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Sample records for fruit bitter gourd

  1. First report of phytophthora fruit rot on bitter gourd (Mormodica charantia) and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) caused by phytophthora capsici

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luffa sponge (smooth gourd) and bitter gourds (bitter melon) are specialty cucurbit vegetables cultivated in the United States (US) on a small scale for select markets. Luffa gourds are also grown for the sponge obtained from dried fruit for personal hygiene and skin care. These two cucurbits prod...

  2. Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...

  3. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  4. Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

    2009-10-01

    In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  5. Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Batabyal, Lata; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Maurya, Prejwltta; Srivastava, C N

    2009-10-01

    In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC(50) at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC(-90) at 201.83 and 171.70 ppm as compared to methanol extract of M. charantia with LC(50) at 101.18 and 93.58 ppm and LC(90) at 322.81 and 302.62 ppm carbon tetrachloride extract of R. communis with LC(50) at 144.11 and 92.44 ppm and LC(90) at 432.42 and 352.89 ppm after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The methanol extract of Az. indica exhibited potential results and can be exploited as a preferred natural larvicide for the control of filarial vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:19562373

  6. Bitter Melon

    MedlinePlus

    African Cucumber, Ampalaya, Balsam Pear, Balsam-Apple, Balsambirne, Balsamo, Bitter Apple, Bitter Cucumber, Bitter Gourd, Bittergurke, Carilla Fruit, Carilla Gourd, Cerasee, Chinli-Chih, Cundeamor, Fructus Mormordicae Grosvenori, Karavella, Kathilla, ...

  7. Bitter Gourd; A vegetable to Improve Human Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables play a significant role in human nutrition, especially as vitamin sources (i.e., A, B6, C, E, thiamine, and niacin), minerals, and dietary fiber. These compounds are associated with reduced risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. Bitter gourd (syn. bitter mel...

  8. AFLP Analysis Provides Strategies for Improvement of Momordica Charantia L. (Bitter Gourd)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoecious bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. minima and maxima Williams & Ng), a cucurbit of major economic importance, is widely cultivated in India, China, Africa, and South America. Although the morphology (i.e., growth habit and fruit shape, size, color and surface texture) of Indian bi...

  9. A comparative analysis of genetic diversity in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) genotypes using RAPD and ISSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) or bitter melon is a cucurbit of major economic importance where it is widely cultivated (India, China, Africa, and South America). The morphology (i.e., growth habit, maturity, and fruit shape, size, colour and surface texture) of Indian M. charantia germplasm...

  10. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) toxicity: a "bitter" diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Khalid Ismail; Borawake, Kapil Sharad

    2014-12-01

    Consumption of a glass of bottle gourd juice is thought to work as a health "tonic" and part of traditional healthy living practices in India. The juice may in certain circumstances turn bitter with increased levels of the cytotoxic compound called Cucurbitacins. If the bitter juice is consumed it causes a toxic reaction in the gut, leading to abdominal discomfort/pain, vomiting, hematemesis, and hypotension which may be rarely fatal, especially in persons with pre-existing illness. In the absence of clear cut history regarding the consumption of the bitter bottle gourd juice and the initiation of symptoms, the differential diagnosis for the above symptoms will include diseases causing gastrointestinal bleed with hypotension and/or shock. We report a case of bitter bottle gourd poisoning presenting with abdominal symptoms, hematemesis and shock and with an initial differential diagnosis of septicemia with septic shock and multi-organ involvement. We conduct a literature review and ponder the various differential diagnoses of this clinical scenario. PMID:25653981

  11. A triterpenoid from wild bitter gourd inhibits breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Li-Yuan; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chu, Po-Chen; Lin, Wei-Yu; Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2016-03-01

    The antitumor activity of 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (TCD), a triterpenoid isolated from wild bitter gourd, in breast cancer cells was investigated. TCD suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with IC50 values at 72 h of 19 and 23 μM, respectively, via a PPARγ-independent manner. TCD induced cell apoptosis accompanied with pleiotrophic biological modulations including down-regulation of Akt-NF-κB signaling, up-regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and p53, increased reactive oxygen species generation, inhibition of histone deacetylases protein expression, and cytoprotective autophagy. Together, these findings provided the translational value of TCD and wild bitter gourd as an antitumor agent for patients with breast cancer.

  12. A triterpenoid from wild bitter gourd inhibits breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Li-Yuan; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chu, Po-Chen; Lin, Wei-Yu; Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2016-01-01

    The antitumor activity of 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (TCD), a triterpenoid isolated from wild bitter gourd, in breast cancer cells was investigated. TCD suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with IC50 values at 72 h of 19 and 23 μM, respectively, via a PPARγ−independent manner. TCD induced cell apoptosis accompanied with pleiotrophic biological modulations including down-regulation of Akt-NF-κB signaling, up-regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and p53, increased reactive oxygen species generation, inhibition of histone deacetylases protein expression, and cytoprotective autophagy. Together, these findings provided the translational value of TCD and wild bitter gourd as an antitumor agent for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26926586

  13. A triterpenoid from wild bitter gourd inhibits breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Yuan; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chu, Po-Chen; Lin, Wei-Yu; Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2016-01-01

    The antitumor activity of 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (TCD), a triterpenoid isolated from wild bitter gourd, in breast cancer cells was investigated. TCD suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with IC50 values at 72 h of 19 and 23 μM, respectively, via a PPARγ-independent manner. TCD induced cell apoptosis accompanied with pleiotrophic biological modulations including down-regulation of Akt-NF-κB signaling, up-regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and p53, increased reactive oxygen species generation, inhibition of histone deacetylases protein expression, and cytoprotective autophagy. Together, these findings provided the translational value of TCD and wild bitter gourd as an antitumor agent for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26926586

  14. A triterpenoid from wild bitter gourd inhibits breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Li-Yuan; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chu, Po-Chen; Lin, Wei-Yu; Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2016-03-01

    The antitumor activity of 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (TCD), a triterpenoid isolated from wild bitter gourd, in breast cancer cells was investigated. TCD suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with IC50 values at 72 h of 19 and 23 μM, respectively, via a PPARγ‑independent manner. TCD induced cell apoptosis accompanied with pleiotrophic biological modulations including down-regulation of Akt-NF-κB signaling, up-regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and p53, increased reactive oxygen species generation, inhibition of histone deacetylases protein expression, and cytoprotective autophagy. Together, these findings provided the translational value of TCD and wild bitter gourd as an antitumor agent for patients with breast cancer.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in AVRDC collections of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important market vegetable in Asia, where it is also used in folk medicine to manage type 2 diabetes. Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a serious fungal disease of bitter gourd and yield losses of up to 50% have been reported. After observi...

  16. Determination of metrafenone in bitter gourd and soil by GC with ECD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siwei; Liu, Yanping; Sun, Haibin

    2016-04-01

    A method for determination of metrafenone residues in bitter gourd and soil was developed. All samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, purified with the glass column of florisil and NH2-SPE column, analyzed by gas chromatography with electronic capture detector (GC-ECD). The results showed that it had good linearity in the range of 0.01-2 mg/L and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9999. The average recoveries of metrafenone in bitter gourd and soil were 83.51-91.75% and 84.76-91.72% with the relative standard deviation of 3.48-9.18% and 4.23-7.25%, respectively. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.005 mg/kg, the minimum concentration of detection in bitter gourd and soil was 1 × 10(-2) mg/kg. PMID:26593479

  17. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Indian Bitter Gourd (Momordica Charantia L.) Allows for the Development of Crop Improvement Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. minima and var. maxima) or bitter melon is one of the most economically important cucurbit species worldwide. Although India is the center of origin of bitter melon, and cultivars and landraces of this species are widely cultivated in Asia, a rigorous asses...

  18. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

    PubMed

    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (< or = 0.05) influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd.

  19. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

    PubMed

    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (< or = 0.05) influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd. PMID:24897796

  20. Partially purified bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase catalyzed decolorization of textile and other industrially important dyes.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Suhail; Ali Khan, Amjad; Husain, Qayyum

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic action of partially purified bitter gourd peroxidase for the degradation/decolorization of complex aromatic structures. Twenty-one dyes, with a wide spectrum of chemical groups, currently being used by the textile and other important industries have been selected for the study. Here, for the first time we have shown peroxidases from Momordica charantia (300 EU/gm of vegetable) to be highly effective in decolorizing industrially important dyes. Dye solutions, containing 50-200 mg dye/l, were used for the treatment with bitter gourd peroxidase (specific activity of 99.0 EU/mg protein). M. charantia peroxidases were able to decolorize most of the textile dyes by forming insoluble precipitate. When the textile dyes were treated with increasing concentration of enzyme, it was observed that greater fraction of the color was removed but four out of eight reactive dyes were recalcitrant to decolorization by bitter gourd peroxidase. Step-wise addition of enzyme to the decolorizing reaction mixture at the interval of 1h further enhanced the dye decolorization. The rate of decolorization was enhanced when the dyes were incubated with fixed quantity of enzyme for increasing times. Decolorization of non-textile dyes resulted in the degradation and removal of dyes from the solution without any precipitate formation. Decolorization rate was drastically increased when the textile and other industrially important non-textile dyes were treated with bitter gourd peroxidase in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Complex mixtures of dyes were prepared by taking three to four reactive textile and non-textile dyes in equal proportions. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with the enzyme in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Our data suggest that the peroxidase/mediator system is an effective biocatalyst for the treatment of effluents containing recalcitrant dyes from textile, dye manufacturing

  1. Decolorization of textile effluent by bitter gourd peroxidase immobilized on concanavalin A layered calcium alginate-starch beads.

    PubMed

    Matto, Mahreen; Husain, Qayyum

    2009-05-30

    Bitter gourd peroxidase immobilized on the surface of concanavalin A layered calcium alginate-starch beads was used for the successful and effective decolorization of textile industrial effluent. Effluent was recalcitrant to the action of bitter gourd peroxidase; however, in the presence of some redox mediators, it was successfully decolorized. Effluent decolorization was maximum (70%) in the presence of 1.0mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole within 1h of incubation. However, immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase showed maximum decolorization at pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C. Immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase decolorized more than 90% effluent after 3h of incubation in a batch process. The two-reactor system, one reactor containing immobilized peroxidase and the other had activated silica, was quite effective in the decolorization of textile effluent. The system was capable of decolorizing 40% effluent even after 2 months of continuous operation. The absorption spectra of the untreated and treated effluent exhibited a marked difference in absorbance at various wavelengths. Immobilized peroxidase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system could be employed for the treatment of a large volume of effluent in a continuous reactor.

  2. De Novo Assembly of Bitter Gourd Transcriptomes: Gene Expression and Sequence Variations in Gynoecious and Monoecious Lines.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anjali; Singh, V K; Bharadwaj, D R; Kumar, Rajesh; Rai, Ashutosh; Rai, A K; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Parameswaran, Sriram; Singh, Major; Naik, P S

    2015-01-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a nutritious vegetable crop of Asian origin, used as a medicinal herb in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. Molecular breeding in bitter gourd is in its infancy, due to limited molecular resources, particularly on functional markers for traits such as gynoecy. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of bitter gourd using Illumina next-generation sequencer, from root, flower buds, stem and leaf samples of gynoecious line (Gy323) and a monoecious line (DRAR1). A total of 65,540 transcripts for Gy323 and 61,490 for DRAR1 were obtained. Comparisons revealed SNP and SSR variations between these lines and, identification of gene classes. Based on available transcripts we identified 80 WRKY transcription factors, several reported in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses; 56 ARF genes which play a pivotal role in auxin-regulated gene expression and development. The data presented will be useful in both functions studies and breeding programs in bitter gourd. PMID:26047102

  3. De Novo Assembly of Bitter Gourd Transcriptomes: Gene Expression and Sequence Variations in Gynoecious and Monoecious Lines

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anjali; Singh, V. K.; Bharadwaj, D. R.; Kumar, Rajesh; Rai, Ashutosh; Rai, A. K.; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Parameswaran, Sriram; Singh, Major; Naik, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a nutritious vegetable crop of Asian origin, used as a medicinal herb in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. Molecular breeding in bitter gourd is in its infancy, due to limited molecular resources, particularly on functional markers for traits such as gynoecy. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of bitter gourd using Illumina next-generation sequencer, from root, flower buds, stem and leaf samples of gynoecious line (Gy323) and a monoecious line (DRAR1). A total of 65,540 transcripts for Gy323 and 61,490 for DRAR1 were obtained. Comparisons revealed SNP and SSR variations between these lines and, identification of gene classes. Based on available transcripts we identified 80 WRKY transcription factors, several reported in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses; 56 ARF genes which play a pivotal role in auxin-regulated gene expression and development. The data presented will be useful in both functions studies and breeding programs in bitter gourd. PMID:26047102

  4. Effect of the moisture content on the physical properties of bitter gourd seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, H.; Alpsoy, H. C.; Ayhan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Some physical and germination properties of bitter gourd seed were determined in a moisture content range of 9.3-32.1% d.b. For this moisture, the average length, width, and thickness of seed increased by 3.68, 4.07, and 4.56%, respectively. The geometric properties increased with increasing moisture content. The bulk density and rupture force decreased while thousand seed mass, true density, porosity, terminal velocity and static coefficient of friction increased with increasing moisture content. At all moisture contents, the maximum friction was offered by rubber, followed by plywood, aluminum, and galvanized iron surface. The seed germination duration, seedling emergence percentage, and germination index values gave the best results at the 19.9% moisture content, whereas fresh seedling mass was not affected by different moisture contents.

  5. Changes in the radical-scavenging activity of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) during freezing and frozen storage with or without blanching.

    PubMed

    Myojin, C; Enami, N; Nagata, A; Yamaguchi, T; Takamura, H; Matoba, T

    2008-09-01

    The effects of blanching, freezing, and frozen storage on the retention of radical-scavenging activity (RSA), total phenolics, and ascorbic acid in bitter gourd were investigated. Blanching of sliced bitter gourd resulted in considerable losses of RSA and total phenolics, and most extensively, of ascorbic acid. In the subsequent frozen storage at -18 degrees C, RSA and total phenolic content of unblanched and blanched bitter gourd underwent little change for 90 d then gradually declined, but at -40 degrees C, they practically remained unchanged throughout the entire storage period. On the contrary, ascorbic acid content of both unblanched and blanched bitter gourd decreased abruptly at the early stage in frozen storage. The results show that blanching of bitter gourd improves the retention of RSA and total phenolics during subsequent frozen storage but markedly aggravated loss of ascorbic acid. Finally, it is to be noted that RSA, total phenolics, and ascorbic acid originally contained in the raw bitter gourd were overall best retained by quick freezing followed by frozen storage at -40 degrees C without preceding blanching.

  6. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initia...

  7. Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: A preliminary dietary supplementation trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a common tropical vegetable that has been used in traditional or folk medicine to treat diabetes. Wild bitter gourd (WBG) ameliorated metabolic syndrome (MetS) in animal models. We aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effect of WBG supplementation on MetS in Taiwanese adults. Methods A preliminary open-label uncontrolled supplementation trial was conducted in eligible fulfilled the diagnosis of MetS from May 2008 to April 2009. A total of 42 eligible (21 men and 21 women) with a mean age of 45.7 ± 11.4 years (23 to 63 years) were supplemented with 4.8 gram lyophilized WBG powder in capsules daily for three months and were checked for MetS at enrollment and follow-up monthly. After supplementation was ceased, the participants were continually checked for MetS monthly over an additional three-month period. MetS incidence rate were analyzed using repeated-measures generalized linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results After adjusting for sex and age, the MetS incidence rate (standard error, p value) decreased by 7.1% (3.7%, 0.920), 9.5% (4.3%, 0.451), 19.0% (5.7%, 0.021), 16.7% (5.4%, 0.047), 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229) and 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229) at visit 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 compared to that at baseline (visit 1), respectively. The decrease in incidence rate was highest at the end of the three-month supplementation period and it was significantly different from that at baseline (p = 0.021). The difference remained significant at end of the 4th month (one month after the cessation of supplementation) (p = 0.047) but the effect diminished at the 5th and 6th months after baseline. The waist circumference also significantly decreased after the supplementation (p < 0.05). The WBG supplementation was generally well-tolerated. Conclusion This is the first report to show that WBG improved MetS in human which provides a firm base for further randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of WBG

  8. First report of fruit rot of ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ridge gourd is a specialty cucurbit vegetable cultivated in the United States on a small scale for select markets. Ridge gourds are generally grown on a trellis which prevents the fruit from curving and lets it grow straight for the market. However some growers cultivate these on raised beds to low...

  9. Wild bitter gourd protects against alcoholic fatty liver in mice by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Tseng, Hui-Chun; Liu, Chun-Ting; Huang, Ching-Jang; Chyuan, Jong-Ho; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a common vegetable grown widely in Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether wild bitter gourd possessed protective effects against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet for 4 weeks to induce alcoholic fatty liver. Meanwhile, mice were treated with ethanol extracts from four different wild bitter gourd cultivars: Hualien No. 1', Hualien No. 2', Hualien No. 3' and Hualien No. 4'. The results indicated that the daily administration of 500 mg kg body weight(-1) of a Hualien No. 3' extract (H3E) or a Hualien No. 4' extract (H4E) markedly reduced the steatotic alternation of liver histopathology. In addition, the activation of serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and the accumulation of hepatic TG content caused by alcohol were ameliorated. The hepatoprotective effects of H3E and H4E involved the enhancement of the antioxidant defence system (GSH, GPx, GRd, CAT and SOD), inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in the liver. Moreover, H3E and H4E supplementation suppressed the alcohol-induced elevation of CYP2E1, SREBP-1, FAS and ACC protein expression. These results demonstrated that ethanol extracts of Hualien No. 3' and Hualien No. 4' have beneficial effects against alcoholic fatty liver, in which they attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  10. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.

  11. The beneficial effects of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing of rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat

    2014-08-01

    Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts. PMID:22812507

  12. Diversity among a wide Asian collection of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) landraces and their genetic relationships with commercial hybrid cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here the first genetic characterization of bitter gourd based on polymorphisms at 50 simple sequence repeat loci in 114 accessions that included landraces, breeding lines and commercial cultivars widely grown in Asia. Neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analysis revealed a high level of genetic var...

  13. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong

    2015-03-01

    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum. PMID:25245535

  14. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong

    2015-03-01

    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum.

  15. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-04-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  16. Reduction of virgin olive oil bitterness by fruit cold storage.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Khaled; Cayuela, José A; García, José M

    2008-11-12

    Green mature olives (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Manzanilla', 'Picual', and 'Verdial') were stored at 5 degrees C, and the oil extracted from them showed a middle intensity level of sensory-evaluated bitterness. The storage times necessary for this reduction were different for the three varieties tested, requiring 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, for 'Manzanilla', 'Picual', and 'Verdial' olives. The level of commercial quality of the extracted oil did not deteriorate as a consequence of previous fruit storage. Olives matured during refrigeration at 5 degrees C, as the increase of maturation index and the decrease of color index and fruit firmness indicated. Similarly, as the fruit storage period progressed, the total phenolic compound content of the extracted oils decreased. Although the use of green mature olives may require a more prolonged storage time, it allows for a better postharvest handling of the fruits, which are more resistant to physical damage or fungal infections than the riper ones. PMID:18937491

  17. [Medicinal foodstuffs. XI. Histamine release inhibitors from wax gourd, the fruits of Benincasa hispida Cogn].

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, S; Murakami, T; Kadoya, M; Matsuda, H; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

    1998-05-01

    The methanol extract of wax gourd (Japanese name "Tougan"), the fruits of Benincasa hispida COGN. (Cucurbitaceae), was found to show inhibitory activity on the histamine release from rat exudate cells induced by antigen-antibody reaction. Through bioassay-guided separation, four known triterpenes and two known sterols were isolated as active components together with a flavonoid C-glycoside, an acylated glucose, and a benzyl glycoside. Among the active triterpenes and sterols, two triterpenes, alnusenol and multiflorenol, were found to potently inhibit the histamine release. PMID:9612135

  18. Bitter gourd inhibits the development of obesity-associated fatty liver in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Cao, Ke; Li, Yuan; Zou, Xuan; Chen, Cong; Szeto, Ignatius Man-Yau; Dong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Youyou; Shi, Yujie; Wang, Junkuan; Liu, Jiankang; Feng, Zhihui

    2014-04-01

    Bitter gourd (BG) is a popular fruit in Asia with numerous well-known medicinal uses, including as an antidiabetic. In the current study, we aimed to explore the effects of BG on mitochondrial function during the development of obesity-associated fatty liver. C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 experimental groups: mice fed a normal diet (control; included for reference only), mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and mice fed an HFD supplemented with freeze-dried BG powder through daily gavage at doses of 0.5 (HFD+0.5BG) and 5 (HFD+5BG) g/kg, respectively. After 16 wk, mice in the HFD+5BG group showed less body and tissue weight gain and less hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia compared with those in the HFD group (P < 0.05). In both HFD+0.5BG and HFD+5BG groups, serum interleukin-6 concentration was lower than that in the HFD group (P < 0.02). The serum C-reactive protein concentration was lower in the HFD+5BG group compared with the HFD group (P < 0.04). An analysis of liver tissue revealed lower liver triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in both HFD+0.5BG and HFD+5BG groups than in the HFD group (P < 0.01). The HFD+5BG group had less activation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein/fatty acid synthase (SREBP-1/FAS) pathway, greater superoxide dismutase activity, and less total protein and mitochondrial protein oxidation than did the HFD group (P < 0.05). Mitochondrial complex I, II, III, and V activity was greater in the HFD+0.5BG group than in the HFD group (P < 0.03). The HFD+5BG group only had greater complex V activity compared with the HFD group (P < 0.05). Mitochondrial dynamics regulators, including dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1) and mitofusin 1 (MFN1), as well as proapoptotic protein expression levels were restored by BG treatment (P < 0.02). Taken together, our results suggest that BG prevents inflammation and oxidative stress, modulates mitochondrial activity, suppresses apoptosis activation, and inhibits lipid accumulation during the

  19. Sensory quality of functional beverages: bitterness perception and bitter masking of olive leaf extract fortified fruit smoothies.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Peter; Braun, Nina; Schulze, Nadine; Kunz, Benno

    2010-08-01

    Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains high amounts of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. The antioxidant capacity of these polyphenols makes OLE a promising ingredient for functional food. OLE causes very strong bitterness perception and can therefore only be formulated in low concentrations. In this research, bitter detection and recognition thresholds of OLE-fortified fruit smoothies were determined by a trained sensory panel (n = 11). Masking of the OLE's bitter taste was investigated with addition of sodium cyclamate, sodium chloride, and sucrose by means of a standardized ranking method and a scale test. Detection (5.78 mg/100 g) and recognition thresholds (8.05 mg/100 g) of OLE polyphenols confirmed the low formulation limits when bitterness was not masked by other substances. At higher polyphenol levels of 20 mg/100 g, sodium cyclamate and sucrose were able to reduce bitter taste perception by 39.9% and 24.9%, respectively, whereas sodium chloride could not effectively mask bitterness. Practical Application: Development of functional food poses new challenges for the food industry. A major problem in this field is the high bitterness of natural polyphenol-containing extracts with potential health benefits. This research was conducted to understand the sensory impact of olive leaf extract (OLE), a novel food ingredient with very bitter taste. In product development, the data of this research can be considered for formulation limits and the general sensory quality of OLE-fortified food and beverages.

  20. Potential of immobilized bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidases in the decolorization and removal of textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Suhail; Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2005-07-01

    Immobilized peroxidases from Momordica charantia were highly effective in decolorizing reactive textile dyes compared to its soluble counterpart. Dye solutions, 50-200 mg/l, were treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidases (specific activity of 99.0 EU per mg protein). The decolorization of dyes with soluble and immobilized enzyme was maximum in the range of pH 3.0-4.0. The effect of different temperatures on the dye decolorization was monitored and it was observed that all the dyes were maximally decolorized at 40 degrees C. In order to examine the operational stability of the immobilized preparation, the enzyme was repeatedly exploited for the decolorization of the dyes from fresh batch of dye solutions. Even after 10 cycles in each case the immobilized preparation retained nearly 50% of the initial enzyme activity. The immobilized enzyme exhibited more than 90% of the original activity while the soluble enzyme lost 33% of the initial activity when stored for 40 d at room temperature. Mixtures of three, four and eight dyes were prepared and treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with immobilized enzyme. Dyeing effluent collected from local dyers was treated with both types of enzyme preparations. Immobilized enzyme was capable of removing remarkably high concentration of color from the effluent. TOC content of soluble and immobilized enzyme treated individual dyes, mixture of dyes and dyeing effluent was determined and it was observed that higher TOC was removed after treatment with immobilized enzyme.

  1. Development of novel simple sequence repeat markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through enriched genomic libraries and their utilization in analysis of genetic diversity and cross-species transferability.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Swati; Singh, Archana; Archak, Sunil; Behera, Tushar K; John, Joseph K; Meshram, Sudhir U; Gaikwad, Ambika B

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are the preferred markers for genetic analyses of crop plants. The availability of a limited number of such markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) necessitates the development and characterization of more SSR markers. These were developed from genomic libraries enriched for three dinucleotide, five trinucleotide, and two tetranucleotide core repeat motifs. Employing the strategy of polymerase chain reaction-based screening, the number of clones to be sequenced was reduced by 81 % and 93.7 % of the sequenced clones contained in microsatellite repeats. Unique primer-pairs were designed for 160 microsatellite loci, and amplicons of expected length were obtained for 151 loci (94.4 %). Evaluation of diversity in 54 bitter gourd accessions at 51 loci indicated that 20 % of the loci were polymorphic with the polymorphic information content values ranging from 0.13 to 0.77. Fifteen Indian varieties were clearly distinguished indicative of the usefulness of the developed markers. Markers at 40 loci (78.4 %) were transferable to six species, viz. Momordica cymbalaria, Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera, Momordica balsamina, Momordica dioca, Momordica cochinchinesis, and Momordica sahyadrica. The microsatellite markers reported will be useful in various genetic and molecular genetic studies in bitter gourd, a cucurbit of immense nutritive, medicinal, and economic importance. PMID:25240849

  2. Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from bitter gourd: Molecular basis of non-toxicity, conformational selection and glycan structure.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Thyageshwar; Sharma, Alok; Vijayan, M

    2015-12-01

    The structures of nine independent crystals of bitter gourd seed lectin (BGSL), a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs, and its sugar complexes have been determined. The four-chain, two-fold symmetric, protein is made up of two identical two-chain modules, each consisting of a catalytic chain and a lectin chain, connected by a disulphide bridge. The lectin chain is made up of two domains. Each domain carries a carbohydrate binding site in type II RIPs of known structure. BGSL has a sugar binding site only on one domain, thus impairing its interaction at the cell surface. The adenine binding site in the catalytic chain is defective. Thus, defects in sugar binding as well as adenine binding appear to contribute to the non-toxicity of the lectin. The plasticity of the molecule is mainly caused by the presence of two possible well defined conformations of a surface loop in the lectin chain. One of them is chosen in the sugar complexes, in a case of conformational selection, as the chosen conformation facilitates an additional interaction with the sugar, involving an arginyl residue in the loop. The N-glycosylation of the lectin involves a plant-specific glycan while that in toxic type II RIPs of known structure involves a glycan which is animal as well as plant specific. PMID:26648038

  3. Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with extracts from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red frangipani as sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2013-03-01

    Natural dyes extracted from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red frangipani were used as sensitizers to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies indicated the presence of β-carotene in the fruits of ivy gourd and anthocyanins in the flowers of red frangipani. The extract of the flowers of red frangipani exhibits higher photosensitized performance compared to the fruits of ivy gourd and this is due to the better charge transfer between the dyes of flowers of red frangipani and the TiO2 photoanode surface.

  4. Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with extracts from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red frangipani as sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2013-03-01

    Natural dyes extracted from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red frangipani were used as sensitizers to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies indicated the presence of β-carotene in the fruits of ivy gourd and anthocyanins in the flowers of red frangipani. The extract of the flowers of red frangipani exhibits higher photosensitized performance compared to the fruits of ivy gourd and this is due to the better charge transfer between the dyes of flowers of red frangipani and the TiO(2) photoanode surface.

  5. Prunasin Hydrolases during Fruit Development in Sweet and Bitter Almonds1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  6. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system.

  7. Population dynamics, distribution, and species diversity of fruit flies on cucurbits in Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Ganie, S A; Khan, Z H; Ahangar, R A; Bhat, H A; Hussain, Barkat

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of cucurbits and the losses incurred by fruit fly infestation, the population dynamics of fruit flies in cucurbit crops and the influence of abiotic parameters, such as temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and total sunshine hours per day on the fruit fly population were studied. The study was carried out at six locations; in district Srinagar the locations were Batmaloo, Shalimar, and Dal, while in district Budgam the locations were Chadoora, Narkara, and Bugam (Jammu and Kashmir, India). Various cucurbit crops, such as cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd, were selected for the study. With regard to locations, mean fruit fly population was highest (6.09, 4.55, 3.87, and 3.60 flies/trap/week) at Batamaloo and Chadoora (4.73, 3.93, 2.73, and 2.73 flies/trap/week) on cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd, and bitter gourd, respectively. The population of fruit flies was significantly correlated with the minimum and maximum temperature. The maximum species diversity of fruit flies was 0.511, recorded in Chadoora. Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most predominant species in both Srinagar and Budgam, followed by B. dorsalis (Hendel) and B. tau (Walker), while B. scutellaris (Bezzi) was found only in Chadoora. Results of the present investigation may be utilized in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the agroecological system. PMID:23906383

  8. Reduction of oil bitterness by heating of olive (Olea europaea) fruits.

    PubMed

    García, J M; Yousfi, K; Mateos, R; Olmo, M; Cert, A

    2001-09-01

    Olives (Olea europaea) of the Manzanilla and Verdial varieties, harvested at the green mature stage of ripening, were heated at 30, 40, 45, and 50 degrees C during 24 h and at 40 degrees C during 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Just after treatments, oils were physically extracted from the olives. Olive heating promotes a reduction of oil bitterness in direct relationship to the time and temperature used. Fruit heating at < or =40 degrees C during 24 h did not produce significant changes of acidity, UV absorption, peroxide index, panel test score, or oxidative stability of the obtained oils. Both longer treatments at 40 degrees C and heating at >40 degrees C yielded oils with less oxidative stability. Oils obtained from olives heated at > or =40 degrees C showed higher concentrations of chlorophylls and carotenes. For each olive variety, a good correlation between oil bitterness and content of hydroxytyrosol secoiridoid derivatives was found. PMID:11559116

  9. Content changes of bitter compounds in 'Guoqing No.1' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) during fruit development of consecutive 3 seasons.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaojie; Wang, Zhuang; Ding, Fan; Sun, Da; Ma, Zhaocheng; Cheng, Yunjiang; Xu, Juan

    2014-02-15

    The main bitter compounds (nomilin, limonin and naringin) in the fruit tissues of 'Guoqing No.1' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were determined throughout the fruit development of 3 consecutive growing seasons. Although fluctuating largely at the corresponding developing stages of the 3 years, the contents of these compounds in fruit tissues mostly displayed a declining trend, which implied that the rhythm of the metabolism of these bitter compounds was not consistent among years and was largely growing season dependent. Regarding their distribution, fruit flavedo might be a weak sink that contained the lowest level of naringin, while the segment membrane accumulated large amount of limonin and nomilin, which indicated a possible tissue bias pattern for biosynthesis or accumulation of those compounds. Partial correlation coefficient analysis revealed a synergistic accumulation of naringin and the two limonoid aglycones in fruit tissues during fruit development, indicating an integrated metabolism of flavonoids and limonoids.

  10. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

  11. Characterization of a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    PubMed

    Cao, Heping; Sethumadhavan, Kandan; Grimm, Casey C; Ullah, Abul H J

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash because its fruit has a bitter taste. The fruit has been widely used as vegetable and herbal medicine. Alpha-eleostearic acid is the major fatty acid in the seeds, but little is known about its biosynthesis. As an initial step towards understanding the biochemical mechanism of fatty acid accumulation in bitter melon seeds, this study focused on a soluble phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, 3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4) that hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester bond in phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol and P(i). PAPs are typically categorized into two subfamilies: Mg(2+)-dependent soluble PAP and Mg(2+)-independent membrane-associated PAP. We report here the partial purification and characterization of an Mg(2+)-independent PAP activity from developing cotyledons of bitter melon. PAP protein was partially purified by successive centrifugation and UNOsphere Q and S columns from the soluble extract. PAP activity was optimized at pH 6.5 and 53-60 °C and unaffected by up to 0.3 mM MgCl2. The K(m) and Vmax values for dioleoyl-phosphatidic acid were 595.4 µM and 104.9 ηkat/mg of protein, respectively. PAP activity was inhibited by NaF, Na(3)VO(4), Triton X-100, FeSO4 and CuSO4, but stimulated by MnSO4, ZnSO4 and Co(NO3)2. In-gel activity assay and mass spectrometry showed that PAP activity was copurified with a number of other proteins. This study suggests that PAP protein is probably associated with other proteins in bitter melon seeds and that a new class of PAP exists as a soluble and Mg(2+)-independent enzyme in plants. PMID:25203006

  12. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  13. Etopic expression of "Arabidopsis" H(+)-pyrophosphatase AVP1 enhances drought resistance in bottle gourd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been used as a source of rootstock for grafting watermelon to improve its fruit quality. We report here the development of a bottle gourd with resistance to drought by ectopic expression of the "Arabidopsis AVP1" gene that encodes a vacuolar H(+)-pyro...

  14. Nanobiotechnology can boost crop production and quality: first evidence from increased plant biomass, fruit yield and phytomedicine content in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research on nanoparticles in a number of crops has evidenced for enhanced germination and seedling growth, physiological activities including photosynthetic activity and nitrogen metabolism, mRNA expression and protein level, and also positive changes in gene expression indicating their potential use in crop improvement. We used a medicinally rich vegetable crop, bitter melon, as a model to evaluate the effects of seed treatment with a carbon-based nanoparticle, fullerol [C60(OH)20], on yield of plant biomass and fruit characters, and phytomedicine contents in fruits. Results We confirmed the uptake, translocation and accumulation of fullerol through bright field imaging and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. We observed varied effects of seed treatment at five concentrations, including non-consequential and positive, on plant biomass yield, fruit yield and its component characters, and content of five phytomedicines in fruits. Fullerol-treatment resulted in increases up to 54% in biomass yield and 24% in water content. Increases of up to 20% in fruit length, 59% in fruit number, and 70% in fruit weight led to an improvement up to 128% in fruit yield. Contents of two anticancer phytomedicines, cucurbitacin-B and lycopene, were enhanced up to 74% and 82%, respectively, and contents of two antidiabetic phytomedicines, charantin and insulin, were augmented up to 20% and 91%, respectively. Non-significant correlation inter se plant biomass, fruit yield, phytomedicine content and water content evidenced for separate genetic control and biosynthetic pathways for production of plant biomass, fruits, and phytomedicines in fruits, and also no impact of increased water uptake. Conclusions While our results indicated possibility of improving crop yield and quality by using proper concentrations of fullerol, extreme caution needs to be exercised given emerging knowledge about accumulation and toxicity of nanoparticles in bodily tissues. PMID:23622112

  15. Bitter melon: a panacea for inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Dandawate, Prasad R; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Padhye, Subhash B; Anant, Shrikant

    2016-02-01

    Nature is a rich source of medicinal plants and their products that are useful for treatment of various diseases and disorders. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon or bitter gourd, is one of such plants known for its biological activities used in traditional system of medicines. This plant is cultivated in all over the world, including tropical areas of Asia, Amazon, east Africa, and the Caribbean and used as a vegetable as well as folk medicine. All parts of the plant, including the fruit, are commonly consumed and cooked with different vegetables, stir-fried, stuffed or used in small quantities in soups or beans to give a slightly bitter flavor and taste. The plant is reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-obesity, and immunomodulatory activities. The plant extract inhibits cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy and inhibiting cancer stem cells. The plant is rich in bioactive chemical constituents like cucurbitane type triterpenoids, triterpene glycosides, phenolic acids, flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, fatty acids, and proteins. Some of the isolated compounds (Kuguacin J, Karaviloside XI, Kuguaglycoside C, Momordicoside Q-U, Charantin, α-eleostearic acid) and proteins (α-Momorcharin, RNase MC2, MAP30) possess potent biological activity. In the present review, we are summarizing the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities of Momordica charantia along with a short account of important chemical constituents, providing a basis for establishing detail biological activities of the plant and developing novel drug molecules based on the active chemical constituents. PMID:26968675

  16. Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria Siceraria) Toxicity: A “Bitter” Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Borawake, Kapil Sharad

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of a glass of bottle gourd juice is thought to work as a health “tonic” and part of traditional healthy living practices in India. The juice may in certain circumstances turn bitter with increased levels of the cytotoxic compound called Cucurbitacins. If the bitter juice is consumed it causes a toxic reaction in the gut, leading to abdominal discomfort/pain, vomiting, hematemesis, and hypotension which may be rarely fatal, especially in persons with pre-existing illness. In the absence of clear cut history regarding the consumption of the bitter bottle gourd juice and the initiation of symptoms, the differential diagnosis for the above symptoms will include diseases causing gastrointestinal bleed with hypotension and/or shock. We report a case of bitter bottle gourd poisoning presenting with abdominal symptoms, hematemesis and shock and with an initial differential diagnosis of septicemia with septic shock and multi-organ involvement. We conduct a literature review and ponder the various differential diagnoses of this clinical scenario. PMID:25653981

  17. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A; Ryan, Timothy M; Clarke, Andrew C; Smith, Bruce D; Perry, George H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops' progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval.

