non-enveloped, circular double-stranded DNA viruses. Some polyomaviruses can induce tumors and cancer under certain circumstances. The bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) 1-3 have been only scarcely analyzed so far. It was hypothesized that the consumption of beef meat containing polyomaviruses could contribute to the development of cancer in humans. In order to assess the distribution of the BPyV genome in meat from Germany, 101 beef muscle samples and 10 ground beef samples were analyzed here. A specific sample preparation method combined with or without rolling circle amplification (RCA), and BPyV-specific PCRs were developed and applied. BPyV-1 DNA was detected in 1/101 (1%) samples from beef meat and in 2/10 (20%) ground beef samples. BPyV-2 DNA was detected in 3/10 (30%) ground beef samples, whereas BPyV-3 was not detected in the samples. Application of RCA did not increase the detection rate in ground beef samples. Sequence analysis of the PCR products indicated the presence of BPyV-1, BPyV-2a and BPyV-2b. The whole genome of a BPyV-1 strain from ground beef meat showed 97.8% sequence identity to the BPyV-1 reference strain and that of a BPyV-2a strain from ground beef meet showed 99.9% sequence identity to strain 2aS11. It can be concluded that BPyV genomes can be frequently detected in ground beef samples, although higher sample numbers should be investigated in future to confirm this finding. Further studies should focus on the infectivity, tumorigenicity and heat resistance of the contained viruses in order to assess the risk of cancer induction through consumption of BPyVs present in beef products.

  5. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    PubMed

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  6. Use of frozen section in genitourinary pathology.

    PubMed

    Shen, Steven S; Truong, Luan D; Ro, Jae Y; Ayala, Alberto G

    2012-08-01

    Frozen section diagnosis provides critical information for immediate surgical management decision making. Over the last several years, there have been some significant advances in treatment of genitourinary cancer, particularly with regard to surgical techniques. These changes in turn impact the type and frequency of intraoperative frozen section requests. In this review, we describe the main indications and diagnostic challenges of frozen section diagnosis during surgeries of each genitourinary organ system including prostate, kidney, bladder, testis, and penis. The pitfalls and approaches to different diagnostic situations are discussed. It is also stressed that pathologists must not only be familiar with the histological diagnosis, but also understand the limitations of frozen section diagnosis and communicate with urologists during the intraoperative treatment decision making process.

  7. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  8. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.; Lewis, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  9. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  10. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Survey of instrument grading assessments of beef carcass characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The instrument grading assessments for the 2011 National Beef Quality Audit evaluated seasonal trends of beef carcass quality and yield attributes over the course of the year. One week of instrument grading data, HCW, gender, USDA quality grade (QG), and yield grade (YG) factors, were collected ever...

  11. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  12. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  13. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  14. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  15. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  16. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  17. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  18. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  19. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  20. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  1. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  2. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  3. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  4. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  5. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  6. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    PubMed Central

    Dannenberger, Dirk; Nuernberg, Karin; Herdmann, Andrea; Nuernberg, Gerd; Hagemann, Elke; Kienast, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB), tea sausage spread (TSS), scalded sausage (SS)). Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%), or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12%) and linseed oil (3%). The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium) were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions. PMID:28239116

  7. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  8. Effect of rapid thawing on the meat quality attributes of USDA select beef strip loin steaks.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, Janet S; Bowker, Brian C

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to determine the meat quality effects of rapidly thawing beef steaks in a water bath. Frozen beef strip loins (n = 24) were cut into steaks sequentially from the rib end and identified by anatomical location (anterior, middle, posterior) within the loin. Within location, steaks were randomly assigned to conventional (C; 18 to 20 h, 4 °C) or rapid thawing methods. Rapid thawing methods, fast (20 min, 20 °C) or very fast (11 min, 39 °C), were conducted in a circulating water bath. The physical, thawing, cooking, color, and texture characteristics of each steak were recorded. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 3 thawing treatments × 3 locations factorial analysis with loin as a block. No location by thawing method interaction was detected (P > 0.05) for the measured variables. Compared to C steaks, rapidly thawed steaks exhibited lower thaw drip loss (P < 0.001) and higher a* values (P < 0.001). Thawing treatment did not influence L*, b*, cook yield, or shear force. Steaks from the posterior end had higher (P < 0.001) surface to volume ratios that may have contributed to the higher thaw loss (P < 0.01), longer cooking time (P < 0.001), lower cooking yield (P < 0.001), and higher shear force (P < 0.02) compared to steaks from the anterior and middle portions of the loins. These data indicate that beef steaks taken from the entire length of the loin can be rapidly thawed in a water bath following food safety guidelines with minimal impact on meat quality. Practical Application:  Freezing rate and frozen storage effects on meat quality have been well documented; however, there is comparatively little information on the meat quality effects of rapid thawing within food safety guidelines. This study demonstrates that beef strip loin steaks can be rapidly thawed in as few as 11 min without affecting texture or cooking yield, while reducing thaw drip loss. Thus, rapid thawing may enhance the apparent juiciness of steaks

  9. Optimal fixed-finite-dimensional compensator for Burgers' equation with unbounded input/output operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, John A.; Marrekchi, Hamadi

    1993-01-01

    The problem of using reduced order dynamic compensators to control a class of nonlinear parabolic distributed parameter systems was considered. Concentration was on a system with unbounded input and output operators governed by Burgers' equation. A linearized model was used to compute low-order-finite-dimensional control laws by minimizing certain energy functionals. Then these laws were applied to the nonlinear model. Standard approaches to this problem employ model/controller reduction techniques in conjunction with linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory. The approach used is based on the finite dimensional Bernstein/Hyland optimal projection theory which yields a fixed-finite-order controller.

  10. A comparative study of advanced shock-capturing schemes applied to Burgers' equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; Przekwas, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic evaluation is conducted of all extant numerical schemes for nonlinear scalar transport problems, and several advanced shock-capturing schemes are used to solve the nonlinear Burgers' equation in order to characterize their ability to resolve the sharp discontinuity, expansion zone, and propagation and collision features of shocks. For discontinuous functions, the Warming-Beam scheme generates preshock wiggles, while the Lax-Wendroff scheme generates postshock ones. Such limiters as the MUSCL or the superbee are more compressive than minimod or monotonic limiters. The performance of such TVD schemes as the upwind, the symmetric, and the Roe-Sweby, resemble each other.

  11. Approximate Symmetry Reduction Approach: Infinite Series Reductions to the KdV-Burgers Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xiaoyu; Yao, Ruoxia; Zhang, Shunli; Lou, Sen Y.

    2009-11-01

    For weak dispersion and weak dissipation cases, the (1+1)-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation is investigated in terms of approximate symmetry reduction approach. The formal coherence of similarity reduction solutions and similarity reduction equations of different orders enables series reduction solutions. For the weak dissipation case, zero-order similarity solutions satisfy the Painlevé II, Painlevé I, and Jacobi elliptic function equations. For the weak dispersion case, zero-order similarity solutions are in the form of Kummer, Airy, and hyperbolic tangent functions. Higher-order similarity solutions can be obtained by solving linear variable coefficients ordinary differential equations.

  12. Changes in the Burgers Vector of Perfect Dislocation Loops without Contact with the External Dislocations

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, K.; Hatanaka, M.; Mori, H.; Kuramoto, E.; Ono, K.

    2006-03-31

    We report the observations of a new type of changing process in the Burgers vector of dislocations by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Small interstitial-type perfect dislocation loops in bcc iron with diameters less than approximately 50 nm are transformed from a 1/2<111> loop to another 1/2<111> one or an energetically unfavorable <100> one; furthermore, a <100> loop is transformed to a 1/2<111> one. These transformations occurred on high-energy electron irradiation or simple heating without contact with external dislocations. The origin of these phenomena is discussed.

  13. On a new semi-discrete integrable combination of Burgers and Sharma-Tasso-Olver equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hai-qiong

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a new semi-discrete integrable combination of Burgers and Sharma-Tasso-Olver equation is investigated. The underlying integrable structures like the Lax pair, the infinite number of conservation laws, the Darboux-Bäcklund transformation, and the solutions are presented in the explicit form. The theory of the semi-discrete equation including integrable properties yields the corresponding theory of the continuous counterpart in the continuous limit. Finally, numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed integrable semi-discretization algorithms.

  14. Nonequivalent Similarity Reductions and Exact Solutions for Coupled Burgers-Type Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. H. M., Moussa; R. A. K., Omar; Rehab, M. El-Shiekh; H. R., El-Melegy

    2012-01-01

    Using the machinery of Lie group analysis, the nonlinear system of coupled Burgers-type equations is studied. Using the infinitesimal generators in the optimal system of subalgebra of the said Lie algebras, it leads to two nonequivalent similarity transformations by using it we obtain two reductions in the form of system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The search for solutions of these systems by using the G'/G-method has yielded certain exact solutions expressed by rational functions, hyperbolic functions, and trigonometric functions. Some figures are given to show the properties of the solutions.

  15. Two Different Methods for Numerical Solution of the Modified Burgers' Equation

    PubMed Central

    Karakoç, Seydi Battal Gazi; Başhan, Ali; Geyikli, Turabi

    2014-01-01

    A numerical solution of the modified Burgers' equation (MBE) is obtained by using quartic B-spline subdomain finite element method (SFEM) over which the nonlinear term is locally linearized and using quartic B-spline differential quadrature (QBDQM) method. The accuracy and efficiency of the methods are discussed by computing L 2 and L ∞ error norms. Comparisons are made with those of some earlier papers. The obtained numerical results show that the methods are effective numerical schemes to solve the MBE. A linear stability analysis, based on the von Neumann scheme, shows the SFEM is unconditionally stable. A rate of convergence analysis is also given for the DQM. PMID:25162064

  16. Two different methods for numerical solution of the modified Burgers' equation.

    PubMed

    Karakoç, Seydi Battal Gazi; Başhan, Ali; Geyikli, Turabi

    2014-01-01

    A numerical solution of the modified Burgers' equation (MBE) is obtained by using quartic B-spline subdomain finite element method (SFEM) over which the nonlinear term is locally linearized and using quartic B-spline differential quadrature (QBDQM) method. The accuracy and efficiency of the methods are discussed by computing L 2 and L ∞ error norms. Comparisons are made with those of some earlier papers. The obtained numerical results show that the methods are effective numerical schemes to solve the MBE. A linear stability analysis, based on the von Neumann scheme, shows the SFEM is unconditionally stable. A rate of convergence analysis is also given for the DQM.

  17. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  18. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  19. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  20. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  1. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  2. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of

  3. The relevancy of forage quality to beef production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low cost and abundant fossil fuels have driven the USA beef industry toward greater dependence on feed grains as the major feedstuff for finished beef cattle production and has lead to a centralized beef cattle feeding and processing system concentrated in the High Plains states. Low cost fuel and m...

  4. Food safety issues and the microbiology of beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World demand for high-quality animal protein presents opportunities for growth and expanded trade which is predicted to increase more than 6% for major beef producing countries and their beef industries. Contingent upon an increased consumer demand for beef is the production of high quality and mic...

  5. Teaching Consumer Selection of Market Quality Beef by Observable Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Dorothy; Jacobson, Marion

    1977-01-01

    Through a series of five tests, a slide-tape instructional presentation on the identification of beef quality was developed. It was determined that the slide-tape instruction can enable consumers to score more accurately characteristics of raw beef in relation to the characteristics of cooked beef. (Editor/TA)

  6. Comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A national assessment is being conducted by the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, a contractor to the beef checkoff, to develop better scientific understanding of the sustainability of beef. This includes a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions along with other environmental, ...

  7. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  8. Entropy Stable Staggered Grid Spectral Collocation for the Burgers' and Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for both Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly to implement. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinearly stability proof for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).

  9. Inverting Glacial Isostatic Adjustment beyond linear viscoelasticity using the Burgers rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, Lambert; Greff-Lefftz, Marianne; Fleitout, Luce; Métivier, Laurent; Rouby, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    In Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) inverse modeling, the usual assumption for the mantle rheology is the Maxwell model, which exhibits constant viscosity over time. However, mineral physics experiments and post-seismic observations show evidence of a transient component in the deformation of the shallow mantle, with a short-term viscosity lower than the long-term one. In these studies, the resulting rheology is modeled by a Burgers material: such rheology is indeed expected as the mantle is a mixture of materials with different viscosities. We propose to apply this rheology for the whole viscoelastic mantle, and, using a Bayesian MCMC inverse formalism for GIA during the last glacial cycle, study its impact on estimations of viscosity values, elastic thickness of the lithosphere, and ice distribution. To perform this inversion, we use a global dataset of sea level records, the geological constraints of ice-sheet margins, and present-day GPS data as well as satellite gravimetry. Our ambition is to present not only the best fitting model, but also the range of possible solutions (within the explored space of parameters) with their respective probability of explaining the data. Our results show that the Burgers model is able to fit the dataset as well as the Maxwell model, but would imply a larger lower mantle viscosity, thicker ice sheets over Fennoscandia and Canada, and thinner ice sheets over Antarctica and Greenland.

  10. Numerical analysis of the Burgers' equation in the presence of uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, Per Iaccarino, Gianluca Nordstroem, Jan

    2009-12-01

    The Burgers' equation with uncertain initial and boundary conditions is investigated using a polynomial chaos (PC) expansion approach where the solution is represented as a truncated series of stochastic, orthogonal polynomials. The analysis of well-posedness for the system resulting after Galerkin projection is presented and follows the pattern of the corresponding deterministic Burgers equation. The numerical discretization is based on spatial derivative operators satisfying the summation by parts property and weak boundary conditions to ensure stability. Similarly to the deterministic case, the explicit time step for the hyperbolic stochastic problem is proportional to the inverse of the largest eigenvalue of the system matrix. The time step naturally decreases compared to the deterministic case since the spectral radius of the continuous problem grows with the number of polynomial chaos coefficients. An estimate of the eigenvalues is provided. A characteristic analysis of the truncated PC system is presented and gives a qualitative description of the development of the system over time for different initial and boundary conditions. It is shown that a precise statistical characterization of the input uncertainty is required and partial information, e.g. the expected values and the variance, are not sufficient to obtain a solution. An analytical solution is derived and the coefficients of the infinite PC expansion are shown to be smooth, while the corresponding coefficients of the truncated expansion are discontinuous.

  11. New analytical method for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer equations and comparison with HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, M. M.; Erfani, E.

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we present a numerical comparison between the differential transform method (DTM) and the homotopy analysis method (HAM) for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer problems. The first differential equation is the Burgers' equation serves as a useful model for many interesting problems in applied mathematics. The second one is the modeling equation of a straight fin with a temperature dependent thermal conductivity. In order to show the effectiveness of the DTM, the results obtained from the DTM is compared with available solutions obtained using the HAM [M.M. Rashidi, G. Domairry, S. Dinarvand, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 708-717; G. Domairry, M. Fazeli, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 489-499] and whit exact solutions. The method can easily be applied to many linear and nonlinear problems. It illustrates the validity and the great potential of the differential transform method in solving nonlinear partial differential equations. The obtained results reveal that the technique introduced here is very effective and convenient for solving nonlinear partial differential equations and nonlinear ordinary differential equations that we are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions.

  12. Anomalous scaling at nonthermal fixed points of Burgers' and Gross-Pitaevskii turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathey, Steven; Gasenzer, Thomas; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2015-08-01

    Scaling in the dynamical properties of complex many-body systems has been of strong interest since turbulence phenomena became the subject of systematic mathematical studies. In this article, dynamical critical phenomena far from equilibrium are investigated with functional renormalization-group equations. The focus is set on scaling solutions of the stochastic driven-dissipative Burgers equation and their relation to solutions known in the literature for Burgers' and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang dynamics. We furthermore relate superfluid as well as acoustic turbulence described by the Gross-Pitaevskii model to known analytic and numerical results for scaling solutions. In this way, the canonical Kolmogorov exponent 5/3 for the energy cascade in superfluid turbulence is obtained analytically. We also get results for anomalous exponents of acoustic and quantum turbulence. These are consistent with existing experimental data. Our results should be relevant for future experiments with, e.g., exciton-polariton condensates in solid-state systems as well as with ultracold atomic gases.

