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Sample records for fructose-sorbitol ingestion provokes

  1. Fructose-sorbitol ingestion provokes gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Noel; Hansen, Ross D; Abraham, Suzanne F; Kellow, John E

    2009-11-14

    To evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and breath hydrogen responses to oral fructose-sorbitol (F-S) and glucose challenges in eating disorder (ED) patients. GI symptoms and hydrogen breath concentration were monitored in 26 female ED inpatients for 3 h, following ingestion of 50 g glucose on one day, and 25 g fructose/5 g sorbitol on the next day, after an overnight fast on each occasion. Responses to F-S were compared to those of 20 asymptomatic healthy females. F-S provoked GI symptoms in 15 ED patients and one healthy control (P<0.05 ED vs control). Only one ED patient displayed symptom provocation to glucose (P<0.01 vs F-S response). A greater symptom response was observed in ED patients with a body mass index (BMI)17.5 kg/m2 (P<0.01). There were no differences in psychological scores, prevalence of functional GI disorders or breath hydrogen responses between patients with and without an F-S response. F-S, but not glucose, provokes GI symptoms in ED patients, predominantly those with low BMI. These findings are important in the dietary management of ED patients.

  2. Simultaneous separation and determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits by HPLC-ELSD.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunmei; Sun, Zhen; Chen, Changbao; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Shuhua

    2014-02-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was optimised for simultaneous determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits. The analysis was carried out on a Phenomenex Luna 5u NH₂ 100A column (250 mm × 4.60mm, 5 micron) with isocratic elution of acetonitrile:water (82.5:17.5, v/v). Drift tube temperature of the ELSD system was set to 82 °C and nitrogen flow rate was 2.0 L min⁻¹. The regression equation revealed good linear relationship (R = 0.9967-0.9989) within test ranges. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for four analytes (peach, apple, watermelon, and cherry fruits) were in the range of 0.07-0.27 and 0.22-0.91 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The proposed HPLC-ELSD method was validated for quantification of sugars in peach, apple, watermelon, and cherry fruits, and the results were satisfactory. The results showed that the contents of the four sugars varied among fruits. While fructose (5.79-104.01 mg g⁻¹) and glucose (9.25-99.62 mg g⁻¹) emerged as common sugars in the four fruits, sorbitol (8.70-19.13 mg g⁻¹) were only found in peach, apple and cherry fruits, and sucrose (15.82-106.39 mg g⁻¹) were in peach, apple and watermelon. There was not detectable sorbitol in watermelon and sucrose in cherry fruits, respectively.

  3. Lactase Non-Persistence Genotyping: Comparison of Two Real-Time PCR Assays and Assessment of Concomitant Fructose/Sorbitol Malabsorption Rates.

    PubMed

    Enko, Dietmar; Pollheimer, Verena; Németh, Stefan; Pühringer, Helene; Stolba, Robert; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele; Kriegshäuser, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Genetic testing is a standard technique for the diagnosis of primary adult-type hypolactasia, also referred to as lactase non-persistence. The aim of this study was to compare the lactase gene (LCT) C/T-13910 polymorphism genotyping results of two commercially available real-time (RT)-PCR assays in patients referred to our outpatient clinic for primary lactose malabsorption testing. Furthermore, concomitant conditions of fructose/sorbitol malabsorption were assessed. Samples obtained from 100 patients were tested in parallel using the LCT T-13910C ToolSet for Light Cycler (Roche, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and the LCT-13910C>T RealFast Assay (ViennaLab Diagnostics GmbH, Vienna, Austria). Additionally, patients were also screened for the presence of fructose/sorbitol malabsorption by functional hydrogen (H2)/methane (CH4) breath testing (HMBT). Cohen's Kappa (κ) was used to calculate the agreement between the two genotyping methods. The exact Chi-Square test was performed to compare fructose/sorbitol HMBT with LCT genotyping results. Twenty-one (21.0%) patients had a LCT C/C-13910 genotype suggestive of lactase non-persistence, and 79 (79.0%) patients were identified with either a LCT T/C-13910 or T/T-13910 genotype (i.e., lactase persistence). In all genotype groups, concordance between the two RT-PCR assays was 100%. Cohen's κ demonstrated perfect observed agreement (p < 0.001, κ = 1). Fructose and sorbitol malabsorption was observed in 13/100 (13.0%) and 25/100 (25.0%) individuals, respectively. Both RT-PCR assays are robust and reliable LCT genotyping tools in a routine clinical setting. Concomitant fructose and/or sorbitol malabsorption should be considered in individuals with suspected lactase-non-persistence. However, standardization of clinical interpretation of laboratory HMBT results is required.

  4. Orchid sexual deceit provokes ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C; Winnick, C G; Herberstein, M E

    2008-06-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators by mimicking female insects. Male insects fooled into gripping or copulating with orchids unwittingly transfer the pollinia. The effect of deception on pollinators has been considered negligible, but we show that pollinators may suffer considerable costs. Insects pollinating Australian tongue orchids (Cryptostylis species) frequently ejaculate and waste copious sperm. The costs of sperm wastage could select for pollinator avoidance of orchids, thereby driving and maintaining sexual deception via antagonistic coevolution or an arms race between pollinator learning and escalating orchid mimicry. However, we also show that orchid species provoking such extreme pollinator behavior have the highest pollination success. How can deception persist, given the costs to pollinators? Sexually-deceptive-orchid pollinators are almost exclusively solitary and haplodiploid species. Therefore, female insects deprived of matings by orchid deception could still produce male offspring, which may even enhance orchid pollination.

  5. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Results Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Conclusions Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE. PMID:27097772

  6. Recent advances in understanding provoked vestibulodynia

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam; Witkin, Steven S.

    2016-01-01

    Vulvodynia refers to pain in the vulva of at least 3 months’ duration in the absence of a recognized underlying cause. Provoked, localized vestibulodynia is the term used to describe superficial pain confined to the vulvar vestibule, provoked by touch. This review will focus on provoked vestibulodynia with regard to its suggested causative factors and will discuss the role of inflammation, vulvovaginal infections, mucosal nerve fiber proliferation, hormonal associations, central pain mechanisms, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and genetic factors. Clinical observations, epidemiological studies, and data from basic research emphasize the heterogeneity of vulvar pain syndromes. There is a critical need to perform prospective, longitudinal studies that will allow better diagnostic criteria and subgrouping of patients that would lead to improvements in our understanding of provoked vestibulodynia and its treatment. PMID:27853523

  7. Provoking Reflective Thinking in Post Observation Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Younhee; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2016-01-01

    We present a micro-analysis of post observation conversations between classroom teachers and mentors. Using the approach of conversation analysis, we show how the sequential organization of an episode (i.e., who initiates the interaction, question format used by mentors) could potentially serve to provoke or hinder teacher reflection. Our analysis…

  8. Provoking Reflective Thinking in Post Observation Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Younhee; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2016-01-01

    We present a micro-analysis of post observation conversations between classroom teachers and mentors. Using the approach of conversation analysis, we show how the sequential organization of an episode (i.e., who initiates the interaction, question format used by mentors) could potentially serve to provoke or hinder teacher reflection. Our analysis…

  9. Acute gastroduodenal injury after ingestion of diluted herbicide pendimethalin.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, K; Azuhata, H; Katoh, H; Kuwano, H

    2009-03-01

    The herbicide, pendimethalin, is used worldwide, but its acute toxicity is not yet widely known. There have been some reported acute pendimethalin poisoning cases in humans and most of them intentionally ingested the concentrated formulation. We describe a 73-year-old man who developed corrosive gastroduodenal injury after accidental ingestion of the diluted (300 times with water) pendimethalin formulation. He had a history of reflux oesophagitis and had been taking omeprazol (10 mg/day) for a year. He consumed alcohol two hours after the accidental ingestion and then had nausea and epigastric pain. Endoscopy performed three days post-exposure revealed gastroduodenal injury. As he had consumed alcohol every day for years and had no history of gastroduodenal ulcer, the accidental ingestion may be associated with this injury. He was successfully treated by increasing his dosage of omeprazol (20 mg/day) for two weeks. This case indicates that ingestion of a small quantity of pendimethalin can provoke gastroduodenal injury.

  10. Acute provoked reflex seizures induced by thinking.

    PubMed

    Nevler, Naomi; Gandelman-Marton, Revital

    2012-11-01

    Thinking epilepsy is a rare form of reflex epilepsy that can be induced by specific cognitive tasks, and occurs mainly in idiopathic generalized epilepsies. We report a case of complex partial seizures triggered by thinking in a young man with acute bacterial meningitis and a remote head injury. This case illustrates that thinking-induced reflex seizures can be partial and can be provoked by an acute brain insult.

  11. Recommendations for provoked challenge urine testing.

    PubMed

    Ruha, Anne-Michelle

    2013-12-01

    "Urine mobilization test," "challenge test," and "provoked urine test" are all terms used to describe the administration of a chelating agent to a person prior to collection of their urine to test for metals. There is no standard, validated challenge test. Despite recommendations by professional and government organizations against the use of provoked urine testing, the tests are still commonly used and recommended by some practitioners. Challenge testing utilizes a variety of chelating agents, including dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The agents are given by a variety of routes of administration, doses used are inconsistent, and urine collection procedures vary. Additional problems with challenge tests include comparison of results to inappropriate reference ranges and creatinine correction of urine obtained within hours of chelator administration. Human volunteer studies demonstrate that mercury is detected in the urine of most people even in the absence of known exposure or chelator administration, and that urinary mercury excretion rises after administration of a chelator, regardless of exposure history and in an unpredictable fashion. Studies also demonstrate that challenge testing fails to reveal a "body burden" of mercury due to remote exposure. Chelating agents have been associated with adverse reactions. Current evidence does not support the use of DMPS, DMSA, or other chelation challenge tests for the diagnosis of metal toxicity. Since there are no established reference ranges for provoked urine samples in healthy subjects, no reliable evidence to support a diagnostic value for the tests, and potential harm, these tests should not be utilized.

  12. ST-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to coronary artery spasm provoked by food.

    PubMed

    Young, William; Bhichhyan, Rai; Kabir, Alamgir; Hussain, Wajid

    2014-09-15

    We describe a patient with recurrent episodes of inferior ST elevation, secondary to coronary artery spasm. Each episode appeared to be provoked by the ingestion of rice and accompanied by a troponin T rise. An inpatient coronary angiogram immediately following an episode of pain demonstrated a focal area of spasm affecting the right coronary artery, which resolved with intracoronary nitrate injection. Although these episodes were self-limiting, cardiac MRI confirmed an acute subendocardial infarct. An association between food substances and coronary artery spasm with subsequent infarction has not been documented previously. Following appropriate advice and titration of antispasmodic medication, the patient has been pain free.

  13. Ingestions considered nontoxic.

    PubMed

    Mofenson, H C; Greensher, J; Caraccio, T R

    1984-02-01

    We have compiled a list of common household products and drugs that are frequently ingested by children and may be considered nontoxic unless taken deliberately or in large amounts. An understanding of the nontoxic ingestion should prevent overtreatment, decrease emergency room visits, and allow physicians and poison control centers the opportunity to practice poison prevention. The reporting of all ingestions is encouraged to obtain information on the human experiment that occurs when a non-edible material is ingested. Only as we accumulate this knowledge will we be able to advise with a degree of certainty what treatment is needed.

  14. Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Fileman, Elaine; Halsband, Claudia; Goodhead, Rhys; Moger, Julian; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-06-18

    Small plastic detritus, termed "microplastics", are a widespread and ubiquitous contaminant of marine ecosystems across the globe. Ingestion of microplastics by marine biota, including mussels, worms, fish, and seabirds, has been widely reported, but despite their vital ecological role in marine food-webs, the impact of microplastics on zooplankton remains under-researched. Here, we show that microplastics are ingested by, and may impact upon, zooplankton. We used bioimaging techniques to document ingestion, egestion, and adherence of microplastics in a range of zooplankton common to the northeast Atlantic, and employed feeding rate studies to determine the impact of plastic detritus on algal ingestion rates in copepods. Using fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy we identified that thirteen zooplankton taxa had the capacity to ingest 1.7-30.6 μm polystyrene beads, with uptake varying by taxa, life-stage and bead-size. Post-ingestion, copepods egested faecal pellets laden with microplastics. We further observed microplastics adhered to the external carapace and appendages of exposed zooplankton. Exposure of the copepod Centropages typicus to natural assemblages of algae with and without microplastics showed that 7.3 μm microplastics (>4000 mL(-1)) significantly decreased algal feeding. Our findings imply that marine microplastic debris can negatively impact upon zooplankton function and health.

  15. Implantable, Ingestible Electronic Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    Small quartz-crystal-controlled oscillator swallowed or surgically implanted provides continuous monitoring of patient's internal temperature. Receiver placed near patient measures oscillator frequency, and temperature inferred from previously determined variation of frequency with temperature. Frequency of crystal-controlled oscillator varies with temperature. Circuit made very small and implanted or ingested to measure internal body temperature.

  16. Provoked shooting by police as a mechanism for suicide.

    PubMed

    Jenet, R N; Segal, R J

    1985-09-01

    We report a case which was processed by the Philadelphia Office of the Medical Examiner in which a person with a previous known suicide attempt clearly provoked the Philadelphia police into shooting him. We believe that this is but one of many such incidents in which the victim provokes another into administering fatal injury. This is a mechanism of suicide which, we believe, is exemplified by the case presented.

  17. Intestinal fistula after magnets ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Maurício; Velhote, Manoel Carlos Prieto; Maschietto, Rafael Forti; Waksman, Renata Dejtiar

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accidental ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies has become more common due to increased availability of objects and toys with magnetic elements. The majority of them traverse the gastrointestinal system spontaneously without complication. However, ingestion of multiple magnets may require surgical resolution. The case of an 18-month girl who developed an intestinal fistula after ingestion of two magnets is reported. PMID:23843068

  18. Accidental mobile phone card ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sudesh; Mekwan, Jayanand; Brayley, Nigel F

    2009-01-01

    Accidental overdose, poisoning and foreign-body ingestion are common presentations to the emergency department. Usually, the ingested material is a common drug or household product. We present an unusual case of accidental ingestion where the foreign body was a mobile phone simulation (SIM) card. PMID:21686554

  19. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  20. Soil ingestion by dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.

    1990-02-15

    Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Identification of famprofazone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F; Kraemer, T

    1998-01-01

    After a traffic accident a 32-year-old man was suspected of having previously taken an illegal drug. An immunochemical screening procedure revealed positive results for amphetamines in both urine and blood samples. The preliminary test was confirmed by GC/MS and both amphetamine and methamphetamine were found in both body fluids. However, the man denied any use of drugs but claimed to have taken four tablets of Gewodin. One of the ingredients, famprofazone, undergoes metabolic conversion to amphetamine and methamphetamine. Using GC/ MS the ingestion of famprofazone was verified by identification of the unchanged parent compound in the urine sample.

  2. Pediatric Ingestions: Emergency Department Management.

    PubMed

    Tarango Md, Stacy M; Liu Md, Deborah R

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric ingestions present a common challenge for emergency clinicians. Each year, more than 50,000 children aged less than 5 years present to emergency departments with concern for unintentional medication exposure, and nearly half of all calls to poison centers are for children aged less than 6 years. Ingestion of magnetic objects and button batteries has also become an increasing source of morbidity and mortality. Although fatal pediatric ingestions are rare, the prescription medications most responsible for injury and fatality in children include opioids, sedative/hypnotics, and cardiovascular drugs. Evidence regarding the evaluation and management of common pediatric ingestions is comprised largely of case reports and retrospective studies. This issue provides a review of these studies as well as consensus guidelines addressing the initial resuscitation, diagnosis, and treatment of common pediatric ingestions. Also discussed are current recommendations for decontamination, administration of antidotes for specific toxins, and management of ingested foreign bodies.

  3. New Attacks on Animal Researchers Provoke Anger and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…

  4. Historical Conflict and Incitement Also Provoke the Journey to Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on F. M. Moghaddam's article, (see record 2005-01817-002) which uses the metaphor of a narrowing staircase "to provide a more in-depth understanding of terrorism", describes the journey as being provoked by how people perceive of levels of fairness and experience feelings of relative deprivation. If the masses perceive…

  5. Foods provoking and alleviating symptoms in gastroparesis: patient experiences.

    PubMed

    Wytiaz, Victoria; Homko, Carol; Duffy, Frank; Schey, Ron; Parkman, Henry P

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional counseling for gastroparesis focuses on reduction of meal size, fiber, and fat to control symptoms. The tolerance of gastroparesis patients for particular foods is largely anecdotal. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize foods provoking or alleviating gastroparesis symptoms. Gastroparesis patients completed: (1) Demographic Questionnaire; (2) Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms; (3) Food Toleration and Aversion survey asking patients about experiences when eating certain foods utilizing a scale from -3 (greatly worsening symptoms) to +3 (greatly improving symptoms). Descriptive qualities (acidic, fatty, spicy, roughage-based, bitter, salty, bland, and sweet) were assigned to foods. Forty-five gastroparesis patients participated (39 idiopathic gastroparesis). Foods worsening symptoms included: orange juice, fried chicken, cabbage, oranges, sausage, pizza, peppers, onions, tomato juice, lettuce, coffee, salsa, broccoli, bacon, and roast beef. Saltine crackers, jello, and graham crackers moderately improved symptoms. Twelve additional foods were tolerated by patients (not provoking symptoms): ginger ale, gluten-free foods, tea, sweet potatoes, pretzels, white fish, clear soup, salmon, potatoes, white rice, popsicles, and applesauce. Foods provoking symptoms were generally fatty, acidic, spicy, and roughage-based. The foods shown to be tolerable were generally bland, sweet, salty, and starchy. This study identified specific foods that worsen as well as foods that may help alleviate symptoms of gastroparesis. Foods that provoked symptoms differed in quality from foods that alleviated symptoms or were tolerable. The results of this study illustrate specific examples of foods that aggravate or improve symptoms and provide suggestions for a gastroparesis diet.

  6. What Provokes Young People to Get into Trouble: Singapore Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors address correctional education and juvenile delinquency. The authors examined the case files of 54 juvenile offenders incarcerated in the Kaki Bukit Center Prison School in Singapore to analyze the antecedents that provoked these young offenders to commit the offenses. The juveniles reported that peer influence and…

  7. Are seizures in the setting of sleep deprivation provoked?

    PubMed

    Lawn, Nicholas; Lieblich, Sam; Lee, Judy; Dunne, John

    2014-04-01

    It is generally accepted that sleep deprivation contributes to seizures. However, it is unclear whether a seizure occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should be considered as provoked or not and whether this is influenced by seizure type and etiology. This information may have an important impact on epilepsy diagnosis and management. We prospectively analyzed the influence of sleep deprivation on the risk of seizure recurrence in patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures and compared the findings with patients with first-ever provoked seizures. Of 1026 patients with first-ever unprovoked seizures, 204 (20%) were associated with sleep deprivation. While the overall likelihood of seizure recurrence was slightly lower in sleep-deprived patients with first-ever seizures (log-rank p=0.03), sleep deprivation was not an independent predictor of seizure recurrence on multivariate analysis. Seizure recurrence following a first-ever unprovoked seizure associated with sleep deprivation was far more likely than for 174 patients with a provoked first-ever seizure (log-rank p<0.0001). Our findings support the International League Against Epilepsy recommendation that seizures occurring in the setting of sleep deprivation should not be regarded as provoked.

  8. What Provokes Young People to Get into Trouble: Singapore Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors address correctional education and juvenile delinquency. The authors examined the case files of 54 juvenile offenders incarcerated in the Kaki Bukit Center Prison School in Singapore to analyze the antecedents that provoked these young offenders to commit the offenses. The juveniles reported that peer influence and…

  9. New Attacks on Animal Researchers Provoke Anger and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…

  10. Does oral experience terminate ingestion?

    PubMed

    Swithers, S E; Hall, W G

    1994-10-01

    Using data from studies of ingestive behavior in developing rat pups we demonstrate how oral experience can contribute to the termination of ingestion. In rat pups, repeated oral stimulation with sweet solutions causes a decline in oral responsiveness. The diminished responsiveness is specific to the flavor of the stimulus experienced orally and can persist for several hours. We suggest that this experience-based decrement in responsiveness is best considered "oral habituation" and that oral habituation largely accounts for the onset of satiety. Post-ingestive feedback signals may have their influence through the oral habituation process or act in the context of oral habituation. Oral habituation is also shown to depend on the pattern of stimulus presentation, a phenomenon that adds considerable complexity to assessing the contributions of oral experience to satiety. The concept of oral habituation may be useful in understanding the immediate control of ingestion and the moment-to-moment expression of ingestive behavior in adult animals.

  11. An ingestible temperature-transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    Pill-sized transmitter measures deep body temperature in studies of circadian rhythm and indicates general health. Ingestible device is a compromise between accuracy, circuit complexity, size and transmission range.

  12. Acute aortic dissection provoked by sneeze: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baydin, A; Nural, M S; Güven, H; Deniz, T; Bildik, F; Karaduman, A

    2005-10-01

    The response of the abdominal viscera and the contraction of the intercostal muscles during the respiratory phase of sneezing increases intrathoracic pressure, which may lead to several complications. However, there are no reports in the literature concerning aortic dissection after sneezing. We report a patient in whom the development of dissection was secondary to sneezing, although hypertension was present as a risk factor, and we discuss the relationship between sneezing and aortic dissection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aortic dissection provoked by sneezing in the literature.

  13. Do Stages of Dentistry Training Affect Anxiety Provoking Situations?

    PubMed Central

    Obarisiagbon, A; Azodo, CC; Omoaregba, JO; James, BO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undetected and unaddressed anxiety negatively affects performance in clinical learning environments. Aim: The aim was to investigate the anxiety provoking situations in clinical dental care delivery among students of preclinical and clinical years and house officers. Subjects and Methods: A 38-item modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire, general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Zung self-rating anxiety scale were the data collection tools. Results: Of the 84 recruited, 79 completed the study giving 94.0% (79/84) response rate. The median age of the participants was 25 years with 50.6% (40/79) being 20-25 years. Gender distribution revealed that males constituted 60.8% (48/79) of the participants. House officers constituted 29.1% (23/79), clinical students 36.7% (29/79), and preclinical students 34.2 (27/79) of the participants. The top anxiety provoking situations using the modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire were extracting wrong tooth 3.24 (1.06), inability to pass examination 3.32 (1.01), achieving examination requirement 3.19 (1.01), fracturing a tooth 3.08 (0.98) and accidental pulp exposure 2.96 (1.04). Getting diagnosis wrong, help in faint episode, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children were the anxiety provoking situations that showed statistically significant difference in the 3 studied training stages of dentistry. Bonferroni post-hoc analysis significant difference was in the preclinical and clinical students’ pair for getting diagnosis wrong, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children while house officers/clinical students and house officers/preclinical students’ pairs were for help in faint episode. Overall, 2.5% (2/79) had severe, 69.6% (55/79) moderate, 26.6% (21/79) mild clinical anxiety while 1 (1.3%) of the participants expressed no clinical anxiety. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that the clinical anxiety of moderate severity was

  14. Foreign body ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Dereci, Selim; Koca, Tuğba; Serdaroğlu, Filiz; Akçam, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Foreign bodies ingested by the oral route enter into the gastrointestinal tract and are considered a significant health problem in the childhood. In this study, we evaluated the pediatric patients who presented to our hospital with the complaint of ingestion of foreign body. Material and Methods: The hospital records of all children who presented to our clinic because of ingestion of foreign body between January 2008 and January 2015 were examined retrospectively. The complaints at admission, the types of foreign bodies ingested, the localization of the foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract and the approaches and treatment methods used were examined. Results: Thirty-six (56%) of 64 patients included in the study were male and 28 (44%) were female and the mean age was 5.7±4.6 years (10 months–17 years). Thirty eight (59%) of 64 children who were included in the assessment were below the age of five years. The most common complaint at presentation was parental recognition of the ingested object and dysphagia. The most commonly ingested foreign bodies included coins, sewing pins, safety pins and hairclips. Nail clipper detected in the stomach, sewing pin which penetrated through the duodenal wall and stuck to hepatic parenchyma were the first pediatric cases in the literature. Upper esophagus was the most common location for foreign bodies. Endoscopic examinations were performed in 55 of 64 children. Conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ingested foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal system is important in terms of preventing possible complications. In our study, the most frequent foreign bodies detected in the upper digestive tract were coins and they were most frequently detected in the upper esophagus. Most of our patients were below the age of five years. Flexible endoscopic method was used commonly for treatment. PMID:26884693

  15. Rhabdomyolysis associated with kava ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bodkin, Ryan; Schneider, Sandra; Rekkerth, Donna; Spillane, Linda; Kamali, Michael

    2012-05-01

    We report a case of rhabdomyolysis temporally related to the ingestion of a large amount of kava. Kava is a naturally occurring plant used in the United States and elsewhere in the world for its sedative properties. A previous case report also related rhabdomyolysis to the ingestion of kava. It is not clear whether this is an action of the kava itself, perhaps, due to its action on voltage ion channels or, perhaps, due to an adulterant in the product. Our patient developed peak creatine phosphokinase levels in excess of 30 000 U/L but had no significant renal damage.

  16. Medical and physical predictors of localized provoked vulvodynia.

    PubMed

    Bohm-Starke, Nina

    2010-12-01

    Vulvodynia in young women is a significant clinical challenge. This overview focuses on localized provoked vulvodynia (LPV) with regard to medical and physical predictors of the condition. Several causative factors have been proposed and one major conceptual issue is the role of inflammation. Trauma to the vestibular mucosa causes an initial inflammatory response which may result in peripheral and central pain sensitization. In women with LPV, evidence of mucosal nerve fiber proliferation and enhanced systemic pain perception has been found. A dysfunction of the pelvic floor muscles is common and many patients also suffer from other bodily pain. In general, the level of scientific quality in published studies on vulvodynia is low. Further research on epidemiology, etiology and conduction of clinical trials with high evidence grade is desired.

  17. Has provoking microbiota aggression driven the obesity epidemic?

    PubMed

    Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2016-02-01

    Alterations in the gut microbiome have increasingly been implicated in driving obesity and its associated diseases, but underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Herein, in addition to reviewing the field, we hypothesize that a highly significant causative factor of such inflammatory disease-associated microbiome alterations is a more aggressive microbiota that encroaches upon its host, with components having high potential to activate host pro-inflammatory gene expression in a manner that drives metabolic disease. We further hypothesize that a range of societal changes, including use of antibiotics and increasing consumption of food additives, have provoked such microbiota aggression and, consequently, may be contributing factors to the increased incidence of obesity and its associated diseases. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity in provoked vestibulodynia

    PubMed Central

    Witzeman, Kathryn; Nguyen, Ruby HN; Eanes, Alisa; As-Sanie, Sawsan; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 8.3%—16% of women experience vulvovaginal discomfort during their lifetime. Frequently these patients report provoked pain on contact or with attempted intercourse, commonly referred to as provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Despite the burden of this condition, little is known about its potential etiologies including pelvic floor muscular dysfunction and mucosal components. This knowledge would be beneficial in developing targeted therapies including physical therapy. Objective To explore the relative contribution of mucosal versus muscle pain sensitivity on pain report from intercourse among women with PVD. Design In this proof of concept study, 54 women with PVD underwent a structured examination assessing mucosal and pelvic muscle sensitivity. Methods We examined three mucosal sites in the upper and lower vestibule. Patients were asked to rate their pain on cotton swab palpation of the mucosa using a 10-point visual analog scale. Muscle pain was assessed using transvaginal application of pressure on right and left puborectalis, and the perineal muscle complex. The Gracely pain scale (0–100) was used to assess the severity of pain with intercourse, with women rating the lowest, average, and highest pain levels; a 100 rating the highest level of pain. Results The lower vestibule’s mucosa 5.81 (standard deviation =2.83) was significantly more sensitive than the upper vestibule 2.52 (standard deviation =2.6) (P<0.01) on exam. However, mucosal sensitivity was not associated with intercourse pain, while muscle sensitivity was moderately associated with both average and highest intensity of intercourse pain (r=−0.46, P=0.01 and r=−0.42, P=0.02), respectively. Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that mucosal measures alone may not sufficiently capture the spectrum of clinical pain report in women with PVD, which is consistent with the empirical success of physical therapy in this population. PMID:26316805

  19. Bowel perforations induced by multiple magnet ingestion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Kook; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Moon, Jeong Mi; Jeung, Kyung Woon

    2010-04-01

    We report two cases of bowel perforation that presented to the ED after ingesting multiple magnets as diagnosed with exploratory laparotomy. Foreign body ingestion is a common occurrence in the paediatric population. Diagnosis is often delayed because it is difficult to obtain a precise history of foreign body ingestion. Fortunately, in many cases, ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously without complications. However, surgical intervention is required for about one percent of foreign body ingestions. Multiple magnet ingestion produces bowel injuries, including bowel obstruction, ischaemia, necrosis, perforation and fistula formation, finally requiring surgical intervention. The incidence, which is rare, of magnet ingestion with complications has increased as a result of the popularity of magnetic toys. This case report highlights the complications that might occur with multiple magnet ingestion. We aim to alert physicians that multiple magnet ingestion can be a serious matter.

  20. Foreign bodies ingestion: what responsibility?

    PubMed

    Ricci, Serafino; Massoni, Francesco; Schiffino, Luigi; Pelosi, Marcello; Salesi, Marialucia

    2014-03-01

    The ingestion of foreign bodies is one of the most important and difficult emergencies for a physician to diagnose. Accidental ingestion is more common in children, in patients with dental implants, in individuals with mental disability and in drug users. Voluntary ingestion is found in patients who are psychologically unstable, in prisoners or those who attempt suicide. Foreign bodies may be divided into food as fish bones, chicken bones, food bolus, meat, etc. or real foreign bodies such as orthodontic implants, needles, pins, glass, coins, etc. The authors present a case of management, from the medicolegal point of view, of a female patient age 80, who complained, for some weeks of modest pain in the left iliac fossa, and afterwards the endoscopy showed a toothpick into the wall of the sigmoid colon. Assessed of the clinical status of the patient presented severe cardiac comorbidities so that before processing the patient to a second resolutive endoscopy, it was necessary to obtain the hemodynamic stability. However the management of cases of accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is particularly difficult. Medical errors can arise from the very first contact with the patient resulting in delays in appropriate treatment. The doctor to avoid compromising its position on medical liability, must use all the knowledge and diligence known by the art and science of medicine.

  1. Physiological Responses to Cola Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Handel, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Data from testing suggest that the ingestion of caffeine in the amount typically found in a single bottle of commercially available cola drink does not increase factors associated with coronary risk nor will it have an enhancing effect upon athletic performance. (MB)

  2. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  3. Physiological Responses to Cola Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Handel, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Data from testing suggest that the ingestion of caffeine in the amount typically found in a single bottle of commercially available cola drink does not increase factors associated with coronary risk nor will it have an enhancing effect upon athletic performance. (MB)

  4. Ingestion of cylindrical batteries and its management.

    PubMed

    Tien, Tony; Tanwar, Sudeep

    2017-01-17

    In contrast to the ingestion of coin batteries, the ingestion of cylindrical batteries is an uncommon medical presentation. Owing to their larger size, cylindrical battery ingestion can lead to serious complications including intestinal haemorrhage, bowel obstruction, bowel perforation, peritonitis and even death. We discuss the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented after swallowing three cylindrical batteries. Her medical history included depression and previous battery ingestion that required surgical removal. During this presentation however, these ingested batteries were removed endoscopically at oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. The patient was subsequently discharged without complication. This paper discusses the complications and management of cylindrical battery ingestion. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. May Ingestion of Leachate from Decomposed Corpses Cause Appendicitis? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Domingues-Ferreira, Maurício; Saddi-Rosa, Pedro; dos Santos, André Luis

    2011-01-01

    The general consensus is that appendicitis is basically provoked by fecaliths or lymphoid hyperplasic obstruction. Several studies based on histological diagnosis have not confirmed this hypothesis. On the contrary, obstruction has been proved in only a minority of cases. Diverse infections by parasites, bacteria, fungus, and noninfective agents have been associated with appendicitis in the medical literature. We describe a firefighter, who ingested a small quantity of leachate from decomposing corpses while working and developed enteritis a few hours later, which lasted several days and evolved to appendicitis. This case raises the possibility that the high quantity of bacteria concentration present in the leachate could have provoked enteritis and the subsequent appendicitis due to a direct effect of the bacteria on the appendix. PMID:21541232

  6. Virus-provoked rhinitis in patients who have allergies.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The most common illnesses in humans are the respiratory tract infections caused by viruses. When limited to the upper respiratory region, these infections often are designated as "a common cold." Viruses commonly associated with these upper respiratory infections (URI) include rhinoviruses (RVs), respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, corona virus, and adenoviruses. Clinical observations have suggested that patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma experience more pronounced symptoms during a viral URI than patients who do not have allergies and who are infected with the same virus under similar circumstances. Using an experimental virus infection model in human volunteers with and without allergic rhinitis, several groups of clinical investigators have studied the effects of experimental RV infections. These observations indicate that the experimental virus infection may induce host responses that provoke enhanced immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis. Whether this translates into enhanced symptoms has been suggested in one study but not in another. This article will review these studies, which suggest that it is the host response to the virus and not the virus itself that plays the major role in symptom pathogenesis.

  7. Alteration in the Gut Microbiota Provokes Susceptibility to Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nargis; Vidyarthi, Aurobind; Nadeem, Sajid; Negi, Shikha; Nair, Girish; Agrewala, Javed N.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to the host. In particular, they regulate immune homeostasis. Recently, several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbial community can cause infectious and non-infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most devastating disease, inflicting mortality and morbidity. It remains unexplored, whether changes in the gut microbiota can provoke or prevent TB. In the current study, we have demonstrated the antibiotics driven changes in the gut microbial composition and their impact on the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the lungs, liver, and spleen of infected mice, compared to those with intact microbiota. Interestingly, dysbiosis of microbes showed significant increase in the bacterial burden in lungs and dissemination of Mtb to spleen and liver. Furthermore, elevation in the number of Tregs and decline in the pool of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-releasing CD4 T cells was noticed. Interestingly, fecal transplantation in the gut microbiota disrupted animals exhibited improved Th1 immunity and lesser Tregs population. Importantly, these animals displayed reduced severity to Mtb infection. This study for the first time demonstrated the novel role of gut microbes in the susceptibility to TB and its prevention by microbial implants. In future, microbial therapies may help in treating patients suffering from TB. PMID:27965663

  8. Pain Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Patients with and without Provoked Vulvodynia

    PubMed Central

    Ghizzani, Anna; Di Sabatino, Valentina; Suman, Anna Lisa; Biasi, Giovanni; Carli, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the pain symptoms of fibromyalgia patients exhibiting (FMS+PVD) and not exhibiting (FMS) comorbidity with provoked vulvodynia. Study Design. The case control study was performed in 39 patients who had been diagnosed with FMS and accepted to undergo gynaecological examination and in 36 healthy women (C). All patients completed standardized questionnaires for pain intensity, pain area, and psychological functioning. The gynaecological examination included vulvar pain pressure reactivity (Q-tip), pelvic tone assessment (Kegel manoeuver), and a semistructured interview collecting detailed information about pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Results. FMS+PVD patients displayed a higher number of associated symptoms than FMS patients. The vulvar excitability was significantly higher in FMS+PVD than in FMS and in both groups than in Controls. Half of FMS+PVD patients were positive to Kegel manoeuver and displayed higher scores in widespread pain intensity, STAI-Y2, and CESD levels than Kegel negative patients. Conclusions. The study reveals that increased vulvar pain excitability may occur in FMS patients independently of the presence of coital pain. Results suggest that coital pain develops in patients with higher FMS symptoms severity due to the cooperative effects of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms. PMID:24624294

  9. Tracheoesophageal fistula secondary to muriatic acid ingestion.

    PubMed

    Pense, S C; Wood, W J; Stempel, T K; Zwemer, F L; Wachtel, T L

    1988-02-01

    Acid ingestion may result in a variety of early and late complications. A patient is presented with severe sequelae from muriatic acid ingestion, including a tracheoesophageal fistula which is a previously unreported complication of acid ingestion injury. Recommendations are made for diagnosis and prevention of this potentially lethal complication.

  10. Ammonium nitrate cold pack ingestion.

    PubMed

    Challoner, K R; McCarron, M M

    1988-01-01

    Disposable ammonium nitrate cold packs are widely used in emergency departments instead of ice bags. Five confused or suicidal patients who tore open a pack and ingested from 64 to 234 grams of ammonium nitrate in a single dose, and another patient who attempted to do so, are reported. It is known that chronic ingestion of 6 to 12 grams/day of ammonium nitrate may cause gastritis, acidosis, isosmotic diuresis, and nitrite toxicity manifesting as methemoglobinemia or vasodilatation. None of these patients developed severe toxicity, although three had symptoms of gastritis, three had slight methemoglobinemia, and two had mild hypotension. The product was removed from the stomach promptly in three of the five patients. None had pre-existing renal or intestinal dysfunction, which are known to enhance ammonium nitrate toxicity.

  11. Infant botulism following honey ingestion.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, C O; Ayubi, A; Zulfiquer, F; Santhanam, G; Ahmed, M A S; Deeb, J

    2012-09-07

    An apparently well baby girl born at term was presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute onset of generalised floppiness at the age of 3 months. Clinically, the baby had lower motor neuron type of muscle weakness; detailed investigation lead to the diagnosis of neuromuscular junction disorder secondary to botulism toxicity. Further tests confirmed the botulism toxicity secondary to honey ingestion. The baby was treated with specific anticlostridium antibodies; she recovered remarkably, now growing and developing normally.

  12. Paraffin ingestion--the problem.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J B; Krug, A; Robertson, J; Hay, I T; MacIntyre, U

    1994-11-01

    Paraffin ingestion is the commonest cause of accidental childhood poisoning in South Africa. Children from the lower socio-economic group are affected most. They drink paraffin in the summer months from bottles or intermediate containers, mistaking it for water or cold-drink. The children are predominantly male with a mean age of 24 months. The clinical picture is one of respiratory distress with a hospital case fatality rate of 0.74%. The use of paraffin as a source of household energy in South Africa is on the increase. Based on a modernisation index it would seem that this trend will continue into the next century. It can therefore be expected that the number of cases of paraffin ingestion will steadily increase if no active steps are taken to address the problem. Prevention should entail a wide spectrum of measures, the basis of which should be a child-resistant container. An effective durable, low-cost child-resistant container which is easy to pour from should be made available by petroleum companies and/or entrepreneurs and distributed through their network. This should be combined with health education on the danger of paraffin. Health care workers and administrators should be made more aware of the problem and become involved in health education and prevention. Further research should be undertaken on the effect a change in the colour of paraffin and the use of child-resistant caps would have on the incidence of paraffin ingestion in South Africa.

  13. Button battery ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michael J; Ricca, Robert L; Gallagher, Thomas Q

    2017-08-30

    As the demand for small electronics continues to grow so does the risk of oesophageal ingestion of button batteries. These small but powerful sources of energy are ubiquitous in every household and when swallowed, especially in small children, have been shown to create significant injury in a short amount of time leading to long-term morbidity and possible death. This review highlights the latest findings regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of ingested button batteries. Updated epidemiology from the National Capital Poison Center, new bench research looking at injury patterns and possible mitigation strategies, updated ideas on management algorithms including the use of a trauma protocol, close-look second endoscopy and management of button batteries in the lower gastrointestinal tract are reviewed in this paper. Despite advances in the understanding of injury mechanics and innovations leading to early diagnosis and improved management of button battery ingestion, parental and provider education remain the most important tools to keep children well tolerated from the sequelae of these potentially fatal events. Collaboration between healthcare experts, public health and industry is essential to find a safe answer to this ongoing threat.

  14. Presenting Symptoms Among Black and White Women with Provoked Vulvodynia

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Davis C.; Bachour, Candi C.; Rawlinson, Leslie A.; Wan, Jim Y.; Bachmann, Gloria Ann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prevalence of vulvodynia has been reported to be lower in black compared to white and Latina women. Use of different terminology to describe vulvar pain symptoms may play a role in lower prevalence. The objectives were to compare pain descriptors used by black and white women with provoked vulvodynia (PVD) to determine the effect of race on symptom reporting. Methods: Ninety-two women, self-identified as black (n = 55) and white (n = 37) with clinically confirmed PVD completed a questionnaire containing demographic information and vulvar pain characteristics. Variables that were significant with race retained in the logistic regression model were included in multivariate analysis to determine the effect of race on reporting of vulvar pain symptoms. Results: Of statistical significance, white women more often described their pain as burning as compared with black women (84% vs. 22%, p ≤ 0.0001). White women more frequently reported their pain as stinging (51% vs. 29%, p = 0.03) and itching (32% vs. 15%, p = 0.04) as well, whereas there was a trend for black women to more often describe their pain as aching (67% vs. 49%, p = 0.07). Overall, white women were 19 times as likely to report their pain as burning (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 18.51, 99% confidence interval [CI] 4.46–76.86). Conclusions: These data suggest that black women are less likely to self-report their vulvar pain as burning, the classic symptom of PVD. Cultural influences and different underlying pain mechanisms may contribute to differences in symptom reporting by race. PMID:26291682

  15. Cue-Provoked Craving and Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Andrew J.; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A.; Paty, Jean A.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Balabanis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Cue exposure paradigms have been used to examine reactivity to smoking cues. However, it is not known whether cue-provoked craving is associated with smoking cessation outcomes or whether cue reactivity can be attenuated by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in clinical samples. Cue-provoked craving ratings and reaction time responses were…

  16. Cue-Provoked Craving and Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Andrew J.; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A.; Paty, Jean A.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Balabanis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Cue exposure paradigms have been used to examine reactivity to smoking cues. However, it is not known whether cue-provoked craving is associated with smoking cessation outcomes or whether cue reactivity can be attenuated by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in clinical samples. Cue-provoked craving ratings and reaction time responses were…

  17. Pyopneumothorax following suicidal kerosene ingestion.

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Kapoor, Neha; Bhaskar, Ravi; Upadhyay, Rashmi

    2012-12-18

    Liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum are widely used in household and industry. Many hydrocarbons in kerosene, such as hexane, naphthalene, octane and phenanthrene, are toxic to humans. Pulmonary toxicity is the major cause of morbidity and mortality followed by central nervous-system and cardiovascular complications. As kerosene is a mixture of chemicals, there is no definitive absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The major route of exposure is by inhalation of liquid (aspiration). Kerosene vapours may be mildly irritating to the respiratory system and spray applications of kerosene may provoke signs of pulmonary irritation such as coughing and dyspnoea. Kerosene aspiration leads to inflammation and loss of surfactant. Secondary effects in the lungs include pneumothorax, pneumatocele or bronchopleural fistula. Here, we are presenting a case of pyopneumothorax after kerosene consumption.

  18. Pyopneumothorax following suicidal kerosene ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Verma, S K; Kapoor, Neha; Bhaskar, Ravi; Upadhyay, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum are widely used in household and industry. Many hydrocarbons in kerosene, such as hexane, naphthalene, octane and phenanthrene, are toxic to humans. Pulmonary toxicity is the major cause of morbidity and mortality followed by central nervous-system and cardiovascular complications.1 As kerosene is a mixture of chemicals, there is no definitive absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The major route of exposure is by inhalation of liquid (aspiration). Kerosene vapours may be mildly irritating to the respiratory system and spray applications of kerosene may provoke signs of pulmonary irritation such as coughing and dyspnoea. Kerosene aspiration leads to inflammation and loss of surfactant. Secondary effects in the lungs include pneumothorax, pneumatocele or bronchopleural fistula. Here, we are presenting a case of pyopneumothorax after kerosene consumption. PMID:23257648

  19. Oral allergy syndrome in a child provoked by royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Paola, Fantini; Pantalea, Delle Donne; Gianfranco, Calogiuri; Antonio, Ferrannini; Angelo, Vacca; Eustachio, Nettis; Elisabetta, Di Leo

    2014-01-01

    Royal jelly has been demonstrated to have several physiological activities. However, in the literature, different reactions induced by royal jelly are reported. We describe a case of seven-year-old child that was referred to our observation for two episodes of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) that appeared ten minutes after ingestion of royal jelly. Skin prick test with standard panel of inhalant and food allergens, a prick-to-prick test using the royal jelly's extract responsible for patient's reactions, and royal jelly patch test with extemporaneous preparation were performed. The specific IgE by ImmunoCAP System method versus Hymenoptera venom, inhalant allergens, food allergens, and lipid transfer proteins was dosed. According to the positive reactions to royal jelly both by prick-by-prick test and by a first reading patch test, royal jelly immediate hypersensitivity was diagnosed. According to the positive response for almond in both in vivo and in vitro tests we can think of the royal jelly contamination with almond pollen as possible cause of patient's reaction. Moreover, from the results of specific IgE titers versus Compositae pollens, we have argued the possibility that this case of royal jelly allergy could be explained also by the mechanism of cross-reaction with Compositae pollens.

  20. Oral Allergy Syndrome in a Child Provoked by Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Paola, Fantini; Pantalea, Delle Donne; Gianfranco, Calogiuri; Antonio, Ferrannini; Angelo, Vacca; Eustachio, Nettis; Elisabetta, Di Leo

    2014-01-01

    Royal jelly has been demonstrated to have several physiological activities. However, in the literature, different reactions induced by royal jelly are reported. We describe a case of seven-year-old child that was referred to our observation for two episodes of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) that appeared ten minutes after ingestion of royal jelly. Skin prick test with standard panel of inhalant and food allergens, a prick-to-prick test using the royal jelly's extract responsible for patient's reactions, and royal jelly patch test with extemporaneous preparation were performed. The specific IgE by ImmunoCAP System method versus Hymenoptera venom, inhalant allergens, food allergens, and lipid transfer proteins was dosed. According to the positive reactions to royal jelly both by prick-by-prick test and by a first reading patch test, royal jelly immediate hypersensitivity was diagnosed. According to the positive response for almond in both in vivo and in vitro tests we can think of the royal jelly contamination with almond pollen as possible cause of patient's reaction. Moreover, from the results of specific IgE titers versus Compositae pollens, we have argued the possibility that this case of royal jelly allergy could be explained also by the mechanism of cross-reaction with Compositae pollens. PMID:24799914

  1. Ingested and Aspirated Foreign Bodies.

    PubMed

    Green, S Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal and aspirated foreign bodies have important clinical significance, and both should be considered carefully when the history or physical examination findings raise sufficient suspicion. The published evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of foreign body ingestion or aspiration is weighted disproportionately with observational studies, case controls, expert opinion, and systematic reviews. Most of the publications would receive a categorization of C (observational studies including case-control and cohort design) and D (expert opinion, case reports, and clinical reasoning). One of the few prospective studies examining the diagnostic evaluation of foreign body aspiration in children could be considered level B evidence (randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, or diagnostic studies with minor limitations). This study found that the medical history is the most important predictive part of the evaluation. There is evidence for considering bronchoscopy if there is significant history suggestive of foreign body aspiration, even in the setting of normal physical examination findings. (28). Most ingested foreign bodies spontaneously pass without incident. However, special attention should be paid to objects in the esophagus as well as to batteries and magnets. Based on a systematic review of the literature (level B evidence) and the potential for rapid and life-threatening damage, batteries in the esophagus should be removed immediately. (10) Other objects, such as coins, may be observed for passage in an asymptomatic patient. In addition, given the high risk of significant complications, ingestion of high-powered magnets should be quickly and carefully evaluated. Although single magnets are likely to pass without complication, multiple magnets or magnets ingested with other metal objects can cause significant damage and should be removed if there is any concern for mural entrapment, bowel perforation, or failure to progress. (10

  2. Familial Anaphylaxis after Silkworm Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gautreau, Marc; Restuccia, Marc; Senser, Kevin; Weisberg, Stacy N

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we present a case of anaphylaxis in multiple family members after ingesting silkworms, an Asian delicacy. While food allergies, including anaphylaxis are unfortunately common, there are no previous reports of multiple family members suffering an anaphylactic reaction after eating silkworms. In addition, both family members required multiple doses of epinephrine and eventually an epinephrine infusion to improve their blood pressures. All interventions, including the epinephrine infusions, were started by emergency medical services (EMS) with on-line medical direction. Both the reaction and the required treatment are not extensively documented in the medical literature.

  3. Ingested (oral) SST inhibits EAE.

    PubMed

    Brod, Staley A; Hood, Zachary M

    2011-08-01

    Ingested immunoactive proteins type I interferon, soluble immune response suppressor peptide 1-21 and melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibit clinical attacks and inflammation in acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We examined whether another immunoactive protein, somatostatin (SST), would have similar anti-inflammatory effects on EAE after oral administration. B6 mice were immunized with MOG peptide 35-55 and gavaged with control saline or SST during ongoing disease. Splenocytes from mock-fed or SST-fed mice were adoptively transferred into active MOG peptide 35-55-immunized recipient mice during ongoing disease. In actively fed mice, increased Th2-like cytokines in both the spleen and the central nervous system (CNS) inhibited active disease. In recipients of donor cells from SST-fed donors, reduction of Th1 and Th17 and induction of Th2-like IL-4 cytokines in both the spleen and CNS inhibited disease. T(reg) cells were increased threefold in actively fed spleen cells that are responsible for protection against disease after adoptive transfer. Ingested (orally administered) SST can inhibit clinical disease, inhibit CNS inflammation by decreasing Th17 and Th1-like cytokines and increasing Th2-like cytokines in the CNS via induction of T(reg) cells.

  4. Accidental cell phone ingestion with pharyngeal impaction.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammed M; Bahl, Kazal; Dross, Matthew; Farooqui, Shoheb; Dross, Peter

    2014-09-01

    35 year old intoxicated male ingested an unusual, large foreign object (cell phone). To report the ingestion of an unusual large foreign object with hypopharyngeal impaction, complications, and treatment. Foreign body ingestion in the adult population is more prevalent in those who engage in drug or alcohol abuse. Impaction and perforation of the upper aerodigestive tract can lead to significant and potentially fatal complications including parapharyngeal/retropharyngeal abscess, mediastinitis, and aortoesophageal fistula. The treatment of foreign object ingestion is dependent on the type of foreign object ingested, its location, and potential for perforation. Endoscopic removal under general anesthesia is the treatment method recommended for foreign bodies impacted at the cricopharyngeus or esophagus. We report the only case of the accidental ingestion of an entire cell phone with casing. A plain film x-ray of the neck can be used in the assessment of the location of radiopaque foreign objects and in diagnosing potential complication.

  5. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Ondek, Katelynn; Schneider, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e., food stored for future consumption) and endogenous (i.e., body fat stores) fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g., foraging, food hoarding), and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing). Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the

  6. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation.