  18. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A; Ryan, Timothy M; Clarke, Andrew C; Smith, Bruce D; Perry, George H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops' progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval. PMID:26630007

  19. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A.; Ryan, Timothy M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Perry, George H.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops’ progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval. PMID:26630007

  20. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is also used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented in the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present review is an attempt to highlight the antidiabetic activity as well as phytochemical and pharmacological reports on M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects on diabetes.

  1. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen; Upwar, Nitin; Waseem, Naheed; Talaviya, Hetal; Patel, Zalak

    2010-01-01

    Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads. PMID:22247882

  2. Plant science. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yi; Ma, Yongshuo; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Huimin; Duan, Lixin; Chen, Huiming; Zeng, Jianguo; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Shenhao; Gu, Wenjia; Liu, Min; Ren, Jinwei; Gu, Xingfang; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Ye; Yasukawa, Ken; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Qi, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lucas, William J; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-28

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps. We discovered transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in leaves and fruits, respectively. Traces in genomic signatures indicated that selection imposed on Bt during domestication led to derivation of nonbitter cucurbits from their bitter ancestors. PMID:25430763

  3. Characteristics of fatty acids and essential oil from sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce) and bitter fennel fruits (F. vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coşge, Belgin; Kiralan, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Bilal

    2008-01-01

    Oil content in sweet and bitter fennels was obtained 12.22% and 14.41%, respectively. The C(18:1 c6), C(18:2), C(18:1 c9) and C(16:0) acids corresponding to approximately 97% of total oil was recorded as principal fatty acids. The ratios of essential oil from sweet and bitter fennels were found similar (average 3.00%). trans-Anethole, estragole and fenchone were found to be the main constituents in both fennels. The compound with the highest value in the two oil samples was trans-anethole as 95.25% (sweet) and 75.13% (bitter). While estragole was found in bitter fennel oil in a remarkable amount (15.51%), sweet fennel oil contained small amounts of estragole (2.87%). Fenchone was found <1% in sweet and approximately 5% in bitter fennel. p-Anisaldehyde in bitter fennel essential oil, and alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene in sweet fennel essential oil were not recorded, and these compounds were found very low or <1%.

  4. The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, M.K.; Singh, Ram; Naresh, J.S.; Sharma, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is distributed widely in temperate, tropical, and sub-tropical regions of the world. It has been reported to damage 81 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), snap melon (C. melo var. momordica), and snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). The extent of losses vary between 30 to 100%, depending on the cucurbit species and the season. Its abundance increases when the temperatures fall below 32° C, and the relative humidity ranges between 60 to 70%. It prefers to infest young, green, soft-skinned fruits. It inserts the eggs 2 to 4 mm deep in the fruit tissues, and the maggots feed inside the fruit. Pupation occurs in the soil at 0.5 to 15 cm below the soil surface. Keeping in view the importance of the pest and crop, melon fruit fly management could be done using local area management and wide area management. The melon fruit fly can successfully be managed over a local area by bagging fruits, field sanitation, protein baits, cue-lure traps, growing fruit fly-resistant genotypes, augmentation of biocontrol agents, and soft insecticides. The wide area management program involves the coordination of different characteristics of an insect eradication program (including local area options) over an entire area within a defensible perimeter, and subsequently protected against reinvasion by quarantine controls. Although, the sterile insect technique has been successfully used in wide area approaches, this approach needs to use more sophisticated and powerful technologies in eradication programs such as insect transgenesis and geographical information systems, which could be deployed over a wide area. Various other options for the management of fruit fly are also discussed in relation to their bio-efficacy and economics for effective management of this pest. PMID:17119622

  5. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  6. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant. PMID:26030998

  7. BitterDB: a database of bitter compounds

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Ayana; Shudler, Marina; Levit, Anat; Niv, Masha Y.

    2012-01-01

    Basic taste qualities like sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami serve specific functions in identifying food components found in the diet of humans and animals, and are recognized by proteins in the oral cavity. Recognition of bitter taste and aversion to it are thought to protect the organism against the ingestion of poisonous food compounds, which are often bitter. Interestingly, bitter taste receptors are expressed not only in the mouth but also in extraoral tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract, indicating that they may play a role in digestive and metabolic processes. BitterDB database, available at http://bitterdb.agri.huji.ac.il/bitterdb/, includes over 550 compounds that were reported to taste bitter to humans. The compounds can be searched by name, chemical structure, similarity to other bitter compounds, association with a particular human bitter taste receptor, and so on. The database also contains information on mutations in bitter taste receptors that were shown to influence receptor activation by bitter compounds. The aim of BitterDB is to facilitate studying the chemical features associated with bitterness. These studies may contribute to predicting bitterness of unknown compounds, predicting ligands for bitter receptors from different species and rational design of bitterness modulators. PMID:21940398

  8. [Of calabash gourds and other patient histories].

    PubMed

    Huynh-Do, Uyen

    2008-12-01

    In the culture of primal peoples, the dumbbell-shaped bottle gourd or calabash is a symbol for the universe, two equal halves inextricably linked. They represent heaven and earth, Yin and Yang--balance and harmony. This essay reflects personal memories, where case histories, patient stories and a doctor's story are intertwined.

  9. Electrophysiological responses to bitter stimuli in primate cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, T R; Giza, B K; Yan, J

    1998-11-30

    Studies investigating fine details of gustatory coding in the domain of each basic taste quality have been completed for sweet, salt, and sour stimuli. In the present experiment, we used chemicals that humans describe as predominantly bitter. We recorded the activity of 50 taste neurons in insular cortex of two cynomolgus macaques. Stimuli were water, fruit juice, glucose, NaCl, HCl, and 16 bitter solutions. In a multidimensional taste space the 16 bitter stimuli formed a coherent cluster composed of three main subgroups: (1) QHCl, phenylalanine, theophylline, caffeine, propyl-thiouracil (PROP), and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), all of which humans describe as rather purely bitter, (2) MgCl2, CaCl2, NH4Cl, and arginine, which humans describe as salty-bitter, and (3) urea, cysteine, and vitamin B1, which are described as sour-bitter. Vitamin B2, histidine and nicotine were in the center of the bitter cluster. Human descriptions of taste qualities conformed well to the presumed quality of each stimulus as inferred from its position in the multidimensional space (MDS), reinforcing the use of the macaque as a neural model for human gustation.

  10. Interactions and thresholds of limonin and nomilin in bitterness perception in orange juice and other matrices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limonin and nomilin are two bitter compounds present in citrus and are thought to cause the bitter off-flavor of Huanglongbing-infected fruit/juice. This study determined the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a simple matrix (sucrose and citric acid), a complex matrix (sucrose...

  11. Drosophila Bitter Taste(s).

    PubMed

    French, Alice; Ali Agha, Moutaz; Mitra, Aniruddha; Yanagawa, Aya; Sellier, Marie-Jeanne; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called "bitter". By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induces aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to the inhibitory pheromone, 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different "categories" of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction, hygienic behavior), thus considerably

  12. Transferability of cucumber microsatellite markers used for phylogenetic analysis and population structure study in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.).

    PubMed

    Bhawna; Abdin, M Z; Arya, L; Verma, M

    2015-02-01

    Improved breeding for developing fruit quality in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) necessitates knowledge regarding its genetic diversity. To achieve this, a set of 108 locus-specific SSR markers has been developed in bottle gourd by cross-species transferability from 995 mapped Cucumis sativus SSR markers. During screening, 280 primer pairs amplified in the bottle gourd germplasm, which were further evaluated in a diverse set of 42 lines, resulting in 19 polymorphic, 89 monomorphic, 15 with multiple bands, and the rest 157 showed no or very non-specific amplification. The 19 polymorphic primer pairs produced a total of 54 alleles. Gene diversity, Shannon's information index, and Nei's coefficient of differentiation were calculated suggesting a moderate genetic variation at the species level. A model-based population structure analysis divided these germplasm into two subpopulations. This marker set will be applicable for evaluating the genetic structure for association mapping, DNA fingerprinting, and mounting linkage maps and will be a practical tool set for further genetics. This study provides one of the first quantitative views of population genetic variation in bottle gourd. PMID:25471016

  13. Suppression of bitterness by sodium: variation among bitter taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    Breslin, P A; Beauchamp, G K

    1995-12-01

    Taste interactions between salts (NaCl, LiCl, KCl, L-arginine:L-aspartic acid, Na-acetate and Na-gluconate) and bitter-tasting compounds (urea, quinine HCl, magnesium sulphate, KCl, amiloride HCl and caffeine) were investigated. In each study binary combinations of three or four concentrations of one bitter compound with four concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 M) of one salt were rated for bitterness and saltiness using the method of magnitude estimation. In most cases, perceived bitterness was suppressed by salts, although the degree of suppression varied. In general, bitterness suppression was not accompanied by an equivalent reciprocal suppression of saltiness. Only MgSO4 and amiloride had suppressing effects on the saltiness of NaCl at the intermediate concentrations and no bitter compound affected the saltiness at the high concentrations of NaCl. Since salt suppressed the bitterness of urea effectively, a detailed analysis of suppression of the bitterness of urea by different salts was conducted. Those studies indicated that the key component in this effect was the sodium or lithium ion for two reasons: first, all three sodium salts and the lithium salt had a suppressive effect on bitterness, whereas KCl did not; secondly, the effect of a salt on suppression of the bitterness of urea was independent of its perceived saltiness; that is, NaCl, Na-acetate (which is perceived as less salty than NaCl), and Na-gluconate (which is perceived as less salty than Na-acetate) reduced bitterness comparably. These results suggest that there is a major peripheral component to the suppression of the bitterness of urea, and perhaps other bitter tasting compounds, by sodium. PMID:8788095

  14. In vitro antidiabetic effects of selected fruits and vegetables against glycosidase and aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Luo, Jiaqiang; Xu, Baojun

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antidiabetic effect of fruits and vegetables with reports as folk remedies were investigated. The antidiabetic effects were evaluated by comparing the inhibitory properties of α-glycosidase, aldose reductase, and antioxidant activity. The results indicated that lychee extract exhibited the best dose-dependent inhibitory activity against α-glycosidase with IC 50 of 10.4 mg/mL, and lemon peel extract exhibited aldose reductase inhibitory potential with IC 50 value at 3.63 mg/mL. Besides, the result also showed that the inhibitory effects of blueberry and plum against α-glycosidase were strong among the fruits samples. Bitter gourd and eggplant demonstrated significant inhibitory potential against aldose reductase, with IC 50 values at 8.55 mg/mL and 8.06 mg/mL, respectively. The result from correlation analysis part showed that the antioxidant activities of selected fruits and vegetables were found related to their health beneficial effects, as there was positive correlations between total flavonoids content (TFC) and aldose reductase inhibitory activity (r (2) = 0.556). PMID:26788291

  15. Drosophila Bitter Taste(s)

    PubMed Central

    French, Alice; Ali Agha, Moutaz; Mitra, Aniruddha; Yanagawa, Aya; Sellier, Marie-Jeanne; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called “bitter”. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induces aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to the inhibitory pheromone, 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different “categories” of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction, hygienic behavior), thus

  16. Anti-ulcer effect in rats of bitter cardamon constituents.

    PubMed

    Yamahara, J; Li, Y H; Tamai, Y

    1990-11-01

    The effects of bitter cardamon (the fruit of Alpinia oxphylla), used as a medicine and a condiment, on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats were examined. The acetone extract at 50 mg/kg, p.o. significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 57.0%. An analysis of the active constituents in the acetone extract was performed using column chromatography. Nootkatone at 20 mg/kg, p.o. significantly inhibited gastric lesion. These results suggest that nootkatone, the sesquiterpenoid is an important constituent in stomach medications containing bitter cardamon. PMID:2085887

  17. Mapping of the Gynoecy in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia) Using RAD-Seq Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Hideo; Miyagi, Norimichi; Taniai, Naoki; Fukushima, Mai; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Urasaki, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a monoecious plant of the Cucurbitaceae family that has both male and female unisexual flowers. Its unique gynoecious line, OHB61-5, is essential as a maternal parent in the production of F1 cultivars. To identify the DNA markers for this gynoecy, a RAD-seq (restriction-associated DNA tag sequencing) analysis was employed to reveal genome-wide DNA polymorphisms and to genotype the F2 progeny from a cross between OHB61-5 and a monoecious line. Based on a RAD-seq analysis of F2 individuals, a linkage map was constructed using 552 co-dominant markers. In addition, after analyzing the pooled genomic DNA from monoecious or gynoecious F2 plants, several SNP loci that are genetically linked to gynoecy were identified. GTFL-1, the closest SNP locus to the putative gynoecious locus, was converted to a conventional DNA marker using invader assay technology, which is applicable to the marker-assisted selection of gynoecy in M. charantia breeding. PMID:24498029

  18. A revision of the "African Non-Spiny" Clade of Solanum L. (Solanum sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Benderianum Bitter, Lemurisolanum Bitter, Lyciosolanum Bitter, Macronesiotes Bitter, and Quadrangulare Bitter: Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2016-01-01

    The African Non-Spiny (ANS) clade contains 14 species of mostly large canopy lianas or scandent shrubs confined to Madagascar (10) and continental Africa (4, with with one species reaching the southern Arabian peninsula). Members of the clade were previously classified in sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Benderianum Bitter, Lemurisolanum Bitter, Macronesiotes Bitter and Quadrangulare Bitter, and were throught to be related to a variety of New World groups. The group is an early-branching lineage of non-spiny solanums and characters shared with other vining New World solanums are homoplastic. The 14 species of the group occupy a wide range of habitats, from wet forests in western Africa to savanna and dry forests of southern Madagascar and dune habitats in South Africa. Many members of the group are highly variable morphologically, and habit can vary between shrub and canopy vine in a single locality. We here review the taxonomic history, morphology, potential relationships and ecology of these species; we provide keys for their identification, descriptions, full synonymy (including designations of lectotypes and neotypes) and nomenclatural notes. Illustrations, distribution maps and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species. PMID:27489494

  19. BitterX: a tool for understanding bitter taste in humans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenkang; Shen, Qiancheng; Su, Xubo; Ji, Mingfei; Liu, Xinyi; Chen, Yingyi; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhuang, Hanyi; Zhang, Jian

    2016-04-04

    BitterX is an open-access tool aimed at providing a platform for identifying human bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs, for small molecules. It predicts TAS2Rs from the molecular structures of arbitrary chemicals by integrating two individual functionalities: bitterant verification and TAS2R recognition. Using BitterX, several novel bitterants and their receptors were predicted and experimentally validated in the study. Therefore, BitterX may be an effective method for deciphering bitter taste coding and could be a useful tool for both basic bitter research in academia and new bitterant discoveries in the industry.

  20. Bitter melon: antagonist to cancer.

    PubMed

    Nerurkar, Pratibha; Ray, Ratna B

    2010-06-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide, in spite of substantial progress in the development of anti-cancer therapies. One approach to control cancer could be its prevention by diet, which inhibits one or more neoplastic events and reduces cancer risk. Dietary compounds offer great potential in the fight against cancer by inhibiting the carcinogenesis process through the regulation of cell homeostasis and cell-death machineries. For centuries, Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) has recommended the use of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) as a functional food to prevent and treat diabetes and associated complications. It is noteworthy to mention that bitter melon extract has no-to-low side effects in animals as well as in humans. The anti-tumor activity of bitter melon has recently begun to emerge. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anti-cancer efficacy of bitter melon and its active constituents. Several groups of investigators have reported that treatment of bitter-melon-related products in a number of cancer cell lines induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis without affecting normal cell growth. Therefore, the effect of bitter melon should be beneficial for health, and use of the non-modified dietary product is cost effective. PMID:20198408

  1. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Alvaro; Smith, Bruce D; Gifford, John A; Green, Richard E; Newsom, Lee A; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-02-25

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315-18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication.

  2. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    PubMed

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  3. Is the bitter rejection response always adaptive?

    PubMed

    Glendinning, J I

    1994-12-01

    The bitter rejection response consists of a suite of withdrawal reflexes and negative affective responses. It is generally assumed to have evolved as a way to facilitate avoidance of foods that are poisonous because they usually taste bitter to humans. Using previously published studies, the present paper examines the relationship between bitterness and toxicity in mammals, and then assesses the ecological costs and benefits of the bitter rejection response in carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous (grazing and browsing) mammals. If the bitter rejection response accurately predicts the potential toxicity of foods, then one would expect the threshold for the response to be lower for highly toxic compounds than for nontoxic compounds. The data revealed no such relationship. Bitter taste thresholds varied independently of toxicity thresholds, indicating that the bitter rejection response is just as likely to be elicited by a harmless bitter food as it is by a harmful one. Thus, it is not necessarily in an animal's best interest to have an extremely high or low bitter threshold. Based on this observation, it was hypothesized that the adaptiveness of the bitter rejection response depends upon the relative occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in an animal's diet. Animals with a relatively high occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., browsing herbivores) were predicted to have evolved a high bitter taste threshold and tolerance to dietary poisons. Such an adaptation would be necessary because a browser cannot "afford" to reject all foods that are bitter and potentially toxic without unduly restricting its dietary options. At the other extreme, animals that rarely encounter bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., carnivores) were predicted to have evolved a low bitter threshold. Carnivores could "afford" to utilize such a stringent rejection mechanism because foods containing bitter and potentially

  4. Is the bitter rejection response always adaptive?

    PubMed

    Glendinning, J I

    1994-12-01

    The bitter rejection response consists of a suite of withdrawal reflexes and negative affective responses. It is generally assumed to have evolved as a way to facilitate avoidance of foods that are poisonous because they usually taste bitter to humans. Using previously published studies, the present paper examines the relationship between bitterness and toxicity in mammals, and then assesses the ecological costs and benefits of the bitter rejection response in carnivorous, omnivorous, and herbivorous (grazing and browsing) mammals. If the bitter rejection response accurately predicts the potential toxicity of foods, then one would expect the threshold for the response to be lower for highly toxic compounds than for nontoxic compounds. The data revealed no such relationship. Bitter taste thresholds varied independently of toxicity thresholds, indicating that the bitter rejection response is just as likely to be elicited by a harmless bitter food as it is by a harmful one. Thus, it is not necessarily in an animal's best interest to have an extremely high or low bitter threshold. Based on this observation, it was hypothesized that the adaptiveness of the bitter rejection response depends upon the relative occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in an animal's diet. Animals with a relatively high occurrence of bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., browsing herbivores) were predicted to have evolved a high bitter taste threshold and tolerance to dietary poisons. Such an adaptation would be necessary because a browser cannot "afford" to reject all foods that are bitter and potentially toxic without unduly restricting its dietary options. At the other extreme, animals that rarely encounter bitter and potentially toxic compounds in their diet (e.g., carnivores) were predicted to have evolved a low bitter threshold. Carnivores could "afford" to utilize such a stringent rejection mechanism because foods containing bitter and potentially

  5. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute at NMSU has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The New Mexico buffalo gourd project conducted field planting trials to determine optimum planting density, fertilizer levels, and irrigation regime. Starchy roots produced by the field plantings were evaluated as an ethanol feedstock at both laboratory and pilot scale. These studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern New Mexico. Current cultivars of buffalo gourd can be most efficiently produced under dry land farming conditions with little, if any, supplemental fertilizer. Traditional plant breeding techniques can be profitably employed on the buffalo gourd to breed a size and shape of root more easily harvested by existing farm machinery. Because of its sensitivity to root rot, buffalo gourd must be grown in well drained soils. Finally, buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern New Mexico. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern New Mexico can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. The model further indicates that net return is heavily influenced by root yield. Continued research is needed to optimize buffalo gourd root yield, as well as root size and shape, disease resistance, etc. A clearly defined R and D agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern New Mexico. 128 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Quantitative Screening of Agrochemical Residues in Fruits and Vegetables by Buffered Ethyl Acetate Extraction and LC-MS/MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Manjusha R; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2015-05-13

    A buffered ethyl acetate extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous analysis of 296 agrochemicals in a wide range of fruit and vegetable matrices by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The optimized quantity of acetate buffer (1% acetic acid + 0.5 g of sodium acetate per 10 g of sample) adjusted the pH of each test matrix to 5-6, which in turn significantly improved recoveries of acidic and basic compounds. The role of diethylene glycol (used in the evaporation step) on signal suppression of certain compounds was evaluated, and its quantity was optimized to minimize such an effect. The method was validated in grape, mango, drumstick, bitter gourd, capsicum, curry leaf, and okra as per the DG-SANCO/12571/2013 guidelines. Recoveries in the fortification range of 1-40 μg/kg were within 70-120% with associated relative standard deviations below 20% for most of the compounds. The method has potential for regulatory and commercial applications with a generic approach. PMID:25639652

  7. Mass spectrometric determination of the predominant adrenergic protoalkaloids in bitter orange (Citrus aurantium).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bryant C; Putzbach, Karsten; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sander, Lane C

    2007-11-28

    The predominant adrenergic protoalkaloid found in the peel and fruit of bitter orange, Citrus aurantium, is synephrine. Synephrine is reputed to have thermogenic properties and is used as a dietary supplement to enhance energy and promote weight loss. However, there exists some concern that the consumption of dietary supplements containing synephrine or similar protoalkaloids may contribute to adverse cardiovascular events. This study developed and validated a positive-ion mode liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of the major (synephrine) and minor (tyramine, N-methyltyramine, octopamine, and hordenine) adrenergic protoalkaloids in a suite of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) bitter orange Standard Reference Materials (SRMs): SRM 3258 Bitter Orange Fruit, SRM 3259 Bitter Orange Extract, and SRM 3260 Bitter Orange Solid Oral Dosage Form. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for all protoalkaloids is approximately 1 pg on-column, except for octopamine (20 pg on-column). Additionally, the method has a linear dynamic range of > or =3 orders of magnitude for all of the protoalkaloids. Individual, as well as "total", protoalkaloid levels (milligrams per kilogram) in the NIST SRMs were determined and compared to the levels measured by an independent liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection (LC/FD) method. Satisfactory concordance between the LC/MS/MS and LC/FD protoalkaloid measurements was demonstrated. LC/MS/MS analysis of the protoalkaloids in the SRMs resulted in mean measurement imprecision levels of < or =10% coefficient of variation (% CV). PMID:17966980

  8. Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Junji; Tokuyama, Emi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-11-01

    Nutritional products for patients with liver failure available on the Japanese market contain many branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine, which not only have a bitter taste but also strong, unpleasant odours, leading to low palatability. The palatability of these nutritional products can be significantly improved by the addition of flavoured powders containing various kinds of tastants (sucrose, citric acid, etc.) and odourants (fruit, coffee aromas, etc.). The specific effects of the aroma of flavoured powders have not yet been clearly evaluated. In the present article, the inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of BCAA solutions was examined. The bitterness intensity of a BCAA solution at the same concentration as Aminoleban EN was defined as 3.5 (measured by a previously described gustatory sensation method). The bitterness threshold of a BCAA standard solution without added aroma was estimated to be 1.87, while those of BCAA solutions containing green-tea, coffee, apple, vanilla, or strawberry aromas were 2.02, 1.98, 2.35, 2.40 and 2.87, respectively, when evaluated by the probit method. This shows that the addition of an aroma can elevate the bitterness threshold in human volunteers. The green-tea and coffee aromas predominantly evoked bitterness, while the vanilla aroma predominantly evoked sweetness. Apple and strawberry aromas evoked both sweetness and sourness, with the apple aroma having stronger sourness and the strawberry aroma stronger sweetness. Thus, a 'sweet' aroma suppresses the bitterness of BCAA, with coexisting sourness also participating in the bitterness inhibition.

  9. The GOURD model of human-computer interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbogen, G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a model, the GOURD model, that can be used to measure the goodness of {open_quotes}interactivity{close_quotes} of an interface design and qualifies how to improve the design. The GOURD model describes what happens to the computer and to the human during a human-computer interaction. Since the interaction is generally repeated, the traversal of the model repeatedly is similar to a loop programming structure. Because the model measures interaction over part or all of the application, it can also be used as a classifier of the part or the whole application. But primarily, the model is used as a design guide and a predictor of effectiveness.

  10. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  11. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  12. Improved watermelon quality using bottle gourd rootstock expressing a Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been commonly used as a source of rootstock for watermelon. To improve its performance as a rootstock without adverse effects on the scion, the bottle gourd was genetically engineered using a modified "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger sCAX2B. This t...

  13. Neural responses to bitter compounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Dahl, M; Erickson, R P; Simon, S A

    1997-05-01

    To determine whether the idiosyncratic distribution of transduction mechanisms for bitter tastants in rat taste receptor cells (TRCs) could be inferred from the neural activity they evoke, single neuron responses to ten bitter-tasting compounds were recorded from rat glossopharyngeal (n = 30) and chorda tympani (n = 22) neurons. Responses to several 'bitter' alkaloids were obtained: 10 mM quinine-HCl, 50 mM caffeine, and 1 mM each nicotine, yohimbine, and strychnine, plus a number of non-alkaloid bitter-tasting compounds: 0.1 M KCl, 0.01 M MgCl2, and 1 mM each phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), L-tyrosine, and denatonium benzoate. To obtain some distinctions with other stimuli NaCl (0.1 M), HCl (pH 2.0), and capsaicin (10 microM) were also tested. It was found that individual neurons in both glossopharyngeal and chorda tympani nerves differed in their relative sensitivities to the various bitter stimuli. To determine relationships among these stimuli, the differences in the evoked responses between each stimulus pair were summarized in a multi-dimensional scaling space. In these analyses neither nerve showed any obvious similarity between the placements of quinine and the other bitter stimuli. Such data suggest that first-order gustatory neurons can discriminate among the above bitter stimuli. For glossopharyngeal neurons, some similarity to quinine was found only for nicotine and denatonium, and for chorda tympani neurons, some similarity to quinine was found only for KCl and MgCl2. Of the bitter compounds tested, quinine evoked the greatest response from glossopharyngeal neurons. We propose this arises because quinine can activate TRCs by more transduction mechanisms than other bitter stimuli. The results from these studies were summarized in a qualitative model for the coding of bitter tastants where the variety of transduction mechanisms for bitters are distributed among various TRCs to account for the heterogeneous responses among the neurons.

  14. The impact of hop bitter acid and polyphenol profiles on the perceived bitterness of beer.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, Olayide; Tarrega, Amparo; James, Sue; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2016-08-15

    Thirty-four commercial lager beers were analysed for their hop bitter acid, phenolic acid and polyphenol contents. Based on analytical data, it was evident that the beers had been produced using a range of different raw materials and hopping practices. Principal Components Analysis was used to select a sub-set of 10 beers that contained diverse concentrations of the analysed bitter compounds. These beers were appraised sensorially to determine the impacts of varying hop acid and polyphenolic profiles on perceived bitterness character. Beers high in polyphenol and hop acid contents were perceived as having 'harsh' and 'progressive' bitterness, whilst beers that had evidently been conventionally hopped were 'sharp' and 'instant' in their bitterness. Beers containing light-stable hop products (tetrahydro-iso-α-acids) were perceived as 'diminishing', 'rounded' and 'acidic' in bitterness. The hopping strategy adopted by brewers impacts on the nature, temporal profile and intensity of bitterness perception in beer.

  15. The impact of hop bitter acid and polyphenol profiles on the perceived bitterness of beer.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, Olayide; Tarrega, Amparo; James, Sue; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2016-08-15

    Thirty-four commercial lager beers were analysed for their hop bitter acid, phenolic acid and polyphenol contents. Based on analytical data, it was evident that the beers had been produced using a range of different raw materials and hopping practices. Principal Components Analysis was used to select a sub-set of 10 beers that contained diverse concentrations of the analysed bitter compounds. These beers were appraised sensorially to determine the impacts of varying hop acid and polyphenolic profiles on perceived bitterness character. Beers high in polyphenol and hop acid contents were perceived as having 'harsh' and 'progressive' bitterness, whilst beers that had evidently been conventionally hopped were 'sharp' and 'instant' in their bitterness. Beers containing light-stable hop products (tetrahydro-iso-α-acids) were perceived as 'diminishing', 'rounded' and 'acidic' in bitterness. The hopping strategy adopted by brewers impacts on the nature, temporal profile and intensity of bitterness perception in beer. PMID:27006233

  16. Cycloheximide: No Ordinary Bitter Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Formaker, Bradley K.; Frank, Marion E.

    2007-01-01

    Cycloheximide (CyX), a toxic antibiotic with a unique chemical structure generated by the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus, has emerged as a primary focus of studies on mammalian bitter taste. Rats and mice avoid it at concentrations well below the thresholds for most bitter stimuli and T2R G-protein-coupled receptors specific for CyX with appropriate sensitivity are identified for those species. Like mouse and rat, golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, also detected and rejected micromolar levels of CyX, although 1 mM CyX failed to activate the hamster chorda tympani nerve. Hamsters showed an initial tolerance for 500 μM CyX, but after that, avoidance of CyX dramatically increased, plasticity not reported for rat or mouse. As the hamster lineage branches well before division of the mouse-rat lineage in evolutionary time, differences between hamster and mouse-rat reactions to CyX are not surprising. Furthermore, unlike hamster LiCl-induced learned aversions, the induced CyX aversion neither specifically nor robustly generalized to other non-ionic bitter stimuli; and unlike adverse reactions to other chemosensory stimuli, aversions to CyX were not mollified by adding a sweetener. Thus, CyX is unlike other bitter stimuli. The gene for the high-affinity CyX receptor is a member of a cluster of 5 orthologous T2R genes that are likely rodent specific; this “CyX clade” is found in the mouse, rat and probably hamster, but not in the human or rabbit genome. The rodent CyX-T2R interaction may be one of multiple lineage-specific stimulus-receptor interactions reflecting a response to a particular environmental toxin. The combination of T2R multiplicity, species divergence and gene duplication results in diverse ligands for multiple species-specific T2R receptors, which confounds definition of ‘bitter’ stimuli across species. PMID:17400304

  17. Absence of furanocoumarins in Advantra Z® (Citrus aurantium, bitter orange) extracts.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Howard; Romano, Felice

    2014-09-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) juice is known for its ability to alter drug metabolism through inhibition of the cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) system, and result in drug-food interactions that may be life threatening. The primary active ingredients in grapefruit responsible for these effects are the furanocoumarins bergapten, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB). Bergamottin and DHB appear to be the most important in terms of adverse drug interactions. Furanocoumarins are present in the juices and fruits of other Citrus species including C. aurantium (bitter oranges). Bergapten is the predominant furanocoumarin in bitter orange. Bitter orange extracts are widely used in products associated with weight loss, sports performance, and energy production. Questions have been raised about the potential of bitter orange extracts to cause drug interactions. This study examined the furanocoumarin content of four standardized bitter orange extracts (Advantra Z®) by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results indicated that the total furanocoumarin content of each of the four extracts was less than 20 μg/g, amounts insufficient to exert significant effects on the metabolism of susceptible drugs in human subjects at the doses commonly used for these extracts.

  18. New crops for arid lands. [Jojoba; Buffalo gourd; Bladderpod; Gumweed

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required.

  19. Characterization and chromosomal organization of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Biao; Liu, Wenrui; Peng, Qingwu; He, Xiaoming; Xie, Dasen

    2014-11-01

    Wax gourd (2n=2x=24) is an important vegetable species in Cucurbitaceae. Because it can be stored for a very long period of time, it plays an important role in ensuring the annual supply and regulating off-season supply of the vegetables. However, the availability of genetic information about wax gourd is limited. This study aimed to identify the useful genetic information for wax gourd. The conserved domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia retrotransposons were isolated from the genome of wax gourd using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. A total of twenty eight RT sequences were obtained, which showed high heterogeneity with the similarity ranging from 47.5% to 94.3%. Sixteen (57.1%) of them were found to be defective, being disrupted by stop codons and/or frameshift mutations. These 28 sequences were divided into five subfamilies. The comparative phylogenetic analysis with other Cucurbitaceae species from GenBank database showed that most retrotransposons derived from the same genus tended to cluster together, although there were a few exceptions. These results indicate that both vertical transmission and horizontal transmission are the sources of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with Ty1-copia retrotransposon sequences as probes revealed that this kind of retrotransposons had a dispersed genomic organization, physically distributed among all the chromosomes of wax gourd, with clusters in the heterochromatin regions. This is the first report of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd, which would be helpful for our understanding about the organization and evolutions of wax gourd genome and also provide valuable information for our utilization of wax gourd retrotransposons. PMID:25108132

  20. Characterization and chromosomal organization of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Biao; Liu, Wenrui; Peng, Qingwu; He, Xiaoming; Xie, Dasen

    2014-11-01

    Wax gourd (2n=2x=24) is an important vegetable species in Cucurbitaceae. Because it can be stored for a very long period of time, it plays an important role in ensuring the annual supply and regulating off-season supply of the vegetables. However, the availability of genetic information about wax gourd is limited. This study aimed to identify the useful genetic information for wax gourd. The conserved domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia retrotransposons were isolated from the genome of wax gourd using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. A total of twenty eight RT sequences were obtained, which showed high heterogeneity with the similarity ranging from 47.5% to 94.3%. Sixteen (57.1%) of them were found to be defective, being disrupted by stop codons and/or frameshift mutations. These 28 sequences were divided into five subfamilies. The comparative phylogenetic analysis with other Cucurbitaceae species from GenBank database showed that most retrotransposons derived from the same genus tended to cluster together, although there were a few exceptions. These results indicate that both vertical transmission and horizontal transmission are the sources of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with Ty1-copia retrotransposon sequences as probes revealed that this kind of retrotransposons had a dispersed genomic organization, physically distributed among all the chromosomes of wax gourd, with clusters in the heterochromatin regions. This is the first report of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd, which would be helpful for our understanding about the organization and evolutions of wax gourd genome and also provide valuable information for our utilization of wax gourd retrotransposons.