  13. The KdV—Burgers equation in a modified speed gradient continuum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Rong-Jun; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ge, Hong-Xia

    2013-06-01

    Based on the full velocity difference model, Jiang et al. put forward the speed gradient model through the micro-macro linkage (Jiang R, Wu Q S and Zhu Z J 2001 Chin. Sci. Bull. 46 345 and Jiang R, Wu Q S and Zhu Z J 2002 Trans. Res. B 36 405). In this paper, the Taylor expansion is adopted to modify the model. The backward travel problem is overcome by our model, which exists in many higher-order continuum models. The neutral stability condition of the model is obtained through the linear stability analysis. Nonlinear analysis shows clearly that the density fluctuation in traffic flow leads to a variety of density waves. Moreover, the Korteweg-de Vries—Burgers (KdV—Burgers) equation is derived to describe the traffic flow near the neutral stability line and the corresponding solution for traffic density wave is derived. The numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the local cluster effects. The results are consistent with the realistic traffic flow and also further verify the results of nonlinear analysis.

  14. 78 FR 45907 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Vegetables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    .... The grade standards covered by these revisions are: frozen asparagus, frozen lima beans, frozen speckled butter beans, frozen cooked squash, frozen summer squash, frozen sweetpotatoes, frozen turnip..., lima beans, speckled butter beans, cooked squash, summer squash, etc., and not other vegetables....

  15. Microbial quality of frozen Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) meat samples from three selected farms in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Makanyanga, Tsitsi B; Mutema, Gideon; Mukarati, Norman L; Chikerema, Sylvester M; Makaya, Pious V; Musari, Shuvai; Matope, Gift

    2014-01-17

    Microbial quality of frozen Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) meat from three farms in Zimbabwe was assessed based on 2051 samples collected for pre-export testing during 2006 to 2011. Data were perused by season and year in terms of aerobic plate (APC), coliform (CC), Escherichia coli (ECC) and Listeria monocytogenes (LMC) counts and the presence of Salmonella spp. The log10-transformed data were compared among the farms and seasons using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Microbial quality of the samples was graded based on the EC No. 2073.2005 criteria for beef. The mean APC and CC for the crocodile meat differed significantly (P=0.000) among the farms with the highest APC (3.2±0.05 log10 cfu/g) and the lowest (2.7±0.05 log10 cfu/g) recorded from farms A and C, respectively. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in ECC and LMC among the farms, while Salmonella spp. were only isolated from one farm. Although the microbial quality of frozen crocodile meat from these farms was generally within acceptable limits, the isolation of E. coli and Salmonella spp. is of public health concern. Thus, implementing of measures to control the pasteurizing process and to minimize bacterial contamination of crocodile meat after pasteurization need to be carefully considered.

  16. Beef cow-calf production.

    PubMed

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  17. Genomewide association study of liver abscess in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Keele, J W; Kuehn, L A; McDaneld, T G; Tait, R G; Jones, S A; Keel, B N; Snelling, W M

    2016-02-01

    Fourteen percent of U.S. cattle slaughtered in 2011 had liver abscesses, resulting in reduced carcass weight, quality, and value. Liver abscesses can result from a common bacterial cause, , which inhabits rumen lesions caused by acidosis and subsequently escapes into the blood stream, is filtered by the liver, and causes abscesses in the liver. Our aim was to identify SNP associated with liver abscesses in beef cattle. We used lung samples as a DNA source because they have low economic value, they have abundant DNA, and we had unrestricted access to sample them. We collected 2,304 lung samples from a beef processing plant: 1,152 from animals with liver abscess and 1,152 from animals without liver abscess. Lung tissue from pairs of animals, 1 with abscesses and another without, were collected from near one another on the viscera table to ensure that pairs of phenotypically extreme animals came from the same lot. Within each phenotype (abscess or no abscess), cattle were pooled by slaughter sequence into 12 pools of 96 cattle for each phenotype for a total of 24 pools. The pools were constructed by equal volume of frozen lung tissue from each animal. The DNA needed to allelotype each pool was then extracted from pooled lung tissue and the BovineHD Bead Array (777,962 SNP) was run on all 24 pools. Total intensity (TI), an indicator of copy number variants, was the sum of intensities from red and green dyes. Pooling allele frequency (PAF) was red dye intensity divided TI. Total intensity and PAF were weighted by the inverse of their respective genomic covariance matrices computed over all SNP across the genome. A false discovery rate ≤ 5% was achieved for 15 SNP for PAF and 20 SNP for TI. Genes within 50 kbp from significant SNP were in diverse pathways including maintenance of pH homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract, maintain immune defenses in the liver, migration of leukocytes from the blood into infected tissues, transport of glutamine into the kidney in

  18. r-modified Crank-Nicholson difference schemes for one dimensional nonlinear viscous Burgers' equation for an incompressible flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Gambo, Yusuf Ya'u.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlocal boundary value problem for viscous Burgers' equation is considered. Solutions to the 1-D equation are presented numerically by Rothe, Crank-Nicholson and r-modified Crank-Nicholson difference schemes. Matlab codes for all the three schemes are designed based on the idea of fixed-point iteration procedure and modified Gauss elimination method. The numerical results are compared.

  19. Promise and Ontological Ambiguity in the In vitro Meat Imagescape: From Laboratory Myotubes to the Cultured Burger

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Neil; Ruivenkamp, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In vitro meat (IVM), also known as cultured meat, involves growing cells into muscle tissue to be eaten as food. The technology had its most high-profile moment in 2013 when a cultured burger was cooked and tasted in a press conference. Images of the burger featured in the international media and were circulated across the Internet. These images—literally marks on a two-dimensional surface—do important work in establishing what IVM is and what it can do. A combination of visual semiotics and narrative analysis shows that images of IVM afford readings of their story that are co-created by the viewer. Before the cultured burger, during 2011, images of IVM fell into four distinct categories: cell images, tissue images, flowcharts, and meat in a dish images. The narrative infrastructure of each image type affords different interpretations of what IVM can accomplish and what it is. The 2013 cultured burger images both draw upon and depart from these image types in an attempt to present IVM as a normal food stuff, and as ‘matter in place’ when placed on the plate. The analysis of individual images and the collection of images about a certain object or subject—known as the imagescape—is a productive approach to understanding the ontology and promise of IVM and is applicable to other areas of social life. PMID:27695202

  20. Promise and Ontological Ambiguity in the In vitro Meat Imagescape: From Laboratory Myotubes to the Cultured Burger.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Neil; Ruivenkamp, Martin

    2016-07-02

    In vitro meat (IVM), also known as cultured meat, involves growing cells into muscle tissue to be eaten as food. The technology had its most high-profile moment in 2013 when a cultured burger was cooked and tasted in a press conference. Images of the burger featured in the international media and were circulated across the Internet. These images-literally marks on a two-dimensional surface-do important work in establishing what IVM is and what it can do. A combination of visual semiotics and narrative analysis shows that images of IVM afford readings of their story that are co-created by the viewer. Before the cultured burger, during 2011, images of IVM fell into four distinct categories: cell images, tissue images, flowcharts, and meat in a dish images. The narrative infrastructure of each image type affords different interpretations of what IVM can accomplish and what it is. The 2013 cultured burger images both draw upon and depart from these image types in an attempt to present IVM as a normal food stuff, and as 'matter in place' when placed on the plate. The analysis of individual images and the collection of images about a certain object or subject-known as the imagescape-is a productive approach to understanding the ontology and promise of IVM and is applicable to other areas of social life.

  1. The influence of forage diets and aging on beef palatability.

    PubMed

    Jiang, T; Busboom, J R; Nelson, M L; O'Fallon, J; Ringkob, T P; Rogers-Klette, K R; Joos, D; Piper, K

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the influence of diet and aging on beef palatability, lipid oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition, crossbred steers were assigned to Feedlot S (alfalfa and grain), Forage TR (triticale and annual ryegrass), Forage TK (triticale and kale), or Forage+Feedlot (grazing ryegrass, fescue and orchardgrass, finished on alfalfa and grain) dietary treatments. Heifers were finished on Feedlot H (alfalfa and grain). Longissimus and tricep muscles were sampled from these animals for steaks and ground beef, respectively. Steaks were either dry- or wet-aged for 14 d. Ground beef was dry-aged, wet-aged for 14 d, or not aged. Trained sensory panelists evaluated palatability attributes of steaks and ground beef. Diet did not influence sensory attributes of steaks or ground beef. Aging impacted (P<0.05) sensory attributes of ground beef. Diet and aging had no impact on lipid oxidative stability but affected fatty acid composition of raw ground beef.

  2. Quantitative distribution of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and raw beef at retail establishments.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Chávez, L; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Pérez-Montaño, J A; Garay-Martínez, L E; Varela-Hernández, J J; Castillo, A; Lucia, L; Ávila-Novoa, M G; Cardona-López, M A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that commonly inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy feedlot cattle and can be transferred to the carcass surface during hide removal and evisceration procedures. Numerous investigations on Salmonella prevalence throughout different stages of the beef chain have been conducted. In contrast, limited studies are available on quantitative determinations of Salmonella at different steps in raw meat production. Quantitative data, particularly for pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella are important for quantitative risk assessment. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli populations were enumerated on beef carcass samples collected at abattoirs and also in beef chunks and ground beef samples collected from butcher's shops at retail in Jalisco State, Mexico. Sponge samples from beef carcass sides (n=142) were collected immediately after final water wash and before chilling at three non-federally inspected abattoirs following USDA-FSIS sampling protocols. Beef chunks (n=84) and ground beef (n=65) samples were obtained from 86 butcher's shops. Salmonella enumeration was conducted by the Most Probable Number method and E. coli counts were determined using Petrifilm plates. Salmonella was isolated from 18% of beef carcasses, 39% of beef chunks and 71% of ground beef samples. Salmonella mean counts were 1.3±0.9 Log MPN/300 cm(2) on beef carcasses, 1.9±0.9 and 2.3±1.1 Log MPN/25 g in beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Twenty-six Salmonella serotypes and 11 serogroups were identified among 432 isolates recovered. Salmonella typhimurium (14%), Salmonella sinstorf (12%) and S. Group E1 monophasic (10%) were the most frequent. Escherichia coli was present on 97, 84 and 100% of beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Escherichia coli mean counts were 3.2±0.7 Log CFU/300 cm(2), 3.9±1.1 and 4.5±1.2 Log CFU/25 g on beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef, respectively. Salmonella prevalence

  3. Effect of temperature (-5 to 130 degrees C) and fiber direction on the dielectric properties of beef Semitendinosus at radio frequency and microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Basaran-Akgul, N; Basaran, P; Rasco, B A

    2008-08-01

    The dielectric properties must be defined to design efficient radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) processes by the food manufacturers. The objective of this study was to understand how frequency, temperature, and muscle fiber orientation influence the dielectric properties. The eye of round (Semitendinosus) muscle was selected because it contains large, relatively uniform muscle cells with similar muscle fiber orientation and relatively uniform chemical composition throughout the tissue. Dielectric properties were measured using an open-ended coaxial probe technique at 27, 915, and 1800 MHz and temperatures between -5 and 130 degrees C. Power penetration depth was calculated. Since many commercially prepared, thermally processed, ready-to-eat entrees are made with frozen meat, dielectric property measurements were started from -5 degrees C. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss factors were often higher for muscle with the muscle fiber measured in a parallel orientation to the probe compared to samples of the same treatment (for example, fresh or frozen) in a perpendicular tissue orientation at the same frequency and temperature. Dielectric constant and loss values for frozen beef tended to be higher than fresh beef at the same temperature and frequency. Tissue orientation appeared to have a greater effect on dielectric loss values at lower frequencies. Penetration depth tended to be greater when the direction of propagation was perpendicular to the muscle fiber.

  4. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured... increased weight of the cured beef product of more than 10 percent over the weight of the fresh uncured...

  5. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured... increased weight of the cured beef product of more than 10 percent over the weight of the fresh uncured...

  6. High pressure treatments combined with sodium lactate to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and spoilage microbiota in cured beef carpaccio.

    PubMed

    Masana, Marcelo Oscar; Barrio, Yanina Ximena; Palladino, Pablo Martín; Sancho, Ana Maria; Vaudagna, Sergio Ramón

    2015-04-01

    High-pressure treatments (400 and 600 MPa) combined with the addition of sodium lactate (1 and 3%) were tested to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) and spoilage microbiota contamination in a manufactured cured beef carpaccio in fresh or frozen conditions. Counts of spoilage microorganisms and STEC O157 were also examined during the curing step to prepare the carpaccio. STEC O157 counts remained almost unchanged through the curing process performed at 1 ± 1 °C for 12 days, with a small decrease in samples with 3% of sodium lactate. High-pressure treatments at 600 MPa for 5 min achieved an immediate reduction of up to 2 logarithmic units of STEC O157 in frozen carpaccio, and up to 1.19 log in fresh condition. Counts of spoilage bacteria diminished below detection limits in fresh or frozen carpaccio added with sodium lactate by the application of 400 and 600 MPa. Maximum injury on STEC O157 cells was observed at 600 MPa in carpaccio in fresh condition without added sodium lactate. Lethality of high-pressure treatments on STEC O157 was enhanced in frozen carpaccio, while the addition of sodium lactate at 3% reduced the lethality on STEC O157 in frozen samples, and the degree of injury in fresh carpaccio.

  7. Effects of ionizing irradiation and hydrostatic pressure on Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation, chemical composition, and sensory acceptability of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Yoon, Y; Tokarskyy, O; Pham, A J; Williams, R C; Marshall, D L

    2009-04-01

    A randomized complete block design with three replications was utilized to determine the effects of ionizing irradiation and hydrostatic pressure on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, volatile composition, and consumer acceptability (n=155) of frozen ground beef patties. E-beam and X-ray irradiation (2kGy) inactivated E. coli O157:H7 below the limit of detection, while hydrostatic pressure treatment (300mPa for 5min at 4°C) did not inactivate this pathogen. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile compounds from treated ground beef patties. Irradiation and hydrostatic pressure altered the volatile composition (P<0.05) of the ground beef patties in respect to radiolytic products. However, results were inconclusive on whether these differences were great enough to use this method to differentiate between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in a commercial setting. Irradiation did not affect (P>0.05) consumer acceptability of ground beef patties when compared to untreated samples, but hydrostatic pressure caused decreased acceptability (P<0.05) when compared to other treatments.

  8. Inverting Glacial Isostatic Adjustment with Paleo Sea Level Records using Bayesian Framework and Burgers Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, L.; Metivier, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Fleitout, L.; Rouby, H.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment models most often assume a mantle with a viscoelastic Maxwell rheology and a given ice history model. Here we use a Bayesian Monte Carlo with Markov Chains formalism to invert the global GIA signal simultaneously for the mechanical properties of the mantle and for the volume of the various ice-sheets using as starting ice models two distinct previously published ice histories. Burgers as well as Maxwell rheologies are considered.The fitted data consist of 5720 paleo sea level records from the last 35kyrs, with a world-wide distribution. Our ambition is to present not only the best fitting model, but also the range of possible solutions (within the explored space of parameters) with their respective probability of explaining the data, and thus reveal the trade-off effects and range of uncertainty affecting the parameters. Our a posteriori probality maps exhibit in all cases two distinct peaks: both are characterized by an upper mantle viscosity around 5.1020Pa.s but one of the peaks features a lower mantle viscosity around 3.1021Pa.s while the other indicates lower mantle viscosity of more than 1.1022Pa.s. The global maximum depends upon the starting ice history and the chosen rheology: the first peak (P1) has the highest probability only in the case with a Maxwell rheology and ice history based on ICE-5G, while the second peak (P2) is favored when using ANU-based ice history or Burgers rheology, and is our preferred solution as it is also consistent with long-term geodynamics and gravity gradients anomalies over Laurentide. P2 is associated with larger volumes for the Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice-sheets and as a consequence of total ice volume balance, smaller volumes for the Antactic ice-sheet. This last point interfers with the estimate of present-day ice-melting in Antarctica from GRACE data. Finally, we find that P2 with Burgers rheology favors the existence of a tectosphere, i.e. a viscous sublithospheric layer.