  7. Two Year Old With Water Bead Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jami; Randell, Kimberly A; Knapp, Jane F

    2015-08-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common pediatric complaint. Two case reports describe intestinal obstruction in children from an ingestion of a single superabsorbent water ball, requiring surgical removal. We describe nonsurgical management of an asymptomatic child who ingested approximately 100 superabsorbent water beads.Because of the risk for subsequent intestinal obstruction, the patient was admitted for whole bowel irrigation. This case report is the first describing use of whole bowel irrigation in the management of an asymptomatic patient with multiple water beads ingestion.

  8. Management of ingested magnets in children.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sunny Z; Bousvaros, Athos; Gilger, Mark; Mamula, Petar; Gupta, Sandeep; Kramer, Robert; Noel, R Adam

    2012-09-01

    We describe a comprehensive algorithm for the management of ingested rare-earth magnets in children. These newer and smaller neodymium magnets sold as adult toys are much stronger than the traditional magnets, and can attract each other with formidable forces. If >1 magnet is swallowed at the same time, or a magnet is co-ingested with another metallic object, the loops of intestine can be squeezed between them resulting in bowel damage including perforations. An algorithm that uses the number of magnets ingested, location of magnets, and the timing of ingestion before intervention helps to delineate the roles of the pediatric gastroenterologists and surgeons in the management of these cases.

  9. Esophageal button battery ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Şencan, Arzu; Genişol, İncinur; Hoşgör, Münevver

    2017-07-01

    Button battery lodged in the esophagus carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present cases of patients with esophageal button battery ingestion treated at our clinic and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Records of patients admitted to our hospital for foreign body ingestion between January 2010 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases with button battery lodged in the esophagus were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, length of time after ingestion until admission, presenting clinical symptoms, type and localization of the battery, management, and prognosis were analyzed. Among 1891 foreign body ingestions, 71 were localized in the esophagus, and 8 of those (11.2%) were cases of button battery ingestion. Mean age was 1.7 years. Admission was within 6 hours of ingestion in 5 cases, after 24 hours had elapsed in 2, and 1 month after ingestion in 1 case. All patients but 1 knew the history of ingestion. Prompt endoscopic removal was performed for all patients. Three patients developed esophageal stricture, which responded to dilatation. Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal is mandatory in esophageal button battery ingestion. It should be suspected in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  10. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion.

    PubMed

    Schneir, Aaron B; Rentmeester, Landen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2013-06-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) have only recently become available in the United States, and there has been increasing concern regarding pediatric ingestions of them. We describe a 15-month-old female infant who ingested an LDP and had a depressed level of consciousness, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary toxicity, and swallowing difficulties. It is currently unclear what the exact etiologic agent(s) is responsible for the toxicity associated with LDPs. The case demonstrates the potential for significant toxicity following the ingestion of an LDP. Clearly, measures should be taken to avoid ingestions of these products.

  11. The ingestible thermal monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Hogrefe, Arthur F.; Lesho, Jeffery C.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal monitoring system for measuring body core temperatures was developed that contains an ingestible pill which is both commandable and rechargeable, and which uses magnetic induction for command and telemetry as well as for recharging. The pill electronics consist of a battery power source, a crystal-controlled oscillator that drives a small air coil, and a command detection circuit. The resulting 262-kHz magnetilc field can be easily detected from a distance of 1 m. The pill oscillator functions at voltages less than 1 V, supplied by a single Ni-Cd battery, which must be recharged after 72 h of continuous transmission. The pill can be recalibrated periodically to compensate for long-term drift.

  12. The ingestible thermal monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Hogrefe, Arthur F.; Lesho, Jeffery C.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal monitoring system for measuring body core temperatures was developed that contains an ingestible pill which is both commandable and rechargeable, and which uses magnetic induction for command and telemetry as well as for recharging. The pill electronics consist of a battery power source, a crystal-controlled oscillator that drives a small air coil, and a command detection circuit. The resulting 262-kHz magnetilc field can be easily detected from a distance of 1 m. The pill oscillator functions at voltages less than 1 V, supplied by a single Ni-Cd battery, which must be recharged after 72 h of continuous transmission. The pill can be recalibrated periodically to compensate for long-term drift.

  13. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... takeoff thrust or power. (2) The engine inlet throat area as used in this section to determine the bird...

  15. Foreign body ingestions in a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Alao, A O; Abraham, B

    2006-01-01

    The topic of foreign body ingestion has received extensive coverage in the areas of surgery, emergency medicine and pediatrics. A subset of this topic, the intentional ingestion of foreign bodies, however, is much less common, and involves subtleties in evaluation and management not usually seen in accidental ingestions. Here, we report a case of ingestion of a rolled, metal tuna can lid in a male prison inmate previously diagnosed with depression and paranoid schizophrenia. Following evaluation by the surgical team, the foreign body was removed by laparotomy and the patient was discharged back to the prison without complication. In many cases, ingestions ofthis type involve a command hallucination ordering the patient to swallow the foreign body. Interestingly, the patient in the present case reported auditory hallucinations commanding him not to swallow the can lid.

  16. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2007

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; KL Gaustad

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests.

  17. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20–25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  18. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure.

  19. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, A.; Sivaraman, C.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  20. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, A.; Sivaraman, C.

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  1. Concentrated liquid detergent pod ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Natasha; Jaeger, Matthew W

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated liquid detergent pods are an emerging public health hazard, especially in pediatric patients. Ingestion is a more common route of exposure for liquid detergent pods compared with non-pod detergents and it tends to be associated with more severe adverse effects. We present 3 cases that demonstrate the varied clinical symptoms resulting from detergent pod ingestion. These cases not only demonstrate findings such as gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms but also show more rare neurological symptoms. The cases highlight the dangers of concentrated liquid detergent pod ingestion. To help prevent further life-threatening injuries, there is a need for more consumer information and provider knowledge about the potential adverse complications.

  2. Poppy seed ingestion: the Oregon perspective.

    PubMed

    Meneely, K D

    1992-07-01

    Numerous articles have been published regarding the positive morphine and codeine urinalysis results from the ingestion of poppy seeds. Oregon's perspective towards ingestion of controlled substances focuses around driving under impaired conditions. To determine the influence of the residual opium on poppy seeds to impairment, seven volunteers each ingested 25 grams of poppy seeds baked into bundt cakes. Urine samples were screened by EMIT using 300 ng/ml cutoff levels. All of the urine specimens were found to be opiate positive shortly after consuming the cake; however, after administering a series of standardized drug recognition evaluation tests, no subjects were found to exhibit symptoms of opiate impairment.

  3. Beware of canine Gorilla Glue ingestions.

    PubMed

    Lubich, Carol; Mrvos, Rita; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2004-06-01

    Household adhesive ingestions are considered relatively non-toxic. Gorilla Glue is a household glue containing a urethane polymer and a polymeric isocyanate liquid compound available in container sizes of 2 to 36 oz, and when applied will expand to 3-4 times its original volume. We report the ingestion of Gorilla Glue by 2 dogs that caused obstructive masses requiring surgical intervention. Dogs with a history of Gorilla Glue ingestion should be monitored closely by their owners and a veterinary referral made if signs of gastrointestinal distress develop.

  4. Effect of ingested sodium bicarbonate on muscle force, fatigue, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Verbitsky, O; Mizrahi, J; Levin, M; Isakov, E

    1997-08-01

    The influence of acute ingestion of NaHCO3 on fatigue and recovery of teh quadriceps femoris muscle after exercise was studied in six healthy male subjects. A bicycle ergometer was used for exercising under three loading conditions: test A, load corresponding to maximal oxygen consumption; test B, load in test A + 17%; test C, load in test B but performed 1 h after acute ingestion of NaHCO3. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) was applied to provoke isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris. The resulting knee torque was monitored during fatigue (2-min chronic FES) and recovery (10-s FES every 10 min, for 40 min). Quadriceps torques were higher in the presence of NaHCO3 (P < 0.05): with NaHCO3 the peak, residual, and recovery (after 40 min) normalized torques were, respectively, 0.68 +/- 0.05 (SD), 0.58 +/- 0.05, and 0.73 +/- 0.05; without NaHCO3 the values were 0.45 +/- 0.04, 0.30 +/- 0.06, and 0.63 +/- 0.06. The increased torques obtained after acute ingestion of NaHCO3 indicate the possible existence of improved nonoxidative glycolysis in isometric contraction, resulting in reduced fatigue and enhanced recovery.

  5. Equation reliability of soil ingestion estimates in mass-balance soil ingestion studies.

    PubMed

    Stanek Iii, Edward J; Xu, Bo; Calabrese, Edward J

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to chemicals from ingestion of contaminated soil may be an important pathway with potential health consequences for children. A key parameter used in assessing this exposure is the quantity of soil ingested, with estimates based on four short longitudinal mass-balance soil ingestion studies among children. The estimates use trace elements in the soil with low bioavailability that are minimally present in food. Soil ingestion corresponds to the excess trace element amounts excreted, after subtracting trace element amounts ingested from food and medications, expressed as an equivalent quantity of soil. The short duration of mass-balance studies, different concentrations of trace elements in food and soil, and potential for trace elements to be ingested from other nonsoil, nonfood sources contribute to variability and bias in the estimates. We develop a stochastic model for a soil ingestion estimator based on a trace element that accounts for critical features of the mass-balance equation. Using results from four mass-balance soil ingestion studies, we estimate the accuracy of soil ingestion estimators for different trace elements, and identify subjects where the difference between Al and Si estimates is larger (>3 RMSE) than expected. Such large differences occur in fewer than 12% of subjects in each of the four studies. We recommend the use of such criteria to flag and exclude subjects from soil ingestion analyses. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Ice crystal ingestion by turbofans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios Pabon, Manuel A.

    This Thesis will present the problem of inflight icing in general and inflight icing caused by the ingestion of high altitude ice crystals produced by high energy mesoscale convective complexes in particular, and propose a new device to prevent it based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Inflight icing is known to be the cause of 583 air accidents and more than 800 deaths in more than a decade. The new ice crystal ingestion problem has caused more than 100 flights to lose engine power since the 1990's, and the NTSB identified it as one of the causes of the Air France flight 447 accident in 1-Jun2008. The mechanics of inflight icing not caused by ice crystals are well established. Aircraft surfaces exposed to supercooled liquid water droplets will accrete ice in direct proportion of the droplet catch and the freezing heat transfer process. The multiphase flow droplet catch is predicted by the simple sum of forces on each spherical droplet and a droplet trajectory calculation based on Lagrangian or Eulerian analysis. The most widely used freezing heat transfer model for inflight icing caused by supercooled droplets was established by Messinger. Several computer programs implement these analytical models to predict inflight icing, with LEWICE being based on Lagrangian analysis and FENSAP being based on Eulerian analysis as the best representatives among them. This Thesis presents the multiphase fluid mechanics particular to ice crystals, and explains how it differs from the established droplet multiphase flow, and the obstacles in implementing the former in computational analysis. A new modification of the Messinger thermal model is proposed to account for ice accretion produced by ice crystal impingement. Because there exist no computational and experimental ways to fully replicate ice crystal inflight icing, and because existing ice protections systems consume vast amounts of energy, a new ice protection device based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma is

  7. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  8. Arsenic ingestion and internal cancers: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, M.N.; Smith, A.H.; Hopenhayn-Rich, C. )

    1992-03-01

    Inorganic arsenic is known to cause skin cancer by ingestion and lung cancer by inhalation. However, whether arsenic ingestion causes internal cancers is still a matter of debate. This paper has reviewed the epidemiologic literature that bears on this question. Published studies of populations who have ingested arsenic in medicines, wine substitutes, or water supplies, as well as workers exposed to arsenic by inhalation, were considered in terms of whether the observed associations might be explained by the presence of biases, the consistency of the evidence, and the biologic plausibility of the associations. Many studies were found to be uninformative because of low statistical power or potential biases. The most informative studies, which were from Taiwan and Japan, involved exposure to arsenic in drinking water. These studies strongly suggest that ingested inorganic arsenic does cause cancers of the bladder, kidney, lung, and liver, and possibly other sites. However, confirmatory studies are needed.82 references.

  9. Pebble ingestion: an unusual form of geophagia.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W D; Crabtree, J B

    1977-07-01

    Reported is a case representing an unusual form of geophagia, in which ingestion of pebbles by a 27-year-old mentally retarded woman resulted in impaction and complete filling of the colon with pebbles. Conservative therapy was successful in clearing the stones by the sixth day of treatment; however, a follow-up visit approximately six weeks later revealed that the patient was again ingesting pebbles.

  10. Prolonged psychosis after Amanita muscaria ingestion.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran; Mozina, Martin; Bunc, Matjaz

    2006-05-01

    Amanita muscaria has a bright red or orange cap covered with small white plaques. It contains the isoxazole derivatives ibotenic acid, muscimol and muscazone and other toxins such as muscarine. The duration of clinical manifestations after A. muscaria ingestion does not usually exceed 24 hours; we report on a 5-day paranoid psychosis after A. muscaria ingestion. A 48-year-old man, with no previous medical history, gathered and ate mushrooms he presumed to be A. caesarea. Half an hour later he started to vomit and fell asleep. He was found comatose having a seizure-like episode. On admission four hours after ingestion he was comatose, but the remaining physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Creatine kinase was 8.33 microkat/l. Other laboratory results and brain CT scan were normal. Toxicology analysis did not find any drugs in his blood or urine. The mycologist identified A. muscaria among the remaining mushrooms. The patient was given activated charcoal. Ten hours after ingestion, he awoke and was completely orientated; 18 hours after ingestion his condition deteriorated again and he became confused and uncooperative. Afterwards paranoid psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations appeared and persisted for five days. On the sixth day all symptoms of psychosis gradually disappeared. One year later he is not undergoing any therapy and has no symptoms of psychiatric disease. We conclude that paranoid psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations can appear 18 hours after ingestion of A. muscaria and can last for up to five days.

  11. Ingestion of caustic alkali farm products.

    PubMed

    Neidich, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the Poison Prevention Packaging Act took effect, the number of ingestions of caustic alkali from household products has been significantly reduced. Commercial caustic alkalis used on farms, however, were not included in this legislation. Fourteen children over a 5 year period were seen after ingestion of commercial caustic alkalis used on farms. Seven of the children had ingested liquid pipeline cleaners and seven had ingested solid agents used for a variety of reasons. Six of seven children ingesting liquid agents did so from nonoriginal containers into which the caustic had been transferred for convenience. All seven children ingesting solid agents did so from the original container. Eight of the 14 children were found to have second-degree or worse esophageal involvement. Both solid and liquid caustic agents used commercially on farms can cause significant morbidity. Development of a child-resistant container for daily transfer of liquid pipeline agents could be helpful in preventing injuries from liquid pipeline cleaners. Pediatric gastroenterologists as well as primary care physicians in rural areas should be familiar with this type of injury and should take an active role in instructing parents of children living on farms to prevent such injuries. Extension of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act to caustic alkalis used on farms needs to be considered.

  12. Validity and reliability of nonverbal voice measures as indicators of stressor-provoked anxiety.

    PubMed

    Fuller, B F; Horii, Y; Conner, D A

    1992-10-01

    To determine the validity and reliability of vocal jitter, tenseness, and pitch as measures of stressor-provoked anxiety, 88 women representing three coping styles (Highly Anxious, Truly Low Anxious, and Repressor) phonated vowels, reported anxiety, and provided measures of muscle tension, heart rate, and sweating 2 weeks before, the day before, and 1 week after stressful exams. Greater self-reported anxiety, sweating, and heart rate on the day before versus the other occasions confirmed the day before was the most stressful occasion. Results suggest excellent validity and reliability for Jitter as an indicator of stressor-provoked anxiety.

  13. Study of the generation and suppression of runaway currents in provoked disruptions in J-TEXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Chen, Z. P.; Zhang, Y.; Jin, W.; Fang, D.; Ba, W. G.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, M.; Yang, Z. J.; Ding, Y. H.; Zhuang, G.; J-TEXT Team

    2012-05-01

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall for the next generation tokamak. The behaviors of runaway currents following intentional provoked disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the runaway current generation following provoked disruptions depends on both the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway currents is in the ranges of 30% to 60% in J-TEXT. The runaway currents can be avoided by the intensive gas puffing of H2 due to the low multiplication factor in J-TEXT.

  14. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  15. Lipid metabolism of orchiectomised rats was affected by fructose ingestion and the amount of ingested fructose.

    PubMed

    Makino, Satoru; Kishida, Taro; Ebihara, Kiyoshi

    2012-03-01

    We examined whether lipid metabolism in orchiectomised (ORX) rats was affected by fructose ingestion and the amount of ingested fructose. Sucrose was used as a fructose source. Sham-operated and ORX rats were fed one of the following three diets for 28 d: a maize starch-based diet without sucrose (SU0), a diet by which half or all of maize starch was replaced by sucrose (SU50 or SU100). Body-weight gain and food intake were increased by sucrose ingestion, but decreased by ORX. Plasma total cholesterol concentration was increased by ORX and dose-dependently by sucrose ingestion. Plasma TAG concentration was decreased by ORX, but was increased dose-dependently by sucrose ingestion. Plasma insulin concentration was decreased by ORX, but was not affected by sucrose ingestion. Liver TAG was increased by sucrose ingestion and ORX; however, liver cholesterol concentration was not affected by sucrose ingestion and ORX. The hepatic activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 was not affected by sucrose ingestion and ORX; however, faecal excretion of bile acids was decreased. The mRNA level of microsomal TAG transfer protein, which is the gene related to hepatic VLDL production, was increased by ORX and sucrose ingestion. The mRNA level of uncoupling protein-1 was decreased by ORX, but not by sucrose ingestion. Plasma insulin concentration tended to correlate with the level of sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA (r 0·747, P = 0·088). These results show that lipid metabolism in ORX rats would be affected by the consumption of fructose-rich sweeteners such as sucrose and high-fructose syrup.

  16. 21 CFR 880.6305 - Ingestible event marker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ingestible event marker. 880.6305 Section 880.6305... Devices § 880.6305 Ingestible event marker. (a) Identification. An ingestible event marker is a prescription device used to record time-stamped, patient-logged events. The ingestible component...

  17. MLA Report on Foreign-Language Education Continues to Provoke Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that, nearly one year after its release, the report on foreign language and higher education issued by an ad hoc committee of the Modern Language Association (MLA) is still provoking discussion about reforms in the teaching of foreign languages and the role of the association in any revamp. The debate continued at a panel held…

  18. Personality and Aggressive Behavior under Provoking and Neutral Conditions: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettencourt, Ann B.; Talley, Amelia; Benjamin, Arlin James; Valentine, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a comprehensive review to understand the relation between personality and aggressive behavior, under provoking and nonprovoking conditions. The qualitative review revealed that some personality variables influenced aggressive behavior under both neutral and provocation conditions, whereas others influenced aggressive…

  19. MLA Report on Foreign-Language Education Continues to Provoke Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that, nearly one year after its release, the report on foreign language and higher education issued by an ad hoc committee of the Modern Language Association (MLA) is still provoking discussion about reforms in the teaching of foreign languages and the role of the association in any revamp. The debate continued at a panel held…

  20. Anisocoria in the dog provoked by a toxic contact with an ornamental plant: Datura stramonium.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Philippe; Clerc, Bernard

    2002-12-01

    We report an unusual case of anisocoria in the dog provoked by Datura stramonium, and an experimental clinical assay to reproduce the anisocoria using simple contact with part of the plant in four healthy dogs. Any part of the D. stramonium plant produced anisocoria following simple contact with the eye.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of yellow oleander ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bose, T K; Basu, R K; Biswas, B; De, J N; Majumdar, B C; Datta, S

    1999-10-01

    Yellow oleander (Thevetia neriifolia) is a commonly grown tree found widely in Eastern India. The seeds of yellow oleander are highly poisonous and contain three glycosides--thevetin, thevetoxin and peruvoside. Yellow oleander seed ingestion is usually with suicidal intent in Eastern India. Manifestations range from mild to potentially fatal. It has significant cardiovascular effects with varying rhythm abnormalities. Effects of yellow oleander seed ingestion (YOI) were studied in 300 patients from 1986 to 1990 at BS Medical College, Bankura. Majority i.e., 246 (82%) were females and 226 (75.33%) were young in the age group 11-20 years. Most reported for treatment 6 to 8 hours after ingestion of seeds. The number of seeds swallowed varied from half to fifteen. Two hundred and ninety-two (97.33%) ingested seeds in the crushed form; 156 (52%) were asymptomatic, 92 (30.66%) had vomiting and 36 (12%) had palpitation. In electrocardiogram (ECG), 138 (46%) revealed varying types of arrhythmias including sinus bradycardia in 68 cases (49.27%). Ischaemic changes were present in 118 cases (39.33%). Number of seeds ingested did not bear any relationship with ECG changes in YOI. All 14 cases of death were autopsied. Subendocardial and perivascular haemorrhage with focal myocardial oedema was present in all. Median hospital stay was 5 days (range 2 to 24). During discharge, 256 (85.33%) had normal ECG, 14 (4.66%) had sinus bradycardia and 16 (5.33%) demonstrated ischaemic changes.

  2. SOIL INGESTION COLLOQUIUM (2005) | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On May 24-25, 2005, the U.S. EPA Colloquium on Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates and Mouthing Behavior for Children and Adults (Colloquium) was held at the Holiday Inn National Airport in Crystal City, Virginia. The purpose of the Colloquium was to convene an expert panel to assess the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion research for children and adults. Because mouthing behavior is closely related to childrens soil and dust ingestion, mouthing behavior research also was included as a major topic. The Colloquium was designed to assist EPA in answering the following questions:What is the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion and mouthing behavior?Where should the state of knowledge be in order for EPA to make better decisions for the protection of children and adults from these pathways?How can EPA and the scientific community advance the science (i.e., what research is needed)?This summary report captures the major content of the presentations, breakout groups, and discussions/recommendations that occurred at the Colloquium. Presentation slides, organized sequentially by the order of presentation, the Colloquium agenda, and contact information of all the participants are included in this report as Appendices A, B, and C, respectively. The purpose of the Colloquium was to convene an expert panel to assess the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion research for children and adults.

  3. Toxicological significance of soil ingestion by wild and domestic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Fries, George F.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Most wild and domestic animals ingest some soil or sediment, and some species may routinely, or under special circumstances, ingest considerable amounts. Ingested soil supplies nutrients, exposes animals to parasites and pathogens, and may play a role in developing immune systems.1 Soil ingestion is also sometimes the principal route of exposure to various environmental contaminants.2-7 Ingestion of soil and earthy material is defined as geophagy and may be either intentional or unintentional, occurring as an animal eats or grooms.

  4. Repetitive foreign body ingestion: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Sarah; Stagno, Susan J; Daly, Barb

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of persons who frequently present to the healthcare system following repetitive foreign body ingestion has been addressed in the psychiatric literature. However, there has been little exploration of the ethical considerations regarding the treatment of these patients. The complexity of their medical and psychiatric presentation raises fundamental ethical questions regarding the duty to treat, patient autonomy, justice, and futility. Careful ethical analysis is particularly important in this context, since the frustration that medical professionals may feel in response may lead to false assumptions that can negatively impact patient care. A careful exploration of these questions can increase awareness and understanding, which in turn can lead to improved treatment of patients who repetitively ingest foreign bodies. Care for patients who inflict self-harm, particularly by repetitive foreign body ingestion, is not futile. The patients have a right to treatment and are entitled to resources. Efforts should be made to provide a more comprehensive treatment approach to these patients.

  5. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  6. Towards automated ingestion detection: swallow sounds.

    PubMed

    Walker, William P; Bhatia, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is a cause of many major chronic diseases. In most cases, obesity is a result of an imbalance between food intake and calories burned. Steps toward automated ingestion detection are being made. In order to automate the process of capturing ingestion, a method for detecting, analyzing, and recording sounds related to ingestion is being developed. In this paper, preliminary swallow sound analysis is presented and compared with various other noises captured from a throat mounted microphone. Initial frequency analysis indicates a stronger presence at high frequency intervals for swallow sounds in relation to other captured sounds such as voice. Comparisons show that a single high-pass filter can offer similar results as wavelet decomposition. Two simple methods for event detection are given.

  7. (-)-Hydroxycitrate ingestion and endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kiwon; Ryu, Sungpil; Suh, Heajung; Ishihara, Kengo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2005-02-01

    We have been interested in the ergogenic aid effects of food components and supplements for enhancing endurance exercise performance. For this purpose, acute or chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate (HCA) ingestion might be effective because it promotes utilization of fatty acid as an energy source. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP: citrate lyase, thereby increasing inhibition of lipogenesis in the body. Many researchers have reported that less body fat accumulation and sustained satiety cause less food intake. After focusing on exercise performance with HCA ingestion, we came up with different results that show positive effects or not. However, our previously reported data showed increased use of fatty acids during moderate intensity exercise. For future research, HCA and co-ingestion of other supplements, such as carnitine or caffeine, might have greater effect on glycogen-sparing than HCA alone.

  8. Motor neurons controlling fluid ingestion in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Andrea; Silies, Marion; Gohl, Daryl M; Scott, Kristin

    2012-04-17

    Rhythmic motor behaviors such as feeding are driven by neural networks that can be modulated by external stimuli and internal states. In Drosophila, ingestion is accomplished by a pump that draws fluid into the esophagus. Here we examine how pumping is regulated and characterize motor neurons innervating the pump. Frequency of pumping is not affected by sucrose concentration or hunger but is altered by fluid viscosity. Inactivating motor neurons disrupts pumping and ingestion, whereas activating them elicits arrhythmic pumping. These motor neurons respond to taste stimuli and show prolonged activity to palatable substances. This work describes an important component of the neural circuit for feeding in Drosophila and is a step toward understanding the rhythmic activity producing ingestion.

  9. Caustic ingestion-a forensic overview.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    The ingestion of corrosive substances may produce severe burns to the upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, particularly if the pH is greater than 12 or less than two. There is a biphasic age grouping with adult cases most often involving self-harm and pediatric cases accidental ingestion. Three cases are reported to demonstrate characteristic features following the ingestion of potassium hydroxide, glacial acetic acid and Lysol(®) , respectively. All deaths were due to the effects of caustic burns to the upper aerodigestive tract, esophagus and stomach with perforation and/or hemorrhage. The extent of injuries in these cases depends on the nature, amount, and concentration of the agent and on the exposure time. A point to note at autopsy is that tissue damage may also occur from postmortem exposure. Typical injuries involve perioral, limb, and trunk burns, with extensive aerodigestive liquefactive/coagulative necrosis causing hemorrhage and perforation.

  10. An ingestible sensor for measuring medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Hafezi, Hooman; Robertson, Timothy L; Moon, Greg D; Au-Yeung, Kit-Yee; Zdeblick, Mark J; Savage, George M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and performance of the first integrated-circuit microsensor developed for daily ingestion by patients. The ingestible sensor is a device that allows patients, families, and physicians to measure medication ingestion and adherence patterns in real time, relate pharmaceutical compliance to important physiologic metrics, and take appropriate action in response to a patient's adherence pattern and specific health metrics. The design and theory of operation of the device are presented, along with key in-vitro and in-vivo performance results. The chemical, toxicological, mechanical, and electrical safety tests performed to establish the device's safety profile are described in detail. Finally, aggregate results from multiple clinical trials involving 412 patients and 5656 days of system usage are presented to demonstrate the device's reliability and performance as part of an overall digital health feedback system.

  11. Acute Rhabdomyolysis Following Synthetic Cannabinoid Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Adedinsewo, Demilade A.; Odewole, Oluwaseun; Todd, Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ingestion. Laboratory studies revealed markedly elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) with normal renal function. The patient was managed with aggressive intravenous (IV) fluid hydration and treatment of underlying psychiatric illness. Conclusion: We recommend the routine evaluation of renal function and CPK levels with early initiation of IV hydration among patients who present to the emergency department following acute ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids to identify potential complications early as well as institute early supportive therapy. PMID:27500131

  12. Stridor after ingestion of dettol and domestos.

    PubMed

    Graham, Colin A

    2004-02-01

    Dettol (4.8% chloroxylenol, 9% pine oil and 12% isopropyl alcohol) has previously been reported to cause delayed upper airway obstruction when ingested, despite the product being labelled as non-poisonous. Domestos (1-5% sodium hypochlorite) is used as a household and toilet cleaner. This paper reports a rare case in which both agents were consumed together in significant quantities, and caused stridor and impending airway obstruction requiring endotracheal intubation in the emergency department. Patients who have ingested this combination of cleaning agents are at high risk of acute airway compromise, and should have expert upper airway evaluation and control as soon as possible after admission.

  13. Water ingestion into jet engine axial compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1982-01-01

    An axial flow compressor has been tested with water droplet ingestion under a variety of conditions. The results illustrate the manner in which the compressor pressure ratio, efficiency and surging characteristics are affected. A model for estimating the performance of a compressor during water ingestion has been developed and the predictions obtained compare favorably with the test results. It is then shown that with respect to five droplet-associated nonlinearly-interacting processes (namely, droplet-blade interactions, blade performance changes, centrifugal action, heat and mass transfer processes and droplet break-up), the initial water content and centrifugal action play the most dominant roles.

  14. [Near fatal attraction of ingested magnets].

    PubMed

    Munchak, Itamar; Yardeni, Dan; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Soudack-Ben Nun, Michalle; Augarten, Arie

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of intestinal perforation in a 20 month old girl following the ingestion of 2 small magnets. Ingestion of multiple magnets constitutes a unique problem. Magnets in adjacent intestinal loops may forcefully attract each other and produce pressure necrosis of the bowel wall, leading to perforation, fistula formation or intestinal obstruction. Therefore, these children should be observed carefully. Early surgical intervention should be considered when clinical symptoms develop, especially when, on sequential abdominal radiographs, there is no change in the magnets' location. Since toys with small magnets are ubiquitous, efforts should be made to increase parents' awareness on the one hand, and to alert toy manufacturers on the other hand.

  15. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    PubMed Central

    Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

  16. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  17. Systemic contact dermatitis from propolis ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eujin; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2011-02-01

    Propolis, also known as bee glue, is a substance collected by worker bees and it is used as a material for constructing and maintaining their beehives. It has been used topically and orally by humans for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the growing use of propolis has been paralleled by reports of allergic contact dermatitis as a reaction to the substance. Contact dermatitis with generalized cutaneous manifestations elicited by propolis ingestion has not been previously reported. Here we report on the first case of systemic contact dermatitis from propolis ingestion in a 36-year-old woman.

  18. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    PubMed

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  19. Water ingestion into jet engine axial compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1982-01-01

    An axial flow compressor has been tested with water droplet ingestion under a variety of conditions. The results illustrate the manner in which the compressor pressure ratio, efficiency and surging characteristics are affected. A model for estimating the performance of a compressor during water ingestion has been developed and the predictions obtained compare favorably with the test results. It is then shown that with respect to five droplet-associated nonlinearly-interacting processes (namely, droplet-blade interactions, blade performance changes, centrifugal action, heat and mass transfer processes and droplet break-up), the initial water content and centrifugal action play the most dominant roles.

  20. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level.

  1. Redotex ingestions reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although the multi-component weight loss supplement Redotex is banned in the United States, the supplement can be obtained in Mexico. The intent of this report was to describe the pattern of Redotex calls received by a statewide poison center system. Cases were all Redotex calls received by Texas poison centers during 2000-2008. The distribution of total calls and those involving ingestion of the supplement were determined for selected demographic and clinical factors. Of 34 total Redotex calls received, 55.9% came from the 14 Texas counties that border Mexico. Of the 22 reported Redotex ingestions, 77.3% of the patients were female and 45.5% 20 years or more. Of the 17 ingestions involving no co-ingestants, 52.9% were already at or en route to a health care facility, 41.2% were managed on site, and 5.9% was referred to a health care facility. The final medical outcome was no effect in 23.5% cases, minor effect in 5.9%, moderate effect in 11.8%, not followed but minimal clinical effects possible in 47.1%, and unable to follow but judged to be potentially toxic in 11.8%. Most Redotex calls to the Texas poison center system originated from counties bordering Mexico.

  2. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    PubMed Central

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  3. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... engine shall be limited to aircraft installations in which it is shown that a bird cannot strike the...

  4. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... engine shall be limited to aircraft installations in which it is shown that a bird cannot strike the...

  5. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health.

  6. Atypical Presentation of Multiple Foreign Body Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Sultan; Ayan, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is very common in childhood especially under 3 year of age. Pica syndrome is characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive. We present a 3-year old girl who presented to ER with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. PMID:28164004

  7. Duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.

  8. Intestinal obstruction due to ingested Vaseline.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, D W; Buick, R G

    1987-01-01

    A case of intestinal obstruction due to ingested Vaseline (white soft paraffin) is described. While intestinal obstruction due to bezoars and impacted foodstuffs is uncommon, though well recognised, we know of no previous reports of obstruction caused by semisolid mineral matter. Images Figure PMID:3688922

  9. Survival of Chlorophyceae Ingested by Saprozoic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Leake, P. A.; Jensen, H. J.

    1970-01-01

    The saprozoic nematode, Pristionchus lheritieri ingested cells of four species of unicellular Chlorophyceae (grass-green algae) including Chlamydomonas reinhardi and unidentified species of Ankistrodesmus, Chlamydornonas and Scenedesmus. Additional tests with Ankistrodesmus sp. and Chlamydomonas sp., indicated cells of Ankistrodesmus survived passage through the alimentary canal and were subsequently cultured, while viable cells of Chlarnydomonas were only occasionally recovered. PMID:19322324

  10. Odorous urine following asparagus ingestion in man.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S C; Waring, R H; Land, D; Thorpe, W V

    1987-04-15

    The production of odorous urine after the ingestion of asparagus has been shown to occur in 43% of 800 volunteers investigated. This characteristic is reproducible over a 12-month-period and has been shown to remain with individuals for virtually a lifetime. Family studies suggest that the ability to produce the odorous urine is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

  11. Sucrose ingestion induces rapid AMPA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Tukey, David S; Ferreira, Jainne M; Antoine, Shannon O; D'amour, James A; Ninan, Ipe; Cabeza de Vaca, Soledad; Incontro, Salvatore; Wincott, Charlotte; Horwitz, Julian K; Hartner, Diana T; Guarini, Carlo B; Khatri, Latika; Goffer, Yossef; Xu, Duo; Titcombe, Roseann F; Khatri, Megna; Marzan, Dave S; Mahajan, Shahana S; Wang, Jing; Froemke, Robert C; Carr, Kenneth D; Aoki, Chiye; Ziff, Edward B

    2013-04-03

    The mechanisms by which natural rewards such as sugar affect synaptic transmission and behavior are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate regulation of nucleus accumbens synapses by sucrose intake. Previous studies have shown that AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and that in vitro, trafficking of AMPARs containing the GluA1 subunit takes place by a two-step mechanism involving extrasynaptic and then synaptic receptor transport. We report that in rat, repeated daily ingestion of a 25% sucrose solution transiently elevated spontaneous locomotion and potentiated accumbens core synapses through incorporation of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CPARs), which are GluA1-containing, GluA2-lacking AMPARs. Electrophysiological, biochemical, and quantitative electron microscopy studies revealed that sucrose training (7 d) induced a stable (>24 h) intraspinous GluA1 population, and that in these rats a single sucrose stimulus rapidly (5 min) but transiently (<24 h) elevated GluA1 at extrasynaptic sites. CPARs and dopamine D1 receptors were required in vivo for elevated locomotion after sucrose ingestion. Significantly, a 7 d protocol of daily ingestion of a 3% solution of saccharin, a noncaloric sweetener, induced synaptic GluA1 similarly to 25% sucrose ingestion. These findings identify multistep GluA1 trafficking, previously described in vitro, as a mechanism for acute regulation of synaptic transmission in vivo by a natural orosensory reward. Trafficking is stimulated by a chemosensory pathway that is not dependent on the caloric value of sucrose.

  12. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rotorcraft flight operations for engines to be installed on rotorcraft. (2) Power lever movement is not... following test schedule must be used: (i) Ingestion followed by 1 minute without power lever movement. (ii... shutdown. The durations specified are times at the defined conditions. Power lever movement between each...

  13. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rotorcraft flight operations for engines to be installed on rotorcraft. (2) Power lever movement is not... following test schedule must be used: (i) Ingestion followed by 1 minute without power lever movement. (ii... shutdown. The durations specified are times at the defined conditions. Power lever movement between each...

  14. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (September 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD; Gaustad, KL

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  15. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  16. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; N N Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  17. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future (November 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, AS; Choudhury, S; Ermold, BD: Gaustad, KL

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  18. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  19. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    SciTech Connect

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into 4 sections: (1) for news about ingests currently under development, (2) for current production ingests, (3) for future ingest development plans, and (4) for information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  20. Lack of effect of laboratory-provoked anxiety on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Zemishlany, Z; Davidson, M

    1996-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate if acute anxiety can affect plasma concentrations of homovanillic acid (pHVA). Since elevated pHVA levels have been associated with severity of schizophrenic symptoms, the results of this study will help determine if the pHVA elevations are directly related to psychosis or if anxiety is also a contributory factor. Anxiety was provoked in 10 young normal subjects by a combined paradigm of mental arithmetic task and threat of electrical shock. A significant increase in self-ratings of anxiety, blood pressure, and plasma levels of norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and growth hormone indicated that the paradigm used was effective in provoking anxiety; however, anxiety did not affect pHVA concentrations. The results may support the notion that increased pHVA levels in severely ill schizophrenic patients are related to the schizophrenic pathophysiology rather than to anxiety.

  1. The frequency and nature of resolution of potential police provoked shooting encounters.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Louise C; Thomas, Stuart D M; Kesic, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Helping people in acute psychiatric crisis has become an increasingly common part of modern community policing. In certain extreme cases, police may be faced with a suicidal individual who intends to intentionally provoke police to shoot them. While fatalities are fortunately rare, anecdotal reports from frontline police suggest that these kinds of encounters are occurring on a regular basis. This paper explores 2350 psychiatric crisis incidents over an eight-month period in Victoria, Australia, and assesses the frequency and nature of potential police-provoked shootings resolved through non-fatal means. Contextual factors relating to the person's behaviour and police responses, and the person's psychiatric and criminal histories were considered to elucidate characteristics common to these incidents. Results suggest that police are potentially encountering a person who is suicidal and trying to provoke police to shoot them more than twice a week. These individuals share a number of common characteristics with those who have been fatally shot in similar circumstances and are quite different from those who attempt self-inflicted suicide. Results are discussed in relation to the impact of previous criminal contact from both the suspect and police perspectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Ingestion of Proteins and Colloidal Materials by Columnar Absorptive Cells of the Small Intestine in Suckling Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Sam L.

    1959-01-01

    Proteins and colloidal materials, administered orally to suckling rats and mice, were ingested by columnar absorptive cells of the jejunum and ileum, but not of the duodenum. Bovine gamma globulin and ovalbumin were identified in the apical cytoplasm by staining with fluorescent antibody; trypan blue, Evans blue, saccharated iron oxide, and colloidal gold were detected intracellularly by their color, specific staining, and appearance in the electron microscope. Each substance was segregated in membrane-enclosed vacuoles, apparently part of a system of potentially interconnecting vacuoles and tubules in the apical cytoplasm which is continuous in places with the apical cell membrane. We postulate that ingestion of foreign materials was accomplished by pinocytosis, that is, by invagination of the apical cell membrane to form vacuoles containing material from the intestinal lumen. Approximately 18 days after birth columnar absorptive cells lost the ability to ingest proteins and colloids, and no longer contained large vacuoles and numerous tubules. At this age rats and mice lose the ability to absorb antibodies from the intestine in an immunologically intact form, and we conclude that cellular ingestion is part of the mechanism of absorption of intact proteins in suckling animals. Particulate fat apparently is absorbed in both newborn and adult animals by micropinocytosis. Thus adult animals may not have lost the capacity for pinocytosis, but rather have become selective as to what substances provoke it. Cortisone acetate, administered subcutaneously to rats 8 to 10 days old alters the columnar absorptive cells within 72 hours so that they resemble the cells in adult animals and no longer ingest proteins. PMID:13630932

  3. Debris ingestion by juvenile marine turtles: an underestimated problem.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robson Guimarães; Andrades, Ryan; Boldrini, Marcillo Altoé; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2015-04-15

    Marine turtles are an iconic group of endangered animals threatened by debris ingestion. However, key aspects related to debris ingestion are still poorly known, including its effects on mortality and the original use of the ingested debris. Therefore, we analysed the impact of debris ingestion in 265 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) over a large geographical area and different habitats along the Brazilian coast. We determined the death rate due to debris ingestion and quantified the amount of debris that is sufficient to cause the death of juvenile green turtles. Additionally, we investigated the original use of the ingested debris. We found that a surprisingly small amount of debris was sufficient to block the digestive tract and cause death. We suggested that debris ingestion has a high death potential that may be masked by other causes of death. An expressive part of the ingested debris come from disposable and short-lived products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is there a need for protein ingestion during exercise?

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-05-01

    Dietary protein ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis rates, stimulates net muscle protein accretion, and facilitates the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Furthermore, recent studies show that protein ingestion before and during exercise also increases muscle protein synthesis rates during resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Therefore, protein ingestion before and during prolonged exercise may represent an effective dietary strategy to enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session by extending the window of opportunity during which the muscle protein synthetic response is facilitated. Protein ingestion during exercise has also been suggested to improve performance capacity acutely. However, recent studies investigating the impact of protein ingestion during exercise on time trial performance, as opposed to time to exhaustion, do not report ergogenic benefits of protein ingestion. Therefore, it is concluded that protein ingestion with carbohydrate during exercise does not further improve exercise performance when compared with the ingestion of ample amounts of carbohydrate only.

  5. Efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation in women with provoked vestibulodynia.

    PubMed

    Morin, Annie; Léonard, Guillaume; Gougeon, Véronique; Cyr, Marie-Pierre; Waddell, Guy; Bureau, Yves-André; Girard, Isabelle; Morin, Mélanie

    2017-06-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia is a highly prevalent condition characterized by acute recurrent pain located at the vaginal entrance in response to pressure application or attempted vaginal penetration. Despite a wide variety of treatments offered to women with provoked vestibulodynia, a high proportion of women are refractory to conventional treatment. Transcranial direct-current stimulation is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been shown effective for improving various chronic pain conditions. Growing evidence suggests that the central nervous system could play a key role in provoked vestibulodynia. Targeting the central nervous system could therefore be a promising treatment for women with provoked vestibulodynia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of active and sham transcranial direct-current stimulation in reducing pain intensity during intercourse in patients with provoked vestibulodynia. We conducted a triple-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Women aged 17-45 years diagnosed with provoked vestibulodynia by a gynecologist using a validated protocol were randomized to 10 sessions of either active transcranial direct-current stimulation (intensity = 2 mA) or 10 sessions of sham transcranial direct-current stimulation, over a 2-week period. Both active and sham transcranial direct-current stimulation were applied for 20 minutes, with the anode positioned over the primary motor cortex, and the cathode over the contralateral supraorbital area. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 2 weeks after treatment, and at 3-month follow-up by an evaluator blinded to group assignment. The primary objective was to assess pain intensity during intercourse, using a numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes focused on sexual function and distress, vestibular sensitivity, psychological distress, treatment satisfaction, and patient impression of change. Statistical analyses were conducted on the intention

  6. Foreign body ingestion in Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Aydoğdu, Sema; Arikan, Ciğdem; Cakir, Murat; Baran, Maşallah; Yüksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Saz, Ulaş Eylem; Arslan, Mehmet Tayyip

    2009-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion (FBI) is a common problem in the pediatric population. Even though morbidity and mortality due to foreign body ingestion are rare in childhood, they may cause serious anxiety in parents. We aimed to analyze the clinical presentation, etiology and management strategy of FBI in children in our country. Records of children admitting with a history of FBI over a three-year period were reviewed retrospectively. Data regarding gender, age, type of the ingested body, management strategy and outcome of the patients were recorded. Of 176 children, 98 (55.6%) were male. Mean age +/- SD of the patients was 3.75 +/- 4.25 years, and most of the patients were below four years of age (71.5%). Most of the children (64.7%) were seen within 48 hours, and most were asymptomatic. Blue beads attached to a safety pin (a cultural good luck charm) (38.6%), coins (27.8%) and turban pins (18.1%) were the most commonly observed foreign bodies. The blue beads/safety pin were found to be ingested primarily by infants, while ingestion of turban pins was mostly seen in adolescent girls who covered their heads. Localization of the foreign bodies was in the distal small intestine, stomach and esophagus in 61.4%, 23.8% and 14.7% of the cases, respectively. Sixty-nine endoscopic interventions were performed in 61 patients (34.6%), and these accounted for 7.3% of all endoscopic interventions during the three-year period. No major complication was observed during the procedure, and none of the patients underwent surgery. The frequently used accessory devices were retrieval net basket (57.9%), snare for pins (17.3%), tripod forceps and rat-tooth forceps. The blue beads/safety pin and turban pin were the commonly ingested foreign bodies in our center due to cultural factors. Education of the parents and of adolescent girls should greatly reduce the incidence of FBI. Endoscopic removal is safe without any major complications.

  7. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section... object ingestion—ice. (a)-(b) (c) Ingestion of ice under the conditions of paragraph (e) of this section... by engine test under the following ingestion conditions: (1) Ice quantity will be the maximum...

  8. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section... object ingestion—ice. (a)-(b) (c) Ingestion of ice under the conditions of paragraph (e) of this section... by engine test under the following ingestion conditions: (1) Ice quantity will be the maximum...

  9. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section... object ingestion—ice. (a)-(b) (c) Ingestion of ice under the conditions of paragraph (e) of this section... by engine test under the following ingestion conditions: (1) Ice quantity will be the maximum...

  10. Button battery ingestion-case report and review.

    PubMed

    Kalyanshettar, Ss; Patil, Sv; Upadhye, Gaurav

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few years there is a rise in use of button batteries in various toys and other electronic gadgets. Easy availability and small size of these batteries pose a significant risk of ingestion in small children. Button battery ingestion can lead to serious health hazards very rapidly. A case of button battery ingestion is presented in this paper.

  11. Bird Ingestion into Large Turbofan Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    A320 CFM56 5 SEMB FOR 292 04/06/90 B767 CF6 80C2 SEMB FOR LID 268 05/ 23 /90 A320 CFM56 5 SEMB FOR TR 247 05/31/90 A300 JT9D 59A INVOLUNTARY POWER LOSS FOR...Documentation Pog 1, Report No." 2. Government Accession No. 3. Rec•p-ent’s Catolog No. DOT/FAA/CT-911/17 4. Taide and Subtitle 5 . Report Oat* May...i 2 ENGINES, AIRCRAFT, AND OPERATIONS 2 3 INGESTION EVENTS AND RATES 7 4 CHARACTERISTICS OF INGESTED BIRDS 22 5 EFFECTS ON ENGINES AND FLIGHTS 35 5.1

  12. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    PubMed Central

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Antibiotherapy did not relieve the patient’s symptoms and signs. A 3-cm linear foreign body was observed in X-ray and computed tomography scans. The symptoms of the patient were relieved after excision of the foreign body. Conclusion Although it is a rare situation, migration of a foreign body ingested through the aerodigestive tract to the neck should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with neck masses. PMID:27994927

  13. Successful laparoscopic removal of an ingested toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Karim; Shaunak, Shalin; Kalsi, Sarandeep; Nehra, Dhiren

    2013-07-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without any problems. On the other hand long, slender objects such as a toothbrush will rarely be able to negotiate the angulated and fixed retroperitoneal duodenal loop. Spontaneous toothbrush passage has never been described and therefore endoscopic or surgical removal is always required. Here we describe an asymptomatic young female presenting to out-patient clinic with a history of unintentional toothbrush ingestion 4 years prior. Endoscopic removal was unsuccessful because the toothbrush was partially embedded in to the gastric mucosa. We describe the second case to date of laparoscopic removal of a toothbrush via a gastrotomy with subsequent intra-corporeal repair of the defect.

  14. Magnet ingestion in dogs: two cases.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Kristina; Hottinger, Heidi; Kahn, Tony; Ngo, Mary; Ben-Amotz, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Two dogs that had ingested foreign bodies were presented with vomiting. The foreign bodies appeared as metal and dense on abdominal radiographs. Abdominal exploratory identified intestinal perforation in one case and gastrointestinal tissue trapped between the two foreign bodies adhered to each other in the second case. The foreign bodies were identified as magnets in one case and magnets and other metallic foreign bodies in the second case. Both dogs had excellent outcomes following surgical intervention. These cases demonstrate the danger of tissue entrapment between the foreign bodies as a result of the magnetic attraction between two objects. Dogs that are presented with a history of or are suspect for ingesting multiple magnets or a magnet and metal foreign bodies should be treated with surgical intervention because of the risk of gastrointestinal perforation as a result of magnetic attraction between the foreign bodies.

  15. Sediment ingestion of two sympatric shorebird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Beyer, W.N.

    1998-01-01

    Black-bellied Plovers (Pluvialis squatarola) have short bills and primarily peck while foraging whereas Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) have long bills and primarily probe with bills open in sediments. Intestinal digesta were collected from these species at sympatric overwintering sites in southern California near San Diego to relate sediment ingestion to bill length and feeding behavior. Plover digesta contained an estimated 29% sediment, and Willet digesta an estimated 3% sediment. Techniques based on acid insoluble ash and on the elemental markers of Al, Fe, and Ti in digesta provided similar results. High Ca concentrations in Willet digesta and our observations suggested that the willets in our sample fed primarily on molluscs and crustaceans. Sediment ingestion may be species specific, not necessarily linked to bill length or probing behaviors, and may greatly affect a bird?s exposure to environmental contaminants in sediment.

  16. Health hazards of bivalve-mollusk ingestion.

    PubMed

    Earampamoorthy, S; Koff, R S

    1975-07-01

    Bivalve mollusks (oysters, clans, and mussels) filter large quantities of water unselectively and thereby may concentrate a variety of aquatic contaminants pathogenic for man within edible shellfish viscera. The recognized bacterial disease associated with ingestion of contaminated bivalves include typhoid fever (not presently a public health problem), Vibrio parahemolyticus gastroenteritis, and Vibrio chloerae infection. The major known shellfish-associated viral diseases are viral hepatitis and possibly viral gastroenteritis. The ingestion of bivalves that have fed on the toxic species of dinoflagellates that produce red tides may be responsible for an uncommon and very rarely fatal illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning. Outbreaks of airborne respiratory irritation in populations exposed to red tides may be the most common public health problem associated with red tides. The health hazards resulting from industrial, agricultural, and oil pollution of bivalves in coastal waters and the hazard from improper handling of bacterially contaminated mollusks remain to be defined.

  17. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment.