  1. BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dia, Vermont P; Krishnan, Hari B

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. BG-4, a novel peptide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, purified and characterized. The trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 is 8.6 times higher than purified soybean trypsin inhibitor. The high trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 may be responsible for its capability to cause cytotoxicity to HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells with ED50 values of 134.4 and 217.0 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, respectively. The mechanism involved in the cytotoxic effect may be associated with induction of apoptosis as evidenced by increased percentage of HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells undergoing apoptosis from 5.4% (untreated) to 24.8% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h) and 8.5% (untreated) to 31.9% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h), respectively. The molecular mechanistic explanation in the apoptosis inducing property of BG-4 is due to reduced expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax leading to increased expression of caspase-3 and affecting the expression of cell cycle proteins p21 and CDK2. This is the first report on the anti-cancer potential of a novel bioactive peptide isolated from Momordica charantia in vitro supporting the potential therapeutic property of BG-4 against colon cancer that must be addressed using in vivo models of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:27628414

  2. BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Vermont P.; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. BG-4, a novel peptide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, purified and characterized. The trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 is 8.6 times higher than purified soybean trypsin inhibitor. The high trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 may be responsible for its capability to cause cytotoxicity to HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells with ED50 values of 134.4 and 217.0 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, respectively. The mechanism involved in the cytotoxic effect may be associated with induction of apoptosis as evidenced by increased percentage of HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells undergoing apoptosis from 5.4% (untreated) to 24.8% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h) and 8.5% (untreated) to 31.9% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h), respectively. The molecular mechanistic explanation in the apoptosis inducing property of BG-4 is due to reduced expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax leading to increased expression of caspase-3 and affecting the expression of cell cycle proteins p21 and CDK2. This is the first report on the anti-cancer potential of a novel bioactive peptide isolated from Momordica charantia in vitro supporting the potential therapeutic property of BG-4 against colon cancer that must be addressed using in vivo models of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:27628414

  3. BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. BG-4, a novel peptide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, purified and characterized. The trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 is 8.6 times higher than purified soybean trypsin inhibitor. The high trypsin inhibitory activity ...

  4. Taste perception of bitter compounds in young and elderly persons: relation to lipophilicity of bitter compounds.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Gatlin, L A; Frey, A E; Heiman, S A; Stagner, W C; Cooper, D C

    1994-01-01

    Threshold and suprathreshold sensitivities to 13 bitter compounds were determined for 16 young adults (mean age = 27.4 years) and 18 elderly persons (mean age = 81.3 years). Half of the subjects in each age group were tasters of the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and half were nontasters. Both detection and recognition thresholds, determined by a forced-choice ascending detection method, were elevated in older subjects; there were no significant differences in threshold values between tasters and nontasters of PTC. A strong relationship between bitter threshold values and the logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient was found for both young and elderly subjects. For young subjects, suprathreshold bitterness ratings were more intense for tasters of PTC compared with nontasters. Significant losses in suprathreshold sensitivity to bitter tastants with age were also found. However, unlike threshold sensitivity, no relationship was found between suprathreshold bitter taste intensity and lipophilicity.

  5. Effects of sweet, bitter and soaked micronised bitter lupins on duckling performance.

    PubMed

    Olver, M D; Jonker, A

    1998-12-01

    1. The feeding value of sweet white lupins (Lupinus albus variety Hanli), bitter lupins (Lupinus angustifolius) and soaked micronised bitter lupins on male Pekin duckling performance was examined. 2. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated with 1 containing no lupin and the other 3 containing 400 g/kg sweet, bitter or soaked micronised bitter lupins. The 3 lupin diets were then blended appropriately to produce 16 experimental diets containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g/kg sweet, bitter and soaked micronised bitter lupins, and fed to Cherry Valley Super M Pekin ducklings for 6 weeks. 3. The feeding of bitter lupins to ducklings at 200, 300 and 400 g/kg diet resulted in a poorer performance (P < 0.01) with regard to body weight gain, food intake and food conversion ratio than feeding the control diet. Carcase moisture was higher and carcase fat content lower (P < 0.01) at the 400 g/kg concentration only. No significant differences were observed with carcase protein or carcase ash content. No significant differences were observed between treatments and the control when different amounts of sweet or soaked micronised bitter lupins were fed. 4. There were significant linear adverse responses (P < 0.01) with bitter lupins in most of the variables studied whereas no responses were observed with sweet or soaked micronised bitter lupins as the concentration of lupins in the diet increased. The soaked micronised bitter lupins performed as well as the sweet lupins, showing that the amount of bitter lupins used in duckling diets can be increased to 400 g/kg after this treatment.

  6. Bitter taste markers explain variability in vegetable sweetness, bitterness, and intake.

    PubMed

    Dinehart, M E; Hayes, J E; Bartoshuk, L M; Lanier, S L; Duffy, V B

    2006-02-28

    Intake of vegetables falls short of recommendations to lower risk of chronic diseases. Most research addresses bitterness as a sensory deterrent to consuming vegetables. We examined bitter and sweet sensations from vegetables as mediators of vegetable preference and intake as well as how these tastes vary with markers of genetic variation in taste (3.2 mM 6-n-propylthiouracil bitterness) and taste pathology (1.0 mM quinine bitterness, chorda tympani nerve relative to whole mouth). Seventy-one females and 39 males (18-60 years) reported prototypical tastes from and preference for Brussels sprouts, kale and asparagus as well as servings of vegetables consumed, excluding salad and potatoes. Intensity and hedonic ratings were made with the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. Data were analyzed with multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling. Vegetable sweetness and bitterness were independent predictors of more or less preference for sampled vegetables and vegetable intake, respectively. Those who taste PROP as most bitter also tasted the vegetables as most bitter and least sweet. The spatial pattern of quinine bitterness, suggestive of insult to chorda tympani taste fibers, was associated with less bitterness and sweetness from vegetables. Via structural equation modeling, PROP best explained variability in vegetable preference and intake via vegetable bitterness whereas the quinine marker explained variability in vegetable preference and intake via vegetable bitterness and sweetness. In summary, bitterness and sweetness of sampled vegetables varied by taste genetic and taste function markers, which explained differences in preference for vegetables tasted in the laboratory as well as overall vegetable intake outside the laboratory.

  7. Antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected gourd vegetables.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Baljeet S; Yadav, Roshanlal; Yadav, Ritika B; Garg, Munish

    2016-04-01

    Study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of methanolic (ME), ethanolic (EE) and butanolic extracts (BE) of selected gourd vegetables. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different assays namely ferric thiocyanate test (FTC), thiobarbituric acid test (TBA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH free radicals scavenging test. A densitometric HPTLC analysis was performed for the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Different extracts of the selected gourd vegetables revealed different antioxidant activity. Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria, Momordica charantia and Luffa cylindrica revealed significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total phenols, flavonids, tannins and carotenoids content and also the antioxidant activity in comparison to remaining vegetable extracts. Correlation studies indicated that FRAP test best described the antioxidant activity of phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids (r = 0.854, 0.692 and 0.915 respectively). HPTLC profiles revealed the presence of maximum number of phenolic acids and flavonoids in L. siceraria and M. charantia. PMID:27413209

  8. Impacts of 1-Methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere established during conditioning on development of bitter pit in ‘Honeycrisp’ apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Honeycrisp’ apples are susceptible to develop the physiological disorder bitter pit. This disorder typically develops during storage, but pre-harvest lesion development can also occur. ‘Honeycrisp’ is also chilling sensitive and fruit is typically held at 10-20 oC after harvest for up to 7d to re...

  9. A revision of the “African Non-Spiny” Clade of Solanum L. (Solanum sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Benderianum Bitter, Lemurisolanum Bitter, Lyciosolanum Bitter, Macronesiotes Bitter, and Quadrangulare Bitter: Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The African Non-Spiny (ANS) clade contains 14 species of mostly large canopy lianas or scandent shrubs confined to Madagascar (10) and continental Africa (4, with with one species reaching the southern Arabian peninsula). Members of the clade were previously classified in sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Benderianum Bitter, Lemurisolanum Bitter, Macronesiotes Bitter and Quadrangulare Bitter, and were throught to be related to a variety of New World groups. The group is an early-branching lineage of non-spiny solanums and characters shared with other vining New World solanums are homoplastic. The 14 species of the group occupy a wide range of habitats, from wet forests in western Africa to savanna and dry forests of southern Madagascar and dune habitats in South Africa. Many members of the group are highly variable morphologically, and habit can vary between shrub and canopy vine in a single locality. We here review the taxonomic history, morphology, potential relationships and ecology of these species; we provide keys for their identification, descriptions, full synonymy (including designations of lectotypes and neotypes) and nomenclatural notes. Illustrations, distribution maps and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species. PMID:27489494

  10. Bitterness in Almonds1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl Erik; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-01-01

    Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was studied throughout the growth season using four different genotypes for bitterness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed a specific developmentally dependent accumulation of prunasin in the tegument of the bitter genotype. The prunasin level decreased concomitant with the initiation of amygdalin accumulation in the cotyledons of the bitter genotype. By administration of radiolabeled phenylalanine, the tegument was identified as a specific site of synthesis of prunasin in all four genotypes. A major difference between sweet and bitter genotypes was observed upon staining of thin sections of teguments and cotyledons for β-glucosidase activity using Fast Blue BB salt. In the sweet genotype, the inner epidermis in the tegument facing the nucellus was rich in cytoplasmic and vacuolar localized β-glucosidase activity, whereas in the bitter cultivar, the β-glucosidase activity in this cell layer was low. These combined data show that in the bitter genotype, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, amygdalin formation is prevented because the prunasin is degraded upon passage of the β-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the tegument. The prunasin turnover may offer a buffer supply of ammonia, aspartic acid, and asparagine enabling the plants to balance the supply of nitrogen to the developing cotyledons. PMID:18192442

  11. Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kang, Yi-Lan; Yu, Shou-Wen; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Chirality plays a significant role in the physical properties and biological functions of many biological materials, e.g., climbing tendrils and twisted leaves, which exhibit chiral growth. However, the mechanisms underlying the chiral growth of biological materials remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the Towel Gourd tendrils achieve their chiral growth. Our experiments reveal that the tendrils have a hierarchy of chirality, which transfers from the lower levels to the higher. The change in the helical angle of cellulose fibrils at the subcellular level induces an intrinsic torsion of tendrils, leading to the formation of the helical morphology of tendril filaments. A chirality transfer model is presented to elucidate the chiral growth of tendrils. This present study may help understand various chiral phenomena observed in biological materials. It also suggests that chirality transfer can be utilized in the development of hierarchically chiral materials having unique properties.

  12. Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kang, Yi-Lan; Yu, Shou-Wen; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Chirality plays a significant role in the physical properties and biological functions of many biological materials, e.g., climbing tendrils and twisted leaves, which exhibit chiral growth. However, the mechanisms underlying the chiral growth of biological materials remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the Towel Gourd tendrils achieve their chiral growth. Our experiments reveal that the tendrils have a hierarchy of chirality, which transfers from the lower levels to the higher. The change in the helical angle of cellulose fibrils at the subcellular level induces an intrinsic torsion of tendrils, leading to the formation of the helical morphology of tendril filaments. A chirality transfer model is presented to elucidate the chiral growth of tendrils. This present study may help understand various chiral phenomena observed in biological materials. It also suggests that chirality transfer can be utilized in the development of hierarchically chiral materials having unique properties. PMID:24173107

  13. Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kang, Yi-Lan; Yu, Shou-Wen; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Chirality plays a significant role in the physical properties and biological functions of many biological materials, e.g., climbing tendrils and twisted leaves, which exhibit chiral growth. However, the mechanisms underlying the chiral growth of biological materials remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the Towel Gourd tendrils achieve their chiral growth. Our experiments reveal that the tendrils have a hierarchy of chirality, which transfers from the lower levels to the higher. The change in the helical angle of cellulose fibrils at the subcellular level induces an intrinsic torsion of tendrils, leading to the formation of the helical morphology of tendril filaments. A chirality transfer model is presented to elucidate the chiral growth of tendrils. This present study may help understand various chiral phenomena observed in biological materials. It also suggests that chirality transfer can be utilized in the development of hierarchically chiral materials having unique properties. PMID:24173107

  14. Methanolic extracts of bitter melon inhibit colon cancer stem cells by affecting energy homeostasis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Deep; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Standing, David; Moran, Elizabeth; Velayutham, Ravichandiran; Mitra, Ashim; Umar, Shahid; Anant, Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    Bitter melon fruit is recommended in ancient Indian and Chinese medicine for prevention/treatment of diabetes. However its effects on cancer progression are not well understood. Here, we have determined the efficacy of methanolic extracts of bitter melon on colon cancer stem and progenitor cells. Both, whole fruit (BMW) and skin (BMSk) extracts showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation, with BMW showing greater efficacy. In addition, the cells were arrested at the S phase of cell cycle. Moreover, BMW induced the cleavage of LC3B but not caspase 3/7, suggesting that the cells were undergoing autophagy and not apoptosis. Further confirmation of autophagy was obtained when western blots showed reduced Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1, Atg 7 and 12 upon BMW treatment. BMW reduced cellular ATP levels coupled with activation of AMP activated protein kinase; on the other hand, exogenous additions of ATP lead to revival of cell proliferation. Finally, BMW treatment results in a dose-dependent reduction in the number and size of colonospheres. The extracts also decreased the expression of DCLK1 and Lgr5, markers of quiescent, and activated stem cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the extracts of bitter melon can be an effective preventive/therapeutic agent for colon cancer. PMID:23533514

  15. First Report of Southern Blight on Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) caused by Sclerotium Rolfsii in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria [Mol.] Standl.) is an important rootstock in watermelon grafting in Asia and Middle East and is gaining momentum in the United States. We are currently testing bottle gourds for disease resistance. In the summer of 2007, symptoms of wilting and crown necrosis were...

  16. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli. PMID:25141891

  17. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Subhan, Nusrat; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Jain, Preeti; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. PMID:25650336

  18. Vegetable Bitterness is Related to Calcium Content

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Sandell, Mari A.

    2009-01-01

    In the U.S. and Europe, most people do not consume the recommended amounts of either calcium or vegetables. We investigated whether there might be a connection; specifically, whether the taste of calcium in vegetables contributes to their bitterness and thus acceptability. We found a strong correlation between the calcium content of 24 vegetables, based on USDA Nutrient Database values, and bitterness, based on the average ratings of 35 people (r = 0.93). Correlations between the content of other nutrients and bitterness were lower and most were not statistically significant. To assess whether it is feasible that humans can detect calcium in vegetables we tested two animal models known to display a calcium appetite. Previous work indicates that calcium solutions are preferentially ingested by PWK/PhJ mice relative to C57BL/6J mice, and by rats deprived of dietary calcium relative to replete controls. In choice tests between collard greens, a high-calcium vegetable, and cabbage, a low-calcium vegetable, the calcium-favoring animals had higher preferences for collard greens than did controls. These observations raise the possibility that the taste of calcium contributes to the bitterness and thus acceptability of vegetables. PMID:19260165

  19. Bitter taste receptors: Extraoral roles in pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Feroz Ahmed; Singh, Nisha; Arakawa, Makoto; Duan, Kangmin; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the functional role of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) and bitter taste perception. This review will cover the recent advances made in identifying the role of T2Rs in pathophysiological states. T2Rs are widely expressed in various parts of human anatomy and have been shown to be involved in physiology of respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system. Empirical evidence has shown T2Rs to be an integral component of antimicrobial immune responses in upper respiratory tract infections. The studies on human airway smooth muscle cells have shown that a potent bitter tastant induced bronchodilatory effects mediated by bitter taste receptors. Clinical data suggests a role for T2R38 polymorphism in predisposition of individuals to chronic rhinosinusitis. The role of genetic variation in T2Rs and its impact on disease susceptibility have been investigated in various other disease risk factors such as alcohol dependence, head and neck cancers. Preliminary reports have demonstrated differential expression of functional T2Rs in breast cancer cell lines. Studies on the role of T2Rs in pathophysiology of diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, and cancer have been promising. However, research in this field is in its nascent stages, and more confirmatory studies on animal models and in clinical settings are required. PMID:27032752

  20. Bitter taste receptors confer diverse functions to neurons

    PubMed Central

    Delventhal, Rebecca; Carlson, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bitter compounds elicit an aversive response. In Drosophila, bitter-sensitive taste neurons coexpress many members of the Gr family of taste receptors. However, the molecular logic of bitter signaling is unknown. We used an in vivo expression approach to analyze the logic of bitter taste signaling. Ectopic or overexpression of bitter Grs increased endogenous responses or conferred novel responses. Surprisingly, expression of Grs also suppressed many endogenous bitter responses. Conversely, deletion of an endogenous Gr led to novel responses. Expression of individual Grs conferred strikingly different effects in different neurons. The results support a model in which bitter Grs interact, exhibiting competition, inhibition, or activation. The results have broad implications for the problem of how taste systems evolve to detect new environmental dangers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11181.001 PMID:26880560

  1. Technical and economical feasibility of buffalo gourd as a novel energy crop. Final report, 14 November 1983-31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.

    1988-02-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute has conducted a two-year investigation into the technical and economic feasibility of using the buffalo gourd plant as an energy feedstock in eastern New Mexico. The studies indicate that buffalo gourd is well suited for root production in eastern NM. Buffalo gourd has been shown to be an excellent feedstock for ethanol production provided necessary pre-fermentation processing (chopping of roots) is performed correctly. A model was created to determine the economic feasibility of growing buffalo gourd in eastern NM. It was determined that the net return to a farmer in eastern NM can be higher planting buffalo gourd than many traditionally grown crops because of buffalo gourd's low water and fertilizer requirements. A clearly defined RandD agenda and commercialization strategy is presented and discussed. Buffalo gourd has been demonstrated to have high potential as an alternative feedstock for ethanol production in eastern NM.

  2. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Benfer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ≈2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  3. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

    2009-08-11

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  4. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

    2009-08-11

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts.

  5. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2004-08-01

    Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.

  6. Magnetically Damped Furnace Bitter Magnet Coil 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    A magnet has been built by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory for NASA on a cost reimbursement contract. The magnet is intended to demonstrate the technology and feasibility of building a magnet for space based crystal growth. A Bitter magnet (named after Francis Bitter, its inventor) was built consisting of four split coils electrically in series and hydraulically in parallel. The coils are housed in a steel vessel to reduce the fringe field and provide some on-axis field enhancement. The steel was nickel plated and Teflon coated to minimize interaction with the water cooling system. The magnet provides 0.14 T in a 184 mm bore with 3 kW of power.

  7. Volatile fraction of lavender and bitter fennel infusion extracts.

    PubMed

    Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

    2010-09-01

    The relative proportions of chemical classes (hydrocarbons, oxides, alcohols/ethers, aldehydes/ketones, acids/esters/lactones) in the essential oil of lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., family Lamiaceae) and bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare var. vulgare (Mill.) Thellung, family Apiaceae) and in the volatile fraction of infusion extracts were examined and showed remarkable differences. The volatile compounds of infusions were isolated by hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE). Their qualitative and semiquantitative compositions were compared with the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation directly from the plant material and analyzed by GC-MS. Furthermore, quantification of the major constituents of lavender oil and of the volatile fraction obtained by hydrodistillation of the infusion was performed. Comparison of the total essential oil yield quantified by hydrodistillation of the lavender infusion (0.7% v/w, corresponding to plant material) with the essential oil yield of the blossoms (5.1% v/w) revealed that only 13.9% of the initial oil could be extracted by infusion. The main constituents of the volatile fraction of the lavender infusion were (hydrodistillation/SPE): linalool (39.3%/28.2%), 1,8 cineole (24.8%/18.9%), cis-linalool oxide (furanoid) (5.8%/8.0%), trans-linalool oxide (furanoid) (4.1%/7.1%), camphor (5.3%/4.0%) and alpha-terpineol (4.0%/3.0%). The major constituents of lavender essential oil were linalool (28.8%), 1,8-cineole (18.05%), linalyl acetate (13.9%) and alpha-terpineol (4.0%). Most intriguing, in the volatile fraction of lavender infusion a significant proportional decrease of linalyl acetate and an increase of linalool oxides was recognized. The essential oil yield of fennel fruits was 12.5% v/w, whereas 1.8% v/w volatile fraction (corresponding to plant material) was obtained by hydrodistillation of the fennel infusion, which is equivalent to 14.5% of the initial fennel essential oil. The main

  8. Synergistic effects of sour taste and low temperature in suppressing the bitterness of Aminoleban® EN.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Tamami; Yoshida, Miyako; Hazekawa, Mai; Uchida, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Aminoleban® EN, a nutritional product for patients with liver failure, contains three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine. As BCAAs are extremely bitter, Aminoleban® EN has a low palatability, which is a major cause of patient noncompliance. Nutrients for liver failure often need to be taken for long periods, and poor medication compliance can cause serious problems, such as encephalopathy. Therefore it is important to suppress the bitter taste of Aminoleban® EN and thereby improve patient compliance. There are already six different flavoured powders (coffee, green-tea, apple, fruit, plum and pineapple) which can be added to Aminoleban® EN to reduce its unpleasant taste and smell, but it is possible that other factors, such as temperature, may also improve the palatability of Aminoleban® EN. In this study, flavours alone significantly decreased the bitterness intensity of Aminoleban® EN. It was thought that the sweetness and sourness of the flavoured powder would be the main factors involved in decreasing the bitterness. However, low temperature (0-5 °C) decreased the bitterness intensity of Aminoleban® EN, with or without the flavoured powders, compared with normal room temperature (25-30 °C). The sourness intensity of flavoured powders was not decreased at low temperatures, but the sweetness intensity of some flavoured powders did decrease. These results suggest that sourness can be tasted even at low temperatures. As not only the addition of flavoured powders but also low temperatures can reduce the bitterness of Aminioleban® EN, the combination of a sour-flavoured powder and a low temperature will improve the palatability of Aminoleban® EN the most.

  9. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Michael K.; Whitehouse, Julie M.; Towell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L.) increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L.) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L.) increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm. PMID:26074998

  10. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Towell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L.) increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L.) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L.) increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  11. Volatile and sensory profiling of cocktail bitters.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arielle J; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic cocktail bitters are derived from the alcoholic extraction of a variety of plant materials and are used as additives in mixed drinks to enhance aroma and flavor. In this study sixteen commercial bitters were analyzed using volatile (GC-MS) and sensory profiling and multivariate statistics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS). The samples differed significantly in their citrus, celery, and spice characteristics. 148 volatile compounds were tentatively identified and the composition varied significantly with the type of bitters sample evaluated. PLS analysis showed that the volatile data correlated well overall to the sensory data, explaining 60% of the overall variability in the dataset. Primary aldehydes and phenylpropanoids were most closely related to green and spice-related sensory descriptors. However, the sensory impact of terpenoid compounds was difficult to predict in many cases. This may be due to the wide range of aroma qualities associated with terpenes as well as to concentration, synergistic or masking effects. PMID:25722175

  12. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Towell, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L.) increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L.) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L.) increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm. PMID:26074998

  13. Metabolism of hop-derived bitter acids.

    PubMed

    Cattoor, Ko; Dresel, Michael; De Bock, Lies; Boussery, Koen; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Remon, Jean-Paul; De Keukeleire, Denis; Deforce, Dieter; Hofmann, Thomas; Heyerick, Arne

    2013-08-21

    In this study, in vitro metabolism of hop-derived bitter acids was investigated. Besides their well-known use as bitter compounds in beer, in several studies, bioactive properties have been related to these types of molecules. However, scientific data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion aspects of these compounds are limited. More specific, in this study, α-acids, β-acids, and iso-α-acids were incubated with rabbit microsomes, and fractions were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for identification of oxidative biotransformation products. Metabolism of β-acids was mainly characterized by conversion into hulupones and the formation of a series of tricyclic oxygenated products. The most important metabolites of α-acids were identified as humulinones and hulupones. Iso-α-acids were found to be primarly metabolized into cis- and trans-humulinic acids, next to oxidized alloiso-α-acids. Interestingly, the phase I metabolites were highly similar to the oxidative degradation products in beer. These findings show a first insight into the metabolites of hop-derived bitter acids and could have important practical implications in the bioavailability aspects of these compounds, following ingestion of hop-based food products and nutraceuticals.

  14. Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; de Lima Dutra, Mariana Borges; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-01-01

    Pitanga has been used by the Brazilian food industry mainly for juice production. This fruit shows good economic potential due to its high concentration of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the present work was to characterize the time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar sweetened with different sweeteners to verify differences on the perception of sweet and bitter tastes. The sweeteners used to replace sucrose were sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. Fifteen assessors were selected according to their discriminating capability and trained to participate in the time-intensity analysis for sweetness and bitterness. The samples prepared with sucralose and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend presented a similar sweetness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose, and the samples prepared with sucralose and aspartame presented a similar bitterness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose. Thus, sucralose would be the most suitable sweetener to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar. PMID:25627677

  15. Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; de Lima Dutra, Mariana Borges; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-01-01

    Pitanga has been used by the Brazilian food industry mainly for juice production. This fruit shows good economic potential due to its high concentration of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the present work was to characterize the time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar sweetened with different sweeteners to verify differences on the perception of sweet and bitter tastes. The sweeteners used to replace sucrose were sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. Fifteen assessors were selected according to their discriminating capability and trained to participate in the time-intensity analysis for sweetness and bitterness. The samples prepared with sucralose and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend presented a similar sweetness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose, and the samples prepared with sucralose and aspartame presented a similar bitterness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose. Thus, sucralose would be the most suitable sweetener to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar.

  16. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sing Pei; Stathopoulos, Costas; Parks, Sophie; Roach, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. PMID:26785242

  17. Confirming resistance in bottle gourd germplasm by quantifying powdery mildew conidia using a cellometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, an important foliar disease affecting cucurbit crops grown in the United States, commonly occurs on foliage, petioles, and stems. We have developed two highly resistant bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) germplasm (USVL351 and USVL482) for use in o...

  18. Development and field evaluation of multiple virus-resistant bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to develop bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) as a widely adapted rootstock for watermelon grafting, we were interested in selecting lines with broad resistance to several economically important cucurbit viruses in the United States. Preliminary analysis under greenhouse conditions ind...

  19. Feasibility of enzymatic hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation of starch contained in buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots

    SciTech Connect

    Scheerens, J.C.; Kopplin, M.J.; Abbas, I.R.; Nelson, J.M.; Gathman, A.C.; Berry, J.W.

    1987-03-01

    The suitability of using annually grown, carrot-sized buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots as a feedstock for alcoholic fermentation was explored. Roots grown in 1982 and 1983 were slurried, dextrinized and saccharified using Takatherm and Diazyme (commercial enzymes manufactured by Miles Laboratories), and fermented by the action of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These processes were monitored in detail and results were compared with those displayed by controls formulated using potato tubers. The preparation of gourd root slurries with suitable viscosity characteristics for enzymatic digestion required the addition of water (at least 50% by weight) which reduced the proportion of fermentable sugars in the resulting saccharified suspensions. The resulting slurries were well-suited to enzymatic conversion of starch to sugar. Estimates of enzymatic efficiency in gourd root suspensions did not suggest the presence of naturally occurring amylase or glucosidase inhibitors in these plant materials. Saccharified gourd root mashes supported yeast growth well and produced ethanol yields at 82.2-86.5% of the theoretically maximum efficiency. 23 references.

  20. Carbohydrate biofuels III: Consumptive-use and root yield of buffalo gourd

    SciTech Connect

    Smeal, D.; Gregory, E.J.; Tomko, J.

    1995-11-01

    Biofuel provided by the dried roots of the wild buffalo gourd, Cucurbita foetidissima, represents a potential, cleaner-burning alternative to other biofuels (i.e. wood and coal) currently used for cooking and heating on the Navajo Indian Reservation. However, no information is available regarding the plant`s water requirements for growth and viable root production on the Colorado Plateau in northwestern New Mexico where the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is located. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between buffalo gourd root production and evapotranspiration under variable irrigation as provided by a line-source design. Total dry root yields ranged from 1.6 Mg ha{sup -1} (5.1 tons/acre), and increased linearly within an irrigation treatment range of 371 to 927 nm (14.6 to 36.5 in.), respectively. Peak average daily water-use of buffalo gourd providing maximum root yield was 8.6 mm (0.34 in.) and occurred in late July to early August. Results of this study indicate that buffalo gourd can be successfully grown in northwestern New Mexico when irrigated. Other observations during this study suggest that planting rates for optimum root production need to be established.

  1. Feasibility of enzymatic hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation of starch contained in buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots.

    PubMed

    Scheerens, J C; Kopplin, M J; Abbas, I R; Nelson, J M; Gathman, A C; Berry, J W

    1987-03-01

    The suitability of using annually grown, carrot-sized buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots as a feedstock for alcoholic fermentation was explored. Roots grown in 1982 and 1983 were slurried, dextrinized and saccharified using Takathermtrade mark and Diazymetrade mark (commercial enzymes manufactured by Miles Laboratories), and fermented by the action of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These processes were monitored in detail and results were compared with those displayed by controls formulated using potato tubers. The preparation of gourd root slurries with suitable viscosity characteristics for enzymatic digestion required the addition of water (at least 50% by weight) which reduced the proportion of fermentable sugars in the resulting saccharified suspensions. The resulting slurries were well-suited to enzymatic conversion of starch to sugar. Estimates of enzymatic efficiency in gourd root suspensions did not suggest the presence of naturally occurring amylase or glucosidase inhibitors in these plant materials. Saccharified gourd root mashes supported yeast growth well and produced ethanol yields at 82.2-86.5% of the theoretically maximum efficiency.

  2. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome, and Development of SSR Markers in Wax Gourd (Benicasa hispida)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Biao; Xie, Dasen; Liu, Wenrui; Peng, Qingwu; He, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax gourd is a widely used vegetable of Cucuribtaceae, and also has important medicinal and health values. However, the genomic resources of wax gourd were scarcity, and only a few nucleotide sequences could be obtained in public databases. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we examined transcriptome in wax gourd. More than 44 million of high quality reads were generated from five different tissues of wax gourd using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 4 Gbp data were generated, and de novo assembled into 65,059 unigenes, with an N50 of 1,132 bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known protein database, 36,070 (55.4%) showed significant similarity to known proteins in Nr database, and 24,969 (38.4%) had BLAST hits in Swiss-Prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,994 of wax gourd unigenes were assigned to GO term annotation, and 23,977 were found to have COG classifications. In addition, a total of 18,713 unigenes were assigned to 281 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 6,242 microsatellites (simple sequence repeats) were detected as potential molecular markers in wax gourd. Two hundred primer pairs for SSRs were designed for validation of the amplification and polymorphism. The result showed that 170 of the 200 primer pairs were successfully amplified and 49 (28.8%) of them exhibited polymorphisms. Conclusion/Significance Our study enriches the genomic resources of wax gourd and provides powerful information for future studies. The availability of this ample amount of information about the transcriptome and SSRs in wax gourd could serve as valuable basis for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, molecular genetics and molecular breeding of this important vegetable crop. PMID:23951078

  3. Bitter Taste Stimuli Induce Differential Neural Codes in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David M.; Boughter, John D.; Lemon, Christian H.

    2012-01-01

    A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as “bitter” induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes) was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total), including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA), presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5) were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05) to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05) from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among “bitter” stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality. PMID:22844505

  4. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  5. GWAS of human bitter taste perception identifies new loci and reveals additional complexity of bitter taste genetics

    PubMed Central

    Ledda, Mirko; Kutalik, Zoltán; Souza Destito, Maria C.; Souza, Milena M.; Cirillo, Cintia A.; Zamboni, Amabilene; Martin, Nathalie; Morya, Edgard; Sameshima, Koichi; Beckmann, Jacques S.; le Coutre, Johannes; Bergmann, Sven; Genick, Ulrich K.

    2014-01-01

    Human perception of bitterness displays pronounced interindividual variation. This phenotypic variation is mirrored by equally pronounced genetic variation in the family of bitter taste receptor genes. To better understand the effects of common genetic variations on human bitter taste perception, we conducted a genome-wide association study on a discovery panel of 504 subjects and a validation panel of 104 subjects from the general population of São Paulo in Brazil. Correction for general taste-sensitivity allowed us to identify a SNP in the cluster of bitter taste receptors on chr12 (10.88– 11.24 Mb, build 36.1) significantly associated (best SNP: rs2708377, P = 5.31 × 10−13, r2 = 8.9%, β = −0.12, s.e. = 0.016) with the perceived bitterness of caffeine. This association overlaps with—but is statistically distinct from—the previously identified SNP rs10772420 influencing the perception of quinine bitterness that falls in the same bitter taste cluster. We replicated this association to quinine perception (P = 4.97 × 10−37, r2 = 23.2%, β = 0.25, s.e. = 0.020) and additionally found the effect of this genetic locus to be concentration specific with a strong impact on the perception of low, but no impact on the perception of high concentrations of quinine. Our study, thus, furthers our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of bitter taste perception. PMID:23966204

  6. GWAS of human bitter taste perception identifies new loci and reveals additional complexity of bitter taste genetics.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Mirko; Kutalik, Zoltán; Souza Destito, Maria C; Souza, Milena M; Cirillo, Cintia A; Zamboni, Amabilene; Martin, Nathalie; Morya, Edgard; Sameshima, Koichi; Beckmann, Jacques S; le Coutre, Johannes; Bergmann, Sven; Genick, Ulrich K

    2014-01-01

    Human perception of bitterness displays pronounced interindividual variation. This phenotypic variation is mirrored by equally pronounced genetic variation in the family of bitter taste receptor genes. To better understand the effects of common genetic variations on human bitter taste perception, we conducted a genome-wide association study on a discovery panel of 504 subjects and a validation panel of 104 subjects from the general population of São Paulo in Brazil. Correction for general taste-sensitivity allowed us to identify a SNP in the cluster of bitter taste receptors on chr12 (10.88- 11.24 Mb, build 36.1) significantly associated (best SNP: rs2708377, P = 5.31 × 10(-13), r(2) = 8.9%, β = -0.12, s.e. = 0.016) with the perceived bitterness of caffeine. This association overlaps with-but is statistically distinct from-the previously identified SNP rs10772420 influencing the perception of quinine bitterness that falls in the same bitter taste cluster. We replicated this association to quinine perception (P = 4.97 × 10(-37), r(2) = 23.2%, β = 0.25, s.e. = 0.020) and additionally found the effect of this genetic locus to be concentration specific with a strong impact on the perception of low, but no impact on the perception of high concentrations of quinine. Our study, thus, furthers our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of bitter taste perception.

  7. Making Early Modern Medicine: Reproducing Swedish Bitters.

    PubMed

    Ahnfelt, Nils-Otto; Fors, Hjalmar

    2016-05-01

    Historians of science and medicine have rarely applied themselves to reproducing the experiments and practices of medicine and pharmacy. This paper delineates our efforts to reproduce "Swedish Bitters," an early modern composite medicine in wide European use from the 1730s to the present. In its original formulation, it was made from seven medicinal simples: aloe, rhubarb, saffron, myrrh, gentian, zedoary and agarikon. These were mixed in alcohol together with some theriac, a composite medicine of classical origin. The paper delineates the compositional history of Swedish Bitters and the medical rationale underlying its composition. It also describes how we go about to reproduce the medicine in a laboratory using early modern pharmaceutical methods, and analyse it using contemporary methods of pharmaceutical chemistry. Our aim is twofold: first, to show how reproducing medicines may provide a path towards a deeper understanding of the role of sensual and practical knowledge in the wider context of early modern medical culture; and second, how it may yield interesting results from the point of view of contemporary pharmaceutical science.