  9. Resonance phenomenon for the Galerkin-truncated Burgers and Euler equations.

    PubMed

    Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Frisch, Uriel; Nazarenko, Sergei; Matsumoto, Takeshi

    2011-07-01

    It is shown that the solutions of inviscid hydrodynamical equations with suppression of all spatial Fourier modes having wave numbers in excess of a threshold K(G) exhibit unexpected features. The study is carried out for both the one-dimensional Burgers equation and the two-dimensional incompressible Euler equation. For large K(G) and smooth initial conditions, the first symptom of truncation, a localized short-wavelength oscillation which we call a "tyger," is caused by a resonant interaction between fluid particle motion and truncation waves generated by small-scale features (shocks, layers with strong vorticity gradients, etc.). These tygers appear when complex-space singularities come within one Galerkin wavelength λ(G)=2π/K(G) from the real domain and typically arise far away from preexisting small-scale structures at locations whose velocities match that of such structures. Tygers are weak and strongly localized at first-in the Burgers case at the time of appearance of the first shock their amplitudes and widths are proportional to K(G)(-2/3) and K(G)(-1/3), respectively-but grow and eventually invade the whole flow. They are thus the first manifestations of the thermalization predicted by T. D. Lee [Q. J. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)]. The sudden dissipative anomaly-the presence of a finite dissipation in the limit of vanishing viscosity after a finite time t(⋆)-which is well known for the Burgers equation and sometimes conjectured for the three-dimensional Euler equation, has as counterpart, in the truncated case, the ability of tygers to store a finite amount of energy in the limit K(G)→∞. This leads to Reynolds stresses acting on scales larger than the Galerkin wavelength and thus prevents the flow from converging to the inviscid-limit solution. There are indications that it may eventually be possible to purge the tygers and thereby to recover the correct inviscid-limit behavior.

  10. Dielectric properties of beef, beef liver, chicken and salmon at frequencies from 100 to 2500 MHz.

    PubMed

    Tran, V N; Stuchly, S S

    1987-01-01

    The dielectric properties of uncooked beef, beef liver, chicken and salmon meat were measured at frequencies between 100 and 2500 MHz and at selected temperatures between 1.2 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Experimental method and the sample holder are briefly described. The results for the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss factor are presented as a function of frequency at selected temperatures and show a trend consistent with theoretical expectation.

  11. Microbiological characterization of imported and domestic boneless beef trim used for ground beef.

    PubMed

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Guerini, Michael N; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Arthur, Terrance M; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2007-02-01

    The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of and etiological agents responsible for foodborne diseases differ between these countries and the United States. Our objective was to determine whether current U.S. microbiological profiling adequately addresses the potential differences between foreign and domestic beef trim. We compared the hygienic status of imported and domestic (USA) beef trim by enumeration of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. We also compared the prevalence of pathogens between imported and domestic samples by screening for the presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter spp., Listeria spp., and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). A total of 1,186 samples (487 USA, 220 AUS, 223 NZL, and 256 URY) of boneless beef trim were analyzed. Results of enumeration revealed significant differences between samples from all countries, with the lowest pathogen numbers in samples from AUS and the highest in samples from URY. Six Salmonella isolates (1 NZL, 1 URY, and 4 USA), 79 L. monocytogenes isolates (4 AUS, 5 NZL, 53 URY, and 17 USA), and 7 Campylobacter isolates (1 NZL, 1 URY, 5 USA) were found among the trim samples tested. Non-O157 STEC prevalence was 10% in NZL samples and about 30% in all of the other samples; 99 STEC strains were isolated. Serotyping of these isolates revealed that serotypes associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome were not different in prevalence between imported and domestic beef trim. Although it may be tempting to do so, these data cannot be used to compare the microbiological quality of beef trim between the countries examined. However, these results indicate that the current pathogen monitoring procedures in the United States are adequate for evaluation of imported beef trim.

  12. [Microbiological studies of beef tartar].

    PubMed

    Beumer, R R; Tamminga, S K; Kampelmacher, E H

    1982-11-15

    Two hundred lots of 'filet américain' (a mixture of minced meat, acid sauce, condiments, salt, etc., meant to be eaten raw) were sampled from retailers and examined for several types of micro-organism; 185 lots had been prepared by the retailer, fifteen on an 'industrial' scale. Pork had been used in seventy-three lots (including fourteen 'industrial' lots); beef was present in all lots, horse meat in none of them. On the whole, the bacterial state of the meats in which pork had been used was found to be considerably inferior to that of samples not containing this ingredient. The aerobic bacterial count and number of yeasts, as well as Enterobacteriaceae and group D. streptococci were at least 10 times higher on an average in this case than they were in lots not containing pork. In the case of Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens the picture was similar, though the counts of the two lastnamed species were smaller. Salmonella was detected in 84 per cent of the pork-containing lots and in 13 per cent of the other lots. For Yersinia enterocolitica, these figures were 44 per cent and 5 per cent, and for Campylobacter fetus, subsp, jejuni 18 per cent and 6 per cent. The pH varied from 5 to 6. Lots containing pork averaged a higher pH. Addition of acid sauce had only a slight effect on pH levels. A number of these results were related to each other. It is concluded that the use of raw pork in meat products meant for raw consumption should be avoided.

  13. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., frozen peas shall contain not less than 80 percent by weight of peas of the size declared or of smaller sizes. The sample unit may not contain more than 20 percent by weight of peas of the next two larger sizes, of which not more than one quarter by weight of such peas may be of the larger of these two...

  14. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  15. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet, pleasing and desirable, but may possess the following flavors to a slight degree: Aged, bitter, flat, smothered, storage; and cooked and feed flavors to a definite degree. It shall be free from rancid, oxidized or...

  16. Exclusion of Nitrate from Frozen Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocco, H. A.; Michelsen, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reactions occurring at the surface of ice, sea ice, and snow in Earth's cryosphere have an impact on the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and model their contributions to atmospheric processes, the morphology of frozen aqueous surfaces and amounts of reactants contained therein must be determined. To this end, the exclusion of nitrate ions to the surface of frozen aqueous solutions has been studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). In this technique the near-surface region of the frozen films are interrogated to a depth of a few hundred nanometers from the film-crystal interface. Aqueous solutions (0.001 to 0.01 M) of sodium nitrate (NaNO3), magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2), and nitric acid (HNO3) were quickly frozen on the germanium ATR crystal and observed at a constant temperature of about -18°C. In addition to ice and the solutes, liquid water in varying amounts was observed in the spectra. The amount of nitrate in the surface liquid is three to four orders of magnitude higher than in the unfrozen solution. While all the nitrate salts exhibit exclusion to the unfrozen surface, the dynamics are different for different counter-ions. Results are compared to freezing point depression data and the predictions of equilibrium thermodynamics.

  17. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    PubMed

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat.

  18. Effect of freezing prior to aging on myoglobin redox forms and CIE color of beef from Nellore and Aberdeen Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Aroeira, Carolina Naves; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; de Miranda Gomide, Lúcio Alberto; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of freezing prior to wet aging on the color of Nellore and Aberdeen Angus cattle meat. Samples of the Longissimus thoracis muscle were subjected to two treatments: conventional aging (0, 7, 14 and 21days); and freezing (-20°C for 40days) followed by thawing and aging. Freezing promoted (P<0.05) formation of metmyoglobin during aging, especially in Nellore beef. Frozen meats showed (P<0.05) lower lightness (L*) values and higher redness (a*), chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*) values at the first day of storage, deteriorating quickly with aging time. The color of the Nellore meat was less (P<0.05) stable to freezing, being lighter, yellower and less red than Angus meat. The results suggest that color stability in vacuum-packed beef is reduced by freezing prior to aging and that reduction depends on the animal breed.

  19. Madelung representation of damped parametric quantum oscillator and exactly solvable Schroedinger-Burgers equations

    SciTech Connect

    Bueyuekasik, Sirin A.; Pashaev, Oktay K.

    2010-12-15

    We construct a Madelung fluid model with time variable parameters as a dissipative quantum fluid and linearize it in terms of Schroedinger equation with time-dependent parameters. It allows us to find exact solutions of the nonlinear Madelung system in terms of solutions of the Schroedinger equation and the corresponding classical linear ordinary differential equation with variable frequency and damping. For the complex velocity field, the Madelung system takes the form of a nonlinear complex Schroedinger-Burgers equation, for which we obtain exact solutions using complex Cole-Hopf transformation. In particular, we give exact results for nonlinear Madelung systems related with Caldirola-Kanai-type dissipative harmonic oscillator. Collapse of the wave function in dissipative models and possible implications for the quantum cosmology are discussed.

  20. A generalized simplest equation method and its application to the Boussinesq-Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Sudao, Bilige; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized simplest equation method is proposed to seek exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). In the method, we chose a solution expression with a variable coefficient and a variable coefficient ordinary differential auxiliary equation. This method can yield a Bäcklund transformation between NLEEs and a related constraint equation. By dealing with the constraint equation, we can derive infinite number of exact solutions for NLEEs. These solutions include the traveling wave solutions, non-traveling wave solutions, multi-soliton solutions, rational solutions, and other types of solutions. As applications, we obtained wide classes of exact solutions for the Boussinesq-Burgers equation by using the generalized simplest equation method.

  1. Lie symmetry analysis, conservation laws, solitary and periodic waves for a coupled Burger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mei-Juan; Tian, Shou-Fu; Tu, Jian-Min; Zhang, Tian-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a generalized (2 + 1)-dimensional coupled Burger equation with variable coefficients, which describes lots of nonlinear physical phenomena in geophysical fluid dynamics, condense matter physics and lattice dynamics. By employing the Lie group method, the symmetry reductions and exact explicit solutions are obtained, respectively. Based on a direct method, the conservations laws of the equation are also derived. Furthermore, by virtue of the Painlevé analysis, we successfully obtain the integrable condition on the variable coefficients, which plays an important role in further studying the integrability of the equation. Finally, its auto-Bäcklund transformation as well as some new analytic solutions including solitary and periodic waves are also presented via algebraic and differential manipulation.

  2. Structure of Shocks in Burgers Turbulence with Lévy Noise Initial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Joshua

    2013-08-01

    We study the structure of the shocks for the inviscid Burgers equation in dimension 1 when the initial velocity is given by Lévy noise, or equivalently when the initial potential is a two-sided Lévy process ψ 0. When ψ 0 is abrupt in the sense of Vigon or has bounded variation with lim sup| h|↓0 h -2 ψ 0( h)=∞, we prove that the set of points with zero velocity is regenerative, and that in the latter case this set is equal to the set of Lagrangian regular points, which is non-empty. When ψ 0 is abrupt we show that the shock structure is discrete. When ψ 0 is eroded we show that there are no rarefaction intervals.

  3. Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves through the Burgers equation in weakly relativistic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Ali, M. Hossain

    2017-03-01

    The Burgers equation is obtained to study the characteristics of nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic shock, singular kink, and periodic waves in weakly relativistic plasmas containing relativistic thermal ions, nonextensive distributed electrons, Boltzmann distributed positrons, and kinematic viscosity of ions using the well-known reductive perturbation technique. This equation is solved by employing the (G'/G)-expansion method taking unperturbed positron-to-electron concentration ratio, electron-to-positron temperature ratio, strength of electrons nonextensivity, ion kinematic viscosity, and weakly relativistic streaming factor. The influences of plasma parameters on nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic shock, periodic, and singular kink waves are displayed graphically and the relevant physical explanations are described. It is found that these parameters extensively modify the shock structures excitation. The obtained results may be useful in understanding the features of small but finite amplitude localized relativistic ion-acoustic shock waves in an unmagnetized plasma system for some astrophysical compact objects and space plasmas.

  4. Impact of thermophoresis particle deposition on three-dimensional radiative flow of Burgers fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Waqar Azeem; Khan, Masood

    This paper explores the analytical solution to heat and mass transfer of a three-dimensional steady flow of Burgers fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. Additionally, analysis is carried out in the presence of thermal radiation, heat generation/absorption and thermophoretic effects. The governing non-linear problem is developed and transformed into self-similar form by utilizing similarity approach. The resulting non-linear problem is solved analytically by employing the homotpy analysis method (HAM). The obtained results are plotted and discussed in detail for interesting physical parameters. It is seen that increasing values of the thermophoretic parameter leads to a decrease in the concentration field and the corresponding concentration boundary layer thickness. Also, it is noticed that the concentration field decays quickly corresponding with thermophoretic parameter in comparison to Schmidt number.

  5. Forced convection analysis for generalized Burgers nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood; Khan, Waqar Azeem

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the two-dimensional forced convective flow of a generalized Burgers fluid over a linearly stretched sheet under the impacts of nano-sized material particles. Utilizing appropriate similarity transformations the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The analytic results are carried out through the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to investigate the impact of various pertinent parameters for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The obtained results are presented in tabular form as well as graphically and discussed in detail. The presented results show that the rate of heat transfer at the wall and rate of nanoparticle volume fraction diminish with each increment of the thermophoresis parameter. While incremented values of the Brownian motion parameter lead to a quite opposite effect on the rates of heat transfer and nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall.

  6. Critical Keller-Segel meets Burgers on {{{S}}^{1}} : large-time smooth solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burczak, Jan; Granero-Belinchón, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    We show that solutions to the parabolic-elliptic Keller-Segel system on {{{S}}1} with critical fractional diffusion (- Δ ){{}\\frac{1{2}}} remain smooth for any initial data and any positive time. This disproves, at least in the periodic setting, the large-data-blowup conjecture by Bournaveas and Calvez [15]. As a tool, we show smoothness of solutions to a modified critical Burgers equation via a generalization of the ingenious method of moduli of continuity by Kiselev, Nazarov and Shterenberg [35] over a setting where the considered equation has no scaling. This auxiliary result may be interesting by itself. Finally, we study the asymptotic behavior of global solutions corresponding to small initial data, improving the existing results.

  7. The onset of thermalization in finite-dimensional equations of hydrodynamics: insights from the Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Divya; Sankar Ray, Samriddhi

    2017-01-01

    Solutions to finite-dimensional (all spatial Fourier modes set to zero beyond a finite wavenumber KG ), inviscid equations of hydrodynamics at long times are known to be at variance with those obtained for the original infinite dimensional partial differential equations or their viscous counterparts. Surprisingly, the solutions to such Galerkin-truncated equations develop sharp localized structures, called tygers (Ray et al. 2011 Phys. Rev. E 84, 016301 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.84.016301)), which eventually lead to completely thermalized states associated with an equipartition energy spectrum. We now obtain, by using the analytically tractable Burgers equation, precise estimates, theoretically and via direct numerical simulations, of the time τc at which thermalization is triggered and show that τc∼KGξ, with ξ =-4/9 . Our results have several implications, including for the analyticity strip method, to numerically obtain evidence for or against blow-ups of the three-dimensional incompressible Euler equations.

  8. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions.

  9. Whole Genome Analysis for Beef Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat tenderness is the single most important trait affecting palatability and consumer satisfaction with beef products. Current breeding values for meat tenderness traits have low accuracy because progeny phenotypes are not generally recorded. Selection for this trait could be accelerated by DNA m...

  10. Genetic relationships among breeds of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic distance among 16 populations of beef cattle from within the U.S. Thirty-three microsatellite markers representing 26 autosomes were used. MicroSatellite Analyzer 3.15 (MSA) program was used to quantify number of alleles per marker, and observed and expected het...

  11. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  12. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., rumps, or similar cuts using one or a combination of the curing ingredients specified in a regulation... finished product, excluding cure, salt, and flavoring material, shall not exceed 70 percent of the fresh... head meat and beef heart meat may be used to the extent of 5 percent of the meat ingredient...

  13. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., rumps, or similar cuts using one or a combination of the curing ingredients specified in a regulation... finished product, excluding cure, salt, and flavoring material, shall not exceed 70 percent of the fresh... head meat and beef heart meat may be used to the extent of 5 percent of the meat ingredient...

  14. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards. Beef Production Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the beef production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  15. Temperature Effects on Free Radicals in Gamma-sterilized Beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, S. I.; Jahan, M. S.