    PubMed

    Gambaracci, Giulio; Mecarini, Eleonora; Franceschini, Maria Silvia; Scialpi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies - like chicken and fish bones - can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  18. Abnormal accumulation of intestinal fluid following ingestion of an unabsorbable carbohydrate in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Undseth, R; Berstad, A; Kløw, N-E; Arnljot, K; Moi, K S; Valeur, J

    2014-12-01

    Postprandial discomfort following intake of poorly absorbable, but fermentable carbohydrates is a common complaint in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We used lactulose as a model substance for this group of symptom triggering carbohydrates, aiming to visualize the intestinal response in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria (n = 52) and healthy controls (n = 16) underwent a lactulose challenge test. By using magnetic resonance imaging, we measured small bowel water content (SBWC), and distension (diameter) of the distal ileum and the colon, both in fasting state and 1 h after ingestion of 10 g lactulose. We recorded symptoms after lactulose ingestion. Lactulose provoked significantly more symptoms in IBS patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). SBWC increased more in the patient group compared to the control group (p = 0.0005). The postprandial diameter of the terminal ileum was larger in patients with IBS and the postprandial diameter of the ascending colon was smaller in patients with diarrhea-predominant phenotype (IBS-D). Symptoms were not correlated with change in SBWC (r = 0.05; p = 0.11), nor to the diameters of the terminal ileum or the colon. Compared to healthy controls, IBS patients developed more symptoms and had an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the small bowel in response to ingestion of the unabsorbable carbohydrate lactulose. This may be due to impaired motor activity of the small intestine or impaired function of the ileocecal segment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  20. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects. PMID:27625729

  1. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; P<.001) and fullness (5.4±0.5 score vs 3.1±0.5; P<.001), but reduced the expected postprandial experience of digestive well-being after a palatable meal (1.3±0.7 score vs 3.0±0.3; P=.045). Appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-03-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface.

  3. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface. Images PMID:46842

  4. Severe toxicity following synthetic cannabinoid ingestion.

    PubMed

    Lapoint, J; James, L P; Moran, C L; Nelson, L S; Hoffman, R S; Moran, J H

    2011-10-01

    To report a case of seizures and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) following confirmed synthetic cannabinoid ingestion. Despite widespread use of legal synthetic cannabinoids, reports of serious toxicity following confirmed use of synthetic cannabinoids are rare. We report severe toxicity including seizures following intentional ingestion of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and detail confirmation by laboratory analysis. A healthy 48 year old man had a generalized seizure within thirty minutes of ingesting an ethanol mixture containing a white powder he purchased from the Internet in an attempt to get high. Seizures recurred and abated with lorazepam. Initial vital signs were: pulse, 106/min; BP, 140/88 mmHg; respirations, 22/min; temperature, 37.7 °C. A noncontrast computed tomography of the brain and EEG were negative, and serum chemistry values were normal. The blood ethanol concentration was 3.8 mg/dL and the CPK 2,649 U/L. Urine drug screening by EMIT was negative for common drugs of abuse, including tetrahydrocannabinol. On hospital day 1, he developed medically refractory SVT. The patient had no further complications and was discharged in his normal state of health 10 days after admission. The original powder was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to be JWH-018, and a primary JWH-018 metabolite was detected in the patient's urine (200 nM) using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Synthetic cannabinoids are legal in many parts of the world and easily obtained over the Internet. Data on human toxicity are limited and real-time confirmatory testing is unavailable to clinicians. The potential for toxicity exists for users mistakenly associating the dose and side effect profiles of synthetic cannabinoids to those of marijuana. Ingestion of JWH-018 can produce seizures and tachyarrhythmias. Clinicians, lawmakers, and the general public need to be aware of the potential for toxicity associated with synthetic cannabinoid use.

  5. Predicting outcome in pediatric coin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Amin, M R; Buchinsky, F J; Gaughan, J P; Szeremeta, W

    2001-07-02

    To determine the relationship between coin size, coin location, patient age, and patient weight and likelihood of coin passage through the esophagus following pediatric coin ingestion. A secondary objective is to test the hypothesis that coin denomination can be determined based on radiographic appearance. A retrospective review was performed of all children seen and evaluated for coin ingestion at a single institution over a 25-month period. Outcome measures included the number of coins that were retained in the esophagus, and the number that passed. Various factors were assessed for their predictive value in judging outcome in coin ingestion cases. Nineteen percent of patients (15/79) in the study passed their ingested coins. Coin denomination could be accurately determined on every patient that had a standard AP or lateral X-ray film. These findings were marked when compared with the lack of reliability of history in determining coin denomination. Patients who passed coins were as a group older (4.6 vs. 3.2 year, P=0.04), but did not differ significantly by weight (19.5 vs. 15.4 kg, P=0.07) from those that retained the coins. Coins located at the gastroesophageal junction had a significantly higher passage rate than coins located elsewhere in the esophagus (89 vs. 8.2%, P<0.01). Coin size was not predictive of coin passage (P=0.7 by chi(2)). Radiographic assessment of coin denomination is reliable, but in this study could not be used to predict coin passage. Patient age and coin location at the gastroesophageal junction, however, do correlate with this event.

  6. Sucrose Ingestion Induces Rapid AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Tukey, David S.; Ferreira, Jainne M.; Antoine, Shannon O.; D’amour, James A.; Ninan, Ipe; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Incontro, Salvatore; Wincott, Charlotte; Horwitz, Julian K.; Hartner, Diana T.; Guarini, Carlo B.; Khatri, Latika; Goffer, Yossef; Xu, Duo; Titcombe, Roseann F.; Khatri, Megna; Marzan, Dave S.; Mahajan, Shahana S.; Wang, Jing; Froemke, Robert C.; Carr, Kenneth D.; Aoki, Chiye; Ziff, Edward B.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which natural rewards such as sugar affect synaptic transmission and behavior are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate regulation of nucleus accumbens synapses by sucrose intake. Previous studies have shown that AMPA receptor trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and that in vitro, trafficking of AMPA receptors containing the GluA1 subunit takes place by a two-step mechanism involving extrasynaptic and then synaptic receptor transport. We report that in rat, repeated daily ingestion of a 25% sucrose solution transiently elevated spontaneous locomotion and potentiated accumbens core synapses through incorporation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CPARs), which are GluA1-containing, GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Electrophysiological, biochemical and quantitative electron microscopy studies revealed that sucrose training (7 days) induced a stable (>24 hr) intraspinous GluA1 population, and that in these rats a single sucrose stimulus rapidly (5 min) but transiently (<24 hr) elevated GluA1 at extrasynaptic sites. CPARs and dopamine D1 receptors were required in vivo for elevated locomotion after sucrose ingestion. Significantly, a 7-day protocol of daily ingestion of a 3% solution of saccharin, a non-caloric sweetener, induced synaptic GluA1 similarly to 25% sucrose ingestion. These findings identify multi-step GluA1 trafficking, previously described in vitro, as a mechanism for acute regulation of synaptic transmission in vivo by a natural orosensory reward. Trafficking is stimulated by a chemosensory pathway that is not dependent on the caloric value of sucrose. PMID:23554493

  7. Kounis syndrome following canned tuna fish ingestion.

    PubMed

    De Gennaro, Luisa; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Locuratolo, Nicola; Ruggiero, Massimo; Resta, Manuela; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Rana, Michele; Caldarola, Pasquale

    2016-12-20

    Kounis syndrome (KS) is a complex of cardiovascular symptoms and signs following either allergy or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. We report the case of 57-year-old man, with hypertension and history of allergy, referred for facial rash and palpitations appeared after consumption of canned tuna fish. Suddenly, the patient collapsed: electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation in inferior leads. The patient was transferred from the spoke emergency room for coronary angio, which did not show any sign of coronary atherosclerosis. A transient coronary spasm was therefore hypothesized and the final diagnosis was KS. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first cases of KS following the ingestion of tuna fish. KS secondary to food allergy has also been reported, and shellfish ingestion has been considered as one of the most active KS inducer foods. Canned tuna fish too is well known as an allergy inducer. Tuna fish allergy should be considered, however, within the context of scombroid food poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Inflammatory mediators such as histamine constitute the pathophysiologic basis of Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary risk factors, allergic reaction after food ingestion, and suspected scombroid poisoning should be therefore carefully monitored for a prompt diagnosis of possible coronary complications.

  8. STELLAR ROTATION AND PLANET INGESTION IN GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Massarotti, Alessandro

    2008-06-15

    We investigate the expected increase in the rotation rate of post-main-sequence stars as they expand and ingest orbiting planets. This phenomenon is expected to occur when the stellar radius becomes larger than the planet's periastron distance. We calculate the expected frequency of planet ingestion during the red giant, horizontal branch (HB), and early asymptotic giant branch phases for planets of mass m{sub p}{>=}1M{sub J}. We also calculate the probability of observing anomalous rotation rates in a population of solar metallicity giants as a function of stellar mass and evolutionary stage. Planet ingestion is most easily detectable in a solar mass HB star, with a probability of about 1% for solar-neighborhood metallicity. Our analysis is based on the observed distribution of mass, eccentricity, semimajor axis for extrasolar planets around solar-type main-sequence stars, on stellar evolution models, and on the typical observed rotation rates observed in a sample of solar-neighborhood giants.

  9. Freon: accidental ingestion and gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Mariano Javier; Monserrat, Alberto Juan; Lo Balbo, Alfredo; Valdes Quintana, Eduardo Fernando; Gotelli, Carlos

    2008-04-01

    Freons generally have a low order of toxicity, but exposure to relatively high concentrations (>100 ppm) may produce adverse effects on health. Currently, intoxication reports are unintentional inhalation of CFCs. We report an unintentional ingestion of a mixture of CFCs and the results of a rat study. A 43-year-old man was admitted to the Emergency Department with a chief complaint of acute abdominal pain that developed minutes after he ingested a clear liquid in a water glass, which contained a mixture of Freon and water. Subsequent surgical evaluation revealed perforation of the stomach and necrosis of the stomach wall. He developed a transient rise in his hepatic transaminases, which resolved spontaneously, and fully recovered from his surgery. A murine model of the injury was created to evaluate threshold concentration and effect of time on injury grade. Injury grade increased with delay to histologic analysis from 8 to 24 hours after exposure to Freon. Increasing amounts of Freon also increased the lesion grade score. Patients ingesting Freon need to be closely evaluated for risk of gastric damage and perforation.

  10. Mammals as prey: estimating ingestible size.

    PubMed

    Close, Matthew; Cundall, David

    2012-09-01

    Most mammals have deformable bodies, making it difficult to measure the size of living or freshly killed ones accurately. Because small rodents are common prey of many snakes, and because nearly all snakes swallow their prey whole, we explored four methods for determining the ingestible size (the smallest cross-sectional area that the largest part of the rodent can be made into without breaking bones or dislocating joints) of 100 intact rodents, including 50 Musmusculus and 50 Rattus norvegicus. Cross-sectional areas derived from maximal height and width of specimens at rest or the same specimens wrapped snout to pelvic girdle are roughly 1.5× higher than areas calculated either by the height and width of the same specimens rolled into cylinders or by volumetric displacement. Rolling rodents into cylinders reduces cross-sectional area by straightening the vertebral column, lengthening the abdominal cavity, elevating the sternum, compressing the thoracic cavity, and protracting the shoulder joint, that is, changes similar to those seen in rodents eaten by snakes. Reduced major axis regression of the smallest attainable cross-sectional area, y, on mass, x, shows that y (in log mm(2) ) approximates 1.53x (in log grams)(0.69) for rats and 1.63x(0.64) for mice. Our results suggest that visual cues provided by live rodents might lead most predators, like snakes, to overestimate ingestible size and hence rarely attack prey too large to ingest.

  11. Death from Ingestion of E-Liquid.

    PubMed

    Morley, Stephen; Slaughter, John; Smith, Paul R

    2017-10-04

    The use of e-liquids is becoming more prevalent. There is a risk that such liquids may be ingested by mouth rather than being vaped/ inhaled. Due to the high concentration of drugs such as nicotine in these liquids, there may be toxic, and possibly fatal consequences. We report the death of a 32-year-old male who ingested nicotine-containing e-liquid while under the influence of alcohol. A serum sample taken 24 h after collapse contained nicotine at a concentration of 1600 ng/mL of nicotine. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Death secondary to e-liquid ingestion is still very rare, but has the potential for causing deaths due to the easy access of such liquids to the general public. Such toxicity should be considered in individuals who present in the early phases with symptoms of stimulant toxicity, but also in the latter phase where there may be autonomic depressive effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sildenafil citrate ingestion in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, F Lee

    2004-05-01

    Sildenafil citrate is the first FDA-approved oral agent for male erectile dysfunction. Common adverse effects include flushing, headache, and dyspepsia, although more serious side effects have been reported. Because of its specific therapeutic indication, sildenafil toxicity has been limited almost exclusively to adults. We report a symptomatic case of pediatric sildenafil ingestion. A 2-year-old male ingested 75 mg of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 2 hours prior to arrival at an emergency room. Ipecac syrup had been given at home with one episode of vomiting. Activated charcoal was considered but withheld due to the delayed presentation to the hospital. The patient was observed in the hospital for 17.5 hours. Observed clinical effects included facial flushing, transient penile engorgement, bilateral rhonchi, and diarrhea. No significant cardiovascular effects were seen. A bronchodilator was given with resolution of rhonchi. No other specific interventions were required. One day after discharge, the patient had one additional bout of diarrhea and complained of pain in the penile region for one day. Two weeks after the exposure, the patient's mother denied any unusual symptoms. Pediatric ingestion of sildenafil may result in mild symptoms including persistent flushing and penile engorgement with associated pain. Penile pain may persist even after resolution of the erection. It is questionable whether the respiratory symptoms and diarrhea were related since neither has been described following sildenafil exposure. Significant cardiovascular symptoms were not seen. Early administration of ipecac syrup did not prevent symptoms from developing.

  13. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant boundary-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a boundary-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large boundary layer with a boundary-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. Finally a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.

  14. Intercontinental comparison of caustic ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Rafeey, Mandana; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Hazrati, Hakimeh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the caustic ingestion in children among different continents according to demographic characteristics (core purpose), main symptoms, common caustic agents, signs and symptoms, management, treatment and complications. Methods This systematic review was performed by searching the databases Science Direct, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and PubMed, electronically and manually. We included studies that were published from 1980 to 2013, at University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz, Iran. A strategic search was performed with keywords including caustic, corrosive, ingestion and children, and was limited to articles in English and Persian. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS ver. 18. Results Of 63 selected articles of caustic ingestion with 9,888 samples, the proportion of Africa was 3 articles (4.8%) and 95 samples (1%), America 9 articles (14.3%) and 305 sample (3%), Asia 29 articles (46%) and 2,780 samples (28.1%), Europe 17 articles (27%) and 3,002 samples (30.4%), and Oceania 5 articles (7.9%) and 3,706 samples (37.5%). The average age was in the Africa 3.07±2.02 years, America 3.17±1.83 years, Asia 3.34±1.58 years, Europe 3.58±2.09 years and Oceania 3.52±2.02 years. Sex distribution was in Africa 76 males (0.91%) and 19 females (0.23%), America 49 males (0.58%) and 41 females (0.49%), Asia 1,575 males (18.76%) and 1,087 females (12.95%), Europe 1,018 males (12.13%) and 823 females (9.8%), and Oceania 1,918 males (22.85%) and 1,788 females (21.3%). Statistical analysis of the data indicated higher consumption in Europe and Oceania in the boys with higher average age of years. Conclusion The comparison of caustic ingestion indicated that the cause substances of caustic ingestion in children are different among continents, therefore prevention strategy and different treatment guidelines among continents will be needed. PMID:26770225

  15. Intercontinental comparison of caustic ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Rafeey, Mandana; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Hazrati, Hakimeh; Vahedi, Leila

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the caustic ingestion in children among different continents according to demographic characteristics (core purpose), main symptoms, common caustic agents, signs and symptoms, management, treatment and complications. This systematic review was performed by searching the databases Science Direct, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and PubMed, electronically and manually. We included studies that were published from 1980 to 2013, at University of Medical Sciences of Tabriz, Iran. A strategic search was performed with keywords including caustic, corrosive, ingestion and children, and was limited to articles in English and Persian. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS ver. 18. Of 63 selected articles of caustic ingestion with 9,888 samples, the proportion of Africa was 3 articles (4.8%) and 95 samples (1%), America 9 articles (14.3%) and 305 sample (3%), Asia 29 articles (46%) and 2,780 samples (28.1%), Europe 17 articles (27%) and 3,002 samples (30.4%), and Oceania 5 articles (7.9%) and 3,706 samples (37.5%). The average age was in the Africa 3.07±2.02 years, America 3.17±1.83 years, Asia 3.34±1.58 years, Europe 3.58±2.09 years and Oceania 3.52±2.02 years. Sex distribution was in Africa 76 males (0.91%) and 19 females (0.23%), America 49 males (0.58%) and 41 females (0.49%), Asia 1,575 males (18.76%) and 1,087 females (12.95%), Europe 1,018 males (12.13%) and 823 females (9.8%), and Oceania 1,918 males (22.85%) and 1,788 females (21.3%). Statistical analysis of the data indicated higher consumption in Europe and Oceania in the boys with higher average age of years. The comparison of caustic ingestion indicated that the cause substances of caustic ingestion in children are different among continents, therefore prevention strategy and different treatment guidelines among continents will be needed.

  16. Oesophagus obstruction due to ingestion of multiple foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Cegin, Muhammet Bilal; Sayir, Fuat; Gonullu, Hayriye; Olmez, Sehmuz

    2016-04-01

    The ingestion of a foreign body (FB) is a potentially serious condition. In children, the most common years for FB ingestion are from the age of 6 months to 6 years. FB ingestion also occurs in those with psychiatric disorders or mental retardation and among adult prisoners and alcoholics. Most ingested FBs spontaneously pass out of the body via the gastrointestinal system. An endoscopic or surgical approach is only needed if the object fails to progress through the gastrointestinal tract. All objects impacted in the oesophagus require urgent treatment. This study reports a case of multiple FB ingestion and provides a literature review.

  17. Magnetic toy ingestion leading to jejunocecal fistula in a child.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ali M; Hassab, Mohamed H; Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A; Al-Tokhais, Tariq I

    2010-04-01

    The accidental ingestion of a foreign body is a common problem in children, but ingestion of magnets is rare. When multiple magnets are ingested, they may attract each other and cause pressure necrosis through the bowel walls and eventually lead to serious complications like obstruction, perforation, and fistula formation. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl with jejunocecal fistula following ingestion of 2 magnet toys; it highlights the diagnostic challenge and the need for early surgical intervention in children especially when multiple magnets are ingested.

  18. Recruitment methods in a clinical trial of provoked vulvodynia: Predictors of enrollment.

    PubMed

    Bachour, Candi C; Bachmann, Gloria A; Foster, David C; Wan, Jim Y; Rawlinson, Leslie A; Brown, Candace S

    2017-02-01

    Successful recruitment in clinical trials for chronic pain conditions is challenging, especially in women with provoked vulvodynia due to reluctance in discussing pain associated with sexual intercourse. The most successful recruitment methods and the characteristics of women reached with these methods are unknown. To compare the effectiveness and efficiency of four recruitment methods and to determine socioeconomic predictors for successful enrollment in a National Institutes of Health-sponsored multicenter clinical trial evaluating a gabapentin intervention in women with provoked vulvodynia. Recruitment methods utilized mass mailing, media, clinician referrals and community outreach. Effectiveness (number of participants enrolled) and efficiency (proportion screened who enrolled) were determined. Socioeconomic variables including race, educational level, annual household income, relationship status, age, menopausal status and employment status were also evaluated regarding which recruitment strategies were best at targeting specific cohorts. Of 868 potential study participants, 219 were enrolled. The most effective recruitment method in enrolling participants was mass mailing ( p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in efficiency between recruitment methods ( p = 0.11). Relative to clinician referral, black women were 13 times as likely to be enrolled through mass mailing (adjusted odds ratio 12.5, 95% confidence interval, 3.6-43.1) as white women. There were no differences in enrollment according to educational level, annual income, relationship status, age, menopausal status, or employment status and recruitment method. In this clinical trial, mass mailing was the most effective recruitment method. Race of participants enrolled in a provoked vulvodynia trial was related to the recruitment method.

  19. Paradoxical herniation after decompressive craniectomy provoked by lumbar puncture or ventriculoperitoneal shunting.

    PubMed

    Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Vilela, Marcelo D; Longstreth, William T

    2015-11-01

    Two patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy after head trauma deteriorated secondary to paradoxical herniation, one after lumbar puncture and the other after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. They motivated the authors to investigate further provoked paradoxical herniation. The authors reviewed the records of 205 patients who were treated at a single hospital with decompressive craniectomy for head trauma to identify those who had had lumbar puncture performed or a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placed after craniectomy but before cranioplasty. Among the patients who met these criteria, those with provoked paradoxical herniation were identified. The authors also sought to identify similar cases from the literature. Exact binomials were used to calculate 95% CIs. None of 26 patients who underwent a lumbar puncture within 1 month of craniectomy deteriorated, whereas 2 of 10 who underwent a lumbar puncture 1 month afterward did so (20% [95% CI 2.4%-55.6%]). Similarly, after ventriculoperitoneal shunting, 3 of 10 patients deteriorated (30% [95% CI 6.7%-65.2%]). Timing of the procedure and the appearance of the skin flap were important factors in deterioration after lumbar puncture but not after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. A review of the literature identified 15 additional patients with paradoxical herniation provoked by lumbar puncture and 7 by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Lumbar puncture and ventriculoperitoneal shunting carry substantial risk when performed in a patient after decompressive craniectomy and before cranioplasty. When the condition that prompts decompression (such as brain swelling associated with stroke or trauma) requires time to resolve, risk is associated with lumbar puncture performed ≥ 1 month after decompressive craniectomy.

  20. Anxiety-provoked gait changes are selectively dopa-responsive in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Ellard, Colin G; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand how dopamine modulates the effect of anxiety on gait, the goal of this study was to use virtual reality to provoke anxiety in Parkinson's disease (PD) (in both ON and OFF states) and quantify its effect on gait. Seventeen participants with PD and 20 healthy age-matched controls were instructed to walk in a virtual environment in two anxiety-provoking conditions: (i) across a plank that was located on the GROUND and (ii) across an ELEVATED plank. All participants with PD completed this experiment in both the ON and OFF states, and were then striated into groups based on baseline trait anxiety scores for further analyses. Anxiety (skin conductance and self-report) and spatiotemporal aspects of gait were measured. Overall, the ELEVATED condition resulted in greater skin conductance levels and self-reported anxiety levels. Additionally, all participants demonstrated slower gait with increased step-to-step variability when crossing the ELEVATED plank compared with the plank on the GROUND. The results showed that dopaminergic treatment selectively improved gait in only the highly anxious PD group, by significantly improving velocity, step length, step time and step-to-step variability specifically when walking across the ELEVATED plank (ON vs. OFF comparison). In conclusion, only highly trait anxious participants with PD benefitted from dopaminergic treatment, specifically when walking in the anxiety-provoking environment. Improvements to gait during anxious walking might be a result of dopaminergic medication acting in two ways: (i) improving the basal ganglia's capacity to process information and (ii) reducing the load from anxiety and subsequently making more resources available to effectively process other competing inputs.

  1. Latrodectism: variations in clinical manifestations provoked by Latrodectus species of spiders.

    PubMed

    Maretić, Z

    1983-01-01

    The clinical picture caused by the bite of Latrodectus spp. is described, including the patient's general condition with agonizing pains, cramps, spasms, motor unrest, boardlike abdomen, "facies latrodectismica", sweating, oliguria, hypertension, anxiety, mental excitation and an extended convalescence. The notorious biters are mainly L. mactans, L. variolus, L. hesperus, L. tredecimguttatus, L. hasselti, L. indistinctus and L. menavodi, all of which appear to provoke somewhat similar clinical pictures. For some species, however, there is limited data and for the toxicity of some spiders, such as L. rhodesiensis, no data are available, However, it would appear that the clinical manifestations of the venom are similar in all species.

  2. Can the affected semicircular canal be predicted by the initial provoking position in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo?

    PubMed

    Shim, Dae Bo; Ko, Kyung Min; Kim, Ji Hong; Lee, Won-Sang; Song, Mee Hyun

    2013-09-01

    The study evaluated the relationship between the position that initially provoked vertigo and the affected semicircular canal (SCC) in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and aimed to predict the side affected by BPPV through history taking regarding the provoking position. Prospective study at a tertiary hospital. A total of 521 patients with BPPV involving the posterior or horizontal SCCs performed questionnaires at initial visit asking to choose the initial provoking position among the 10 positions corresponding to one of the three planes (roll, pitch, or yaw). After excluding 45 patients showing signs of simultaneous multiple canal or anterior canal involvement, the frequency of the provoking positions and the correlation between the side of the provoking position and the ear affected by BPPV were analyzed. There were 239 patients with posterior SCC BPPV (p-BPPV) and 237 patients with horizontal SCC BPPV (h-BPPV). The waking-up position was the most common provoking position in both types of BPPV. Statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between the side of the provoking position at the onset of vertigo and the affected side by BPPV (P < .01) in patients with p-BPPV as well as h-BPPV (geotropic type [Geo]), but not in patients with h-BPPV (apogeotropic type [Apo]). History taking regarding the side of provoking position at the onset of vertigo may help predict the side affected by BPPV in p-BPPV and h-BPPV (Geo). When h-BPPV (Apo) is suspected, further detailed examinations using additional localization methods should be performed. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Analysis of inedible substance ingestion at a Japanese psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Yayama, So; Tanimoto, Chie; Suto, Shunji; Matoba, Kei; Kajiwara, Tomomi; Inoue, Masue; Endo, Yoshimi; Yamakawa, Miyae; Makimoto, Kiyoko

    2017-01-27

    Inedible substance ingestion increases the risk of ileus, poisoning, and suffocation. Prevention is especially important in a psychiatric setting. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of inedible substance ingestion in a Japanese psychiatric hospital. Inedible substance ingestion incidents were extracted from an incident report database spanning 2000-2012 at a 400-bed psychiatric hospital in Japan. We tabulated the frequencies of incidents in accordance with major diagnosis, ingested materials, incident levels, and time of occurrence. The incidence rate was 0.09/1000 patient days, and 149 cases in 105 patients were classified as having experienced inedible substance ingestion. The most common diagnosis was dementia (n = 58), followed by schizophrenia (n = 22). Materials ingested by dementia patients were nappies or gauze attached to the patient's body after medical procedures. Materials ingested by schizophrenic patients were liquid soap, detergent or shampoo, and cigarettes. Inedible substance ingestion among dementia patients occurred mostly before or during meals. Among schizophrenic patients, the peak period of incidents was in the evening. Dementia patients were overrepresented in the inedible substance ingestion incidents. Items they wore or applied to their bodies were often subject to ingestion, and such behaviours mostly occurred around meal time. Therefore, the nursing staff were able to discover them quickly and treat most of the cases free of serious consequences. In contrast, schizophrenic patients were underrepresented in the incidents, and most cases involved ingestion of detergent powder or cigarettes, resulting in more serious consequences and requiring treatment. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Comparison of the fates of ingested leucine and ingested 2-ketoisocaproate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Imura, K.; Walser, M. )

    1990-05-01

    We previously reported that the ratio, R, of 14C to 3H in the leucine of whole body protein, measured 6 h after ingestion of (3H)leucine and (1-14C)2-ketoisocaproate is equal to ratio of the dose of leucine to the dose of 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC) (on a leucine-free diet) required to achieve the same rate of growth. To determine whether R is dependent on the interval between injection and sampling, R was measured at intervals in purified whole body protein after oral injection of these isotopes in groups of rats; it was constant from 1 h onward for 1 wk, averaging 0.64 +/- 0.01 (means +/- SEM). Thus, the extent of incorporation into the leucine of whole body protein of ingested KIC remains close to 64% of the incorporation of ingested leucine administered as such simultaneously, from 1 h onward for at least 1 wk.

  5. Cervical Esophagotomy for Removal of an Ingested Clam Shell: A Very Uncommon Foreign Body Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Edoardo; Giuliani, Diletta; Nigro, Alice; Gasparrini, Marcello; Balducci, Genoveffa

    2017-01-01

    To report the removal of an ingested clam shell that was firmly impacted in the esophagus. A 77-year-old man presented at our hospital with acute dysphagia after eating a seafood risotto. An urgent dedicated examination (noncontrast helical multislice computed tomography scan of the neck and flexible esophagoscopy) detected a clam shell lodged in the upper esophagus. After several unsuccessful endoscopic attempts, a lifesaving cervical esophagotomy was performed and the foreign body was retrieved. This patient who ingested clam shell recovered well following the retrieval of the foreign body by performing a lifesaving cervical esophagotomy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Beer Flavor Provokes Striatal Dopamine Release in Male Drinkers: Mediation by Family History of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [11C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [11C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [11C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism. PMID:23588036

  7. Beer flavor provokes striatal dopamine release in male drinkers: mediation by family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; Albrecht, Daniel S; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2013-08-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is increased by virtually all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. However, drug-associated cues are also known to provoke striatal DA transmission- a phenomenon linked to the motivated behaviors associated with addiction. To our knowledge, no one has tested if alcohol's classically conditioned flavor cues, in the absence of a significant pharmacologic effect, are capable of eliciting striatal DA release in humans. Employing positron emission tomography (PET), we hypothesized that beer's flavor alone can reduce the binding potential (BP) of [(11)C]raclopride (RAC; a reflection of striatal DA release) in the ventral striatum, relative to an appetitive flavor control. Forty-nine men, ranging from social to heavy drinking, mean age 25, with a varied family history of alcoholism underwent two [(11)C]RAC PET scans: one while tasting beer, and one while tasting Gatorade. Relative to the control flavor of Gatorade, beer flavor significantly increased self-reported desire to drink, and reduced [(11)C]RAC BP, indicating that the alcohol-associated flavor cues induced DA release. BP reductions were strongest in subjects with first-degree alcoholic relatives. These results demonstrate that alcohol-conditioned flavor cues can provoke ventral striatal DA release, absent significant pharmacologic effects, and that the response is strongest in subjects with a greater genetic risk for alcoholism. Striatal DA responses to salient alcohol cues may thus be an inherited risk factor for alcoholism.

  8. Repeated hapten exposure induces persistent tactile sensitivity in mice modeling localized provoked vulvodynia

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Jasmine; Martinov, Tijana; Mengistu, Hanna; Dhanwada, Jyothi; Benck, Charles J.; Kline, Jaclyn; Boo, Beebie; Swanson, Linnea; Tonc, Elena; Daughters, Randy; Fife, Brian T.; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2017-01-01

    Background Vulvodynia is a remarkably prevalent chronic pain condition of unknown etiology. Epidemiologic studies associate the risk of vulvodynia with a history of atopic disease. We used an established model of hapten-driven contact hypersensitivity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of allergy-provoked prolonged sensitivity to pressure. Methods We sensitized female ND4 Swiss mice to the hapten oxazolone on their flanks, and subsequently challenged them four days later with oxazolone or vehicle for ten consecutive days on the labia. We evaluated labiar sensitivity to touch, local mast cell accumulation, and hyperinnervation after ten challenges. Results Oxazolone-challenged mice developed significant tactile sensitivity that persisted for over three weeks after labiar allergen exposures ceased. Allergic sites were characterized by mast cell accumulation, sensory hyper-innervation and infiltration of regulatory CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells as well as localized early increases in transcripts encoding Nerve Growth Factor and nerve-mast cell synapse marker Cell Adhesion Molecule 1. Local depletion of mast cells by intra-labiar administration of secretagogue compound 48/80 led to a reduction in both nerve density and tactile sensitivity. Conclusions Mast cells regulate allergy-provoked persistent sensitivity to touch. Mast cell-targeted therapeutic strategies may provide novel means to manage and limit chronic pain conditions associated with atopic disease. PMID:28158195

  9. Synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking severe vascular leakage in rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Schütte, H; Rosseau, S; Czymek, R; Ermert, L; Walmrath, D; Krämer, H J; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F

    1997-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria prime rabbit lungs for enhanced thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction upon subsequent challenge with the exotoxin Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) (Walmrath et al. J. Exp. Med. 1994;180:1437-1443). We investigated the impact of endotoxin priming and subsequent HlyA challenge on lung vascular permeability while maintaining constancy of capillary pressure. Rabbit lungs were perfused in a pressure-controlled mode in the presence of the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM 13.505, with continuous monitoring of flow. Perfusion for 180 min with 10 ng/ml LPS did not provoke vasoconstriction or alteration of capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) values. HlyA (0.021 hemolytic units/ml) induced thromboxane release and a transient decrease in perfusion flow in the absence of significant changes in Kfc. Similar results were obtained when LPS and HlyA were coapplied simultaneously. However, when the HlyA challenge was undertaken after 180 min of LPS priming, a manifold increase in Kfc values was noted, with concomitant severe lung edema formation, although capillary pressure remained unchanged. Thus, endotoxin primes the lung vasculature to respond with a severe increase in vascular permeability to a subsequent low-dose application of HlyA. Such synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking lung vascular leakage may contribute to the pathogenesis of respiratory failure in sepsis and severe lung infection.

  10. Activation of amygdaloid PKC pathway is necessary for conditioned cues-provoked cocaine memory performance.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Ting; Fan, Hsin-Yi; Cherng, Chianfang G; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Yu, Lung

    2008-07-01

    Drug-associated cues are critical in reinstating the drug taking behavior even during prolonged abstinence and thus are thought to be a key factor to induce drug craving and to cause relapse. Amygdaloid complex has been known for its physiological function in mediating emotional experience storage and emotional cues-regulated memory retrieval. This study was undertaken to examine the role of basolateral nuclei of amygdala and the intracellular signaling molecule in drug cues-elicited cocaine memory retrieval. Systemic anisomycin treatment prior to the retrieval test abolished the cues-provoked cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) memory. Likewise, a similar blockade of cues-provoked cocaine CPP performance was achieved by infusion of anisomycin and cycloheximide into the basolateral nuclei of amygdala before the test. Intra-amygdaloid infusion of H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, or U0126, a MEK inhibitor, did not affect retrieval of the cues-elicited cocaine CPP memory. In contrast, intra-amygdaloid infusion of NPC 15437, a PKC inhibitor, abolished the cues-elicited cocaine CPP expression, while left the memory per se intact. Intra-amygdaloid infusion of NPC 15437 did not seem to affect locomotor activity or exert observable aversive effect. Taken together, our results suggest that activation of PKC signaling pathway and probably downstream de novo protein synthesis in the basolateral nuclei of amygdala is required for the cues-elicited cocaine memory performance. However, temporary inhibition of this signaling pathway does not seem to affect cocaine CPP memory per se.

  11. Current Injection Provokes Rapid Expansion of the Guard Cell Cytosolic Volume and Triggers Ca(2+) Signals.

    PubMed

    Voss, Lena J; Hedrich, Rainer; Roelfsema, M Rob G

    2016-03-07

    High-resolution microscopy opens the door for detailed single-cell studies with fluorescent reporter dyes and proteins. We used a confocal spinning disc microscope to monitor fluorescent dyes and the fluorescent protein Venus in tobacco and Arabidopsis guard cells. Multi-barreled microelectrodes were used to inject dyes and apply voltage pulses, which provoke transient rises in the cytosolic Ca(2+) level. Voltage pulses also caused changes in the distribution of Lucifer Yellow and Venus, which pointed to a reversible increase of guard cell cytosolic volume. The dynamic cytosolic volume changes turned out to be provoked by current injection of ions. A reduction of the clamp current, by blocking K(+) uptake channels with Cs(+), strongly suppressed the cytosolic volume changes. Cs(+) not only inhibited the expansion of the cytosol, but also inhibited hyperpolarization-induced elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. A complete loss of voltage-induced Ca(2+) signals occurred when Ca(2+)-permeable plasma membrane channels were simultaneously blocked with La(3+). This shows that two mechanisms cause hyperpolarization-induced elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration: (i) activation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-permeable channels, (ii) osmotically induced expansion of the cytosol, which leads to a release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Moderate Ethanol Ingestion and Cardiovascular Protection

    PubMed Central

    Krenz, Maike; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    While ethanol intake at high levels (3-4 or more drinks), either in acute (occasional binge drinking) or chronic (daily) settings, increases the risk for myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, an inverse relationship between regular consumption of alcoholic beverages at light to moderate levels (1-2 drinks per day) and cardiovascular risk has been consistently noted in a large number of epidemiologic studies. Although initially attributed to polyphenolic antioxidants in red wine, subsequent work has established that the ethanol component contributes to the beneficial effects associated with moderate intake of alcoholic beverages regardless of type (red versus white wine, beer, spirits). Concerns have been raised with regard to interpretation of epidemiologic evidence for this association including heterogeneity of the reference groups examined in many studies, different lifestyles of moderate drinkers versus abstainers, and favorable risk profiles in moderate drinkers. However, better controlled epidemiologic studies and especially work conducted in animal models and cell culture systems have substantiated this association and clearly established a cause and effect relationship between alcohol consumption and reductions in tissue injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), respectively. The aims of this review are to summarize the epidemiologic evidence supporting the effectiveness of ethanol ingestion in reducing the likelihood of adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, even in patients with co-existing risk factors, to discuss the ideal quantities, drinking patterns, and types of alcoholic beverages that confer protective effects in the cardiovascular system, and to review the findings of recent experimental studies directed at uncovering the mechanisms that underlie the cardiovascular protective effects of antecedent ethanol ingestion. Mechanistic interrogation of the signaling pathways invoked by antecedent ethanol

  13. Rotifers ingest oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fayer, R.; Trout, J.M.; Walsh, E.; Cole, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Six genera of rotifers including Philodina, Monostyla, Epiphanes, Euchlanis, Brachionus, and Asplanchna were exposed to oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum cleaned of fecal debris. Unstained oocysts and those stained with fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody were added to suspensions of viable rotifers and were examined by phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. Rotifers of all six genera were observed ingesting oocysts. A maximum of 25 oocysts was observed in the stomachs of Euchlanis and Brachionus. Euchlanis and Epiphanes were observed excreting boluses containing up to eight oocysts. It was not determined whether rotifers digested or otherwise rendered oocysts nonviable.

  14. Pneumopericardium due to ingestion of button battery.

    PubMed

    Soni, Jai Prakash; Choudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Pramod; Makwana, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Mostly ingested button batteries passed through the gastrointestinal tract without any adverse effects. But button battery can lead to hazardous complications including tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), especially when the battery is impacted in the esophagus. Urgent esophagoscopic removal of the battery is essential in all cases. Once the TEF is identified, conservative management is the initial treatment of choice. Delayed primary repair can be tried if spontaneous closure does not occur. Here in we want to report a rare case of air leak syndrome, pneumo-pericardium secondary to the corrosive effect of a button battery and child recovered completely with conservative management.

  15. Provoked right-to-left shunt in patent foramen ovale associates with ischemic stroke in posterior circulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Joon; Kim, Na-Young; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Jong S; Kwon, Sun U

    2014-12-01

    Right-to-left shunt (RLS) via the patent foramen ovale is an important cause of cryptogenic stroke. The Valsalva maneuver provokes or enhances RLS, but RLS can also occur during normal respiration. This study examined whether the ischemic lesion pattern differs depending on the character of RLS. All consecutive patients with a patent foramen ovale (diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography) who had a cryptogenic stroke and underwent transcranial Doppler-patent foramen ovale test (monitoring of microbubbles in the right middle cerebral artery by transcranial Doppler after hand-agitated saline injection) were divided according to whether RLS was constant (microbubbles detected both at baseline and after the Valsalva maneuver) or provoked (microbubbles detected only after the Valsalva maneuver). The groups were compared in terms of clinical and imaging characteristics. Seventy-six patients met the eligibility criteria: 50 had constant RLS and 26 had provoked RLS. Provoked RLS patients were significantly younger. The ischemic lesions in provoked RLS patients were located predominantly in the vertebro-basilar circulation (73.1% versus 28.0%; P=0.002), whereas constant RLS patients were more likely to have multicirculatory lesions (16.0% versus 0.0%; P=0.045). After adjusting for confounders, provoked RLS associated independently with a vertebro-basilar lesion location (OR=3.306; P=0.03). The predominance of posterior-circulatory infarction in provoked RLS patients suggests that the Valsalva maneuver may promote RLS and paradoxical embolization to the posterior circulation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Automatic Ingestion Monitor: A Novel Wearable Device for Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Juan M.; Farooq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective monitoring of food intake and ingestive behavior in a free-living environment remains an open problem that has significant implications in study and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. In this paper, a novel wearable sensor system (automatic ingestion monitor, AIM) is presented for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living. The proposed device integrates three sensor modalities that wirelessly interface to a smartphone: a jaw motion sensor, a hand gesture sensor, and an accelerometer. A novel sensor fusion and pattern recognition method was developed for subject-independent food intake recognition. The device and the methodology were validated with data collected from 12 subjects wearing AIM during the course of 24 h in which both the daily activities and the food intake of the subjects were not restricted in any way. Results showed that the system was able to detect food intake with an average accuracy of 89.8%, which suggests that AIM can potentially be used as an instrument to monitor ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. PMID:24845288

  17. Quantitative determination of engine water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Hernan, M.; Sarohia, V.

    1986-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique is described for determination of liquid mass flux in a droplet laden airstream. The techniques were developed for quantitative determination of engine water ingestion resulting from heavy rain or wheel spray. Independent measurements of the liquid water content (LWC) of the droplet laden airstream and of the droplet velocities were made at the stimulated nacelle inlet plane for the liquid mass flux determination. The LWC was measured by illuminating and photographing the droplets contained within a thin slice of the flow field by means of a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. A fluorescent dye introduced in the water enchanced the droplet image definition. The droplet velocities were determined from double exposed photographs of the moving droplet field. The technique was initially applied to a steady spray generated in a wind tunnel. It was found that although the spray was initially steady, the aerodynamic breakup process was inherently unsteady. This resulted in a wide variation of the instantaneous LWC of the droplet laden airstream. The standard deviation of ten separate LWC measurements was 31% of the average. However, the liquid mass flux calculated from the average LWC and droplet velocities came within 10% of the known water ingestion rate.

  18. Quantitative determination of engine water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Hernan, M.; Sarohia, V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a novel non-intrusive optical technique for determination of liquid mass flux in a droplet laden airstream. The technique was developed for quantitative determination of engine water ingestion resulting from heavy rain or wheel spray. Independent measurements of the liquid water content (LWC) of the droplet laden aircraft and of the droplet velocities were made at the simulated nacelle inlet plane for the liquid mass flux determination. The liquid water content was measured by illuminating and photographing the droplets contained within a thin slice of the flow field by means of a sheet of light from a pulsed YAG laser. A fluorescent dye introduced in the water greatly improved the droplet image definition. The droplet velocities were determined from double exposed photographs of the moving droplet field. The technique was initially applied to a steady spray generated in a wind tunnel. It was found that although the spray was initially steady, the aerodynamic breakup process was inherently unsteady. This resulted in a wide variation of the instantaneous liquid water content of the droplet laden airstream. The standard deviation of ten separate LWC measurements was 31 percent of the average. However, the liquid mass flux calculated from the average LWC and droplet velocities came within 10 percent of the known water ingestion rate.

  19. Data ingestion into NeQuick 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, B.; Radicella, S. M.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2011-12-01

    NeQuick 2 is the latest version of the NeQuick ionosphere electron density model developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - Trieste, Italy with the collaboration of the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. It is a quick-run model particularly designed for trans-ionospheric propagation applications that has been conceived to reproduce the median behavior of the ionosphere. To provide 3-D specification of the ionosphere electron density for current conditions, different ionosphere electron density retrieval techniques based on the NeQuick adaptation to GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) data and ionosonde measured peak parameters values have been developed. In the present paper the technique based on the ingestion of global vertical TEC map into NeQuick 2 will be validated and an assessment of the capability of the model to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day variability will also be performed. For this purpose hourly GPS-derived global vertical TEC maps and hourly foF2 values from about 20 ionosondes corresponding to one month in high solar activity and one month in low solar activity period will be used. Furthermore, the first results concerning the ingestion of space-based GPS-derived TEC data will be presented.

  20. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  1. Calibration of an ingestible temperature sensor.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A P; Stewart, I B

    2008-11-01

    An ingestible telemetric sensor for measuring core body temperature is increasingly being utilized in occupational and athletic studies of heat strain. There is a need for a uniform method of calibrating these sensors in the scientific community in order to effectively compare the results of different researchers. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine and present such a calibration procedure. Sensors were placed in a water bath heated to nine discrete temperatures, and the recorded values were compared to that of a traceable thermometer. It was observed that sensor 2 recorded temperatures higher than sensors 1 and 3, and that all sensors were higher than the traceable thermometer, highlighting the need for a calibration procedure. The findings of this study suggest a number of recommendations for a calibration procedure including: (1) four water bath temperatures in the range of 33-41 degrees C should be utilized; (2) sensors should be immersed for a minimum of 4 min prior to taking a measurement; (3) a linear regression relating sensor temperature to a traceable thermometer is an appropriate method to adjust raw data. Switching the sensor off after calibration and reactivating it prior to ingestion will not influence the accuracy of temperature measurement.

  2. Prolonged energy harvesting for ingestible devices

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Phillip; El-Damak, Dina; Glettig, Dean; Kong, Yong Lin; Mo, Stacy; Cleveland, Cody; Booth, Lucas; Roxhed, Niclas; Langer, Robert; Chandrakasan, Anantha P.; Traverso, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Ingestible electronics have revolutionized the standard of care for a variety of health conditions. Extending the capacity and safety of these devices, and reducing the costs of powering them, could enable broad deployment of prolonged monitoring systems for patients. Although prior biocompatible power harvesting systems for in vivo use have demonstrated short minute-long bursts of power from the stomach, not much is known about the capacity to power electronics in the longer term and throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the design and operation of an energy-harvesting galvanic cell for continuous in vivo temperature sensing and wireless communication. The device delivered an average power of 0.23 μW per mm2 of electrode area for an average of 6.1 days of temperature measurements in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. This power-harvesting cell has the capacity to provide power for prolonged periods of time to the next generation of ingestible electronic devices located in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:28458955

  3. Prolonged energy harvesting for ingestible devices.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Phillip; El-Damak, Dina; Glettig, Dean; Kong, Yong Lin; Mo, Stacy; Cleveland, Cody; Booth, Lucas; Roxhed, Niclas; Langer, Robert; Chandrakasan, Anantha P; Traverso, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Ingestible electronics have revolutionized the standard of care for a variety of health conditions. Extending the capacity and safety of these devices, and reducing the costs of powering them, could enable broad deployment of prolonged monitoring systems for patients. Although prior biocompatible power harvesting systems for in vivo use have demonstrated short minute-long bursts of power from the stomach, not much is known about the capacity to power electronics in the longer term and throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the design and operation of an energy-harvesting galvanic cell for continuous in vivo temperature sensing and wireless communication. The device delivered an average power of 0.23 μW per mm(2) of electrode area for an average of 6.1 days of temperature measurements in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. This power-harvesting cell has the capacity to provide power for prolonged periods of time to the next generation of ingestible electronic devices located in the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Self-Reported Neuropathic Pain Characteristics of Women With Provoked Vulvar Pain: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Dargie, Emma; Gilron, Ian; Pukall, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common chronic genital pain condition affecting approximately 12% of premenopausal women. Although parallels have been drawn between PVD and neuropathic pain (NP), no studies have examined self-reported NP characteristics in PVD. To explore pain symptoms that resemble NP reported by those with PVD and compare responses with those with an established NP condition. Women with provoked vulvar pain (PVP; n = 65) completed online questionnaires designed to assess characteristics of NP. Responses were compared with those of women with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN; n = 30). In addition to a range of descriptive questions, participants completed the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Self-Complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Signs and Symptoms (S-LANSS), the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI), and the Pain Quality Assessment Scale (PQAS). PVP exhibits some neuropathic characteristics, typically evoked pain (as opposed to the more constant pain of PHN) indicative of allodynia and hyperalgesia. Specifically, women with PVP scored, on average, higher than the NP cutoff on the S-LANSS, and there were no significant differences between women with PVP and those with PHN on some NPSI subscales. However, women with PHN reported more NP symptoms on the PQAS, S-LANSS, and other NPSI subscales. Validated NP questionnaires could be of particular use for health care professionals who need a more efficient way to assess symptoms of patients with PVP and should be included in future studies investigating the mechanisms and treatment of this pain. This study takes a unique approach to the examination of PVP by using multiple validated NP measures to compare pain characteristics with those of a group of participants with PHN, an established NP condition. However, it is limited by self-reported data not confirmed with clinical examination, small size of the PHN group, and the severity of the pain experienced in the PVP group. Women with PVP report

  5. An unusual presentation of hydrochloric acid ingestion: a mystery unraveled.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Vinod Prabhu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Chinnakkannan, Selvakumar; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional acid ingestion is less commonly encountered than alkali ingestion. The injury develops for hours to days after ingestion and often results in progressively increasing difficulty in airway management. However, gastric perforation is rare. A 3-year-old boy presented to us with an orotonsillopharyngeal membrane and severe upper airway obstruction. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with a case of gastric perforation due to unintentional hydrochloric acid ingestion. He was treated with partial gastrectomy and feeding jejunostomy, and the recovery was good. Unintentional hydrochloric acid ingestion is rare in children. The manifestations masquerade many other clinical conditions, and the diagnosis is difficult in cases in which history of ingestion is not available. Treatment is symptomatic, and emergency surgery is indicated in case of gastrointestinal perforation.

  6. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Qamar A.; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world’s oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia’s coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia’s avifauna. PMID:27574986

  7. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  8. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna.

  9. Jejunoileal perforation and volvulus caused by multiple magnet ingestion.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Serkan; Basuguy, Erol; Zeytun, Hikmet; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Aydogdu, Bahattin; Arslan, Mehmet Serif

    2015-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in children, but magnet ingestion is relatively rare. However, when it occurs, it tends to have a high rate of complications. This is a case report of a 3-year-old child who swallowed multiple magnetic toys, subsequently developing jejunoileal perforation and volvulus. This case report indicates that it is best to surgically remove multiple ingested magnets without delay to avoid intestinal perforation, fistula, and other complications such as volvulus.

  10. Severe systemic intoxication following triclopyr-TEA ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kyong, Yeon Y; Lee, Kyoung U; Choi, Kyoung H

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of triclopyr ingestion, a herbicide that acts via the auxin system in plants. It is classified as low-toxicity herbicide. The patient ingested this product and developed metabolic acidosis and coma with cardiovascular impairment. Echocardiography and elevated Troponin T and CK MB with prolongation of QTc suggested direct myocardial toxicity. The patient was extubated 57 h after ingestion, and he recovered completely. This case illustrates the potential acute toxicity of this agent in humans.