  8. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  9. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels. PMID:26501253

  10. Management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in bottle gourd using different botanicals in pots.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tulika; Patel, B A

    2015-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of different botanicals in varying doses for management of root-knot nematode, M. incognita in bottle gourd. The results exhibited that madar (Calotropis procera) and neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves application proved to be more effective in improving plant growth characters and reducing root-knot index and final nematode population. Among the doses tested, higher dose of 1.5 % (w/w) was more effective than lower ones. PMID:26345048

  11. Magnetically responsive gourd-shaped colloidal particles in cholesteric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Senyuk, Bohdan; Varney, Michael C M; Lopez, Javier A; Wang, Sijia; Wu, Ning; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2014-08-28

    Particle shape and medium chirality are two key features recently used to control anisotropic colloidal self-assembly and dynamics in liquid crystals. Here, we study magnetically responsive gourd-shaped colloidal particles dispersed in cholesteric liquid crystals with periodicity comparable or smaller than the particle's dimensions. Using magnetic manipulation and optical tweezers, which allow one to position colloids near the confining walls, we measured the elastic repulsive interactions of these particles with confining surfaces and found that separation-dependent particle-wall interaction force is a non-monotonic function of separation and shows oscillatory behavior. We show that gourd-shaped particles in cholesterics reside not on a single sedimentation level, but on multiple long-lived metastable levels separated by a distance comparable to cholesteric periodicity. Finally, we demonstrate three-dimensional laser tweezers assisted assembly of gourd-shaped particles taking advantage of both orientational order and twist periodicity of cholesterics, potentially allowing new forms of orientationally and positionally ordered colloidal organization in these media. PMID:24994521

  12. Identification of Bitterness-Masking Compounds from Cheese

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bitterness-masking compounds were identified in a natural white mold cheese. The oily fraction of the cheese was extracted and further fractionated by using silica gel column chromatography. The four fractions obtained were characterized by thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty acid-containing fraction was found to have the highest bitterness-masking activity against quinine hydrochloride. Bitterness-masking activity was quantitated using a method based on subjective equivalents. At 0.5 mM, the fatty acid mixture, which had a composition similar to that of cheese, suppressed the bitterness of 0.008% quinine hydrochloride to be equivalent to that of 0.0049–0.0060% and 0.5 mM oleic acid to that of 0.0032–0.0038% solution. The binding potential between oleic acid and the bitter compounds was estimated by isothermal titration calorimetry. These results suggest that oleic acid masked bitterness by forming a complex with the bitter compounds. PMID:22502602

  13. Quantitative determination of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as bitter melon, is widely cultivated in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is a common food staple; its fruits, leaves, seeds, stems, and roots also have a long history of use in traditional medicine. In the United States, dietary supplements labeled as containing bitter melon can be purchased over-the-counter and from Internet suppliers. Currently, no quantitative analytical method is available for monitoring the content of cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides, the major constituents of bitter melon, in such supplements. We investigated the use of HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS for the quantitative determination of such compounds in dietary supplements containing bitter melon. Values for each compound obtained from external calibration were compared with those obtained from the method of standard additions to address matrix effects associated with ESI. In addition, the cucurbitane-type triterpene and triterpene glycoside contents of two dietary supplements determined by the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions were compared with those measured by an HPLC method with evaporative light scattering detection, which was recently developed for quantification of such compounds in dried fruits of M. charantia. The contents of five cucurbitane-type triterpenes and triterpene glycosides in 10 dietary supplements were measured using the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method with standard additions. The total contents of the five compounds ranged from 17 to 3464 microg/serving.

  14. Bitterness of sweeteners as a function of concentration.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Losee, M L; Pecore, S D; Warwick, Z S

    1995-01-01

    Sixteen trained tasters provided sweetness and bitterness intensity ratings for 19 compounds including: acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, fructose, glucose, glycine, lactitol, maltitol, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neosugar (fructo-oligosaccharide), palatinit (isomalt), rebaudioside-A, sodium cyclamate, sodium saccharin, stevioside, sucralose, sucrose, and thaumatin. With increasing concentration, high-potency sweeteners including acesulfame-K, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sodium saccharin, rebaudioside-A, and stevioside tended to become more bitter. Low-potency sweeteners including fructose, sucrose, and lactitol tended to become less bitter with increasing concentration.

  15. NMR phase noise in bitter magnets.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, E E; Calder, E S; Thomas, G W; Mitrović, V F; Bachman, H N; Halperin, W P; Kuhns, P L; Reyes, A P

    2001-02-01

    We have studied the temporal instability of a high field resistive Bitter magnet through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This instability leads to transverse spin decoherence in repeated and accumulated NMR experiments as is normally performed during signal averaging. We demonstrate this effect via Hahn echo and Carr--Purcell--Meiboom--Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation experiments in a 23-T resistive magnet. Quantitative analysis was found to be consistent with separate measurements of the magnetic field frequency fluctuation spectrum, as well as with independent NMR experiments performed in a magnetic field with a controlled instability. Finally, the CPMG sequence with short pulse delays is shown to be successful in recovering the intrinsic spin--spin relaxation even in the presence of magnetic field temporal instability.

  16. Round and large: morphological and genetic consequences of artificial selection on the gourd tree Crescentia cujete by the Maya of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre-Dugua, Xitlali; Eguiarte, Luis E.; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Casas, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Artificial selection, the main driving force of domestication, depends on human perception of intraspecific variation and operates through management practices that drive morphological and genetic divergences with respect to wild populations. This study analysed the recognition of varieties of Crescentia cujete by Maya people in relation to preferred plant characters and documents ongoing processes of artificial selection influencing differential chloroplast DNA haplotype distribution in sympatric wild and home-garden populations. Methods Fifty-three home gardens in seven villages (93 trees) and two putative wild populations (43 trees) were sampled. Through semi-structured interviews we documented the nomenclature of varieties, their distinctive characters, provenance, frequency and management. Phenotypic divergence of fruits was assessed with morphometric analyses. Genetic analyses were performed through five cpDNA microsatellites. Key Results The Maya recognize two generic (wild/domesticated) and two specific domesticated (white/green) varieties of Crescentia cujete. In home gardens, most trees (68 %) were from domesticated varieties while some wild individuals (32 %) were tolerated. Cultivation involves mainly vegetative propagation (76 %). Domesticated fruits were significantly rounder, larger and with thicker pericarp than wild fruits. Haplotype A was dominant in home gardens (76 %) but absent in wild populations. Haplotypes B–F were found common in the wild but at low frequency (24 %) in home gardens. Conclusions The gourd tree is managed through clonal and sexual propagules, fruit form and size being the main targets of artificial selection. Domesticated varieties belong to a lineage preserved by vegetative propagation but propagation by seeds and tolerance of spontaneous trees favour gene flow from wild populations. Five mutational steps between haplotypes A and D suggest that domesticated germplasm has been introduced to the region

  17. Functional characterization of human bitter taste receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Eduardo; Cavenagh, Margaret M.; Gutierrez, Joanne; Battey, James F.; Northup, John K.; Sullivan, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    The T2Rs belong to a multi-gene family of G-protein-coupled receptors responsible for the detection of ingested bitter-tasting compounds. The T2Rs are conserved among mammals with the human and mouse gene families consisting of about 25 members. In the present study we address the signalling properties of human and mouse T2Rs using an in vitro reconstitution system in which both the ligands and G-proteins being assayed can be manipulated independently and quantitatively assessed. We confirm that the mT2R5, hT2R43 and hT2R47 receptors respond selectively to micromolar concentrations of cycloheximide, aristolochic acid and denatonium respectively. We also demonstrate that hT2R14 is a receptor for aristolochic acid and report the first characterization of the ligand specificities of hT2R7, which is a broadly tuned receptor responding to strychnine, quinacrine, chloroquine and papaverine. Using these defined ligand–receptor interactions, we assayed the ability of the ligand-activated T2Rs to catalyse GTP binding on divergent members of the Gα family including three members of the Gαi subfamily (transducin, Gαi1 and Gαo) as well as Gαs and Gαq. The T2Rs coupled with each of the three Gαi members tested. However, none of the T2Rs coupled to either Gαs or Gαq, suggesting the T2Rs signal primarily through Gαi-mediated signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, we observed different G-protein selectivities among the T2Rs with respect to both Gαi subunits and Gβγ dimers, suggesting that bitter taste is transduced by multiple G-proteins that may differ among the T2Rs. PMID:17253962

  18. Bitter peptide from hemoglobin hydrolysate: isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Aubes-Dufau, I; Capdevielle, J; Seris, J L; Combes, D

    1995-05-01

    Two separation methods, ultrafiltration and 2-butanol extraction, have shown that a peptide is the major agent responsible for bitterness in peptic hemoglobin hydrolysates. It was easily purified from these complex mixtures by specific hydrophobic adsorption on Superose 12, a gel-filtration column, which could constitute an original and interesting method for bitterness detection. The bitter peptide which corresponded to VV-hemorphin 7, the fragment 32-40 of the beta chain of bovine hemoglobin, is first generated during proteolysis, then hydrolysed by pepsin. It exhibited a strong bitterness at 0.25 mM equivalent to 0.073 mM quinine sulfate or 21 mM caffeine.

  19. Identification of bitter peptides in aged cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Karametsi, Konstantinia; Kokkinidou, Smaro; Ronningen, Ian; Peterson, Devin G

    2014-08-13

    The compounds responsible for the bitter taste of aged "sharp" Cheddar cheese were characterized. Sensory-guided fractionation techniques using gel permeation chromatography and multi-dimension semi-preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of multiple bitter compounds. The compounds with the highest perceived bitterness intensity were identified by tandem mass spectrometry de novo peptide sequencing as GPVRGPFPIIV, YQEPVLGPVRGPFPI, MPFPKYPVEP, MAPKHKEMPFPKYPVEPF, and APHGKEMPFPKYPVEPF; all originated from β-casein. Subsequent quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis reported that the concentrations of GPVRGPFPIIV, YQEPVLGPVRGPFPI, and MPFPKYPVEP increased during maturation by 28.7-, 3.1-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. When directly compared to young "mild" Cheddar, APHGKEMPFPKYPVEPF was reported only in the sharp Cheddar cheese, whereas the concentration of MAPKHKEMPFPKYPVEPF did not change. Further taste re-engineering sensory experiments confirmed the importance of the identified peptides to the bitterness of sharp Cheddar. The bitter intensity of the aged "sharp" Cheddar model (mild Cheddar with equivalent concentrations of the five bitter peptides in the sharp sample) was rated as not significantly different from the authentic sharp Cheddar cheese. Among the five peptides, GPVRGPFPIIV was reported to be the main contributor to the bitterness intensity of sharp Cheddar. Furthermore, a difference from control sensory test also confirmed the significance of the bitter taste to the overall perception of aged Cheddar flavor. The sharp Cheddar model was reported to be significantly more similar to aged "sharp" Cheddar in comparison to the young "mild" Cheddar cheese sample. PMID:25075877

  20. Behavioral Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haein; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Insect larvae, which recognize food sources through chemosensory cues, are a major source of global agricultural loss. Gustation is an important factor that determines feeding behavior, and the gustatory receptors (Grs) act as molecular receptors that recognize diverse chemicals in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). The behavior of Drosophila larvae is relatively simpler than the adult fly, and a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map was established in a previous study of the major external larval head sensory organs. Here, we extensively study the bitter taste responses of larvae using 2-choice behavioral assays. First, we tested a panel of 23 candidate bitter compounds to compare the behavioral responses of larvae and adults. We define 9 bitter compounds which elicit aversive behavior in a dose-dependent manner. A functional map of the larval GRNs was constructed with the use of Gr-GAL4 lines that drive expression of UAS-tetanus toxin and UAS-VR1 in specific gustatory neurons to identify bitter tastants-GRN combinations by suppressing and activating discrete subsets of taste neurons, respectively. Our results suggest that many gustatory neurons act cooperatively in larval bitter sensing, and that these neurons have different degrees of responsiveness to different bitter compounds.

  1. The Pharmacochaperone Activity of Quinine on Bitter Taste Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D.; Chakraborty, Raja; Shaik, Feroz A.; Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Bhullar, Rajinder P.; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-01-01

    Bitter taste is one of the five basic taste sensations which is mediated by 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in humans. The mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction is not yet elucidated. The cellular processes underlying T2R desensitization including receptor internalization, trafficking and degradation are yet to be studied. Here, using a combination of molecular and pharmacological techniques we show that T2R4 is not internalized upon agonist treatment. Pretreatment with bitter agonist quinine led to a reduction in subsequent quinine-mediated calcium responses to 35 ± 5% compared to the control untreated cells. Interestingly, treatment with different bitter agonists did not cause internalization of T2R4. Instead, quinine treatment led to a 2-fold increase in T2R4 cell surface expression which was sensitive to Brefeldin A, suggesting a novel pharmacochaperone activity of quinine. This phenomenon of chaperone activity of quinine was also observed for T2R7, T2R10, T2R39 and T2R46. Our results suggest that the observed action of quinine for these T2Rs is independent of its agonist activity. This study provides novel insights into the pharmacochaperone activity of quinine and possible mechanism of T2R desensitization, which is of fundamental importance in understanding the mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction. PMID:27223611

  2. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb.

    PubMed

    Bin, Qing; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-07-15

    Consumer acceptability of whole wheat foods is challenged by negative bitter flavour attributes. In this study, bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb were investigated. Utilising sensory-guided multi-dimensional fractionation techniques, the compounds with the highest bitterness intensity in the crumb were purified and identified by LC-MS-ToF and NMR techniques. The main bitter compounds were reported to be L-tryptophan, Wessely-Moser isomers apigenin-6-C-galactoside-8-C-arabinoside & apigenin-6-C-arabinoside-8-C-galactoside, and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-trans-10-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid). Sensory recombination experiments of the bitter compounds formulated at the concentrations determined in expectorated saliva after bread mastication indicated pinellic acid had the greatest contribution to the bitterness perception of the crumb. Quantitative analysis of pinellic acid in the raw flour was reported to be inherently low compared to bread; the concentration increased more than 30-fold after flour hydration and baking. PMID:26948582

  3. Behavioral Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haein; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Insect larvae, which recognize food sources through chemosensory cues, are a major source of global agricultural loss. Gustation is an important factor that determines feeding behavior, and the gustatory receptors (Grs) act as molecular receptors that recognize diverse chemicals in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). The behavior of Drosophila larvae is relatively simpler than the adult fly, and a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map was established in a previous study of the major external larval head sensory organs. Here, we extensively study the bitter taste responses of larvae using 2-choice behavioral assays. First, we tested a panel of 23 candidate bitter compounds to compare the behavioral responses of larvae and adults. We define 9 bitter compounds which elicit aversive behavior in a dose-dependent manner. A functional map of the larval GRNs was constructed with the use of Gr-GAL4 lines that drive expression of UAS-tetanus toxin and UAS-VR1 in specific gustatory neurons to identify bitter tastants-GRN combinations by suppressing and activating discrete subsets of taste neurons, respectively. Our results suggest that many gustatory neurons act cooperatively in larval bitter sensing, and that these neurons have different degrees of responsiveness to different bitter compounds. PMID:26512069

  4. The Pharmacochaperone Activity of Quinine on Bitter Taste Receptors.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D; Chakraborty, Raja; Shaik, Feroz A; Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-01-01

    Bitter taste is one of the five basic taste sensations which is mediated by 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in humans. The mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction is not yet elucidated. The cellular processes underlying T2R desensitization including receptor internalization, trafficking and degradation are yet to be studied. Here, using a combination of molecular and pharmacological techniques we show that T2R4 is not internalized upon agonist treatment. Pretreatment with bitter agonist quinine led to a reduction in subsequent quinine-mediated calcium responses to 35 ± 5% compared to the control untreated cells. Interestingly, treatment with different bitter agonists did not cause internalization of T2R4. Instead, quinine treatment led to a 2-fold increase in T2R4 cell surface expression which was sensitive to Brefeldin A, suggesting a novel pharmacochaperone activity of quinine. This phenomenon of chaperone activity of quinine was also observed for T2R7, T2R10, T2R39 and T2R46. Our results suggest that the observed action of quinine for these T2Rs is independent of its agonist activity. This study provides novel insights into the pharmacochaperone activity of quinine and possible mechanism of T2R desensitization, which is of fundamental importance in understanding the mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction. PMID:27223611

  5. Identification and validation of a new male sex-specific ISSR marker in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Sinchan; Saha, Soumen; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR) amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp) was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism. PMID:25538949

  6. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.)

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Sinchan; Saha, Soumen; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR) amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp) was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism. PMID:25538949

  7. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  8. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  9. Population genomic analyses from low-coverage RAD-Seq data: a case study on the non-model cucurbit bottle gourd.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Xu, Shizhong; Wu, Xiaohua; Tao, Ye; Wang, Baogen; Wang, Sha; Qin, Dehui; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2014-02-01

    Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq), a next-generation sequencing-based genome 'complexity reduction' protocol, has been useful in population genomics in species with a reference genome. However, the application of this protocol to natural populations of genomically underinvestigated species, particularly under low-to-medium sequencing depth, has not been well justified. In this study, a Bayesian method was developed for calling genotypes from an F₂ population of bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] to construct a high-density genetic map. Low-depth genome shotgun sequencing allowed the assembly of scaffolds/contigs comprising approximately 50% of the estimated genome, of which 922 were anchored for identifying syntenic regions between species. RAD-Seq genotyping of a natural population comprising 80 accessions identified 3226 single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs), based on which two sub-gene pools were suggested for association with fruit shape. The two sub-gene pools were moderately differentiated, as reflected by the Hudson's F(ST) value of 0.14, and they represent regions on LG7 with strikingly elevated F(ST) values. Seven-fold reduction in heterozygosity and two times increase in LD (r²) were observed in the same region for the round-fruited sub-gene pool. Outlier test suggested the locus LX3405 on LG7 to be a candidate site under selection. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the cucumber genome region syntenic to the high FST island on LG7 harbors an ortholog of the tomato fruit shape gene OVATE. Our results point to a bright future of applying RAD-Seq to population genomic studies for non-model species even under low-to-medium sequencing efforts. The genomic resources provide valuable information for cucurbit genome research. PMID:24320550

  10. Population genomic analyses from low-coverage RAD-Seq data: a case study on the non-model cucurbit bottle gourd.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Xu, Shizhong; Wu, Xiaohua; Tao, Ye; Wang, Baogen; Wang, Sha; Qin, Dehui; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2014-02-01

    Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq), a next-generation sequencing-based genome 'complexity reduction' protocol, has been useful in population genomics in species with a reference genome. However, the application of this protocol to natural populations of genomically underinvestigated species, particularly under low-to-medium sequencing depth, has not been well justified. In this study, a Bayesian method was developed for calling genotypes from an F₂ population of bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] to construct a high-density genetic map. Low-depth genome shotgun sequencing allowed the assembly of scaffolds/contigs comprising approximately 50% of the estimated genome, of which 922 were anchored for identifying syntenic regions between species. RAD-Seq genotyping of a natural population comprising 80 accessions identified 3226 single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs), based on which two sub-gene pools were suggested for association with fruit shape. The two sub-gene pools were moderately differentiated, as reflected by the Hudson's F(ST) value of 0.14, and they represent regions on LG7 with strikingly elevated F(ST) values. Seven-fold reduction in heterozygosity and two times increase in LD (r²) were observed in the same region for the round-fruited sub-gene pool. Outlier test suggested the locus LX3405 on LG7 to be a candidate site under selection. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the cucumber genome region syntenic to the high FST island on LG7 harbors an ortholog of the tomato fruit shape gene OVATE. Our results point to a bright future of applying RAD-Seq to population genomic studies for non-model species even under low-to-medium sequencing efforts. The genomic resources provide valuable information for cucurbit genome research.

  11. Genetic Variation in the TAS2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor and Gastric Cancer Risk in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    The human TAS2R38 gene encodes a bitter taste receptor that regulates the bitterness perception and differentiation of ingested nutritional/poisonous compounds in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. TAS2R38 gene variants are associated with alterations in individual sensitivity to bitter taste and food intake; hence, these genetic variants may modify the risk for diet-related diseases, including cancer. However, little is known about the association between TAS2R38 polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility. The present case-control study examined the influence of TAS2R38 polymorphisms on food intake and determined whether they predict gastric cancer risk in Koreans. A total of 1,580 subjects, including 449 gastric cancer cases, were genotyped for TAS2R38 A49P, V262A, I296V and diplotypes. Dietary data were analysed to determine the total consumption of energy, fibre, vegetables, fruits, sweets, fats, alcohol and cigarettes. TAS2R38 diplotype was not associated with food, alcohol or cigarette consumption, either independent or dependent of gastric cancer phenotype. However, the PAV/AVI diplotype significantly increased gastric cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio: 1.513; 95% confidence interval: 1.148–1.994) independent of dietary intake. Findings suggest that TAS2R38 may be associated with the risk for gastric cancer in Koreans, although the TAS2R38 diplotype did not influence dietary intake. PMID:27245112

  12. Genetic Variation in the TAS2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor and Gastric Cancer Risk in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    The human TAS2R38 gene encodes a bitter taste receptor that regulates the bitterness perception and differentiation of ingested nutritional/poisonous compounds in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. TAS2R38 gene variants are associated with alterations in individual sensitivity to bitter taste and food intake; hence, these genetic variants may modify the risk for diet-related diseases, including cancer. However, little is known about the association between TAS2R38 polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility. The present case-control study examined the influence of TAS2R38 polymorphisms on food intake and determined whether they predict gastric cancer risk in Koreans. A total of 1,580 subjects, including 449 gastric cancer cases, were genotyped for TAS2R38 A49P, V262A, I296V and diplotypes. Dietary data were analysed to determine the total consumption of energy, fibre, vegetables, fruits, sweets, fats, alcohol and cigarettes. TAS2R38 diplotype was not associated with food, alcohol or cigarette consumption, either independent or dependent of gastric cancer phenotype. However, the PAV/AVI diplotype significantly increased gastric cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio: 1.513; 95% confidence interval: 1.148-1.994) independent of dietary intake. Findings suggest that TAS2R38 may be associated with the risk for gastric cancer in Koreans, although the TAS2R38 diplotype did not influence dietary intake. PMID:27245112

  13. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Hong; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Vigues, Stephan; Ott, Sandra H; Elson, Amanda E T; Choi, Hyun Jin; Shaw, Hillary; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Li, Xiaodong; Steinle, Nanette I; Munger, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease. PMID:19092995

  14. Bitter Taste Receptor Polymorphisms and Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carrai, Maura; Crocco, Paolina; Montesanto, Alberto; Canzian, Federico; Rose, Giuseppina; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics. PMID:23133589

  15. Buffalo gourd: potential as a fuel resource on semi-arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.; Morgan, R.P.; Shultz, E.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Buffalo gourd, (Cucurbita foetidissima), is a wild, hot-dry-land plant native to the semi-arid regions of North America. Its triglyceride oil and fermentable starch make it a potential biomass energy source. These products, along with the seed meal and foliage, also offer the potential for cultivation in semi-arid regions of the developing world as a food and feed source. Alternatively, the plant may help to maintain economic vitality in regions such as the Texas High Plains, where declining water supplies threaten present irrigation practices. Technical feasibility, impacts, commercialization requirements, and research needs are discussed.

  16. New crops for arid lands. [Bladderpod, gumweed, guayule, jojoba, and buffalo gourd

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential or arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required. 20 references.

  17. A preliminary report on the genetic variation in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S; Biswas, A; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Ghosh, P D

    2014-06-01

    Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an economically important cucurbit and is extensively propagated through vegetative means, viz vine and root cuttings. As the accessions are poorly characterized it is important at the beginning of a breeding programme to discriminate among available genotypes to establish the level of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of 10 pointed gourd races, referred to as accessions was evaluated. DNA profiling was generated using 10 sequence independent RAPD markers. A total of 58 scorable loci were observed out of which 18 (31.03%) loci were considered polymorphic. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, Shannon's index, percent polymorphism, Nei's gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC)] for RAPD along with UPGMA clustering based on Jaccard's coefficient were estimated. The UPGMA dendogram constructed based on RAPD analysis in 10 pointed gourd accessions were found to be grouped in a single cluster and may represent members of one heterotic group. RAPD analysis showed promise as an effective tool in estimating genetic polymorphism in different accessions of pointed gourd. PMID:24873909

  18. Response of U.S. Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) Plant Introductions (PI) to Crown Rot caused by Phytophthora Capsici

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici can cause severe damage to cucurbit crops grown in open fields in the southeast regions of US. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the US in grafting watermelon plants onto various cucurbit rootstocks including bottle gourds for managing soil borne diseases. ...

  19. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of an endornavirus from bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) in California, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun-Jung; Tan, Shih-Hua; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2014-08-01

    The full-length nucleotide sequence and genome organization of an Endornavirus isolated from ornamental hard shell bottle gourd plants (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) in California (CA), USA tentatively named L. siceraria endornavirus-California (LsEV-CA) was determined. The LsEV-CA genome was 15088 bp in length, with a G + C content of 36.55 %. The lengths of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions were 111 and 52 bp, respectively. The genome of LsEV-CA contained one large ORF encoding a 576 kDa polyprotein. The predicted protein contains two glycosyltransferase motifs, as well as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and helicase domains. LsEV-CA was detected in healthy-looking field-grown gourd plants, as well as plants expressing yellows symptoms. It was also detected in non-symptomatic greenhouse-grown gourd seedlings grown from seed obtained from the same field sites. These preliminary data indicate that LsEV-CA is likely not associated with the gourd-yellows syndrome observed in the field. PMID:24818693

  20. Molecular characterization of a distinct bipartite Begomovirus species infecting ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L.) in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Nagendran, K; Satya, V K; Mohankumar, S; Karthikeyan, G

    2016-02-01

    A distinct bipartite begomovirus was found to be associated with the mosaic disease on ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L.) in Tamil Nadu, India. The complete DNA A and DNA B components were cloned by rolling circle amplification. Genome organization of this virus is found to be typical of Old World bipartite begomovirus. The association of betasatellite component with this virus is absent. The closest nucleotide identity of 73.4 % was seen with the Loofa yellow mosaic virus (LYMV-[VN]-AF509739) suggesting that it is a new virus species Coccinia mosaic virus (CoMoV-Ivy gourd [TN TDV Coc1]) and distantly related to the other known begomoviruses. The DNA B component shared a maximum identity of 55 % with that of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In the phylogenetic analysis, CoMoV-Ivy gourd form cluster separate from other begomoviruses. Recombination analysis showed that there was no recombination event in the genome. This is the distinct begomovirus infecting ivy gourd. PMID:26739457

  1. Transferability of Cucurbita SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment of Turkish bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...

  2. Combined effect of blanching and sonication on quality parameters of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Suheela; Sharma, Harish Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of blanching and sonication treatment on selected quality parameters of bottle gourd juice (BGJ). Bottle gourd cubes were blanched and juice was extracted. Effect of frequency (20-50kHz), amplitude (50-90%) and time (10-30min) was also studied on quality parameters like titratable acidity (TA), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), physical stability (PS), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC), browning index (BI), total plate count (TPC) and yeast & mold count (Y&M) of BGJ to derive the level of these parameters. Combined effect of blanching followed by sonication (BFS) showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in all quality parameters except TA. Highest percentage of TSS (5.9°B), PS (2%), AA (18.99mg/100g), TP (1010mg/100g) and TC (5.8mg/100g) was observed at 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min. Results suggested 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min as best treatment conditions for processing of BGJ. Microstructure examination, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction analysis of BGJ showed significant change in particle size and distribution. Moreover, TEM of blanched and sonicated samples of BGJ also showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in microbial profile. PMID:27245969

  3. Combined effect of blanching and sonication on quality parameters of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Suheela; Sharma, Harish Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of blanching and sonication treatment on selected quality parameters of bottle gourd juice (BGJ). Bottle gourd cubes were blanched and juice was extracted. Effect of frequency (20-50kHz), amplitude (50-90%) and time (10-30min) was also studied on quality parameters like titratable acidity (TA), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), physical stability (PS), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC), browning index (BI), total plate count (TPC) and yeast & mold count (Y&M) of BGJ to derive the level of these parameters. Combined effect of blanching followed by sonication (BFS) showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in all quality parameters except TA. Highest percentage of TSS (5.9°B), PS (2%), AA (18.99mg/100g), TP (1010mg/100g) and TC (5.8mg/100g) was observed at 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min. Results suggested 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min as best treatment conditions for processing of BGJ. Microstructure examination, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction analysis of BGJ showed significant change in particle size and distribution. Moreover, TEM of blanched and sonicated samples of BGJ also showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in microbial profile.

  4. Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) root suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) is a tropical plant widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. The anti-obesity property of this plant has been claimed but still remains to be scientifically proven. We therefore investigated the effects of ivy gourd leaf, stem, and root on adipocyte differentiation by employing cell culture model. Methods Dried roots, stems, and leaves of ivy gourd were separately extracted with ethanol. Each extract was then applied to 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes upon induction with a mixture of insulin, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and dexamethasone, for anti-adipogenesis assay. The active extract was further fractionated by a sequential solvent partitioning method, and the resulting fractions were examined for their abilities to inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Differences in the expression of adipogenesis-related genes between the treated and untreated cells were determined from their mRNA and protein levels. Results Of the three ivy gourd extracts, the root extract exhibited an anti-adipogenic effect. It significantly reduced intracellular fat accumulation during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. Together with the suppression of differentiation, expression of the genes encoding PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin, and GLUT4 were down-regulated. Hexane-soluble fraction of the root extract also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and decreased the mRNA levels of various adipogenic genes in the differentiating cells. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that ivy gourd root may prevent obesity based mainly on the ability of its active constituent(s) to suppress adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect is mediated by at least down-regulating the expression of PPARγ-the key transcription factor of adipogenesis in pre-adipocytes during their early differentiation processes. PMID:24884680

  5. Microbial degradation of amygdalin of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca).

    PubMed

    Nout, M J; Tunçel, G; Brimer, L

    1995-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside occurring among others in almonds and bitter apricot seeds with interesting levels of dietary protein. Utilization of seeds for human or animal nutrition requires adequate detoxification. In the present paper, selected filamentous fungi (Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium nalgiovense) and yeasts (Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Endomyces fibuliger) were tested for their in-situ ability to decompose amygdalin. The latter (Endomyces fibuliger) was best able to grow on autoclaved bitter apricot seeds and detoxify them from 30 microMol CN/g dry matter to less than 1 microMol CN/g dry matter after 48 h of incubation at 27 degrees C.

  6. Sequence analysis of a bitter taste receptor gene repertoires in different ruminant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. At the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (T2R) present at the surface of taste r...

  7. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens.

  8. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  9. [Three cases of spontaneous pneumothorax by ruptured paravertebral gourd-shaped bullae].

    PubMed

    Takata, Masahiko; Miyamoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-04-01

    We reported 3 elderly patients with right pneumothorax caused by ruptured paravertebral gourdshaped bullae. Two patients showed the characteristic symptom of air leakage of this type of pneumothorax, which decreased in the supine position, but increased in the sitting position. Chest computed tomography imaging showed bullae spreading in the space of the azygoesophageal recess. All patients underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), and 2 patients underwent mini-thoracotomy because of adhesion and pyothorax. Ruptured bullae with stalks were found at the mediastinal sides of their right lower lobes in all patients. Bullectomy using an endoscopic stapler or ligation at the bulla root was performed easily and safely. The right pneumothorax caused by ruptured paravertebral gourd-shaped bulla was considered to be a good indication for the VATS due to the unique shape of the bulla, which has a stalk at its root. PMID:24917167

  10. Sweet and bitter tastes of alcoholic beverages mediate alcohol intake in of-age undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Sarah A; Hayes, John E; Duffy, Valerie B

    2005-01-17

    Alcoholic beverages are complex stimuli, giving rise to sensations that promote or inhibit intake. Previous research has shown associations between 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness, one marker of genetic variation in taste, and alcohol behaviors. We tested the PROP bitterness and alcohol intake relationship as mediated by tastes of sampled alcoholic beverages. Forty-nine undergraduates (mean age=22 years) participated. According to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), only 3 of 49 subjects reported patterns indicating problematic drinking. Participants used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale to rate PROP bitterness and tastes from and preference for Pilsner beer, blended scotch whiskey, instant espresso and unsweetened grapefruit juice. Alcohol intake was reported over a typical week. Regression analysis tested the hypothesis that PROP bitterness influenced alcohol bitterness and sweetness, which in turn predicted alcohol intake. Those who tasted less PROP bitterness tasted all beverages as less bitter and more preferred. Sweetness of scotch was significantly greater in those who tasted PROP as least bitter. For scotch, greater sweetness and less bitterness from sampled scotch were direct predictors of greater alcohol intake. For beer, preference ratings were better predictors of alcohol intake than the bitter or sweet tastes of the sampled beer. These findings support that PROP bitterness predicts both positive and negative tastes from alcoholic beverages and that those tastes may predict alcohol intake. The college environment may attenuate direct effects of PROP bitterness and intake. Here, PROP bitterness does not predict alcohol intake directly, but acts instead through sweet and bitter tastes of alcoholic beverages. PMID:15639168

  11. Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Bitter Perception and Sweet Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Pepino, M. Yanina; Reed, Danielle R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Flavor is the primary dimension by which young children determine food acceptance. However, children are not merely miniature adults because sensory systems mature postnatally and their responses to certain tastes differ markedly from adults. Among these differences are heightened preferences for sweet-tasting and greater rejection of bitter-tasting foods. The present study tests the hypothesis that genetic variations in the newly discovered TAS2R38 taste gene as well as cultural differences are associated with differences in sensitivity to the bitter taste of propylthiouracil (PROP) and preferences for sucrose and sweet-tasting foods and beverages in children and adults. Design Genomic DNA was extracted from cheek cells of a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 143 children and their mothers. Alleles of the gene TAS2R38 were genotyped. Participants were grouped by the first variant site, denoted A49P, because the allele predicts a change from the amino acid alanine (A) to proline (P) at position 49. Henceforth, individuals who were homozygous for the bitter-insensitive allele are referred to as AA, those who were heterozygous for the bitter-insensitive allele are referred to as AP, and those who were homozygous for the bitter-sensitive allele are referred to as PP. Using identical procedures for children and mothers, PROP sensitivity and sucrose preferences were assessed by using forced-choice procedures that were embedded in the context of games that minimized the impact of language development and were sensitive to the cognitive limitations of pediatric populations. Participants were also asked about their preferences in cereals and beverages, and mothers completed a standardized questionnaire that measured various dimensions of their children’s temperament. Results Genetic variation of the A49P allele influenced bitter perception in children and adults. However, the phenotype-genotype relationship was modified by age such that 64% of

  12. Influence of Total Anthocyanins from Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) as Antidiabetic and Radical Scavenging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Güdr, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of fruits are anthocyanins; a group of polyphenolics that are responsible for the color of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The harvesting time, storage conditions, maturity, extraction steps etc. are very important for the biological activities based on the alteration of chemical composition. The free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of total anthocyanins from bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit (TAMC) were evaluated by considering four harvesting times. The free radical scavenging activities of the TAMC samples were assessed using DPPH•, DMPD•+ and ABTS•+ assays against BHA, rutin and trolox standards. September as a harvesting period (TAMC-S) had effective DPPH• (SC50 2.55 ± 0.08 μg/mL), DMPD•+ (SC50 2.68 ± 0.09 μg/mL) and ABTS•+ (SC50 8.19 ± 0.09 μg/mL) scavenging activities compared with other samples and standards. In addition, August (TAMC-A) as a harvesting period showed very influential inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 56.86 ± 1.12 μg/mL) and moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 88.19 ± 0.74 μg/mL). In comparison, pharmaceutical active ingredients such as acarbose exhibited anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities with IC50 values of 93.07 ± 1.49 μg/mL and 77.25 ± 1.20 μg/mL respectively. These results suggest that the correct selection of harvest period can significantly increase anthocyanin quantity because of the pharmaceutic properties of TAMC. Consequently, TAMC may be interesting for incorporation in pharmaceutical preparations for human health, since it can suppress hyperglycaemia that can be also used as food additives due to its antiradical activity.

  13. Influence of Total Anthocyanins from Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) as Antidiabetic and Radical Scavenging Agents.