    1999-11-01

    Gamma irradiation has become the method of choice for sterilizing frozen meat and their products to reduce levels of food-borne pathogens and to extend shelf life. In this report we have employed ESR technique for detection of free radicals in sterilized and non-sterilized dry beef without bone. We have also determined the heating effects on free radicals at temperatures 176^°C and 250^°C. Meat samples were dried in a food dehydrator at 60^°C and were packaged in dry N_2. They were then sterilized by γ-irradiation (2.5 MRad), ground into powder, and placed in ESR sample tubes. Non-sterilized powder samples were used as control. While all powder samples, sterilized or not, produced a broad single line in the ESR spectra with (Δ H_pp ~ 9 G) and g = 2.013, the radical concentration in the sterilized samples increased by a factor of five. Heat treatment at 176^°C produced similar radicals. But, when samples were heated 250^°C different radical species were formed which are characterized by narrow width (Δ H_pp ~ 6 G) and lower g-value (g =2.010). In contrast with previous work, where free radicals in chicken bones were reduced by heating [1], we observed an increase in concentration. Results of structural analyses of the radicals will be presented. Ref.[1]: Radiat. Phys. Chem., 49, 477-481, 1997. Work supported by Grants from the University of Memphis

  16. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  18. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  19. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  20. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  1. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  2. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  3. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  4. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  5. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  6. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  7. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  8. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  9. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  10. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  11. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  12. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  13. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  14. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  15. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  16. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  17. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  18. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  19. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with...

  20. 7 CFR 58.650 - Requirements for frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for frozen custard. 58.650 Section 58.650... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.650 Requirements for frozen custard. The same requirements apply as for ice cream except plain frozen custard shall have a minimum egg yolk solids content...

  1. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the Federal... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed...

  2. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  3. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  4. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  5. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  6. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  7. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  8. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in such product. Beef cheek meat and beef head meat from which the overlying glandular and connective tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually...

  9. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in such product. Beef cheek meat and beef head meat from which the overlying glandular and connective tissues have been removed, and beef heart meat, exclusive of the heart cap may be used individually...

  10. Postcooking temperature changes in beef patties.

    PubMed

    Berry, B W; Bigner-George, M E

    2001-09-01

    Beef patties (86 and 143 g) formed from high-fat (20 to 29%) and low-fat (6 to 10%) ground beef obtained in eight different selections for both high and low fat content were cooked by either a gas grill or an electric griddle. Patties were cooked to either 66.1 or 68.3 degrees C as determined in the thickest section, and internal temperatures were recorded after cooking at 1-s intervals for 180 s in both thick and thin sections of patties. Time-temperature curves (after cooking) were evaluated for compliance with regulatory requirements for classifying patties as fully cooked. For patties cooked to 66.1 degrees C, the maximum highest temperature in the thickest patty section often did not reach 71.1 degrees C (recommended for cooking of beef patties by consumers). Although thin sections of patties had higher temperatures than thick sections at the termination of cooking, temperature variability was greater and declines in temperature occurred sooner in thin patty sections. Failure to meet fully cooked, time-temperature requirements was greater in thin than thick sections. Thicker (143-g) patties possessed longer postcooking times before declining in temperature than thinner (86-g) patties. Although many beef patties cooked in this study achieved regulatory time requirements for maintaining 66.1 or 68.3 degrees C (as well as attaining 71.1 degrees C), some patties did not meet these requirements. Because of the considerable temperature variability that can exist within patties at the conclusion of cooking, use of end point temperatures of less than 71.1 degrees C is not recommended for consumers. Consumers should allow several minutes of holding following cooking before consumption to maximize the increases in postcooking temperature. Further research is required to establish cooking procedures that will improve temperature uniformity and eliminate "cold spots" during cooking of beef patties.

  11. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  12. Effects of stepwise dry/wet-aging and freezing on meat quality of beef loins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuan H Brad; Meyers, Brandon; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Liceaga, Andrea M; Lemenager, Ronald P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of stepwise dry/wet-aging and freezing method on quality attributes of beef loins. Paired loins (M. Longissimus lumborum) from eight carcasses were assigned to either stepwise dry/wet-aging (carcass dry-aging for 10days then further wet-aging for 7days in vacuum bags) or carcass dry-aging only for 17days. Then, each loin was divided into three sections for freezing (never-frozen, blast or cryogenic freezing). Stepwise dry/wet-aged loin had lower purge/drip loss and shear force than conventionally dry-aged loin (P<0.05), but similar color and sensory characteristics (P>0.05). The cryogenic freezing resulted in a significant decrease in shear force values and a significant improvement in water-holding capacity (WHC). These findings indicate that the stepwise dry/wet-aging coupled with cryogenic freezing could provide beneficial impacts to the local meat industry by providing equivalent quality attributes as conventional dry-aging and improving WHC of frozen/thawed meat, while reducing the time needed for dry-aging.

  13. Batch testing for noroviruses in frozen raspberries.

    PubMed

    De Keuckelaere, Ann; Li, Dan; Deliens, Bart; Stals, Ambroos; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-02

    Berries, in particular raspberries, have been associated with multiple recalls due to norovirus contamination and were linked to a number of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. In the present study a total of 130 samples of frozen raspberries were collected from 26 batches in four different raspberry processing companies. In two companies the samples consisted of bulk frozen raspberries serving as raw material for the production of raspberry puree (an intermediate food product in a business to business setting). In two other companies, the samples consisted of bulk individually quick frozen (IQF) raspberries serving as raw material for the production of frozen fruit mixes (as a final food product for consumer). Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms was performed as well as real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) detection of GI and GII NoV (in 2 × 10 g). In addition, in cases where positive NoV GI or GII RT-qPCR signals were obtained, an attempt to sequence the amplicons was undertaken. Six out of 70 samples taken from the 14 batches of frozen raspberries serving raspberry puree production provided a NoV RT-qPCR signal confirmed by sequencing. Four of these six positive samples clustered in one batch whereas the other two positive samples clustered in another batch from the same company. All six positive samples showed NoV RT-qPCR signals above the limit of quantification of the RT-qPCR assay. These two positive batches of frozen raspberries can be classified as being of insufficient sanitary quality. The mean NoV level in 20 g of these raspberry samples was 4.3 log genomic copies NoV GI/20 g. The concern for public health is uncertain as NoV RT-qPCR detection is unable to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious virus particles. For the IQF raspberries, one batch out of 12 tested NoV positive, but only 1 out of the 5 samples analyzed in this batch showed a positive RT-qPCR GI NoV signal confirmed by sequencing. The RT-qPCR signal was below the

  14. European consumer response to packaging technologies for improved beef safety.

    PubMed

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-09-01

    Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative (17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits.

  15. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements...

  16. [Intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Synoracki, S; Ting, S; Siebolts, U; Dralle, H; Koperek, O; Schmid, K W

    2015-07-01

    The goal of evaluation of intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland is to achieve a definitive diagnosis which determines the subsequent surgical management as fast as possible; however, due to the specific methodological situation of thyroid frozen sections evaluation a conclusive diagnosis can be made in only some of the cases. If no conclusive histological diagnosis is possible during the operation, subsequent privileged processing of the specimen allows a final diagnosis at the latest within 48 h in almost all remaining cases. Applying this strategy, both pathologists and surgeons require a high level of communication and knowledge regarding the specific diagnostic and therapeutic peculiarities of thyroid malignancies because different surgical strategies must be employed depending on the histological tumor subtype.

  17. The Jefferson Lab frozen spin target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, C. D.; Brock, J.; Carlin, C.; Comer, S. A.; Kashy, D.; McAndrew, J.; Meekins, D. G.; Pasyuk, E.; Pierce, J. J.; Seely, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin-lattice relaxation times as high as 4000 h were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  18. The Jefferson Lab Frozen Spin Target

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Keith, James Brock, Christopher Carlin, Sara Comer, David Kashy, Josephine McAndrew, David Meekins, Eugene Pasyuk, Joshua Pierce, Mikell Seely

    2012-08-01

    A frozen spin polarized target, constructed at Jefferson Lab for use inside a large acceptance spectrometer, is described. The target has been utilized for photoproduction measurements with polarized tagged photons of both longitudinal and circular polarization. Protons in TEMPO-doped butanol were dynamically polarized to approximately 90% outside the spectrometer at 5 T and 200-300 mK. Photoproduction data were acquired with the target inside the spectrometer at a frozen-spin temperature of approximately 30 mK with the polarization maintained by a thin, superconducting coil installed inside the target cryostat. A 0.56 T solenoid was used for longitudinal target polarization and a 0.50 T dipole for transverse polarization. Spin relaxation times as high as 4000 hours were observed. We also report polarization results for deuterated propanediol doped with the trityl radical OX063.

  19. Drug response in organoids generated from frozen primary tumor tissues

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Alex J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Sanders, Melinda E.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Primary tumor organoids grown in three-dimensional culture provide an excellent platform for studying tumor progression, invasion, and drug response. However, organoid generation protocols require fresh tumor tissue, which limits organoid research and clinical use. This study investigates cellular morphology, viability, and drug response of organoids derived from frozen tissues. The results demonstrate that viable organoids can be grown from flash-frozen and thawed tissue and from bulk tissues slowly frozen in DMSO supplemented media. While the freezing process affects the basal metabolic rate of the cells, the optical metabolic imaging index correlates between organoids derived from fresh and frozen tissue and can be used to detect drug response of organoids grown from frozen tissues. The slow, DMSO frozen tissue yielded organoids with more accurate drug response than the flash frozen tissues, and thus bulk tissue should be preserved for subsequent organoid generation by slow freezing in DMSO supplemented media. PMID:26738962

  20. Drug response in organoids generated from frozen primary tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Alex J; Cook, Rebecca S; Sanders, Melinda E; Arteaga, Carlos L; Skala, Melissa C

    2016-01-07

    Primary tumor organoids grown in three-dimensional culture provide an excellent platform for studying tumor progression, invasion, and drug response. However, organoid generation protocols require fresh tumor tissue, which limits organoid research and clinical use. This study investigates cellular morphology, viability, and drug response of organoids derived from frozen tissues. The results demonstrate that viable organoids can be grown from flash-frozen and thawed tissue and from bulk tissues slowly frozen in DMSO supplemented media. While the freezing process affects the basal metabolic rate of the cells, the optical metabolic imaging index correlates between organoids derived from fresh and frozen tissue and can be used to detect drug response of organoids grown from frozen tissues. The slow, DMSO frozen tissue yielded organoids with more accurate drug response than the flash frozen tissues, and thus bulk tissue should be preserved for subsequent organoid generation by slow freezing in DMSO supplemented media.

  1. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R.; Fu, H.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies.

  2. Demonstration of an Artificial Frozen Barrier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    used for deep excavation, tunneling, and underground construction ( Hass and Schäfers 2006). Frozen barriers can be created us- ing artificial...adjacent are soil, rock, or other solids. These mate- rials usually cause problems when more traditional techniques, such as grouting, are used ( Hass ...H. M. 2007. The periglacial environment. Chichester: J. Wiley. Hass , H., and P. Schäfers. 2006. Application of ground freezing for underground

  3. Existence of frozen-in coordinate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertkov, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    The 'frozen-in' coordinate systems were first introduced in the works on 'reconnection' and 'magnetic barrier' theories (see review by M.l.Pudovkin and V.S.Semenov, Space Sci. Rev. 41,1 1985). The idea was to utilize the mathematical apparatus developed for 'general relativity' theory to simplify obtaining solutions to the ideal MHD equations set. Magnetic field (B), plasma velocity (v), and their vector product were used as coordinate vectors. But there exist no stationary solutions of ideal MHD set that satisfies the required boundary conditions at infinity (A.D.Chertkov, Solar Wind Seven Conf.,Pergamon Press,1992,165) having non-zero vector product of v and B where v and B originate from the same sphere. The existence of a solution is the hidden mine of the mentioned theories. The solution is constructed in the coordinate system, which is unknown and indeterminate before obtaining this solution. A substitution of the final solution must be done directly into the initial MHD set in order to check the method. One can demonstrate that 'solutions' of Petschek's problem, obtained by 'frozen-in' coordinate systems, does not satisfy just the 'frozen-in' equation, i.e. induction equation. It stems from the fact that Petschek's 're-connection' model, treated as a boundary problem, is over determined. This problem was incorrectly formulated.

  4. The new frozen spin target at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A.; Borisov, N. S.; Arends, H.-J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Gurevich, G. M.; Kondratiev, R. L.; Korolija, M.; Lazarev, A. B.; Martinez, M.; Meyer, W.; Mironov, S. V.; Neganov, A. B.; Pavlov, V. N.; Ortega, H.; Reicherz, G.; Usov, Yu. A.

    2013-11-01

    The new frozen spin polarized target for experiments at the polarized beam of the real photon facility A2 of the MAMI accelerator is described. The A2-collaboration at the Mainz Microtron MAMI is measuring photon absorption cross section using circularly and linearly polarized photons up to the energy of 1.5 GeV. The photons are produced in the' Bremsstrahlungs' process. In the years 2005/2006 the Crystal Ball detector with its unique capability to cope with multi photon final states was set up in Mainz. Since 2010 the experimental apparatus has been completed by a polarized target. The horizontal dilution refrigerator of the Frozen-Spin Target has been constructed and is operated in close cooperation with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The system offers the opportunity to provide longitudinally and transversely polarized protons and deuteron. In this paper the operation experience of this new Frozen-Spin Target and first results from the runs in 2010 and 2011 are presented.

  5. Nuclear protein extraction from frozen porcine myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Diederik W D; Merkus, Daphne; Jorna, Huub J J; Dekkers, Dick H W; Duncker, Dirk J; Verhoeven, Adrie J M

    2011-06-01

    Protocols for the extraction of nuclear proteins have been developed for cultured cells and fresh tissue, but sometimes only frozen tissue is available. We have optimized the homogenization procedure and subsequent fractionation protocol for the preparation of nuclear protein extracts from frozen porcine left ventricular (LV) tissue. This method gave a highly reproducible protein yield (6.5±0.7% of total protein; mean±SE, n=9) and a 6-fold enrichment of the nuclear marker protein B23. The nuclear protein extracts were essentially devoid of cytosolic, myofilament, and histone proteins. Compared to nuclear extracts from fresh LV tissue, some loss of nuclear proteins to the cytosolic fraction was observed. Using this method, we studied the distribution of tyrosine phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (PY-STAT3) in LV tissue of animals treated with the β-agonist dobutamine. Upon treatment, PY-STAT3 increased 30.2±8.5-fold in total homogenates, but only 6.9±2.1-fold (n=4, P=0.03) in nuclear protein extracts. Of all PY-STAT3 formed, only a minor fraction appeared in the nuclear fraction. This simple and reproducible protocol yielded nuclear protein extracts that were highly enriched in nuclear proteins with almost complete removal of cytosolic and myofilament proteins. This nuclear protein extraction protocol is therefore well-suited for nuclear proteome analysis of frozen heart tissue collected in biobanks.

  6. Ion acoustic shock and periodic waves through Burgers equation in weakly and highly relativistic plasmas with nonextensivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, G. Hafez; N, C. Roy; M, R. Talukder; M Hossain, Ali

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study is carried out for the nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic shock waves both for the weakly and highly relativistic plasmas consisting of relativistic ions and q-distributed electrons and positions. The Burgers equation is derived to reveal the physical phenomena using the well known reductive perturbation technique. The integration of the Burgers equation is performed by the (G\\prime /G)-expansion method. The effects of positron concentration, ion-electron temperature ratio, electron-positron temperature ratio, ion viscosity coefficient, relativistic streaming factor and the strength of the electron and positron nonextensivity on the nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic shock and periodic waves are presented graphically and the relevant physical explanations are provided.

  7. Bäcklund transformation classification, integrability and exact solutions to the generalized Burgers'-KdV equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanze; Xin, Xiangpeng; Wang, Zenggui; Liu, Xiqiang

    2017-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the Bäcklund transformations (BTs) of the nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). Based on the homogeneous balance principle (HBP), the existence of the BT of the generalized Burgers'-KdV (B-KdV) equation is classified, then the BTs of the nonlinear equations are given. In general, the method can be used to construct BTs of the nonlinear evolution equations in polynomial form. Furthermore, the integrability and exact explicit solutions to the nonlinear equations are investigated.