  11. Modeled estimates of soil and dust ingestion rates for children.

    PubMed

    Ozkaynak, Halûk; Xue, Jianping; Zartarian, Valerie G; Glen, Graham; Smith, Luther

    2011-04-01

    Daily soil/dust ingestion rates typically used in exposure and risk assessments are based on tracer element studies, which have a number of limitations and do not separate contributions from soil and dust. This article presents an alternate approach of modeling soil and dust ingestion via hand and object mouthing of children, using EPA's SHEDS model. Results for children 3 to <6 years old show that mean and 95th percentile total ingestion of soil and dust values are 68 and 224 mg/day, respectively; mean from soil ingestion, hand-to-mouth dust ingestion, and object-to-mouth dust ingestion are 41 mg/day, 20 mg/day, and 7 mg/day, respectively. In general, hand-to-mouth soil ingestion was the most important pathway, followed by hand-to-mouth dust ingestion, then object-to-mouth dust ingestion. The variability results are most sensitive to inputs on surface loadings, soil-skin adherence, hand mouthing frequency, and hand washing frequency. The predicted total soil and dust ingestion fits a lognormal distribution with geometric mean = 35.7 and geometric standard deviation = 3.3. There are two uncertainty distributions, one below the 20th percentile and the other above. Modeled uncertainties ranged within a factor of 3-30. Mean modeled estimates for soil and dust ingestion are consistent with past information but lower than the central values recommended in the 2008 EPA Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook. This new modeling approach, which predicts soil and dust ingestion by pathway, source type, population group, geographic location, and other factors, offers a better characterization of exposures relevant to health risk assessments as compared to using a single value. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Chronic hyperprolinemia provokes a memory deficit in the Morris water maze task.

    PubMed

    Bavaresco, Caren Serra; Streck, Emilio Luíz; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Wyse, Angela Terezinha de Souza

    2005-03-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of chronic proline (Pro) administration on rat performance in the Morris water maze task. Rats received s.c. injections of Pro twice a day at 8 h intervals from the 6th to the 28th days of age and equivalent volume of 0.9% saline solution (control). On the 60th day of life, rats were subjected to the water maze task. Results showed that chronic Pro administration provokes impairment on spatial learning, as shown by the increase of latency in acquisition and retention and by a reduced efficiency to find the platform position in the working memory test. Present results suggest that hyperprolininemia causes cognitive dysfunction and might be relevant to explain, at least in part, the neurological dysfunction associated with hyperprolinemia.

  13. Functional disability of rat splenocytes provoked to lipid peroxidation by cumene hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Shimura, J; Shimura, F; Hosoya, N

    1985-04-22

    Rat splenocytes were provoked to lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner by cumene hydroperoxide. After exposure to cumene hydroperoxide, formation of high molecular weight protein, presumably through cross-linking of lower molecular weight protein, was stimulated in splenocytes as well as in erythrocyte ghosts. The mitogenic response to concanavalin A of splenocytes was remarkably depressed by addition of cumene hydroperoxide to cultures. This depression was due rather to failures of splenocytes in responding to concanavalin A than deactivation of concanavalin A molecules. It is notworthy that the viability of splenocytes was unaffected by cumene hydroperoxide under the culture conditions where the mitogenic response was depressed. The addition of alpha-tocopherol or thiourea could block the depression of mitogenic response by cumene hydroperoxide, indicating that the depressed response to concanavalin A was related to radical formation. Overall evidence suggests that the function of immunocompetent cells can be depressed through lipid peroxidation-associated mechanisms without suffering from lethal damage.

  14. Head-down bed rest impairs vagal baroreflex responses and provokes orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Eckberg, Dwain L.; Fritsch, Janice M.; Vernikos-Danellis, Joan

    1990-01-01

    The hypothesis that baroreflex malfunction contributes to orthostatic hypotension in microgravity was tested by studying vagally mediated carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflexes in healthy human subjects before, during, and after 30 days of 6-deg head-down bed rest. The baroreflex response relationships were provoked with ramped neck pressure-suction sequences comprising pressure elevations to 40 mm Hg followed by serial R-wave-triggered 15-mm Hg reductions to -65 mm0 Hg; each R-R interval was plotted as a function of systolic pressure minus the neck chamber pressure applied during the interval. It is shown that head-down bed rest led to an impairment of vagal baroreflex function and that it was associated with an impairment of hemodynamic adjustments to standing, indicating that baroreflex impairment may contribute to orthostatic hypotension observed in spacecrews after a flight.

  15. The same systemic autoimmune disease provokes arthritis and endocarditis via distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Binstadt, Bryce A; Hebert, Jennifer L; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Bronson, Roderick; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2009-09-29

    The immune mechanisms that provoke concomitant inflammation of synovial joints and cardiac valves in disorders such as rheumatic fever and systemic lupus erythematosus remain poorly defined. Here, we report the discovery of spontaneous endocarditis-in addition to their well-studied autoimmune arthritis-in K/BxN T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice. The same adaptive immune system elements were required for initiation of arthritis and endocarditis, and both diseases were dependent on autoantibodies. In contrast, the participation of key innate immune system molecules and perhaps T cells as effectors of inflammation differed between the 2 target tissues. Arthritis in K/BxN TCR transgenic mice depended primarily on complement C5 and not FcRgamma-using receptors; conversely, endocarditis depended essentially on FcRgamma receptors and not C5. Elucidating how a single systemic autoimmune disease engages distinct immune effector pathways to damage different target tissues is essential for optimizing the treatment of such disorders.

  16. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots.

    PubMed

    Strait, Megan K; Floerke, Victoria A; Ju, Wendy; Maddox, Keith; Remedios, Jessica D; Jung, Malte F; Urry, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an "uncanny valley"-a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers-has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task (Nagents = 60) to conduct an experimental test (Nparticipants = 72) of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous) and agent identity (robot, person), and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1) Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2) Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3) Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding-suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics. This work furthers our

  17. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Megan K.; Floerke, Victoria A.; Ju, Wendy; Maddox, Keith; Remedios, Jessica D.; Jung, Malte F.; Urry, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an “uncanny valley”—a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers—has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task (Nagents = 60) to conduct an experimental test (Nparticipants = 72) of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous) and agent identity (robot, person), and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1) Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2) Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3) Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding—suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics. This work

  18. Mirtazapine Provokes Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep in Young Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Stephany; Kloiber, Stefan; Dose, Tatjana; Lucae, Susanne; Holsboer, Florian; Schaaf, Ludwig; Hennings, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent evidence suggests that certain antidepressants are associated with an increase of periodic leg movements (PLMS) that may disturb sleep. So far, this has been shown in patients clinically treated for depression and in cross-sectional studies for various substances, but not mirtazapine. It is unclear whether antidepressants induce the new onset of PLMS or only increase preexisting PLMS, and whether this is a general property of the antidepressant or only seen in depressed patients. We report here the effect of mirtazapine on PLMS in young healthy men. Design: Open-labeled clinical trial (NCT00878540) including a 3-week preparatory phase with standardized food, physical activity, and sleep-wake behavior, and a 10-day experimental inpatient phase with an adaptation day, 2 baseline days, and 7 days with mirtazapine. Setting: Research institute. Participants: Twelve healthy young (20-25 years) men. Interventions: Seven days of nightly intake (22:00) of 30 mg mirtazapine. Measurements and results: Sleep was recorded on 2 drug-free baseline nights, the first 2 drug nights, and the last 2 drug nights. Eight of the 12 subjects showed increased PLMS after the first dose of mirtazapine. Frequency of PLMS was highest on the first drug night and attenuated over the course of the next 6 days. Three subjects reported transient restless legs symptoms. Conclusions: Mirtazapine provoked PLMS in 67% of young healthy males. The effect was most pronounced in the first days. The possible role of serotonergic, noradrenergic and histaminergic mechanisms in mirtazapine-induced PLMS is discussed. Citation: Fulda S; Kloiber S; Dose T; Lucae S. Mirtazapine provokes periodic leg movements during sleep in young healthy men. SLEEP 2013;36(5):661-669. PMID:23633748

  19. [Metabolic effects and drug interactions provoked by certain vegetables: grapefruit, St. John's wort and garlic].

    PubMed

    Neuman, Maur

    2002-09-21

    GRAPEFRUIT: Essentially consumed in the form of juices with its bitterness helping to quench thirst, grapefruit contains not only vitamin C but also many complex antioxidizers, licopene, lemonoids and naringine. It also contains large quantities of pectin. Grapefruit juice is a metabolic inhibitor of medicinal substances that constitute an exclusive target for the CYP 3A4 isozyme and glycoprotein P in the enterocytes. Above all, it affects the drugs with strong intestinal metabolic first pass effect, phenomenon provoking the reduction of their oral bioavailability. This metabolic inhibition is manifested by an increase in the serum levels, oral bioavailability and therapeutic activity of drugs metabolized by CYP 3A4, a characteristic that may indeed be interesting for some of them, but which should be avoided for others. ST. JOHN'S WORT: (Hypericum perforatum) Also known as "herbe à mille trous" or "herbe percée" or even "herbe de Saint-Jean" in France, St. John's wort is used in several therapeutic fields: neuropsychiatry, dermatology (oleate or lipid extract) and in rheumatology. In herbal remedies and homeopathy, the flower heads are often prescribed as antidepressor in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. It also contains photosensitizing substances, which, at high dose, or during chronic use, may provoke intense dermatitis or photosensitivity. The potential occurrence of side effects with its use has led the European Agency for drug assessment and the French Medicines Agency to decree that all magistral preparations containing St. John's wort must be labeled: "Warning, risk of drug interactions". GARLIC: (Allium salivum) Originating from Asia, widespread and cultivated in Europe in kitchen gardens, garlic is used by herbalists for its diuretic, antiseptic, stimulating and sudorific properties.

  20. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy Modalities in Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    PubMed

    Morin, Mélanie; Carroll, Marie-Soleil; Bergeron, Sophie

    2017-07-01

    Pelvic floor muscle physical therapy is recommended in clinical guidelines for women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Including isolated or combined treatment modalities, physical therapy is viewed as an effective first-line intervention, yet no systematic review concerning the effectiveness of physical therapy has been conducted. To systematically appraise the current literature on the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function in women with PVD. A systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, CINHAL, and PEDro was conducted until October 2016. Moreover, a manual search from reference lists of included articles was performed. Ongoing trials also were reviewed using clinicaltrial.gov and ISRCTNregistry. Randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohorts, and case reports evaluating the effect of isolated or combined physical therapy modalities in women with PVD were included in the review. Main outcome measures were pain during intercourse, sexual function, and patient's perceived improvement. The literature search resulted in 43 eligible studies including 7 randomized controlled trials, 20 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 6 case reports, and 6 study protocols. Most studies had a high risk of bias mainly associated with the lack of a comparison group. Another common bias was related to insufficient sample size, non-validated outcomes, non-standardized intervention, and use of other ongoing treatment. The vast majority of studies showed that physical therapy modalities such as biofeedback, dilators, electrical stimulation, education, multimodal physical therapy, and multidisciplinary approaches were effective for decreasing pain during intercourse and improving sexual function. The positive findings for the effectiveness of physical therapy modalities in women with PVD should be investigated further in robust and well-designed randomized controlled trials

  1. Divergent effects of joyful and anxiety-provoking music on endothelial vasoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael; Mangano, C Charles; Beach, Valerie; Kop, Willem J; Vogel, Robert A

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the extent to which music may affect endothelial function. In previous research, a link between music and physiologic parameters such as heart rate and blood pressure has been observed. Randomized four-phase crossover and counterbalanced trial in ten healthy, nonsmoking volunteers (70% male; mean age, 35.6 years) that included self-selections of music evoking joy or provoking anxiety. Two additional phases included watching video clips to induce laughter and listening to audio tapes to promote relaxation. To minimize emotional desensitization, subjects were asked to refrain from using self-selected tapes and images for at least 2 weeks before the assigned study phase. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and measured as percent diameter change after an overnight fast. After baseline FMD measurements, subjects were randomized to a 30-minute phase of the testing stimulus followed by poststudy FMD; they returned a minimum of 1 week later for the subsequent task. A total of 160 FMD measurements were obtained. Compared with baseline, music that evoked joy was associated with increases in mean upper arm FMD (2.7% absolute increase; p < .001), whereas reductions in FMD were observed after listening to music that elicited anxiety (0.6% absolute decrease; p = .005 difference between joyful and anxiety-provoking music). Self-selected joyful music was associated with increased FMD to a magnitude previously observed with aerobic activity or statin therapy. Listening to joyful music may be an adjunctive life-style intervention for the promotion of vascular health.

  2. Exercise-provoked esophageal motility disorder in patients with recurrent chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Budzyński, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between exercise-provoked esophageal motility disorders and the prognosis for patients with chest pain. METHODS: The study involved 63 subjects with recurrent angina-like chest pain non-responsive to empirical therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI). In all, a coronary artery angiography, panendoscopy, 24-h esophageal pH-metry and manometry, as well as a treadmill stress test with simultaneous esophageal pH-metry and manometry monitoring, were performed. Thirty-five subjects had no significant coronary artery lesions, and 28 had more than 50% coronary artery narrowing. In patients with hypertensive esophageal motility disorders, a calcium antagonist was recommended. The average follow-up period was 977 ± 249 d. RESULTS: The prevalence of esophageal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux or diffuse esophageal spasm, was similar in patients both with and without significant coronary artery narrowing. Exercise prompted esophageal motility disorders, such as a decrease in the percentage of peristaltic and effective contractions and their amplitude, as well as an increase in the percentage of simultaneous and non-effective contractions. In 14 (22%) patients the percentage of simultaneous contractions during the treadmill stress test exceeded the value of 55%. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the proportional hazard Cox regression model, it was shown that the administration of a calcium channel antagonist in patients with such an esophageal motility disorder significantly decreased the risk of hospitalization as a result of a suspicion of acute coronary syndrome after the 2.7-year follow-up period. CONCLUSION: In patients with chest pain non-responsive to PPIs, a diagnosis of exercise-provoked esophageal spasm may have the effect of lowering the risk of the next hospitalization. PMID:20845510

  3. Emergency Management of the Ingested Magnet: An Algorithmic Approach.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Brent; McEachron, Kendall; Goldman, Deborah; Louiselle, Amanda; Zheng, Eugene; Mills, David; Louie, Jeffrey; Segura, Bradley

    2017-05-01

    Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is an increasing problem in the pediatric population. Symptoms are often nonspecific and may lead to a missed diagnosis because the ingestion event often goes unwitnessed. We present a case of a missed diagnosis of a multiple magnet ingestion event in a pediatric patient leading to operative management. A 2-year-old boy with a 4-week history of nonspecific abdominal pain presented to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and worsening abdominal pain. He was recently seen in the ED for nonspecific abdominal pain diagnosed as acute otitis media. In this second ED visit, the child was found to be febrile and tachycardic and had signs of peritonitis. Radiographs revealed a foreign body in the right lower quadrant. The child was taken to the operating room where multiple intestinal perforations were identified and repaired. The child had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged 7 days later. There are increasing awareness and growing concern over complications from pediatric magnet ingestion. Complications from neodymium magnet ingestion may include bowel obstruction, perforation, and fistula formation. The risk of complications is especially high with multiple-magnet ingestion. Pediatric foreign-body magnet ingestion may be a diagnostic challenge because the associated symptoms are nonspecific, and the ingestion is often unwitnessed. Our case represents the missed diagnosis of 4 magnets ingested separately over time. Emergency department providers may benefit from a clinical algorithm guiding the management of these increasingly prevalent patient presentations to prevent delayed diagnoses and to decrease morbidity.

  4. Ingestion analgesia occurs when a bad taste turns good.

    PubMed

    Foo, Hayley; Mason, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    During ingestion of water, chocolate, sucrose, and saccharin, pain-related behaviors are suppressed. This ingestion analgesic effect is reversed when the hedonic valence of a food is switched from "good" to "bad" as occurs during conditioned taste aversion. Here, we tested the converse hedonic shift to determine if ingestion analgesia occurs when 0.3 M NaCl is made palatable by inducing a sodium appetite. In Experiment 1, sham- and sodium-depleted rats were tested for paw withdrawal and lick latencies to brief noxious heat during quiet wake and intraoral NaCl ingestion. Only sodium-depleted rats showed a suppression of heat-evoked reactions during NaCl ingestion. In Experiment 2, we tested whether this analgesic effect is mediated by the brainstem nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). Inactivation of NRM with muscimol blocked ingestion analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium-depleted rats. This attenuation was not due to a hyperalgesic effect of NRM inactivation. Muscimol microinjections into a nearby region, the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO), were ineffective. The present findings demonstrate that the internal milieu of an animal can modify ingestion analgesia, and that the analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium hungry rats is mediated by NRM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Vapor ingestion in Centaur liquid-hydrogen tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    Vapor ingestion phenomena were investigated using scale models of the Centaur liquid hydrogen tank to determine the height of the free surface of the liquid when vapor is intially ingested into the tank outlet. Data are compared with an analysin and, is general the agreement is very good. Predictions are presented for minimum liquid levels required in the Centaur liquid hydrogen tank in order to prevent vapor ingestion when restarting the engines in space and the quantities of liquid remaining in the tank at vapor ingestion during main engine firing.

  6. Localizing ingested coins with a metal detector.

    PubMed

    Bassett, K E; Schunk, J E; Logan, L

    1999-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the utility of metal detection in coin localization by inexperienced operators, and determine the rate of spontaneous passage of asymptomatic esophageal coins. All children who presented to the emergency department of an urban children's hospital with a suspected coin ingestion were eligible. Coin location was predicted from metal detector results, while radiographs confirmed location. Asymptomatic patients with esophageal coins were observed for spontaneous passage. Ninety-one children (ages 9 months to 17 years) were prospectively enrolled. The metal detector had a sensitivity of 98% (53/54) in coin detection and 98% (81/83) in determining coin location as esophageal. Symptoms were poor predictors of coin location. Six of eight asymptomatic patients with esophageal coins spontaneously passed their coins. These results show that metal detection is a good screening test for coin presence and to determine coin location as esophageal. Spontaneous passage of asymptomatic esophageal coins warrants further study.

  7. Gastroduodenal lesions of ingested acids: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-12-01

    Abdominal radiographs and barium studies of the stomach and duodenum of 27 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCl) in suicidal attempts were reviewed. Eleven patients were studied in the acute phase (1-10 days), nine in the subacute phase (11-20 days), and 15 in the chronic phase (21 days or more). Extensive gastric and duodenal mucosal and submucosal damage was radiographically demonstrated in all patients studied in the acute and subacute phase. Four patients had gastric perforation. The radiographic findings in the chronic phase were characterized by marked contraction of the lesser curvature, antral stenosis, irregular gastric contours, and deformed duodenal bulb. Esophageal mucosal and submucosal lesions were radiographically demonstrated in all these patients.

  8. Bird Ingestion into Large Turbofan Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    292 04/06/90 B767 CF6 80C2 SEMB FOR LD 268 05/ 23 /90 A320 CFM56 5 SEMB FOR TR 247 05/31/90 A300 JT9D 59A INVOLUNTARY POWER LOSS FOR TR 273 06/14/90 A320...OR MORE 1 0 0 1 6 TO 17 0 2 .0 2 4 TO 5 1 0 0 1 UNKNOWN 7 44 4 55 TOTALS 38 347 12 397 23 TABLE 4.2. BIRD SPECIES SPECIES MODAL WEIGHT MULTIPLE SPECIES...Gov.ernm.nt Accistton No, 3, Rec.p.ent’s Catalog No. DOT/FAA/CT-91/1 7 4. Title and Subtitle 5 . Report fote May 1992 BIRD INGESTION INTO LARGE TURBOFAN

  9. Transient engine performance with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haykin, T.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1986-01-01

    The immediate effects on the transient performance of a generic, high bypass ratio jet engine on account of water ingestion are discussed. The air compression subsystem has been analyzed with respect to four aerothermodynamic and mechanical processes associated with two-phase fluid flow and the engine simulation has been carried out under three limiting cases of interest in practice, one pertaining to draining of water at the end of compression and the other two, to partial evaporation at two different locations in the burner. General observations are made on engine operability as a function of engine and control design under various engine and (control input) sensor operating conditions, with various mass fractions of water in the air-water mixture entering the engine, during various pilot-initiated power demand changes.

  10. Acute appendicitis caused by foreign body ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Heung; Lee, Dae Sup

    2015-01-01

    Foreign bodies usually do not cause complications and pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. Usually endoscopic intervention is recommended within 24 hours. Cases of acute appendicitis caused by foreign bodies are very rare. In our case, we experienced successful endoscopic and surgical treatment of a patient with ingestion of razor blade and some unrecognizable foreign bodies. A 22-year-old soldier was admitted with a small quantity of hematemesis and epigastric pain. We performed emergent endoscopy and successfully removed several foreign bodies. After 17 days, we performed appendectomy to remove the remaining foreign body and to relieve the symptoms. There is no doubt that endoscopic intervention is definitely useful method to remove foreign bodies. If there is no spontaneous drainage of the foreign body from the appendix, an appendectomy must be considered to remove the foreign body and prevent surgical complications such as appendicitis, periappendiceal abscess, and perforation. PMID:26366386

  11. STOVL hot gas ingestion control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Amuedo, K.C.; Williams, B.R.; Flood, J.D. ); Johns, A.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a comprehensive wind tunnel test program conducted to evaluate control of Hot Gas Ingestion (HGI) on a 9.2 percent scale model of the McDonnell Aircraft Company model 279-3C advanced Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) configuration. The test was conducted in the NASA-Lewis Research Center 9 ft by 15 ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel during the summer of 1987. Initial tests defined baseline HGI levels as determined by engine face temperature rise and temperature distortion. Subsequent testing was conducted to evaluate HGI control parametrically using Lift Improvement Devices (LIDs), forward nozzle splay angle, a combination of LIDs and forward nozzle splay angle, and main inlet blocking. The results from this test program demonstrate that HGI can be effectively controlled and that HGI is not a barrier to STOVL aircraft development.

  12. Zinc toxicity following massive coin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D R; Baird, C J; Chan, K M; Crookes, P F; Bremner, C G; Gottlieb, M M; Naritoku, W Y

    1997-06-01

    This is the first reported case of human fatality associated with zinc intoxication following a massive ingestion of coins. Four hundred and sixty-one coins were removed form the gastrointestinal tract of a schizophrenic patient during the course of hospitalization. Many of the post-1981 pennies, which consist primarily of zinc, showed severe corrosion due to their prolonged contact with acidic gastric juice. The patient presented with clinical manifestations consistent with the local corrosive as well as systemic effects of zinc intoxication and died 40 days after admission with multi-system organ failure. Tissue samples of the kidneys, pancreas, and liver obtained at autopsy revealed acute tubular necrosis, mild fibrosis, and acute massive necrosis, respectively, and contained high levels of zinc. The overall effects of zinc intoxication on the various organ systems, possible hematological derangement, and the impairment of copper absorption as well as the outcome with treatment are discussed.

  13. Methamphetamine Ingestion Misdiagnosed as Centruroides sculpturatus Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Strommen, Joshua; Shirazi, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a case report of a 17-month-old female child who ingested a large amount of methamphetamine that looked very similar clinically to a scorpion envenomation specific to the southwestern United States by the species Centruroides sculpturatus. The child was initially treated with 3 vials of antivenom specific for that scorpion species and showed a transient, though clinically relevant neurologic improvement. Her clinical course of sympathomimetic toxicity resumed and she was treated with intravenous fluids and benzodiazepines after blood analysis showed significant levels of d-methamphetamine. This case report is to specifically underline the clinical confusion in discerning between these two conditions and the realization of limited and/or expensive resources that may be used in the process. PMID:25649670

  14. Changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking in the lipid and volatile profile of European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Manzanos, María J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to shed light on the changes provoked by boiling, steaming and sous-vide cooking on the lipids and volatile profile of farmed and wild European sea bass meat. None of the cooking techniques provoked changes due to hydrolytic or oxidation processes detectable by (1)H NMR on sea bass lipids. The lipid profile of main and minor lipidic components was maintained after cooking. However, study by SPME-GC/MS evidenced that steaming and sous-vide cooking modified the volatile profile of sea bass meat, especially in farmed specimens. The compounds generated came from the occurrence, to a very small extent, of lipid and protein degradation. By contrast, boiling scarcely modified the initial characteristics of raw sea bass. Thus, from a sensory point of view and considering the odour-active compounds generated, steaming and sous-vide cooking provoked more noticeable changes than boiling, especially in farmed sea bass meat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCP(sub avg)) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  16. Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in support of the small-scale demonstration of an active flow control system for a boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) inlet. The effectiveness of active flow control in reducing engine inlet circumferential distortion was assessed using a 2.5% scale model of a 35% boundary-layer-ingesting flush-mounted, offset, diffusing inlet. This experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at flight Mach numbers with a model inlet specifically designed for this type of testing. High mass flow actuators controlled the flow through distributed control jets providing the active flow control. A vortex generator point design configuration was also tested for comparison purposes and to provide a means to examine a hybrid vortex generator and control jets configuration. Measurements were made of the onset boundary layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow through the duct and the actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were determined by 40 total pressure measurements on 8 rake arms each separated by 45 degrees and were located at the aerodynamic interface plane. The test matrix was limited to a maximum free-stream Mach number of 0.85 with scaled mass flows through the inlet for that condition. The data show that the flow control jets alone can reduce circumferential distortion (DPCPavg) from 0.055 to about 0.015 using about 2.5% of inlet mass flow. The vortex generators also reduced the circumferential distortion from 0.055 to 0.010 near the inlet mass flow design point. Lower inlet mass flow settings with the vortex generator configuration produced higher distortion levels that were reduced to acceptable levels using a hybrid vortex generator/control jets configuration that required less than 1% of the inlet mass flow.

  17. Acute immunomodulatory effects of binge alcohol ingestion.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Majid; Richards, Stephanie; Mann, Dean; Cross, Alan; Smith, Gordon B; Netzer, Giora; Kovacs, Elizabeth; Hasday, Jeffrey

    2015-02-01

    Blood alcohol is present in a third of trauma patients and has been associated with organ dysfunction. In both human studies and in animal models, it is clear that alcohol intoxication exerts immunomodulatory effects several hours to days after exposure, when blood alcohol is no longer detectable. The early immunomodulatory effects of alcohol while blood alcohol is still elevated are not well understood. Human volunteers achieved binge alcohol intoxication after high-dose alcohol consumption. Blood was collected for analysis prior to alcohol ingestion, and 20 min, 2 h, and 5 h after alcohol ingestion. Flow cytometry was performed on isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and cytokine generation in whole blood was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after 24-h stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phytohemagglutinin-M (PHA) stimulation. An early pro-inflammatory state was evident at 20 min when blood alcohol levels were ∼130 mg/dL, which was characterized by an increase in total circulating leukocytes, monocytes, and natural killer cells. During this time, a transient increase in LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels and enhanced LPS sensitivity occurred. At 2 and 5 h post-alcohol binge, an anti-inflammatory state was shown with reduced numbers of circulating monocytes and natural killer cells, attenuated LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1β levels, and a trend toward increased interleukin (IL)-10 levels. A single episode of binge alcohol intoxication exerted effects on the immune system that caused an early and transient pro-inflammatory state followed by an anti-inflammatory state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal and sediment ingestion by dabbling ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.; Day, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical analysis of intestinal digesta from hunter-killed carcasses or of wildlife scat is a promising means of estimating the exposure of wildlife to those environmental contaminants that, like lead, are poorly absorbed in the digestive tract. When evaluating contaminants at a site, biologists may find the results of this non-destructive approach more straightforward to interpret in terms of exposure to wildlife than would be analyses of soils, sediments, water, or wildlife tissues. To illustrate the approach, we collected digesta from 47 waterfowl shot by hunters at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, in Delaware, USA. The waterfowl digesta contained an average of approximately 2.4% sediment, estimated from the Al concentrations in the digesta, a marker for sediment. Al concentrations were significantly correlated with concentrations of Cr (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r=0.57), V (r=0.70), Ni (r=0.31), and Pb (r=0.55), and we concluded that these metals were ingested mainly with sediment. American widgeon (Anas americana) ingested sediment at a rate of about four times that of three other species of dabbling ducks (Anas crecca, A. acuta, A. rubripes) and had several times the exposure to the sediment-associated metals. The digesta of one American black duck contained a high concentration of lead (70 mg/kg, dry wt.), presumably from lead shot, but none of the other samples had notably elevated metal concentrations. We suggest that scat and digesta be analyzed more widely by biologists and resource managers seeking a simple, inexpensive assessment of contaminants in local wildlife habitat.

  19. Anisakis simplex only provokes allergic symptoms when the worm parasitises the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Gómez, Alicia; Moreno-Ancillo, Alvaro; López-Serrano, M Concepción; Suarez-de-Parga, Jose M; Daschner, Alvaro; Caballero, M Teresa; Barranco, Pilar; Cabañas, Rosario

    2004-08-01

    We analysed patients with allergic or digestive symptoms after seafood ingestion in order to assess a correct diet in Anisakis simplex sensitised individuals. A total of 120 patients who suffered allergic and/or digestive symptoms after marine food ingestion were studied. We performed skin prick tests for A. simplex and seafood, total serum and specific serum immunoglobulin E to A. simplex in the acute stage and 1 month later. A gastroscopy was carried out to find larvae in those patients with persistent abdominal pain. A challenge with non-infective larvae was performed to assess a correct diet. Some 96 patients were sensitised to A. simplex. Gastroscopy was performed in 47 and we detected larvae in 24. We compared symptoms, skin tests, total and specific IgE and the latency of appearance of symptoms in patients positive for Anisakis larvae, patients without larvae at gastroscopy and patients without digestive symptoms. There was no difference among the groups. We challenged 22 patients with frozen A. simplex larvae. After allowing deep-frozen seafood in the diet for more than 2 years, no patient suffered a reaction. At this time, we allowed all our patients well-frozen seafood without any allergic reaction occurring. Allergic symptoms are the most frequent manifestation of A. simplex parasitism. We could not find any patient allergic to the thermostable proteins of parasite.

  20. An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures.

  1. Eszopiclone ingestions reported to Texas poison control centers, 2005 2006.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2007-10-01

    Eszopiclone is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic for the treatment of insomnia and classified as schedule IV controlled substance. Limited information exists on eszopiclone ingestions reported to poison control centers. The distribution of eszopiclone ingestions reported to Texas poison control centers during 2005-2006 was determined for various factors. In addition, triage guidelines for the management of such ingestions were drafted. Of 525 total eszopiclone ingestions, 259 involved coingestants. Of coingestant cases, 78.8% involved suspected attempted suicide and 90.7% were managed at a healthcare facility. Of 266 ingestions of eszopiclone alone, 40.2% were suspected attempted suicide and 62.0% were managed at a healthcare facility. A final medical outcome and dose ingested were known for 60 ingestions of eszopiclone alone. The mean dose was 28.3 mg (range 0.3-210 mg). Ingestions of eszopiclone alone of < or =6 and >6 mg differed with respect to the proportion involving suspected attempted suicide (0.0% versus 64.7%), final medical outcome of minor or moderate effect (38.5% versus 67.6%) and management at a healthcare facility (34.6% versus 91.2%). Using 6 mg as a threshold dose for referral to a healthcare facility, 78% of cases not already at/en route to a healthcare facility were managed according drafted triage guidelines.

  2. Effects of lead shot ingestion in willow grouse

    SciTech Connect

    Fimreite, N.

    1984-07-01

    Willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus) is the most popular game bird in Norway and hunted extensively. Ingestion of lead shot pellets as grit with consequently adverse effects is therefore a distinct possibility as this has been observed in other upland game birds. The present experiment was carried out to study the possible effects of ingested lead shot pellets on willow grouse.

  3. Cantharidin Poisoning due to Blister Beetle Ingestion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Al-Binali, Ali M.; Shabana, Medhat; Al-Fifi, Suliman; Dawood, Sami; Shehri, Amer A.; Al-Barki, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Cantharidin is an intoxicant found in beetles in the Meloidae (Coleoptera) family. Ingestion may result in haematemesis, impaired level of consciousness, electrolyte disturbance, haematurea and renal impairment. Here, we report two paediatric cases of meloid beetle ingestion resulting in cantharidin poisoning and the clinical presentation of the ensuing intoxication. PMID:21509239

  4. Argyria secondary to ingestion of homemade silver solution.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Douglas; Park, Betty; Hoang, Mai; Jacobe, Heidi T

    2005-08-01

    Argyria is a rare skin disease caused by cutaneous deposition of silver granules in the skin as a result of exposure to silver substrate or ingestion of silver salt. This report describes a patient with generalized argyria caused by ingestion of homemade colloidal silver solution. The patient learned about the uses of the silver solution and its preparation at a convention for "natural medicine."

  5. Gastric stenosis following the ingestion of car battery acid.

    PubMed

    Phelps, G; Srinivasa, A; Sengupta, S K

    1991-03-01

    The acute consequences of the ingestion of corrosive substances include acute necrosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract, haemorrhage and perforation. Late complications include the development of stenotic lesions. A case of fibrous gastric stenosis following the ingestion of car battery acid is presented. Endoscopically, the appearances were consistent with gastric carcinoma.

  6. Respiratory depression due to unsuspected narcotic ingestion treated with naloxone.

    PubMed Central

    Curnock, D A

    1978-01-01

    Two patients are presented with respiratory depression for which no cause was apparent. Both had ingested narcotics without the parents' knowledge. Narcotic ingestion should be suspected if signs of respiratory failure with constricted pupils are present, and a diagnostic test with naloxone should be performed. PMID:686779

  7. Update on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Caustic Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Lupa, Michael; Magne, Jacqueline; Guarisco, J. Lindhe; Amedee, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Caustic ingestion is a serious medical problem with a variety of clinical presentations and a complicated clinical course. This article reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of caustic ingestion as well as the most current approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Finally, a recent case will be presented that highlights the difficulty this problem poses to a medical team. PMID:21603414

  8. Health effects of ingestion of mercury-polluted urban soil: an animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza; Mirlean, Nicolai; Carrazzoni, Daniela; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Goulart, Gianni Peraza; Baisch, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    Rio Grande, the southernmost Brazilian port and industrial center, is marked by mercury-polluted ground cover. This pollution varies spatially, with levels exceeding 1,000 μg kg(-1) in 30% of the urban territory. The risk of Hg impact as a result of deliberate and involuntary geophagy is increased by restrained urban conditions in combination with the large proportion of the population living at low-income levels. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that ingestion of Hg-polluted soil by rats results in significant alterations in animal health such as stagnation in body weight increase, and significant mercury accumulation in the liver and kidney. The consumption of Hg-contaminated urban soil also provoked changes in hematological profiles of experimental animals by increasing the number of platelets. The present study indicates the potential for the local population of Rio Grande living in mercury-polluted districts, specifically young children, to experience health disturbances. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  9. Imaging pediatric magnet ingestion with surgical-pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Otjen, Jeffrey P; Rohrmann, Charles A; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-07-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in the pediatric population and a frequent cause for emergency room visits. Magnets are common household objects that when ingested can bring about severe, possibly fatal gastrointestinal complications. Radiography is an integral component of the management of these children. Pediatric and emergency radiologists alike must be aware of imaging manifestations of magnet ingestion, as their identification drives decision-making for consulting surgeons and gastroenterologists. Radiology can thus substantially augment the clinical history and physical exam, facilitating appropriate management. This manuscript sequentially presents cases of magnet ingestion featuring imaging findings coupled with surgical and pathological correlation. Each case is presented to highlight ways in which the radiologist can make impactful contributions to diagnosis and management. Clinical overview with pitfalls of magnet ingestion imaging and an imaging decision tree will also be presented.

  10. Acute barium toxicity from ingestion of "snake" fireworks.

    PubMed

    Rhyee, Sean H; Heard, Kennon

    2009-12-01

    Ingestion of fireworks has been infrequently reported in the medical literature. We describe a case of acute barium poisoning following firework ingestion. A 35-year-old male with a history of severe mental retardation presented with vomiting and diarrhea following ingestion of 16 small fireworks ("color snakes" and "black snakes"). His condition rapidly deteriorated and he developed obtundation, wide complex dysrhythmias, and respiratory failure. Approximately 12 hours following ingestion, his serum potassium level was 1.5 mmol/L with a serum barium level of 20,200 microg/mL (reference range <200 microg/L). The patient eventually recovered with ventilatory support and potassium supplementation. Although firework ingestion is uncommon, clinicians should be prepared for potentially severe complications. In the case of barium poisoning, treatment consists of potassium supplementation, along with respiratory and hemodynamic support.

  11. Provoked and spontaneous confabulations in Alzheimer's disease: An examination of their prevalence and relation with general cognitive and executive functioning.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Larøi, Frank

    2017-01-01

    A dissociation can be made between confabulations that are produced when the subject is directly questioned (i.e., provoked confabulations) and context-free, unprovoked confabulations (i.e., spontaneous confabulations). Unlike provoked confabulations, there is a paucity of research on spontaneous confabulations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our paper assessed this issue by assessing both types of confabulation in participants with mild to moderate AD and controls. Provoked confabulations were evaluated with questions probing personal and general knowledge, whereas spontaneous confabulations were rated by nursing and medical staff. Findings showed more provoked confabulations in AD participants than in controls. Only occasional appearance of spontaneous confabulations was observed in the AD participants. Further, spontaneous confabulations in AD participants were significantly correlated with general cognitive functioning, but not with executive functioning. Our findings suggest that spontaneous confabulations in AD are relatively rare, at least in the mild to moderate stage of the disease. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Comparative proteomics of inhaled silver nanoparticles in healthy and allergen provoked mice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chien-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Kuan; Liu, Wen-Te; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Kang-Yun; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Tseng, Hsiu-Er; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been associated with the exacerbation of asthma; however, the immunological basis for the adjuvant effects of AgNPs is not well understood. Objective The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the allergic effects of AgNP inhalation using proteomic approaches. Methods Allergen provoked mice were exposed to 33 nm AgNPs at 3.3 mg/m3. Following this, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were collected to determine protein profiles. Results In total, 106 and 79 AgNP-unique proteins were identified in the BALF of control and allergic mice, respectively. Additionally, 40 and 26 AgNP-unique proteins were found in the plasma of control and allergic mice, respectively. The BALF and plasma protein profiles suggested that metabolic, cellular, and immune system processes were associated with pulmonary exposure to AgNPs. In addition, we observed 18 proteins associated with systemic lupus erythematosus that were commonly expressed in both control and allergic mice after AgNP exposure. Significant allergy responses were observed after AgNP exposure in control and allergic mice, as determined by ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E. Conclusion Inhaled AgNPs may regulate immune responses in the lungs of both control and allergic mice. Our results suggest that immunology is a vital response to AgNPs. PMID:23946650

  13. Exit from dormancy provokes DNA-damage-induced attrition in haematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Walter, Dagmar; Lier, Amelie; Geiselhart, Anja; Thalheimer, Frederic B; Huntscha, Sina; Sobotta, Mirko C; Moehrle, Bettina; Brocks, David; Bayindir, Irem; Kaschutnig, Paul; Muedder, Katja; Klein, Corinna; Jauch, Anna; Schroeder, Timm; Geiger, Hartmut; Dick, Tobias P; Holland-Letz, Tim; Schmezer, Peter; Lane, Steven W; Rieger, Michael A; Essers, Marieke A G; Williams, David A; Trumpp, Andreas; Milsom, Michael D

    2015-04-23

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for the lifelong production of blood cells. The accumulation of DNA damage in HSCs is a hallmark of ageing and is probably a major contributing factor in age-related tissue degeneration and malignant transformation. A number of accelerated ageing syndromes are associated with defective DNA repair and genomic instability, including the most common inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, Fanconi anaemia. However, the physiological source of DNA damage in HSCs from both normal and diseased individuals remains unclear. Here we show in mice that DNA damage is a direct consequence of inducing HSCs to exit their homeostatic quiescent state in response to conditions that model physiological stress, such as infection or chronic blood loss. Repeated activation of HSCs out of their dormant state provoked the attrition of normal HSCs and, in the case of mice with a non-functional Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, led to a complete collapse of the haematopoietic system, which phenocopied the highly penetrant bone marrow failure seen in Fanconi anaemia patients. Our findings establish a novel link between physiological stress and DNA damage in normal HSCs and provide a mechanistic explanation for the universal accumulation of DNA damage in HSCs during ageing and the accelerated failure of the haematopoietic system in Fanconi anaemia patients.

  14. Sibutramine provokes apoptosis of aortic endothelial cells through altered production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Yoshifumi; Shibata, Akinobu; Okumura, Naoko; Ikari, Akira; Sasajima, Yasuhide; Suenami, Koichi; Sato, Kiyohito; Takekoshi, Yuji; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Overdose administration of sibutramine, a serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, is considered to elicit severe side effects including hypertension, whose pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we found that 48-h incubation with >10μM sibutramine provokes apoptosis of human aortic endothelial (HAE) cells. Treatment with the lethal concentration of sibutramine facilitated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress response genes (heat shock protein 70 and C/EBP homologous protein), and inactivated 26S proteasome-based proteolysis. The treatment also decreased cellular level of nitric oxide (NO) through lowering of expression and activity of endothelial NO synthase. These results suggest that ROS production and depletion of NO are crucial events in the apoptotic mechanism and may be linked to the pathogenesis of vasoconstriction elicited by the drug. Compared to sibutramine, its metabolites (N-desmethylsibutramine and N-didesmethylsibutramine) were much less cytotoxic to HAE cells, which hardly metabolized sibutramine. In contrast, both the drug and metabolites showed low cytotoxicity to hepatic HepG2 cells with high metabolic potency and expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The cytotoxicity of sibutramine to HepG2 and Chang Liver cells was remarkably augmented by inhibition and knockdown of CYP3A4. This study also suggests an inverse relationship between sibutramine cytotoxicity and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism into the N-desmethyl metabolites.

  15. Lipid-Overloaded Enlarged Adipocytes Provoke Insulin Resistance Independent of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong In; Huh, Jin Young; Sohn, Jee Hyung; Choe, Sung Sik; Lee, Yun Sok; Lim, Chun Yan; Jo, Ala; Park, Seung Bum; Han, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy and proinflammatory responses are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, it is largely unknown whether adipocyte hypertrophy per se might be sufficient to provoke insulin resistance in obese adipose tissue. Here, we demonstrate that lipid-overloaded hypertrophic adipocytes are insulin resistant independent of adipocyte inflammation. Treatment with saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids resulted in adipocyte hypertrophy, but proinflammatory responses were observed only in adipocytes treated with saturated fatty acids. Regardless of adipocyte inflammation, hypertrophic adipocytes with large and unilocular lipid droplets exhibited impaired insulin-dependent glucose uptake, associated with defects in GLUT4 trafficking to the plasma membrane. Moreover, Toll-like receptor 4 mutant mice (C3H/HeJ) with high-fat-diet-induced obesity were not protected against insulin resistance, although they were resistant to adipose tissue inflammation. Together, our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that adipocyte hypertrophy alone may be crucial in causing insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:25733684

  16. Efficacy of epinastine hydrochloride for antigen-provoked nasal symptoms in subjects with orchard grass pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Minoru; Hashiguchi, Kazuhiro; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2011-03-01

    Among the gramineae species, orchard grass is a typical causative pollen that provokes seasonal rhinitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective efficacy of epinastine hydrochloride for signs and symptoms caused by repeated nasal provocation with discs containing orchard grass pollen. A single-dose, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover clinical study was conducted in subjects with orchard grass pollinosis. The pollen challenge was conducted with the use of provocation discs containing orchard grass pollen. Epinastine hydrochloride suppressed nasal symptoms caused by nasal provocation tests using orchard grass pollen discs. Among the nasal symptoms, the number of sneezing was significantly inhibited 30 minutes and 60 minutes after the administration of epinastine hydrochloride, as compared with placebo. There were no adverse reactions to the study drugs. Our results suggest that nasal provocation tests with discs containing orchard grass pollen is a useful method for evaluating the onset of action of antiallergic drugs. As compared with placebo, epinastine hydrochloride decreased early-phase sneezing and the total nasal symptom score after repeated nasal provocations with orchard grass pollen discs.

  17. Psychological Treatments for Provoked Vestibulodynia: Integration of Mindfulness-Based and Cognitive Behavioral Therapies.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, Cara R; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-07-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a chronic and distressing genital pain condition involving sharp pain to the vulvar vestibule with lifetime prevalence as high as 12%. PVD is the most prevalent cause of pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia) in premenopausal women, and gives rise to considerable sexual and relational concerns. As intercourse for women with PVD is either painful or impossible, PVD has pronounced negative effects on women's romantic relationship adjustment and sexual intimacy, as well as their emotional well-being and sense of sexual self-efficacy. Given the low efficacy and high side-effect profile of medications for the treatment of PVD, attention has shifted toward psychological interventions over the past decade. Psychological treatments for PVD have the advantage of targeting both the experience of pain and its many psychosexual consequences, such as reduced desire and arousal. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) currently represents one of the most popular first-line psychological interventions for PVD. Mindfulness has been increasingly used alongside, or instead of CBT for a variety of health-related conditions, particularly with respect to chronic pain disorders and more recently in women with PVD. This review provides a detailed overview of CBT and mindfulness-based approaches in treating PVD.

  18. Optimal duration of anticoagulation. Provoked versus unprovoked VTE and role of adjunctive thrombophilia and imaging tests.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, Paolo; Barbar, Sofia; Milan, Marta; Campello, Elena; Spiezia, Luca; Piovella, Chiara; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2015-06-01

    Once anticoagulation is stopped, the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) over years after a first episode is consistently around 30%. This risk is higher in patients with unprovoked than in those with (transient) provoked VTE, and among the latter in patients with medical than in those with surgical risk factors. Baseline parameters that have been found to be related to the risk of recurrent VTE are the proximal location of deep-vein thrombosis, obesity, old age, male sex and non-0 blood group, whereas the role of inherited thrombophilia is controversial. The persistence of residual vein thrombosis at ultrasound assessment has consistently been shown to increase the risk, as do persistently high values of D-dimer and the early development of the post-thrombotic syndrome. Although the latest international guidelines suggest indefinite anticoagulation for most patients with the first episode of unprovoked VTE, strategies that incorporate the assessment of residual vein thrombosis and D-dimer have the potential to identify subjects in whom anticoagulation can be safely discontinued. Moreover, new opportunities are offered by a few emerging anti-Xa and anti-IIa oral compounds, which are likely to induce fewer haemorrhagic complications than vitamin K antagonists while preserving the same effectiveness; and by low-dose aspirin, which has the potential to prevent the occurrence of both venous and arterial thrombotic events.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns provoked by environmental variability in a predator-prey model.

    PubMed

    Fras, Maja; Gosak, Marko

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of spatiotemporal patterns in the distribution of species is one of the most striking phenomena in ecology and nonlinear science. Since it is known that spatial inhomogeneities can significantly affect the dynamics of ecological populations, in the present paper we investigate the impact of environmental variability on the formation of patterns in a spatially extended predator-prey model. In particular, we utilize a predator-prey system with a Holling III functional response and introduce random spatial variations of the kinetic parameter signifying the intrinsic growth rate of the prey, reflecting the impact of a heterogeneous environment. Our results reveal that in the proximity of the Hopf bifurcation environmental variability is able to provoke pattern formation, whereby the coherence of the patterns exhibits a resonance-like dependence on the variability strength. Furthermore, we show that the phenomenon can only be observed if the spatial heterogeneities exhibit large enough regions with high growth rates of the prey. Our findings thus indicate that variability could be an essential pattern formation mechanism of the populations.

  20. Acute Administration of Diazepam Provokes Redox Homeostasis Imbalance in the Rat Brain: Prevention by Simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Eger, Guilherme André; Ferreira, Vinícius Vialle; Batista, Camila Ribeiro; Bonde, Henrique LuisPetrek; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Rodrigues, André Felipe; da Cruz, José Geraldo Pereira; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effects of acute diazepam (DZP) administration on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, protein carbonyl content, and on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the brain of rats. Additionally, we investigated the antioxidant role of chronic pretreatment with simvastatin on the effects provoked by DZP. Simvastatin was administered (1 or 10 mg/kg by oral gavage) for 30 days. On the 30th day of treatment, groups were randomized and DZP was administered (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection). Control groups received saline. Results showed that DZP enhanced TBARS levels and protein carbonyl content and altered enzymatic activity in the brain of rats. Simvastatin prevented most of the alterations caused by DZP on the oxidative stress parameters. Data indicate that DZP administration causes an oxidative imbalance in the brain areas studied; however, in the presence of simvastatin, some of these alterations in oxidative stress were prevented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reshape and Provoke Proliferation of Articular Chondrocytes by Paracrine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Wu, Yuxi; Xiong, Zhimiao; Zhou, Yan; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song

    2016-01-01

    Coculture between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) represents a promising strategy for cartilage regeneration. This study aimed at elaborating how ACs were regulated by MSCs. Rabbit ACs (rACs) and rabbit MSCs (rMSCs) were seeded separately in a Transwell system to initiate non-contact coculture in growth medium without chondrogenic factors. Cell morphology, cell proliferation, production of extracellular matrix (ECM), and gene expression of rACs were characterized. Upon coculture, rACs underwent a morphological transition from a rounded or polygonal shape into a fibroblast-like one and proliferation was provoked simultaneously. Such effects were dependent on the amount of rMSCs. Along with these changes, ECM production and gene expression of rACs were also perturbed. Importantly, when a ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) was supplemented to coculture, the effects except that on cell proliferation were inhibited, suggesting the involvement of RhoA/ROCK signaling. By applying an inhibitor (BIBF1120) of VEGFR1/2/3, FGFR1/2/3 and PDGFRα/β in coculture, or supplementing FGF-1, VEGF-A and PDGFbb in monoculture, it was confirmed that the paracrine factors by rMSCs mediated the compounding effects on rACs. These findings shed light on MSCs-ACs interactions and might confer an insight view on cell-based cartilage regeneration. PMID:27596239

  2. Understanding the Sexual Satisfaction of Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia and Their Partners: Comparison With Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    O Rosen, Natalie; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-11-28

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD)-a recurrent, localized vulvar pain-interferes with couples' sexual relationships as evidenced by lower sexual satisfaction compared to controls. Little is known about what components of sexual satisfaction contribute to this lower satisfaction. Using the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction (IEMSS), we compared the sexual exchanges (sexual rewards and costs, relative sexual rewards and costs, balance of sexual rewards and costs, balance of relative sexual rewards and costs, equality of sexual rewards and costs) and sexual satisfaction of 50 women with PVD and their male partners to 50 matched-control couples. We also compared women with PVD and their partners on these same components. Participants completed standardized measures of sexual exchanges and sexual satisfaction. Women with PVD and their partners reported lower relative sexual rewards, a less favorable balance of relative sexual rewards to costs, and lower sexual satisfaction than controls, although differences were larger for women. Women with PVD also reported lower levels of sexual rewards, higher levels of sexual costs, a less favorable balance of sexual rewards to costs, and lower equality of sexual costs, than control women. Findings identify IEMSS exchange components that may contribute to overall lower satisfaction in couples affected by PVD.