    PubMed

    Güdr, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of fruits are anthocyanins; a group of polyphenolics that are responsible for the color of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The harvesting time, storage conditions, maturity, extraction steps etc. are very important for the biological activities based on the alteration of chemical composition. The free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of total anthocyanins from bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit (TAMC) were evaluated by considering four harvesting times. The free radical scavenging activities of the TAMC samples were assessed using DPPH(•), DMPD(•+) and ABTS(•+) assays against BHA, rutin and trolox standards. September as a harvesting period (TAMC-S) had effective DPPH(•) (SC50 2.55 ± 0.08 μg/mL), DMPD(•+) (SC50 2.68 ± 0.09 μg/mL) and ABTS(•+) (SC50 8.19 ± 0.09 μg/mL) scavenging activities compared with other samples and standards. In addition, August (TAMC-A) as a harvesting period showed very influential inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 56.86 ± 1.12 μg/mL) and moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 88.19 ± 0.74 μg/mL). In comparison, pharmaceutical active ingredients such as acarbose exhibited anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities with IC50 values of 93.07 ± 1.49 μg/mL and 77.25 ± 1.20 μg/mL respectively. These results suggest that the correct selection of harvest period can significantly increase anthocyanin quantity because of the pharmaceutic properties of TAMC. Consequently, TAMC may be interesting for incorporation in pharmaceutical preparations for human health, since it can suppress hyperglycaemia that can be also used as food additives due to its antiradical activity. PMID:27610171

  14. Influence of Total Anthocyanins from Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) as Antidiabetic and Radical Scavenging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Güdr, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of fruits are anthocyanins; a group of polyphenolics that are responsible for the color of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The harvesting time, storage conditions, maturity, extraction steps etc. are very important for the biological activities based on the alteration of chemical composition. The free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of total anthocyanins from bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit (TAMC) were evaluated by considering four harvesting times. The free radical scavenging activities of the TAMC samples were assessed using DPPH•, DMPD•+ and ABTS•+ assays against BHA, rutin and trolox standards. September as a harvesting period (TAMC-S) had effective DPPH• (SC50 2.55 ± 0.08 μg/mL), DMPD•+ (SC50 2.68 ± 0.09 μg/mL) and ABTS•+ (SC50 8.19 ± 0.09 μg/mL) scavenging activities compared with other samples and standards. In addition, August (TAMC-A) as a harvesting period showed very influential inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 56.86 ± 1.12 μg/mL) and moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 88.19 ± 0.74 μg/mL). In comparison, pharmaceutical active ingredients such as acarbose exhibited anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities with IC50 values of 93.07 ± 1.49 μg/mL and 77.25 ± 1.20 μg/mL respectively. These results suggest that the correct selection of harvest period can significantly increase anthocyanin quantity because of the pharmaceutic properties of TAMC. Consequently, TAMC may be interesting for incorporation in pharmaceutical preparations for human health, since it can suppress hyperglycaemia that can be also used as food additives due to its antiradical activity. PMID:27610171

  15. Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of dark green vegetables falls short of recommendations, in part, because of unpleasant bitterness. A laboratory-based study of 37 adults was used to determine bitter and hedonic responses to vegetables (asparagus, Brussels sprouts, kale) with bitter masking agents (1.33 M sodium acetate, 10 and 32 mM sodium chloride, and 3.2 mM aspartame) and then characterized by taste phenotype and vegetable liking. In repeated-measures ANOVA, aspartame was most effective at suppressing bitterness and improving hedonic responses for all sampled vegetables. Among the sodium salts, 32 mM sodium chloride decreased bitterness for kale and sodium acetate reduced bitterness across all vegetables with a tendency to increase liking for Brussels sprouts, as release from mixture suppression increased perceived sweetness. Participants were nearly equally divided into three 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) phenotype groups. Those tasting the least PROP bitterness (non-tasters) reported least vegetable bitterness, and the additives produced little change in vegetable liking. Aspartame persisted as the most effective bitter blocker for the PROP tasters (medium, supertasters), improving vegetable liking for the medium tasters but too much sweetness for supertasters. The sodium salts showed some bitter blocking for PROP tasters, particularly sodium acetate, without significant gains in vegetable liking. Via a survey, adults characterized as low vegetable likers reported greater increase in vegetable liking with the maskers than did vegetable likers. These results suggest that bitter masking agents (mainly sweeteners) can suppress bitterness to increase acceptance if they are matched to perceived vegetable bitterness or to self-reported vegetable disliking. PMID:23682306

  16. Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Hayes, John E; Duffy, Valerie B

    2013-03-01

    Consumption of dark green vegetables falls short of recommendations, in part, because of unpleasant bitterness. A laboratory-based study of 37 adults was used to determine bitter and hedonic responses to vegetables (asparagus, Brussels sprouts, kale) with bitter masking agents (1.33 M sodium acetate, 10 and 32 mM sodium chloride, and 3.2 mM aspartame) and then characterized by taste phenotype and vegetable liking. In repeated-measures ANOVA, aspartame was most effective at suppressing bitterness and improving hedonic responses for all sampled vegetables. Among the sodium salts, 32 mM sodium chloride decreased bitterness for kale and sodium acetate reduced bitterness across all vegetables with a tendency to increase liking for Brussels sprouts, as release from mixture suppression increased perceived sweetness. Participants were nearly equally divided into three 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) phenotype groups. Those tasting the least PROP bitterness (non-tasters) reported least vegetable bitterness, and the additives produced little change in vegetable liking. Aspartame persisted as the most effective bitter blocker for the PROP tasters (medium, supertasters), improving vegetable liking for the medium tasters but too much sweetness for supertasters. The sodium salts showed some bitter blocking for PROP tasters, particularly sodium acetate, without significant gains in vegetable liking. Via a survey, adults characterized as low vegetable likers reported greater increase in vegetable liking with the maskers than did vegetable likers. These results suggest that bitter masking agents (mainly sweeteners) can suppress bitterness to increase acceptance if they are matched to perceived vegetable bitterness or to self-reported vegetable disliking.

  17. Bitterness evaluation of acidic pharmaceutical substances (NSAIDs) using a taste sensor.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Miyako; Haraguchi, Tamami; Uchida, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate an improved bitterness sensor which has been developed to allow the precise and sensitive prediction of the bitterness of acidic bitter pharmaceutical active ingredients, using as examples nine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The bitterness of the nine NSAIDs was measured using a multichannel taste-sensing system incorporating a bitterness sensor, C00, which has a membrane surface with high hydrophobicity, and was developed to allow an enhanced hydrophobic interaction with acidic bitter substances. The sourness intensities of the nine NSAIDs were also determined in gustatory sensation testing and by a taste sensor using a sourness-sensitive membrane, CA0. The 'Change in membrane Potential caused by Adsorption' (CPA) of sodium diclofenac and etodolac were also determined in the presence of increasing concentrations of tartaric acid using membrane C00. Multiple regression analysis performed on the data on bitterness intensity obtained using the taste sensor and in gustatory sensation testing showed that CPA values from C00 could be used to predict the bitterness of the NSAIDs. The derived equation was y = -0.0413 × CPA + 0.3164, where y represents the predicted bitterness intensity. There were concentration-dependent changes in the bitterness intensities of diclofenac sodium and etodolac without any change in their sourness intensities. For diclofenac sodium and etodolac, there was a good correlation between predicted and actual bitterness intensities in the presence of increasing concentrations of tartaric acid. The taste sensor may be useful for predicting the bitterness intensity of acidic bitter pharmaceutical active ingredients such as NSAIDs. PMID:25450633

  18. Allelic Variation in TAS2R Bitter Receptor Genes Associates with Variation in Sensations from and Ingestive Behaviors toward Common Bitter Beverages in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Wallace, Margaret R.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Herbstman, Deborah M.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The 25 human bitter receptors and their respective genes (TAS2Rs) contain unusually high levels of allelic variation, which may influence response to bitter compounds in the food supply. Phenotypes based on the perceived bitterness of single bitter compounds were first linked to food preference over 50 years ago. The most studied phenotype is propylthiouracil bitterness, which is mediated primarily by the TAS2R38 gene and possibly others. In a laboratory-based study, we tested for associations between TAS2R variants and sensations, liking, or intake of bitter beverages among healthy adults who were primarily of European ancestry. A haploblock across TAS2R3, TAS2R4, and TAS2R5 explained some variability in the bitterness of espresso coffee. For grapefruit juice, variation at a TAS2R19 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with increased bitterness and decreased liking. An association between a TAS2R16 SNP and alcohol intake was identified, and the putative TAS2R38–alcohol relationship was confirmed, although these polymorphisms did not explain sensory or hedonic responses to sampled scotch whisky. In summary, TAS2R polymorphisms appear to influence the sensations, liking, or intake of common and nutritionally significant beverages. Studying perceptual and behavioral differences in vivo using real foods and beverages may potentially identify polymorphisms related to dietary behavior even in the absence of known ligands. PMID:21163912

  19. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

  20. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.

  1. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alissa L.; McGeary, John E.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31. RebA has shown to activate hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14 in vitro. Here we examined bitterness and sweetness perception of natural and synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. In a follow-up to a previous gene-association study, participants (n=122) who had been genotyped previously rated sweet, bitter and metallic sensations from rebaudioside A (RebA), rebaudioside D (RebD), aspartame, sucrose and gentiobiose in duplicate in a single session. For comparison, we also present sweet and bitter ratings of AceK collected in the original experiment for the same participants. At similar sweetness levels, aspartame elicited less bitterness than RebD, which was significantly less bitter than RebA. The bitterness of RebA and RebD showed wide variability across individuals, and bitterness ratings for these compounds were correlated. However, RebA and RebD bitterness did not covary with AceK bitterness. Likewise, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown previously to explain variation in the suprathreshold bitterness of AceK (rs3741845 in TAS2R9 and rs10772423 in TAS2R31) did not explain variation in RebA and RebD bitterness. Because RebA activates hT2R4 and hT2R14, a SNP in TAS2R4 previously associated with variation in bitterness perception was included here; there are no known functional SNPs for TAS2R14. In present data, a putatively functional SNP (rs2234001) in TAS2R4 did not explain variation in RebA or RebD bitterness. Collectively

  2. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Elicit a Bitterness-Masking Effect on Quinine and Other Nitrogenous Bitter Substances by Formation of Insoluble Binary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Kayako; Yamashita, Haruyuki; Terada, Tohru; Homma, Ryousuke; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2015-09-30

    We have previously found that fatty acids can mask the bitterness of certain nitrogenous substances through direct molecular interactions. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we investigated the interactions between sodium oleate and 22 bitter substances. The hydrochloride salts of quinine, promethazine, and propranolol interacted strongly with fatty acids containing 12 or more carbon atoms. The (1)H NMR spectra of these substances, obtained in the presence of the sodium salts of the fatty acids in dimethyl sulfoxide, revealed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen atoms of the bitter substances and the carboxyl groups of the fatty acids. When sodium laurate and the hydrochloride salt of quinine were mixed in water, an equimolar complex formed as insoluble heterogeneous needlelike crystals. These results suggested that fatty acids interact directly with bitter substances through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to form insoluble binary complexes that mask bitterness.

  3. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alissa L; McGeary, John E; Hayes, John E

    2013-09-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31. RebA has shown to activate hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14 in vitro. Here we examined bitterness and sweetness perception of natural and synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. In a follow-up to a previous gene-association study, participants (n=122) who had been genotyped previously rated sweet, bitter and metallic sensations from rebaudioside A (RebA), rebaudioside D (RebD), aspartame, sucrose and gentiobiose in duplicate in a single session. For comparison, we also present sweet and bitter ratings of AceK collected in the original experiment for the same participants. At similar sweetness levels, aspartame elicited less bitterness than RebD, which was significantly less bitter than RebA. The bitterness of RebA and RebD showed wide variability across individuals, and bitterness ratings for these compounds were correlated. However, RebA and RebD bitterness did not covary with AceK bitterness. Likewise, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown previously to explain variation in the suprathreshold bitterness of AceK (rs3741845 in TAS2R9 and rs10772423 in TAS2R31) did not explain variation in RebA and RebD bitterness. Because RebA activates hT2R4 and hT2R14, a SNP in TAS2R4 previously associated with variation in bitterness perception was included here; there are no known functional SNPs for TAS2R14. In present data, a putatively functional SNP (rs2234001) in TAS2R4 did not explain variation in RebA or RebD bitterness. Collectively

  4. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Elicit a Bitterness-Masking Effect on Quinine and Other Nitrogenous Bitter Substances by Formation of Insoluble Binary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Kayako; Yamashita, Haruyuki; Terada, Tohru; Homma, Ryousuke; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Abe, Keiko; Asakura, Tomiko

    2015-09-30

    We have previously found that fatty acids can mask the bitterness of certain nitrogenous substances through direct molecular interactions. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we investigated the interactions between sodium oleate and 22 bitter substances. The hydrochloride salts of quinine, promethazine, and propranolol interacted strongly with fatty acids containing 12 or more carbon atoms. The (1)H NMR spectra of these substances, obtained in the presence of the sodium salts of the fatty acids in dimethyl sulfoxide, revealed the formation of hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen atoms of the bitter substances and the carboxyl groups of the fatty acids. When sodium laurate and the hydrochloride salt of quinine were mixed in water, an equimolar complex formed as insoluble heterogeneous needlelike crystals. These results suggested that fatty acids interact directly with bitter substances through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to form insoluble binary complexes that mask bitterness. PMID:26365517

  5. Fruit Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a botanical sense, fruits are the developed part of the seed-containing ovary. Evolutionarily speaking, plants have developed fruit with the goal of attracting insects, birds, reptiles and mammals to spread the seeds. Fruit can be dry such as the pod of a pea, or fleshy such as a peach. As humans...

  6. Oligomerization of TAS2R bitter taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Christina; Bufe, Bernd; Batram, Claudia; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    A family of 25 G protein-coupled receptors, TAS2Rs, mediates bitter taste in humans. Many of the members of this family are coexpressed in a subpopulation of taste receptor cells on the tongue, thereby allowing the possibility of receptor-receptor interactions with potential influences on their function. In this study, we used several experimental approaches to investigate whether TAS2Rs can form oligomers and if this has an effect on receptor function. Coimmunoprecipitations clearly demonstrated that TAS2Rs can physically interact in HEK293T cells. Further bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analysis of all 325 possible binary combinations of TAS2Rs established that the vast majority of TAS2R pairs form oligomers, both homomers and heteromers. Subsequent screenings of coexpressed bitter receptors with 104 different tastants did not reveal any heteromer-specific agonists. Additional studies also showed no obvious influence of TAS2R hetero-oligomerization on plasma membrane localization or pharmacological properties of the receptors. Thus, our results show that receptor oligomerization occurs between TAS2R bitter taste receptors; however, functional consequences of hetero-oligomerization were not obvious.

  7. Bitter taste receptors: Novel insights into the biochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Howard, Ryan; Upadhyaya, Jasbir D; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-08-01

    Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) belong to the super family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). There are 25 T2Rs expressed in humans, and these interact with a large and diverse group of bitter ligands. T2Rs are expressed in many extra-oral tissues and can perform diverse physiological roles. Structure-function studies led to the identification of similarities and dissimilarities between T2Rs and Class A GPCRs including amino acid conservation and novel motifs. However, the efficacy of most of the T2R ligands is not yet elucidated and the biochemical pharmacology of T2Rs is poorly understood. Recent studies on T2Rs characterized novel ligands including blockers for these receptors that include inverse agonist and antagonists. In this review we discuss the techniques used for elucidating bitter blockers, concept of ligand bias, generic amino acid numbering, the role of cholesterol, and conserved water molecules in the biochemistry and pharmacology of T2Rs. PMID:26995065

  8. Physical Approaches to Masking Bitter Taste: Lessons from Food and Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Many drugs and desirable phytochemicals are bitter, and bitter tastes are aversive. Food and pharmaceutical manufacturers share a common need for bitterness-masking strategies that allow them to deliver useful quantities of the active compounds in an acceptable form and in this review we compare and contrast the challenges and approaches by researchers in both fields. We focus on physical approaches, i.e., micro- or nano-structures to bind bitter compounds in the mouth, yet break down to allow release after they are swallowed. In all of these methods, the assumption is the degree of bitterness suppression depends on the concentration of bitterant in the saliva and hence the proportion that is bound. Surprisingly, this hypothesis has only rarely been fully tested using a combination of adequate human sensory trials and measurements of binding. This is especially true in pharmaceutical systems, perhaps due to the greater experimental challenges in sensory analysis of drugs. PMID:25205460

  9. Using genotyping-by-sequencing to identify SNPs linked to the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance trait in bottle gourd and development of CAPS markers useful for marker assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria L.] is an important root stock for watermelon as well as a nutritious vegetable. Previously, we identified several sources of resistance in bottle gourd to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Breeding populations were generated from two resistant lines (USVL1VR-Ls ...

  10. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus)

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Weiwei; Ravoninjohary, Aurore; Li, Xia; Margolskee, Robert F.; Reed, Danielle R.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Jiang, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor) genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus) should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in understanding the forces

  11. Functional Analyses of Bitter Taste Receptors in Domestic Cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Ravoninjohary, Aurore; Li, Xia; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K; Jiang, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Cats are obligate carnivores and under most circumstances eat only animal products. Owing to the pseudogenization of one of two subunits of the sweet receptor gene, they are indifferent to sweeteners, presumably having no need to detect plant-based sugars in their diet. Following this reasoning and a recent report of a positive correlation between the proportion of dietary plants and the number of Tas2r (bitter receptor) genes in vertebrate species, we tested the hypothesis that if bitter perception exists primarily to protect animals from poisonous plant compounds, the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus) should have lost functional bitter receptors and they should also have reduced bitter receptor function. To test functionality of cat bitter receptors, we expressed cat Tas2R receptors in cell-based assays. We found that they have at least 7 functional receptors with distinct receptive ranges, showing many similarities, along with some differences, with human bitter receptors. To provide a comparative perspective, we compared the cat repertoire of intact receptors with those of a restricted number of members of the order Carnivora, with a range of dietary habits as reported in the literature. The numbers of functional bitter receptors in the terrestrial Carnivora we examined, including omnivorous and herbivorous species, were roughly comparable to that of cats thereby providing no strong support for the hypothesis that a strict meat diet influences bitter receptor number or function. Maintenance of bitter receptor function in terrestrial obligate carnivores may be due to the presence of bitter compounds in vertebrate and invertebrate prey, to the necessary role these receptors play in non-oral perception, or to other unknown factors. We also found that the two aquatic Carnivora species examined had fewer intact bitter receptors. Further comparative studies of factors driving numbers and functions of bitter taste receptors will aid in understanding the forces

  12. Bitter taste receptor T2R1 activities were compatible with behavioral sensitivity to bitterness in chickens.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Nozomi; Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2015-05-01

    Clarification of the mechanism of the sense of taste in chickens will provide information useful for creating and improving new feedstuffs for chickens, because the character of the taste receptors in oral tissues affects feeding behavior in animals. In this study, we focused on the sensitivity to bitterness in chickens. We cloned one of the bitter taste receptors, T2R1, from the chicken palate, constructed several biosensor-cells expressing chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), and determined a highly sensitive biosensor of cT2R1 among them. By using Ca(2+) imaging methods, we identified two agonists of cT2R1, dextromethorphan (Dex) and diphenidol (Dip). Dex was a new agonist of cT2R1 that was more potent than Dip. In a behavioral drinking study, the intake volumes of solutions of these compounds were significantly lower than that of water in chickens. These aversive concentrations were identical to the concentrations that could activate cT2R1 in a cell-based assay. These results suggest that the cT2R1 activities induced by these agonists are linked to behavioral sensitivity to bitterness in chickens.

  13. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies. PMID:27458467

  14. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies. PMID:27458467

  15. Factors affecting the bitterness intensities of ten commercial formulations of ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Takahiro; Sugino, Yuka; Hazekawa, Mai; Yoshida, Miyako; Haraguchi, Tamami

    2012-01-01

    The bitterness of 10 different products with ambroxol as active ingredient, the original and nine generics, were evaluated by human gustatory sensation tests in which the tablets were kept in the mouth, with water, at 20 and 37°C. The products all showed different bitterness intensities. The original and some of the generic products had comparatively low bitterness intensities but some of the generic products had comparatively high bitterness intensities. The bitterness intensities of these 10 was found to be significantly correlated with both the disintegration time, as evaluated using the ODT-101 (a recently developed apparatus), and the drug concentration in dissolved medium, as measured in a conventional dissolution test. The bitterness threshold of ambroxol solution was found to increase when the temperature of the water with which the tablets were taken, was raised from 20 to 37°C. The equation was calculated to predict the bitterness intensity of ambroxol, a function based on temperature and the ambroxol concentration using data from a standard ambroxol solution at 4, 20 and 37°C. The bitterness intensities obtained for the 10 ambroxol formulations with water at 20 and 37°C, coincided with the bitterness values predicted by the equation.

  16. Factors affecting the bitterness intensities of ten commercial formulations of ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Takahiro; Sugino, Yuka; Hazekawa, Mai; Yoshida, Miyako; Haraguchi, Tamami

    2012-01-01

    The bitterness of 10 different products with ambroxol as active ingredient, the original and nine generics, were evaluated by human gustatory sensation tests in which the tablets were kept in the mouth, with water, at 20 and 37°C. The products all showed different bitterness intensities. The original and some of the generic products had comparatively low bitterness intensities but some of the generic products had comparatively high bitterness intensities. The bitterness intensities of these 10 was found to be significantly correlated with both the disintegration time, as evaluated using the ODT-101 (a recently developed apparatus), and the drug concentration in dissolved medium, as measured in a conventional dissolution test. The bitterness threshold of ambroxol solution was found to increase when the temperature of the water with which the tablets were taken, was raised from 20 to 37°C. The equation was calculated to predict the bitterness intensity of ambroxol, a function based on temperature and the ambroxol concentration using data from a standard ambroxol solution at 4, 20 and 37°C. The bitterness intensities obtained for the 10 ambroxol formulations with water at 20 and 37°C, coincided with the bitterness values predicted by the equation. PMID:22863696

  17. Bitterness prediction of H1-antihistamines and prediction of masking effects of artificial sweeteners using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masanori; Ikehama, Kiyoharu; Yoshida, Koichi; Haraguchi, Tamami; Yoshida, Miyako; Wada, Koichi; Uchida, Takahiro

    2013-01-30

    The study objective was to quantitatively predict a drug's bitterness and estimate bitterness masking efficiency using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). To verify the predicted bitterness by e-Tongue, actual bitterness scores were determined by human sensory testing. In the first study, bitterness intensities of eight H(1)-antihistamines were assessed by comparing the Euclidean distances between the drug and water. The distances seemed not to represent the drug's bitterness, but to be greatly affected by acidic taste. Two sensors were ultimately selected as best suited to bitterness evaluation, and the data obtained from the two sensors depicted the actual taste map of the eight drugs. A bitterness prediction model was established with actual bitterness scores from human sensory testing. Concerning basic bitter substances, such as H(1)-antihistamines, the predictability of bitterness intensity using e-Tongue was considered to be sufficiently promising. In another study, the bitterness masking efficiency when adding an artificial sweetener was estimated using e-Tongue. Epinastine hydrochloride aqueous solutions containing different levels of acesulfame potassium and aspartame were well discriminated by e-Tongue. The bitterness masking efficiency of epinastine hydrochloride with acesulfame potassium was successfully predicted using e-Tongue by several prediction models employed in the study.

  18. Optimization of oil extraction from giant bushel gourd seeds using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Yetunde Yemisi; Akinoso, Rahman; Raji, Akeem Olayemi

    2016-09-01

    Gourd seeds have been identified as a source of edible oil, but there is sparse literature on the effect of processing factors on the characteristics of oil extracted from any Lagenaria spp. Optimization of oil extraction with the aid of expeller was achieved by applying response surface methodology. The variables were roasting temperature (87.70-172.0°C) and roasting duration (7.93-22.07 min), while the responses were oil yield and oil quality (free fatty acid, color, specific gravity, saponification value, moisture, and refractive index). Data obtained were analyzed at P < 0.05. Roasting conditions significantly influenced all the responses at P < 0.05. The optimum roasting condition was 100°C for 20 min, which gave 27.62% oil yield with good quality attributes (free fatty acid: 0.61%, color: 3.47 abs, specific gravity: 0.90 g/mL, saponification value: 289.66 mL, and refractive index: 1.47).

  19. Optimization of oil extraction from giant bushel gourd seeds using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Yetunde Yemisi; Akinoso, Rahman; Raji, Akeem Olayemi

    2016-09-01

    Gourd seeds have been identified as a source of edible oil, but there is sparse literature on the effect of processing factors on the characteristics of oil extracted from any Lagenaria spp. Optimization of oil extraction with the aid of expeller was achieved by applying response surface methodology. The variables were roasting temperature (87.70-172.0°C) and roasting duration (7.93-22.07 min), while the responses were oil yield and oil quality (free fatty acid, color, specific gravity, saponification value, moisture, and refractive index). Data obtained were analyzed at P < 0.05. Roasting conditions significantly influenced all the responses at P < 0.05. The optimum roasting condition was 100°C for 20 min, which gave 27.62% oil yield with good quality attributes (free fatty acid: 0.61%, color: 3.47 abs, specific gravity: 0.90 g/mL, saponification value: 289.66 mL, and refractive index: 1.47). PMID:27625780

  20. The effect of sweeteners on bitter taste in young and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Gatlin, L A; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Heiman, S A; Stagner, W C; Erickson, R P

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of reduction in perceived bitterness by sweeteners at both threshold and suprathreshold concentrations of bitter compounds. Detection and recognition thresholds were determined for six bitter compounds (caffeine, denatonium benzoate, magnesium chloride, quinine hydrochloride, sucrose octaacetate, and urea) in the absence and presence of several suprathreshold concentrations of five sweeteners. The sweeteners were: sucrose, aspartame, sodium saccharin, mannitol, and sorbitol. Polycose was also tested along with the sweeteners. The degree to which bitter thresholds were affected by the addition of sweeteners was dependent on the chemical classification of the sweeteners and their concentrations. In general, the natural sweeteners, sucrose, mannitol, and sorbitol, were more effective than the noncaloric sweeteners, aspartame and sodium saccharin, in elevating the detection and recognition thresholds of the bitter compounds. A sweetness intensity approximating that of 6% sucrose (0.175 M sucrose) or greater was required to elevate thresholds. For elderly subjects, sweeteners did not significantly elevate thresholds for denatonium benzoate and sucrose octaacetate. The degree to which sorbitol and sucrose can decrease the perceived bitterness intensity of suprathreshold concentrations of the six bitter compounds was also determined. The concentrations of sweeteners and bitter compounds were selected to be of moderate to high subjective intensity. The levels of sweeteners used in the mixtures were: sucrose (none, 0.946 M, and 2.13 M) and sorbitol (none, 2.1 M, and 3.68 M). Both sweeteners significantly reduced the bitterness ratings of almost every concentration of the six bitter compounds. The greatest reductions in bitterness were 87.0% for 0.192 microM denatonium benzoate mixed with 2.13 M sucrose and 84.7% for 1.8 M urea mixed with 3.68 M sorbitol.

  1. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25911043

  2. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25911043

  3. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases.

  4. Detailed Analysis of a Bitter-Type Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Miura, Shigeto; Hoshi, Akira; Nakajima, Kikuo; Takano, Hirohisa

    1983-06-01

    A high-power water-cooled magnet with a Bitter-type coil has been designed, constructed and tested. The current density, the temperature rise and the electromagnetic stress have been calculated with the finite element method. The results of calculation are consistent with the experimental test. The local electromagnetic stress exceeds the yield stress of usual conductors if the coil is used for hybrid magnet which produces fields of more than 20 T with a back-up field of a superconducting coil.

  5. Bitter avoidance in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and mice (Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Field, Kristin L; Beauchamp, Gary K; Kimball, Bruce A; Mennella, Julie A; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2010-11-01

    Rejection of bitter substances is common in many species and may function to protect an animal from ingestion of bitter-tasting toxins. Since many plants are bitter, it has been proposed that high tolerance for bitterness would be adaptive for herbivores. Earlier studies conducted on herbivorous guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used to support this proposal. We tested guinea pigs with bitter plant secondary metabolites (salicin, caffeine, quinine hydrochloride) and bitter protein hydrolysates (two types of hydrolyzed casein, hydrolyzed soy) in a series of two-choice preference tests. For comparison, we tested two nonherbivorous mouse species (Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus). Guinea pigs did show weaker avoidance of quinine hydrochloride than did the mice, confirming predictions generated from earlier work. However, guinea pigs had similar responses to caffeine as did Peromyscus. Both of these species showed weaker avoidance responses than Mus to 10 mM caffeine. For salicin, guinea pigs were the only species to avoid it at 10 mM and their preference scores at this concentration were significantly lower than for the two mice species. Guinea pigs avoided all of the protein hydrolysates more strongly than the other species. Responses to the protein hydrolysates did not reflect the patterns observed with the simple bitter compounds, suggesting that other properties of these complex stimuli may be responsible for guinea pig avoidance of them. Our results suggest caution in accepting, without further empirical support, the premise that guinea pigs (and herbivores in general) have a generalized reduced bitter sensitivity. PMID:21090891

  6. Bitter avoidance in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and mice (Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Field, Kristin L; Beauchamp, Gary K; Kimball, Bruce A; Mennella, Julie A; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2010-11-01

    Rejection of bitter substances is common in many species and may function to protect an animal from ingestion of bitter-tasting toxins. Since many plants are bitter, it has been proposed that high tolerance for bitterness would be adaptive for herbivores. Earlier studies conducted on herbivorous guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used to support this proposal. We tested guinea pigs with bitter plant secondary metabolites (salicin, caffeine, quinine hydrochloride) and bitter protein hydrolysates (two types of hydrolyzed casein, hydrolyzed soy) in a series of two-choice preference tests. For comparison, we tested two nonherbivorous mouse species (Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus). Guinea pigs did show weaker avoidance of quinine hydrochloride than did the mice, confirming predictions generated from earlier work. However, guinea pigs had similar responses to caffeine as did Peromyscus. Both of these species showed weaker avoidance responses than Mus to 10 mM caffeine. For salicin, guinea pigs were the only species to avoid it at 10 mM and their preference scores at this concentration were significantly lower than for the two mice species. Guinea pigs avoided all of the protein hydrolysates more strongly than the other species. Responses to the protein hydrolysates did not reflect the patterns observed with the simple bitter compounds, suggesting that other properties of these complex stimuli may be responsible for guinea pig avoidance of them. Our results suggest caution in accepting, without further empirical support, the premise that guinea pigs (and herbivores in general) have a generalized reduced bitter sensitivity.

  7. Effects of Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) and diosgenin on blood and fecal cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    McKoy, Marsha-Lyn; Thomas, Peta-Gaye; Asemota, Helen; Omoruyi, Felix; Simon, Oswald

    2014-11-01

    A sapogenin-rich preparation from Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic rats and mice. Also, diosgenin supplementation has been reported to have antilipemic effects in several animal species. We investigated potential mechanisms of the lipid-lowering actions of bitter yam and also whether the actions were mediated by diosgenin. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (4% cholesterol) alone or with 5% bitter yam or 1% diosgenin supplementation for 6 weeks. The control group was fed normal rat chow. The serum lipid profile, fecal cholesterol concentration, and serum lipase activity were assessed at the end of the period. The induction of hypercholesterolemia was inhibited by coadministration of 5% bitter yam or 1% diosgenin in the diet. Serum lipid profiles were similar in rats fed bitter yam or diosgenin. The fecal cholesterol concentration was significantly (P < .01) higher in rats fed diosgenin compared to the cholesterol group. However, there was no corresponding elevation in the group fed bitter yam. Administration of bitter yam or diosgenin supplement significantly increased (P < .01) the serum lipase activity compared to the normal control and cholesterol groups. The cholesterol-supplemented diet inhibited normal gain in body weight over the period. This action was potentiated by diosgenin. The effects of the respective supplements on body weight were not completely explained by food consumption. Supplementation of the diet with Jamaican bitter yam may be therapeutically beneficial in the management of hypercholesterolemia.

  8. Acid sensing by sweet and bitter taste neurons in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Charlu, Sandhya; Wisotsky, Zev; Medina, Adriana; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster can taste various compounds and separate them into few basic categories such as sweet, bitter and salt taste. Here we investigate mechanisms underlying acid detection in Drosophila and report that the fly displays strong taste aversion to common carboxylic acids. We find that acid tastants act by the activation of a subset of bitter neurons and inhibition of sweet neurons. Bitter neurons begin to respond at pH 5 and show an increase in spike frequency as the extracellular pH drops, which does not rely on previously identified chemoreceptors. Notably, sweet neuron activity depends on the balance of sugar and acid tastant concentrations. This is independent of bitter neuron firing, and allows the fly to avoid acid-laced food sources even in the absence of functional bitter neurons. The two mechanisms may allow the fly to better evaluate the risk of ingesting acidic foods and modulate its feeding decisions accordingly. PMID:23783889

  9. Application of isothermal titration calorimeter for screening bitterness-suppressing molecules of quinine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifan; Zhu, Youwei; Zhao, Na; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Bitterness-suppressing molecules have drawn ever-increasing attention these years for some unique advantages like low molecular weight, tastelessness and no interference on drug bioavailability. L-Arg was reported to suppress the bitterness of quinine, and we happened to find that the suppressing effects could be demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC). In this study, we investigated the possibility of using ITC to screen bitterness-suppressing molecules for quinine. Among the amino acids we screened, L-Lys bond quinine with high affinity. The results of ITC correlated well with the results of human sensory experiments. L-Arg and L-Lys could suppress the bitterness of quinine while other amino acids could not. Therefore, ITC has the potential to screen bitterness-suppressing molecules.

  10. Central relay of bitter taste to the protocerebrum by peptidergic interneurons in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Peters, Marc; Pankratz, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Bitter is a taste modality associated with toxic substances evoking aversive behaviour in most animals, and the valence of different taste modalities is conserved between mammals and Drosophila. Despite knowledge gathered in the past on the peripheral perception of taste, little is known about the identity of taste interneurons in the brain. Here we show that hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons in the Drosophila larval brain are necessary for avoidance behaviour to caffeine, and when activated, result in cessation of feeding and mediates a bitter taste signal within the brain. Hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons project to the neurosecretory region of the protocerebrum and functional imaging demonstrates that these neurons are activated by bitter stimuli and by activation of bitter sensory receptor neurons. We propose that hugin neurons projecting to the protocerebrum act as gustatory interneurons relaying bitter taste information to higher brain centres in Drosophila larvae. PMID:27619503

  11. Central relay of bitter taste to the protocerebrum by peptidergic interneurons in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Peters, Marc; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Bitter is a taste modality associated with toxic substances evoking aversive behaviour in most animals, and the valence of different taste modalities is conserved between mammals and Drosophila. Despite knowledge gathered in the past on the peripheral perception of taste, little is known about the identity of taste interneurons in the brain. Here we show that hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons in the Drosophila larval brain are necessary for avoidance behaviour to caffeine, and when activated, result in cessation of feeding and mediates a bitter taste signal within the brain. Hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons project to the neurosecretory region of the protocerebrum and functional imaging demonstrates that these neurons are activated by bitter stimuli and by activation of bitter sensory receptor neurons. We propose that hugin neurons projecting to the protocerebrum act as gustatory interneurons relaying bitter taste information to higher brain centres in Drosophila larvae. PMID:27619503

  12. Physico-chemical evaluation of bitter and non-bitter Aloe and their raw juice for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Azam, M M; Kumar, S; Pancholy, A; Patidar, M

    2014-11-01

    In addition to Aloe vera which is bitter in taste, a non-bitter Aloe is also found in arid part of Rajasthan. This non-bitter Aloe (NBA) is sporadically cultivated as vegetable and for health drink. In spite of its cultivation and various uses, very little information is available about its detailed botanical parameters and chemical characters. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical characters of NBA through employing floral morphology, leaf characters and leaf gel and to compare them with those of A. vera. Of eleven floral characters studied, eight characters of NBA were significantly different from that of A. vera. Most visible difference was observed in their reproductive shoots which are highly branched in NBA (5.21 inflorescence/shoot) as compared to A. vera (1.5 inflorescence/shoot). NBA produces less leaf-biomass (-29.32 %) with less leaf-thickness (-31.44 %) but higher leaf length, width, and no. of spine/side by 17.56 %, 21.34 % and 16.11 %, respectively, with significant difference as compared to A. vera. But its polysaccharide content (0.259 %) is at par with that of A. vera. The raw juice from the leaf of NBA has very low aloin content (4.1 ppm) compared to that from A. vera (427.3 ppm) making it a safer health drink compared to the one obtained from A. vera. Thus, NBA raw juice emerged as suitable alternative to A. vera juice for human consumption.