  8. Simulation of seismic waves in the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) using a Burgers model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, Flavio; Farina, Biancamaria; Carcione, José Maria

    2014-05-01

    The seismic characterization of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in the Earth's crust is of great importance for the study of high-enthalpy geothermal fields in the proximity of magmatic zones. It is well known that the BDT can be viewed as the transition between zones with viscoelastic and plastic behavior, i.e., the transition between the upper, cooler, brittle crustal zone, and the deeper ductile zone. Depending on stress and temperature conditions, the BDT behavior is basically determined by the viscosity of the crustal rocks, which acts as a key factor. In situ shear stress and temperature are related to shear viscosity and steady-state creep flow through the Arrhenius equation, and deviatory stress by octahedral stress criterion. We present a numerical approach to simulate the propagation of P-S and SH seismic waves in a 2D model of the heterogeneous Earth's crust. The full-waveform simulation code is based on a Burgers mechanical model (Carcione, 2007), which enables us to describe both the seismic attenuation effects and the steady-state creep flow (Carcione and Poletto, 2013; Carcione et al. 2013). The differential equations of motion are calculated for the Burgers model, and recast in the velocity-stress formulation. Equations are solved in the time domain using memory variables. The approach uses a direct method based on the Runge-Kutta technique, and the Fourier pseudo-spectral methods, for time integration and for spatial derivation, respectively. In this simulation we assume isotropic models. To test the code, the signals generated by the full-waveform simulation algorithm are compared with success to analytic solutions obtained with different shear viscosities. Moreover, synthetic results are calculated to simulate surface and VSP seismograms in a realistic rheological model with a dramatic temperature change, to study the observability of BDT by seismic reflection methods. The medium corresponds to a selected rheology of the Iceland scenario

  9. Management of water quality for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cody L

    2007-03-01

    Drinking water is the primary source of water for most cattle. Unfortunately, water frequently contains various solutes and suspended particulate matter that can influence its appearance, odor, taste, and physical and chemical properties. Animals often react to such water impurities by decreasing water intake, and therefore feed intake, which diminishes animal performance. Thus, water quality can have a profound impact on animal health and performance. Routine monitoring of water sources and appropriate intervention can provide beef producers with a desirable return on investment. Careful thought should be incorporated into any capital improvements. This article discusses some of the most common factors that impact water quality for beef cattle and the methods of monitoring water quality, and proposes management solutions to address water quality concerns.

  10. Demographics and beef preferences affect consumer motivation for purchasing fresh beef steaks and roasts.

    PubMed

    Reicks, A L; Brooks, J C; Garmyn, A J; Thompson, L D; Lyford, C L; Miller, M F

    2011-04-01

    Surveys completed by 1370 consumers determined the motivational factors affecting consumer purchasing decisions for fresh beef steaks and roasts in three regions in the United States. Females placed greater importance on tenderness, ease of preparation, and nutritional value of steaks and roasts when compared to males. Age influenced tenderness, product consistency, and nutritional value of steaks, but influenced flavor, product consistency, and nutritional value of roasts. Consumers felt juiciness, nutritional value, and natural products were less important in determining their purchasing choices of steaks and roasts as their level of education increased. The preferred degree of doneness of steaks influenced the value placed on six of the nine purchasing motivators. Beef preferences and demographics influenced consumer purchasing decisions for fresh beef steaks and roasts. Results from this study can be used to help identify factors to positively influence purchasing decisions within targeted market segments.

  11. Beef muscle isolation has no detrimental effect on premium ground beef programs.

    PubMed

    Ohman, C E; Wiegand, B R; Gruen, I U; Lorenzen, C L

    2015-08-01

    This experiment evaluated whether isolating certain muscles from the chuck for retail sale and excluding them from ground beef mix changes the number of days that ground chuck is acceptable to consumers. Chucks were harvested from twenty-four beef steers, and were allocated to either traditional or innovative fabrication methods. Resulting ground beef patties were stored in retail simulation conditions for 7days to determine color and oxidative stability. Raw patties were analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxymyoglobin concentration, objective color by Minolta Chromameter, and by a trained sensory panel for odor, color and percent discoloration. No differences (P>0.05) were observed between traditional and innovative style patties for TBARS, sensory odor or color, or oxymyoglobin concentration. Minolta Chromameter readings revealed more substantial fading (P<0.05) in traditional patties compared with innovative style patties. This study demonstrated that removing certain muscles from the ground chuck mix does not cause detrimental consequences in resulting ground chuck patties.

  12. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    PubMed

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  13. A healthy patient with bilateral frozen hips preceding bilateral frozen shoulders: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Miller, Abigail R; Arnot, Dean; Wake, Melissa

    2015-11-12

    Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (frozen shoulder) is a common disease characterised by spontaneous onset of pain and restriction of movement, followed by 'thawing', with complete or near-complete resolution. Adhesive capsulitis of the hip has been reported in around a dozen patients. This report describes an otherwise-healthy middle-aged woman with apparent sequential resolving adhesive capsulitis of all four ball-and-socket joints over a 9-year period, initially affecting each hip and then each shoulder sequentially. The likely hip diagnosis became clear only retrospectively with development of the second frozen shoulder, 5 years after the first pain. All joints subsequently resolved within the expected timeframe and the patient remains healthy, other than having mild hypertension. This case illustrates that, when hip precedes shoulder involvement, there is the potential for the frozen hip to receive alternate diagnoses for which invasive open hip surgery could unnecessarily be recommended.

  14. The Gassmann-Burgers Model to Simulate Seismic Waves at the Earth Crust And Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcione, José M.; Poletto, Flavio; Farina, Biancamaria; Craglietto, Aronne

    2016-12-01

    The upper part of the crust shows generally brittle behaviour while deeper zones, including the mantle, may present ductile behaviour, depending on the pressure-temperature conditions; moreover, some parts are melted. Seismic waves can be used to detect these conditions on the basis of reflection and transmission events. Basically, from the elastic-plastic point of view the seismic properties (seismic velocity and density) depend on effective pressure and temperature. Confining and pore pressures have opposite effects on these properties, such that very small effective pressures (the presence of overpressured fluids) may substantially decrease the P- and S-wave velocities, mainly the latter, by opening of cracks and weakening of grain contacts. Similarly, high temperatures induce the same effect by partial melting. To model these effects, we consider a poro-viscoelastic model based on Gassmann equations and Burgers mechanical model to represent the properties of the rock frame and describe ductility in which deformation takes place by shear plastic flow. The Burgers elements allow us to model the effects of seismic attenuation, velocity dispersion and steady-state creep flow, respectively. The stiffness components of the brittle and ductile media depend on stress and temperature through the shear viscosity, which is obtained by the Arrhenius equation and the octahedral stress criterion. Effective pressure effects are taken into account in the dry-rock moduli using exponential functions whose parameters are obtained by fitting experimental data as a function of confining pressure. Since fluid effects are important, the density and bulk modulus of the saturating fluids (water and steam) are modeled using the equations provided by the NIST website, including supercritical behaviour. The theory allows us to obtain the phase velocity and quality factor as a function of depth and geological pressure and temperature as well as time frequency. We then obtain the PS and SH

  15. The Gassmann-Burgers Model to Simulate Seismic Waves at the Earth Crust And Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcione, José M.; Poletto, Flavio; Farina, Biancamaria; Craglietto, Aronne

    2017-03-01

    The upper part of the crust shows generally brittle behaviour while deeper zones, including the mantle, may present ductile behaviour, depending on the pressure-temperature conditions; moreover, some parts are melted. Seismic waves can be used to detect these conditions on the basis of reflection and transmission events. Basically, from the elastic-plastic point of view the seismic properties (seismic velocity and density) depend on effective pressure and temperature. Confining and pore pressures have opposite effects on these properties, such that very small effective pressures (the presence of overpressured fluids) may substantially decrease the P- and S-wave velocities, mainly the latter, by opening of cracks and weakening of grain contacts. Similarly, high temperatures induce the same effect by partial melting. To model these effects, we consider a poro-viscoelastic model based on Gassmann equations and Burgers mechanical model to represent the properties of the rock frame and describe ductility in which deformation takes place by shear plastic flow. The Burgers elements allow us to model the effects of seismic attenuation, velocity dispersion and steady-state creep flow, respectively. The stiffness components of the brittle and ductile media depend on stress and temperature through the shear viscosity, which is obtained by the Arrhenius equation and the octahedral stress criterion. Effective pressure effects are taken into account in the dry-rock moduli using exponential functions whose parameters are obtained by fitting experimental data as a function of confining pressure. Since fluid effects are important, the density and bulk modulus of the saturating fluids (water and steam) are modeled using the equations provided by the NIST website, including supercritical behaviour. The theory allows us to obtain the phase velocity and quality factor as a function of depth and geological pressure and temperature as well as time frequency. We then obtain the PS and SH

  16. Chitosan inhibits premature browning in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Suman, S P; Mancini, R A; Joseph, P; Ramanathan, R; Konda, M K R; Dady, G; Yin, S

    2011-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of chitosan on premature browning in refrigerated ground beef patties stored in different packaging systems. Ground beef patties (15% fat) with chitosan (1% w/w) or without chitosan (control) were individually packaged either in vacuum (VP), aerobic packaging (AP), carbon monoxide modified atmosphere packaging (LO-OX; 0.4% CO+19.6% CO(2)+80% N(2)), or high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (HI-OX; 80% O(2)+20% CO(2)), and stored for 0, 1, or 3 days at 1°C. At the conclusion of storage, raw surface redness was evaluated, patties were cooked to internal end-point temperatures of either 66°C or 71°C, and internal cooked color was measured. The incorporation of chitosan increased (P<0.05) the interior redness of patties stored in AP, VP, and LO-OX, but not in HI-OX. The results of the present study suggest that the incorporation of 1% chitosan minimizes premature browning in ground beef patties stored under AP, VP, and LO-OX.

  17. Influence of discrete sources on detonation propagation in a Burgers equation analog system.

    PubMed

    Mi, XiaoCheng; Higgins, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    An analog to the equations of compressible flow that is based on the inviscid Burgers equation is utilized to investigate the effect of spatial discreteness of energy release on the propagation of a detonation wave. While the traditional Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) treatment of a detonation wave assumes that the energy release of the medium is homogeneous through space, the system examined here consists of sources represented by δ functions embedded in an otherwise inert medium. The sources are triggered by the passage of the leading shock wave following a delay that is either of fixed period or randomly generated. The solution for wave propagation through a large array (10^{3}-10^{4}) of sources in one dimension can be constructed without the use of a finite difference approximation by tracking the interaction of sawtooth-profiled waves for which an analytic solution is available. A detonation-like wave results from the interaction of the shock and rarefaction waves generated by the sources. The measurement of the average velocity of the leading shock front for systems of both regular, fixed-period and randomized sources is found to be in close agreement with the velocity of the equivalent CJ detonation in a uniform medium, wherein the sources have been spatially homogenized. This result may have implications for the applicability of the CJ criterion to detonations in highly heterogeneous media (e.g., polycrystalline, solid explosives) and unstable detonations with a transient and multidimensional structure (e.g., gaseous detonation waves).

  18. Metastable flows in a two-lane traffic model equivalent to extended Burgers cellular automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Minoru; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Daisuke; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro

    2002-01-01

    A two-lane cellular automaton traffic model equivalent to the extended Burgers cellular automaton has been proposed, and evolution equations for cars on the two-lane road are obtained. Configurations of cars on the road are simulated by using the equations and many metastable local congested states are found in two-dimensional region on density-flow diagram. There are three typical states in the congested states: The first is that cars advance by stop- and go-flow on their own lanes without lane-change and values of the flow are stable in time. The second is that cars change the lane periodically with several time-steps. The third is that they advance changing the lane that induces fluctuating of the flow with extremely long period. This fluctuating flow exists in wide range between car densities {5}/{12} and {3}/{4}. The metastable states are discussed in connection with the synchronized states observed in the traffic flow on expressway.

  19. Crossover to the Stochastic Burgers Equation for the WASEP with a Slow Bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Tertuliano; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Simon, Marielle

    2016-09-01

    We consider the weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process in the presence of a slow bond and starting from the invariant state, namely the Bernoulli product measure of parameter {ρ in (0,1)}. The rate of passage of particles to the right (resp. left) is {1/2 + a/2n^{γ}} (resp. {1/2 - a/2n^{γ}}) except at the bond of vertices {{-1,0}} where the rate to the right (resp. left) is given by {α/2n^β + a/2n^{γ}} (resp. {α/2n^β-a/2n^{γ}}). Above, {α > 0}, {γ ≥ β ≥ 0}, {a≥ 0}. For {β < 1}, we show that the limit density fluctuation field is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process defined on the Schwartz space if {γ > 1/2}, while for {γ = 1/2} it is an energy solution of the stochastic Burgers equation. For {γ ≥ β =1}, it is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process associated to the heat equation with Robin's boundary conditions. For {γ ≥ β > 1}, the limit density fluctuation field is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process associated to the heat equation with Neumann's boundary conditions.

  20. Influence of discrete sources on detonation propagation in a Burgers equation analog system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, XiaoCheng; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    An analog to the equations of compressible flow that is based on the inviscid Burgers equation is utilized to investigate the effect of spatial discreteness of energy release on the propagation of a detonation wave. While the traditional Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) treatment of a detonation wave assumes that the energy release of the medium is homogeneous through space, the system examined here consists of sources represented by δ functions embedded in an otherwise inert medium. The sources are triggered by the passage of the leading shock wave following a delay that is either of fixed period or randomly generated. The solution for wave propagation through a large array (103-104) of sources in one dimension can be constructed without the use of a finite difference approximation by tracking the interaction of sawtooth-profiled waves for which an analytic solution is available. A detonation-like wave results from the interaction of the shock and rarefaction waves generated by the sources. The measurement of the average velocity of the leading shock front for systems of both regular, fixed-period and randomized sources is found to be in close agreement with the velocity of the equivalent CJ detonation in a uniform medium, wherein the sources have been spatially homogenized. This result may have implications for the applicability of the CJ criterion to detonations in highly heterogeneous media (e.g., polycrystalline, solid explosives) and unstable detonations with a transient and multidimensional structure (e.g., gaseous detonation waves).

  1. Bacteriological profile of raw, frozen chicken nuggets.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A; Huang, Bixing; Fegan, Narelle; Stuttard, Ed

    2008-03-01

    The bacteriological profile of raw, frozen chicken nuggets manufactured at a chicken processing facility in Queensland, Australia, was determined. Chicken nuggets are manufactured by grinding poultry, adding premixes to incorporate spices, forming the meat to the desired size and shape, applying a batter and breading, freezing, and packaging. A total of 300 frozen batches were analyzed for aerobic plate count, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella over a period of 4 years. The mean of the aerobic plate count was 5.4 log CFU/g, and counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 5.7, 5.9, and 6.5 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of bacteria detected was 6.6 log CFU/g. E. coli prevalence was 47%, and of the positive samples, the mean was 1.9 log CFU/g; counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 2.3, 2.4, and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of E. coli was 2.9 log CFU/g. The Salmonella prevalence was 8.7%, and 57.7% of these isolates were typed as Salmonella subspecies II 4,12,[27]:b:[e,n,x] (Sofia), a low-virulence serotype well adapted to Australian poultry flocks. There was a significant relationship (P < 0.05) between season and both aerobic plate counts and E. coli counts, and no correlation between E. coli counts and Salmonella prevalence. This study provides valuable data on the bacteriological quality of raw, frozen chicken nuggets.

  2. Tenderization of beef loins using a high efficiency sparker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of tenderizing beef strip loins using high-pressure shockwaves generated from a sparker source. A total of 117 steaks from 16 beef strip loins were utilized with each treated steak having an adjacent steak as a non-treated control. Ste...

  3. Colorectal cancer and consumption of beef and fat.

    PubMed Central

    Enstrom, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Secular, socioeconomic and urban-rural gradients and geographical differences in beef and fat consumption within the United States of America are compared with corresponding data on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates. These results, together with the results of most previous epidemiological studies, appear to contradict the hypothesis that beef and fat consumption are involved in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. PMID:1212410

  4. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  5. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  6. Nitrogen loss from sprinkler applied beef feedlot effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of nitrogen from sprinkler applied beef feedlot effluent can be costly for both the producer and the environment. Sprinkler application of effluent is common throughout the Great Plains, though little work has occurred focusing specifically on N losses from beef feedlot effluent. The objectives...

  7. Influence of mitochondrial efficiency on beef lean color stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of electrons in the electron transport chain has been implicated as a source of variation in feed efficiency of meat producing animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of electron loss during electron transport on beef lean color stability. Beef carcasses (n = 91) were...