  3. Chronic Contractile Dysfunction without Hypertrophy Does Not Provoke a Compensatory Transcriptional Response in Mouse Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, David R.; McMullen, Julie R.; Woodcock, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Diseased myocardium from humans and experimental animal models shows heightened expression and activity of a specific subtype of phospholipase C (PLC), the splice variant PLCβ1b. Previous studies from our group showed that increasing PLCβ1b expression in adult mouse hearts by viral transduction was sufficient to cause sustained contractile dysfunction of rapid onset, which was maintained indefinitely in the absence of other pathological changes in the myocardium. We hypothesized that impaired contractility alone would be sufficient to induce a compensatory transcriptional response. Unbiased, comprehensive mRNA-sequencing was performed on 6 biological replicates of rAAV6-treated blank, PLCβ1b and PLCβ1a (closely related but inactive splice variant) hearts 8 weeks after injection, when reduced contractility was manifest in PLCβ1b hearts without evidence of induced hypertrophy. Expression of PLCβ1b resulted in expression changes in only 9 genes at FDR<0.1 when compared with control and these genes appeared unrelated to contractility. Importantly, PLCβ1a caused similar mild expression changes to PLCβ1b, despite a complete lack of effect of this isoform on cardiac contractility. We conclude that contractile depression caused by PLCβ1b activation is largely independent of changes in the transcriptome, and thus that lowered contractility is not sufficient in itself to provoke measurable transcriptomic alterations. In addition, our data stress the importance of a stringent control group to filter out transcriptional changes unrelated to cardiac function. PMID:27359099

  4. Actomyosin contractility provokes contact inhibition in E-cadherin-ligated keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiroaki; Samsonov, Mikhail; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2017-04-13

    Confluence-dependent inhibition of epithelial cell proliferation, termed contact inhibition, is crucial for epithelial homeostasis and organ size control. Here we report that among epithelial cells, keratinocytes, which compose the stratified epithelium in the skin, possess a unique, actomyosin-dependent mechanism for contact inhibition. We have observed that under actomyosin-inhibited conditions, cell-cell contact itself through E-cadherin promotes proliferation of keratinocytes. Actomyosin activity in confluent keratinocytes, however, inhibits nuclear localization of β-catenin and YAP, and causes attenuation of β-catenin- and YAP-driven cell proliferation. Confluent keratinocytes develop E-cadherin-mediated punctate adhesion complexes, to which radial actin cables are connected. Eliminating the actin-to-E-cadherin linkage by depleting α-catenin increases proliferation of confluent keratinocytes. By contrast, enforced activation of RhoA-regulated actomyosin or external application of pulling force to ligated E-cadherin attenuates their proliferation, suggesting that tensile stress at E-cadherin-mediated adhesion complexes inhibits proliferation of confluent keratinocytes. Our results highlight actomyosin contractility as a crucial factor that provokes confluence-dependent inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation.

  5. Does photoparoxysmal response in children represent provoked seizure? Evidence from simultaneous motor task during EEG.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Aria; RamachandranNair, Rajesh

    2009-02-01

    Acute cognitive changes during epileptiform discharges have been studied using computer assisted cognitive tasks. We aimed to demonstrate acute behavioral change (using a simple motor response task MRT) during photoparoxysmal response (PPR) in children below 18 years. Children performed a simple repetitive motor task during intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). All episodes of PPR not associated with obvious clinical change (as observed by the technologist or reported by the patient) were analyzed for this study. The average time interval between two successive motor responses across a PPR (test time) was compared to the average time interval between two successive motor responses during IPS not associated with PPR (control time) using Wilcoxon signed ranks test. 21 children who had PPR successfully completed the MRT. The difference between the mean durations was 0.894 s (p=0.002). More than 50% increase compared to the control time was considered a delay in MRT during PPR. 10 children showed slowing of MRT during PPR. By definition, acute behavioral change during generalized epileptiform discharges represent provoked seizures. Detecting subclinical seizures can have important safety implications in children (skiing, skating and driving) with PPR on EEG, but no clinical seizures. We recommend MRT during IPS.

  6. Fixed drug eruption to ingested propolis.

    PubMed

    Ramien, Michele L; Pratt, Melanie D

    2012-01-01

    Fixed drug eruptions (FDEs) are a unique type of drug allergy in which skin lesions recur in the same location after each ingestion of the offending agent. More than 100 drugs have been implicated in causing FDEs. More recently, herbal medications and food additives have been implicated. Propolis is an important contact allergen, but has not previously been reported to cause FDE. We present the case of a patient with a 1-year history of a recurrent lesion on the shaft of his penis. He tested strongly positive to propolis and had been using a herbal supplement. A trial off this supplement was initiated, and his penile lesion cleared. The patient then rechallenged himself with his powder and developed the same reaction, biopsy-proven to be consistent with FDE. This case illustrates the utility of systemic (rechallenge) and topical (patch-testing) testing to identify the causative agent. It is interesting to note that our patient developed a reaction at the site of the patch test for propolis itself, rather than at the former reaction site. Our patient also illustrates the necessity of considering new causes for FDE when typical lesions are present.

  7. Exercise patterns, ingestive behaviors, and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; O'Connor, Lauren E; Zhou, Jing; Campbell, Wayne W

    2014-07-01

    Ingestive and exercise behaviors are important determinants of whole body energy balance and weight control. An acute bout of exercise generates a transient energy deficit, which is only partially compensated for by food intake at the next eating occasion or within the next day (loose dietary coupling). Such an energy deficit, when repeated chronically, leads to moderate weight loss and improved body composition. For this narrative review, we assessed the effects of exercise patterns on energy intake, energy balance, and weight control in adults primarily using results from randomized acute exercise and chronic training studies. The patterns assessed were exercise mode (e.g. resistance, aerobic exercise), intensity, duration, time of day, and frequency. The body of evidence indicates that exercise training frequency and quantity are influential for weight loss. Aerobic training is superior to resistance training for weight loss, although resistance training helps preserve lean body mass better. Weight loss does not differ among different intensities when energy expenditure is matched by adjusting duration. Differing patterns of physical activity exhibited by normal weight, overweight, and obese people during weekdays and weekend days are consistent with their weight status; leaner people are more physically active. Collectively, these findings support acute and chronic exercise patterns as important modifiable behaviors to improve energy balance and weight control in adults while having minor effects on absolute energy intake.

  8. Radiographic identification of ingested disc batteries.

    PubMed

    Maves, M D; Lloyd, T V; Carithers, J S

    1986-01-01

    Recently, the hazards posed by the accidental ingestion and impaction of small disc batteries have been widely publicized in the medical and lay press. These foreign bodies, when lodged in the esophagus, leak a caustic solution of 26 to 45% sodium or potassium hydroxide which can cause a burn injury to the esophagus in a very short period of time. Because of the considerable clinical morbidity and mortality from this foreign body, it becomes imperative for the radiologist to quickly and accurately identify disc batteries on plain radiographs. This communication offers a series of radiologic signs important in the identification of disc batteries. When viewed in an anterior projection, disc batteries demonstrate a double density shadow due to the bilaminar structure of the battery. On lateral view, the edges of most disc batteries are round and again present a step-off at the junction of the cathode and anode. These findings are differentiated from the more common esophageal foreign body of a coin which does not have a double density on frontal projection, has a much sharper edge and no visible step-off.

  9. Ingestion of Giardia lamblia trophozoites by human mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D R; Pearson, R D

    1987-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes may be important effector cells against Giardia lamblia. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites in 13% heat-inactivated autologous serum. At a G. lamblia/macrophage ratio of 1:1, the number of trophozoites ingested per 100 macrophages ranged from 1 to 12 at 0.5 h and increased for all donors (n = 6) to 10 to 92 at 8 h. Ingestion was confirmed by electron microscopy. Increasing the parasite/phagocyte ratio to 5:1 increased the percentage of macrophages with adherent but not ingested trophozoites. Incubating Giardia cells and macrophages with 20% immune serum increased ingestion of parasites eightfold, indicating that anti-G. lamblia antibody can enhance ingestion. Both phase-contrast microscopy and electron microscopy documented trophozoite destruction within macrophages. Ingestion of parasites elicited an oxidative burst as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. In vitro, Giardia trophozoites were killed by greater than or equal to 5 X 10(-5) M H2O2. Fusion of lysosomes with parasite-containing phagosomes was suggested by acridine orange-stained preparations. Human macrophages have the capacity to ingest Giardia trophozoites and to kill intracellular parasites, possibly by oxidative microbicidal mechanisms. Images PMID:3679547

  10. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions.

  11. Automated ingestion detection for a health monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Walker, William P; Bhatia, Dinesh K

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that imposes a financial burden and increased risk for a myriad of chronic diseases. Presented here is an overview of a prototype automated ingestion detection (AID) process implemented in a health monitoring system (HMS). The automated detection of ingestion supports personal record keeping which is essential during obesity management. Personal record keeping allows the care provider to monitor the therapeutic progress of a patient. The AID-HMS determines the levels of ingestion activity from sounds captured by an external throat microphone. Features are extracted from the sound recording and presented to machine learning classifiers, where a simple voting procedure is employed to determine instances of ingestion. Using a dataset acquired from seven individuals consisting of consumption of liquid and solid, speech, and miscellaneous sounds, > 94% of ingestion sounds are correctly identified with false positive rates around 9% based on 10-fold cross validation. The detected levels of ingestion activity are transmitted and stored on a remote web server, where information is displayed through a web application operating in a web browser. This information allows remote users (health provider) determine meal lengths and levels of ingestion activity during the meal. The AID-HMS also provides a basis for automated reinforcement for the patient.

  12. Ingestion of microplastic has limited impact on a marine larva.

    PubMed

    Kaposi, Katrina L; Mos, Benjamin; Kelaher, Brendan P; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impacts of microplastics (<1 mm) on marine biota. Microplastics may be mistaken for food items and ingested by a wide variety of organisms. While the effects of ingesting microplastic have been explored for some adult organisms, there is poor understanding of the effects of microplastic ingestion on marine larvae. Here, we investigated the ingestion of polyethylene microspheres by larvae of the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Ingestion rates scaled with the concentration of microspheres. Ingestion rates were, however, reduced by biological fouling of microplastic and in the presence of phytoplankton food. T. gratilla larvae were able to egest microspheres from their stomach within hours of ingestion. A microsphere concentration far exceeding those recorded in the marine environment had a small nondose dependent effect on larval growth, but there was no significant effect on survival. In contrast, environmentally realistic concentrations appeared to have little effect. Overall, these results suggest that current levels of microplastic pollution in the oceans only pose a limited threat to T. gratilla and other marine invertebrate larvae, but further research is required on a broad range of species, trophic levels, and polymer types.

  13. 78 FR 15110 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements... and assess the adequacy of certain portions of the existing engine bird ingestion requirements. This... bird ingestion type certification standards for aircraft turbine engines to better address the actual...

  14. The effect of cool water ingestion on gastrointestinal pill temperature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David M; Carter, James M; Richmond, Victoria L; Blacker, Sam D; Rayson, Mark P

    2008-03-01

    Telemetric gastrointestinal (GI) temperature pills are now commonly used to measure core body temperature and could minimize the risk of heat illness while maximizing operational effectiveness in workers subject to high levels of thermal strain. To quantify the effect of repeated cool water ingestion on the accuracy of GI pill temperature. Ten operational firefighters ingested a pill to measure GI temperature (T1int) before overnight sleep. Two hours following breakfast and 11.5 h after ingesting T1int, the firefighters ingested a second pill (T2int) before performing 8.5 h of intermittent activity (repetitive cycles of 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of general firefighter duties). During the first 2 min of each 30-min rest period, the firefighters consumed 250 mL of chilled water (5-8 degrees C). Water ingestion had a highly variable effect both within and between subjects in transiently (32 +/- 10 min) reducing the temperature of T2int in comparison with T1int. In general, this transient reduction in T2int became progressively smaller as time following ingestion increased. In some firefighters, the difference between T1int and T2int became negligible (+/- 0.1 degrees C) after 3 h, whereas in two others, large differences (peaking at 2.0 degrees C and 6.3 degrees C) were still observed when water was consumed 8 h after pill ingestion. These results show that a GI pill ingested immediately prior to physical activity cannot be used to measure core body temperature accurately in all individuals during the following 8 h when cool fluids are regularly ingested. This makes GI temperature measurement unsuitable for workers who respond to emergency deployments when regular fluid consumption is recommended operational practice.

  15. Poppy seed ingestion and opiates urinalysis: a closer look.

    PubMed

    elSohly, H N; elSohly, M A; Stanford, D F

    1990-01-01

    Review of scientific literature shows that ingestion of poppy seed containing products can result in a positive urinalysis test for opiates. In many cases the amount of seeds ingested is unrealistically high or is not specified. This study is designed to correlate the amount of seeds ingested with the urinary concentration of total morphine as a function of time. Two males and two females were involved in all four protocols, which were separated by at least one week. Subjects ingested one, two, or three poppy seed rolls, each containing 2 g of Australian seeds (108 micrograms morphine/g seed) in three protocols. In the fourth protocol subjects ingested two rolls per day for four consecutive days. Urine specimens were collected for 48 h after ingestion, analyzed by RIA, EMIT, and TDx, and selected samples were confirmed by GC/MS. The data show that the highest concentrations of total morphine in urine were found 3-8 h after ingestion or in the first-void samples. Of the 264 samples collected, there were only 16 specimens that exceeded 300 ng/mL by any of the methods used for analysis with only three samples exceeding 400 ng/mL by GC/MS (406, 611, and 954 ng/mL). In all cases, the total opiates level was less than 150 ng/mL 24 h after ingestion. Following these studies, one of the subjects ingested a poppy seed cake containing 15 g seed obtained from a bakery which analyzed for 169 micrograms morphine/g seed. Urine specimens were collected over 48 h, and all specimens were analyzed by GC/MS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Coffee Ingestion Suppresses Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Kurata, Takao; Hamana, Yoshiki; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Inoue, Takashi; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2017-01-01

    Coffee consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in humans, but the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of coffee on pancreatic β-cells in the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment in mice. We examined the effect of coffee, caffeine, or decaffeinated coffee ingestion on STZ-induced hyperglycemia. After STZ injection in Exp. 1 and 2, serum glucose concentration and water intake in coffee ingestion (Coffee group) tended to be lowered or was significantly lowered compared to those in water ingestion (Water group) instead of coffee. In Exp. 1, the values for water intake and serum glucose concentration in caffeine ingestion (Caffeine group) were similar to those in the Water group. In Exp. 2, serum glucose concentrations in the decaffeinated coffee ingestion (Decaf group) tended to be lower than those in the Water group. Pancreatic insulin contents tended to be higher in the Coffee and Decaf groups than in the Water group (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 3, subsequently, we showed that coffee ingestion also suppressed the deterioration of hyperglycemia in diabetic mice which had been already injected with STZ. This study showed that coffee ingestion prevented the development of STZ-induced diabetes and suppressed hyperglycemia in STZ-diabetic mice. Caffeine or decaffeinated coffee ingestion did not significantly suppress STZ-induced hyperglycemia. These results suggest that the combination of caffeine and other components of decaffeinated coffee are needed for the preventive effect on pancreatic β-cell destruction. Coffee ingestion may contribute to the maintenance of pancreatic insulin contents.

  17. Ingestion, suckling, and the problem of identity: using criteria in the classification of ingestive behavior.

    PubMed

    Blass, Elliott M

    2002-06-01

    The data reported by Nizhnikov et al. [Newborn rats first suckling experience: taste differentiation and suckling plasticity (2002)] do not support the authors' claim that they shed light on suckling mechanisms. A number of accepted criteria for identifying suckling are discussed in this review. The ingestion of various fluids through a plastic tube by neonatal or other rats does not meet any of these criteria. Thus, while the data reported by Nizhnikov et al. [Newborn rats first suckling experience: taste differentiation and suckling plasticity (2002)] are of interest from the perspective of infant capabilities, they do not shed light on the determinants of actual nipple attachment or suckling as they may naturally occur.

  18. Study of Bird Ingestions into Small Inlet Area, Aircraft Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Statistical Analysis; ALF72 through the National Technical Bird Ingestion TFE731 Information Service, Springfield, Turbine Engine TPE331 Virginia 22161...Base C -- Statistical Methods Used J iii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 2.1 Engine Operations by Month and Engine Type 5 3.1 Engine Ingestions by...Ingestion Events 3.3 Summary Statistics for Ingested Bird Weights 10 4.1 Engine Ingestion Rate Estimates 18 4.2 Engine Ingestion Events and Rates by

  19. Systemic mastocytosis: control of lifelong diarrhea by ingested disodium cromoglycate

    PubMed Central

    Dolovich, J.; Punthakee, N. D.; MacMillan, A. B.; Osbaldeston, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy with systemic mastocytosis from birth had a lifelong history of pronounced diarrhea. Treatment with ingested disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) restored a normal bowel movement pattern and this has been maintained for the six months he has been on treatment. Changes in dosage have repeatedly demonstrated a close relationship between the dose of ingested DSCG and the control of the diarrhea. This case report indicates the potential efficacy of ingested DSCG in the treatment of some gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:4213416

  20. Serious respiratory consequences of detergent ingestions in children.

    PubMed

    Einhorn, A; Horton, L; Altieri, M; Ochsenschlager, D; Klein, B

    1989-09-01

    After ingesting or inhaling laundry detergent powder, eight children required hospital admission. The predominant symptoms were stridor, drooling, and respiratory distress. All but one patient underwent endoscopy of the airways and the esophagus, five children were admitted to the intensive care unit, and four children required endotracheal intubation. Laundry detergent ingestions are generally considered to have minor consequences, and there exists a paucity of literature on the subject. Evidence of significant morbidity incurred because of ingestion or inhalation of sodium carbonate-containing laundry detergent powder is presented, together with a review of the existing literature.

  1. Gastric Perforation and Phlegmon Formation by Foreign BodyIngestion

    PubMed Central

    Avila Alvarez, Albert Alejandro; Parra, Jose Fernando; Buitrago, Diego Andres; Rodriguez, Fernando; Moreno, Atilio

    2014-01-01

    This is a case report of foreign body ingestion in a suicide attempt resulting in gastric perforation and phlegmon formation during a subsequent 6 month period that eventually required surgical intervention. The patient had a prolonged course because she did not report a history of foreign body ingestion and the initial evaluating physicians had no suspicion about possible foreign body ingestion and may have missed important findings on physical examination. Gastric perforation by a foreign object may have a slow course rather than presenting acute abdomen. The realization of a proper physical examination in the emergency department is key to an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26495367

  2. Ingestion of magnets: innocent in solitude, harmful in groups.

    PubMed

    Wildhaber, Barbara E; Le Coultre, Claude; Genin, Bernard

    2005-10-01

    Foreign body ingestion is frequent in children and generally associated with little morbidity. However, some foreign bodies are innocent when ingested as a single object, but may have harmful effect if numerous. We report a 9-year-old girl who swallowed 5 magnets, causing acute intestinal obstruction. At laparotomy, 2 magnets were found in the cecum and 3 in the transverse colon, attracting each other and clasping a segment of ileum in between, causing a complete obstruction of the small intestine. If numerous magnets are ingested, particular concern is advised, and if signs of intestinal distress develop, prompt laparotomy to prevent serious gastrointestinal complications should be performed.

  3. Esophageal Rupture After Ghost Pepper Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Arens, Ann; Ben-Youssef, Leila; Hayashi, Sandra; Smollin, Craig

    2016-12-01

    The ghost pepper, or "bhut jolokia," is one of the hottest chili peppers in the world. Ghost peppers have a measured "heat" of > 1,000,000 Scoville heat units (SHU), more than twice the strength of a habanero pepper. To our knowledge, no significant adverse effects of ghost pepper ingestion have been reported. A 47-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe abdominal and chest pain subsequent to violent retching and vomiting after eating ghost peppers as part of a contest. A subsequent chest x-ray study showed evidence of a left-sided pleural effusion and patchy infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed pneumomediastinum with air around the distal esophagus, suggestive of a spontaneous esophageal perforation and a left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was intubated and taken immediately to the operating room, where he was noted to have a 2.5-cm tear in the distal esophagus, with a mediastinal fluid collection including food debris, as well as a left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was extubated on hospital day 14, and was discharged home with a gastric tube in place on hospital day 23. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Spontaneous esophageal rupture, Boerhaave syndrome, is a rare condition encountered by emergency physicians, with a high mortality rate. This case serves as an important reminder of a potentially life- threatening surgical emergency initially interpreted as discomfort after a large spicy meal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Public health, populations, and lethal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kirk C

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the American Public Health Association endorsed lethal ingestion as a public health policy as part of "Patients' Rights to Self-Determination at the End of Life." Although rhetoric framing physician-assisted suicide (PAS) invokes individual autonomy, public health's focus is populations. Even regarding treatment refusal, its logic and coercive power (e.g., quarantine) subordinate autonomy to population interests. Research indicates health practitioners and disciplines that are closer to persons with terminal conditions oppose more PAS than those having little contact: specifically, public health associations are more willing to authorize life-ending means than disciplines directly caring for the dying. Why is that the case and with what consequences for populations and public health? Contextual analysis of semantics; policy submissions; standards; statutory and regulatory documents; related economic, equity, and demographic discourses is employed; and, finally, scenarios offered of the future. Notwithstanding rhetoric invoking autonomy, public health's population orientation is reflected in population health measures (e.g., aggregated DALYs, QALYs) that intimate why public health might endorse availing life-ending means. Current associated statutes, regulations, terminology, and data practices compromise public health and semantic integrity (e.g., the falsification of death certificates) and inadequately address population vulnerabilities. In recent policy processes, evidence of patient and system vulnerabilities has not been given due weight while future-oriented scenarios suggest autonomy-based rationales will increasingly yield to population-driven rationales, increasing risk of private and public forms of domination and vulnerabilities at life's end. Public health should address institutionalized violations of data integrity and patient vulnerabilities, while rescinding policy supporting the institutionalization of lethal means. Copyright © 2010

  5. PTH [1-34]-induced alterations of the subchondral bone provoke early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Orth, P; Cucchiarini, M; Wagenpfeil, S; Menger, M D; Madry, H

    2014-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that changes in the subchondral bone induced by parathyroid hormone (PTH [1-34]) reciprocally affect the integrity of the articular cartilage within a naïve osteochondral unit in vivo. Daily subcutaneous injections of 10 μg PTH [1-34]/kg were given to adult rabbits for 6 weeks, controls received saline. Blood samples were continuously collected to monitor renal function. The subchondral bone plate and subarticular spongiosa of the femoral heads were separately assessed by micro-computed tomography. Articular cartilage was evaluated by macroscopic and histological osteoarthritis scoring, polarized light microscopy, and immunohistochemical determination of type-I, type-II, type-X collagen contents, PTH [1-34] receptor and caspase-3 expression. Absolute and relative extents of hyaline and calcified articular cartilage layers were measured histomorphometrically. The correlation between PTH-induced changes in subchondral bone and articular cartilage was determined. PTH [1-34] enhanced volume, mineral density, and trabecular thickness within the subarticular spongiosa, and increased thickness of the calcified cartilage layer (all P < 0.05). Moreover, PTH [1-34] led to cartilage surface irregularities and reduced matrix staining (both P < 0.03). These early osteoarthritic changes correlated with and were ascribed to the increased thickness of the calcified cartilage layer (P = 0.026) and enhanced mineral density of the subarticular spongiosa (P = 0.001). Modifications of the subarticular spongiosa by PTH [1-34] cause broadening of the calcified cartilage layer, resulting in osteoarthritic cartilage degeneration. These findings identify a mechanism by which PTH-induced alterations of the normal subchondral bone microarchitecture may provoke early osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Observing back pain provoking lifting actions modulates corticomotor excitability of the observer's primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Rea; Meesen, Raf; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Observing another person experiencing exogenously inflicted pain (e.g. by a sharp object penetrating a finger) modulates the excitability of the observer' primary motor cortex (M1). By contrast, far less is known about the response to endogenously evoked pain such as sudden back pain provoked by lifting a heavy object. Here, participants (n=26) observed the lifting of a heavy object. During this action the actor (1) flexed and extended the legs (LEG), (2) flexed and extended the back (BACK) or (3) flexed and extended the back which caused visible pain (BACKPAIN). Corticomotor excitability was measured by applying a single transcranial magnetic stimulation pulse to the M1 representation of the muscle erector spinae and participants scored their perception of the actor's pain on the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). The participants scored vicarious pain as highest during the BACKPAIN condition and lowest during the LEG condition. MEP size was significantly lower for the LEG than the BACK and BACKPAIN condition. Although we found no statistical difference in the motor-evoked potential (MEP) size between the conditions BACK and BACKPAIN, there was a significant correlation between the difference in NPRS scores between the conditions BACKPAIN and BACK and the difference in MEP size between these conditions. Participants who believed the vicarious pain to be much stronger in the BACKPAIN than in the BACK condition also exhibited higher MEPs for the BACKPAIN than the BACK condition. Our results indicate that observing how others lift heavy objects facilitates motor representations of back muscles in the observer. Modulation occurs in a movement-specific manner and is additionally modulated by the extent to which the participants perceived the actor's pain. Our findings suggest that movement observation might be a promising paradigm to study the brain's response to back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug-facilitated sexual assault provoked by the victim's religious beliefs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maravelias, Constantine; Stefanidou, Maria; Dona, Artemis; Athanaselis, Sotiris; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2009-12-01

    The number of drug-facilitated sexual assault incidents has lately been increased all over the world leading law enforcement agencies and hospital doctors to constant alert. The drugs involved may be benzodiazepines, hypnotics, other sedatives, anesthetics, drugs of abuse or ethanol. The detection of these agents in biologic fluids is difficult, since most of them are shortly acting, and provoke victim's amnesia which in turn leads the victim to report the allegation late. An unusual case-study of a 35-year-old, married woman who was admitted to the hospital with dizziness and loss of memory for a period of 10 days is here reported. The toxicological analysis of the victim's blood and urine for unknown sedative drugs, achieved by GC-MS, revealed the presence of zolpidem (Stilnox), a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. Concentration of zolpidem in blood, 11 hours after the last supposedly intake, was 47 microg/L. After family counseling at the hospital, the victim's husband confessed that he was replacing the contents of Losec capsules of his wife, with Stilnox tablets. This unjust act was committed by the husband in order for him to have sex with his wife, since she was not willing to participate in a sexual intercourse due to her religious restraints for a fasting period of 40 days. The aim of this article is 2-fold. First, to emphasize the fact that a sexual assault can take place not only between 2 strangers, but also within a happily married couple. Second, to remind doctors that any case of sexual assault must be examined toxicologically, for a better and thorough investigation.

  8. Provoked Vestibulodynia: Does Pain Intensity Correlate With Sexual Dysfunction and Dissatisfaction?

    PubMed

    Aerts, Leen; Bergeron, Sophie; Pukall, Caroline F; Khalifé, Samir

    2016-06-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is suspected to be the most frequent cause of vulvodynia in premenopausal women. Previous research has been inconclusive as to whether higher vulvovaginal pain ratings are associated with lower sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. Whether pain intensity correlates with sexual impairment is an important question given its implications for treatment recommendations. To examine the associations among self-reported and objective pain measurements, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction in a large combined clinical and community sample of premenopausal women diagnosed with PVD. Ninety-eight women with PVD underwent a cotton-swab test, a vestibular friction pain measurement, and a vestibular pressure-pain threshold measurement. In addition to sociodemographics, participants completed measurements of pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction. Self-report measurements were the pain numerical rating scale (0-10), the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction. Objective measurements were pain during a cotton-swab test, pain during a vestibular friction procedure, and the vestibular pressure-pain threshold measurement. Age and relationship duration were significantly correlated with the Female Sexual Function Index total score (r = -0.31, P < .01; and r = -0.22, P < .05, respectively). When controlling for age, intercourse-related pain intensity, pain during the cotton-swab test, pain during vestibular friction, the vestibular pressure-pain threshold, and the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire sensory and affective subscale scores were not significantly associated with sexual function and satisfaction in women with PVD. The findings show that in women with PVD, self-report and objective pain ratings are not associated with sexual function and satisfaction. The results support the biopsychosocial nature of PVD and underscore the importance of a

  9. Pain Rating in Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia: Evaluating Influence of Race

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Gloria A.; Wan, Jim; Foster, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic pain may be perceived differently according to gender and race, which may affect physical health and psychological wellbeing. We evaluated daily pain ratings in black women as compared to white women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Methods: Seventy-one women (44 black, 27 white) rated pain severity with tampon insertion and sexual intercourse and recorded daily vulvar pain level on a visual analogue scale (0 = no pain to 10 = worst pain imaginable). In addition, they completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) Interference Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effect of race on pain intensity after adjusting for functional impairment, affective distress and demographic characteristics. Results: Pain ratings from tampon insertion (6.37 ± 1.89 vs. 5.61 ± 1.98, p = .12) and sexual intercourse (6.28 ± 2.11 vs. 5.29 ± 2.50, p = 0.24) were similar, but daily vulvar pain (4.57 ± 2.27 vs 2.74 ± 2.43, p = <.01) was significantly higher in black women. BPI-interference scores were associated with small, but significant increases in tampon insertion pain (p = <.01, beta = .06 units) and daily pain (p < .01, beta = .10 units) and to a lesser degree with sexual intercourse pain when corrected for multiple comparisons (p = .05, beta = .06 units). Race had no effect on pain after adjusting for other variables. Conclusion: While race was associated with functional impairment, after accounting for this, race was not associated with level of vulvar pain with PVD. PMID:26580986

  10. Early social isolation provokes electrophysiological and structural changes in cutaneous sensory nerves of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Segura, Bertha; Melo, Angel I; Fleming, Alison S; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria Eugenia; González del Pliego, Margarita; Aguirre-Benitez, Elsa L; Hernández-Falcón, Jesús; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael

    2014-12-01

    Sensory and social deprivation from the mother and littermates during early life disturbs the development of the central nervous system, but little is known about its effect on the development of the peripheral nervous system. To assess peripheral effects of early isolation, male rat pups were reared artificially in complete social isolation (AR); reared artificially with two same-age conspecifics (AR-Social); or reared by their mothers and with littermates (MR). As adults, the electrophysiological properties of the sensory sural (SU) nerve were recorded. We found that the amplitude and normalized area (with respect to body weight) of the compound action potential (CAP) response provoked by single electrical pulses of graded intensity in the SU nerves of AR animals were shorter than the CAP recorded in SU nerves from MR and AR-Social animals. The slope of the stimulus-response curve of AR SU nerves was smaller than that of the other nerves. The histological characterization of axons in the SU nerves was made and showed that the myelin thickness of axons in AR SU nerves was significant lower (2-7µm) than that of the axons in the other nerves. Furthermore, the area and axon diameter of SU nerves of both AR and AR-Social animals were significant lower than in MR animals. This is the first report to show that maternal and littermate deprivation by AR disturbs the development of the myelination and electrophysiological properties of axons in the SU nerve; the replacement of social cues prevents most of the effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ozone Inhalation Provokes Glucocorticoid-Dependent and -Independent Effects on Inflammatory and Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Errol M; Pal, Shinjini; Guénette, Josée; Wade, Michael G; Atlas, Ella; Holloway, Alison C; Williams, Andrew; Vincent, Renaud

    2016-07-01

    Growing evidence implicates air pollutants in adverse health effects beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including metabolic impacts (diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity) and neurological/neurobehavioral outcomes (neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, perceived stress, depression, suicide). We have shown that inhalation of particulate matter or ozone activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats and increases plasma levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. To investigate the role of corticosterone in mediating inflammatory and metabolic effects of pollutant exposure, in this study male Fischer-344 rats were administered the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone (0, 50, 150 mg/kg body weight) and exposed by nose-only inhalation for 4 h to air or 0.8 ppm ozone. Ozone inhalation provoked a 2-fold increase in plasma corticosterone, an effect blocked by metyrapone, but did not alter epinephrine levels. Inhibition of corticosterone production was associated with increased inflammatory signaling in the lungs and plasma in response to ozone, consistent with a role for glucocorticoids in limiting local and systemic inflammatory responses. Effects of ozone on insulin and glucagon, but not ghrelin or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, were modified by metyrapone, revealing glucocorticoid-dependent and -independent effects on circulating metabolic and hemostatic factors. Several immunosuppressive and metabolic impacts of ozone in the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen were blocked by metyrapone and reproduced through exogenous administration of corticosterone (10 mg/kg body weight), demonstrating glucocorticoid-dependent effects in target tissues. Our results support involvement of endogenous glucocorticoids in ozone-induced inflammatory and metabolic effects, providing insight into potential biological mechanisms underlying health impacts and susceptibility.

  12. Inducible interleukin-4-secreting cells provoked in mice during chemical sensitization.

    PubMed Central

    Dearman, R J; Ramdin, L S; Basketter, D A; Kimber, I

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that chemical contact and respiratory allergens differ with respect to the quality of immune responses they will provoke in mice. Trimellitic anhydride (TMA), a human respiratory allergen, induces in mice responses consistent with the preferential activation of Th2-type cells, resulting in the production of IgE anti-hapten antibody and an increase in the serum concentration of IgE. In contrast, oxazolone (OX), a potent contact allergen considered not to cause respiratory hypersensitivity, induces instead Th1-type responses in mice characterized by vigorous IgG2a antibody production and a failure to elicit IgE. In the present study we have extended these investigations and have examined the capacity of these chemicals to stimulate inducible interleukin-4 (IL-4) production by draining lymph node cells (LNC). IL-4 was measured in the supernatants of draining LNC cultured for various periods in the presence or absence of concanavalin A (Con A). Following primary topical exposure to the chemical allergens, Con A-stimulated LNC from OX-treated mice secreted significantly more IL-4 than did LNC from mice exposed to trimellitic anhydride (TMA). A different pattern of IL-4 secretion was observed following culture with Con A of LNC prepared from lymph nodes draining the sites of secondary exposure to these chemicals. In this case significantly higher concentrations of IL-4 were produced by TMA-treated mice. Detectable levels of IL-4 (> 300 pg/ml) were not found following culture of draining LNC from sensitized mice in the absence of Con A or following culture of LNC from naive mice with or without Con A. These data demonstrate that chemical allergens of different types stimulate discrete and changing patterns of inducible IL-4 synthesis consistent with the selective activation of Th-cell subpopulations. PMID:8039807

  13. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with provoked vestibulodynia and asymptomatic controls.

    PubMed

    Næss, Ingrid; Bø, Kari

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess vaginal resting pressure (VRP), pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and endurance, and surface EMG activity in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). This was an assessor-masked comparison study including 70 women. Exclusion criteria were any previous pregnancy and presence of candida. Sensitivity of the vulvar vestibule was rated at three sites with Q-tip pressure measurement and a numerical rating scale for pain. VRP and PFM strength and endurance were measured with a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. Pelvic floor muscle activity was measured with surface EMG. The independent samples t test was used to analyze differences between groups. The p value was set to <0.05 RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 24.3 years (SD 4.7) and mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.0 kg/m(2) (SD 2.6). Q-tip pressure measurement was significantly lower and pain more severe in the PVD group at all sites of the vulvar vestibule. The PVD group had significantly higher VRP: 20.6 cmH2O (SD 7.1) versus controls: 17.3 cmH2O (SD 4.4), p = 0.02. The PVD group had significantly lower muscle activity during a 10-s holding period; PVD: 465.2 μV (SD 218.4), controls: 591.1 μV (SD 277.7), p = 0.04. Young, nulliparous women with PVD had significantly higher VRP, but this finding was not confirmed by vaginal surface EMG.

  14. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology.

  15. Preferential loss of dorsal-hippocampus synapses underlies memory impairments provoked by short, multimodal stress

    PubMed Central

    Maras, P M; Molet, J; Chen, Y; Rice, C; Ji, S G; Solodkin, A; Baram, T Z

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive effects of stress are profound, yet it is unknown if the consequences of concurrent multiple stresses on learning and memory differ from those of a single stress of equal intensity and duration. We compared the effects on hippocampus-dependent memory of concurrent, hours-long light, loud noise, jostling and restraint (multimodal stress) with those of restraint or of loud noise alone. We then examined if differences in memory impairment following these two stress types might derive from their differential impact on hippocampal synapses, distinguishing dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Mice exposed to hours-long restraint or loud noise were modestly or minimally impaired in novel object recognition, whereas similar-duration multimodal stress provoked severe deficits. Differences in memory were not explained by differences in plasma corticosterone levels or numbers of Fos-labeled neurons in stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons. However, although synapses in hippocampal CA3 were impacted by both restraint and multimodal stress, multimodal stress alone reduced synapse numbers severely in dorsal CA1, a region crucial for hippocampus-dependent memory. Ventral CA1 synapses were not significantly affected by either stress modality. Probing the basis of the preferential loss of dorsal synapses after multimodal stress, we found differential patterns of neuronal activation by the two stress types. Cross-correlation matrices, reflecting functional connectivity among activated regions, demonstrated that multimodal stress reduced hippocampal correlations with septum and thalamus and increased correlations with amygdala and BST. Thus, despite similar effects on plasma corticosterone and on hypothalamic stress-sensitive cells, multimodal and restraint stress differ in their activation of brain networks and in their impact on hippocampal synapses. Both of these processes might contribute to amplified memory impairments following short, multimodal stress. PMID:24589888

  16. Photosensitive seizures provoked while viewing "pocket monsters," a made-for-television animation program in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishida, S; Yamashita, Y; Matsuishi, T; Ohshima, M; Ohshima, H; Kato, H; Maeda, H

    1998-12-01

    To describe the recent epidemic of photosensitive seizure that occurred in relation to an episode of the television animation program "Pocket Monsters," we report four patients who experienced seizures while watching the episode in question. We also report some technical aspects of the program episode. We investigated the clinical symptoms of the four patients and performed routine EEGs with intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). If IPS provoked no photoparoxysmal response (PPR) during the routine EEG examination, a second EEG was performed with the photic stimulator placed 10 cm from the patient's eyes. In addition, we reviewed the "Pocket Monsters" episode, focusing our attention on the visual techniques used with reference to the Independent Television Commission (ITC) guidelines. One patient who had myoclonic jerks before the convulsion in question was diagnosed as having juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and the diagnosis of another patient was pure photosensitive epilepsy. The remaining two patients had their first seizures, which could be occasional seizures, and we therefore could not reach a diagnosis of epilepsy. In our four patients, only one showed PPR on the routine EEG. Two patients revealed PPR on the second EEG, and the remaining patient showed no PPR. Rapid changes in color are believed to be responsible for the photosensitive seizures because all four patients had seizures at around 18:50, when seconds of deep red and bright blue flashes, alternating at a frequency of 12 Hz, were shown. Regulations for technical aspects of children's programming, including the use of colors, are urgently needed in Japan to prevent a repeated incident. In addition, the IPS procedure needs to be standardized, especially for patients who are suspected to have photosensitivity.

  17. Mass ingestion of Jimson Weed by eleven teenagers.

    PubMed

    Tiongson, J; Salen, P

    1998-11-01

    Jimson Weed is a naturally occurring plant which is commonly ingested for its hallucinogenic properties. This paper is a case report summarizing 11 cases of patients, ages 13-21 years, who presented to our emergency department following oral ingestion of large quantities of Jimson Weed pods and seeds. Toxicity following ingestion is due to an atropine-containing alkaloid contained throughout the plant and concentrated in the seeds. Signs and symptoms ranged from asymptomatic mydriasis and tachycardia to severe agitation, disorientation, and hallucinations. Nine of the eleven patients were admitted for observation. There were no deaths associated with these ingestions and none of the patients required physostigmine for reversal of severe anticholinergic symptoms. This paper also includes an historical overview of Jimson Weed, its physiologic effects, the epidemiological data, and a treatment summary.

  18. Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.

    1991-01-01

    In a continuing investigation on effects of rain-water ingestion into bypass fan engines, it is shown that the performance of axial-flow compressors and fans is fundamentally time-dependent during ingestion of water. A code named WINCOF-I has been developed for establishing the performance of axial-flow turbomachinery operating with air-water vapor-water droplet-water film mixture, Illustrative examples of predictions and effects are provided for the case of the air-compression system of a generic bypass fan engine. Utilizing performance maps so-generated, the effects of water ingestion into the generic engine have been determined under test cell conditions simulating ingestion, flight operation (altitude and flight Mach number), and power-demand setting.

  19. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  20. Rare-earth magnet ingestion: a childhood danger reaches adolescence.

    PubMed

    Agha, Beesan Shalabi; Sturm, Jesse J; Costello, Brian E

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of multiple magnets may cause serious gastrointestinal morbidity, such as pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, or intestinal obstruction due to forceful attraction across bowel wall. Although the consequences of multiple magnet ingestion are well documented in young children, the current popularity of small, powerful rare-earth magnets marketed as "desk toys" has heightened this safety concern in all pediatric age groups. A recent US Consumer Product Safety Commission product-wide warning additionally reports the adolescent practice of using toy high-powered, ball-bearing magnets to simulate tongue and lip piercings, a behavior that may increase risk of inadvertent ingestion. We describe 2 cases of older children (male; aged 10 and 13 years, respectively) with unintentional ingestion of multiple rare-earth magnets. Health care providers should be alerted to the potential for misuse of these high-powered, ball-bearing magnets among older children and adolescents.

  1. Microplastic ingestion reduces energy intake in the clam Atactodea striata.

    PubMed

    Xu, X-Y; Lee, W T; Chan, A K Y; Lo, H S; Shin, P K S; Cheung, S G

    2016-12-27

    The effects of microplastic concentrations (10itemsl(-1) and 1000itemsl(-1)) on the physiological responses of Atactodea striata (clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate) were investigated. The fates of ingested microplastics and the efficiency of depuration in removing ingested microplastics were also studied. A. striata ingested microplastics and the clearance rate was reduced at high concentration of microplastics. Since the respiration rate and absorption efficiency remained unchanged in exposed A. striata, reduction in the clearance rate would reduce the energy intake. Ingestion and retention of microplastics in the body were further limited by the production of pseudofaeces and faeces, and depuration in clean water, resulting in a very small amount of microplastics stored in the body of the clam.

  2. Clinical toxicology of ‘magic mushroom’ ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Peden, N. R.; Macaulay, K. E. C.; Bissett, Ann F.; Crooks, J.; Pelosi, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical features are reported in 27 cases of ‘magic mushroom’ ingestion. Mydriasis and hyperreflexia were common as were disorders of perception and affect. Psilocybe semilanceata appears to have been the species of fungus involved. PMID:7199140

  3. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  4. Utilization of a pediatric observation unit for toxicologic ingestions.

    PubMed

    Plumb, Jennifer; Dudley, Nanette C; Herman, Bruce E; Kadish, Howard A

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and utilization of an observation unit (OU) for admission of pediatric patients after a toxicologic ingestion; compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to the pediatric OU, inpatient (IP) service, and intensive care unit (ICU) after ingestions using retrospective chart review; and attempt to identify factors associated with unplanned IP admission after an OU admission. This was a retrospective chart review of children seen in the emergency department (ED) after potentially toxic suspected ingestions and then admitted to the OU, IP service, or ICU from June 2003 to September 2007. One thousand twenty-three children were seen in the ED for ingestions: 18% were admitted to the OU, 15% to the IP service service, and 6% to the ICU. Observation unit patients had less mental status changes reported and were less frequently given medications while in the ED. Eighty-one percent of OU patients were admitted with poison center recommendation. Ninety-four percent of OU patients were discharged within 24 hours, and less than half of IP service/ICU patients were discharged that quickly. No significant associations were found between specific historical and physical examination or laboratory characteristics in the ED and the need for unplanned IP admission. Observation unit patients admitted after ingestions were young, typically ingested substances found in the home, and required observation according to poison center recommendations. Ninety-four percent were able to be discharged home within 24 hours even after ingesting some of the most concerning substances such as central nervous system depressants, cardiac/antihypertension medications, hypoglycemics, and opiates. All OU patients did well without any adverse events reported. Many patients requiring prolonged observation after an ingestion, and who do not require ICU care, may be appropriate for OU management. This study suggests a potential

  5. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient. PMID:25628702

  6. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of soap water solution.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nandita; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreert; Sai; Sharma, Jai Prakash

    2012-10-01

    We present a rare case in which a young girl ingested a solution of a hair-removing soap. The ingestion resulted in profound hypokalemia and severe acidosis leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest and ventricular arrhythmias. Ultimately the patient made complete recovery. The soapwas found to contain barium sulfide. The degree of paralysis and acidosis appeared to be directly related to serum potassium levels.

  7. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of soap water solution

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nandita; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreert; Sai; Sharma, Jai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case in which a young girl ingested a solution of a hair-removing soap. The ingestion resulted in profound hypokalemia and severe acidosis leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest and ventricular arrhythmias. Ultimately the patient made complete recovery. The soapwas found to contain barium sulfide. The degree of paralysis and acidosis appeared to be directly related to serum potassium levels. PMID:23559738

  8. Hyperoxaluria and Genitourinary Disorders in Children Ingesting Almond Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Demetrius; Lieb, Jessica

    2015-11-01

    We describe 3 children presenting with hematuria, dysuria or kidney stones, and hyperoxaluria believed to be related to ingestion of excessive amounts of almond milk products. Our investigation of the oxalate content of several popular plant-based milk substitutes indicates that almond milk products are a particularly rich source of dietary oxalate. All genitourinary and urinary metabolic disturbances resolved after discontinuation of almond milk ingestion. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of this potential link.

  9. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report is an assessment of all available literature that pertains to the potential risk of cancer associated with ingestion of asbestos. It was compiled by a working group to assist policy makers in the Department of Health and Human Services determine if adequate information was available for a definitive risk assessment on this potential problem and evaluate if the weight of evidence was sufficient to prioritize this issue for new policy recommendations. The work group considered the basis for concern over this problem, the body of toxicology experiments, the individual epidemiologic studies which have attempted to investigate this issue, and the articles that discuss components of risk assessment pertaining to the ingestion of asbestos. In the report, the work group concluded: (1) that no direct, definitive risk assessment can be conducted at this time; (2) that further epidemiologic investigations will be very costly and only possess sufficient statistical power to detect relatively large excesses in cancers related to asbestos ingestion; and (3) that probably the most pertinent toxicologic experiments relate to resolving the differences in how inhaled asbestos, which is eventually swallowed, is biologically processed by humans, compared to how ingested asbestos, which is eventually swallowed, is biologically processed by humans, compared to how ingested asbestos is processed. The work group believes that the cancer risk associated with asbestos ingestion should not be perceived as one of the most pressing potential public health hazards facing the nation. However, the work group does not believe that information was sufficient to assess the level of cancer risks associated with the ingestion and therefore, this potential hazard should not be discounted, and ingestion exposure to asbestos should be eliminated whenever possible.

  10. Ingested Metallic Spool: A Rare Cause of Acquired Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Talat, Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem in children. Prolonged impaction of FB in esophagus may result in tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). A 6-year-old girl presented with progressive dysphagia and recurrent chest infections. No history of FB ingestion was given by parents. Further investigations revealed FB (spool) in cervical esophagus. Patient was successfully managed by surgery through trans-cervical approach. PMID:28164003

  11. Clinical evaluation of disc battery ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Mirshemirani, AliReza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation, radiologic findings, location of disc battery, duration of ingestion, endoscopic results and surgical treatment. RESULTS We found 22 cases (11 males and 11 females) of disc battery ingestion with a mean age of 4.3 years (range: 9 months to 12 years). Common symptoms were vomiting, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. The mean duration of ingestion was 2.7 days (4 hours to 1.5 months). A total of 19 patients had histories of disc battery ingestion, but three cases referred with the above symptoms, and the batteries were accidentally found by x-ray. Only three cases had batteries impacted in the esophagus. Twelve batteries were removed endoscopically, 6 batteries spontaneously passed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract within 5 to 7 days, and 4 patients underwent surgery due to complications: 3 due to tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and 1 due to intestinal perforation. There was no mortality in our study. CONCLUSION Most cases of disc battery ingestion run uneventful courses, but some may be complicated. If the battery lodges in the esophagus, emergency endoscopic management is necessary. However, once in the stomach, it will usually pass through the GI tract.

  12. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    on bowel habit. Gut. 1991;32(8):941–4. 23. Pfeiffer A, Hogl B, Kaess H. Effect of ethanol and commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric...the effect of elapsed time between ITS ingestion and Tint measurement has not been thoroughly studied. Methods: Eight volunteers (six men and two women...use of caffeine , alcohol, and medication Address for correspondence: Robert W. Kenefick, Ph.D., Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, US Army

  13. Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Galbraith, Moira; Ross, Peter S

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are increasingly recognized as being widespread in the world's oceans, but relatively little is known about ingestion by marine biota. In light of the potential for microplastic fibers and fragments to be taken up by small marine organisms, we examined plastic ingestion by two foundation species near the base of North Pacific marine food webs, the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus and the euphausiid Euphausia pacifia. We developed an acid digestion method to assess plastic ingestion by individual zooplankton and detected microplastics in both species. Encounter rates resulting from ingestion were 1 particle/every 34 copepods and 1/every 17 euphausiids (euphausiids > copepods; p = 0.01). Consistent with differences in the size selection of food between these two zooplankton species, the ingested particle size was greater in euphausiids (816 ± 108 μm) than in copepods (556 ± 149 μm) (p = 0.014). The contribution of ingested microplastic fibres to total plastic decreased with distance from shore in euphausiids (r (2) = 70, p = 0.003), corresponding to patterns in our previous observations of microplastics in seawater samples from the same locations. This first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marine zooplankton indicate that species at lower trophic levels of the marine food web are mistaking plastic for food, which raises fundamental questions about potential risks to higher trophic level species. One concern is risk to salmon: We estimate that consumption of microplastic-containing zooplankton will lead to the ingestion of 2-7 microplastic particles/day by individual juvenile salmon in coastal British Columbia, and ≤91 microplastic particles/day in returning adults.