  13. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  14. Genetic variation in bitter taste receptor genes influences the foraging behavior of plateau zokor (Eospalax baileyi).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Tongzuo; Xie, Jiuxiang; Zhang, Shoudong; Nevo, Eviatar; Su, Jianping; Lin, Gonghua

    2016-04-01

    The ability to detect bitter tastes is important for animals; it can help them to avoid ingesting harmful substances. Bitter taste perception is mainly mediated by bitter taste receptor proteins, which are encoded by members of the Tas2r gene family and vary with the dietary preference of a specific species. Although individuals with different genotypes differ in bitterness recognition capability, little is known about the relationship between genetic variation and food selection tendencies at the intraspecific level. In this study, we examined the relationship between genotypes and diet in plateau zokor (Eospalax baileyi), a subterranean rodent endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau that caches food for the winter. We assayed the composition and taste profile of each plant contained in temporary caches and vicinity quadrats, which were representative of selected and available food, respectively. Bitter plant selection indices (E bitter) were estimated. We also sequenced 26 candidate Tas2r genes from zokors and determined their relationships with the E bitter of their caches. We identified four key results: (1) zokors varied considerably in both bitter food preference and Tas2r sequences; (2) five genes (zTas2r115,zTas2r119,zTas2r126,zTas2r134, and zTas2r136) exhibited allelic variation that was significantly associated with E bitter; (3) synonymous SNPs, nonsynonymous SNPs, and pseudogenization are involved in the genotype-phenotype relationship; (4) the minor genotypes of zTas2r115,zTas2r134, and zTas2r136 and the major genotypes of zTas2r119 and zTas2r126 cached more bitter plants. Our results link Tas2r variation with food selection behavior at the population level for the first time. PMID:27110349

  15. Bitter Fruits of Arranged Marriage: A Case Study of North Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhmadeeva, L.; Kusch, J.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the world people face confusion in their thinking about love, sex and marriage. Since the problem is universal, it is useful to examine its scope in a limited or local sense. This paper examines a story of one person in the hope of shedding light on a problem that exists for all. The method we use is to record a narrative told by one…

  16. Trypsin inhibitors from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds: purification, properties, and amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Haldar, U C; Saha, S K; Beavis, R C; Sinha, N K

    1996-02-01

    Two trypsin inhibitors, LA-1 and LA-2, have been isolated from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The isoelectric point is at pH 4.55 for LA-1 and at pH 5.85 for LA-2. The Stokes radius of each inhibitor is 11.4 A. The fluorescence emission spectrum of each inhibitor is similar to that of the free tyrosine. The biomolecular rate constant of acrylamide quenching is 1.0 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 0.8 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2 and that of K2HPO4 quenching is 1.6 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 1.2 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2. Analysis of the circular dichroic spectra yields 40% alpha-helix and 60% beta-turn for La-1 and 45% alpha-helix and 55% beta-turn for LA-2. Inhibitors LA-1 and LA-2 consist of 28 and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. They lack threonine, alanine, valine, and tryptophan. Both inhibitors strongly inhibit trypsin by forming enzyme-inhibitor complexes at a molar ratio of unity. A chemical modification study suggests the involvement of arginine of LA-1 and lysine of LA-2 in their reactive sites. The inhibitors are very similar in their amino acid sequences, and show sequence homology with other squash family inhibitors. PMID:8924202

  17. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  18. The Bad Taste of Medicines: Overview of Basic Research on Bitter Taste

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Spector, Alan C.; Reed, Danielle R.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many active pharmaceutical ingredients taste bitter and thus are aversive to children, as well as many adults. Encapsulation of the medicine in pill or tablet form, an effective method for adults to avoid the unpleasant taste, is problematic for children. Many children cannot or will not swallow solid dosage forms. Objective This review highlights basic principles of gustatory function, with a special focus on the science of bitter taste, derived from studies of animal models and human psychophysics. We focus on the set of genes that encode the proteins that function as bitter receptors, as well as the cascade of events that lead to multidimensional aspects of taste function, highlighting the role that animal models played in these discoveries. We also summarize psychophysical approaches to studying bitter taste in adult and pediatric populations, highlighting evidence of the similarities and differences in bitter taste perception and acceptance between adults and children and drawing on useful strategies from animal models. Results Medicine often tastes bitter, and because children are more bitter sensitive than are adults, this creates problems with compliance. Bitter arises from stimulating receptors in taste receptor cells, with signals processed in the taste bud and relayed to the brain. However, there are many gaps in our understanding of how best to measure bitterness and how to ameliorate it, including whether it is more efficiently addressed at the level of receptor and sensory signaling, at the level of central processing, or by masking techniques. All methods of measuring responsiveness to bitter ligands—in animal models, through human psychophysics, or with “electronic tongues”—have limitations. Conclusions Better-tasting medications may enhance pediatric adherence to drug therapy. Sugars, acids, salt, and other substances reduce perceived bitterness of several pharmaceuticals, and although pleasant flavorings may help children

  19. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter.

    PubMed

    Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Sethiya, Neeraj Kumar; Mishra, S H

    2010-07-01

    Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f.) (Nymphaeaceae) is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata.

  20. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter.

    PubMed

    Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Sethiya, Neeraj Kumar; Mishra, S H

    2010-07-01

    Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f.) (Nymphaeaceae) is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata. PMID:22247863

  1. A comprehensive review on Nymphaea stellata: A traditionally used bitter

    PubMed Central

    Raja, M. K. Mohan Maruga; Sethiya, Neeraj Kumar; Mishra, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Syn. Nymphaea nouchali Burman f.) (Nymphaeaceae) is an important and well-known medicinal plant, widely used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicines for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, blenorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, and as a bitter tonic. There seems to be an agreement between the traditional use and experimental observations, such as, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and particularly antidiabetic activity. Nymphayol, a steroid isolated from the flowers has been scientifically proved to be responsible for the traditionally claimed antidiabetic activity; it reverses the damaged endocrine tissue and stimulates secretion of insulin in the β-cells. However, taking into account the magnitude of its traditional uses, the studies conducted are still negligible. This review is an attempt to provide the pharmaceutical prospective of Nymphaea stellata. PMID:22247863

  2. Diverse tastes: Genetics of sweet and bitter perception

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; McDaniel, Amanda H.

    2006-01-01

    Humans will eat almost anything, from caribou livers to rutabagas, but there are some types of foods, and their associated taste qualities, that are preferred by large groups of people regardless of culture or experience. When many choices are available, humans chose foods that taste good, that is, create pleasing sensations in the mouth. The concept of good taste for most people encompasses both flavor and texture of food, and these sensations merge with taste proper to form the concept of goodness. Although we acknowledge the universality of the goodness (sweet) or badness (bitter) of basic taste qualities, we also find that people differ, sometimes extremely so, in their ability to perceive and enjoy these qualities and, by extension, food and drink. The reasons for these differences among people are not clear but are probably due to a combination of experience beginning at an early age, perhaps in utero; learning, for example, as with conditioned taste aversions; sex and maturity; and perceptual differences that arise from genetic variation. In this review, we focus on individual variations that arise from genetic differences and review two domains of science: recent developments in the molecular biology of taste transduction, with a focus on the genes involved and second, studies that examine biological relatives to determine the heritability of taste perception. Because the receptors for sweet, savory (umami), and bitter have recently been discovered, we summarize what is known about their function by reviewing the effect of naturally occurring and man-made alleles of these receptors, their shape and function based on receptor modeling techniques, and how they differ across animal species that vary in their ability to taste certain qualities. We discuss this literature in the context of how taste genes may differ among people and give rise to individuated taste experience, and what is currently known about the genetic effects on taste perception in humans

  3. Characterization of bitter taste responses of intestinal STC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Masuho, Ikuo; Tateyama, Michihiro; Saitoh, Osamu

    2005-05-01

    Cellular responses of STC-1 cells to two bitter tastants (denatonium and caffeine) were investigated using a calcium-imaging technique and compared with the response to bombesin. Caffeine is known to stimulate taste receptor cells, but the properties of its signaling have not been well studied. STC-1 cells responded to all three molecules in a dose-dependent manner, and when a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for denatonium receptor was performed, the product of predicted size was detected in STC-1 cells. Furthermore, all three signaling pathways were blocked by a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, demonstrating the essential involvement of PLC in cellular responses. To study the regulatory system of G protein signaling in STC-1 cells, we searched G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) by the degenerate-primer PCR method and found that GRK2 is expressed. We also demonstrated that three GRKs (GRK2, GRK3 and GRK5) are differentially distributed in the circumvallate papilla while only GRK2 is present in taste bud cells. Finally, we overexpressed GRK2 in SCT-1 cells and found that bombesin-induced response was strongly inhibited by GRK2 but denatonium-activated signaling was not affected. In the case of caffeine, response was decreased by expression of GRK2 only when cells were activated by 1 mM caffeine. Thus, we showed that STC-1 cells emerge as a cell model for studying the molecular mechanism of bitter taste signaling, and could indicate properties of caffeine-induced signaling in comparison with other signaling. PMID:15741596

  4. Receptor Polymorphism and Genomic Structure Interact to Shape Bitter Taste Perception

    PubMed Central

    Roudnitzky, Natacha; Behrens, Maik; Engel, Anika; Kohl, Susann; Thalmann, Sophie; Hübner, Sandra; Lossow, Kristina; Wooding, Stephen P.; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The ability to taste bitterness evolved to safeguard most animals, including humans, against potentially toxic substances, thereby leading to food rejection. Nonetheless, bitter perception is subject to individual variations due to the presence of genetic functional polymorphisms in bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) genes, such as the long-known association between genetic polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and bitter taste perception of phenylthiocarbamide. Yet, due to overlaps in specificities across receptors, such associations with a single TAS2R locus are uncommon. Therefore, to investigate more complex associations, we examined taste responses to six structurally diverse compounds (absinthin, amarogentin, cascarillin, grosheimin, quassin, and quinine) in a sample of the Caucasian population. By sequencing all bitter receptor loci, inferring long-range haplotypes, mapping their effects on phenotype variation, and characterizing functionally causal allelic variants, we deciphered at the molecular level how a subjects’ genotype for the whole-family of TAS2R genes shapes variation in bitter taste perception. Within each haplotype block implicated in phenotypic variation, we provided evidence for at least one locus harboring functional polymorphic alleles, e.g. one locus for sensitivity to amarogentin, one of the most bitter natural compounds known, and two loci for sensitivity to grosheimin, one of the bitter compounds of artichoke. Our analyses revealed also, besides simple associations, complex associations of bitterness sensitivity across TAS2R loci. Indeed, even if several putative loci harbored both high- and low-sensitivity alleles, phenotypic variation depended on linkage between these alleles. When sensitive alleles for bitter compounds were maintained in the same linkage phase, genetically driven perceptual differences were obvious, e.g. for grosheimin. On the contrary, when sensitive alleles were in opposite phase, only weak genotype-phenotype associations were

  5. Bitter tastant responses in the amoeba Dictyostelium correlate with rat and human taste assays.

    PubMed

    Cocorocchio, Marco; Ives, Robert; Clapham, David; Andrews, Paul L R; Williams, Robin S B

    2016-01-01

    Treatment compliance is reduced when pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste and this is particularly marked for paediatric medications. Identification of bitter taste liability during drug discovery utilises the rat in vivo brief access taste aversion (BATA) test which apart from animal use is time consuming with limited throughput. We investigated the suitability of using a simple, non-animal model, the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to investigate taste-related responses and particularly identification of compounds with a bitter taste liability. The effect of taste-related compounds on Dictyostelium behaviour following acute exposure (15 minutes) was monitored. Dictyostelium did not respond to salty, sour, umami or sweet tasting compounds, however, cells rapidly responded to bitter tastants. Using time-lapse photography and computer-generated quantification to monitor changes in cell membrane movement, we developed an assay to assess the response of Dictyostelium to a wide range of structurally diverse known bitter compounds and blinded compounds. Dictyostelium showed varying responses to the bitter tastants, with IC50 values providing a rank order of potency. Comparison of Dictyostelium IC50 values to those observed in response to a similar range of compounds in the rat in vivo brief access taste aversion test showed a significant (p = 0.0172) positive correlation between the two models, and additionally a similar response to that provided by a human sensory panel assessment test. These experiments demonstrate that Dictyostelium may provide a suitable model for early prediction of bitterness for novel tastants and drugs. Interestingly, a response to bitter tastants appears conserved from single-celled amoebae to humans. PMID:26708104

  6. Bitter avoidance in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) and Mice (Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus)

    PubMed Central

    Field, Kristin L.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Mennella, Julie A.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    Rejection of bitter substances is common in many species and may function to protect an animal from ingestion of bitter-tasting toxins. Since many plants are bitter, it has been proposed that high tolerance for bitterness would be adaptive for herbivores. Earlier studies conducted on herbivorous guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used to support this proposal. We tested guinea pigs with bitter plant secondary metabolites (salicin, caffeine, quinine hydrochloride) and bitter protein hydrolysates (two types of hydrolyzed casein, hydrolyzed soy) in a series of two-choice preference tests. For comparison, we tested two non-herbivorous mouse species (Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus). Guinea pigs did show weaker avoidance of QHCl than did the mice, confirming predictions generated from earlier work. However, guinea pigs had similar responses to caffeine as did Peromyscus. Both of these species showed weaker avoidance responses than Mus to 10 mM caffeine. For salicin, guinea pigs were the only species to avoid it at 10 mM and their preference scores at this concentration were significantly lower than for the two mice species. Guinea pigs avoided all of the protein hydrolysates more strongly than the other species. Responses to the protein hydrolysates did not reflect the patterns observed with the simple bitter compounds, suggesting that other properties of these complex stimuli may be responsible for guinea pig avoidance of them. Our results suggest caution in accepting, without further empirical support, the premise that guinea pigs (and herbivores in general) have a generalized reduced bitter sensitivity. PMID:21090891

  7. Bitter tastant responses in the amoeba Dictyostelium correlate with rat and human taste assays.

    PubMed

    Cocorocchio, Marco; Ives, Robert; Clapham, David; Andrews, Paul L R; Williams, Robin S B

    2016-01-01

    Treatment compliance is reduced when pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste and this is particularly marked for paediatric medications. Identification of bitter taste liability during drug discovery utilises the rat in vivo brief access taste aversion (BATA) test which apart from animal use is time consuming with limited throughput. We investigated the suitability of using a simple, non-animal model, the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to investigate taste-related responses and particularly identification of compounds with a bitter taste liability. The effect of taste-related compounds on Dictyostelium behaviour following acute exposure (15 minutes) was monitored. Dictyostelium did not respond to salty, sour, umami or sweet tasting compounds, however, cells rapidly responded to bitter tastants. Using time-lapse photography and computer-generated quantification to monitor changes in cell membrane movement, we developed an assay to assess the response of Dictyostelium to a wide range of structurally diverse known bitter compounds and blinded compounds. Dictyostelium showed varying responses to the bitter tastants, with IC50 values providing a rank order of potency. Comparison of Dictyostelium IC50 values to those observed in response to a similar range of compounds in the rat in vivo brief access taste aversion test showed a significant (p = 0.0172) positive correlation between the two models, and additionally a similar response to that provided by a human sensory panel assessment test. These experiments demonstrate that Dictyostelium may provide a suitable model for early prediction of bitterness for novel tastants and drugs. Interestingly, a response to bitter tastants appears conserved from single-celled amoebae to humans.

  8. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    PubMed

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors.

  9. Evolution of Functionally Diverse Alleles Associated with PTC Bitter Taste Sensitivity in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael C.; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril; Omar, Sabah; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Nyambo, Thomas; Lema, Godfrey; Zinshteyn, Daniel; Drayna, Dennis; Breslin, Paul A. S.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Although human bitter taste perception is hypothesized to be a dietary adaptation, little is known about genetic signatures of selection and patterns of bitter taste perception variability in ethnically diverse populations with different diets, particularly from Africa. To better understand the genetic basis and evolutionary history of bitter taste sensitivity, we sequenced a 2,975 bp region encompassing TAS2R38, a bitter taste receptor gene, in 611 Africans from 57 populations in West Central and East Africa with diverse subsistence patterns, as well as in a comparative sample of 132 non-Africans. We also examined the association between genetic variability at this locus and threshold levels of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) bitterness in 463 Africans from the above populations to determine how variation influences bitter taste perception. Here, we report striking patterns of variation at TAS2R38, including a significant excess of novel rare nonsynonymous polymorphisms that recently arose only in Africa, high frequencies of haplotypes in Africa associated with intermediate bitter taste sensitivity, a remarkably similar frequency of common haplotypes across genetically and culturally distinct Africans, and an ancient coalescence time of common variation in global populations. Additionally, several of the rare nonsynonymous substitutions significantly modified levels of PTC bitter taste sensitivity in diverse Africans. While ancient balancing selection likely maintained common haplotype variation across global populations, we suggest that recent selection pressures may have also resulted in the unusually high level of rare nonsynonymous variants in Africa, implying a complex model of selection at the TAS2R38 locus in African populations. Furthermore, the distribution of common haplotypes in Africa is not correlated with diet, raising the possibility that common variation may be under selection due to their role in nondietary biological processes. In addition, our data

  10. Covariation in individuals' sensitivities to bitter compounds: evidence supporting multiple receptor/transduction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Delwiche, J F; Buletic, Z; Breslin, P A

    2001-07-01

    People vary widely in their sensitivities to bitter compounds, but the intercorrelation of these sensitivities is unknown. Our goal was to investigate correlations as a function of individual sensitivities to several bitter compounds representative of different chemical classes and, from these correlations, infer the number and variety of potential bitterness transduction systems for these compounds. Twenty-six subjects rated and ranked quinine HCl, caffeine, (-)-epicatechin, tetralone, L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, magnesium sulfate, urea, sucrose octaacetate (SOA), denatonium benzoate, and n-propylthiouracil (PROP) for bitterness. By examining individual differences, ratings and rankings could be grouped into two general clusters--urea/phenylalanine/tryptophan/epicatechin, and quinine/caffeine/SOA/denatonium benzoate/tetralone/magnesium sulfate-none of which contained PROP. When subjects were grouped into the extremes of sensitivity to PROP, a significant difference was found in the bitterness ratings, but not in the rankings. Therefore, there are also subjects who possess diminished absolute sensitivity to bitter stimuli but do not differ from other subjects in their relative sensitivities to these compounds. PMID:11521845

  11. 6-Methoxyflavanones as Bitter Taste Receptor Blockers for hTAS2R39

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Wibke S. U.; Gouka, Robin J.; Gruppen, Harry; Driesse, Marianne; van Buren, Leo; Smit, Gerrit; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many (dietary) bitter compounds, e.g. flavonoids, activate bitter receptor hTAS2R39 in cell-based assays. Several flavonoids, amongst which some flavanones, are known not to activate this receptor. As certain flavanones are known to mask bitter taste sensorially, flavanones might act as bitter receptor antagonists. Fourteen flavanones were investigated for their potential to reduce activation of hTAS2R39 by epicatechin gallate (ECG), one of the main bitter compounds occurring in green tea. Three flavanones showed inhibitory behavior towards the activation of hTAS2R39 by ECG: 4′-fluoro-6-methoxyflavanone, 6,3′-dimethoxyflavanone, and 6-methoxyflavanone (in order of decreasing potency). The 6-methoxyflavanones also inhibited activation of hTAS2R14 (another bitter receptor activated by ECG), though to a lesser extent. Dose-response curves of ECG at various concentrations of the full antagonist 4′-fluoro-6-methoxyflavanone and wash-out experiments indicated reversible insurmountable antagonism. The same effect was observed for the structurally different agonist denatonium benzoate. PMID:24722342

  12. Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cell responses to bitter and trigeminal stimulants in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Clapp, Tod R; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by epithelial solitary chemoreceptor (chemosensory) cells (SCCs), but the exact role of these cells in chemoreception is unclear (Finger et al. 2003). Histological evidence suggests that SCCs express elements of the bitter taste transduction pathway including T2R (bitter taste) receptors, the G protein α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and TRPM5, leading to speculation that SCCs are the receptor cells that mediate trigeminal nerve responses to bitter taste receptor ligands. To test this hypothesis, we used calcium imaging to determine whether SCCs respond to classic bitter-tasting or trigeminal stimulants. SCCs from the anterior nasal cavity were isolated from transgenic mice in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was driven by either TRPM5 or gustducin. Isolated cells were exposed to a variety of test stimuli to determine which substances caused an increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). GFP positive cells respond with increased [Ca2+]i to the bitter receptor ligand denatonium, and this response is blocked by the PLC inhibitor U73122. In addition GFP+ cells respond to the PLC activator 3M3FBS, the neuromodulators ATP and ACh, but only very rarely to other bitter-tasting or trigeminal stimuli. Our results demonstrate that TRPM5- and gustducin-expressing nasal SCCs respond to the T2R agonist, denatonium via a PLC-coupled transduction cascade typical of T2Rs in the taste system. PMID:18417634

  13. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes.

  14. Age modifies the genotype-phenotype relationship for the bitter receptor TAS2R38

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TAS2R38 haplotypes and age on human bitter taste perception. Results Children (3 to 10 yrs), adolescents (11 to 19 yrs) and adults (mostly mothers, 20 to 55 yrs (N = 980) were measured for bitter taste thresholds for 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and genotyped for three polymorphisms of the AS2R38 gene (A49P, V262A, I296V). Subjects were grouped by haplotype and age, as well as sex and race/ethnicity, and compared for PROP thresholds. Subjects with the same haplotype were similar in bitter threshold regardless of race/ethnicity (all ages) or sex (children and adolescents; all p-values > 0.05) but age was a modifier of the genotype-phenotype relationship. Specifically, AVI/PAV heterozygous children could perceive a bitter taste at lower PROP concentrations than could heterozygous adults, with the thresholds of heterozygous adolescents being intermediate (p < 0.001). Similar age effects were not observed for subjects with the PAV/PAV or AVI/AVI homozygous haplotypes (p > 0.05) perhaps because there is less variation in taste perception among these homozygotes. Conclusions These data imply that the change in PROP bitter sensitivity which occurs over the lifespan (from bitter sensitive to less so) is more common in people with a particular haplotype combination, i.e., AVI/PAV heterozygotes. PMID:20594349

  15. Quinine Bitterness and Grapefruit Liking Associate with Allelic Variants in TAS2R31.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Nolden, Alissa A; McGeary, John E

    2015-07-01

    Multiple psychophysical gene-association studies suggest a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the bitter receptor gene TAS2R19 on chromosome 12 may be functional. Previously, the Arg299Cys SNP (rs10772420) has been associated with differential bitterness of quinine and differential liking for grapefruit juice. However, quinine does not activate TAS2R19 in vitro; likewise, limonin and naringin, bitter compounds in grapefruit, do not activate TAS2R19 in vitro. Here, we examined quinine bitterness (whole-mouth swish-and-spit stimuli and regionally delivered quinine across 4 loci) and remembered liking for grapefruit juice to test whether they associate with SNPs in another nearby gene, TASR2R31. We observed SNP-phenotype associations between whole-mouth quinine bitterness and self-reported liking for grapefruit juice with SNPs in TAS2R31, and regional quinine bitterness followed a similar trend, but did not reach significance. Present data provide independent replication of prior associations reported for TAS2R19. However, we also observed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between TAS2R19 and TAS2R31 SNPs. When present data are considered in light of existing functional expression data, this suggests phenotypic associations reported previously for rs10772420 may potentially be due to LD between this SNP and polymorphism(s) in, or closer to, TAS2R31. If confirmed, this would reduce the number of TAS2Rs with putatively functional polymorphisms to 5.

  16. Quinine Bitterness and Grapefruit Liking Associate with Allelic Variants in TAS2R31

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Emma L.; Nolden, Alissa A.; McGeary, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple psychophysical gene-association studies suggest a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the bitter receptor gene TAS2R19 on chromosome 12 may be functional. Previously, the Arg299Cys SNP (rs10772420) has been associated with differential bitterness of quinine and differential liking for grapefruit juice. However, quinine does not activate TAS2R19 in vitro; likewise, limonin and naringin, bitter compounds in grapefruit, do not activate TAS2R19 in vitro. Here, we examined quinine bitterness (whole-mouth swish-and-spit stimuli and regionally delivered quinine across 4 loci) and remembered liking for grapefruit juice to test whether they associate with SNPs in another nearby gene, TASR2R31. We observed SNP–phenotype associations between whole-mouth quinine bitterness and self-reported liking for grapefruit juice with SNPs in TAS2R31, and regional quinine bitterness followed a similar trend, but did not reach significance. Present data provide independent replication of prior associations reported for TAS2R19. However, we also observed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between TAS2R19 and TAS2R31 SNPs. When present data are considered in light of existing functional expression data, this suggests phenotypic associations reported previously for rs10772420 may potentially be due to LD between this SNP and polymorphism(s) in, or closer to, TAS2R31. If confirmed, this would reduce the number of TAS2Rs with putatively functional polymorphisms to 5. PMID:26024668

  17. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  18. Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression.

    PubMed

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Blinova, Yulia; Legin, Evgeny; Seleznev, Boris; Clapham, David; Ives, Robert S; Saunders, Kenneth A; Legin, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic - azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples×sensors×pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model. PMID:23498685

  19. Quinine Bitterness and Grapefruit Liking Associate with Allelic Variants in TAS2R31.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Nolden, Alissa A; McGeary, John E

    2015-07-01

    Multiple psychophysical gene-association studies suggest a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the bitter receptor gene TAS2R19 on chromosome 12 may be functional. Previously, the Arg299Cys SNP (rs10772420) has been associated with differential bitterness of quinine and differential liking for grapefruit juice. However, quinine does not activate TAS2R19 in vitro; likewise, limonin and naringin, bitter compounds in grapefruit, do not activate TAS2R19 in vitro. Here, we examined quinine bitterness (whole-mouth swish-and-spit stimuli and regionally delivered quinine across 4 loci) and remembered liking for grapefruit juice to test whether they associate with SNPs in another nearby gene, TASR2R31. We observed SNP-phenotype associations between whole-mouth quinine bitterness and self-reported liking for grapefruit juice with SNPs in TAS2R31, and regional quinine bitterness followed a similar trend, but did not reach significance. Present data provide independent replication of prior associations reported for TAS2R19. However, we also observed strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between TAS2R19 and TAS2R31 SNPs. When present data are considered in light of existing functional expression data, this suggests phenotypic associations reported previously for rs10772420 may potentially be due to LD between this SNP and polymorphism(s) in, or closer to, TAS2R31. If confirmed, this would reduce the number of TAS2Rs with putatively functional polymorphisms to 5. PMID:26024668

  20. Quantitative evaluation of the bitterness of commercial medicines using a taste sensor.

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Miyanaga, Y; Tanaka, H; Wada, K; Kurosaki, S; Ohki, T; Yoshida, M; Matsuyama, K

    2000-11-01

    The bitterness of 11 commercial medicines was evaluated both by a multichannel taste sensor and in human gustatory sensation tests with 15 volunteers. For basic drugs with amino groups in the molecule, such as quinine, there was a comparatively strong relative response electric potential (mV) of channels 1 or 2, those containing negatively charged membranes and the bitterness determined by human gustatory sensation tests. The suppression of the bitterness of quinine by sucrose and aspartame could be quantified using the artificial taste sensor and the results concurred with those from gustatory sensation tests. The usefulness of the sensor was thus confirmed for this type of compound. Anionic drugs, such as diclofenac sodium or salicylic acid gave rise in a negative response electric potential in channels 5 or 6, those containing positively charged membrane, seemed to be useful information even though their tastes are being sour rather than bitter. For drugs with both an amino (cationic) group and carboxylic acid (anionic) group in the molecule, such as theophylline, caffeine, and metronidazole, the relative response electric potential (mV) of channels containing negatively charged membranes was not increased, even though bitterness was observed in human gustatory sensation tests. Therefore, a different design of membrane component is required for more general evaluation of the bitterness of various medicines.

  1. Perception of bitterness, sweetness and liking of different genotypes of lettuce.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, M; Gawthrop, F; Michelmore, R W; Wagstaff, C; Methven, L

    2016-04-15

    Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable, consumed across the world, containing bitter sesquiterpenoid lactone (SL) compounds that may negatively affect consumer acceptance and consumption. We assessed liking of samples with differing absolute abundance and different ratios of bitter:sweet compounds by analysing recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from an interspecific lettuce mapping population derived from a cross between a wild (L. serriola acc. UC96US23) and domesticated lettuce (L. sativa, cv. Salinas). We found that the ratio of bitter:sweet compounds was a key determinant of bitterness perception and liking. We were able to demonstrate that SLs, such as 8-deoxylactucin-15-sulphate, contribute most strongly to bitterness perception, whilst 15-p-hydroxylphenylacetyllactucin-8-sulphate does not contribute to bitter taste. Glucose was the sugar most highly correlated with sweetness perception. There is a genetic basis to the biochemical composition of lettuce. This information will be useful in lettuce breeding programmes in order to produce leaves with more favourable taste profiles.

  2. Comprehensive Analysis of Mouse Bitter Taste Receptors Reveals Different Molecular Receptive Ranges for Orthologous Receptors in Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Lossow, Kristina; Hübner, Sandra; Roudnitzky, Natacha; Slack, Jay P; Pollastro, Federica; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2016-07-15

    One key to animal survival is the detection and avoidance of potentially harmful compounds by their bitter taste. Variable numbers of taste 2 receptor genes expressed in the gustatory end organs enable bony vertebrates (Euteleostomi) to recognize numerous bitter chemicals. It is believed that the receptive ranges of bitter taste receptor repertoires match the profiles of bitter chemicals that the species encounter in their diets. Human and mouse genomes contain pairs of orthologous bitter receptor genes that have been conserved throughout evolution. Moreover, expansions in both lineages generated species-specific sets of bitter taste receptor genes. It is assumed that the orthologous bitter taste receptor genes mediate the recognition of bitter toxins relevant for both species, whereas the lineage-specific receptors enable the detection of substances differently encountered by mice and humans. By challenging 34 mouse bitter taste receptors with 128 prototypical bitter substances in a heterologous expression system, we identified cognate compounds for 21 receptors, 19 of which were previously orphan receptors. We have demonstrated that mouse taste 2 receptors, like their human counterparts, vary greatly in their breadth of tuning, ranging from very broadly to extremely narrowly tuned receptors. However, when compared with humans, mice possess fewer broadly tuned receptors and an elevated number of narrowly tuned receptors, supporting the idea that a large receptor repertoire is the basis for the evolution of specialized receptors. Moreover, we have demonstrated that sequence-orthologous bitter taste receptors have distinct agonist profiles. Species-specific gene expansions have enabled further diversification of bitter substance recognition spectra.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of Mouse Bitter Taste Receptors Reveals Different Molecular Receptive Ranges for Orthologous Receptors in Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Lossow, Kristina; Hübner, Sandra; Roudnitzky, Natacha; Slack, Jay P; Pollastro, Federica; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2016-07-15

    One key to animal survival is the detection and avoidance of potentially harmful compounds by their bitter taste. Variable numbers of taste 2 receptor genes expressed in the gustatory end organs enable bony vertebrates (Euteleostomi) to recognize numerous bitter chemicals. It is believed that the receptive ranges of bitter taste receptor repertoires match the profiles of bitter chemicals that the species encounter in their diets. Human and mouse genomes contain pairs of orthologous bitter receptor genes that have been conserved throughout evolution. Moreover, expansions in both lineages generated species-specific sets of bitter taste receptor genes. It is assumed that the orthologous bitter taste receptor genes mediate the recognition of bitter toxins relevant for both species, whereas the lineage-specific receptors enable the detection of substances differently encountered by mice and humans. By challenging 34 mouse bitter taste receptors with 128 prototypical bitter substances in a heterologous expression system, we identified cognate compounds for 21 receptors, 19 of which were previously orphan receptors. We have demonstrated that mouse taste 2 receptors, like their human counterparts, vary greatly in their breadth of tuning, ranging from very broadly to extremely narrowly tuned receptors. However, when compared with humans, mice possess fewer broadly tuned receptors and an elevated number of narrowly tuned receptors, supporting the idea that a large receptor repertoire is the basis for the evolution of specialized receptors. Moreover, we have demonstrated that sequence-orthologous bitter taste receptors have distinct agonist profiles. Species-specific gene expansions have enabled further diversification of bitter substance recognition spectra. PMID:27226572

  4. Why do we like sweet taste: A bitter tale?

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-10-01

    Sweet is widely considered to be one of a small number of basic or primary taste qualities. Liking for sweet tasting substances is innate, although postnatal experiences can shape responses. The power of sweet taste to induce consumption and to motivate behavior is profound, suggesting the importance of this sense for many species. Most investigators presume that the ability to identify sweet molecules through the sense of taste evolved to allow organisms to detect sources of readily available glucose from plants. Perhaps the best evidence supporting this presumption are recent discoveries in comparative biology demonstrating that species in the order Carnivora that do not consume plants also do not perceive sweet taste due to the pseudogenization of a component of the primary sweet taste receptor. However, arguing against this idea is the observation that the sweetness of a plant, or the amount of easily metabolizable sugars contained in the plant, provides little quantitative indication of the plant's energy or broadly conceived food value. Here it is suggested that the perceptual ratio of sweet taste to bitter taste (a signal for toxicity) may be a better gauge of a plant's broadly conceived food value than sweetness alone and that it is this ratio that helps guide selection or rejection of a potential plant food. PMID:27174610

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein, resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It turned out that the optimum enzyme was the `Mixed enzymes for animal proteolysis'. An enzyme dosage of 4%, a temperature of 50°, and a hydrolysis time of 300 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain high NR (84.28%) and degree of hydrolysis (DH, 16.18%) by orthogonal experiments. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid of MDP (defatted mackerel protein) and MDPH (defatted mackerel protein hydrolysates). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein, the essential amino acid chemical scores (CS) were greater than 1.0 (1.0-1.7) in MDPH, which is reflective of high nutritional value. This, coupled with the light color and slight fishy odor, indicates that MDPH would potentially have a wide range of applications such as nutritional additives, functional ingredients, and so on.

  6. Sensomics analysis of key bitter compounds in the hard resin of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and their contribution to the bitter profile of Pilsner-type beer.

    PubMed

    Dresel, Michael; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Recent brewing trials indicated the occurrence of valuable bitter compounds in the hard resin fraction of hop. Aiming at the discovery of these compounds, hop's ε-resin was separated by means of a sensory guided fractionation approach and the key taste molecules were identified by means of UV/vis, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D-NMR studies as well as synthetic experiments. Besides a series of literature known xanthohumol derivatives, multifidol glucosides, flavon-3-on glycosides, and p-coumaric acid esters, a total of 11 bitter tastants are reported for the first time, namely, 1",2"-dihydroxanthohumol F, 4'-hydroxytunicatachalcone, isoxantholupon, 1-methoxy-4-prenylphloroglucinol, dihydrocyclohumulohydrochinone, xanthohumols M, N, and P, and isoxanthohumols M, N, and P, respectively. Human sensory analysis revealed low bitter recognition threshold concentrations ranging from 5 (co-multifidol glucopyranoside) to 198 μmol/L (trans-p-coumaric acid ethyl ester) depending on their chemical structure. For the first time, LC-MS/MS quantitation of these taste compounds in Pilsner-type beer, followed by taste re-engineering experiments, revealed the additive contribution of iso-α-acids and the identified hard resin components to be truly necessary and sufficient for constructing the authentic bitter percept of beer. Finally, brewing trails using the ε-resin as the only hop source impressively demonstrated the possibility to produce beverages strongly enriched with prenylated hop flavonoids.

  7. Sensomics analysis of key bitter compounds in the hard resin of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and their contribution to the bitter profile of Pilsner-type beer.