  8. Nanopurification of semen improves AI pregnancy rates in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive efficiency is several times more important than any other factor affecting economic efficiency in beef production. Multiple studies have been conducted to improve fertility of beef cows, but few studies have been conducted to improve fertility in sires. Also, with current improvements...

  9. 9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PLATFORMS IN FOREGROUND WERE USED BY SPLITTERS, TRIMMERS AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS; SKINNING TABLE RAN ALONG THE WINDOWS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  10. Management characteristics of grassfed beef operations in the northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much information is being circulated on resource use, environmental impact, and overall sustainability of beef, but finding scientifically sound information is difficult. In an effort to address consumer concerns, a comprehensive analysis is being conducted across the beef industry. As a significant...

  11. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH3 ...

  12. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  13. 77 FR 52597 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order AGENCY... authority of the Beef Promotion and Research Order (Order). The Beef Research and Information Act (Act) requires that the Beef Promotion Operating Committee (BPOC) enter into contracts with established...

  14. 77 FR 12752 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order AGENCY... contracting authority as established under the Beef Promotion and Research (Order). The Beef Research and Information Act (Act) requires that the Beef Promotion Operating Committee (BPOC) enter into contracts...

  15. Cow biological type affects ground beef colour stability.

    PubMed

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C; Unruh, John A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of cow biological type on colour stability of ground beef, M. semimembranosus from beef-type (BSM) and dairy-type (DSM) cows was obtained 5d postmortem. Three blends (100% BSM, 50% BSM+50% DSM, 100% DSM) were adjusted to 90% and 80% lean points using either young beef trim (YBT) or beef cow trim (BCT), then packaged in high oxygen (High-O(2); 80% O(2)) modified atmosphere (MAP). The BSM+YBT patties had the brightest colour initially, but discoloured rapidly. Although DSM+BCT patties had the darkest colour initially, they discoloured least during display. Metmyoglobin reducing ability of ground DSM was up to fivefold greater than ground BSM, and TBARS values of BSM was twofold greater than DSM by the end of display (4d). Though initially darker than beef cow lean, dairy cow lean has a longer display colour life and may be advantageous to retailers using High-O(2) MAP.

  16. Determination of protein markers for beef tenderness in U. S. select beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Beef tenderness is a primary quality feature that defines the consumer’s perception of the product quality. Therefore definition of chemical characteristics that contribute to variation in tenderness within a specific USDA grade can help refine our understanding of meat tenderness. The o...

  17. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    SciTech Connect

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18/sup 0/C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18/sup 0/C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found.

  18. Primary Frozen Shoulder Syndrome: Arthroscopic Capsular Release

    PubMed Central

    Arce, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis, or primary frozen shoulder syndrome, is a fairly common orthopaedic problem characterized by shoulder pain and loss of motion. In most cases, conservative treatment (6-month physical therapy program and intra-articular steroid injections) improves symptoms and restores shoulder motion. In refractory cases, arthroscopic capsular release is indicated. This surgical procedure carries several advantages over other treatment modalities. First, it provides precise and controlled release of the capsule and ligaments, reducing the risk of traumatic complications observed after forceful shoulder manipulation. Second, release of the capsule and the involved structures with a radiofrequency device delays healing, which prevents adhesion formation. Third, the technique is straightforward, and an oral postoperative steroid program decreases pain and allows for a pleasant early rehabilitation program. Fourth, the procedure is performed with the patient fully awake under an interscalene block, which boosts the patient's confidence and adherence to the physical therapy protocol. In patients with refractory primary frozen shoulder syndrome, arthroscopic capsular release emerges as a suitable option that leads to a faster and long-lasting recovery. PMID:26870652

  19. Frozen Chemistry Effects on Nozzle Performance Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Dennis A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; O'Gara, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Simulations of exhaust nozzle flows are typically conducted assuming the gas is calorically perfect, and typically modeled as air. However the gas inside a real nozzle is generally composed of combustion products whose thermodynamic properties may differ. In this study, the effect of gas model assumption on exhaust nozzle simulations is examined. The three methods considered model the nozzle exhaust gas as calorically perfect air, a calorically perfect exhaust gas mixture, and a frozen exhaust gas mixture. In the latter case the individual non-reacting species are tracked and modeled as a gas which is only thermally perfect. Performance parameters such as mass flow rate, gross thrust, and thrust coefficient are compared as are mean flow and turbulence profiles in the jet plume region. Nozzles which operate at low temperatures or have low subsonic exit Mach numbers experience relatively minor temperature variations inside the nozzle, and may be modeled as a calorically perfect gas. In those which operate at the opposite extreme conditions, variations in the thermodynamic properties can lead to different expansion behavior within the nozzle. Modeling these cases as a perfect exhaust gas flow rather than air captures much of the flow features of the frozen chemistry simulations. Use of the exhaust gas reduces the nozzle mass flow rate, but has little effect on the gross thrust. When reporting nozzle thrust coefficient results, however, it is important to use the appropriate gas model assumptions to compute the ideal exit velocity. Otherwise the values obtained may be an overly optimistic estimate of nozzle performance.

  20. Modelling infiltration processes in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, A. M.; Barbour, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the hydrological processes in soils subject to significant freeze-thaw is fraught by "experimental vagaries and theoretical imponderables" (Miller 1980, Applications of soil physics). The infiltration of snowmelt water and the subsequent transmission of unfrozen water during thawing, is governed by hydraulic conductivity values which are changing with both ice and unfrozen water content. Water held within pores is subject to capillary forces, which results in a freezing point depression (i.e. water remains in the liquid state slightly below 0°C). As the temperature drops below zero, water freezes first in the larger pores, and then in progressively smaller pores. Since the larger pores also are the first to empty by drainage, these pores may be air filled during freezing, while smaller water filled pores freeze. This explains why an unsaturated, frozen soil may still have a considerable infiltration capacity. Infiltration into frozen soil is a critical phenomena related to the risk of flooding in the Canadian prairies, controlling the partitioning of snowmelt into either infiltration or runoff. We propose a new model, based on conceptualizing the pore space as a bundle of capillary tubes (with significant differences to the capillary bundle model of Wannatabe and Flury, 2008, WRR, doi:10.1029/2008WR007102) which allows any air-filled macropores to contribute to the potential infiltration capacity of the soil. The patterns of infiltration and water movement during freeze-thaw from the model are compared to field observations from the Canadian prairies and Boreal Plains.

  1. Stability of Frozen Orbits Around Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Josué; Vilhena de Moraes, R.; Carvalho, J. S.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): A planetary satellite of interest at the present moment for the scientific community is Europa, one of the four largest moons of Jupiter. There are some missions planned to visit Europa in the next years, for example, Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO, NASA) and Jupiter IcyMoon Explorer (JUICE, ESA). In this work we are formulating theories and constructing computer programs to be used in the design of aerospace tasks as regards the stability of artificial satellite orbits around planetary satellites. The studies are related to translational motion of orbits around planetary satellites considering polygenic perturbations due to forces, such as the nonspherical shape of the central body and the perturbation of the third body. The equations of motion will be developed in closed form to avoid expansions in eccentricity and inclination. For a description of canonical formalism are used the Delaunay canonical variables. The canonical set of equations, which are nonlinear differential equations, will be used to study the stability of orbits around Europa. We will use a simplified dynamic model, which considers the effects caused by non-uniform distribution of mass of Europa (J2, J3 and C22) and the gravitational attraction of Jupiter. Emphasis will be given to the case of frozen orbits, defined as having almost constant values of eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre. An approach will be used to search for frozen orbits around planetary satellites and study their stability by applying a process of normalization of Hamiltonian. Acknowledges: FAPESP

  2. Effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on processing characteristics and eating quality of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Klassen, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on the processing characteristics, shelf-life and consumer acceptability of ground beef was evaluated. Hot water treatment (85°C for 40s) substantially enhanced the microbial quality of trimmings during refrigerated storage and this was independent of the fat level of the trimmings. Treatment had no effect on the oxidative stability of trimmings stored up to 7days, ground beef displayed in a retail cabinet for up to 3days, and had minimal effect on textural properties. Instrumental results demonstrate that ground beef from hot water treated trimmings was slightly lighter and tended to have less red color compared to non-treated beef. These color differences did not impact the consumer acceptance of raw patties, and in addition, hot water treatment did not significantly affect the consumer acceptability of cooked patty attributes.

  3. Ground beef consumption patterns in the United States, FoodNet, 2006 through 2007.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ethel V; Holt, Kristin G; Mahon, Barbara E; Ayers, Tracy; Norton, Dawn; Gould, L Hannah

    2012-02-01

    Infection resulting from foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, is often associated with consumption of raw or undercooked ground beef. However, little is known about the frequency of ground beef consumption in the general population. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of self-reported ground beef and pink ground beef consumption using data from the 2006 through 2007 FoodNet Population Survey. From 1 July 2006 until 30 June 2007, residents of 10 FoodNet sites were contacted by telephone and asked about foods consumed within the previous week. The survey included questions regarding consumption of ground beef patties both inside and outside the home, the consumption of pink ground beef patties and other types of ground beef inside the home, and consumption of ground beef outside the home. Of 8,543 survey respondents, 75.3% reported consuming some type of ground beef in the home. Of respondents who ate ground beef patties in the home, 18.0% reported consuming pink ground beef. Consumption of ground beef was reported most frequently among men, persons with incomes from $40,000 to $75,000 per year, and persons with a high school or college education. Ground beef consumption was least often reported in adults ≥65 years of age. Men and persons with a graduate level education most commonly reported eating pink ground beef in the home. Reported consumption of ground beef and pink ground beef did not differ by season. Ground beef is a frequently consumed food item in the United States, and rates of consumption of pink ground beef have changed little since previous studies. The high rate of consumption of beef that has not been cooked sufficiently to kill pathogens makes pasteurization of ground beef an important consideration, especially for those individuals at high risk of complications from foodborne illnesses such as hemolytic uremic syndrome.

  4. Foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] via ground beef: an outbreak in northern France, 2011.

    PubMed

    King, L A; Loukiadis, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Haeghebaert, S; Weill, F-X; Baliere, C; Ganet, S; Gouali, M; Vaillant, V; Pihier, N; Callon, H; Novo, R; Gaillot, O; Thevenot-Sergentet, D; Bingen, E; Chaud, P; de Valk, H

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] is a particularly virulent clone of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a higher incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a higher case fatality rate. Many fundamental aspects of its epidemiology remain to be elucidated, including its reservoir and transmission routes and vehicles. We describe an outbreak of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] that occurred in France in 2011. Eighteen cases of paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome with symptom onset between 6 June and 15 July 2011 were identified among children aged 6 months to 10 years residing in northern France. A strain of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] stx2a eae was isolated from ten cases. Epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations identified multiply-contaminated frozen ground beef products bought in a supermarket chain as the outbreak vehicle. Strains with three distinct pulsotypes that were isolated from patients, ground beef preparations recovered from patients' freezers and from stored production samples taken at the production plant were indistinguishable upon molecular comparison. This investigation documents microbiologically confirmed foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting of E. coli O157 via beef and could additionally provide evidence of a reservoir in cattle for this pathogen.

  5. Prevalence, genetic characterization and virulence genes of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H- and E. coli O157:H7 isolated from retail beef.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohammed, Mahmoud Ahmed; Ahdy, Asmaa Mohammed; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2013-08-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting (SF) Escherichia coli O157:H- strains have emerged as important pathogens and have been associated with a higher incidence of progression to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) than non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of SF E. coli O157:H- and NSF E. coli O157:H7 strains in retail beef products in Mansoura, Egypt. The contamination rates with rfbEO157-positive E. coli O157 strains were 26.7% (8/30), 10% (3/30) and 3.7% (1/27) in ground beef, beef burger, and fresh beef samples, respectively with an overall mean of 13.8% (12/87) among all meat products tested. SF E. coli O157:H- were the most dominant among the isolated O157 strains. Of the fifteen O157 strains isolated, 11 (73.3%) were SF E. coli O157:H-, while the remaining 4 (26.7%) were NSF E. coli O157:H7. The 11 SF O157H- strains were genetically positive for sfpA gene. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for fliC gene demonstrated a similar pattern for both SF and NSF O157 isolates. PCR assays verified the existence of stx1 gene in 7 (46.7%) and stx2 gene in 13 (86.7%) of the 15 O157 strains isolated. Unexpectedly, two of the 15 O157 strains isolated were negative for Shiga toxin genes. The eae gene was identified in all of the 15 O157 strains except in one NSF O157:H7 strain. EHEC-hlyA gene was detected in 14 (93.3%) of the 15 O157 isolates, nonetheless only 11 strains showed enterohemolytic phenotype on blood agar. A combination of the four virulence genes, stx1, stx2, eae and EHEC-hlyA were detected in 7 (46.7%) strains, while six (40%) strains were positive for stx2, eae and hlyA genes. This is the first record for isolation of E. coli O157: H- in Egypt as well as in the African continent.

  6. Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.

    PubMed

    López-Vargas, Jairo H; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source.

  7. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

  8. The initial freezing point temperature of beef rises with the rise in pH: a short communication.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Kemp, R M; Cartwright, S; North, M

    2013-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the initial freezing point temperature of meat is affected by pH. Sixty four bovine M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum were classified into two ultimate pH groups: low (<5.8) and high pH (>6.2) and their cooling and freezing point temperatures were determined. The initial freezing temperatures for beef ranged from -0.9 to -1.5°C (∆=0.6°C) with the higher and lower temperatures associated with high and low ultimate pH respectively. There was a significant correlation (r=+0.73, P<0.01) between beef pH and freezing point temperature in the present study. The outcome of this study has implications for the meat industry where evidence of freezing (ice formation) in a shipment as a result of high pH meat could result in a container load of valuable chilled product being downgraded to a lower value frozen product.

  9. Global picture of self-similar and non-self-similar decay in Burgers turbulence.

    PubMed

    Noullez, Alain; Gurbatov, Sergey N; Aurell, Erik; Simdyankin, Sergey I

    2005-05-01

    This paper continues earlier investigations of the decay of Burgers turbulence in one dimension from Gaussian random initial conditions of the power-law spectral type E0(k) approximately |k|(n). Depending on the power n , different characteristic regions are distinguished. The main focus of this paper is to delineate the regions in wave number k and time t in which self-similarity can (and cannot) be observed, taking into account small-k and large-k cutoffs. The evolution of the spectrum can be inferred using physical arguments describing the competition between the initial spectrum and the new frequencies generated by the dynamics. For large wave numbers, we always have a k(-2) region, associated with the shocks. When n is less than 1, the large-scale part of the spectrum is preserved in time and the global evolution is self-similar, so that scaling arguments perfectly predict the behavior in time of the energy and integral scale. If n is larger than 2, the spectrum tends for long times to a universal scaling form independent of the initial conditions, with universal behavior k(2) at small wave numbers. In the interval 2

  10. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.126 Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for... lemonade by § 146.120, except that it is colored with a safe and suitable fruit juice, vegetable juice,...

  11. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126 Section 146.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... section 721 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen...

  12. 21 CFR 146.126 - Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for colored lemonade. 146.126 Section 146.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... section 721 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen...

  13. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice cream and frozen custard. 135.110 Section 135....110 Ice cream and frozen custard. (a) Description. (1) Ice cream is a food produced by freezing, while... accomplish specific functions. Ice cream is sweetened with safe and suitable sweeteners and may...

  14. A Possible Small Frozen Lake in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, M. A.; Pacifici, A.; Komatsu, G.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the geomorphological features observed on a MOC-na image (E0402007) that reveal the existence of a possible small frozen lake on the surface of Utopia Planitia. Some of its characteristics are similar to some frozen lakes on the Earth.

  15. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  16. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  17. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  18. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  19. 21 CFR 146.120 - Frozen concentrate for lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lemonade is the frozen food prepared from one or both of the lemon juice ingredients specified in paragraph... percent by weight. (b) The lemon juice ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are: (1) Lemon juice or frozen lemon juice or a mixture of these. (2) Concentrated lemon juice or...