  14. Upper aerodigestive injuries from detergent ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Sjogren, Phayvanh P; Skarda, David E; Park, Albert H

    2017-02-01

    To describe the clinical presentations and management of detergent pod ingestion at a tertiary children's hospital. Case series. A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with detergent pod ingestion from June 2010 and March 2015. Nine cases of detergent pod ingestion were included over a 5-year period. The average age was 26.3 months (range, 11-43 months). Eight (89%) of the cases were female. The patients had ingested laundry detergent pods (n = 7) and dishwasher detergent pods (n = 2). The majority of patients (67%) had more than one clinical manifestation from ingestion. Presenting symptoms included emesis (78%), respiratory symptoms (56%), throat pain (22%), drooling (33%), and foaming at the mouth (33%). The management of patients depended on the severity of their symptoms and included admission to an overnight observation unit (n = 5), discharge to home directly from the emergency department (n = 2), and admission to the hospital (n = 2). Two (22%) children underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. One child (11%) required intubation from bilateral vocal fold immobility. Injuries to the upper aerodigestive tract after detergent ingestion range from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to respiratory compromise. The majority of children improve with observation alone; however, clinicians should maintain a low threshold for endoscopic evaluation in cases of severe symptoms and airway involvement. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:509-512, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Daily soil ingestion estimates for children at a Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Stanek, E J; Calabrese, E J

    2000-10-01

    Ingestion of contaminated soil by children may result in significant exposure to toxic substances at contaminated sites. Estimates of such exposure are based on extrapolation of short-term-exposure estimates to longer time periods. This article provides daily estimates of soil ingestion on 64 children between the ages of 1 and 4 residing at a Superfund site; these values are employed to estimate the distribution of 7-day average soil ingestion exposures (mean, 31 mg/day; median, 17 mg/day) at a contaminated site over different time periods. Best linear unbiased predictors of the 95th-percentile of soil ingestion over 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, and 365 days are 133 mg/day, 112 mg/day, 108 mg/day and 106 mg/day, respectively. Variance components estimates (excluding titanium and outliers, based on Tukey's far-out criteria) are given for soil ingestion between subjects (59 mg/day)2, between days on a subject (95 mg/day)2, and for uncertainty on a subject-day (132 mg/day)2. These results expand knowledge of potential exposure to contaminants among young children from soil ingestion at contaminated sites. They also provide basic distributions that serve as a starting point for use in Monte Carlo risk assessments.

  16. Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Mullican, A.

    1993-01-01

    In a continuing investigation on developing and applying codes for prediction of performance of a turbine jet engine and its components with water ingestion during flight operation, including power settings, and flight altitudes and speed changes, an attempt was made to establish the effects of water ingestion through simulation of a generic high bypass ratio engine with a generic control. In view of the large effects arising in the air compression system and the prediffuser-combustor unit during water ingestion, attention was focused on those effects and the resulting changes in engine performance. Under all conditions of operation, whether ingestion is steady or not, it became evident that water ingestion causes a fan-compressor unit to operate in a time-dependent fashion with periodic features, particularly with respect to the state of water in the span and the film in the casing clearance space, at the exit of the machine. On the other hand, the aerodynamic performance of the unit may be considered as quasi-steady once the distribution of water has attained an equilibrium state with respect to its distribution and motion. For purposes of engine simulation, the performance maps for the generic fan-compressor unit were generated based on the attainment of a quasi-steady state (meaning steady except for long-period variations in performance) during ingestion and operation over a wide enough range of rotational speeds.

  17. Heartburn and regurgitation in pregnancy: the effect of fat ingestion.

    PubMed

    Dall'Alba, Valesca; Fornari, Fernando; Krahe, Cláudio; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Silva de Barros, Sérgio Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Reflux symptoms are common in pregnancy, but their association with fat ingestion is unclear. To investigate an association of dietary fats with heartburn and regurgitation in pregnancy. This is a prospective study in which 89 pregnant women (gestational age 34 +/- 4 weeks) attending a low-risk prenatal outpatient clinic were asked to provide information on the frequency they experienced heartburn and regurgitation. Fat ingestion was estimated by means of a 24-h diet record. Symptomatic patients were compared with those with no reflux symptoms (n = 20). Heartburn once a week or more often occurred in 56 of the 89 patients (63%). The ingested amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in patients with heartburn (11.2 +/- 6.4 vs. 7.7 +/- 3.5 mg; P = 0.022) than in controls after adjusting for age, gain weight during pregnancy, ingestion of caffeine and vitamin C, and total energetic intake. The ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids was higher in patients with heartburn, but with a borderline statistical significance (16.1 +/- 11 vs. 11.8 +/- 6.5 mg; P = 0.061). No association was observed between the consumption of fats and regurgitation. This study suggests that heartburn in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with the ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Accidental ingestions of oral prescription drugs: a multicenter survey.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, B J; Rock, A R; Cohn, M S; Litovitz, T

    1989-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of oral prescription drugs by children under age five continues to be a public health problem. A telephone survey of 1,866 ingestion incidents reported to nine poison control centers was conducted in the spring of 1986. Accidental ingestion occurred most often with a two-year-old child (42 per cent) in their own home (82 per cent). Thirty-five per cent of the toxic drugs ingested at home belonged to someone other than the immediate family, most often a grandparent. Toxic drugs were more often out of their usual storage location and in non-child-resistant prescription packaging, a nonprescription container, or in no container. Twenty-two per cent of all child-resistant packages were non-functional. Overall, at least 61 per cent of all medications had no child-resistant barrier at the time of ingestion. Accessible storage locations such as the kitchen counter, table top, or top of a dresser or bedside table greatly increased the risk of accidental ingestion. These results suggest the need for effective child-resistant packaging that is easier for all adults to use. PMID:2660604

  19. Respiratory and gastrointestinal complications of caustic ingestion in children

    PubMed Central

    Turner, A; Robinson, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine circumstances surrounding the ingestion of caustic substances, the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms at presentation, and the degree of investigation and active treatment during hospitalisation. Long term respiratory and gastrointestinal sequelae were also studied. Design: Retrospective case note study covering a 10 year period. Setting: Tertiary children's hospital. Patients: Children and adolescents presenting following caustic ingestions to the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Main outcome measures: Requirement for interventional oesophagoscopy/bronchoscopy, respiratory support or admission to intensive care, and long term gastrointestinal or respiratory sequelae noted. Results: Thirty two cases of caustic ingestion were identified in 31 patients (median age 2.6 years; 78% boys). The average time in hospital was 2 days. Two patients (6%) required intensive care nursing, and both required intubation with mechanical ventilation (average 33 hours). Thirty patients (97%) underwent diagnostic oesophagoscopy, and two underwent laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy for visualisation of the upper airway. No patient had long term respiratory consequences. Two patients (6%) sustained significant oesophageal injuries requiring interventional oesophagoscopy. Conclusions: Caustic ingestion is overrepresented in boys. Most ingestions involve household cleaning products. Symptoms on admission do not usually require intensive care admission. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominate at presentation, however, these are usually mild. Respiratory symptoms are uncommon and respiratory involvement requiring intervention is rare, although the presence of respiratory symptoms should be viewed as potentially serious. Long term sequelae of caustic ingestion are rare and in this series only affected the gastrointestinal tract. The indications for diagnostic endoscopy need further evaluation. PMID:15843706

  20. When do we eat? Ingestive behavior, survival, and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jill E; Wise, Justina D; Benton, Noah A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2013-09-01

    The neuroendocrinology of ingestive behavior is a topic central to human health, particularly in light of the prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and diabetes. The study of food intake in laboratory rats and mice has yielded some useful hypotheses, but there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Ingestive behavior is more complex than the consummatory act of eating, and decisions about when and how much to eat usually take place in the context of potential mating partners, competitors, predators, and environmental fluctuations that are not present in the laboratory. We emphasize appetitive behaviors, actions that bring animals in contact with a goal object, precede consummatory behaviors, and provide a window into motivation. Appetitive ingestive behaviors are under the control of neural circuits and neuropeptide systems that control appetitive sex behaviors and differ from those that control consummatory ingestive behaviors. Decreases in the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels enhance the stimulatory effects of peripheral hormones on appetitive ingestive behavior and the inhibitory effects on appetitive sex behavior, putting a new twist on the notion of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin "resistance." The ratio of hormone concentrations to the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels may generate a critical signal that schedules conflicting behaviors, e.g., mate searching vs. foraging, food hoarding vs. courtship, and fat accumulation vs. parental care. In species representing every vertebrate taxa and even in some invertebrates, many putative "satiety" or "hunger" hormones function to schedule ingestive behavior in order to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates.

  1. Parasitizing of trematodes provokes warts on the hinge plate of the bivalve mollusk Macoma balthica Linnaeus, 1758 (Veneroida, Tellinidae).

    PubMed

    Gantsevich, M M; Strelkov, P P; Basova, L A; Malakhov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on non-random correlation between abnormalities in the structure of hinge plate and infection of mollusks Macoma balthica with trematodes of the family Gymnophallidae has been tested on the basis of material from the Barents Sea. Significant correlation between the presence of warts and infection was established upon intraand interpopulation comparison. The hypothesis states that parasitizing of trematodes in the extrapallial cavity of mollusks influences the mantle functioning and provokes abnormalities in the hinge plate structure.

  2. Body image in women with primary and secondary provoked vestibulodynia: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Maillé, Delphine L; Bergeron, Sophie; Lambert, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a women's genito-pelvic pain condition associated with psychosexual impairments, including depression. Body image (BI) has been found to be different in women with primary (PVD1) and secondary (PVD2) PVD. No controlled study has compared BI in women with PVD1 and PVD2 and investigated its associations with sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain. The aims of this study were to (i) compare BI in women with PVD1, PVD2, and asymptomatic controls and (ii) to examine associations between BI and sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and pain during intercourse in women with PVD. Fifty-seven women (20 with PVD1, 19 with PVD2, and 18 controls) completed measures of BI, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, pain during intercourse, and depression. The main outcome measures were (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (ii) Female Sexual Function Index, and (iii) pain numerical rating scale. Controlling for depression, women with PVD1 reported more body exposure anxiety during sexual activities than women with PVD2 and controls F(2,51)=4.23, P=0.02. For women with PVD, more negative BI during sexual activities was associated with lower sexual satisfaction (β=-0.45, P=0.02) and function (β=-0.39, P=0.04) and higher pain during intercourse (β=0.59, P=0.004). More positive body esteem was associated with higher sexual function (β=0.34, P=0.05). Findings suggest that women with PVD1 present more body exposure anxiety during sexual activities than women with PVD2 and asymptomatic women. Body esteem and general attitudes toward women's genitalia were not significantly different between groups. Higher body exposure anxiety during sexual activities was associated with poorer sexual outcomes in women with PVD. Further studies assessing interventions targeting BI during sexual activities in this population are needed, as improving BI during sexual interactions may enhance sexual outcomes in women with PVD. © 2014 International

  3. Carnitine deficiency and oxidative stress provoke cardiotoxicity in an ifosfamide-induced Fanconi Syndrome rat model

    PubMed Central

    Darweesh, Amal Q; Fatani, Amal J

    2010-01-01

    In addition to hemorrhagic cystitis, Fanconi Syndrome is a serious clinical side effect during ifosfamide (IFO) therapy. Fanconi syndrome is a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule which is characterized by excessive urinary excretion of glucose, phosphate, bicarbonate, amino acids and other solutes excreted by this segment of the nephron including L-carnitine. Carnitine is essential cofactor for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium. IFO therapy is associated with increased urinary carnitine excretion with subsequent secondary deficiency of the molecule. Cardiac abnormalities in IFO-treated cancer patients were reported as isolated clinical cases. This study examined whether carnitine deficiency and oxidative stress, secondary to Fanconi Syndrome, provoke IFO-induced cardiomyopathy as well as exploring if carnitine supplementation using Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) could offer protection against this toxicity. In the current study, an animal model of carnitine deficiency was developed in rats by D-carnitine-mildronate treatment Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to one of six treatment groups: the first three groups were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline, D-carnitine (DC, 250 mg/kg/day) combined with mildronate (MD, 200 mg/kg/day) and PLC (250 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 10 successive days. The 4th, 5th and 6th groups were injected with the same doses of normal saline, DC-MD and PLC, respectively for 5 successive days before and 5 days concomitant with IFO (50 mg/kg/day). IFO significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary carnitine excretion and clearance, creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA-SH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in cardiac tissues and significantly decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total carnitine and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in cardiac tissues. In carnitine

  4. Dissociable effect of acute varenicline on tonic versus cue-provoked craving in non-treatment motivated heavy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hitsman, Brian; Hogarth, Lee; Tseng, Li-Jung; Teige, Jordan C.; Shadel, William G.; DiBenedetti, Dana Britt; Danto, Spencer; Lee, Theodore C.; Price, Lawrence H.; Niaura, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Rationale The effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation has been established, but little is known about the psychological processes that mediate this clinical outcome. Objectives This study evaluated the effect of a single dose of varenicline on tonic and cue-provoked changes in craving, withdrawal, and affect using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Methods Following overnight abstinence, 38 non-treatment-motivated smokers received either varenicline 2 mg or matched placebo, then tonic measures of craving, withdrawal, and positive and negative affect were obtained at 30-minute intervals. At 4-hours post-administration, a cue exposure session obtained the same subjective measures at three time-points following the physical handling of a lit cigarette versus the sharpening and handling of a pencil. Results At 4-hours post-administration, varenicline reduced tonic craving as well as craving across the smoking and neutral cue conditions, relative to placebo. By contrast, the capacity of the smoking cue to enhance craving relative to the neutral cue was unaffected by varenicline. Measures of withdrawal and positive and negative affect produced mixed results. Conclusions Acute varenicline selectively attenuates tonic but not cue-provoked craving. This dissociation provides insight into the specific psychological processes that might mediate the effectiveness of varenicline, and highlights cue-provoked craving as a discrete target for advancing smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. PMID:23201174

  5. Dissociable effect of acute varenicline on tonic versus cue-provoked craving in non-treatment-motivated heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Hitsman, Brian; Hogarth, Lee; Tseng, Li-Jung; Teige, Jordan C; Shadel, William G; DiBenedetti, Dana Britt; Danto, Spencer; Lee, Theodore C; Price, Lawrence H; Niaura, Raymond

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation has been established, but little is known about the psychological processes that mediate this clinical outcome. This study evaluated the effect of a single dose of varenicline on tonic and cue-provoked changes in craving, withdrawal, and affect using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Following overnight abstinence, 38 non-treatment-motivated smokers received either varenicline 2mg or matched placebo, then tonic measures of craving, withdrawal, and positive and negative affect were obtained at 30-min intervals. At 4-h post-administration, a cue exposure session obtained the same subjective measures at three time-points following the physical handling of a lit cigarette versus the sharpening and handling of a pencil. At 4-h post-administration, varenicline reduced tonic craving as well as craving across the smoking and neutral cue conditions, relative to placebo. By contrast, the capacity of the smoking cue to enhance craving relative to the neutral cue was unaffected by varenicline. Measures of withdrawal and positive and negative affect produced mixed results. Acute varenicline selectively attenuates tonic but not cue-provoked craving. This dissociation provides insight into the specific psychological processes that might mediate the effectiveness of varenicline, and highlights cue-provoked craving as a discrete target for advancing smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  7. Timing of caffeine ingestion alters postprandial metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrar, Sara Farhat; Obeid, Omar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The association between caffeine intake and the risk for chronic diseases, namely type 2 diabetes, has not been consistent, and may be influenced by the timing of caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine administered in different scenarios of meal ingestion on postprandial glycemic and lipidemic status, concomitant with changes in body glycogen stores. Forty overnight-fasted rats were randomly divided into five groups (meal-ingested, caffeine-administered, post-caffeine meal-ingested, co-caffeine meal-ingested, post-meal caffeine-administered), and tube-fed the appropriate intervention, then sacrificed 2 h later. Livers and gastrocnemius muscles were analyzed for glycogen content; blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations. Postprandial plasma glucose concentrations were similar between groups, while significantly higher levels of insulin were witnessed following caffeine administration, irrespective of the timing of meal ingestion. Triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the caffeine-administered groups. Regarding glycogen status, although caffeine administration before meal ingestion reduced hepatic glycogen content, co- and post-meal caffeine administration failed to produce such an effect. Muscle glycogen content was not significantly affected by caffeine administration. Caffeine administration seems to decrease insulin sensitivity as indicated by the sustenance of glucose status despite the presence of high insulin levels. The lower triglyceride levels in the presence of caffeine support the theory of retarded postprandial triglyceride absorption. Caffeine seems to play a biphasic role in glucose metabolism, as indicated by its ability to variably influence hepatic glycogen status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  9. [Emergency department consultations due to foreign body ingestion].

    PubMed

    Lobeiras, Ana; Zugazabeitia, Amaia; Uribarri, Nerea; Mintegi, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is an uncommon reason for going to the Paediatric Emergency Department (PED). The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of foreign body ingestion and the management of these patients. Retrospective study, including children under 14 years old with suspected foreign body ingestion seen in the PED between 2010 and 2013. An analysis was made of the circumstances of the FB ingestion, its management in the PED, and patient outcomes. Of the 226,666 presentations recorded, 1,608 (0.7%) were for a FB, 970 corresponding to ingestion of mainly fish bones (367, 38.7%) and coins (181, 18.7%), except in children under 1 year (plastic objects). The median age was 4.7 years, with boys being more common in those older than 4 years (58.5%). A total of 557 patients (57.3%) reported some symptom, and complementary tests were performed in 414 (42.7%). Another specialist was called in 315 (32.4%) cases, mainly from Ear, Nose and Throat (fish bones) or Surgery (coins). The FB was removed in 305 (31.4%) cases, which were mostly fish bones or sunflower seeds. Seventy-one patients (7.3%) were admitted, especially ingestion of fish bones or coins. No patient died. Ingestion of fish bones or coins by young children is a relatively common presentation in the PED, and it is associated with frequent medical interventions. Although the overall prognosis is good, and improving the health education of the population should be considered to reduce the frequency of these episodes. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  11. Adolescent Suicidal Ingestion: National Trends Over a Decade.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, David C; Hendrickson, Robert G; Lin, Amber L; Fu, Rongwei; Horowitz, B Zane

    2017-02-01

    Suicide attempts by adolescents most commonly involve the overdose of medications. To date, there has been little information on the over-the-counter or prescription medicines that adolescents ingest for self-harm. Identification of medications chosen in suicide attempts may help guide anticipatory guidance to parents by primary care providers and Poison Centers in prevention programs. This was a retrospective observational study using the American Association of Poison Control Center's National Poison Data System. Data were collected on patients aged 13-19 years old at the time of their substance ingestion, between the years 2004 and 2013 and that were coded as reason for ingestion of "intentional-suspected suicide." During the 10-year study period, there were 390,560 poison center calls for intentional-suspected suicide in the United States between 2004 and 2013, accounting for 80.3% of all "intentional" ingestion calls in the adolescent population. Over the entire age range, the most common substance ingested included acetaminophen (10.9%), ibuprofen (9%), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (7.7%), atypical antipsychotic (6%), and antihistamines (5%). The most common medications coded as resulting in major clinical effects or death were antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics. Adolescent ingestion choices for suicide attempts have remained relatively consistent over the past 10 years. However, there was a recent decrease in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor ingestions. The most common medications used in an overdose attempt were ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Further preventative efforts are needed in this at-risk population from multiple providers at various levels. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of energy drink ingestion on alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sionaldo Eduardo; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Pompéia, Sabine; de Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Well-known reports suggest that the use of energy drinks might reduce the intensity of the depressant effects of alcohol. However, there is little scientific evidence to support this hypothesis. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of the simultaneous ingestion of an alcohol (vodka(37.5%v/v)) and an energy drink (Red Bull-3.57 mL/kg), compared with those presented after the ingestion of an alcohol or an energy drink alone. Twenty-six young healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to 2 groups that received 0.6 or 1.0 g/kg alcohol, respectively. They all completed 3 experimental sessions in random order, 7 days apart: alcohol alone, energy drink alone, or alcohol plus energy drink. We evaluated the volunteers' breath alcohol concentration, subjective sensations of intoxication, objective effects on their motor coordination, and visual reaction time. When compared with the ingestion of alcohol alone, the ingestion of alcohol plus energy drink significantly reduced subjects' perception of headache, weakness, dry mouth, and impairment of motor coordination. However, the ingestion of the energy drink did not significantly reduce the deficits caused by alcohol on objective motor coordination and visual reaction time. The ingestion of the energy drink did not alter the breath alcohol concentration in either group. Even though the subjective perceptions of some symptoms of alcohol intoxication were less intense after the combined ingestion of the alcohol plus energy drink, these effects were not detected in objective measures of motor coordination and visual reaction time, as well as on the breath alcohol concentration.

  13. Efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in women with provoked vestibulodynia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morin, Annie; Léonard, Guillaume; Gougeon, Véronique; Waddell, Guy; Bureau, Yves-André; Girard, Isabelle; Morin, Mélanie

    2016-05-14

    Provoked vestibulodynia is the most common form of vulvodynia. Despite its high prevalence and deleterious sexual, conjugal, and psychological repercussions, effective evidence-based interventions for provoked vestibulodynia remain limited. For a high proportion of women, significant pain persists despite the currently available treatments. Growing evidence suggests that the central nervous system (CNS) could play a key role in provoked vestibulodynia; thus, treatment targeting the CNS, rather than localized dysfunctions, may be beneficial for women suffering from provoked vestibulodynia. In this study, we aim to build on the promising results of a previous case report and evaluate whether transcranial direct-current stimulation, a non-invasive brain stimulation technique targeting the CNS, could be an effective treatment option for women with provoked vestibulodynia. This single-center, triple-blind, parallel group, randomized, controlled trial aims to compare the efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation with sham transcranial direct-current stimulation in women with provoked vestibulodynia. Forty women diagnosed with provoked vestibulodynia by a gynecologist, following a standardized treatment protocol, are randomized to either active transcranial direct-current stimulation treatment for ten sessions of 20 minutes at an intensity of 2 mA or sham transcranial direct-current stimulation over a 2-week period. Outcome measures are collected at baseline, 2 weeks after treatment and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome is pain during intercourse, assessed with a numerical rating scale. Secondary measurements focus on the sexual function, vestibular pain sensitivity, psychological distress, treatment satisfaction, and the patient's global impression of change. To our knowledge, this study is the first randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of transcranial direct-current stimulation in women with provoked vestibulodynia. Findings from this

  14. An increase in renal dopamine does not stimulate natriuresis after fava bean ingestion.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Cesar, Tericka S; Lonce, Suzanna; Ferguson, Marcus C; Robertson, David

    2013-05-01

    Fava beans (Vicia faba) contain dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and their ingestion may increase dopamine stores. Renal dopamine regulates blood pressure and blood volume via a natriuretic effect. The objective was to determine the relation between dietary fava beans, plasma and urinary catechols, and urinary sodium excretion in 13 healthy volunteers. Catechol and sodium data were compared by using a longitudinal design in which all participants consumed a fixed-sodium study diet on day 1 and the fixed-sodium diet plus fava beans on day 2. Blood was sampled at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after a meal, and 3 consecutive 4-h urine samples were collected. Mean (±SD) plasma dopa was significantly greater 1 h after fava bean consumption (11,670 ± 5440 compared with 1705 ± 530 pg/mL; P = 0.001) and remained elevated at 6 h. Plasma dopamine increased nearly 15-fold during this period. Fava bean consumption also increased urinary dopamine excretion to 306 ± 116, 360 ± 235, and 159 ± 111 μg/4-h urine sample compared with 45 ± 21, 54 ± 29, and 44 ± 17 μg in the 3 consecutive 4-h samples after the control diet (P ≤ 0.005). These substantial increases in plasma and urinary dopa and dopamine were unexpectedly associated with decreased urinary sodium. The failure of fava bean consumption to provoke natriuresis may indicate that dopa concentrations in commercially available beans do not raise renal dopamine sufficiently to stimulate sodium excretion, at least when beans are added to a moderate-sodium diet in healthy volunteers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01064739.

  15. An increase in renal dopamine does not stimulate natriuresis after fava bean ingestion123

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Emily M; Cesar, Tericka S; Lonce, Suzanna; Ferguson, Marcus C; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fava beans (Vicia faba) contain dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and their ingestion may increase dopamine stores. Renal dopamine regulates blood pressure and blood volume via a natriuretic effect. Objective: The objective was to determine the relation between dietary fava beans, plasma and urinary catechols, and urinary sodium excretion in 13 healthy volunteers. Design: Catechol and sodium data were compared by using a longitudinal design in which all participants consumed a fixed-sodium study diet on day 1 and the fixed-sodium diet plus fava beans on day 2. Blood was sampled at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after a meal, and 3 consecutive 4-h urine samples were collected. Results: Mean (±SD) plasma dopa was significantly greater 1 h after fava bean consumption (11,670 ± 5440 compared with 1705 ± 530 pg/mL; P = 0.001) and remained elevated at 6 h. Plasma dopamine increased nearly 15-fold during this period. Fava bean consumption also increased urinary dopamine excretion to 306 ± 116, 360 ± 235, and 159 ± 111 μg/4-h urine sample compared with 45 ± 21, 54 ± 29, and 44 ± 17 μg in the 3 consecutive 4-h samples after the control diet (P ≤ 0.005). These substantial increases in plasma and urinary dopa and dopamine were unexpectedly associated with decreased urinary sodium. Conclusion: The failure of fava bean consumption to provoke natriuresis may indicate that dopa concentrations in commercially available beans do not raise renal dopamine sufficiently to stimulate sodium excretion, at least when beans are added to a moderate-sodium diet in healthy volunteers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01064739. PMID:23553159

  16. Sodium nitrate ingestion increases skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans.

    PubMed

    Nyakayiru, Jean; Kouw, Imre W K; Cermak, Naomi M; Senden, Joan M; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2017-09-01

    Nitrate ([Formula: see text]) ingestion has been shown to have vasoactive and ergogenic effects that have been attributed to increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Recent observations in rodents suggest that skeletal muscle tissue serves as an endogenous [Formula: see text] "reservoir." The present study determined [Formula: see text] contents in human skeletal muscle tissue in a postabsorptive state and following ingestion of a sodium nitrate bolus (NaNO3). Seventeen male, type 2 diabetes patients (age 72 ± 1 yr; body mass index 26.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2); means ± SE) were randomized to ingest a dose of NaNO3 (NIT; 9.3 mg [Formula: see text]/kg body wt) or placebo (PLA; 8.8 mg NaCl/kg body wt). Blood and muscle biopsy samples were taken before and up to 7 h following [Formula: see text] or placebo ingestion to assess [Formula: see text] [and plasma nitrite ([Formula: see text])] concentrations. Additionally, basal plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations were assessed in 10 healthy young (CON-Y; age 21 ± 1 yr) and 10 healthy older (CON-O; age 75 ± 1 yr) control subjects. In all groups, baseline [Formula: see text] concentrations were higher in muscle (NIT, 57 ± 7; PLA, 61 ± 7; CON-Y, 80 ± 10; CON-O, 54 ± 6 µmol/l) than in plasma (NIT, 35 ± 3; PLA, 32 ± 3; CON-Y, 38 ± 3; CON-O, 33 ± 3 µmol/l; P ≤ 0.011). Ingestion of NaNO3 resulted in a sustained increase in plasma [Formula: see text], plasma [Formula: see text], and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations (up to 185 ± 25 µmol/l) in the NIT group (time effect P < 0.001) compared with PLA (treatment effect P < 0.05). In conclusion, basal [Formula: see text] concentrations are substantially higher in human skeletal muscle tissue compared with plasma. Ingestion of a bolus of dietary [Formula: see text] increases both plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] contents in humans.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Literature of the pharmacokinetics following dietary nitrate ingestion is usually limited to the changes

  17. Antimuscarinic intoxication resulting from the ingestion of moonflower seeds.

    PubMed

    DeFrates, Lynn J; Hoehns, James D; Sakornbut, Ellen L; Glascock, Daniel G; Tew, Amanda R

    2005-01-01

    To report a case in which ingestion of moonflower seeds resulted in antimuscarinic intoxication. An 18-year-old man was found at a local convenience store hallucinating and incoherent. Upon presentation to the emergency department, his signs and symptoms included tachycardia, confusion, dilated pupils, and dry, flushed, hot skin. He was admitted to the intensive care unit. Hallucinations and symptoms resolved within 36-48 hours after hospitalization. The patient then reported that he had ingested moonflower seeds. He recovered and was released 4 days after admission. Based on the patient's description and clinical presentation, the moonflower seeds were believed to be Datura inoxia. This species of plant is similar to jimson weed, or Datura stramonium. These plants are known to contain high concentrations of anticholinergic substances; ingestion can result in anticholinergic intoxication. Signs and symptoms that commonly occur include hallucinations, tachycardia, dilated pupils, and disorientation. In our patient, use of the Naranjo probability scale indicated a possible relationship between the moonflower seed ingestion and the patient's signs and symptoms. Ingestion of the Datura species can result in severe toxicity. Each plant varies in the concentrations of alkaloid substances. For this reason, it is very important for individuals to become educated on the toxicities and potential risks associated with recreational use of these plants.

  18. Radar to detect foreign object ingestion by a jet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greneker, Eugene F., III

    1999-07-01

    Each year commercial, private and military aircraft jet engines are damaged by the ingestion of foreign objects. Annual engine repair costs for ingestion damage is in the tens of millions of dollars. Bird strikes represent the major foreign object threat to aircraft engines, although large hail and objects found on the ramp can also damage an engine. A radar based foreign object ingestion detection system concept, the subject of this paper, is capable of determining when an object as small as 4 millimeters has entered a fan jet engine. Additionally, such a system is capable of determining the relative size of the object and the approximate point within the engine where the object impacts the engine. These data can be displayed in real time to the pilot. In addition, the information recorded in the data base can be used by the mechanics between major engine inspections to determine if a detailed inspection of the turbine blade roots or other hard to access engine parts is required. Long term statistical data developed by the system can also be used as a measure of the foreign object and bird ingestion problem at various airports and improve the reporting of ingestion and bird strike events above the currently estimated 20 percent reporting rate.

  19. Intentional ingestions of foreign objects among prisoners: A review.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C; Wojda, Thomas R; Jones, Christian D; Otey, Andrew J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-03-16

    The intentional ingestion of foreign objects (IIFO) is described more commonly in prison populations than in the general population, with an estimated annual incidence of 1 in 1900 inmates in our state correctional facilities. Incidents often involve ingestion of small metal objects (e.g., paperclips, razor blades) or other commonly available items like pens or eating utensils. Despite ingestion of relatively sharp objects, most episodes can be clinically managed with either observation or endoscopy. Surgery should be reserved for those with signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation or obstruction. For those with a history of IIFO, efforts should focus on prevention of recurrence as subsequent episodes are associated with higher morbidity, significant healthcare and security costs. The pattern of IIFO is often repetitive, with escalation both in frequency of ingestions and in number of items ingested. Little is known about successful prevention strategies, but efforts to monitor patients and provide psychiatric care are potential best-practice strategies. This article aims to provide state-of-the art review on the topic, followed by a set of basic recommendations.

  20. Intentional ingestions of foreign objects among prisoners: A review

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David C; Wojda, Thomas R; Jones, Christian D; Otey, Andrew J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The intentional ingestion of foreign objects (IIFO) is described more commonly in prison populations than in the general population, with an estimated annual incidence of 1 in 1900 inmates in our state correctional facilities. Incidents often involve ingestion of small metal objects (e.g., paperclips, razor blades) or other commonly available items like pens or eating utensils. Despite ingestion of relatively sharp objects, most episodes can be clinically managed with either observation or endoscopy. Surgery should be reserved for those with signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation or obstruction. For those with a history of IIFO, efforts should focus on prevention of recurrence as subsequent episodes are associated with higher morbidity, significant healthcare and security costs. The pattern of IIFO is often repetitive, with escalation both in frequency of ingestions and in number of items ingested. Little is known about successful prevention strategies, but efforts to monitor patients and provide psychiatric care are potential best-practice strategies. This article aims to provide state-of-the art review on the topic, followed by a set of basic recommendations. PMID:25789086

  1. Hand-held metal detector identification of ingested foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, A; Carraccio, C; Lichenstein, R

    1994-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine the ability of hand-held metal detectors (HHMDs) to identify the presence of ingested metallic foreign bodies (MFBs). Twenty-three children presenting to the emergency department with a complaint of MFBs ingested were enrolled. Sixteen of 23 patients had radiographically proven foreign bodies. The MFBs comprised coins (n = 11), a button battery (n = 1), a medallion (n = 1), a token (n = 1), a needle (n = 1), and a marble (leaded glass) (n = 1). The HHMD correctly detected 15 of 16 radiographically positive MFBs (93%) and correctly excluded a potential MFB in six of six radiographically negative cases. The only foreign body not detected was an ingested needle. One radiograph was equivocal. Radiographic localization of the ingested objects was as follows: esophagus, n = 4; stomach, n = 9; and intestines, n = 3. The HHMD correctly localized all detected MFBs. The HHMD had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 86%. HHMDs are effective screening devices for possible ingested MFBs. Positive studies localized to the stomach and lower gastrointestinal tract do not require confirmatory radiographic studies.

  2. Serious injuries from dishwasher powder ingestions in small children.

    PubMed

    Bertinelli, Amy; Hamill, James; Mahadevan, Murali; Miles, Fiona

    2006-03-01

    To describe patterns and severity of caustic injuries sustained from dishwasher powder ingestion and highlight need for national safety standards. Retrospective chart review of admissions for caustic ingestion to Starship Children's Hospital from January 2003 to January 2005 and review of New Zealand National Poisons Centre data. Between January 2003 and January 2005, the National Poisons Centre recorded 610 dishwashing powder ingestions, with 88% of children less than 2 years old. Twenty-three children were admitted to Starship Children's Hospital following caustic ingestion, of whom 11 were identified as having ingested dishwasher powder (9 boys and 2 girls) and were aged 11 to 30 months (mean 17.5). Five children (45%) were admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit over 4 months (October 2004 to January 2005), requiring intubation for airway control. Two children needed tracheostomy. Three of the 11 children (27%) required repeated oesophageal dilatation, and two underwent gastrostomy formation. One brand of dishwasher detergent and container type was implicated in over half of the cases. Dishwasher detergents are highly corrosive substances that cause potentially life-threatening injuries and ongoing morbidity. The recent surge of incidents may be related to change in product constituents or non-compliance with New Zealand safety standards. Efforts to limit product alkalinity, legislative requirement of Child-Resistant Packaging and public education may reduce injuries from these common household substances.

  3. [Magnet ingestions in children: a French multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Talvard, M; Mouttalib, S; Flaum, V; Viala, J; Galinier, P; Olives, J-P; Mas, E

    2015-01-01

    Digestive complications related to the ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies in children are increasing, especially in Asia and North America. In France, several case reports have been reported since 2008. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study to evaluate the frequency of ingestion of magnet foreign bodies and to describe the complicated cases that have occurred in France over the last 5 years. We report 40 cases of which 60% were multiple magnet ingestions. Eighty-eight percent of the children of the group who had swallowed multiple magnets needed interventional management by endoscopy (33%) or surgery (58%). Only two children (12.5%) of the group who swallowed one magnet required removal. This problem is not uncommon in France (2% of the 1132 foreign bodies investigated in the Toulouse center over 5 years), which justifies clear information for healthcare professionals and caregivers in order to avoid potential intestinal complications. We suggest interventional management or very close monitoring in the cases of multiple magnet ingestion. Meanwhile, in the majority of confirmed cases of simple magnet ingestions, we propose home monitoring.

  4. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    PubMed

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P < 0.05), while waterborne microplastic concentrations (P < 0.01) and incidence of ingestion decreased. This study provides baseline ecological data illustrating the correlation between waterborne microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recognition and management of foreign body ingestion and aspiration.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Oliver William; Heaton, Paul Anthony; Gamble, Jane; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2017-02-01

    Foreign body ingestion and foreign body aspiration commonly affect children. The most vulnerable age is between six months and four years, when children tend to explore new objects with their mouths. Many of these events remain asymptomatic, with the swallowed object passing through the gastrointestinal tract without causing harm. However, the frequency of serious complications as a result of the ingestion of hazardous objects has increased in recent years, in particular button batteries and magnets. To increase the likelihood of identifying foreign body ingestion and aspiration, healthcare professionals should maintain a high index of suspicion, be aware of the variation in presentations and include it as a differential diagnosis in children presenting with non-specific symptoms, such as fever, cough, drooling, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Management of most foreign body ingestions is conservative, using a 'watch-and-wait' approach. Children should be triaged as an emergency if they have signs or symptoms of airway obstruction or a history that indicates dangerous foreign body ingestion. Early recognition and management leads to improved outcomes for patients. Nurses have a vital role in providing education and practical advice to parents, which reduces the occurrence of these events. Stronger legislation is required to ensure manufacturers emphasise the potential dangers of certain products and design child-safe devices.

  6. Arterial compliance may be reduced by ingestion of red wine.

    PubMed

    Fantin, F; Bulpitt, C J; Zamboni, M; Cheek, E; Rajkumar, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of alcohol on blood pressure and arterial compliance over 24 h in a group of volunteers, comparing the same group of subjects on two consecutive but separate days, one with alcohol intake (alcohol day) and one free of alcohol (control day). We studied 18 healthy subjects (mean age 34.2 years, range 25-53). The subjects received the two days in random order. On the alcohol day, the subjects were asked to drink two glasses of red wine (12% ethanol) between 1830 hours and 0430 hours. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure and QKD interval (Q wave to Korotkoff (K) sound, diastolic phase (D) using Diasys Integra (Novacor, France)) were recorded (usually 1500 hours to 1500 hours). Three 'ingestion' periods were defined, from 1500 hours to 1830 hours ('before'), 1900 hours to 0430 hours ('during') and from 0430 hours to the following afternoon ('after') on both the alcohol day and on the control day. Red wine increased heart rate during alcohol ingestion and reduced arterial compliance after ingestion. The significant effect of interaction between day and ingestion period on heart rate, diastolic blood pressure and QKD were found, suggesting that the differences in response among the ingestion periods depended on whether alcohol has been consumed that day. For the first time our study indicates the effect of alcohol on 24 h arterial stiffness in a healthy group of volunteers.

  7. Small bowel perforations due to deliberate ingestion of injurious foreign bodies--a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Malik, Arshad M

    2008-01-01

    Ingestion of foreign bodies is not an uncommon problem in our society. The patients usually ingest different types of foreign bodies either accidentally or deliberately. Rare in children but adults are not uncommonly affected and are either psychiatric patients or ingest foreign bodies accidentally. Life threatening complications may occur at times due to ingestion of sharp and pointed objects. An interesting case of ingestion of multiple injurious foreign bodies presenting with multiple small intestinal perforations is presented with review of literature.

  8. Corrosive acid ingestion in man - a clinical and endoscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Dilawari, J B; Singh, S; Rao, P N; Anand, B S

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen patients with corrosive acid ingestion were studied. The majority of patients (n = 10) had ingested sulphuric acid, and three other patients had ingested hydrochloric acid. The extent and severity of upper gastrointestinal tract injury was determined by fibreoptic endoscopy and necropsy. All the patients had oesophageal and gastric involvement but the duodenum was spared in the majority. The injury was not considered as mild (grade I) in any of these patients; five patients having moderate (grade II) and 10 patients having severe (grade III) injury. Complications and mortality occurred only in patients with grade III injury. Feeding jejunostomy for nutritional support was used in five patients (all grade III) with good results. PMID:6693046

  9. In situ ingestion of microfibres by meiofauna from sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Felipe; Domenico, Maikon Di; Amaral, A Cecilia Z; Martínez, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Brett C; Worsaae, Katrine; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Cunha Lana, Paulo da

    2016-09-01

    Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites. Laboratory observations showed that species of Saccocirrus are able to egest microfibres with no obvious physical injury. We suggest that their non-selective microphagous suspension-feeding behaviour makes Saccocirrus more prone to ingest microfibres. Although microfibres are rapidly egested with no apparent harm, there is still the potential for trophic transfer into marine food webs through predation of Saccocirrus.

  10. Ingested Foreign Bodies in Children: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurjit; Sharma, Surendra; Khurade, Shrikant; Gooptu, Somnath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Accidental foreign body ingestion and impaction of food bolus present as an emergency. Pediatric population is the most vulnerable. Since the act may go unnoticed, the child may present late. However, most foreign bodies pass spontaneously in the stools. Case Capsule: Two children were brought with history of battery ingestion. In one case, an emergency gastro intestinal endoscopy had to be done for the foreign body removal which was made up of corroded battery. In the other case, no interventation was undertaken & an uncorroded battery passed per anum along with stools after 15 days of ingestion. Conclusion: Decision regarding immediate intervention or conservative approach will require consideration of the level of lodgement & type of foreign body. Prevention is possible if parents/guardians exercise control on their wards & are aware of implications of such an event. PMID:25657965

  11. Ceramic lead glaze ingestions in nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Roberge, R J; Martin, T G; Dean, B S; Lasek, R W

    1994-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead ceramic glaze ingestions that occurred in elderly patients during art therapy classes in nursing homes are reported. Initial blood lead levels were 109 micrograms/dL (5.23 mumol/L), 259 micrograms/dL (10.43 mumol/L), and 85 micrograms/dL (4.08 mumol/L), respectively, and all patients underwent chelation therapy. Two individuals tolerated therapy well and showed no discernable changes from baseline state. One patient with a lead encephalopathy died and is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of a death directly related to a ceramic lead glaze ingestion. Ceramic lead glaze ingestions among institutionalized patients may be more common than generally appreciated and occasionally are associated with significant morbidity or, rarely, mortality. Simple preventive measures could eliminate the majority of such occurrences.

  12. Intoxicated copepods: ingesting toxic phytoplankton leads to risky behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lasley-Rasher, Rachel S; Nagel, Kathryn; Angra, Aakanksha; Yen, Jeannette

    2016-04-27

    Understanding interactions between harmful algal bloom (HAB) species and their grazers is essential for determining mechanisms of bloom proliferation and termination. We exposed the common calanoid copepod, Temora longicornis to the HAB species Alexandrium fundyense and examined effects on copepod survival, ingestion, egg production and swimming behaviour. A. fundyense was readily ingested by T. longicornis and significantly altered copepod swimming behaviour without affecting copepod survival or fitness. A. fundyense caused T. longicornis to increase their swimming speed, and the straightness of their path long after the copepods had been removed from the A. fundyense treatment. Models suggest that these changes could lead to a 25-56% increase in encounter frequency between copepods and their predators. This work highlights the need to determine how ingesting HAB species alters grazer behaviour as this can have significant impacts on the fate of HAB toxins in marine systems. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Effects of ingested atmospheric turbulence on measured tail rotor acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signor, David B.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Mosher, Marianne; Hagen, Martin J.; George, Albert R.

    1992-01-01

    Results from an outdoor hover test of a full-scale Lynx tail rotor are presented. The investigation was designed to further the understanding of the acoustics of an isolated tail rotor hovering out-of-ground effect in atmospheric turbulence, without the effects of the main rotor wake or other helicopter components. Measurements include simultaneous rotor performance, noise, inflow, and far-field atmospheric turbulence. Results with grid-generated inflow turbulence are also presented. The effects of turbulence ingestion on rotor noise are quantified. Turbulence ingestion noise is found to be the dominant noise mechanism at locations near the rotor axis. At these locations, the sound radiated by the hovering rotor increases with both increasing atmospheric wind speed and ingested rms turbulent velocity.

  14. Feeding type affects microplastic ingestion in a coastal invertebrate community.

    PubMed

    Setälä, Outi; Norkko, Joanna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2016-01-15

    Marine litter is one of the problems marine ecosystems face at present, coastal habitats and food webs being the most vulnerable as they are closest to the sources of litter. A range of animals (bivalves, free swimming crustaceans and benthic, deposit-feeding animals), of a coastal community of the northern Baltic Sea were exposed to relatively low concentrations of 10 μm microbeads. The experiment was carried out as a small scale mesocosm study to mimic natural habitat. The beads were ingested by all animals in all experimental concentrations (5, 50 and 250 beads mL(-1)). Bivalves (Mytilus trossulus, Macoma balthica) contained significantly higher amounts of beads compared with the other groups. Free-swimming crustaceans ingested more beads compared with the benthic animals that were feeding only on the sediment surface. Ingestion of the beads was concluded to be the result of particle concentration, feeding mode and the encounter rate in a patchy environment.

  15. Influence of ingested lead on body mass of wintering canvasbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hohman, W.L.; Pritchert, R.D.; Pace, R.M. III; Woolington, D.W. ); Helm, R. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors determined the prevalence of lead shotgun pellets in gizzards of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected at Catahoula Lake and the Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana, during winter 1987-88 to assess the influence of ingested lead shot on canvasback body mass. The prevalence of ingested lead shot was significantly higher at Catahoula Lake (27%) than at the Mississippi River Delta (4%). Canvasbacks collected at Catahoula Lake showed significant differences in prevalence of ingested lead shot by age and month. The authors attributed age-related and seasonal variations to differences in foraging effort and exposure time. Body mass of canvasbacks at Catahoula Lake, after accounting for age, monthly variation, and body size, was significantly reduced (120 g or 10%) in birds that had lead shot in their gizzards.

  16. Ingested cylindrical batteries in an incarcerated male: a caustic tale!

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Louise; Maatouk, Mohamed; Raja, Mazhar; O'Hara, Richard

    2015-09-29

    A 37-year-old incarcerated man presented to the accident and emergency department following the deliberate ingestion of eight cylindrical batteries. He also admitted to inserting a razor blade wrapped in cling-film into his rectum; in addition, he sustained a self-inflicted laceration to his left antecubital fossa, using the metal casing from a battery. His medical history included a borderline and emotionally unstable personality disorder. He had ingested several batteries 12 months previously and required an emergency laparotomy to retrieve them. On the present admission, as there was no clinical evidence of small bowel obstruction, he was treated conservatively with serial radiographs. Following conservative management, the batteries failed to progress through the gastrointestinal tract, hence a laparotomy was performed and all the batteries were extricated. This paper discusses the management and associated sequelae of patients presenting following the intentional ingestion of a battery.

  17. A case of argyria following colloidal silver ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyok Bu; Lee, Joon Ho; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Ai Young; Choi, Jong Sun; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2009-08-01

    Argyria is a rare cutaneous discoloration caused by the intake of silver or various compounds containing silver. We report a case of argyria in a 73-year-old male following ingestion of colloidal silver as an alternative medicine over 5 years. He had a diffuse, slate gray discoloration of his face and hands. A biopsy specimen from the face revealed brown-black extracellular granules in the upper dermis and between collagen bundles. We also found silver particles in the mucous of the colon. The ingestion of colloidal silver appears to be increasing among patients using alternative health practices. We report this case to bring people's attention to the problems associated with the ingestion of colloidal silver.

  18. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Karaddi, Nanda Kumar Venkatanarasimha

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  19. Hypokalemic myopathy in pregnancy caused by clay ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ukaonu, Chinwe; Hill, D Ashley; Christensen, Franklyn

    2003-11-01

    We present a case of severe hypokalemic myopathy during pregnancy caused by clay ingestion. A multigravida presented with fatigue, muscle weakness, and a 3-day history of extremity pain. Serum potassium levels were 1.5 mEq/L, requiring intravenous potassium replacement. The initial evaluation was unrewarding for the cause of the patient's hypokalemia until a family member reported that the patient frequently ate large quantities of clay. Discontinuation of clay ingestion led to normalization of potassium levels. Pica, the persistent ingestion of nonnutritive substances, can cause a number of medical problems. Pica of clay, called geophagia, can bind potassium in the intestine, leading to severe hypokalemic myopathy. Clinicians caring for pregnant women with fatigue, muscle weakness, and hypokalemia should consider geophagia as a possible cause.

  20. Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource.

    PubMed

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; Silva, José Diego B; França, Elton José de; Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa de; Gusmão, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America. We assessed the abundance and diversity of both plastic debris and other food items found in the gut of fishes caught by local fishermen. We observed that 83% of the fish had plastic debris inside the gut, the highest frequency reported for a fish species so far. Most of the plastic debris (88.6%) recovered from the guts of fish were microplastics (<5 mm), fibres being the most frequent type (46.6%). We observed that fish consumed more microplastics at the urbanized sections of the river, and that the ingestion of microplastics was negatively correlated with the diversity of other food items in the gut of individual fish. Nevertheless, microplastics ingestion appears to have a limited impact on H. littorale, and the consequences of human consumption of this fish were not assessed. Our results suggest freshwater biota are vulnerable to microplastics pollution and that urbanization is a major factor contributing to the pollution of freshwater environments with microplastics. We suggest the gut content of fish could be used as a tool for the qualitative assessment of microplastics pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Further research is needed to determine the processes responsible for the high incidence of microplastics ingestion by H. littorale, and to evaluate the risk posed to humans by the consumption of freshwater fish that ingested microplastics.

  1. Ingested allergens must be absorbed systemically to induce systemic anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Richard T.; Mahler, Ashley; Hogan, Simon; Khodoun, Marat; Shibuya, Akira; Finkelman, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Background IgE-mediated food allergy is a common cause of enteric disease and is responsible for approximately 100 systemic anaphylaxis deaths in the USA each year. IgG antibodies can protect against IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis induced by injected antigens by neutralizing antigens before they can bind to mast cell-associated IgE. Objective We have investigated whether IgA and IgG antibodies can similarly protect against systemic, IgE-mediated anaphylaxis induced by ingested antigens and, if so, whether IgA and IgG antibodies protect by neutralizing antigens before or after their systemic absorption. Methods Murine passive and active anaphylaxis models were used to study the abilities of serum vs. gut lumenal IgA antibodies and serum IgG antibodies to inhibit systemic anaphylaxis induced by ingested allergens in normal mice, mice deficient in the ability to secrete IgA into the intestines, and mice in which intestinal IL-9 overexpression has induced intestinal mastocytosis and increased intestinal permeability. Results IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis and mast cell degranulation induced by antigen ingestion are suppressed by both serum antigen-specific IgA and IgG, but not by IgA within the gut lumen. Conclusion Systemic, rather than enteric antibodies protect against systemic anaphylaxis induced by ingested antigen. This implies that ingested antigens must be absorbed systemically to induce anaphylaxis and suggests that immunization protocols that increase serum levels of antigen-specific, non-IgE antibodies should protect against severe food allergy. Clinical Implications Induction of a systemic IgG or IgA antibody response against a food allergen should protect against induction of systemic anaphylaxis by ingestion of that allergen. PMID:21354602

  2. The effect of caffeine ingestion on delayed onset muscle soreness.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Caitlin F; Hatfield, Disa L; Riebe, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    The beneficial effects of caffeine on aerobic activity and resistance training performance are well documented. However, less is known concerning caffeine's potential role in reducing perception of pain and soreness during exercise. In addition, there is no information regarding the effects of caffeine on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on muscle soreness, blood enzyme activity, and performance after a bout of elbow flexion/extension exercise. Nine low-caffeine-consuming males (body mass: 76.68 ± 8.13 kg; height: 179.18 ± 9.35 cm; age: 20 ± 1 year) were randomly assigned to ingest either caffeine or placebo 1 hour before completing 4 sets of 10 bicep curls on a preacher bench, followed by a fifth set in which subjects completed as many repetitions as possible. Soreness and soreness on palpation intensity were measured using three 0-10 visual analog scales before exercise, and 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exercise. After a washout period, subjects crossed over to the other treatment group. Caffeine ingestion resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower levels of soreness on day 2 and day 3 compared with placebo. Total repetitions in the final set of exercise increased with caffeine ingestion compared with placebo. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion immediately before an upper-body resistance training out enhances performance. A further beneficial effect of sustained caffeine ingestion in the days after the exercise bout is an attenuation of DOMS. This decreased perception of soreness in the days after a strenuous resistance training workout may allow individuals to increase the number of training sessions in a given time period.