    PubMed

    Dresel, Michael; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Recent brewing trials indicated the occurrence of valuable bitter compounds in the hard resin fraction of hop. Aiming at the discovery of these compounds, hop's ε-resin was separated by means of a sensory guided fractionation approach and the key taste molecules were identified by means of UV/vis, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D-NMR studies as well as synthetic experiments. Besides a series of literature known xanthohumol derivatives, multifidol glucosides, flavon-3-on glycosides, and p-coumaric acid esters, a total of 11 bitter tastants are reported for the first time, namely, 1",2"-dihydroxanthohumol F, 4'-hydroxytunicatachalcone, isoxantholupon, 1-methoxy-4-prenylphloroglucinol, dihydrocyclohumulohydrochinone, xanthohumols M, N, and P, and isoxanthohumols M, N, and P, respectively. Human sensory analysis revealed low bitter recognition threshold concentrations ranging from 5 (co-multifidol glucopyranoside) to 198 μmol/L (trans-p-coumaric acid ethyl ester) depending on their chemical structure. For the first time, LC-MS/MS quantitation of these taste compounds in Pilsner-type beer, followed by taste re-engineering experiments, revealed the additive contribution of iso-α-acids and the identified hard resin components to be truly necessary and sufficient for constructing the authentic bitter percept of beer. Finally, brewing trails using the ε-resin as the only hop source impressively demonstrated the possibility to produce beverages strongly enriched with prenylated hop flavonoids. PMID:25793563

  8. The sub/supra-optimal temperature-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and oxidative damage in cucumber leaves are alleviated by grafting onto figleaf gourd/luffa rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Shi, K; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Considine, Michael J; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong

    2014-11-01

    Shoot-root communication is involved in plant stress responses, but its mechanism is largely unknown. To determine the role of roots in stress tolerance, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) shoots from plants with roots of their own or with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, a chilling-tolerant species) or luffa (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem., a heat-tolerant species) rootstocks were exposed to low (18/13°C), optimal (27/22°C) and high (36/31°C) temperatures, respectively. Grafting onto figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks significantly alleviated chilling and heat-induced reductions, respectively, in biomass production and CO(2) assimilation capacity in the shoots, while levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were decreased. Figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks upregulated a subset of stress-responsive genes involved in signal transduction (MAPK1 and RBOH), transcriptional regulation (MYB and MYC), protein protection (HSP45.9 and HSP70), the antioxidant response (Cu/Zn-SOD, cAPX and GR), and photosynthesis (RBCL, RBCS, RCA and FBPase) at low and high growth temperatures, respectively, and this was accompanied by increased activity of the encoded enzymes and reduced glutathione redox homeostasis in the leaves. Moreover, Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) expression in cucumber leaves was strongly induced by the luffa rootstock at the high growth temperature but slightly induced by the figleaf gourd rootstock at low or high growth temperatures. These results indicate that rootstocks could induce significant changes in the transcripts of stress-responsive and defense-related genes, and the ROS scavenging activity via unknown signals, especially at stressful growth temperatures, and this is one of mechanisms involved in the grafting-induced stress tolerance.

  9. The sub/supra-optimal temperature-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and oxidative damage in cucumber leaves are alleviated by grafting onto figleaf gourd/luffa rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Shi, K; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Considine, Michael J; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong

    2014-11-01

    Shoot-root communication is involved in plant stress responses, but its mechanism is largely unknown. To determine the role of roots in stress tolerance, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) shoots from plants with roots of their own or with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, a chilling-tolerant species) or luffa (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem., a heat-tolerant species) rootstocks were exposed to low (18/13°C), optimal (27/22°C) and high (36/31°C) temperatures, respectively. Grafting onto figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks significantly alleviated chilling and heat-induced reductions, respectively, in biomass production and CO(2) assimilation capacity in the shoots, while levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were decreased. Figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks upregulated a subset of stress-responsive genes involved in signal transduction (MAPK1 and RBOH), transcriptional regulation (MYB and MYC), protein protection (HSP45.9 and HSP70), the antioxidant response (Cu/Zn-SOD, cAPX and GR), and photosynthesis (RBCL, RBCS, RCA and FBPase) at low and high growth temperatures, respectively, and this was accompanied by increased activity of the encoded enzymes and reduced glutathione redox homeostasis in the leaves. Moreover, Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) expression in cucumber leaves was strongly induced by the luffa rootstock at the high growth temperature but slightly induced by the figleaf gourd rootstock at low or high growth temperatures. These results indicate that rootstocks could induce significant changes in the transcripts of stress-responsive and defense-related genes, and the ROS scavenging activity via unknown signals, especially at stressful growth temperatures, and this is one of mechanisms involved in the grafting-induced stress tolerance. PMID:24735050

  10. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus.

  11. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. PMID:24128498

  12. Extract of Wax Gourd Peel Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 Mice via the Inhibition of the PPARγ Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ming; Fan, Shengjie; Liu, Gaigai; Guo, Lu; Ding, Xiaobo; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Wax gourd is a popular vegetable in East Asia. In traditional Chinese medicine, wax gourd peel is used to prevent and treat metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, there is no experimental evidence to support these applications. Here, we examined the effect of the extract of wax gourd peel (EWGP) on metabolic disorders in diet-induced C57BL/6 obese mice. In the preventive experiment, EWGP blocked body weight gain and lowered serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), liver TG and TC contents, and fasting blood glucose in mice fed with a high-fat diet. In the therapeutic study, we induced obesity in the mice and treated with EWGP for two weeks. We found that EWGP treatment reduced serum and liver triglyceride (TG) contents and fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance in the mice. Reporter assay and gene expression analysis showed that EWGP could inhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) transactivities and could decrease mRNA levels of PPARγ and its target genes. We also found that HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was downregulated in the mouse liver by EWGP. Our data suggest that EWGP lowers hyperlipidemia of C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diet via the inhibition of PPARγ and HMGCR signaling. PMID:23533476

  13. Genetic Structure of Colletotrichum fructicola Associated to Apple Bitter Rot and Glomerella Leaf Spot in Southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rockenbach, Mathias F; Velho, Aline C; Gonçalves, Amanda E; Mondino, Pedro E; Alaniz, Sandra M; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2016-07-01

    Colletotrichum fructicola is the main species causing apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) in southern Brazil, and ABR in Uruguay where GLS remains unnoticed. Thus, this work aimed to determine the genetic structure of C. fructicola isolates of both the countries. A total of 28 out of 31 Brazilian isolates (90.3%) caused typical symptoms of GLS, while only 6 of 25 Uruguayan isolates (24.0%) originating from fruits were able to infect leaves, but causing atypical symptoms. Both populations showed similar levels of Nei's gene diversity (h = 0.088 and 0.079, for Brazilian and Uruguayan populations, respectively), and Bayesian cluster analysis inferred two genetic clusters correlated with the geographical origin of isolates. A principal coordinates analysis scatter plot and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean-based dendrogram also grouped Brazilian and Uruguayan isolates into two groups. By pairwise comparison of nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants with a proposed set of testers, all Uruguayan isolates were grouped into a unique vegetative compatibility group (namely VCG 1), while Brazilian isolates were grouped into four VCGs (VCG 1 to 4). Brazilian and Uruguayan populations of C. fructicola were found to be genetically distinct. Our results suggest that isolates of C. fructicola from Brazil capable of causing GLS and ABR arose independently of those from Uruguay. Possible causes leading to the evolutionary differences between populations are discussed. PMID:27019063

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels.

    PubMed

    Yiğit, D; Yiğit, N; Mavi, A

    2009-04-01

    The present study describes the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanol and water extracts of sweet and bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels. The antioxidant properties of apricot kernels were evaluated by determining radical scavenging power, lipid peroxidation inhibition activity and total phenol content measured with a DPPH test, the thiocyanate method and the Folin method, respectively. In contrast to extracts of the bitter kernels, both the water and methanol extracts of sweet kernels have antioxidant potential. The highest percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (69%) and total phenolic content (7.9 +/- 0.2 microg/mL) were detected in the methanol extract of sweet kernels (Hasanbey) and in the water extract of the same cultivar, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the above extracts were also tested against human pathogenic microorganisms using a disc-diffusion method, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of each active extract were determined. The most effective antibacterial activity was observed in the methanol and water extracts of bitter kernels and in the methanol extract of sweet kernels against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the methanol extracts of the bitter kernels were very potent against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (0.312 mg/mL MIC value). Significant anti-candida activity was also observed with the methanol extract of bitter apricot kernels against Candida albicans, consisting of a 14 mm in diameter of inhibition zone and a 0.625 mg/mL MIC value.

  15. A bitter sweet asynchrony. The relation between eating attitudes, dietary restraint on smell and taste function.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Tucker, Megan; Gerstner, Nora

    2013-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that individuals with eating disorders have an impaired sense of smell and taste, though the influence of eating attitudes, dietary restraint and gender in a non-clinical sample is unknown. In two studies (study 1: 32 females, 28 males; study 2: 29 females) participants completed questionnaires relating to Eating Attitudes (EAT) and dietary restraint (DEBQ) followed by an odour (study 1: isoamyl acetate, study 2: chocolate) threshold and taste test. In study 2 we also measured the number of fungiform papillae taste buds. Study one revealed that increases in pathological eating attitudes predicted poorer olfactory sensitivity (males/females) and lower bitterness ratings for the bitter tastant (females only), suggestive of poorer taste acuity. In study two we found that both eating attitudes and restraint predicted poorer sensitivity to an odour associated to a forbidden food (chocolate) and that increasing eating attitudes predicted higher sweetness ratings for the bitter tastant. Interestingly increases in restraint were associated with an increased number of fungiform papillae which was not related to bitter or sweet intensity. These findings demonstrate that in a young healthy sample that subtle differences in eating pathology and dietary restraint predict impaired olfactory function to food related odours. Further that perception of bitter tastants is poorer with changes in eating pathology but not dietary restraint. PMID:23811349

  16. Comprehensive sensomics analysis of hop-derived bitter compounds during storage of beer.

    PubMed

    Intelmann, Daniel; Haseleu, Gesa; Dunkel, Andreas; Lagemann, Annika; Stephan, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, quantitative LC-MS/MS profiling of 56 hop-derived sensometabolites contributing to the bitter taste of beer revealed a comprehensive insight into the transformation of individual bitter compounds during storage of beer. The proton-catalyzed cyclization of trans-iso-α-acids was identified to be the quantitatively predominant reaction leading to lingering, harsh bitter tasting tri- and tetracyclic compounds such as, e.g. the cocongeners tricyclocohumol, tricyclocohumene, isotricyclocohumene, tetracyclocohumol, and epitetracyclocohumol, accumulating in beer during storage with increasing time and temperature. The key role of these transformation products in storage-induced trans-iso-α-acid degradation was verified for the first time by multivariate statistics and hierarchical cluster analysis of the sensomics data obtained for a series of commercial beer samples stored under controlled conditions. The present study offers the scientific basis for a knowledge-based extension of the shelf life of the desirable beer's bitter taste and the delay of the onset of the less preferred harsh bitter aftertaste by controlling the initial pH value of the beer and by keeping the temperature as low as possible during storage of the final beverage.

  17. Bitter and sweet taste receptors in the respiratory epithelium in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors on the tongue communicate information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has now shown that taste receptors are also expressed far beyond the tongue, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these so-called extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging basic science and clinical evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important in sensing bacteria and regulating innate immunity. This review focuses on the role of bitter and sweet taste receptors in human airway innate immunity and the potential clinical relevance to airway infections. The T2R38 bitter taste receptor in sinonasal cilia detects bitter bacterial quorum-sensing molecules and activates nitric oxide-dependent innate immune responses. Polymorphisms that underlie T2R38 functionality also appear to be involved in susceptibility to upper respiratory infection and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Bitter and sweet receptors in specialized sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells control antimicrobial peptide secretion, which may have important implications for airway infections in CRS patients as well as patients with diabetes mellitus. Future research on taste receptors in the airway has tremendous potential to identify immune mechanisms involved in host-pathogen interactions and thus reveal novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25391251

  18. A bitter sweet asynchrony. The relation between eating attitudes, dietary restraint on smell and taste function.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Tucker, Megan; Gerstner, Nora

    2013-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that individuals with eating disorders have an impaired sense of smell and taste, though the influence of eating attitudes, dietary restraint and gender in a non-clinical sample is unknown. In two studies (study 1: 32 females, 28 males; study 2: 29 females) participants completed questionnaires relating to Eating Attitudes (EAT) and dietary restraint (DEBQ) followed by an odour (study 1: isoamyl acetate, study 2: chocolate) threshold and taste test. In study 2 we also measured the number of fungiform papillae taste buds. Study one revealed that increases in pathological eating attitudes predicted poorer olfactory sensitivity (males/females) and lower bitterness ratings for the bitter tastant (females only), suggestive of poorer taste acuity. In study two we found that both eating attitudes and restraint predicted poorer sensitivity to an odour associated to a forbidden food (chocolate) and that increasing eating attitudes predicted higher sweetness ratings for the bitter tastant. Interestingly increases in restraint were associated with an increased number of fungiform papillae which was not related to bitter or sweet intensity. These findings demonstrate that in a young healthy sample that subtle differences in eating pathology and dietary restraint predict impaired olfactory function to food related odours. Further that perception of bitter tastants is poorer with changes in eating pathology but not dietary restraint.

  19. Famotidine orally disintegrating tablets: bitterness comparison of original and generic products.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, Emi; Matsunaga, Chiharu; Yoshida, Koichi; Mifsud, Jean-Christophe; Irie, Tetsumi; Yoshida, Miyako; Uchida, Takahiro

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the palatability of the original and eight generic versions of famotidine orally disintegrating tablets by means of human gustatory sensation tests, a comparison of the release profiles, and using an automated taste sensor, the alpha-Astree Electronic Tongue. In the gustatory sensation test, the original product (Gaster D, 10 mg) showed the lowest bitterness intensity. Among the eight generic products tested, the variance in the sweetness intensity was not great, but there were large variances in the intensity of bitterness, some of the generic products being significantly more bitter than that of the original product. On the other hand, some generic products show similar bitterness level as the original product. In a study of release profiles, the original product had the lowest release rates of both famotidine and aspartame; in comparison, some of the generic products had high release rates of famotidine and aspartame, even in the initial stages. Whereas some generic products had low release rates of famotidine and aspartame. Finally, sample solutions were analysed using the taste sensor. There was a good correlation between the taste predicted by principal component analysis and the Euclidean distance obtained by the taste sensor, and bitterness intensities obtained in the human gustatory tests.

  20. Glycerol metabolism and bitterness producing lactic acid bacteria in cidermaking.

    PubMed

    Garai-Ibabe, G; Ibarburu, I; Berregi, I; Claisse, O; Lonvaud-Funel, A; Irastorza, A; Dueñas, M T

    2008-02-10

    Several lactic acid bacteria were isolated from bitter tasting ciders in which glycerol was partially removed. The degradation of glycerol via glycerol dehydratase pathway was found in 22 out of 67 isolates. The confirmation of glycerol degradation by this pathway was twofold: showing their glycerol dehydratase activity and detecting the presence of the corresponding gene by a PCR method. 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDL) and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) were the metabolic end-products of glycerol utilization, and the accumulation of the acrolein precursor 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) was also detected in most of them. The strain identification by PCR-DGGE rpoB showed that Lactobacillus collinoides was the predominant species and only 2 belonged to Lactobacillus diolivorans. Environmental conditions conducting to 3-HPA accumulation in cidermaking were studied by varying the fructose concentration, pH and incubation temperature in L. collinoides 17. This strain failed to grow with glycerol as sole carbon source and the addition of fructose enhanced both growth and glycerol degradation. Regarding end-products of glycerol metabolism, 1,3-PDL was always the main end-product in all environmental conditions assayed, the only exception being the culture with 5.55 mM fructose, where equimolar amounts of 1,3-PDL and 3-HP were found. The 3-HPA was transitorily accumulated in the culture medium under almost all culture conditions, the degradation rate being notably slower at 15 degrees C. However, no disappearance of 3-HPA was found at pH 3.6, a usual value in cider making. After sugar exhaustion, L. collinoides 17 oxidated lactic acid and/or mannitol to obtain energy and these oxidations were accompanied by the removal of the toxic 3-HPA increasing the 1,3-PDL, 3-HP and acetic acid contents. PMID:18180066

  1. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Pang, Bing; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine.

  2. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Pang, Bing; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine. PMID:26557150

  3. Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: Role in bitter taste transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, P.M.; Verma, A.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H. )

    1990-10-01

    To assess the role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in taste transduction we have visualized, in rat tongue, ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticular accumulation of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding sites, and phosphatidylinositol turnover monitored by autoradiography of ({sup 3}H)cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol formed from ({sup 3}H)cytidine. Accumulated {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste. Further evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in bitter taste is our observation of a rapid, selective increase in mass levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate elicited by low concentrations of denatonium, a potently bitter tastant.

  4. Theoretical and functional complexity of white variegation of unripe fleshy fruits.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-10-01

    In many plant species, the bright colors of ripe fruit serve to attract frugivores to enable efficient seed dispersal. Here I show that the fleshy fruit of several dozens of species originating from Asia (southeastern, eastern and central), the Middle East, Africa, America (South, Central and North), Australia, Polynesia and Micronesia, with fruit usually larger than 1 cm, have white or light green spots while they are still unripe. In many of these species, while the spots are conspicuous, the unripe fruit is known to be poisonous, bitter or sour. I propose that this fruit syndrome may signal frugivores that the fruit is still unripe. Similarly to the succulent leaves of window-plants, these spots form windows that enable light to penetrate deeper into the photosynthetic layers in the developing fruit. This seems to be a solution to overcome the limitations of light harvest because of the high volume to surface ratio of developing fleshy fruits. The white or whitish variegation in these unripe fleshy fruits may serve at least five functions: 1) Windows for photosynthesis, 2) camouflage, 3) signaling to frugivores that they are not ripe (possibly sometimes a type of mutualism with frugivores), 4) signaling to frugivores that they are poisonous--aposematism, and 5) mimicking insect eggs to reduce egg laying. All these functions may be partly or fully simultaneous. Because these white spots appear in plants of diverse geographical and taxonomic origin, it is probably an old adaptation, and such a syndrome has appeared and been selected for many times.

  5. Theoretical and functional complexity of white variegation of unripe fleshy fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    In many plant species, the bright colors of ripe fruit serve to attract frugivores to enable efficient seed dispersal. Here I show that the fleshy fruit of several dozens of species originating from Asia (southeastern, eastern and central), the Middle East, Africa, America (South, Central and North), Australia, Polynesia and Micronesia, with fruit usually larger than 1 cm, have white or light green spots while they are still unripe. In many of these species, while the spots are conspicuous, the unripe fruit is known to be poisonous, bitter or sour. I propose that this fruit syndrome may signal frugivores that the fruit is still unripe. Similarly to the succulent leaves of window-plants, these spots form windows that enable light to penetrate deeper into the photosynthetic layers in the developing fruit. This seems to be a solution to overcome the limitations of light harvest because of the high volume to surface ratio of developing fleshy fruits. The white or whitish variegation in these unripe fleshy fruits may serve at least five functions: 1) Windows for photosynthesis, 2) camouflage, 3) signaling to frugivores that they are not ripe (possibly sometimes a type of mutualism with frugivores), 4) signaling to frugivores that they are poisonous - aposematism, and 5) mimicking insect eggs to reduce egg laying. All these functions may be partly or fully simultaneous. Because these white spots appear in plants of diverse geographical and taxonomic origin, it is probably an old adaptation, and such a syndrome has appeared and been selected for many times. PMID:23921545

  6. Does mere exposure mediate sensitivity to bitter taste on consumer liking and acceptability of whole grain foods?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health benefits of whole grains (WG) are well known, yet consumption by Americans falls far short of recommended amounts. Roughly 75% of Americans are sensitive to bitter taste, and WG are known to contain bitter tasting phenolic compounds. It has been reported that individuals with the highest se...

  7. Berberine induces GLP-1 secretion through activation of bitter taste receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunli; Hao, Gang; Zhang, Quanying; Hua, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Wenjia; Zong, Shunlin; Huang, Ming; Wen, Xiaozhou

    2015-09-15

    Our previous studies revealed that berberine-mediated GLP-1 secretion was a possible mechanism for berberine exerting good effects on hyperglycemia. This study was designed to ascertain whether berberine-induced secretion of GLP-1 was related with activation of bitter taste receptors expressed in gastrointestinal tract. Western blotting results showed that TAS2R38, a subtype of bitter taste receptor, was expressed on human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells. GLP-1 secretion induced by berberine from NCI-H716 cells was inhibited by incubation with anti-TAS2R38 antibody. We further performed gene silencing using siRNA to knockdown TAS2R38 from NCI-H716 cells, which showed that siRNA knockdown of the TAS2R38 reduced berberine-mediated GLP-1 secretion. We adopted inhibitors of PLC and TRPM5 known to be involved in bitter taste transduction to investigate the underlying pathways mediated in berberine-induced GLP-1 secretion. It was found that PLC inhibitor U73122 inhibited berberine-induced GLP-1 release in NCI-H716 cells, while TRPM5 blocker quinine failed to attenuate berberine-induced secretion of GLP-1. The present results demonstrated that berberine stimulated GLP-1 secretion via activation of gut-expressed bitter taste receptors in a PLC-dependent manner. Because berberine was found to be a ligand of bitter taste receptor, the results of present study may provide an explanation for some bitter taste substance obtain hypoglycemic effect.

  8. Pungent and bitter, cytotoxic and antiviral terpenoids from some bryophytes and inedible fungi.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Nagashima, Fumihiro; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Toyota, Masao; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Komala, Ismiarni; Ito, Takuya; Yagi, Yasuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Most liverworts elaborate characteristic odiferous, pungent and bitter tasting compounds many of which show antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, allergenic contact dermatitis, cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-HIV, superoxide anion radical release, plant growth regulatory, neurotrophic, NO production inhibitory, muscle relaxant, antiobesity, piscicidal and nematocidal activities. Several inedible mushrooms produce female spider pheromones, strong antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds. The present paper is concerned with the extraction and isolation of terpenoids from some bryophytes and inedible fungi and their pungent and bitter taste, and cytotoxic and antiviral activity.

  9. Strategies to improve palatability and increase consumption intentions for Momordica charantia (bitter melon): A vegetable commonly used for diabetes management

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although beneficial to health, dietary phytonutrients are bitter, acid and/or astringent in taste and therefore reduce consumer choice and acceptance during food selection. Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine to treat diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to develop bitter melon-containing recipes and test their palatability and acceptability in healthy individuals for future clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional sensory evaluation of bitter melon-containing ethnic recipes was conducted among 50 healthy individuals. The primary endpoints assessed in this analysis were current consumption information and future intentions to consume bitter melon, before and after provision of attribute- and health-specific information. A convenience sample of 50, self-reported non-diabetic adults were recruited from the University of Hawaii. Sensory evaluations were compared using two-way ANOVA, while differences in stage of change (SOC) before and after receiving health information were analyzed by Chi-square (χ2) analyses. Results Our studies indicate that tomato-based recipes were acceptable to most of the participants and readily acceptable, as compared with recipes containing spices such as curry powder. Health information did not have a significant effect on willingness to consume bitter melon, but positively affected the classification of SOC. Conclusions This study suggests that incorporating bitter foods in commonly consumed food dishes can mask bitter taste of bitter melon. Furthermore, providing positive health information can elicit a change in the intent to consume bitter melon-containing dishes despite mixed palatability results. PMID:21794176

  10. Proteomic Study Related to Vascular Connections in Watermelon Scions Grafted onto Bottle-Gourd Rootstock under Different Light Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivnnan, Abinaya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) ‘Sambok Honey’ and ‘Speed’ as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld.) ‘RS Dongjanggun’ as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m−2 s−1). Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in ‘Sambok Honey’ and ‘Speed’, respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m−2 s−1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings. PMID:25789769

  11. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivnnan, Abinaya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld.) 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1). Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings. PMID:25789769

  12. Synthesis and characterization of zinc sulfide quantum dots and their interaction with snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina) seed lectin.

    PubMed

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Ahalya, Pichaikkannu; Sengan, Megarajan; Kamlekar, Ravikanth; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the use of quantum dots in biological labeling, and the specific interaction of lectins with tumor cells, studies on lectin-QDs interaction are of potential interest. Herein, we report a facile method to prepare zinc sulfide quantum dots (ZnS QDs) using pectin as a capping agent and studied their interaction with snake gourd seed lectin (SGSL) by fluorescence spectroscopy. The QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The thermodynamic forces governing the interaction between ZnS-QDs and SGSL have been delineated from the temperature dependent association constant. These results suggest that the binding between ZnS QDs and SGSL is governed by enthalpic forces with negative entropic contribution. The red shift of synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the microenvironment around the tryptophan residues of SGSL was perturbed by ZnS-QDs. The obtained results suggest that the development of optical bioimaging agents by using the conjugated lectin-QDs would be possible to diagnose cancerous tissues. PMID:26172461

  13. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  14. Spermidine Derivatives in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Fruit: Sensory (Taste) versus Biofunctional (ACE-Inhibition) Properties.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Masatani, Chieko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Peterson, Devin G; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-07-01

    The bitterness in lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit is increased during processing (juicing or drying). To identify the bitter-active compounds, the ethanolic fruit pulp extract was subjected to RP-18 solid-phase extraction, and then sensory-guided fractionated by HPLC. Two spermidine derivatives, N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine and N(1),N(8)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine, were isolated and their structures confirmed by analysis of their HPLC-ESI/MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR data. The N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine was synthesized and used as an authentic sample to unequivocally confirm the structure of this compound and to quantitate it in both fresh and dried fruit. In silico analyses demonstrated that spermidine derivatives identified in lulo pulp exhibited a strong ACE-I (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) inhibitory activity. Subsequently, these results were confirmed by in vitro analyses and showed the potential use of lulo fruit pulp as an ingredient of functional foods related to the prevention of blood hypertension. PMID:27292771

  15. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  16. Unraveling the active hypoglycemic agent trigonelline in Balanites aegyptiaca date fruit using metabolite fingerprinting by NMR.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2015-11-10

    Trigonelline (3-carboxy-1-methyl pyridinium) was identified as a relevant bioactivity and taste imparting component in Balanites aegyptiaca fruit, using (1)H NMR of crude extracts without any fractionation or isolation step. The structural integrity of trigonelline was established within the extract matrix via(1)H NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC and HMBC and by comparison with authentic standard. A quantitative (1)H NMR method (qHNMR) was used to determine trigonelline concentrations in the peel and pulp of B. aegyptiaca fruit of 8 and 13mgg(-1), respectively. Trigonelline so far has not been reported from B. aegyptiaca or its genus as it easily escapes LC-MS based detection. Its discovery provides novel insight into the balanite fruits antidiabetic properties as the compound is known for a pronounced hypoglycemic effect. In addition, it is likely to impart the perceptible bitter taste portion to balanites sweet bitter taste. UPLC-MS of the crude extract additionally revealed the fruit flavonoid pattern showing quercetin/isorhamnetin flavonol conjugates in addition to epicatechin, the latter being present at much lower levels. PMID:26275727

  17. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice.

  18. Spermidine Derivatives in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Fruit: Sensory (Taste) versus Biofunctional (ACE-Inhibition) Properties.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Masatani, Chieko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Peterson, Devin G; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-07-01

    The bitterness in lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit is increased during processing (juicing or drying). To identify the bitter-active compounds, the ethanolic fruit pulp extract was subjected to RP-18 solid-phase extraction, and then sensory-guided fractionated by HPLC. Two spermidine derivatives, N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine and N(1),N(8)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine, were isolated and their structures confirmed by analysis of their HPLC-ESI/MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR data. The N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine was synthesized and used as an authentic sample to unequivocally confirm the structure of this compound and to quantitate it in both fresh and dried fruit. In silico analyses demonstrated that spermidine derivatives identified in lulo pulp exhibited a strong ACE-I (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) inhibitory activity. Subsequently, these results were confirmed by in vitro analyses and showed the potential use of lulo fruit pulp as an ingredient of functional foods related to the prevention of blood hypertension.

  19. Functional characterization of bitter-taste receptors expressed in mammalian testis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiang; Cao, Jie; Iguchi, Naoko; Riethmacher, Dieter; Huang, Liquan

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis and sperm maturation are susceptible to the effects of internal and external factors. However, how male germ cells interact with and respond to these elements including those potentially toxic substances is poorly understood. Here, we show that many bitter-taste receptors (T2rs), which are believed to function as gatekeepers in the oral cavity to detect and innately prevent the ingestion of poisonous bitter-tasting compounds, are expressed in mouse seminiferous tubules. Our in situ hybridization results indicate that Tas2r transcripts are expressed postmeiotically. Functional analysis showed that mouse spermatids and spermatozoa responded to both naturally occurring and synthetic bitter-tasting compounds by increasing intracellular free calcium concentrations, and individual male germ cells exhibited different ligand-activation profiles, indicating that each cell may express a unique subset of T2r receptors. These calcium responses could be suppressed by a specific bitter-tastant blocker or abolished by the knockout of the gene for the G protein subunit α-gustducin. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that male germ cells, like taste bud cells in the oral cavity and solitary chemosensory cells in the airway, utilize T2r receptors to sense chemicals in the milieu that may affect sperm behavior and fertilization. PMID:22983952

  20. Characterization and Modulation of the Bitterness of Polymethoxyflavones Using Sensory and Receptor-Based Methods.

    PubMed

    Batenburg, A Max; de Joode, Teun; Gouka, Robin J

    2016-03-30

    An obstacle in the application of many "health ingredients" is their alleged off-flavor. We used a combination of chemical, sensory, and biological analyses to identify the bitter components in citrus peel-derived polymethoxyflavone preparations, claimed to be functional in the lowering of cholesterol. Nobiletin (56-81%) and tangeretin (10-33%) were found to be the main bitter components. Using in vitro receptor assays, hTAS2R14 was shown to be the main bitter receptor involved in their perception, with EC50 values of 14 and 63 μM, respectively. Our analysis provided several routes for off-flavor reduction. Purification is an option because a purified, single PMF species proved to be considerably less bitter upon application in emulsified foods, due to limited solubility in the aqueous phase. A second route, also demonstrated in vivo, is C5-specific demethoxylation, in line with the finding that 5-desmethylnobiletin does not activate hTAS2R14. A third route could be the use of TAS2R14 antagonists. As a proof of principle, several antagonists, with IC50 values ranging from 10 to 50 μM, were identified. PMID:26934534

  1. Individual differences in bitter taste preferences are associated with antisocial personality traits.

    PubMed

    Sagioglou, Christina; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how bitter taste preferences might be associated with antisocial personality traits. Two US American community samples (total N = 953; mean age = 35.65 years; 48% females) self-reported their taste preferences using two complementary preference measures and answered a number of personality questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, everyday sadism, trait aggression, and the Big Five factors of personality. The results of both studies confirmed the hypothesis that bitter taste preferences are positively associated with malevolent personality traits, with the most robust relation to everyday sadism and psychopathy. Regression analyses confirmed that this association holds when controlling for sweet, sour, and salty taste preferences and that bitter taste preferences are the overall strongest predictor compared to the other taste preferences. The data thereby provide novel insights into the relationship between personality and the ubiquitous behaviors of eating and drinking by consistently demonstrating a robust relation between increased enjoyment of bitter foods and heightened sadistic proclivities. PMID:26431683

  2. Expansion of a bitter taste receptor family in a polyphagous insect herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Anderson, Alisha

    2016-01-01

    The Insect taste system plays a central role in feeding behaviours and co-evolution of insect-host interactions. Gustatory receptors form the interface between the insect taste system and the environment. From genome and transcriptome sequencing we identified 197 novel gustatory receptor (GR) genes from the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera. These GRs include a significantly expanded bitter receptor family (180 GRs) that could be further divided into three categories based on polypeptide lengths, gene structure and amino acid sequence. Type 1 includes 29 bitter Gr genes that possess introns. Type 2 includes 13 long intronless bitter Gr genes, while Type 3 comprises 131 short intronless bitter Gr genes. Calcium imaging analysis demonstrated that three Type 3 GRs (HarmGR35, HarmGR50 and HarmGR195) can be activated by a crude extract of cotton leaves. HarmGR195, a GR specifically and selectively expressed in adult tarsi, showed a specific response to proline, an amino acid widely present in plant tissues. We hypothesise that the expansion in the H. armigera GR family may be functionally tied to its polyphagous behavior. Understanding the molecular basis of polyphagy may provide opportunities for the development of new environmentally friendly pest control strategies. PMID:27032373

  3. Expansion of a bitter taste receptor family in a polyphagous insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Anderson, Alisha

    2016-01-01

    The Insect taste system plays a central role in feeding behaviours and co-evolution of insect-host interactions. Gustatory receptors form the interface between the insect taste system and the environment. From genome and transcriptome sequencing we identified 197 novel gustatory receptor (GR) genes from the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera. These GRs include a significantly expanded bitter receptor family (180 GRs) that could be further divided into three categories based on polypeptide lengths, gene structure and amino acid sequence. Type 1 includes 29 bitter Gr genes that possess introns. Type 2 includes 13 long intronless bitter Gr genes, while Type 3 comprises 131 short intronless bitter Gr genes. Calcium imaging analysis demonstrated that three Type 3 GRs (HarmGR35, HarmGR50 and HarmGR195) can be activated by a crude extract of cotton leaves. HarmGR195, a GR specifically and selectively expressed in adult tarsi, showed a specific response to proline, an amino acid widely present in plant tissues. We hypothesise that the expansion in the H. armigera GR family may be functionally tied to its polyphagous behavior. Understanding the molecular basis of polyphagy may provide opportunities for the development of new environmentally friendly pest control strategies. PMID:27032373

  4. Sweet and bitter taste in the brain of awake behaving animals.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yueqing; Gillis-Smith, Sarah; Jin, Hao; Tränkner, Dimitri; Ryba, Nicholas J P; Zuker, Charles S

    2015-11-26

    Taste is responsible for evaluating the nutritious content of food, guiding essential appetitive behaviours, preventing the ingestion of toxic substances, and helping to ensure the maintenance of a healthy diet. Sweet and bitter are two of the most salient sensory percepts for humans and other animals; sweet taste allows the identification of energy-rich nutrients whereas bitter warns against the intake of potentially noxious chemicals. In mammals, information from taste receptor cells in the tongue is transmitted through multiple neural stations to the primary gustatory cortex in the brain. Recent imaging studies have shown that sweet and bitter are represented in the primary gustatory cortex by neurons organized in a spatial map, with each taste quality encoded by distinct cortical fields. Here we demonstrate that by manipulating the brain fields representing sweet and bitter taste we directly control an animal's internal representation, sensory perception, and behavioural actions. These results substantiate the segregation of taste qualities in the cortex, expose the innate nature of appetitive and aversive taste responses, and illustrate the ability of gustatory cortex to recapitulate complex behaviours in the absence of sensory input.

  5. Assessment of bitterness intensity and suppression effects using an Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legin, A.; Rudnitskaya, A.; Kirsanov, D.; Frolova, Yu.; Clapham, D.; Caricofe, R.

    2009-05-01

    Quantification of bitterness intensity and effectivness of bitterness suppression of a novel active pharmacological ingredient (API) being developed by GSK was performed using an Electronic Tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. Calibration of the ET was performed with solutions of quinine hydrochloride in the concentration range 0.4-360 mgL-1. An MLR calibration model was developed for predicting bitterness intensity expressed as "equivalent quinine concentration" of a series of solutions of quinine, bittrex and the API. Additionally the effectiveness of sucralose, mixture of aspartame and acesulfame K, and grape juice in masking the bitter taste of the API was assessed using two approaches. PCA models were produced and distances between compound containing solutions and corresponding placebos were calculated. The other approach consisted in calculating "equivalent quinine concentration" using a calibration model with respect to quinine concentration. According to both methods, the most effective taste masking was produced by grape juice, followed by the mixture of aspartame and acesulfame K.