  20. The Growth Kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis in Raw Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Sabike, Islam I; Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Edris, Abobakr M

    2015-01-01

    The growth kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis in raw beef has been little studied so far. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the growth kinetics of the pathogen in ground beef using a growth model. When Salmonella cells inoculated at various initial doses into ground beef were incubated at a given temperature (24℃), the maximum population (Nmax) of the microbe at the stationary phase varied with the doses. This relationship was expressed with a polynomialequation for Nmax using the initial dose. The combination of the growth model and the polynomial equation successfully predicted Salmonella growth at a given initial dose. When Salmonella cells inoculated in ground beef were incubated at various constant temperatures, the growth curves of the pathogen and natural microflora (NM) were well described with the growth model. The rate constant of growth and the Nmax values for Salmonella and NM were then analyzed kinetically. From these results, growth curves of Salmonella and NM in ground beef stored at dynamic temperatures were successfully predicted. Competition between Salmonella and NM in ground beef was also found during the storage. This study could give usable information on the growth of Salmonella and NM in ground beef at various temperatures.

  1. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni inoculated into ground beef.

    PubMed

    Stern, N J; Kotula, A W

    1982-11-01

    Ground beef was inoculated with mixed cultures of Campylobacter jejuni, and the samples were subjected to various cooking and cold-storage temperatures. When samples were heated in an oven at either 190 or 218 degrees C, approximately 10(7) cells of C. jejuni per g were inactivated (less than 30 cells per g) in less than 10 min after the ground beef reached an internal temperature of 70 degrees C. When the samples were held at -15 degrees C over 14 days of storage, the numbers of C. jejuni declined by 3 log10. When inoculated samples were stored with an equal amount of Cary-Blair diluent at 4 degrees C, no changes in viability were observed over 14 days of storage. Twenty-five times as much C. jejuni was recovered from inoculated ground beef when either 10% glycerol or 10% dimethyl sulfoxide was added to an equal amount of ground beef before freezing as was recovered from peptone-diluted ground beef. Twice as much inoculated C. jejuni was recovered from ground beef plus Cary-Blair diluent as was recovered from ground beef plus peptone diluent.

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN AIR-TO-BEEF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A model for predicting concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in beef is developed and tested. The key premise of the model is that concentrations of these compounds in air are the source term, or starting point, for estimating beef concentrations. Vapor-phase concentrations transfer to vegetations cattle consume, and particle-bound concentrations deposit onto soils and these vegetations as well. Congener-specific bioconcentration parameters, coupled with assumptions on cattle diet, transform soil and vegetative concentrations into beef fat concentrations. The premise of the validation exercise is that a profile of typical air concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in a United States rural environment is an appropriate observed independent data set, and that a representative profile of United States beef concentrations of dioxin-like compounds is an appropriate observed dependent result. These data were developed for the validation exercise. An observed concentration of dioxin toxic equivalents in whole beef of 0.48 ng/kg is compared with a predicted 0.36 ng/kg. Principal uncertainties in the approach are identified and discussed. A major finding of this exercise was that vapor phase transfers of dioxin-like compounds to vegetations that cattle consume dominate the estimation of final beef concentrations: over 80% of the modeled beef concentration was attributed to such transfers. journal article

  3. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  4. Effect of erythorbic acid on cooked color in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A L; Mancini, R; Sun, Q; Lynch, M P; Faustman, C

    2001-01-01

    Consumers often use the color of cooked ground beef as an indicator of doneness. For safety reasons, it is recommended that the center of ground beef products be heated to 71°C. In some instances beef may appear done before reaching 71°C, a condition termed premature browning (PMB). Ground beef (15% fat), with added erythorbic acid (ERY) at 0.04 and 0.06% was formed into patties, wrapped in oxygen permeable film, and stored in the dark at 4°C. Patties were stored for either 10 h or 58 h and then cooked to internal end point temperatures of 60, 66, 71 or 77°C. Internal cooked color L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) values were measured. For beef patties stored 10 h, there was no effect of ERY on internal cooked color. After 58 h storage, ground beef with 0.04 and 0.06% ERY had higher a(∗) values than controls at 60°C (P<0.05). Beef with 0.04% ERY cooked to an internal temperature of 66°C had higher a(∗) values than 0.06% ERY and controls (P<0.05). There was no effect of ERY on color of beef patties cooked to 71 or 77°C. The presence of 0.04% ERY in ground beef patties stored 58 h appeared to maintain red color at internal temperatures of 60 and 66°C.

  5. Title: Characterizing a Frozen Extrasolar World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents our first opportunity to study an object outside the Solar System that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs-near infrared spectroscopy-is not currently feasible as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 micrometers spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter's deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter. The spectrum is high enough quality to allow the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter's atmosphere, but this time on an extrasolar world.

  6. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  7. A meshless method using radial basis functions for numerical solution of the two-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihi, F.; Saffarian, M.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this article is to obtain the numerical solution of the two-dimensional KdV-Burgers equation. We construct the solution by using a different approach, that is based on using collocation points. The solution is based on using the thin plate splines radial basis function, which builds an approximated solution with discretizing the time and the space to small steps. We use a predictor-corrector scheme to avoid solving the nonlinear system. The results of numerical experiments are compared with analytical solutions to confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the presented scheme.

  8. [Economic dimension and environmental impact of beef production in France].

    PubMed

    Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2011-11-01

    Following recent publication of data on its environmental impact, beef production is being strongly challenged. However, these data concern global ruminant production, which is highly diverse and does not necessarily correspond to the European and French situations. While it is undeniable that ruminant production contributes to global warming, there are several ways of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, and permanent pastures serve as carbon sinks. Beef production is also a vital economic sector for many regions, where it would not be possible to produce cereals or to develop intensive animal production systems. Beef production also contributes to many collective services, justifying its continued financial support.

  9. The Weighted Burgers Vector: a new quantity for constraining dislocation densities and types using electron backscatter diffraction on 2D sections through crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J; Mariani, E; Piazolo, S; Prior, D J; Trimby, P; Drury, M R

    2009-03-01

    The Weighted Burgers Vector (WBV) is defined here as the sum, over all types of dislocations, of [(density of intersections of dislocation lines with a map) x (Burgers vector)]. Here we show that it can be calculated, for any crystal system, solely from orientation gradients in a map view, unlike the full dislocation density tensor, which requires gradients in the third dimension. No assumption is made about gradients in the third dimension and they may be non-zero. The only assumption involved is that elastic strains are small so the lattice distortion is entirely due to dislocations. Orientation gradients can be estimated from gridded orientation measurements obtained by EBSD mapping, so the WBV can be calculated as a vector field on an EBSD map. The magnitude of the WBV gives a lower bound on the magnitude of the dislocation density tensor when that magnitude is defined in a coordinate invariant way. The direction of the WBV can constrain the types of Burgers vectors of geometrically necessary dislocations present in the microstructure, most clearly when it is broken down in terms of lattice vectors. The WBV has three advantages over other measures of local lattice distortion: it is a vector and hence carries more information than a scalar quantity, it has an explicit mathematical link to the individual Burgers vectors of dislocations and, since it is derived via tensor calculus, it is not dependent on the map coordinate system. If a sub-grain wall is included in the WBV calculation, the magnitude of the WBV becomes dependent on the step size but its direction still carries information on the Burgers vectors in the wall. The net Burgers vector content of dislocations intersecting an area of a map can be simply calculated by an integration round the edge of that area, a method which is fast and complements point-by-point WBV calculations.

  10. The effect of different cooking processes on stable C, N, and H isotopic compositions of beef.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiuqing; Guo, Boli; Wei, Yimin; Zhang, Guoquan; Wei, Shuai; Ma, Yiyan

    2015-09-01

    The variability in the stable C, N, and H isotopic composition caused by different beef processing operations (boiling, frying, and roasting) was studied. The aim was to evaluate the stability of stable isotopic fingerprint information during the beef cooking process. The δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(2)H values for raw, boiled, fried and roasted beef were measured, and the differences in the stable isotopic composition between raw and processed beef products were assessed. The results indicated that the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in raw beef were not significantly different compared with processed beef, but the δ(2)H values were significantly higher in processed beef than in raw beef. In general, boiling, frying, and roasting had no significant effect on δ(13)C and δ(15)N values, but the δ(2)H value of processed beef increased.

  11. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Chee Hao; Wong, Woan Chwen; Pui, Chai Fung; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Tang, John Yew Huat; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2013-12-01

    A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from < 3 up to > 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in moisture-enhanced nonintact beef by pan-broiling or roasting with various cooking appliances set at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cangliang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in moisture-enhanced restructured nonintact beef cooked to 65 °C using different cooking appliances set at different temperatures. Batches (2 kg) of coarse-ground beef (approximately 5% fat) were mixed with an 8-strain composite (100 mL) of rifampicin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (6.4 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) and a solution (100 mL) of sodium chloride plus sodium tripolyphosphate to yield concentrations (wt/wt) of 0.5% and 0.25%, respectively, in the final product. Beef portions of 2.54 cm thickness (15 cm dia) were prepared and were vacuum-packaged and frozen (-20 °C, 42 h). Partially thawed (-2.5 ± 1.0 °C) portions were pan-broiled (Presto electric skillet and Sanyo grill) or roasted (Oster toaster oven and Magic Chef kitchen oven) to 65 °C. The appliances were set at, and preheated before cooking to 149 or 204 °C (electric skillet), 149 or 218 °C (grill), 149 or 232 °C (toaster oven), and 149, 204, or 260 °C (kitchen oven). Temperatures of appliances and beef samples were monitored with thermocouples, and meat samples were analyzed for surviving microbial populations. In general, the higher the appliance temperature setting, the shorter the time needed to reach 65 °C, and the higher the edge and surface temperatures of the meat samples. Temperatures of 204 to 260 °C, regardless of appliance, resulted in greater (P < 0.05) pathogen reductions (3.3 to 5.5 log CFU/g) than those obtained at 149 °C (1.5 to 2.4 log CFU/g). The highest (P < 0.05) reduction (5.5 log CFU/g) was obtained in samples cooked in the kitchen oven set at 260 °C. The results should be useful to the food service industry for selection of effective nonintact beef cooking protocols, and for use in risk assessments for nonintact meat products. Practical Application: Results of this study should be useful for developing cooking recommendations to enhance the safety of nonintact beef products, and for use in risk assessments of such

  13. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  14. Cooperating and Student Teacher Expectations: Beefs and Bouquets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Larry

    1983-01-01

    Cooperating teachers (144) and student teachers (224) provided information on what they appreciated most and least about the student teacher/cooperating teacher they worked with. "Bouquets" and "beefs" for student teachers and for cooperating teachers are listed. (CJ)

  15. High School Beef Farm is Career Education Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herren, Ray

    1976-01-01

    The beef farm at Gaylesville High School, Gaylesville, Alabama, has provided an opportunity for students to gain work experience in a variety of areas including construction, animal care, and packing plant procedures. (LH)

  16. Radiation inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood products.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Rajkowski, Kathleen T

    2011-04-01

    Foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood is, unfortunately, a regular occurrence in the United States. Ionizing (gamma) radiation can effectively inactivate microorganisms and extend the shelf life of seafood. In this study, the ability of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens surface inoculated onto frozen seafood (scallops, lobster meat, blue crab, swordfish, octopus, and squid) was investigated. The radiation D(10)-values (the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log unit of a microorganism) for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella inoculated onto seafood samples that were then frozen and irradiated in the frozen state (-20°C) were 0.43 to 0.66, 0.48 to 0.71, and 0.47 to 0.70 kGy, respectively. In contrast, the radiation D(10)-value for the same pathogens suspended on frozen pork were 1.26, 0.98, and 1.18 kGy for L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and Salmonella, respectively. The radiation dose needed to inactivate these foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood is significantly lower than that for frozen meat or frozen vegetables.

  17. Numerical Solution to Generalized Burgers'-Fisher Equation Using Exp-Function Method Hybridized with Heuristic Computation

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Malik, Aqdas Naveed; Haq, Ihsanul

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE). The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems. PMID:25811858

  18. Direct Determination of Burgers Vectors of Threading Mixed Dislocations in 4H-SiC Grown by PVT Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianqiu; Yang, Yu; Wu, Fangzhen; Sumakeris, Joe; Leonard, Robert; Goue, Ouloide; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In addition to pure threading screw dislocations (TSDs), the presence of threading mixed dislocations (TMDs) (with a component) has been reported both in 4H-SiC axial slices (wafers cut parallel to the growth axis) and in commercial offcut wafers (cut almost perpendicular to the growth axis). In this paper, we first demonstrate a method to quickly distinguish TMDs from TSDs in axial slices via synchrotron white-beam x-ray topography. Since such axial slices are usually not available for commercial purposes, a systematic method is then developed and demonstrated here to unambiguously determine the Burgers vectors of TMDs in 4H-SiC commercial offcut wafers. In this second study, both synchrotron monochromatic-beam x-ray topography and ray-tracing simulation are used. The x-ray topographs were recorded using grazing-incidence geometry. The principle of this method is that the contrast of dislocations on different reflections varies with the relative orientation of Burgers vectors with respect to the diffraction vectors. Measurements confirm that, in a commercial offcut wafer, the majority of the threading dislocations with screw component are mixed-type dislocations.

  19. Numerical solution to generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation using Exp-function method hybridized with heuristic computation.

    PubMed

    Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Malik, Aqdas Naveed; Haq, Ihsanul

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE). The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems.

  20. Professor Herman Burger (1893-1965), eminent teacher and scientist, who laid the theoretical foundations of vectorcardiography--and electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    van Herpen, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Einthoven not only designed a high quality instrument, the string galvanometer, for recording the ECG, he also shaped the conceptual framework to understand it. He reduced the body to an equilateral triangle and the cardiac electric activity to a dipole, represented by an arrow (i.e. a vector) in the triangle's center. Up to the present day the interpretation of the ECG is based on the model of a dipole vector being projected on the various leads. The model is practical but intuitive, not physically founded. Burger analysed the relation between heart vector and leads according to the principles of physics. It then follows that an ECG lead must be treated as a vector (lead vector) and that the lead voltage is not simply proportional to the projection of the vector on the lead, but must be multiplied by the value (length) of the lead vector, the lead strength. Anatomical lead axis and electrical lead axis are different entities and the anatomical body space must be distinguished from electrical space. Appreciation of these underlying physical principles should contribute to a better understanding of the ECG. The development of these principles by Burger is described, together with some personal notes and a sketch of the personality of this pioneer of medical physics.