  3. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear.

  4. Factors influencing fluoride ingestion from dentifrice by children.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Claudia Ayumi Nakai; Belini, Melina Rodrigues; Italiani, Flávia de Moraes; Pauleto, Adriana Regina Colombo; Araújo, Juliana Julianelli de; Tessarolli, Vanessa; Grizzo, Larissa Tercilia; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the percentage of the amount of dentifrice loaded onto the toothbrush that is ingested by children, taking into account age, the amount of dentifrice used during toothbrushing, and the dentifrice flavor. The sample consisted of 155 children of both genders attending public kindergartens and schools in Bauru, Brazil, divided into 5 groups (n = 30-32) of children aged 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years old. The dentifrices used were Sorriso™ (1219 ppm F, peppermint-flavored) and Tandy™ (959 ppm F, tutti-frutti-flavored). The assessment of fluoride intake from dentifrices was carried out six times for each child, using 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 g of each dentifrice, following a random, crossover distribution. Brushing was performed by the children or their parents/caregivers according to the home habits and under the observation of the examiner. Fluoride present in the expectorant and on toothbrush was analyzed with an ion-specific electrode after HMDS-facilitated diffusion. Fluoride ingestion was indirectly derived. Results were analyzed by 3-way repeated-measures anova and Tukey's tests (P < 0.05) using the percent dentifrice ingested as response variable. Age and percent dentifrice ingested for both dentifrices, and the three amounts used were inversely related (P < 0.0001). Percent dentifrice ingested was significantly higher after the use of Tandy™ under all conditions of the study when compared with Sorriso™ (P < 0.0001). Significant differences were observed when brushing with 0.3 g when compared with 1.2 g, for both dentifrices tested (P < 0.05). The results indicate that all variables tested must be considered in preventive measures aiming to reduce the amount of fluoride ingested by young children. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Effect of Carbohydrate and Caffeine Ingestion on Badminton Performance.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Neil D; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ingesting carbohydrate and caffeine solutions on measures that are central to success in badminton. Twelve male badminton players performed a badminton serve-accuracy test, coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT), and a choice reaction-time sprint test 60 min before exercise. Participants then consumed 7 mL/kg body mass of either water (PLA), 6.4% carbohydrate solution (CHO), a solution containing a caffeine dose of 4 mg/kg, or 6.4% carbohydrate and 4 mg/kg caffeine (C+C). All solutions were flavored with orange-flavored concentrate. During the 33-min fatigue protocol, participants were provided with an additional 3 mL/kg body mass of solution, which was ingested before the end of the protocol. As soon as the 33-min fatigue protocol was completed, all measures were recorded again. Short-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of CHO and C+C compared with PLA (P = .001, η(p)(2) = .50). Long-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of C+C compared with PLA (P < .001, η(p)(2) = .53). Absolute error in CAT demonstrated smaller deteriorations after the ingestion of C+C compared with PLA (P < .05; slow, η(p)(2) = .41; fast, η(p)(2) = .31). Choice reaction time improved in all trials with the exception of PLA, which demonstrated a reduction (P < .001, η(p)(2) = .85), although C+C was faster than all trials (P < .001, η(p)(2) = .76). These findings suggest that the ingestion of a caffeinated carbohydrate solution before and during a badminton match can maintain serve accuracy, anticipation timing, and sprinting actions around the court.

  6. Cold drink ingestion improves exercise endurance capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason K W; Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effect of drink temperature on cycling capacity in the heat. On two separate trials, eight males cycled at 66 +/- 2% VO2peak (mean +/- SD) to exhaustion in hot (35.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C) and humid (60 +/- 1%) environments. Participants ingested three 300-mL aliquots of either a cold (4 degrees C) or a warm (37 degrees C) drink during 30 min of seated rest before exercise and 100 mL of the same drink every 10 min during exercise. Rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, and sweat rate were recorded. Ratings of thermal sensation and perceived exertion were assessed. Exercise time was longer (P < 0.001) with the cold drink (63.8 +/- 4.3 min) than with the warm drink (52.0 +/- 4.1 min). Rectal temperature fell by 0.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C (P < 0.001) at the end of the resting period after ingestion of the cold drinks. There was no effect of drink temperature on mean skin temperature at rest (P = 0.870), but mean skin temperature was lower from 20 min during exercise with ingestion of the cold drink than with the warm drink (P < 0.05). Heart rate was lower before exercise and for the first 35 min of exercise with ingestion of the cold drink than with the warm drink (P < 0.05). Drink temperature influenced sweat rate (1.22 +/- 0.34 and 1.40 +/- 0.41 L x h(-1) for the cold and the warm drink, respectively; P < 0.05). Ratings of thermal sensation and perceived exertion (P < 0.01) during exercise were lower when the cold drink was ingested. Compared with a drink at 37 degrees C, the ingestion of a cold drink before and during exercise in the heat reduced physiological strain (reduced heat accumulation) during exercise, leading to an improved endurance capacity (23 +/- 6%).

  7. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    PubMed

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  8. Spondylodiscitis associated with button battery ingestion: prompt evaluation with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Young, Allen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry AGM

    2015-01-01

    Spondylodiscitis is a rare complication of unwitnessed button battery ingestion in children. We report a case of a 20-month-old girl who presented to the emergency room 2 weeks after endoscopic removal of unwitnessed, impacted esophageal battery. Delayed presentation of spondylodiscitis after foreign body removal is related to local injury, pressure necrosis, and perforation. The bilaminar shape of an unknown ingested foreign body should alert the treating physician that it might be a battery rather than a coin. Prompt evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging is essential to prevent neurological deficit and/or spinal deformities. PMID:26459202

  9. An investigation of the ingestion exposure pathways in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Mankit Ray; Lui, Wai Sing

    1995-12-31

    An investigation of the food supply and the dietetic pattern of Hong Kong was conducted and some of the important factors affecting the ingestion exposure pathways following a severe nuclear accident were examined. It was found that the nuclide concentrations in the vegetables are very sensitive to time and substantial saving in effective dose resulted from ingesting contaminated vegetables can be achieved by appropriate imposition of restriction on the consumption of local produce. The consumption of locally grown vegetables in large quantity and the proximity of the Hong Kong vegetable farms to the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station suggests that the vegetable-human pathway is important and warrants special attention.

  10. Naphthalene Poisoning following Ingestion of Mothballs: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kundra, Tanveer Singh; Bhutatani, Vikas; Gupta, Rimple; Kaur, Parminder

    2015-08-01

    Naphthalene is a widely used industrial and household chemical in the form of mothballs. But it has rarely been an agent of poisoning worldwide. We describe a case of ingestional naphthalene poisoning with a good outcome after proper management. A 29-year-old girl ingested 8 mothballs, and presented two days later with haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia. She was given intravenous methylene blue, N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid, besides supportive treatment. Renal replacement therapy in the form of SLED of 8 hours was done on a daily basis. She was discharged after ten days on twice a week outpatient follow-up haemodialysis.

  11. Naphthalene Poisoning following Ingestion of Mothballs: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhutatani, Vikas; Gupta, Rimple; Kaur, Parminder

    2015-01-01

    Naphthalene is a widely used industrial and household chemical in the form of mothballs. But it has rarely been an agent of poisoning worldwide. We describe a case of ingestional naphthalene poisoning with a good outcome after proper management. A 29-year-old girl ingested 8 mothballs, and presented two days later with haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia. She was given intravenous methylene blue, N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid, besides supportive treatment. Renal replacement therapy in the form of SLED of 8 hours was done on a daily basis. She was discharged after ten days on twice a week outpatient follow-up haemodialysis. PMID:26436023

  12. Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Rameau, Anaïs; Anand, Sumeet M; Nguyen, Lily H

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

  13. Unusual liver abscess secondary to ingested foreign body: laparoscopic management

    PubMed Central

    PANEBIANCO, A.; LOZITO, R.C.; PRESTERA, A.; IALONGO, P.; VOLPI, A.; CARBOTTA, G.; PALASCIANO, N.

    2015-01-01

    Liver abscess is a cause of febrile abdominal pain and usually the origin of a liver abscess is ascending cholangitis, hemathological diffusion, via the portal vein or the hepatic artery, or superinfection of necrotic tissue. Solitary pyogenic abscess with no obvious systemic cause may be secondary to a local event such as the migration of an ingested foreign body. We report the case of a solitary liver abscess caused by an ingested foreign body, a fish bone, migrated through the gastric wall into the left lobe. PMID:26017106

  14. Preoperative use of ultrasonography to localize an ingested foreign body.

    PubMed

    Piotto, Lino; Gent, Roger; Kirby, Christopher P; Morris, Lloyd L

    2009-03-01

    We report a 9-year-old boy who had swallowed a small dressmaker's pin during an art & craft class. Confirmation of ingestion of the pin and its passage through the gut was achieved with abdominal radiography. When the pin had not passed after 8 days, and with increasing concern about the likelihood of perforation, US was used to locate its exact position to allow surgical removal. This case report illustrates the unique use of US to reveal the intraappendiceal location of an ingested foreign body, facilitating its surgical removal.

  15. Spondylodiscitis associated with button battery ingestion: prompt evaluation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Young, Allen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Bosemani, Thangamadhan

    2015-10-01

    Spondylodiscitis is a rare complication of unwitnessed button battery ingestion in children. We report a case of a 20-month-old girl who presented to the emergency room 2 weeks after endoscopic removal of unwitnessed, impacted esophageal battery. Delayed presentation of spondylodiscitis after foreign body removal is related to local injury, pressure necrosis, and perforation. The bilaminar shape of an unknown ingested foreign body should alert the treating physician that it might be a battery rather than a coin. Prompt evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging is essential to prevent neurological deficit and/or spinal deformities.

  16. Rotor noise due to atmospheric turbulence ingestion. I - Fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    In the present analytical procedure for the prediction of helicopter rotor noise generation due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence, different models for turbulence fluid mechanics and the ingestion process are combined. The mean flow and turbulence statistics associated with the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled with attention to the effects of atmospheric stability length, windspeed, and altitude. The turbulence field can be modeled as isotropic, locally stationary, and homogeneous. For large mean flow contraction ratios, accurate predictions of turbulence vorticity components at the rotor face requires the incorporation of the differential drift of fluid particles on adjacent streamlines.

  17. Axial-Flow Compressor Performance With Water Ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Murthy, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    Stage-stacking computer code (WISGSK) developed for prediction of offdesign axial-flow compressor performance with water ingestion. Code uses meantime stage-stacking method; stage and cumulative compressor performance calculated utilizing representative triangles located at rotor inlet and outlet mean radii. Code provides options for calculation of performance with mixtures of gases such as air and water vapor and air/water droplet mixtures with different water contents. Useful for obtaining preliminary estimates of overall performance of compressors with water ingestion given design point details corresponding to airflow and nature of corrections for air/water mixture flow.

  18. Fatal poisoning from ingestion of Datura stramonium seeds.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Mitselou, Antigony; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2004-04-01

    A 19-y old male who intentionally ingested an unknown quantity of Datura stramonium seeds to experience its hallucinogenic effects was found dead. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine were detected in postmortem blood and urine. Blood concentrations of hyoscyamine and scopolamine were 1.1 and 0.2 microg/mL, respectively; in urine only hyoscyamine at 14.2 microg/mL was found. This fatality presents the highest blood concentrations ever reported and confirms that death was due to Datura Stramonium seed ingestion.

  19. Radiological features of ingested metallic mesh earphone pieces.

    PubMed

    Dalgorf, Dustin; Trimble, Keith; Papsin, Blake; Forte, Vito

    2008-12-01

    Foreign body ingestion remains a frequent cause of morbidity in infants and children. Symptoms vary with size, shape, location and composition of the foreign body. Flat objects tend to rotate to the greatest diameter of the esophageal lumen and become oriented in the coronal plane. We report two cases of ingested metallic mesh earphone pieces found in the upper esophagus. The foreign bodies were difficult to identify on posteroanterior images, but were more easily visualized on the lateral images. The presentation of this clinical entity and the recognition of its distinctive radiological findings may prevent a delayed diagnosis in the future and avoid potential complications.

  20. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2003-07-21

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding SRS area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output.

  1. Enduring Memory Impairments Provoked by Developmental Febrile Seizures Are Mediated by Functional and Structural Effects of Neuronal Restrictive Silencing Factor.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Katelin P; Barry, Jeremy M; Curran, Megan M; Singh-Taylor, Akanksha; Brennan, Gary; Rismanchi, Neggy; Page, Matias; Noam, Yoav; Holmes, Gregory L; Baram, Tallie Z

    2017-04-05

    In a subset of children experiencing prolonged febrile seizures (FSs), the most common type of childhood seizures, cognitive outcomes are compromised. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we identified significant, enduring spatial memory problems in male rats following experimental prolonged FS (febrile status epilepticus; eFSE). Remarkably, these deficits were abolished by transient, post hoc interference with the chromatin binding of the transcriptional repressor neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF or REST). This transcriptional regulator is known to contribute to neuronal differentiation during development and to programmed gene expression in mature neurons. The mechanisms of the eFSE-provoked memory problems involved complex disruption of memory-related hippocampal oscillations recorded from CA1, likely resulting in part from impairments of dendritic filtering of cortical inputs as well as abnormal synaptic function. Accordingly, eFSE provoked region-specific dendritic loss in the hippocampus, and aberrant generation of excitatory synapses in dentate gyrus granule cells. Blocking NRSF transiently after eFSE prevented granule cell dysmaturation, restored a functional balance of γ-band network oscillations, and allowed treated eFSE rats to encode and retrieve spatial memories. Together, these studies provide novel insights into developing networks that underlie memory, the mechanisms by which early-life seizures influence them, and the means to abrogate the ensuing cognitive problems.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whereas seizures have been the central focus of epilepsy research, they are commonly accompanied by cognitive problems, including memory impairments that contribute to poor quality of life. These deficits often arise before the onset of spontaneous seizures, or independent from them, yet the mechanisms involved are unclear. Here, using a rodent model of common developmental seizures that provoke epilepsy in a subset of individuals, we

  2. Acetylcholine-Provoked Coronary Spasm at Site of Significant Organic Stenosis Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients With Coronary Vasospastic Angina.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masanobu; Kaikita, Koichi; Sato, Koji; Tanaka, Tomoko; Sugamura, Koichi; Sakamoto, Kenji; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Soejima, Hirofumi; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Kunihiko; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-09-08

    Coronary artery spasm contributes to the pathogenesis of variant angina and ischemic heart disease and may play a role in the progression of atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether the location of spasm is related to outcome. This study compared the clinical features and prognosis of patients with coronary spasm at the site of significant atherosclerotic stenosis with patients with spasm at sites without stenosis or nonsignificant stenosis. This was a retrospective, observational study of 1,877 consecutive patients with typical or atypical angina-like chest pain undergoing acetylcholine (ACh)-provocation testing. A total of 1,760 patients were eligible for analysis. ACh-provoked coronary spasm and significant organic stenosis were observed in 873 and 358 patients, respectively. In patients with significant atherosclerotic stenosis, ACh-positive patients (n = 233) were younger and without diabetes mellitus compared with nonspasm patients (n = 125). In patients without organic stenosis, ACh-positive patients (n = 640) were older, had dyslipidemia, and were more likely to have a family history of ischemic heart disease than nonspasm patients (n = 762). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified ST-segment elevation during anginal attacks, organic stenosis of the left anterior descending artery, and multivessel spasm as correlates of spasm at sites of significant organic stenosis (n = 192). Multivariate analysis identified ACh-provoked spasm at the site of significant stenosis and use of nitrates as the 2 prognostic factors for major adverse cardiac events. The clinical features and prognosis of patients with ACh-provoked coronary spasm were different when it occurred at the site of significant atherosclerotic stenosis compared with patients with spasm elsewhere. Both spasm at the site of significant organic stenosis and nitrate use were significant predictors of major adverse cardiac events. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  3. Antithrombotic Protective Effects of Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro Peptide during Emotional Stress Provoked by Forced Swimming Test in Rats.

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation was enhanced and all factors (total, enzyme, and non-enzyme) of the fibrinolytic system were suppressed in rats in 60 min after forced swimming test. Argininecontaining tetrapeptide glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro administered prior to this test activated fibrinolysis and prevented hypercoagulation. Administration of this peptide in 5 min after swimming test also enhanced anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and antithrombotic activity of the blood. Therefore, glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro exerted both preventive and curative effects on the hemostasis system and prevented enhancement of blood coagulation provoked by emotional stress modeled by forced swimming test.

  4. Effects of Phenibut and Citrocard on Non-Competitive and Competitive Behavior during Provoked Aggression in Animals.

    PubMed

    Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaya, A N; Tyurenkov, I N

    2015-05-01

    Anti-aggressive effects of phenibut (25 mg/kg) and its structural analogue citrocard (50 mg/kg) were revealed in rats under condition of provoked intraspecific aggression. These substances significantly decreased manifestations of aggression in animals: they increased the latency of attacks and reduced their number. Anti-aggressive effects of citrocard were more pronounced than effects of phenibut under conditions of non-competitive aggression induced by fear of inescapable painful exposure or under conditions of competitive aggression reflecting the ability of animals to reveal adaptive social communicative skills in aversive situation.

  5. Evidence for a reflex provoking contraction of the renal pelvis (with some comments on its clinical implications).

    PubMed

    Merrick, M V; Griffin, T M

    1994-06-01

    The effect of swallowing a small quantity of water or of solid food (biscuit) on the renogram curve was observed in 177 patients. Swallowing provoked contraction of the renal pelvis in 63% of the kidneys with a pelvicalyceal system which was neither obstructed nor dilated, with expulsion of a substantial fraction of the contents within 30 s. This did not occur in obstructed or denervated kidneys, nor in patients with a high transection of the spinal cord. Evidence is adduced that this contraction is mediated reflexly. This effect may be used diagnostically to distinguish physiological dilatation from obstruction. The implications when performing and interpreting renography are discussed.

  6. Assessment of swimmer behaviors on pool water ingestion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric pathogens in pool water can be unintentionally ingested during swimming, increasing the likelihood of acute gastrointestinal illness(AGI). AGI cases in outbreaks are more likely to submerge heads than non-cases, but an association is unknown since outbreak data are self-r...

  7. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    SciTech Connect

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-08-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.

  8. Dried Plum Ingestion Increases the Osteoblastogenic Capacity of Human Serum.

    PubMed

    Delgado Cuenca, Paulina; Almaiman, Lama; Schenk, Simon; Kern, Mark; Hooshmand, Shirin

    2017-07-01

    In cell culture studies, dried plum (Prunus domestica L.) polyphenols increased osteoblast alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralized nodule formation, and the expression of the bone marker genes runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osterix. The purpose of this study was to determine whether human serum collected 1 and 2 h after dried plum ingestion influenced osteoblast cell activity and gene expression. Five healthy women ingested 100 g of dried plum, and serum samples were collected at baseline (before dried plum ingestion) and 1 and 2 h postingestion of dried plum. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells were treated (2% of medium) with these serum samples for 3 or 9 days. Intracellular and extracellular ALP activities were significantly increased after 3 or 9 days of treatment with serum both postingestion time points, with no effect seen in baseline samples. Also, serum obtained 1 and 2 h postingestion significantly increased the mRNA expression of bone markers RUNX2 and connexin43 (CX43) after both 3 and 9 days of incubation periods. Finally, serum obtained 1 and 2 h postingestion increased the mRNA expression of β-catenin after 9 days of incubation. We conclude that osteoblast activity and function are increased by dried plum ingestion, which may, in part, explain its beneficial effects on bone health.

  9. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  10. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

  11. Ingestible Thermometer Pill Aids Athletes in Beating the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to monitor the core body temperature of astronauts during space flight, the ingestible "thermometer pill" has a silicone-coated exterior, with a microbattery, a quartz crystal temperature sensor, a space-aged telemetry system, and microminiaturized circuitry on the interior.

  12. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  13. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  14. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  15. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  16. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Hrushikesh P.; Nikhade, Pradnya P.; Chandak, Manoj G.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully. PMID:22577586

  17. Modeled Estimates of Soil and Dust Ingestion Rates for Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily soil/dust ingestion rates typically used in exposure and risk assessments are based on tracer element studies, which have a number of limitations and do not separate contributions from soil and dust. This article presents an alternate approach of modeling soil and dust inge...

  18. Lead ingestion associated with ceramic glaze--Alaska, 1992.

    PubMed

    1992-10-23

    In August 1992, a physician notified the Alaska Division of Public Health (ADPH) that three patients at a psychiatric hospital had consumed ceramic glaze during ceramic therapy (i.e., recreation therapy involving the production of ceramic ware), and two of these patients had elevated blood lead levels (BLLs). This report summarizes the ADPH's investigation of these ingestions.

  19. Survival of acute hypernatremia due to massive soy sauce ingestion.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Borek, Heather A; Syverud, Scott A; Holstege, Christopher P

    2013-08-01

    Intentional massive sodium chloride ingestions are rare occurrences and are often fatal. There are a variety of treatment recommendations for hypernatremia, ranging from dialysis to varying rates of correction. We report a case of acute severe hypernatremia corrected with rapid free-water infusions that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. A 19-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department in a comatose state with seizure-like activity 2 hours after ingesting a quart of soy sauce. He was administered 6 L of free water over 30 min and survived neurologically intact without clinical sequelae. Corrected for hyperglycemia, the patient's peak serum sodium was 196 mmol/L, which, to our knowledge, is the highest documented level in an adult patient to survive an acute sodium ingestion without neurologic deficits. Emergency physicians should consider rapidly lowering serum sodium with hypotonic intravenous fluids as a potential management strategy for acute severe hypernatremia secondary to massive salt ingestion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating Children's Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates through ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Soil/dust ingestion rates are important variables in assessing children’s health risks in contaminated environments. Current estimates are based largely on soil tracer methodology, which is limited by analytical uncertainty, small sample size, and short study duration. Objectives: The objective was to estimate site-specific soil/dust ingestion rates through reevaluation of the lead absorption dose–response relationship using new bioavailability data from the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (BHSS) in Idaho, USA. Methods: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in vitro bioavailability methodology was applied to archived BHSS soil and dust samples. Using age-specific biokinetic slope factors, we related bioavailable lead from these sources to children’s blood lead levels (BLLs) monitored during cleanup from 1988 through 2002. Quantitative regression analyses and exposure assessment guidance were used to develop candidate soil/dust source partition scenarios estimating lead intake, allowing estimation of age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates. These ingestion rate and bioavailability estimates were simultaneously applied to the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children to determine those combinations best approximating observed BLLs. Results: Absolute soil and house dust bioavailability averaged 33% (SD ± 4%) and 28% (SD ± 6%), respectively. Estimated BHSS age-specific soil/du

  1. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of a Major Release from SRTC

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-08

    The food ingestion consequences due to radioactive particulates of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3, are evaluated for Savannah River Technology Center. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet for particulates.

  2. Sudden death due to forced ingestion of vinegar.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Hunsaker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Vinegar is a clear colorless liquid that commercially consists of 5% acetic acid. It has numerous benefits in everyday use, including culinary, medical, and cleaning. The ingestion of concentrated acetic acid is strongly discouraged and may have detrimental consequences, such as acute pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, gastric and hepatic complications, upper airway obstruction, or death. We report the first case in the literature of a 5-year-old boy who experienced a sudden death due to ingestion of distilled white vinegar. The manner was homicide. There was evidence of nonfatal blunt force impacts of the head, trunk, and extremities. A pungent aromatic odor of the viscera, gastric/small bowel contents, and cranial cavity was noted at autopsy. A dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa, small bowel, and pancreas was observed. Forensic pathologists should consider ingestion of vinegar when confronted with a compelling history as well as an aromatic odor suggesting vinegar and dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa and small bowel. While vinegar is a common household item and has several advantages, it may prove fatal if ingested in large quantities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Jejunal perforation due to porcupine quill ingestion in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacy L.; Panizzi, Luca; Bracamonte, Jose

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old Andalusian filly was treated for jejunal perforations due to ingestion of a porcupine quill. During exploratory laparotomy, 2 separate stapled side-to-side jejunojejunal resection and anastomoses were performed. Post-operative complications after 2 years follow-up included mild incisional herniation following incisional infection and chronic intermittent colic. PMID:24489394

  4. Accidental ingestion of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine).

    PubMed Central

    Bedford Russell, A R; Schwartz, R H; Dawling, S

    1992-01-01

    There is no report of the effects of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine) poisoning in childhood. The case of a 13 month old boy who ingested one capsule of Ecstasy is reported. Neurological and cardiovascular side effects predominated, which responded well to treatment with a chlormethiazole infusion. PMID:1358033

  5. [Intestinal perforation due to multiple magnet ingestion: a case report].

    PubMed

    Cevizci, Mehmet Nuri; Karadağ, Cetin Ali; Demir, Mesut; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2012-03-01

    Multiple magnet ingestion during childhood may result in emergency situations. A single magnet may be discharged with intestinal peristalsis, but multiple magnets may stick together and cause significant intestinal complications. Here we present a case with intestinal perforation due to ingestion of multiple magnets and metal pieces. An eight-year-old girl presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. She had abdominal tenderness and defense on the physical examination. Abdominal X-ray showed air and fluid levels. Metallic images were not considered at first as important in the diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasonography was reported as acute appendicitis. During the abdominal exploration, the appendix was normal, but there were dense adherences around the ileum and cecum. After adhesiolysis, intestinal perforations were seen in the cecum and 15 and 45 cm proximal to the cecum. Magnet and metal pieces were present in the perforated segments. Wedge resection and primary repair was performed. There were no postoperative complications, and she was discharged on the postoperative fifth day. Pediatric surgeons should be aware of the complications of multiple magnet ingestion. If the patient has a history of multiple magnet ingestion, follow-up with daily abdominal X-rays should be done, and in cases where magnets seem to cluster together or if acute abdominal signs develop, surgical exploration should be considered.

  6. Assessment of swimmer behaviors on pool water ingestion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric pathogens in pool water can be unintentionally ingested during swimming, increasing the likelihood of acute gastrointestinal illness(AGI). AGI cases in outbreaks are more likely to submerge heads than non-cases, but an association is unknown since outbreak data are self-r...

  7. Effects of kale ingestion on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. The chronic ingestion of cabbage of the same family is known to accelerate conjugating acetaminophen (AA) and decrease the plasma AA level. Therefore, we examined to clarify the effects of kale on the pharmacokinetics of AA, its glucuronide (AA-G) and sulfate (AA-S). AA was orally administered to rats pre-treated with kale or cabbage (2000 mg/kg/day) for one week. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and the concentrations of AA, AA-G and AA-S were determined. In results, kale ingestion induced an increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and a decrease in the clearance of AA, whereas cabbage had almost no influence. In addition, there were significant differences in the AUC of AA-G between the control and kale groups. mRNA expression levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, the enzymes involved in glucuronidation, in the kale group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In conclusion, kale ingestion increased the plasma concentrations of both AA and AA-G. The results suggest that kale ingestion accelerates the glucuronidation of AA, but an increase of plasma AA levels has a different cause than the cause of glucuronidation.

  8. Colloidal silver ingestion with copper and caeruloplasmin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Karolina M; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The copper concentration in serum can be affected by the presence of other trace elements such as silver. Low serum copper may result in decreased caeruloplasmin synthesis. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, who was admitted to hospital with acute psychosis and who had been ingesting chronically, colloidal silver.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa septic shock secondary to "gripe water" ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sas, David; Enrione, Maria A; Schwartz, Richard H

    2004-02-01

    We report the case of a 9-month-old girl who presented in septic shock after ingestion of a contaminated herbal supplement commonly used to treat colic. Herbal supplements are widely used by well-meaning parents for many common conditions. Pediatricians should be aware that the variable manufacturing and packaging conditions of herbal supplements can lead to contamination with infectious agents.

  10. Boric acid ingestion clinically mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    PubMed

    Webb, David V; Stowman, Anne M; Patterson, James W

    2013-11-01

    The ingestion of large amounts of boric acid, a component of household insecticides, is a rare occurrence, characterized by a diffuse desquamative skin eruption, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, delirium, acute renal failure and prolonged ileus. A 56-year-old male with a history of multiple previous suicide attempts was witnessed ingesting household roach killer and 4 days later presented to the hospital with lethargy, stiffness and a diffuse erythematous and desquamative eruption with bullous formation. He subsequently developed erythema of both palms as well as alopecia totalis. Histopathology from a right arm shave biopsy revealed a mostly intact epidermis with subtle vacuolar alteration of the basal layer, scattered intraepidermal apoptotic keratinocytes, parakeratosis with alternating layers of orthokeratosis and considerable superficial exfoliation; accompanying dermal changes included vasodilatation and mild perivascular inflammation. This report describes the cutaneous and systemic complications in a rare case of boric acid ingestion. There is little published material on the symptoms and histopathology following boric acid ingestion, but knowledge of this entity is important, both to differentiate it from other causes of desquamative skin rashes and to allow the initiation of appropriate clinical care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreeja; George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support.

  12. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

  13. Jejunal perforation due to porcupine quill ingestion in a horse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacy L; Panizzi, Luca; Bracamonte, Jose

    2014-02-01

    An 8-month-old Andalusian filly was treated for jejunal perforations due to ingestion of a porcupine quill. During exploratory laparotomy, 2 separate stapled side-to-side jejunojejunal resection and anastomoses were performed. Post-operative complications after 2 years follow-up included mild incisional herniation following incisional infection and chronic intermittent colic.

  14. Transient ischaemic attack caused by an ingested stingray barb.

    PubMed

    Gan, Desmond C C; Huilgol, Ravi L; Westcott, Mark J

    A 76-year-old woman reported a fishbone stuck in her throat, but no foreign body was identified. Eight weeks later, she experienced a transient ischaemic attack, and a stingray barb was subsequently removed from the right common carotid artery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the migration of an ingested stingray barb.

  15. Relationships between ingestion and gustatory perception of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Mela, D J; Mattes, R D; Tanimura, S; García-Medina, M R

    1992-10-01

    We observed that taste detection thresholds for caffeine (CAF) are elevated in habitual CAF users relative to nonusers. A series of experiments were carried out to explore that relationship and assess the influences of salivary CAF and acute vs. chronic CAF ingestion. A significant correlation between CAF ingestion and taste threshold was noted in two studies of U.S. adults, although this was not observed in a parallel study involving an Argentinean population. Acute CAF ingestion (5.5 mg/kg) had no appreciable effect on taste thresholds. Threshold values greatly exceeded even peak salivary CAF levels, indicating that classical taste adaptation was an unlikely influence. Chronic CAF ingestion (450 mg/day for 3 weeks) also had no consistent effect on taste thresholds for CAF or other taste stimuli. Although a number of explanations are considered, we suggest that the sensory phenomenon may reflect preexisting differences between CAF users and nonusers or perhaps an effect of exposure to other bitter and/or CAF-containing foods and beverages.

  16. Modeled Estimates of Soil and Dust Ingestion Rates for Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily soil/dust ingestion rates typically used in exposure and risk assessments are based on tracer element studies, which have a number of limitations and do not separate contributions from soil and dust. This article presents an alternate approach of modeling soil and dust inge...

  17. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    PubMed

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  18. The influence of caffeine ingestion on incremental treadmill running.

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, L R

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on estimated substrate utilisation during treadmill running at an initial level of 70%-75% of maximal oxygen consumption after which subjects ran to exhaustion. Twelve subjects undertook either a control, placebo, a small (10 mg X kg-1) or a large (15 mg X kg-1) dose of caffeine in a double-blind design to determine whether caffeine affected the substrate usage during running. Venous blood was collected prior to and during the experimental runs and was later analysed for free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, triglycerides, lactate and glucose concentrations. The results of this experiment suggest that maximal running performance can be increased by large doses of caffeine. Furthermore, the subjects' respiratory exchange ratios were lower and FFA concentrations were higher following the ingestion of large amounts of caffeine than during other trials, suggesting that a larger proportion of energy was derived from fat being used preferentially during the trial following ingestion of this large dose of caffeine. The subjects rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were lower following the ingestion of a large dose of caffeine than it was in any of the other trials. This study differs from others in this area in so much that caffeine has been found to have positive effects during maximal running when used in large doses. PMID:3535986

  19. Estimating Children's Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates through ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Soil/dust ingestion rates are important variables in assessing children’s health risks in contaminated environments. Current estimates are based largely on soil tracer methodology, which is limited by analytical uncertainty, small sample size, and short study duration. Objectives: The objective was to estimate site-specific soil/dust ingestion rates through reevaluation of the lead absorption dose–response relationship using new bioavailability data from the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (BHSS) in Idaho, USA. Methods: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in vitro bioavailability methodology was applied to archived BHSS soil and dust samples. Using age-specific biokinetic slope factors, we related bioavailable lead from these sources to children’s blood lead levels (BLLs) monitored during cleanup from 1988 through 2002. Quantitative regression analyses and exposure assessment guidance were used to develop candidate soil/dust source partition scenarios estimating lead intake, allowing estimation of age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates. These ingestion rate and bioavailability estimates were simultaneously applied to the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children to determine those combinations best approximating observed BLLs. Results: Absolute soil and house dust bioavailability averaged 33% (SD ± 4%) and 28% (SD ± 6%), respectively. Estimated BHSS age-specific soil/du

  20. Haemolytic anaemia after ingestion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) tea

    PubMed Central

    Page, Cristy; Hawes, Emily M

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a clinically relevant and possible cause of haemolytic anaemia from ingestion of a Mexican tea from the Neem tree, also known as Azadirachta indica, in a 35-year-old Hispanic man who was found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. PMID:24136910

  1. Intrathoracic gastric perforation secondary to corrosive ingestion: a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Arora, Richa; Varma Gunturi, Surya Ramachandra; Arora, Abhishek; Parmar, Abhijot

    2016-04-01

    This case report describes a rare and serious case of acid ingestion in a 50-year-old man who developed necrosis and perforation of gastric fundus and diaphragm with extension of air and fluid collection in the thorax. To the best of our knowledge, this complication has not been described so far in the literature.

  2. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section 33.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.77...

  3. 14 CFR 33.77 - Foreign object ingestion-ice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign object ingestion-ice. 33.77 Section 33.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.77...

  4. Lead Fragment Ingestion by Birds: Shooting Down Another Myth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    considerable proportion maybe  A brief background to the (perceived) “problem” . . . • Birds display grit-ingesting behavior. Avian digestion in a...snapshot proventricul ar gizzard b·--- ,.--- u -- ! [J Prove ntri cuI us Duodenum -- Pancreas A brief background to the (perceived) “problem

  5. Haemolytic anaemia after ingestion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) tea.

    PubMed

    Page, Cristy; Hawes, Emily M

    2013-10-17

    The authors report a clinically relevant and possible cause of haemolytic anaemia from ingestion of a Mexican tea from the Neem tree, also known as Azadirachta indica, in a 35-year-old Hispanic man who was found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

  6. Muscular hypertrophy and atrophy in normal rats provoked by the administration of normal and denervated muscle extracts.

    PubMed

    Agüera, Eduardo; Castilla, Salvador; Luque, Evelio; Jimena, Ignacio; Leiva-Cepas, Fernando; Ruz-Caracuel, Ignacio; Peña, José

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of extracts obtained from both normal and denervated muscles on different muscle types. Wistar rats were used and were divided into a control group and four experimental groups. Each experimental group was treated intraperitoneally during 10 consecutive days with a different extract. These extracts were obtained from normal soleus muscle, denervated soleus, normal extensor digitorum longus, and denervated extensor digitorum longus. Following treatment, the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were obtained for study under optic and transmission electron microscope; morphometric parameters and myogenic responses were also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the treatment with normal soleus muscle and denervated soleus muscle extracts provoked hypertrophy and increased myogenic activity. In contrast, treatment with extracts from the normal and denervated EDL had a different effect depending on the muscle analyzed. In the soleus muscle it provoked hypertrophy of type I fibers and increased myogenic activity, while in the extensor digitorum longus atrophy of the type II fibers was observed without changes in myogenic activity. This suggests that the muscular responses of atrophy and hypertrophy may depend on different factors related to the muscle type which could be related to innervation.

  7. [Type V phosphodiesterase inhibitor erection-provoking test with audio-visual sexual stimulation for the diagnosis of erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuan-Wen; Guo, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Feng-Bin; Zhong, Da-Chuan; Fang, Jia-Jie; Li, Fang-Yin

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the type V phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitor erection-provoking test with audio-visual sexual stimulation in the diagnosis of erectile dysfunction. A total of 853 out-patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction were divided into an injury and a non-injury group. After scored on IIEF-5 questionnaires, all the patients received oral administration of PDE-5 inhibitors and, 30 minutes later, audio-visual sexual stimulation. The data on penile erection were recorded with Rigiscan Plus. The patients with mild, moderate and severe ED accounted for 18.8, 31.9 and 49.3% in the injury group, and 50.6, 39.8 and 9.6% in the non-injury group, with statistic differences between the two groups in the mild and severe parts (P < 0.05). The rates of conspicuous effectiveness, effectiveness, ineffectiveness and total effectiveness of the combined method were 13.0, 14.5, 72.5 and 27.5% in the injury group, but 55.7, 20.7, 23.6 and 76.4% in the non-injury group, with significant differences (P < 0.05). The PDE-5 inhibitor erection-provoking test with audio-visual sexual stimulation is a simple, practical, safe and effective method for the differentiation of organic from psychological erectile dysfunction.

  8. Effect of the systemic inflammatory response, as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery, on HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Chadburn, Andrew J; Garman, Elizabeth; Abbas, Raad; Modupe, Anu; Ford, Clare; Thomas, Osmond L; Chugh, Sanjiv; Deshpande, Shreeram; Gama, Rousseau

    2017-01-01

    Background In acutely ill patients with new onset hyperglycaemia, plasma glucose cannot reliably distinguish between stress hyperglycaemia and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. We, therefore, investigated the diagnostic reliability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in acute illness by prospectively evaluating the effect of the systemic inflammatory response, as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery, on HbA1c. Methods HbA1c and serum C-reactive protein concentrations were compared before and two days after elective knee or hip surgery in 30 patients without diabetes. C-reactive protein was used to assess the systemic inflammatory response. Results The mean (standard deviation) serum C-reactive protein increased following surgery (4.8 [7.5] vs. 179.7 [61.9] mg/L; P<0.0001). HbA1c was similar before and after surgery (39.2 [5.4] vs. 38.1 [5.1] mmol/moL, respectively; P = 0.4363). Conclusions HbA1c is unaffected within two days of a systemic inflammatory response as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery. This suggests that HbA1c may be able to differentiate newly presenting type 2 diabetes mellitus from stress hyperglycaemia in acutely ill patients with new onset hyperglycaemia.

  9. Biodegradable and Petroleum-Based Microplastics Do Not Differ in Their Ingestion and Excretion but in Their Biological Effects in a Freshwater Invertebrate Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Straub, Sandrine; Hirsch, Philipp E; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2017-07-13

    Research on the uptake and effects of bioplastics by aquatic organisms is still in its infancy. Here, we aim to advance the field by comparing uptake and effects of microplastic particles (MPP) of a biodegradable bioMPP (polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and petroleum-based MPP (polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum. Ingestion of both MPP in different particle sizes (32-250 µm) occurred after 24 h, with highest ingestion of particles in the range 32-63 µm and almost complete egestion after 64 h. A four-week effect-experiment showed a significant decrease of the assimilation efficiency in amphipods exposed to the petroleum-based MPP from week two onwards. The petroleum-based PMMA affected assimilation efficiency significantly in contrast to the biodegradable PHB, but overall differences in direct comparison of MPP types were small. Both MPP types led to a significantly lower wet weight gain relative to the control treatments. After four weeks, differences between both MPP types and silica, used as a natural particle control, were detected. In summary, these results suggest that both MPP types provoke digestive constraints on the amphipods, which go beyond those of natural non-palatable particles. This highlights the need for more detailed research comparing environmental effects of biodegradable and petroleum-based MPP and testing those against naturally occurring particle loads.

  10. Biodegradable and Petroleum-Based Microplastics Do Not Differ in Their Ingestion and Excretion but in Their Biological Effects in a Freshwater Invertebrate Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Sandrine; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Research on the uptake and effects of bioplastics by aquatic organisms is still in its infancy. Here, we aim to advance the field by comparing uptake and effects of microplastic particles (MPP) of a biodegradable bioMPP (polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and petroleum-based MPP (polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum. Ingestion of both MPP in different particle sizes (32–250 µm) occurred after 24 h, with highest ingestion of particles in the range 32–63 µm and almost complete egestion after 64 h. A four-week effect-experiment showed a significant decrease of the assimilation efficiency in amphipods exposed to the petroleum-based MPP from week two onwards. The petroleum-based PMMA affected assimilation efficiency significantly in contrast to the biodegradable PHB, but overall differences in direct comparison of MPP types were small. Both MPP types led to a significantly lower wet weight gain relative to the control treatments. After four weeks, differences between both MPP types and silica, used as a natural particle control, were detected. In summary, these results suggest that both MPP types provoke digestive constraints on the amphipods, which go beyond those of natural non-palatable particles. This highlights the need for more detailed research comparing environmental effects of biodegradable and petroleum-based MPP and testing those against naturally occurring particle loads. PMID:28703776

  11. Ingestion into the upstream wheelspace of an axial turbine stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, T.; Turner, A. B.

    1994-04-01

    The upstream wheelspace of an axial air turbine stage complete with nozzle guide vanes (NGVs) and rotor blades (430 mm mean diameter) has been tested with the objective of examining the combined effect of NGVs and rotor blades on the level of mainstream ingestion for different seal flow rates. A simple axial clearance seal was used with the rotor spun up to 6650 rpm by drawing air through it from atmospheric pressure with a large centrifugal compressor. The effect of rotational speed was examined for several constant mainstream flow rates by controlling the rotor speed with an air brake. The circumferential variation in hub static pressure was measured at the trailing edge of the NGVs upstream of the seal gap and was found to affect ingestion significantly. The hub static pressure distribution on the rotor blade leading edges was rotor speed dependent and could not be measured in the experiments. The Denton three-dimensional CFD computer code was used to predict the smoothed time-dependent pressure field for the rotor together with the pressure distribution downstream of the NGVs. The level and distribution of mainstream ingestion, and thus, the seal effectiveness, was determined from nitrous oxide gas concentration measurements and related to static pressure measurements made throughout the wheelspace. With the axial clearance rim seal close to the rotor the presence of the blades had a complex effect. Rotor blades in connection with NGVs were found to reduce mainstream ingestion seal flow rates significantly, but a small level of ingestion existed even for very high levels of seal flow rate.

  12. Effect of timing of carbohydrate ingestion on endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    McConell, G; Kloot, K; Hargreaves, M

    1996-10-01

    This study compared the effects of carbohydrate ingestion throughout exercise with ingestion of an equal amount of carbohydrate late in exercise. Eight well-trained men cycled 2 h at 70 +/- 1% VO2 peak, followed immediately by a 15-min performance ride, while ingesting either a 7% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO-7), an artificially sweetened placebo (CON), or the placebo for the first 90 min then a 21% glucose solution (CHO-0/21). At the start of the performance ride, plasma glucose averaged 4.2 +/- 0.2, 5.2 +/- 0.1, and 5.7 +/- 0.2 mmol.l-1 in CON, CHO-7, and CHO-0/21, respectively (all different, P < 0.05). Plasma insulin levels were similar just prior to the performance ride in CHO-7 and CHO-0/21, with both higher than CON. A similar pattern was observed with respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Work performed during the performance ride was significantly greater in CHO-7 (268 +/- 8 kJ) compared with CON (242 +/- 9 kJ). Performance in CHO-0/21 (253 +/- 10 kJ), however, was not improved compared with CON, despite higher plasma glucose levels and plasma insulin levels similar to CHO-7. Seven of the eight subjects performed best in CHO-7. In conclusion, performance was improved, relative to the control trial, only when carbohydrate was ingested throughout exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion late in exercise did not improve performance despite increases in plasma glucose and insulin.

  13. Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

  14. Suicide case due to phosphoric acid ingestion: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Serra, Arianna; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-11-01

    Ingesting caustic substances represents a common event which may result in serious injuries of the gastrointestinal system. Severity of injury depends on the type of ingested substance: Caustic burns are more frequently associated with acid ingestion and their severity depends on type, concentration, time of exposure, and amount of the ingested substance. We report a case of phosphoric acid ingestion leading to death in a patient with depressive disorder. While reports ingestion of other acids and organophosphates can be found in the literature, there are no reports detailing a death due to phosphoric acid ingestion. We hope that presenting the findings in this case can aid death investigators in future cases that may involve ingestion of such a substance. After autopsy pH, phosphate and calcium ions concentration in the blood were analyzed. The cause of death was due to systemic effects: metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperkalemia.

  15. Foraging preferences influence microplastic ingestion by six marine fish species from the Texas Gulf Coast.

    PubMed

    Peters, Colleen A; Thomas, Peyton A; Rieper, Kaitlyn B; Bratton, Susan P

    2017-07-11

    This study evaluated the influence of foraging preferences on microplastic ingestion by six marine fish species from the Texas Gulf Coast. A total of 1381 fish were analyzed and 42.4% contained ingested microplastic, inclusive of fiber (86.4%), microbead (12.9% %), and fragment (<1.0%) forms. Despite a substantial overlap in diet, ordination of ingested prey items clustered samples into distinctive species groupings, reflective of the foraging gradient among species. Orthopristis chrysoptera displayed the lowest overall frequency of microplastic ingestion and the most distinctive ordination grouping, indicating their selective invertebrate foraging preferences. Cluster analysis of O. chrysoptera most closely classified microplastic with the ingestion of benthic invertebrates, whereas the ingestion of microplastic by all other species most closely classified with the ingestion of vegetation and shrimp. O. chrysoptera, as selective invertebrate foragers, are less likely to ingest microplastics than species exhibiting generalist foraging preferences and methods of prey capture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%). CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a mixture of medicinal plant

  17. Foreign body ingestion: rare cause of cervical abscess.

    PubMed

    Costa, Liliana; Larangeiro, João; Pinto Moura, Carla; Santos, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: A ingestÉo de corpo estranho é um motivo frequente de recurso à urgência hospitalar. As complicações graves, embora raras, incluem perfuraçÉo faringo-esofágica, fistula aorto-esofágica e infecçÉo cervical profunda.Material e Métodos: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, os casos de ingestÉo de corpo estranho com internamento num hospital terciário, entre 1989 e 2011. Seleccionaram-se os casos complicados por abcesso cervical profundo, descrevendo-se a semiótica, resultados de meios complementares de diagnóstico, terapêutica efectuada e evoluçÉo clínica.Resultados: Dos 1679 casos, 319 referentes a crianças e 1360 a adultos, reportam-se dois casos (0,12%): uma criança, 13 meses, com abcesso retrofaríngeo após ingestÉo de osso de frango e um adulto, 41 anos, com abcesso parafaríngeo após ingestÉo de espinha de peixe. As complicações manifestaram-se quatro e três dias após remoçÉo do corpo estranho, respectivamente. Em ambos foram efectuadas Tomografias Computorizadas cervicais com contraste e drenagem cirúrgica dos abcessos; a criança foi ainda submetida a esofagoscopia rígida para remoçÉo de corpo estranho residual e encerramento da perfuraçÉo esofágica associada.DiscussÉo: Os abcessos cervicais sÉo uma complicaçÉo possível da ingestÉo de corpo estranho e constituem um desafio diagnóstico, principalmente em idade pediátrica. A manipulaçÉo esofágica prévia por fibroscopia poderá ser considerada um factor de risco. A imagiologia (Tomografia Computorizada cervical com contraste ou Resson'ncia Magnética Cervical) foi essencial para o diagnóstico e o planeamento cirúrgico.ConclusÉo: Embora raros, perante a história recente de ingestÉo/remoçÉo de corpo estranho esofágico e a presença de sintomas compatíveis, os abcessos cervicais devem ser tidos em consideraçÉo, dado o potencial de morbilidade e mortalidade na ausência de uma abordagem terapêutica adequada.

  18. Proinflammatory cytokines provoke oxidative damage to actin in neuronal cells mediated by Rac1 and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Barth, Brian M; Stewart-Smeets, Shelli; Kuhn, Thomas B

    2009-06-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and Il-1beta orchestrate the progression of CNS inflammation, which substantially contributes to neurodegeneration in many CNS pathologies. TNFalpha and Il-1beta stimulate actin filament reorganization in non-neuronal cells often accompanied by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Actin filament dynamics is vital for cellular plasticity, mitochondrial function, and gene expression despite being highly susceptible to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that, in neuronal cells, TNFalpha and Il-1beta stimulate a transient, redox-dependent reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton into lamellipodia under the regulation of Rac1 and a neuronal NADPH oxidase as the source of ROS. The persistent presence of intracellular ROS provoked oxidative damage (carbonylation) to actin coinciding with the loss of lamellipodia and arrest of cellular plasticity. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity or Rac1 abolished the adverse effects of cytokines. These findings suggest that oxidative damage to the neuronal actin cytoskeleton could represent a key step in CNS neurodegeneration.

  19. Coping with anger-provoking situations, psychosocial working conditions, and ECG-detected signs of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Härenstam, A; Theorell, T; Kaijser, L

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the association among coping, psychosocial work factors, and signs of coronary heart disease (CHD) among prison staff (777 men, 345 women). Electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings at rest, health examinations, and a questionnaire were used. A high level of covert coping in men and a low level of open coping in women showed the strongest association with signs of CHD. Among several traditional biological and lifestyle risk factors, only age and systolic blood pressure in men and none in the case of women were significantly associated with CHD signs in the final multivariate regression analyses. A coping style of repressed emotions and actions in anger-provoking situations, independent of traditional risk factors, seems to be associated with a prevalence of ECG signs in male and female prison staff.