  1. A novel experiment for measuring infiltration into seasonal frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demand, Dominic; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the northern hemisphere have at least seasonal frozen soils. Depending on the initial soil water content infiltration capacity can be reduced through pore blockage of ice. Many studies dealing with this topic used numerical modelling for estimating the effect of frozen soils on infiltration. Only a few studies investigated the influences of seasonal frozen soils on infiltration and runoff generation in field experiments. Some authors point out that preferential flow can be an important factor under frozen conditions, but only qualitative information are available so far. A missing methodology makes it hard to measure and quantify infiltration into frozen soils, especially the role of preferential flow. Therefore, a novel multi-method approach for measuring the influences of seasonal frozen soil on infiltration is presented. Sprinkling experiments with a rate of 50 mm/h were performed at frozen soil plots under wet and dry initial conditions in a grassland field site in the Black Forest, Germany. Additionally, two different water temperatures were used for the sprinkling experiments (~2°C and ~10°C). Thermal infrared imagery was tested for continuous, in-situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal soil thermal state during infiltration and the possibility to derive information on water flow. A dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was added to the infiltrating water and analyzed by image analysis for flow patterns and depth distribution. Thermal infrared imagery and dye tracer were used for the first time in field experiments in frozen soils and were tested for their potential to show the effect of preferential flow under frozen conditions. These information were related to observed soil moisture and temperature profiles measured with capacitance probes in five depths. Furthermore timing and amount of surface runoff was examined for all plots. Brilliant Blue flow patterns and surface runoff were compared against unfrozen soils with similar initial conditions

  2. Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-06

    foreign markets that banned U.S. beef when a cow in Washington state tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease) in...1 For additional details and background see CRS Report RS22345, BSE (“Mad Cow Disease:): A Brief Overview, and CRS Report RL32199, Bovine Spongiform ...rejection of three shipments of U.S. beef because of the presence of bone fragments. CRS-4 8 See also CRS Report RL32932, Bovine Spongiform

  3. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) from imported beef meat in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abuelhassan, Nawal Nouridaim; Mutalib, Sahilah Abdul; Gimba, Fufa Ido; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed at determining the presence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) from imported frozen beef meats. Seventy-four (74) frozen imported beef meat samples from two countries, India (42 samples) and Australia (32 samples), were collected and tested for E. coli. These samples were purchased from the frozen meat sections of five different supermarkets in different locations in Selangor, Malaysia, from April 2012 to October 2014. A total of 222 E. coli strains were isolated from the meat samples; 126 strains were isolated from country A (India), and 96 E. coli strains were from country of origin B (Australia), respectively. A total of 70 E. coli strains were identified and characterized. All E. coli strains were isolated into Fluorocult medium and identified using API 20E kit. All selected E. coli strains were characterized for Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). All biochemically identified E. coli in this study were further subjected to molecular detection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and characterization using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Of the 70 E. coli strains, 11 strains were positive for both Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) and 11 (11/70) strains were positive for stx1 gene, while 25 (25/70) strains were positive for stx2 gene. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene of all the E. coli isolates in this study was successfully sequenced and analyzed, and based on sequence data obtained, a phylogenetic tree of the 16S rRNA gene was performed using Clustal W programme in MEGA 6.06 software. Phylogenetic tree showed that the E. coli isolates in our study cluster with the strain of E. coli isolated in other countries, which further confirm that the isolates of E. coli in this study are similar to those obtained in other studies. As a result, all the strains obtained in this study proved to be a strain of pathogenic E. coli, which may cause a serious outbreak

  4. [Concentrations of radioactive cesium in different cuts of beef].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident, high levels of radioactive cesium were detected in beef. Many prefectural governments decided to conduct blanket tests on meat from local beef cattle to prevent distribution of beef contaminated with radioactive cesium exceeding the provisional regulation value. In some cases, different concentrations of radioactive cesium were found in different cuts of beef from the same cows. These results raised questions about the reliability of the test results. Here, we investigated the reason for the differences in radioactive cesium concentration in different cuts of beef from the same cows. The concentrations of radioactive cesium in five different parts cuts of beef from three cows were negatively correlated with fat content, suggesting that the difference in radioactive cesium concentration is due to differences in fat content in the meat. In addition, our results showed that the concentration of radioactive cesium in muscle was more than 7-fold higher than that in fat in the same cow. These results suggested that it is necessary to use muscle for testing of radioactive cesium in cows.

  5. Recordkeeping practices of beef grinding activities at retail establishments.

    PubMed

    Gould, L Hannah; Seys, Scott; Everstine, Karen; Norton, Dawn; Ripley, Danny; Reimann, David; Dreyfuss, Moshe; Chen, Wu San; Selman, Carol A

    2011-06-01

    Ground beef has been implicated as a transmission vehicle in foodborne outbreaks of infection with pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. During outbreak investigations, traceback of contaminated beef to the producing facility is often unsuccessful because of inadequate recordkeeping at retail establishments that grind beef products. We conducted a survey in three states participating in the Environmental Health Specialists Network to describe beef grinding and recordkeeping practices at retail establishments. In each establishment that maintained grinding logs, three randomly selected records were reviewed to determine whether important data elements for traceback investigations were recorded. One hundred twenty-five stores were surveyed, of which 60 (49%) kept grinding logs, including 54 (74%) of 73 chain stores and 6 (12%) of 51 independent stores. One hundred seventy-six grinding records from 61 stores were reviewed. Seventy-three percent of the records included the establishment code of the source beef, 72% included the grind date and time, and 59% included the lot number of the source beef. Seventy-five percent of records noted whether trimmings were included in grinds, and 57% documented cleanup activities. Only 39 (22%) records had all of these variables completed. Of stores that did not keep grinding logs, 40% were unaware of their purpose. To facilitate effective and efficient traceback investigations by regulatory agencies, retail establishments should maintain records more detailed and complete of all grinding activities.

  6. Milestones in beef cattle genetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Golden, B L; Garrick, D J; Benyshek, L L

    2009-04-01

    National beef cattle genetic evaluation programs have evolved in the United States over the last 35 yr to create important tools that are part of sustainable breeding programs. The history of national beef cattle genetic evaluation programs has lessons to offer the next generation of researchers as new approaches in molecular genetics and decision support are developed. Through a series of complex and intricate pressures from technology and organizational challenges, national cattle evaluation programs continue to grow in importance and impact. Development of enabling technologies and the interface of the disciplines of computer science, numerical methods, statistics, and quantitative genetics have created an example of how academics, government, and industry can work together to create more effective solutions to technical problems. The advent of mixed model procedures was complemented by a series of breakthrough discoveries that made what was previously considered intractable a reality. The creation of modern genetic evaluation procedures has followed a path characterized by a steady and constant approach to identification and solution for each technical problem encountered. At its core, the driving force for the evolution has been the need to constantly improve the accuracy of the predictions of genetic merit for breeding stock, especially young animals. Sensible approaches, such as the principle of economically relevant traits, were developed that created the rules to be followed as the programs grew. However, the current systems are far from complete or perfect. Modern genetic evaluation programs have a long way to go, and a great deal of improvement in the accuracy of prediction is still possible. But the greatest challenge remains: the need to understand that genetic predictions are only parameters for decision support procedures and not an end in themselves.

  7. Opportunities for predicting and manipulating beef quality.

    PubMed

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Botreau, Raphaëlle; Picard, Brigitte; Jacquet, Alain; Pethick, David W; Scollan, Nigel D

    2012-11-01

    Meat quality is a complex concept and can be defined as the characteristics of meat which satisfy consumers and citizens. The quality concept can be divided into intrinsic quality traits (which are the characteristics of the product itself) and extrinsic quality traits (which are more or less associated to the product for instance the price, a major determinant of purchase, or any brand or quality label). Quality can also be generic for the mass market or specific for niche markets. The relative importance of the different quality traits varies with human culture and time with a general trend of an increasing contribution of healthiness, safety and extrinsic quality traits. This review underlines the need for the development of methods to interpret and aggregate measures under specific rules to be defined in order to produce an overall assessment of beef quality. Such methods can be inferred for example from genomic results or data related to muscle biochemistry to better predict tenderness or flavor. A more global assurance quality scheme (the Meat Standards Australia System) based on the aggregation of sensory quality traits has been developed in Australia to ensure palatability to consumers. We speculated that the combination of indices related to sensory and nutritional quality, social and environmental considerations (carbon footprint, animal welfare, biodiversity of pasture, rural development, etc.) and economic efficiency (incomes of farmers and of others players along the supply chain, etc.) will provide objective assessment of the overall quality of beef (i.e. incorporating an all encompassing approach) not only for the mass market but also to support official quality labels of niche markets which are so far mainly associated with the geographical origins of the products.

  8. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  9. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like ‘top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and ‘bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  10. GENERAL: Explicit Solutions of (2+1)-Dimensional Canonical Generalized KP, KdV, and (2+1)-Dimensional Burgers Equations with Variable Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin-Lin; Liu, Xi-Qiang

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, using the generalized (G'/G)-expansion method and the auxiliary differential equation method, we discuss the (2+1)-dimensional canonical generalized KP (CGKP), KdV, and (2+1)-dimensional Burgers equations with variable coefficients. Many exact solutions of the equations are obtained in terms of elliptic functions, hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions, and rational functions.

  11. Analytical solutions for wall slip effects on magnetohydrodynamic oscillatory rotating plate and channel flows in porous media using a fractional Burgers viscoelastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqbool, Khadija; Anwar Bég, O.; Sohail, Ayesha; Idreesa, Shafaq

    2016-05-01

    The theoretical analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) incompressible flows of a Burgers fluid through a porous medium in a rotating frame of reference is presented. The constitutive model of a Burgers fluid is used based on a fractional calculus formulation. Hydrodynamic slip at the wall (plate) is incorporated and the fractional generalized Darcy model deployed to simulate porous medium drag force effects. Three different cases are considered: namely, the flow induced by a general periodic oscillation at a rigid plate, the periodic flow in a parallel plate channel and, finally, the Poiseuille flow. In all cases the plate(s) boundary(ies) are electrically non-conducting and a small magnetic Reynolds number is assumed, negating magnetic induction effects. The well-posed boundary value problems associated with each case are solved via Fourier transforms. Comparisons are made between the results derived with and without slip conditions. Four special cases are retrieved from the general fractional Burgers model, viz. Newtonian fluid, general Maxwell viscoelastic fluid, generalized Oldroyd-B fluid and the conventional Burgers viscoelastic model. Extensive interpretation of graphical plots is included. We study explicitly the influence of the wall slip on primary and secondary velocity evolution. The model is relevant to MHD rotating energy generators employing rheological working fluids.

  12. The structure and properties of quartz crystals grown from fluoride solutions: Part II. The burgers vector of the growth screw superdislocations

    SciTech Connect

    Chuvyrov, A. N.; Mazitov, R. M.; Kalimgulov, A. R.; Lebedev, Yu. A.

    2009-07-15

    The birefringence method is used to investigate the distribution of microstresses around screw superdislocations with a hollow core in quartz crystals and to determine the Burgers vector and core size. The core size was found to be 5 x 10{sup -7} m; this value was confirmed independently by studying the light diffraction on hollow cores in different quartz cuts.

  13. Heterocyclic aromatic amine content in chicken burgers and chicken nuggets sold in fast food restaurants and effects of green tea extract and microwave thawing on their formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken burgers (CBs) and chicken nuggets (CNs) purchased from fast food restaurants and the effects of green tea extract addition (GTE) to the covering material as wel...

  14. Spectroscopic detection of molecular hydrogen frozen in interstellar ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Geballe, Thomas R.

    1993-01-01

    A weak infrared absorption feature near 4141 wavenumbers (2.415 micrometers) in the spectrum of WL5, an infrared source in the rho Ophiuchus cloud complex, has been detected. It is attributed to molecular hydrogen created by irradiation and frozen in situ into water-rich ices. A second, broader absorption at 4125 wavenumbers centimeters (2.424 micrometers) is probably due to methanol in the ices. The column densities of frozen molecular hydrogen and methanol are inferred to be about 2.5 x 10(exp 18) and 3.0 x 10(exp 19), respectively. There is about three times more frozen molecular hydrogen than frozen carbon monoxide along this line of sight.

  15. A Frozen Lake/Glaciolacustrine Model of Crater Greg (Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.

    2012-03-01

    Crater Greg (near Hellas, Mars) exhibits some of the most compelling evidence of glaciation on Mars. The depositional environment and paleoclimatic implications are not clear. Here we propose a frozen lake model of glacier-like flow formation.

  16. View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the highway, approach to the Frozen Lake switchback curve, looking east. Proposed realignment will shift the road slightly to the south (right) - Beartooth Highway, Red Lodge, Montana to Cooke City, Montana, Cody, Park County, WY

  17. 7 CFR 59.104 - Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... product characteristics, if applicable; (iii) The grade for steer and heifer beef (e.g., USDA Prime, USDA... product delivery period; and (ix) The beef type (steer/heifer, dairy steer/heifer, or cow)....

  18. Beef consumer segment profiles based on information source usage in Poland.

    PubMed

    Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicki, Jerzy; Cieszyńska, Katarzyna; Sajdakowska, Marta; Kosicka-Gębska, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify market segments based on consumers' usage of information sources about beef and to investigate whether the use of information sources was associated with the type of information consumers were searching for, factors guiding their decision processes to buy beef and motives related to beef consumption. Data were collected in 2014 through a self-administered survey of 501 regular beef consumers. Three distinct clusters were identified: Enthusiast (38.5%), Conservative (43.1%) and Ultra Conservative (18.4%). This study revealed that culinary and personal sources of information on beef were the most frequently used. Taste, perceived healthiness and suitability to prepare many dishes were reported as primary motives to eat beef. These results show that communication channels such as culinary programs and opportunities provided by the development of labelling systems to guarantee beef quality should be considered when developing policies and strategies to increase beef consumption in Poland.

  19. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  20. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  1. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  2. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  3. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12... § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be imported... with the requirements for importing frozen fruits and vegetables in part 305 of this chapter....

  5. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  6. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  7. Oxy- and carboxyhemoglobin saturation determination in frozen small vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, N H; Weiss, H R

    1991-02-01

    A four-wavelength microspectrophotometric method has been developed to determine both O2 and CO saturation of hemoglobin in frozen small vessels. This method compensates for the nonspecific light loss related to the ice crystals and in addition can simultaneously measure both hemoglobin O2 and CO saturation in frozen blood. By using four wavelengths in the 540-580 nm range, it is possible to determine both O2 and CO saturations in frozen blood. This four-wavelength method demonstrated an accuracy of 6-8% within 95% confidence limits (SE of estimate = 3-4%) for both CO and O2 saturation determinations in frozen blood. The linear regression of the hemoglobin O2 saturation calibration was significant with an r2 value of 0.989. The linear regression of the CO saturation calibration was also significant with an r2 of 0.996. The repeatability of each measurement was on the order of 1-6%. This method also represents an accuracy within 5% for measurements in the frozen rabbit heart for both CO and O2 in vessels between 20 and 100 microns in diameter. It compares favorably with other previously reported methods. It shows a similar accuracy but requires fewer repeat measurements than the three-wavelength method. This method can provide accurate measurement of O2 and CO saturation in small frozen arterioles and venules of any organ.

  8. Characteristics of beef cattle operations in the Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the launch of the Beef Checkoff’s U.S. Beef Industry Sustainability Assessment in 2011, region-specific collection of beef production information is underway to provide data for a benchmark national life cycle assessment. The aim of this factsheet is to summarize data gathered from online ...

  9. Characteristics of beef cattle operations in the Northern Plains (Nebraska, South Dakota and North Dakota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the U.S. Beef Industry Sustainability Assessment launched by the Beef Checkoff Program in 2011, region-specific collection of beef production and associated feed and manure management data is on-going to provide the basis for a benchmark national life cycle assessment. This factsheet summa...

  10. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  11. Campylobacter on U.S. Beef Cow-calf Operations, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Health Monitoring System conducted the Beef 2007-08 study, which focused on beef cow-calf health and management practices in 24 States from three regions of the United States. These States represented 79.6 percent of U.S. operations with beef cow...

  12. Advanced Beef Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Selected Readings. AGDEX 420/00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Jim; Stewart, Bob R.

    These selected readings are designed to supplement James Gillespie's "Modern Livestock and Poultry Production" (2nd edition) as the student reference for the advanced beef unit. The 15 lessons build on Agricultural Science I and II competencies. Topics of the 15 lessons are: importance of the beef enterprise; cost of beef production;…

  13. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding any other... slaughtered in Japan may be imported into the United States under the following conditions: (a) The beef...

  14. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding the provisions of... Japan may be imported into the United States under the following conditions: (a) The beef is prepared...

  15. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding the provisions of... Japan may be imported into the United States under the following conditions: (a) The beef is prepared...

  16. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding the provisions of... Japan may be imported into the United States under the following conditions: (a) The beef is prepared...

  17. Environmental, social, and economic footprints of current and past beef production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beef industry has defined sustainability as meeting the growing demand for beef by balancing environmental responsibility, economic opportunity and social diligence. Accurately measuring sustainability is challenging, as the beef supply chain is one of the most complex food systems in the world....

  18. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia and Salmonella isolates obtained from beef cattle concentrated animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern High Plains are home to numerous cattle feedlots containing approximately 3.5 million beef cattle that account for nearly 30% of the United States fed beef cattle operations. The high density of beef cattle results in a concentration of nutrients (C, N, and P) due to the generation of m...

  19. 7 CFR 59.104 - Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Choice or better, USDA Choice, USDA Select, ungraded no-roll product); (iv) The grade for cow beef or packer yield and/or quality sort for cow beef (e.g., Breakers, Boners, White Cow, Cutters (lean)); (v... product delivery period; and (ix) The beef type (steer/heifer, dairy steer/heifer, or cow)....

  20. 7 CFR 1260.312 - Remittance to the Cattlemen's Board or Qualified State Beef Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... State Beef Council. 1260.312 Section 1260.312 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.312 Remittance to the Cattlemen's Board or Qualified State Beef Council. Each person responsible for the collection and...