  20. Uncommon cause for ileocolic fistulation and caecal perforation following multiple magnet ingestion in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Dave Fok Nam; Shanmugam, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Non-accidental ingestion of foreign bodies rarely occurs in adults. We report a case of multiple magnet ingestion in an adult with learning difficulties to highlight the associated abdominal complications. Multiple magnets may not pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously and approach considerations should differ from those who had ingested an isolated magnet or other foreign bodies. PMID:27887015

  1. Hyperinsulinemia Enhances Hepatic Expression of the Fatty Acid Transporter Cd36 and Provokes Hepatosteatosis and Hepatic Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Steneberg, Pär; Sykaras, Alexandros G; Backlund, Fredrik; Straseviciene, Jurate; Söderström, Ingegerd; Edlund, Helena

    2015-07-31

    Hepatosteatosis is associated with the development of both hepatic insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Hepatic expression of Cd36, a fatty acid transporter, is enhanced in obese and diabetic murine models and human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and thus it correlates with hyperinsulinemia, steatosis, and insulin resistance. Here, we have explored the effect of hyperinsulinemia on hepatic Cd36 expression, development of hepatosteatosis, insulin resistance, and dysglycemia. A 3-week sucrose-enriched diet was sufficient to provoke hyperinsulinemia, hepatosteatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and dysglycemia in CBA/J mice. The development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in CBA/J mice on a sucrose-enriched diet was paralleled by increased hepatic expression of the transcription factor Pparγ and its target gene Cd36 whereas that of genes implicated in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL secretion was unaltered. Additionally, we demonstrate that insulin, in a Pparγ-dependent manner, is sufficient to directly increase Cd36 expression in perfused livers and isolated hepatocytes. Mouse strains that display low insulin levels, i.e. C57BL6/J, and/or lack hepatic Pparγ, i.e. C3H/HeN, do not develop hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, or dysglycemia on a sucrose-enriched diet, suggesting that elevated insulin levels, via enhanced CD36 expression, provoke fatty liver development that in turn leads to hepatic insulin resistance and dysglycemia. Thus, our data provide evidence for a direct role for hyperinsulinemia in stimulating hepatic Cd36 expression and thus the development of hepatosteatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and dysglycemia.

  2. Risk of recurrent venous thrombosis related to past provoking risk situations: follow-up of a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel D; Lijfering, Willem M; Barreto, Sandhi M; Lopes, Fabiane Dias; Pires, Giselli de Souza; Rosendaal, Frits R; Rezende, Suely M

    2013-07-01

    Strategies targeting at classifying the risk for recurrent venous thrombosis are needed. We previously hypothesized, by studying a cohort of patients, that those who had 'survived' risk situations for venous thrombosis without developing it would, after a first venous thrombosis, have a low recurrence risk. Therefore, we re-evaluated the same cohort, now with a longer follow-up. Patients, after a first confirmed venous thrombosis event, were followed for an average of 43 months after suspension of anticoagulation. Patients with indication for indefinite anticoagulation were not included. The primary endpoint was objective recurrent venous thrombosis. Recurrent venous thrombosis was recorded in 9% of 378 eligible patients. Patients with a provoked first event and positive past risk situations for venous thrombosis had an incidence rate of recurrence of 1.26 (95% CI, 0.60-2.31) per 100 patient-years. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of this subgroup compared with patients with a provoked event without other past risk situations for venous thrombosis was 0.8 (95% CI 0.2-2.9). This IRR was 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.5) in patients with an unprovoked event and positive past risk situations and 7.1 (95% CI, 3.0-17.1) in patients with an unprovoked event and no past risk situations. When only idiopathic first events were evaluated the IRR was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.1-5.9) for patients without past risk situation compared with those with these history. In this study, asking a patient about past exposure to risk factors for venous thrombosis long before the occurrence of a first venous thrombosis occurred, could be used to classify patients with a first unprovoked venous thrombosis at higher risk for recurrence of venous thrombosis.

  3. Young healthy individuals develop lack of energy when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks: a phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ernersson, Asa; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nyström, Fredrik H; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman

    2010-09-01

    During the past 20 years, a sedentary lifestyle has become more common and simultaneously the consumption of energy-dense food has increased. These are two major risk factors associated with the increase of overweight and obesity, which is found in all ages over the world. The low well-being reported by obese individuals could be associated with increased food intake or it might be a specific consequence of obesity and lack of physical fitness. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of the phenomenon, adopting an obesity provoking behaviour, by increasing energy intake and simultaneously having a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks in healthy, normal-weight individuals of both genders. Eighteen healthy individuals (12 men and 6 women; median age 23, range 21-44 years) were included in an intervention, with a doubled energy intake and a maximum physical activity of 5000 steps per day during 4 weeks. After completing this intervention the participants were interviewed and asked to describe their experience during the past 4 weeks. A phenomenological approach was used to gain understanding of the phenomenon and analyses of the transcripts were performed in four steps according to Giorgis' method. The main essence of the phenomenon, adopting an obesity provoking behaviour, was found to be lack of energy, related to emotional life, relations and life habits. Lack of energy emerged from five structures: influenced self-confidence, commitment to oneself and others, managing eating, feelings of tiredness and physical impact. These five structures were manifested through 12 constituents. These lifestyle changes decreased the sense of well-being in nonobese healthy individuals of both genders. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Fat-induced membrane cholesterol accrual provokes cortical filamentous actin destabilisation and glucose transport dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Habegger, K M; Penque, B A; Sealls, W; Tackett, L; Bell, L N; Blue, E K; Gallagher, P J; Sturek, M; Alloosh, M A; Steinberg, H O; Considine, R V; Elmendorf, J S

    2012-02-01

    Diminished cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) has been implicated in skeletal muscle insulin resistance, yet the mechanism(s) is unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that changes in membrane cholesterol could be a causative factor, as organised F-actin structure emanates from cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains at the plasma membrane. Skeletal muscle samples from high-fat-fed animals and insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant human participants were evaluated. The study also used L6 myotubes to directly determine the impact of fatty acids (FAs) on membrane/cytoskeletal variables and insulin action. High-fat-fed insulin-resistant animals displayed elevated levels of membrane cholesterol and reduced F-actin structure compared with normal chow-fed animals. Moreover, human muscle biopsies revealed an inverse correlation between membrane cholesterol and whole-body glucose disposal. Palmitate-induced insulin-resistant myotubes displayed membrane cholesterol accrual and F-actin loss. Cholesterol lowering protected against the palmitate-induced defects, whereas characteristically measured defects in insulin signalling were not corrected. Conversely, cholesterol loading of L6 myotube membranes provoked a palmitate-like cytoskeletal/GLUT4 derangement. Mechanistically, we observed a palmitate-induced increase in O-linked glycosylation, an end-product of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). Consistent with HBP activity affecting the transcription of various genes, we observed an increase in Hmgcr, a gene that encodes 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. In line with increased HBP activity transcriptionally provoking a membrane cholesterol-based insulin-resistant state, HBP inhibition attenuated Hmgcr expression and prevented membrane cholesterol accrual, F-actin loss and GLUT4/glucose transport dysfunction. Our results suggest a novel cholesterolgenic-based mechanism of FA-induced membrane

  5. Sodium azide ingestion and secondary contamination risk in healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Downes, Michael A; Taliana, Katrina E; Muscat, Tracy M; Whyte, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the follow-up of healthcare staff directly involved in managing a fatal sodium azide ingestion. Clinical staff directly involved with the case were contacted by telephone or in person. Data collected were age, sex, time in contact with the patient, time off work following the incident and whether or not this was because of physical complications of exposure. Ten individuals had close contact with the case. Of these, five were men, median age was 39 years (range 22-52); four described being in close contact for greater than 60 min, three for 15-60 min and three for 5-15 min. Absence from work occurred in two cases for 1 day and several weeks, neither attributed to the physical effects of exposure. Our data do not support close contact with a sodium azide ingestion case as posing a high risk of significant postexposure complications in emergency service workers.

  6. Debris ingestion by the Antillean Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    PubMed

    Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Balensiefer, Deisi Cristiane; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; de Sousa, Glaucia Pereira; da Cunha, Fábio Adonis Gouveia Carneiro; Luna, Fábia de Oliveira

    2015-12-15

    The Antillean manatee inhabits coastal regions of North and Northeastern Brazil and currently is considered an endangered species in the country. Aiming to gather information for the development of public policies focusing on the conservation of manatees, the National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity has been rescuing, rehabilitating and releasing these mammals since the 1980s. Over the last 36 years, 40 manatees were released by the CMA/ICMBio and four of them were rescued again due to debris ingestion. Two of these manatees died and the other two were taken back into captivity for a new rehabilitation process. The four mammals had confirmed diagnosis of plastic debris ingestion. These findings demonstrate that the environment where the manatees live after being released had a significant amount of garbage which may hinder the success of the species conservation in Brazil.

  7. Anaphylactic shock caused by ingestion of polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Cha, Jae Myung; Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil; Baek, Il Hyun; Jeon, Jung Won; Lim, Jun Uk; Lee, Jung Lok; Lee, Hyae Min; Cho, Young-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Colonoscopy is the current standard method for evaluation of the colon. The diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic safety of colonoscopy depend on the quality of colonic cleansing and preparation. Generally, all these preparations have been demonstrated to be safe for use in healthy individuals without significant comorbid conditions. Based on safety and efficacy concerns, polyethylene glycol (PEG) is most commonly utilized as a bowel preparation solution for colonoscopy. Adverse events in patients receiving PEG are mostly clinically non-significant. However, fatal adverse events rarely have been shown to occur in the few individuals who experience vomiting or aspiration. Anaphylactic shock associated with ingestion of PEG electrolyte solution is an extremely rare fatal complication, and reported mainly in Western countries. Here, we report the first case of anaphylactic shock following the ingestion of PEG solution in Korea.

  8. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  9. Acute renal failure after ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Small, Evan; Sandefur, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    Guaifenesin is a common nonprescription medication that has been implicated in drug-induced nephrolithiasis. Dextromethorphan, a nonprescription antitussive found in some guaifenesin-containing preparations, is increasingly recognized as a substance of abuse by many youth and young adults. Renally excreted medications known to have poor solubility in urine have the potential to precipitate when ingested in large quantity, leading to acute obstruction of the ureters and renal failure. We describe the case of a 22-year-old male who developed severe bilateral flank pain, hematuria, and oliguria after an isolated recreational ingestion of guaifenesin and dextromethorphan. The patient was found to have bilateral ureteral obstruction and acute renal failure, suspected to be secondary to precipitation of medication metabolites in the urine. This case highlights the potential for acute renal failure secondary to guaifenesin and dextromethorphan abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Sprint Performance Following Continuous Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahkohian, M.; Farhadi, H.; Naghizadeh Baghi, A.; Valizadeh, A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 5% carbohydrate ingestion on the sprint performance immediately following 90 min of running at 70-80% of maximal heart rate reserve. Thirty young active men were selected as subjects and allocated randomly to two carbohydrate (CHO, N = 15) and placebo (PL, N = 15) groups. Pre-test 200 m dash, 90 min running and post-test 200 m dash took place, respectively. Exercise heart rate monitored during 90 min running by a cardio frequency meter. Significant differences were found between the CHO and PL post-test 200 m dash records (p<0.05). Blood glucose was found to be significantly higher at the end of the 90 min running for the CHO group than for the PL group (p<0.01). The results suggest that carbohydrate ingestion during endurance exercise inhibits failing of Sprint performance of young active men.

  11. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  12. Fatal hypernatremia in a dog from salt ingestion.

    PubMed

    Khanna, C; Boermans, H J; Wilcock, B

    1997-01-01

    An eight-year-old, neutered male Airedale terrier was presented for the evaluation of a 45-minute episode of continuous seizure activity after ingesting a salt-flour mixture used as clay for the sculpting of small figurines. Levels of serum sodium (211 mEq/L; reference range, 145 to 158 mEq/L) and chloride (180 mEq/L; reference range, 105 to 122 mEq/L) were elevated. The dog died despite aggressive therapy directed at the hypernatremia. Tissue levels of sodium and chloride were elevated. Brain sodium level (108 mEq/L; reference range, has less than 80 mEq/L) was diagnostic for salt toxicosis. All necropsy findings, except severe hepatocellular necrosis, were consistent with reports of salt poisoning in humans and other species. Hypernatremia from ingestion of salt has not been described previously in the dog.

  13. Effects of crude oil ingestion on avian intestinal function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Murray, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal function in mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) on a freshwater regime was studied after a 7-day dietary ingestion of 0.25% and 2.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) or a 2.5% paraffin mixture with an in vivo luminal perfusion technique. Dietary ingestion of 2.5% PBCO may have an effect on the integrity of the duckling intestine. There were no significant effects of PBCO on the absorption of Na, Cl, K, or H2O compared with control animals. The ducklings fed 2.5% paraffin had a significant depression in Na and H2O absorption compared with controls. However, this depression dose not seem to be related to an effect on intestinal mucosa Na-K-ATPase activity.

  14. Basal Ganglion Hemorrhage as Delayed Complication of Diethylene Glycol Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avneesh; Diaz, Francisco J; Lal, Anita; Sung, Lokman; Aaron, Cynthia K

    2017-03-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG), an organic compound (HOCH2CH2)2O is a commonly used solvent. Mass poisoning outbreaks have been reported because of frequent contaminations. A PubMed search for diethylene resulted in 795 publications with 151 specifically discussing the toxicity. Of the 151 reported toxicity reviews/case reports, only 6 publications discussed the long-term neurological effects of diethylene toxicity. We report a fatal case of oral ingestion of DEG with complications from delayed toxicity. She died 7 days after the second admission. Autopsy disclosed a right basal ganglia hemorrhage within the brain and microscopic deposits of polarizable crystals into small cerebral blood vessels. Both kidneys illustrate tubular necrosis with scattered tubular deposition of polarizable calcium oxalate crystals. PubMed search leads to only 2 reported cases of basal ganglia hemorrhage (based on radiological findings) after ethylene glycol intoxication. Our case is the first reportable case of basal ganglia hemorrhage after DEG ingestion.

  15. Lead toxicity resulting from chronic ingestion of opium.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Mohammad; Azizkhani, Reza

    2009-11-01

    A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with lower abdominal pain and constipation. He related chronic ingestion of large amounts of opium. Physical examination showed mild abdominal tenderness and gingival discoloration. Diagnostic studies showed a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling of the red blood cells. Abdominal imaging showed no intra-abdominal pathology. A diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed through serum lead levels. The patient was put on chelation therapy and his signs and symptoms started to resolve. As a comprehensive search for other sources of lead was unsuccessful, opium adulterants were considered as the culprit. Chemical analysis of the opium confirmed this. Contaminated drugs have been reported as a source of exposure to toxins such as arsenic or lead. While other reports deal with patients from clinics, this report illustrates lead toxicity from ingestion of contaminated opium in the ED.

  16. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics.

  17. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    PubMed

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (<5 mm diameter; 'microplastic') is increasing in abundance in the marine environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (<1mm) can reach 3% by weight, presenting a global conservation issue [2]. Microplastics are a novel substrate for the adherence of hydrophobic contaminants [1], deposition of eggs [3], and colonization by unique bacterial assemblages [4]. Ingestion by indiscriminate deposit-feeders has been reported, yet physical impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute tellurium toxicity from ingestion of metal-oxidizing solutions.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Mark C; Curry, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    Tellurium is an element used in the vulcanization of rubber and in metal-oxidizing solutions to blacken or tarnish metals. Descriptions of human toxicity from tellurium ingestion are rare. We report the clinical course of 2 children who ingested metal-oxidizing solutions containing substantial concentrations of tellurium. Clinical features included vomiting, black discoloration of the oral mucosa, and a garlic odor to the breath. One patient developed corrosive injury to the esophagus secondary to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution. Both patients recovered without serious sequelae, which is typical of tellurium toxicity. An awareness of situations in which children may be exposed to tellurium and its clinical presentation may assist clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare poisoning.

  1. [Detection of morphine after ingestion of poppy seeds].

    PubMed

    Angelo, H R; Kaa, E

    1993-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether morphine can be detected in urine after the ingestion of poppy seeds bought in Denmark. Morphine and codeine were determined in 10 different poppy seed specimens bought in Denmark. Ten and 25 g of the specimens containing the highest amount of morphine and codeine were consumed by respectively six and seven volunteers. Urine samples were collected for analysis at intervals up to 24 h. All samples were found positive by radioimmunoassay up to 24 h after ingestion. Using the less sensitive thin layer chromatography method, one of six and two of seven were positive, two to four hours after intake of respectively 10 and 25 g of the specimens. We conclude that the detection of morphine in urine does not necessarily indicate an illegal drug use.

  2. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the US and Canada were evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. Associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality or incidence in humans were found in one or more studies dealing with neoplasms in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbaldder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain and thyroid as well as leukemia. However, no single study nor aggregate of studies existed that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. It is recommended that the integrated ecologic data to date be used to generate a rough priority of specific etiologic hypotheses that should be tested in the original settings or in independent study populations using studies designed at the more definitive individual level, such as case-control studies. 25 references, 7 tables.

  3. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  4. Delayed upper-airway injury after accidental alkaline ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Matthew F; Fernandez, Mindy; Laauwe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions.

  5. Delayed Upper-Airway Injury after Accidental Alkaline Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

  6. Attempted Suicide by Massive Warfarin Ingestion Conservatively Managed Using Phytonadione

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kruti S.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment strategies for acute toxicity following massive ingestion of warfarin are not well described in the literature. Warfarin is the primary oral anticoagulation agent used in the treatment of thromboembolic disease, and patients with acute toxicity are at risk for life-threatening hemorrhages. Treatment options include phytonadione (vitamin K1), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) used alone or in combination. FFP and PCC can be associated with volume complications, undesirable thromboembolic events, and increased costs. We describe the case of a 63-year-old female with acute warfarin toxicity following a massive ingestion of warfarin (420 mg–450 mg) in an attempt to commit suicide. Upon arrival to the emergency department, serial INR checks were initiated to help guide dosing strategy and later adjusted based on INR response to treatment using only phytonadione. PMID:28044113

  7. Plastic microfibre ingestion by deep-sea organisms

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M. L.; Gwinnett, C.; Robinson, L. F.; Woodall, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic waste is a distinctive indicator of the world-wide impact of anthropogenic activities. Both macro- and micro-plastics are found in the ocean, but as yet little is known about their ultimate fate and their impact on marine ecosystems. In this study we present the first evidence that microplastics are already becoming integrated into deep-water organisms. By examining organisms that live on the deep-sea floor we show that plastic microfibres are ingested and internalised by members of at least three major phyla with different feeding mechanisms. These results demonstrate that, despite its remote location, the deep sea and its fragile habitats are already being exposed to human waste to the extent that diverse organisms are ingesting microplastics. PMID:27687574

  8. Acceleration Tolerance After Ingestion of a Commercial Energy Drink

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    exposures following ingestion of I 1.5 ml/kg body weight of a) a commercial energy drink, providing 5.0 mg caffeine /kg body weight, b) a commercial energy...drink without caffeine or c) placebo. The acceleration exposures consisted ofa relaxed gradual onset run to peripheral ight loss, a rapid onset run to... caffeine session, whereas SACM duration did not differ among the drink conditions. Hip adductor muscle strength was lower during the placebo session

  9. Homespun remedy, homespun toxicity: baking soda ingestion for dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Ajbani, Keyur; Chansky, Michael E; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-04-01

    A 68-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with a severe metabolic alkalosis after ingesting large quantities of baking soda to treat his dyspepsia. His underlying pulmonary disease and a progressively worsening mental status necessitated intubation for respiratory failure. Laboratory studies revealed a hyponatremic, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient was successfully treated after cessation of the oral bicarbonate, initiation of intravenous hydration, and correction of electrolyte abnormalities.

  10. Sexual dimorphism in the osmopressor response following water ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Teodósio, Carolina; Lucena, Rui; Pereira, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence as to whether water drinking elicits a pressor response in healthy young adults. The inclusion of a variable number of women may have contributed to the discrepancies found in past research. Thus, we aimed at exploring whether the osmopressor response follows a sexually dimorphic pattern. In a randomized fashion, 31 healthy adults (16 men; 15 women, aged 18–40 years) ingested 50 and 500 ml of water before completing a resting protocol on two separate days. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate and spectral heart rate variability were measured in the seated position at pre- and post-25 min of water ingestion. Women responded to 500 ml of water with a greater proportion of change in diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P<0.05). Conversely, the percent change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate was not different between sexes after 500 ml of water. Overall, women demonstrated lower blood pressure, but higher resting heart rate compared with men (P<0.05). In contrast, heart rate variability was similar between sexes before and after ingesting either volume of water. There was a bradycardic effect of water and, irrespectively of sex; this was accompanied by increased high frequency power (HF) (P<0.05). We conclude that women display a greater magnitude of pressor response than men post-water ingestion. Accordingly, we provide direct evidence of sexual dimorphism in the haemodynamic response to water intake in young healthy adults. PMID:27129286

  11. A novel ingestible electronic drug delivery and monitoring device.

    PubMed

    van der Schaar, Peter J; Dijksman, J Frits; Broekhuizen-de Gast, Henny; Shimizu, Jeff; van Lelyveld, Niels; Zou, Hans; Iordanov, Ventzeslav; Wanke, Christoph; Siersema, Peter D

    2013-09-01

    We developed an ingestible electronic drug delivery and monitoring system. This system includes an electronic capsule comprising a drug reservoir, a pH and temperature sensor, a microprocessor and wireless transceiver, a stepper motor, and batteries. The location of the capsule in the gut derived from pH data can be monitored in real time. The stepper motor can be remotely actuated to expel the contents of the drug reservoir. First human study. Two consecutive observational studies. University medical center. Twenty healthy volunteers. Study I: Ingestion and passage of the capsule. Study II: Ingestion and passage of the capsule, loaded with (99m)technetium-pertechnetate ((99m)Tc); remotely actuated expulsion of (99m)Tc in the gut. Study I: Safety, tolerability, and functionality (wireless pH and temperature recording). Study II: Tracing of the capsule and expulsion and distribution of (99m)Tc from the drug reservoir by scintigraphy. Correlating location pH with scintigraphy. Study I: Ingestion and passage of the capsule was safe and well tolerated. Transmitted pH and temperature data were received by the recorder in 96.5% ± 3%. Study II: pH-determined passage of the esophagogastric, gastroduodenal, and ileocolonic junction correlated well with scintigraphy. Expulsion of (99m)Tc from the capsule was successful in 9 of 10 subjects. Subjects with relatively low body mass index. This electronic drug delivery and monitoring system may be a promising tool for targeted delivery of substances to well-defined areas of the GI tract. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Open safety pin ingestion presenting as incarcerated umbilical hernia.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Bilal; Sheikh, Afzal

    2011-09-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was performed.

  13. Unintentional Cannabis Ingestion in Children: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Richards, John R; Smith, Nishelle E; Moulin, Aimee K

    2017-09-06

    To analyze published reports of unintentional cannabis ingestions in children to determine presenting signs and symptoms, route of exposure, treatment, and outcome. PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Articles were selected, reviewed, and graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Of 3316 articles, 44 were included (3582 children age ≤12 years). We found no high quality (Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine level I or II) studies and 10 level III studies documenting lethargy as the most common presenting sign and confirming increasing incidence of unintentional ingestion in states having decriminalized medical and recreational cannabis. We identified 16 level IV case series, and 28 level V case reports with 114 children, mean age 25.2 ± 18.7 months, range 8 months to 12 years, and 50 female children (44%). The most common ingestion (n = 43, 38%) was cannabis resin, followed by cookies and joints (both n = 15, 13%). Other exposures included passive smoke, medical cannabis, candies, beverages, and hemp oil. Lethargy was the most common presenting sign (n = 81, 71%) followed by ataxia (n = 16, 14%). Tachycardia, mydriasis, and hypotonia were also commonly observed. All cases were cared for in the emergency department or admitted, and mean length of stay was 27.1 ± 27.0 hours. Twenty (18%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 7 (6%) were intubated. Unintentional cannabis ingestion by children is a serious public health concern and is well-documented in numerous studies and case reports. Clinicians should consider cannabis toxicity in any child with sudden onset of lethargy or ataxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute kidney injury requiring haemodialysis following ingestion of mephedrone

    PubMed Central

    Rhidian, Rhys; Babu, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old man was found to have acute kidney injury (AKI) following ingestion of mephedrone. He presented to this local emergency department with worsening bilateral loin pain. He became oligoanuric, serum creatine peaked at 1214 µmol/l and he required several sessions of haemodialysis before kidney function began to improve. The mechanism of AKI and legal aspects of the use of mephedrone are discussed. PMID:23456157

  15. Phytoplankton ingestion by appendicularians in the North Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, José Luis; Deibel, Don; Saunders, Patricia A.; Booth, Beatrice; Hatfield, Elizabeth; Klein, Bert; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Rivkin, Richard

    We investigated the abundance, body-size distribution, diet, and ingestion rates of appendicularian tunicates at 8 stations in the North Water polynya, northern Baffin Bay, during late June and July 1998. Abundance of appendicularians in the chlorophyll-rich surface layer (40-125 m) ranged from 38 to 11248 m -2. Body size of individuals ranged from 0.21 to 4.8 mm. Gut chlorophyll content varied from 0 to 84 ng ind -1 and increased with increasing body size. Gut passage time varied from 42 to 104 min (mean±SD: 58±18 min). Phytoplankton ingestion rates ranged from 0.007 to 2.083 mg chlorophyll m -2 d -1, with a median of 0.49 mg chlorophyll m -2 d -1. The median daily grazing impact of the oikopleurid populations was 0.42% and 5.4% of total phytoplankton biomass and primary production, respectively. Since this represents ingested phytoplankton and does not include cells trapped within the mucous houses, the contribution of appendicularian populations to phytoplankton mortality could be 2-fold higher (i.e. ca. 10% of primary production). The faecal pellets of animals incubated onboard in water from the subsurface chlorophyll maximum contained primarily small diatoms at the northern stations, and a mixture of diatoms, dinoflagellates, flagellates, and ciliates at southern stations. The median, daily flow of biogenic carbon from phytoplankton to appendicularian faecal pellets was 8 mg C m -2, which represents 4% of biogenic carbon export during the month of July. Because the phytoplankton was dominated by small Chaetoceros cells, appendicularian ingestion rates were not inhibited by the clogging of the filtration mechanism at high Chl a concentrations. Thus, the impact of appendicularians on daily primary production during this season was a simple function of appendicularian abundance, population size structure, and gut throughput rate.

  16. Excretion of codeine and morphine following ingestion of poppy seeds.

    PubMed

    Struempler, R E

    1987-01-01

    After the ingestion of three poppy-seed bagels, the following codeine and morphine concentrations were determined in the urine: 214 ng/mL codeine and 2797 ng/mL morphine at 3 h, and 16 ng/mL codeine and 676 ng/mL morphine at 22 h. This work indicates that a positive finding of codeine or morphine in the urine of an individual does not necessarily indicate heroin, morphine, or codeine use.

  17. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  18. [Accidental ingestion of two magnets--aggresive or prolonged approach?].

    PubMed

    Durko, Alina; Czkwianianc, Elzbieta; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Małecka-Panas, Ewa

    2007-05-01

    Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is a common pediatric problem. Non-sharp items like coins, jewelry, pieces of toys are most frequently found among swallowed objects. They usually pass through a child's digestive system without health consequences (40-90% of reported cases). Approximately 10% of children require endoscopic intervention and 1-3% undergoes a surgical treatment. Authors present a unique health hazard caused by multiple magnet ingestion and general management in these cases of this specific foreign body presence. A 6 y.o. boy, in excellent health has been admitted G.I. Dept. presenting a history of accidental ingestion of two magnets (size 1.5 x 0.5 cm) 4 days prior to hospitalization. On admission patient presented no symptoms of foreign body in GI tract, however his WBC was 15000/mm3, ESR-22mm. Foreign bodies have been removed under general anesthesia using endoscopic technique. Endoscopic view of the esophagus region from which magnet has been removed at first might have been identify as a perforation of the esophageal wall. Chest X-ray has not revealed symptoms of pneumothorax, as well as the contrast radiologic study showed symptoms of upper GI tract perforation. Conservative treatment has been administered. Patient has been discharged home with no complaints in general and local good condition. Ingestion of more than one magnets is an strong indication for an immediate endoscopic intervention. Such an algorithm is strongly advocated to prevent of lesion formation in the soft tissues located between two objects with paramagnetic properties which may cause ischemic necrosis and perforation of the GI tract wall.

  19. Orienteering performance and ingestion of glucose and glucose polymers.

    PubMed

    Kujala, U M; Heinonen, O J; Kvist, M; Kärkkäinen, O P; Marniemi, J; Niittymäki, K; Havas, E

    1989-06-01

    The benefit of glucose polymer ingestion in addition to 2.5 per cent glucose before and during a prolonged orienteering competition was studied. The final time in the competition in the group ingesting 2.5 per cent glucose (group G, n = 10) was 113 min 37 s +/- 8 min 11 s, and in the group which had additionally ingested glucose polymer (group G + GP, n = 8) 107 min 18s +/- 4 min 41 s (NS). One fifth (21 per cent) of the time difference between the two groups was due to difference in orienteering errors. Group G + GP orienteered the last third of the competition faster than group G (p less than 0.05). The time ratio between the last third of the competition and the first third of the competition was lower in group G + GP than in group G (p less than 0.05). After the competition, there was statistically insignificant tendency to higher serum glucose and lower serum free fatty acid concentrations in group G + GP, and serum insulin concentration was higher in group G + GP than in group G (p less than 0.05). Three subjects reported that they exhausted during the competition. These same three subjects had the lowest serum glucose concentrations after the competition (2.9 mmol.1(-1), 2.9 mmol.1(-1), 3.5 mmol.1(-1] and all of them were from group G. It is concluded that glucose polymer syrup ingestion is beneficial for prolonged psychophysical performance.

  20. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract.

    PubMed

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-12-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required insertion of a proximal cavernosal spongiosum shunt (Quackles shunt) in the operating room.

  1. Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprints.

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, G; Bird, S R

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated bouts of intensive short duration exercise. Twenty-three subjects participated in the investigation (8 females and 15 males, age 21.4 +/- 2.3, mean +/- sd). Subjects completed six trials; three following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg body weight) and three following the ingestion of a placebo (8 g sodium chloride). Each trial consisted of ten ten-second sprints on a cycle ergometer with 50 seconds recovery between each sprint. 'Peak power' and 'average power output' during each ten second sprint was measured from the flywheel of the ergometer using a light-sensitive monitor (Cranlea) linked to a BBC microcomputer. The power outputs recorded during each ten-second sprint of the bicarbonate trials were then compared with those recorded during the corresponding sprint of the placebo trials. The bicarbonate trials produced higher mean 'average power' outputs in all ten of the ten-second sprints, with the difference in 'average power' output being statistically significant in eight of these (p less than 0.05). The results also revealed that the difference in the 'average power' outputs attained during the bicarbonate and placebo trials increased as the number of sprint repetitions increased (p less than 0.01). 'Peak power' output was also greater in the bicarbonate trials with it being significantly higher (p less than 0.001) during the final ten-second sprint. It was concluded that during exercise consisting of repeated, short-duration sprints, power output was enhanced following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate, (300 mg/kg body weight). PMID:2730998

  2. POSTFUNDOPLICATION DYSPHAGIA CAUSES SIMILAR WATER INGESTION DYNAMICS AS ACHALASIA.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Roberto Oliveira; Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Alves, Leda Maria Tavares; Nascimento, Weslania Viviane

    2016-01-01

    - After surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease dysphagia is a symptom in the majority of patients, with decrease in intensity over time. However, some patients may have persistent dysphagia. - The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the dynamics of water ingestion in patients with postfundoplication dysphagia compared with patients with dysphagia caused by achalasia, idiopathic or consequent to Chagas' disease, and controls. - Thirty-three patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, assessed more than one year after surgery, together with 50 patients with Chagas' disease, 27 patients with idiopathic achalasia and 88 controls were all evaluated by the water swallow test. They drunk, in triplicate, 50 mL of water without breaks while being precisely timed and the number of swallows counted. Also measured was: (a) inter-swallows interval - the time to complete the task, divided by the number of swallows during the task; (b) swallowing flow - volume drunk divided by the time taken; (c) volume of each swallow - volume drunk divided by the number of swallows. - Patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, Chagas' disease and idiopathic achalasia took longer to ingest all the volume, had an increased number of swallows, an increase in interval between swallows, a decrease in swallowing flow and a decrease in water volume of each swallow compared with the controls. There was no difference between the three groups of patients. There was no correlation between postfundoplication time and the results. - It was concluded that patients with postfundoplication dysphagia have similar water ingestion dynamics as patients with achalasia.

  3. A fatality from an oral ingestion of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Elizabeth; Lee, C Jeff; Marinetti, Laureen

    2009-10-01

    The case presented is of a 49-year-old white male decedent who admitted to oral ingestion of methamphetamine. He believed he was being followed by the police while walking his daughter to school in the morning and swallowed the "8-ball of meth," which is known to be one-eighth of an ounce or the equivalent of about 3 g. The following autopsy specimens were analyzed for the presence of methamphetamine and amphetamine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: femoral blood, urine, bile, vitreous fluid, brain, liver, and gastric contents. Blood drawn at the hospital approximately 12 h after ingestion was also analyzed. The methamphetamine concentration in the hospital blood was 3.0 mg/L, and the concentration in the femoral blood from autopsy was 30 mg/L. Other drugs confirmed included tramadol, lorazepam, and 11-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. The pathologist ruled the cause of death to be cardiac dysrhythmia due to excited delirium as a result of methamphetamine drug effects. Discussion of the timeline from ingestion to death and the clinical presentation of the decedent are included.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Ingests and Digests Host Cytosolic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Zhicheng; McGovern, Olivia L.; Di Cristina, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides within a nonfusogenic vacuole during intracellular replication. Although the limiting membrane of this vacuole provides a protective barrier to acidification and degradation by lysosomal hydrolases, it also physically segregates the parasite from the host cytosol. Accordingly, it has been suggested that T. gondii acquires material from the host via membrane channels or transporters. The ability of the parasite to internalize macromolecules via endocytosis during intracellular replication has not been tested. Here, we show that Toxoplasma ingests host cytosolic proteins and digests them using cathepsin L and other proteases within its endolysosomal system. Ingestion was reduced in mutant parasites lacking an intravacuolar network of tubular membranes, implicating this apparatus as a possible conduit for trafficking to the parasite. Genetic ablation of proteins involved in the pathway is associated with diminished parasite replication and virulence attenuation. We show that both virulent type I and avirulent type II strain parasites ingest and digest host-derived protein, indicating that the pathway is not restricted to highly virulent strains. The findings provide the first definitive evidence that T. gondii internalizes proteins from the host during intracellular residence and suggest that protein digestion within the endolysosomal system of the parasite contributes to toxoplasmosis. PMID:25028423

  5. Post-exercise alcohol ingestion perturbs blood haemostasis during recovery.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, M; Omar, A; Lin, X

    2000-09-15

    It is known that exercise induces modification in blood haemostasis. It is, however, not known whether alcohol consumption post-exercise influences these modifications during recovery. Eleven moderately active young men were studied immediately after a standardised cycle ergometer test and during the 24-hour period of recovery. Alcohol (0. 7 g/kg body mass) was given 1 hour after exercise on one test occasion, while an equal volume of alcohol-free solution was administered on the other. Exercise induced a significant increase in factor VIII activity with a significant shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time. Parallel increases in tissue plasminogen activity and antigen with a concomitant decrease in tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity were also observed after exercise. During recovery, while the increase in factor VIII activity post-exercise persisted in both trials, fibrinolytic activity demonstrated a sharp fall. The elevated factor VIII activity was significantly higher at 5 and 22 hours during the alcohol trial compared with the control. Although no demonstrable effect of alcohol on tissue plasminogen activator activity was present from 1 hour after ingestion onward, tissue plasminogen activator antigen and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly 22 hours following alcohol ingestion. Further comparison between trials revealed a higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity 5 hours after alcohol ingestion. In conclusion, exercise-induced changes to blood haemostasis are balanced during exercise but not during recovery. Alcohol consumption after physical exercise further perturbs blood haemostasis and could constitute a thrombotic risk.

  6. Effects of alcohol ingestion following exercise on postprandial lipemia.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, M S; AL-Bayatti, M F

    2001-01-01

    The study determined the effect of alcohol ingestion postexercise on postprandial lipemia during recovery. The mean values were compared with those obtained in a control experiment during which no alcohol was given. Nineteen normolipidemic subjects (11 males and 8 females) performed two exercise trials at an intensity corresponding to 70% VO2max for 35 min. In a random order, alcoholic (0.7 g/kg) or alcohol-free drinks were given 1 h after the completion of exercise. Venous blood samples were obtained pre- (before breakfast) and postexercise and pre- and postprandially during recovery. Total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed no change with exercise or alcohol ingestion. In the control trial, when subjects consumed a standardized lunch, triglycerides showed no significant change, but when alcohol was consumed postexercise triglyceride concentration increased substantially 5 h during recovery in both males and females. The mechanism responsible for the rise in triglyceride concentration during recovery when alcohol was ingested following exercise is not known, but this appears to be a late phenomenon.

  7. Prolonged severe hypotension following combined amlodipine and valsartan ingestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Silas W; Ferguson, Kathy L; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S; Greller, Howard A

    2008-06-01

    Compared to other calcium channel blockers (CCBs), overdose with dihydropyridine CCBs are considered relatively benign due to their vascular selectivity. Although not a sustained-release preparation, amlodipine's prolonged duration of effect is concerning following overdose. In addition, angiotensin II receptor blocker blunting of vasoconstrictive and sympathetic compensatory responses could exacerbate calcium channel blocker toxicity. We describe severe toxicity associated with an overdose of amlodipine and valsartan. A 75-year-old woman presented to the ED 45 minutes after a witnessed suicidal ingestion of a "handful" of amlodipine and valsartan tablets. Hypotension, which appeared two hours after ingestion, was refractory to crystalloids and colloids, calcium gluconate, epinephrine, norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and vasopressin infusions. High-dose insulin euglycemia (HIE) therapy, and treatment with glucagon and naloxone were successful in improving her hemodynamic status. In this combined overdose, right heart catheterization demonstrated both negative inotropic effects and decreased systemic vascular resistance. Co-ingestion of amlodipine with valsartan produced profound toxicity. Early institution of HIE therapy may be beneficial to reverse these effects.

  8. Ingestibility and Formulation Quality of Lansoprazole Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Megumi; Nakamura, Katsuki; Kasai, Ryoya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the ingestibility and formulation quality of one branded (formulation A) and five generic (formulations B, C, D, E, and F) lansoprazole orally disintegrating (OD) tablets. Methods. Ingestibility, including the oral disintegrating time, taste, mouth feeling, and palatability, was examined by sensory testing in healthy subjects. Formulation qualities, including salivary stability, gastric acid resistance, and intestinal dissolution behavior, were examined. Results and Discussion. The oral disintegration time of formulation F (52 s) was significantly longer than that of other formulations (32–37 s). More than 90% of subjects did not experience bitterness with formulations A, E, and F, whereas 50% of subjects felt rough and powdery sensations with formulations B, C, and D. More than 80% of subjects suggested that formulations A, E, and F had good palatability. Ingestibility was different between formulations. OD tablets consist of enteric granules containing lansoprazole, which is unstable in gastric acid. Enteric granules of each formulation were stable in artificial saliva and gastric juice. No differences were observed in dissolution behaviors among the formulations, indicating that the formulation quality of the formulations was almost equivalent. Conclusions. This study provides useful information for selecting branded or generic lansoprazole OD tablets for individualized treatments. PMID:28044122

  9. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-10-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. {sup 131}I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided.

  10. Clostridium tertium bacteremia in a patient with glyphosate ingestion.

    PubMed

    You, Myung-Jo; Shin, Gee-Wook; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-01-06

    Clostridium tertium is distributed in the soil and in animal and human gastrointestinal tracts. C. tertium has been isolated from patients with blood diseases, immune disorders, and abdominal surgeries. Glyphosate is toxic, causing cause eye and skin irritation, gastrointestinal pain, and vomiting. Ingestion of herbicides modifies the gastrointestinal environment, which stresses the living organisms. However, there has been little attention to cases of bacteremia in patients recovering from suicide attempt by ingesting herbicide. Clostridium tertium was identified in a 44-year-old female who attempted suicide by glyphosate (a herbicide) ingestion. The 16S rRNA sequences from all colonies were 99% identical with that of C. tertium (AB618789) found on a BLAST search of the NCBI database. The bacterium was cultured on TSA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests performed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions showed that the bacterium was susceptible to penicillin, a combination of β-lactamase inhibitor and piperacillin or amoxicillin, and first- and second- generation cephalosporins. However, it was resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Glyphosate herbicide might be a predisposing factor responsible for the pathogenesis of C. tertium. The results highlight the need for careful diagnosis and selection of antibiotics in the treatment of this organism.

  11. Helicopter rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to develop an analytical prediction method for helicopter main rotor noise due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence. This study incorporates an atmospheric turbulence model, a rotor mean flow contraction model and a rapid distortion turbulence model which together determine the statistics of the non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. Inputs to the combined mean inflow and turbulence models are controlled by atmospheric wind characteristics and helicopter operating conditions. A generalized acoustic source model was used to predict the far field noise generated by the non-isotropic flow incident on the rotor. Absolute levels for acoustic spectra and directivity patterns were calculated for full scale helicopters, without the use of empirical or adjustable constants. Comparisons between isotropic and non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor face demonstrated pronounced differences in acoustic spectra. Turning and contraction of the flow for hover and low speed vertical ascent cases result in a 3 dB increase in the acoustic spectrum energy and a 10 dB increase in tone levels. Compared to trailing edge noise, turbulence ingestion noise is the dominant noise mechanism below approximately 30 rotor harmonics, while above 100 harmonics, trailing edge noise levels exceed turbulence ingestion noise by 25 dB.

  12. Safety-pin ingestion in children: a cultural fact.

    PubMed

    Gün, Feryal; Salman, Tansu; Abbasoglu, Latif; Celik, Rüya; Celik, Alaaddin

    2003-08-01

    Pediatric foreign-body (FB) ingestion is a common problem. Many of these FBs are sharp objects such as needles, toothpicks and safety pins (SP). This report reviews the management of SP ingestion in children. During a 16-year period, we recorded 49 pediatric cases of witnessed SP ingestion. In all children, SPs were used to attach the blue beads to the child's suits with the belief of averting the evil eye. The mean age was 8 months ranging from 4 months to 2 years, and 30 patients were males and 19 were females. SPs were most commonly sited in esophagus (37%) and stomach (37%). In the remainder, the SPs have already reached the duodenum and intestine. In this series, 20 (41%) children passed SPs spontaneously, 14 (28.5%) required endoscopic removal and 15 (30.5%) underwent surgery. The outcome of all patients was uneventful. All of the esophageal SPs require endoscopic intervention, however, after passing into stomach the patients can be observed with keeping the surgical intervention in mind if the SP displays a fixed position for more than three days.

  13. Size characteristics of stones ingested by common loons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hansen, Scott P.; Pokras, Mark; Miconi, Rose

    2001-01-01

    Common Loon (Gavia immer) carcasses recovered in New England had more stones of greater combined mass in their stomachs than loons from the southeastern United States. Stones retained in sieves with mesh sizes between 4.75 and 8.00 mm accounted for the greatest percentage (by mass) of grit in loon stomachs. The median longest dimension of the largest single stone in each stomach was 12.5 mm in loons from New England and 10.7 mm in loons from the southeast (maximum = 23.1 mm and 16.8 mm, respectively). A recent national proposal to restrict the use of certain fishing weights in the United States called for a ban on lead fishing sinkers of 25.4 mm or less in any dimension. Our findings suggest it is unlikely that Common Loons would ingest lead fishing weights greater than 25.4 mm in any dimension, if such ingestion was solely the result of their search for replacement stones for their stomachs. However, this does not preclude the possibility that loons may ingest larger fishing weights under other circumstances, such as the consumption of fish with attached sinkers.

  14. Plasma level of atropine after accidental ingestion of Atropa belladonna.

    PubMed

    Bogan, Reinhard; Zimmermann, Thomas; Zilker, Thomas; Eyer, Florian; Thiermann, Horst

    2009-07-01

    Ingestion of toxic plant constituents still poses a challenge in clinical management. The amount of berries ingested is often unclear and in the case of Atropa belladonna may affect clinical outcome. Plasma levels of atropine may thus be useful in confirming the cause of intoxication. A 48-year-old man had ingested three handfuls of Atropa belladonna. Within 6 h he experienced phases of disorientation, aggressiveness, and tachycardia. He was initially treated with diazepam, an intravenous infusion of physostigmine and activated charcoal. After temporary improvement his clinical condition worsened and he was transferred to our toxicological intensive care unit. Here, ongoing sedation and continuous administration of physostigmine was necessary because of disorientation. In the early phase of hospitalization, a blood sample was taken and a muscarinic receptor total binding equivalent to binding of 130 microg/L atropine was determined by a radio receptor technique. Within 2 days the patient recovered completely and was discharged in a good general condition. Receptor binding may help confirm diagnosis and elucidate mechanisms in this type of exposure.

  15. Ingestion, cytotoxicity, and early morphological effects of asbestos on Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, K K

    1988-01-01

    Crocidolite asbestos fibers are rapidly ingested in large amounts by Tetrahymena. This varies little with incubation time of fibers in the culture medium or with dilution of the medium. The ingested fibers form large, oblong bundles in the cell rather than the normal spherical food vacuoles. In addition, crocidolite results in a rapid dose dependent induction of various minor morphological abnormalities. At 0.1-3 mg/ml these are observed in approximately one third of the population. Crocidolite is, however, not cytotoxic to Tetrahymena even in these high concentrations as measured by cell death and population doubling time. Phagocytosis and cytotoxicity are thus not related in this cell. Preliminary studies indicate that all the U.I.C.C. standard reference asbestos samples have largely similar effects but that their ability to induce abnormalities depends on the species of Tetrahymena used. For studies of the effects of asbestos Tetrahymena should be a suitable model system because the massive ingestion of fibers and its short generation time should facilitate rapid detection of adverse effects. Among such effects is the induction of heterogenous cell lines. This may involve modification of non-nucleic acid carried hereditary (cytotactic) information.

  16. Arcopallium, NMDA antagonists and ingestive behaviors in pigeons.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Amanda Alcaraz; Campanella, Luciane Coutinho de Azevedo; Ramos, Mayara Caldas; Parreira, Caroline; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Marino-Neto, José; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida

    2009-12-07

    This study investigated the effects of local injections of 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX, AMPA-kainate receptor antagonist, 0.8 and 2.7 nmol) and MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist, 1.8 and 6.0 nmol) into the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA) and the arcopallium intermedium (AI) on ingestive and non-ingestive behaviors in free-feeding pigeons. Injections of DNQX into the TnA or into the AI failed to consistently affect feeding behavior; DNQX vehicle (DMSO) affected drinking when injected into the TnA. MK-801 injections into the AI produced a delayed increase in food and water intake. In the TnA, MK-801 increased water intake in the first two hours after the treatment. These data indicate that glutamatergic circuits in arcopallial structures in the pigeon, comparable to the mammalian medial amygdala, are involved in the inhibitory control of ingestive behaviors, suggesting that this can represent a conserved functional attribute in the amniote prosencephalon.

  17. Fatal Taxus baccata ingestion with perimortem serum taxine B quantification.

    PubMed

    Arens, Ann M; Anaebere, Tiffany C; Horng, Howard; Olson, Kent

    2016-11-01

    Common yew (Taxus baccata) is a common decorative evergreen shrub with potentially fatal toxicity hallmarked by seizure, arrhythmia and cardiovascular collapse if ingested. Taxine B has been identified as one of the most cardiotoxic taxine alkaloids in Taxus spp, and another alkaloid, 3,5-dimethoxyphenol (3,5-DMP), is used as a marker of ingestion. We present a fatal case of ingestion of yew with perimortem serum and gastric taxine B, and 3,5-DMP concentrations. A 22-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department (ED) from a nearby botanical garden after she was found apneic and pulseless after a witnessed generalized tonic clonic seizure. The patient was found to have a wide complex rhythm with persistent cardiovascular collapse and expired despite maximal supportive care in the ED. A baggie of plant material was found on the patient, identified as Taxus baccata. Perimortem serum and gastric samples were analyzed to quantify serum and gastric taxine B and 3,5-DMP concentrations. Perimortem serum showed a 3,5-DMP concentration of 86.9 ng/mL, and taxine B of 80.9 ug/mL. We report a perimortem serum and gastric taxine B and 3,5-DMP concentrations in a fatal case of T. baccata toxicity.

  18. Numerical Investigation of Hot Gas Ingestion by STOVL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanka, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This report compiles the various research activities conducted under the auspices of the NASA Grant NAG3-1026, "Numerical Investigation of Hot Gas Ingestion by STOVL Aircraft" during the period of April 1989 to April 1994. The effort involved the development of multigrid based algorithms and computer programs for the calculation of the flow and temperature fields generated by Short Take-off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft, while hovering in ground proximity. Of particular importance has been the interaction of the exhaust jets with the head wind which gives rise to the hot gas ingestion process. The objective of new STOVL designs to reduce the temperature of the gases ingested into the engine. The present work describes a solution algorithm for the multi-dimensional elliptic partial-differential equations governing fluid flow and heat transfer in general curvilinear coordinates. The solution algorithm is based on the multigrid technique which obtains rapid convergence of the iterative numerical procedure for the discrete equations. Initial efforts were concerned with the solution of the Cartesian form of the equations. This algorithm was applied to a simulated STOVL configuration in rectangular coordinates. In the next phase of the work, a computer code for general curvilinear coordinates was constructed. This was applied to model STOVL geometries on curvilinear grids. The code was also validated in model problems. In all these efforts, the standard k-Epsilon model was used.

  19. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P < 0.01), and surface properties of the plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P < 0.01). A strong, significant correlation between propensity for plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P < 0.01). Exposure to 1 and 10 μm PS for up to 8 days had no significant effect on C. gigas feeding or growth at <100 microplastics mL(-1). In conclusion, whil micro- and nanoplastics were readily ingested by oyster larvae, exposure to plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study.

  20. The effects of perpetrator age and abuse disclosure on the relationship between feelings provoked by child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José; Justicia, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between feelings provoked by child sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom scores in a sample of 163 female survivors of CSA. Finkelhor and Browne's traumagenic dynamics model was applied. The interactive effects of provoked feelings with perpetrator age and the existence of abuse disclosure were also studied. Results showed an overall relationship between feelings provoked by CSA and PTSD symptom scores. Feelings of stigma, betrayal, and powerlessness as a result of CSA were associated with PTSD symptom score when the entire group of CSA victims was analyzed. The role of traumatic sexualization was relevant only when analyzed in interaction with the age of the perpetrator and disclosure. The relationship between traumatic sexualization and PTSD symptom scores was only significant when the abuse was committed by an adult perpetrator and when a disclosure was made during the time of abuse, or a short time after the abuse had occurred.