  6. Extracellular production of riboflavin-binding protein, a potential bitter inhibitor, by Brevibacillus choshinensis.

    PubMed

    Maehashi, Kenji; Matano, Mami; Saito, Makiko; Udaka, Shigezo

    2010-05-01

    Riboflavin-binding protein (RBP) is a glycophosphoprotein found in hen eggs. We previously identified the extraordinary characteristic of RBP in reducing bitterness. For a more detailed study on the mode of action and industrial application of this characteristic, we investigated the microbial production of recombinant RBP (rRBP). We constructed a chicken RBP gene expression vector by inserting the RBP cDNA in pNCMO2, the Escherichia coli-Brevibacillus choshinensis shuttle vector. B. choshinensis HPD31 transformants produced 0.8g/l of processed and unglycosylated RBP in a soluble form in the culture supernatant. However, the expressed RBP was partially dimerized and monomeric RBP was purified by two step anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatographies. The purified rRBP elicited bitterness reduction against quinine and caffeine, although it largely lost its riboflavin-binding ability. These results indicated that glycosylation and riboflavin-binding ability are not essential for the bitterness reduction of RBP. In addition, we assessed the usefulness of the Brevibacillus system for the expression and secretion of RBP as a new type of bitterness inhibitor. PMID:20045733

  7. Sweet and bitter taste in the brain of awake behaving animals

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yueqing; Gillis-Smith, Sarah; Jin, Hao; Tränkner, Dimitri; Ryba, Nicholas J. P.; Zuker, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Taste is responsible for evaluating the nutritious content of food, guiding essential appetitive behaviors, preventing the ingestion of toxic substances, and helping ensure the maintenance of a healthy diet. Sweet and bitter are two of the most salient sensory percepts for humans and other animals; sweet taste permits the identification of energy-rich nutrients while bitter warns against the intake of potentially noxious chemicals1. In mammals, information from taste receptor cells in the tongue is transmitted through multiple neural stations to the primary gustatory cortex in the brain2. Recent imaging studies have shown that sweet and bitter are represented in the primary gustatory cortex by neurons organized in a spatial map3,4, with each taste quality encoded by distinct cortical fields4. Here we demonstrate that by manipulating the brain fields representing sweet and bitter taste we directly control an animal’s internal representation, sensory perception, and behavioral actions. These results substantiate the segregation of taste qualities in the cortex, expose the innate nature of appetitive and aversive taste responses, and illustrate the ability of gustatory cortex to recapitulate complex behaviors in the absence of sensory input. PMID:26580015

  8. Sensory Threshold Studies of Picrocrocin, the Major Bitter Compound of Saffron.

    PubMed

    Chrysanthou, Andreas; Pouliou, Evangelia; Kyriakoudi, Anastasia; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a wider project on the bitter taste of saffron and its preparations. A deeper knowledge on the taste perception of picrocrocin is necessary in order to develop products that satisfy consumer senses and provide them with adequate amounts of saffron major constituents, also appreciated for bioactivity. A systematic approach on the bitterness of picrocrocin, the major responsible compound, was conducted. A panel was trained specifically for the determination of taste detection and recognition thresholds of picrocrocin, which were found to be 5.34 and 7.26 mg/L, respectively, using the Ascending Forced Choice of Limits methodology. The threshold values were examined in water in absence and presence of other saffron constituents and ethanol and were found to decrease when served hot (61 ± 4 °C). Bitterness was enhanced in 40% (v/v) aqueous ethanol. In both aqueous and ethanol extracts, the presence of saffron volatiles improved bitterness perception. The usefulness of the study was tested in the case of commercial saffron based infusions.

  9. Sweet and bitter taste in the brain of awake behaving animals.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yueqing; Gillis-Smith, Sarah; Jin, Hao; Tränkner, Dimitri; Ryba, Nicholas J P; Zuker, Charles S

    2015-11-26

    Taste is responsible for evaluating the nutritious content of food, guiding essential appetitive behaviours, preventing the ingestion of toxic substances, and helping to ensure the maintenance of a healthy diet. Sweet and bitter are two of the most salient sensory percepts for humans and other animals; sweet taste allows the identification of energy-rich nutrients whereas bitter warns against the intake of potentially noxious chemicals. In mammals, information from taste receptor cells in the tongue is transmitted through multiple neural stations to the primary gustatory cortex in the brain. Recent imaging studies have shown that sweet and bitter are represented in the primary gustatory cortex by neurons organized in a spatial map, with each taste quality encoded by distinct cortical fields. Here we demonstrate that by manipulating the brain fields representing sweet and bitter taste we directly control an animal's internal representation, sensory perception, and behavioural actions. These results substantiate the segregation of taste qualities in the cortex, expose the innate nature of appetitive and aversive taste responses, and illustrate the ability of gustatory cortex to recapitulate complex behaviours in the absence of sensory input. PMID:26580015

  10. The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Bitter Tastant-Induced Bronchodilation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Lifshitz, Lawrence M.; Uy, Karl F.; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Fogarty, Kevin E.; ZhuGe, Ronghua

    2013-01-01

    Bronchodilators are a standard medicine for treating airway obstructive diseases, and β2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been the most commonly used bronchodilators since their discovery. Strikingly, activation of G-protein-coupled bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in airway smooth muscle (ASM) causes a stronger bronchodilation in vitro and in vivo than β2 agonists, implying that new and better bronchodilators could be developed. A critical step towards realizing this potential is to understand the mechanisms underlying this bronchodilation, which remain ill-defined. An influential hypothesis argues that bitter tastants generate localized Ca2+ signals, as revealed in cultured ASM cells, to activate large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, which in turn hyperpolarize the membrane, leading to relaxation. Here we report that in mouse primary ASM cells bitter tastants neither evoke localized Ca2+ events nor alter spontaneous local Ca2+ transients. Interestingly, they increase global intracellular [Ca2+]i, although to a much lower level than bronchoconstrictors. We show that these Ca2+ changes in cells at rest are mediated via activation of the canonical bitter taste signaling cascade (i.e., TAS2R-gustducin-phospholipase Cβ [PLCβ]- inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor [IP3R]), and are not sufficient to impact airway contractility. But activation of TAS2Rs fully reverses the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by bronchoconstrictors, and this lowering of the [Ca2+]i is necessary for bitter tastant-induced ASM cell relaxation. We further show that bitter tastants inhibit L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), resulting in reversal in [Ca2+]i, and this inhibition can be prevented by pertussis toxin and G-protein βγ subunit inhibitors, but not by the blockers of PLCβ and IP3R. Together, we suggest that TAS2R stimulation activates two opposing Ca2+ signaling pathways via Gβγ to increase [Ca2+]i at rest while blocking activated L-type VDCCs to induce

  11. Ability of Food/Drink to Reduce the Bitterness Intensity of Topiramate as Determined by Taste Sensor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Tamami; Uchida, Takahiro; Hazekawa, Mai; Yoshida, Miyako; Nakashima, Masaki; Sanda, Hotaka; Hase, Takema; Tomoda, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which foods and/or drinks are capable of reducing the bitterness of topiramate when consumed together with the medicine. The inhibitory effects of foods/drinks (yoghurt and nine other foods/drinks) on the bitterness of topiramate (5 mg/mL) were evaluated with a taste sensor using a bitterness-responsive membrane (C00). The effect of topiramate on the taste characteristics of the foods/drinks themselves was also evaluated by taste sensor outputs. The viscosities of the foods/drinks and the influence of the lactic acid and orotic acid components of yoghurt, the most successful of the tested substances in taste masking, on the bitterness of topiramate were also measured. Yoghurt was predicted to be the most effective of the foods/drinks tested in reducing the acidic bitterness-responsive sensor output of topiramate. The outputs of the astringency sensor, sourness sensor, and saltiness sensor to yoghurt were not reduced by the addition of topiramate. The viscosity and lactic acid and orotic acid components of yoghurt seemed to be the keys in reducing the bitterness of topiramate. Yoghurt is predicted to be the food/drink most capable of reducing the bitterness of topiramate without losing the taste of the food/drink itself.

  12. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  13. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress.

  14. Amino Acid Derivatives as Bitter Taste Receptor (T2R) Blockers*

    PubMed Central

    Pydi, Sai P.; Sobotkiewicz, Tyler; Billakanti, Rohini; Bhullar, Rajinder P.; Loewen, Michele C.; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are activated by hundreds of structurally diverse bitter compounds. However, only five antagonists or bitter blockers are known. In this study, using molecular modeling guided site-directed mutagenesis, we elucidated the ligand-binding pocket of T2R4. We found seven amino acids located in the extracellular side of transmembrane 3 (TM3), TM4, extracellular loop 2 (ECL2), and ECL3 to be involved in T2R4 binding to its agonist quinine. ECL2 residues Asn-173 and Thr-174 are essential for quinine binding. Guided by a molecular model of T2R4, a number of amino acid derivatives were screened for their ability to bind to T2R4. These predictions were tested by calcium imaging assays that led to identification of γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA) and Nα,Nα-bis(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (BCML) as competitive inhibitors of quinine-activated T2R4 with an IC50 of 3.2 ± 0.3 μm and 59 ± 18 nm, respectively. Interestingly, pharmacological characterization using a constitutively active mutant of T2R4 reveals that GABA acts as an antagonist, whereas BCML acts as an inverse agonist on T2R4. Site-directed mutagenesis confirms that the two novel bitter blockers share the same orthosteric site as the agonist quinine. The signature residues Ala-90 and Lys-270 play important roles in interacting with BCML and GABA, respectively. This is the first report to characterize a T2R endogenous antagonist and an inverse agonist. The novel bitter blockers will facilitate physiological studies focused on understanding the roles of T2Rs in extraoral tissues. PMID:25059668

  15. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon.

  16. Smallest bitter taste receptor (T2Rs) gene repertoire in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling-Ling; Shi, Peng

    2013-06-01

    Bitter taste reception is presumably associated with dietary selection, preventing animals from ingesting potentially harmful compounds. Accordingly, carnivores, who encounter these toxic substances less often, should have fewer genes associated with bitter taste reception compared with herbivores and omnivores. To investigate the genetic basis of bitter taste reception, we confirmed bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes previously found in the genome sequences of two herbivores (cow and horse), two omnivores (mouse and rat) and one carnivore (dog). We also identified, for the first time, the T2R repertoire from the genome of other four carnivore species (ferret, giant panda, polar bear and cat) and detected 17-20 bitter receptor genes from the five carnivore genomes, including 12-16 intact genes, 0-1 partial but putatively functional genes, and 3-8 pseudogenes. Both the intact T2R genes and the total T2R gene number among carnivores were the smallest among the tested species, supporting earlier speculations that carnivores have fewer T2R genes, herbivores an intermediate number, and omnivores the largest T2R gene repertoire. To further explain the genetic basis for this disparity, we constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed most of the T2R genes from the five carnivores were one-to-one orthologs across the tree, suggesting that carnivore T2Rs were conserved among mammals. Similarly, the small carnivore T2R family size was likely due to rare duplication events. Collectively, these results strengthen arguments for the connection between T2R gene family size, diet and habit. PMID:23776004

  17. Smallest bitter taste receptor (T2Rs) gene repertoire in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling-Ling; Shi, Peng

    2013-06-01

    Bitter taste reception is presumably associated with dietary selection, preventing animals from ingesting potentially harmful compounds. Accordingly, carnivores, who encounter these toxic substances less often, should have fewer genes associated with bitter taste reception compared with herbivores and omnivores. To investigate the genetic basis of bitter taste reception, we confirmed bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes previously found in the genome sequences of two herbivores (cow and horse), two omnivores (mouse and rat) and one carnivore (dog). We also identified, for the first time, the T2R repertoire from the genome of other four carnivore species (ferret, giant panda, polar bear and cat) and detected 17-20 bitter receptor genes from the five carnivore genomes, including 12-16 intact genes, 0-1 partial but putatively functional genes, and 3-8 pseudogenes. Both the intact T2R genes and the total T2R gene number among carnivores were the smallest among the tested species, supporting earlier speculations that carnivores have fewer T2R genes, herbivores an intermediate number, and omnivores the largest T2R gene repertoire. To further explain the genetic basis for this disparity, we constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed most of the T2R genes from the five carnivores were one-to-one orthologs across the tree, suggesting that carnivore T2Rs were conserved among mammals. Similarly, the small carnivore T2R family size was likely due to rare duplication events. Collectively, these results strengthen arguments for the connection between T2R gene family size, diet and habit.

  18. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. PMID:25308777

  19. A heteromeric membrane-bound prenyltransferase complex from hop catalyzes three sequential aromatic prenylations in the bitter acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoxun; Ban, Zhaonan; Qin, Hao; Ma, Liya; King, Andrew J; Wang, Guodong

    2015-03-01

    Bitter acids (α and β types) account for more than 30% of the fresh weight of hop (Humulus lupulus) glandular trichomes and are well known for their contribution to the bitter taste of beer. These multiprenylated chemicals also show diverse biological activities, some of which have potential benefits to human health. The bitter acid biosynthetic pathway has been investigated extensively, and the genes for the early steps of bitter acid synthesis have been cloned and functionally characterized. However, little is known about the enzyme(s) that catalyze three sequential prenylation steps in the β-bitter acid pathway. Here, we employed a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) system for the functional identification of aromatic prenyltransferase (PT) genes. Two PT genes (HlPT1L and HlPT2) obtained from a hop trichome-specific complementary DNA library were functionally characterized using this yeast system. Coexpression of codon-optimized PT1L and PT2 in yeast, together with upstream genes, led to the production of bitter acids, but no bitter acids were detected when either of the PT genes was expressed by itself. Stepwise mutation of the aspartate-rich motifs in PT1L and PT2 further revealed the prenylation sequence of these two enzymes in β-bitter acid biosynthesis: PT1L catalyzed only the first prenylation step, and PT2 catalyzed the two subsequent prenylation steps. A metabolon formed through interactions between PT1L and PT2 was demonstrated using a yeast two-hybrid system, reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation, and in vitro biochemical assays. These results provide direct evidence of the involvement of a functional metabolon of membrane-bound prenyltransferases in bitter acid biosynthesis in hop. PMID:25564559

  20. Mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by hop bitter acids (beer aroma) through induction of apoptosis mediated by Fas and caspase cascades.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2004-01-14

    The bitter acids of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) mainly consist of alpha-acids, beta-acids, and their oxidation products that contribute the unique aroma of the beer beverage. Hop bitter acids displayed a strong growth inhibitory effect against human leukemia HL-60 cells, with an estimated IC(50) value of 8.67 microg/mL, but were less effective against human histolytic lymphoma U937 cells. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed in HL-60 cells by DNA fragmentation and the appearance of a sub-G1 DNA peak, which were preceded by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and subsequent induction of pro-caspase-9 and -3 processing. Cleavages of PARP and DFF-45 were accompanied with activation of caspase-9 and -3 triggered by hop bitter acids in HL-60 cells. The change in the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and Bax in response to hop bitter acids was studied, and the Bcl-2 protein level slightly decreased; however, the Bcl-X(L) protein level was obviously decreased, whereas the Bax protein level was dramatically increased, indicating that the control of Bcl-2 family proteins by hop bitter acids might participate in the disruption of mitochondrial integrity. In addition, the results showed that hop bitter acids promoted the up-regulation of Fas and FasL prior to the processing and activation of pro-caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid, suggesting the involvement of a Fas-mediated pathway in hop bitter acids-induced cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that a certain intimate link might exist between receptor- and mitochondria-mediated death signalings that committed to cell death induced by hop bitter acids. The induction of apoptosis by hop bitter acids may offer a pivotal mechanism for their chemopreventive action.

  1. The combination effect of L-arginine and NaCl on bitterness suppression of amino acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tazuko; Nakamura, Tomoko; Tsuji, Eriko; Miyanaga, Yohko; Nakagawa, Hiroyo; Hirabayashi, Hitomi; Uchida, Takahiro

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify the degree of suppression of the bitterness of two amino acids (L-isoleucine (L-Ile), and L-phenylalanine (L-Phe)) which could be achieved by the addition of various test chemicals, and to examine the mechanism of this bitterness suppression. The test chemicals used were two sweeteners (sucrose, aspartame), NaCl, various acidic (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid), or basic (L-histidine, L-lysine and L-arginine) amino acids, tannic acid and phosphatidic acid. The combination of L-arginine (L-Arg) and NaCl together was the most effective in reducing the bitterness of 100 mM L-Ile and L-Phe solutions in human gustatory sensation tests. Even in bitterness of 0.1 mM quinine solution, L-Arg was also successful in reducing the bitterness. This bitterness-suppression effect was specific to L-Arg and not to the other basic amino acids. No comparable taste-masking effect was observed for the acidic amino acids. The artificial taste sensor failed to predict completely the bitterness-suppressing effect of L-Arg. It seems likely that the bitterness-suppressing effect of L-Arg is mediated not only by binding at the receptor site, but also elsewhere in the process of bitterness perception, such as a direct effect on the sodium channel. It is conjectured that the guanidinium group of L-Arg may interact with sodium channels in taste bud membranes.

  2. Genetic relationships and evolution in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as revealed by simple sequence repeat polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Gong, Li; Paris, Harry S; Nee, Michael H; Stift, Gertraud; Pachner, Martin; Vollmann, Johann; Lelley, Tamas

    2012-03-01

    Genetic relationships among 104 accessions of Cucurbita pepo were assessed from polymorphisms in 134 SSR (microsatellite) and four SCAR loci, yielding a total of 418 alleles, distributed among all 20 linkage groups. Genetic distance values were calculated, a dendrogram constructed, and principal coordinate analyses conducted. The results showed 100 of the accessions as distributed among three clusters representing each of the recognized subspecies, pepo, texana, and fraterna. The remaining four accessions, all having very small, round, striped fruits, assumed central positions between the two cultivated subspecies, pepo and texana, suggesting that they are relicts of undescribed wild ancestors of the two domesticated subspecies. In both, subsp. texana and subsp. pepo, accessions belonging to the same cultivar-group (fruit shape) associated with one another. Within subsp. pepo, accessions grown for their seeds or that are generalists, used for both seed and fruit consumption, assumed central positions. Specialized accessions, grown exclusively for consumption of their young fruits, or their mature fruit flesh, or seed oil extraction, tended to assume outlying positions, and the different specializations radiated outward from the center in different directions. Accessions of the longest-fruited cultivar-group, Cocozelle, radiated bidirectionally, indicating independent selection events for long fruits in subsp. pepo probably driven by a common desire to consume the young fruits. Among the accessions tested, there was no evidence for crossing between subspecies after domestication.

  3. Light-induced transpiration alters cell water relations in figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia) seedlings exposed to low root temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Hee; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Chung, Gap Chae

    2008-06-01

    Water relation parameters including elastic modulus (epsilon), half-times of water exchange (T(w)(1/2)), hydraulic conductivity and turgor pressure (P) were measured in individual root cortical and cotyledon midrib cells in intact figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia) seedlings, using a cell pressure probe. Transpiration rates (E) of cotyledons were also measured using a steady-state porometer. The seedlings were exposed to low ambient (approximately 10 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) or high supplemental irradiance (approximately 300 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PPF density) at low (8 degrees C) or warm (22 degrees C) root temperatures. When exposed to low irradiance, all the water relation parameters of cortical cells remained similar at both root temperatures. The exposure of cotyledons to supplemental light at warm root temperatures, however, resulted in a two- to three-fold increase in T(w)(1/2) values accompanied with the reduced hydraulic conductivity in both root cortical (Lp) and cotyledon midrib cells (Lp(c)). Low root temperature (LRT) further reduced Lp(c) and E, whether it was measured under low or high irradiance levels. The reductions of Lp as the result of respective light and LRT treatments were prevented by the application of 1 microM ABA. Midrib cells required higher concentrations of ABA (2 microM) in order to prevent the reduction in Lp(c). When the exposure of cotyledons to light was accompanied by LRT, however, ABA proved ineffective in reversing the inhibition of Lp. LRT combined with high irradiance triggered a drastic 10-fold reduction in water permeability of cortical and midrib cells and increased epsilon and T(w)(1/2) values. Measurement of E indicated that the increased water demand by the transpiring plants was fulfilled by an increase in the apoplastic pathway as principal water flow route. The importance of water transport regulation by transpiration affecting the hydraulic conductivity of the roots is discussed. PMID:18346079

  4. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used.

  5. Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits.

  6. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of grafting-responsive mRNA in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Fu, Xinxing; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kai; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Hu, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-04-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used to improve plant growth, yield, and adaptation to either biotic or abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Grafting technique is commonly used in watermelon production for improving its tolerance to stresses, especially to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of scions from watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks. Our transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling data provided insights into the molecular aspects of gene regulation in grafted watermelon. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, there were 787 and 3485 genes differentially expressed in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks, respectively. These genes were associated with primary and secondary metabolism, hormone signaling, transcription factors, transporters, and response to stimuli. Grafting led to changes in expression of these genes, suggesting that they may play important roles in mediating the physiological processes of grafted seedlings. The potential roles of the grafting-responsive mRNAs in diverse biological and metabolic processes were discussed. Obviously, the data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the mechanisms of candidate genes function in diverse biological processes and in environmental adaptation in a graft system. PMID:26500104

  7. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of grafting-responsive mRNA in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Fu, Xinxing; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kai; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Hu, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-04-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used to improve plant growth, yield, and adaptation to either biotic or abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Grafting technique is commonly used in watermelon production for improving its tolerance to stresses, especially to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of scions from watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks. Our transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling data provided insights into the molecular aspects of gene regulation in grafted watermelon. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, there were 787 and 3485 genes differentially expressed in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks, respectively. These genes were associated with primary and secondary metabolism, hormone signaling, transcription factors, transporters, and response to stimuli. Grafting led to changes in expression of these genes, suggesting that they may play important roles in mediating the physiological processes of grafted seedlings. The potential roles of the grafting-responsive mRNAs in diverse biological and metabolic processes were discussed. Obviously, the data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the mechanisms of candidate genes function in diverse biological processes and in environmental adaptation in a graft system.

  8. Interaction of alpha-L-aspartyl-D-phenylalanine methyl ester with the receptor site of the bitter taste.

    PubMed

    Lelj, F; Tancredi, T; Temussi, P A; Toniolo, C

    1980-12-01

    The analysis of the structure-activity relationship previously performed on the sweet L,L isomer of Asp-Phe-OMe was extended to the bitter L,D diastereoisomer. A combination of NMR measurements and of an original method of PEM calculations gives a description of the conformational state of the L,D isomer that can be effectively used to study the interaction with a previously proposed model of the bitter taste receptor site. PMID:7202705

  9. Interaction of alpha-L-aspartyl-D-phenylalanine methyl ester with the receptor site of the bitter taste.

    PubMed

    Lelj, F; Tancredi, T; Temussi, P A; Toniolo, C

    1980-12-01

    The analysis of the structure-activity relationship previously performed on the sweet L,L isomer of Asp-Phe-OMe was extended to the bitter L,D diastereoisomer. A combination of NMR measurements and of an original method of PEM calculations gives a description of the conformational state of the L,D isomer that can be effectively used to study the interaction with a previously proposed model of the bitter taste receptor site.

  10. "A spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down": bitter masking by sucrose among children and adults.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Reed, Danielle R; Mathew, Phoebe S; Roberts, Kristi M; Mansfield, Corrine J

    2015-01-01

    Sweeteners are often added to liquid formulations of drugs but whether they merely make them better tasting or actually reduce the perception of bitterness remains unknown. In a group of children and adults, we determined whether adding sucrose to urea, caffeine, denatonium benzoate, propylthiouracil (PROP), and quinine would reduce their bitterness using a forced-choice method of paired comparisons. To better understand individual differences, adults also rated each solution using a more complex test (general Labeled Magnitude Scale [gLMS]) and were genotyped for the sweet taste receptor gene TAS1R3 and the bitter receptor TAS2R38. Sucrose suppressed the bitterness of each agent in children and adults. In adults, sucrose was effective in reducing the bitterness ratings from moderate to weak for all compounds tested, but those with the sensitive form of the sweet receptor reported greater reduction for caffeine and quinine. For PROP, sucrose was most effective for those who were genetically the most sensitive, although this did not attain statistical significance. Not only is the paired comparison method a valid tool to study how sucrose improves the taste of pediatric medicines among children but knowledge gleaned from basic research in bitter taste and how to alleviate it remains an important public health priority.

  11. Reinvestigation of the bitter compounds in carrots (Daucus carota L.) by using a molecular sensory science approach.

    PubMed

    Schmiech, Ludger; Uemura, Daisuke; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-11-12

    In order to reinvestigate the key molecules inducing bitter off-taste of carrots ( Daucus carota L.), a sensory-guided fractionation approach was applied to bitter carrot extracts. Besides the previously reported bitter compounds, 6-methoxymellein (1), falcarindiol (2), falcarinol (3), and falcarindiol-3-acetate (4), the following compounds were identified for the first time as bitter compounds in carrots with low bitter recognition thresholds between 8 and 47 micromol/L: vaginatin (5), isovaginatin (6), 2-epilaserine oxide (7), laserine oxide (8), laserine (14), 2-epilaserine (15), 6,8-O-ditigloyl- (9), 6-O-angeloyl-, 8-O-tigloyl- (10), 6-O-tigloyl-, 8-O-angeloyl- (11), and 6-, 8-O-diangeloyl-6 ss,8alpha,11-trihydroxygermacra-1(10) E,4 E-diene (12), as well as 8-O-angeloyl-tovarol (13) and alpha-angeloyloxy-latifolone (16). Among these bitter molecules, compounds 9, 10, 13, and 16 were not previously identified in carrots and compounds 6, 11, and 12 were yet not reported in the literature.

  12. Discovery and genetic analysis of non-bitter Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) with trace-rutinosidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In a screening of about 500 lines of Tartary buckwheat, we identified lines that contained no detectable rutinosidase isozymes using an in-gel detection assay. We confirmed that seeds of these individuals had only a trace level of in-vitro rutinosidase activity. To investigate the heritability of the trace-rutinosidase characteristic, we analyzed the progeny of crosses between rutinosidase trace-lines, ‘f3g-162’, and the ‘Hokkai T8’. The F2 progeny clearly divided into two groups: those with rutinosidase activity under 1.5 nkat/g seed (trace-rutinosidase) and those with activity over 400 nkat/g seed (normal rutinosidase). The segregation pattern of this trait in F2 progeny exhibited 1 : 3 ratio (trace-rutinosidase : normal rutinosidase), suggesting that the trace-rutinosidase trait is conferred by a single recessive gene; rutinosidase-trace A (rutA). In addition, sensory panelists evaluated the bitterness of flour from trace-rutinosidase individuals and did not detect bitterness, whereas flour from normal rutinosidase individuals was found to have strong bitterness. Although at least three bitter compounds have been reported in Tartary buckwheat seeds, our present findings indicate that rutin hydrolysis is the major contributing factor to bitterness. In addition, the trace-rutinosidase line identified here, ‘f3g-162’, is a promising material for generating a non-bitter Tartary buckwheat variety. PMID:25914588

  13. Discovery and genetic analysis of non-bitter Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) with trace-rutinosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    In a screening of about 500 lines of Tartary buckwheat, we identified lines that contained no detectable rutinosidase isozymes using an in-gel detection assay. We confirmed that seeds of these individuals had only a trace level of in-vitro rutinosidase activity. To investigate the heritability of the trace-rutinosidase characteristic, we analyzed the progeny of crosses between rutinosidase trace-lines, 'f3g-162', and the 'Hokkai T8'. The F2 progeny clearly divided into two groups: those with rutinosidase activity under 1.5 nkat/g seed (trace-rutinosidase) and those with activity over 400 nkat/g seed (normal rutinosidase). The segregation pattern of this trait in F2 progeny exhibited 1 : 3 ratio (trace-rutinosidase : normal rutinosidase), suggesting that the trace-rutinosidase trait is conferred by a single recessive gene; rutinosidase-trace A (rutA). In addition, sensory panelists evaluated the bitterness of flour from trace-rutinosidase individuals and did not detect bitterness, whereas flour from normal rutinosidase individuals was found to have strong bitterness. Although at least three bitter compounds have been reported in Tartary buckwheat seeds, our present findings indicate that rutin hydrolysis is the major contributing factor to bitterness. In addition, the trace-rutinosidase line identified here, 'f3g-162', is a promising material for generating a non-bitter Tartary buckwheat variety.

  14. “A Spoonful of Sugar Helps the Medicine Go Down”: Bitter Masking by Sucrose Among Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle R.; Mathew, Phoebe S.; Roberts, Kristi M.; Mansfield, Corrine J.

    2015-01-01

    Sweeteners are often added to liquid formulations of drugs but whether they merely make them better tasting or actually reduce the perception of bitterness remains unknown. In a group of children and adults, we determined whether adding sucrose to urea, caffeine, denatonium benzoate, propylthiouracil (PROP), and quinine would reduce their bitterness using a forced-choice method of paired comparisons. To better understand individual differences, adults also rated each solution using a more complex test (general Labeled Magnitude Scale [gLMS]) and were genotyped for the sweet taste receptor gene TAS1R3 and the bitter receptor TAS2R38. Sucrose suppressed the bitterness of each agent in children and adults. In adults, sucrose was effective in reducing the bitterness ratings from moderate to weak for all compounds tested, but those with the sensitive form of the sweet receptor reported greater reduction for caffeine and quinine. For PROP, sucrose was most effective for those who were genetically the most sensitive, although this did not attain statistical significance. Not only is the paired comparison method a valid tool to study how sucrose improves the taste of pediatric medicines among children but knowledge gleaned from basic research in bitter taste and how to alleviate it remains an important public health priority. PMID:25381313

  15. The Role of Bitter and Sweet Taste Receptors in Upper Airway Immunity.

    PubMed

    Workman, Alan D; Palmer, James N; Adappa, Nithin D; Cohen, Noam A

    2015-12-01

    Over the past several years, taste receptors have emerged as key players in the regulation of innate immune defenses in the mammalian respiratory tract. Several cell types in the airway, including ciliated epithelial cells, solitary chemosensory cells, and bronchial smooth muscle cells, all display chemoresponsive properties that utilize taste receptors. A variety of bitter products secreted by microbes are detected with resultant downstream inflammation, increased mucous clearance, antimicrobial peptide secretion, and direct bacterial killing. Genetic variation of bitter taste receptors also appears to play a role in the susceptibility to infection in respiratory disease states, including that of chronic rhinosinusitis. Ongoing taste receptor research may yield new therapeutics that harness innate immune defenses in the respiratory tract and may offer alternatives to antibiotic treatment. The present review discusses taste receptor-protective responses and analyzes the role these receptors play in mediating airway immune function.

  16. Mozambioside Is an Arabica-Specific Bitter-Tasting Furokaurane Glucoside in Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Lang, Roman; Klade, Stefan; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Sensory-guided fractionation of a roasted coffee beverage revealed a highly polar, bitter-tasting subfraction, from which the furokaurane glucoside mozambioside was isolated and identified in its chemical structure by means of HDMS and NMR spectra. Sensory evaluation revealed a bitter taste recognition threshold of 60 (± 10) μmol/L. UPLC-HDMS quantitation of raw coffee beans showed that Arabica coffees contained 396-1188 nmol/g mozambioside, whereas only traces (<5 nmol/g) were detected in Robusta coffees, thus suggesting that mozambioside can be used as an analytical marker for Arabica coffee. Roasted Arabica contained a substantially reduced concentration (232 ± 37 nmol/g), indicating partial degradation of mozambioside during coffee roasting. Mozambioside was nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous brew during coffee-making (86-98%).

  17. Diet Shapes the Evolution of the Vertebrate Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Li, Diyan; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate Tas2r taste receptors bind to bitter compounds, which are typically poisonous, to elicit bitter sensation to prevent the ingestion of toxins. Previous studies noted a marked variation in the number of Tas2r genes among species, but the underlying cause is unclear. To address this question, we compile the Tas2r gene repertoires from 41 mammals, 4 birds, 2 reptiles, 1 amphibian, and 6 fishes. The number of intact Tas2r genes varies from 0 in the bottlenose dolphin to 51 in the Western clawed frog, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The Tas2r gene number in a species correlates with the fraction of plants in its diet. Because plant tissues contain more toxic compounds than animal tissues do, our observation supports the hypothesis that dietary toxins are a major selective force shaping the diversity of the Tas2r repertoire. PMID:24202612

  18. Mozambioside Is an Arabica-Specific Bitter-Tasting Furokaurane Glucoside in Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Lang, Roman; Klade, Stefan; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Sensory-guided fractionation of a roasted coffee beverage revealed a highly polar, bitter-tasting subfraction, from which the furokaurane glucoside mozambioside was isolated and identified in its chemical structure by means of HDMS and NMR spectra. Sensory evaluation revealed a bitter taste recognition threshold of 60 (± 10) μmol/L. UPLC-HDMS quantitation of raw coffee beans showed that Arabica coffees contained 396-1188 nmol/g mozambioside, whereas only traces (<5 nmol/g) were detected in Robusta coffees, thus suggesting that mozambioside can be used as an analytical marker for Arabica coffee. Roasted Arabica contained a substantially reduced concentration (232 ± 37 nmol/g), indicating partial degradation of mozambioside during coffee roasting. Mozambioside was nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous brew during coffee-making (86-98%). PMID:26585544

  19. The Role of Bitter and Sweet Taste Receptors in Upper Airway Immunity.

    PubMed

    Workman, Alan D; Palmer, James N; Adappa, Nithin D; Cohen, Noam A

    2015-12-01

    Over the past several years, taste receptors have emerged as key players in the regulation of innate immune defenses in the mammalian respiratory tract. Several cell types in the airway, including ciliated epithelial cells, solitary chemosensory cells, and bronchial smooth muscle cells, all display chemoresponsive properties that utilize taste receptors. A variety of bitter products secreted by microbes are detected with resultant downstream inflammation, increased mucous clearance, antimicrobial peptide secretion, and direct bacterial killing. Genetic variation of bitter taste receptors also appears to play a role in the susceptibility to infection in respiratory disease states, including that of chronic rhinosinusitis. Ongoing taste receptor research may yield new therapeutics that harness innate immune defenses in the respiratory tract and may offer alternatives to antibiotic treatment. The present review discusses taste receptor-protective responses and analyzes the role these receptors play in mediating airway immune function. PMID:26492878

  20. Hop bitter acids exhibit anti-fibrogenic effects on hepatic stellate cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saugspier, Michael; Dorn, Christoph; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Gehrig, Manfred; Heilmann, Jörg; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2012-04-01

    Female inflorescences of the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. contain a variety of secondary metabolites with bitter acids (BA) as quantitatively dominating secondary metabolites. The use of hops in beer brewing has a long history due to the antibacterial effects of the BA and their typical bitter taste. Furthermore, hop cones are used in traditional medicine and for pharmaceutical purposes. Recent studies indicate that BA may affect activity of the transcription factor NFκB. NFκB plays a key role in the activation process of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which is the key event of hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BA on HSC (activation) and their potential to inhibit molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. HSC were isolated from murine and human liver tissue and incubated with a characterized fraction of bitter acids purified from a CO(2) hop extract. At a concentration of 25μg/ml BA started to induce LDH leakage. Already at lower concentrations BA lead to a dose dependent inhibition of HSC proliferation and inhibited IκB-α-phosphorylation, nuclear p65 translocation and binding activity in a dose dependent way (up to 10μg/ml). Accordingly, the same BA-doses inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory and NFκB regulated genes as MCP-1 and RANTES, but did not affect expression of genes not related to NFκB signaling. In addition to the effect on activated HSC, BA inhibited the in vitro activation process of freshly isolated HSC as evidenced by delayed expression of collagen I and α-SMA mRNA and protein. Together, these findings indicate that BA inhibit NFκB activation, and herewith the activation and development of profibrogenic phenotype of HSC. Thus, bitter acids appear as potential functional nutrients for the prevention or treatment hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease.

  1. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuan; Li, Diyan; Gaur, Uma; Wang, Yan; Wu, Nan; Chen, Binlong; Xu, Zhongxian; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The sense of bitter taste plays a critical role in animals as it can help them to avoid intake of toxic and harmful substances. Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, Tas2r2 and Tas2r7). To better understand the genetic polymorphisms and importance of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in chicken, here, we sequenced Tas2rs of 30 Sichuan domestic chickens and 30 Tibetan chickens. Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including three nonsynonymous mutations (m.359G>C, m.503C>A and m.583A>G) were detected in Tas2r1 (m. is the abbreviation for mutation); three SNPs were detected in Tas2r2, but none of them were missense mutation; eight SNPs were detected in Tas2r7 including six nonsynonymous substitutions (m.178G>A, m.421A>C, m.787C>T, m.832G>T, m.907A>T and m.943G>A). Tajima's D neutral test indicates that there is no population expansion in both populations, and the size of the population is relatively stable. All the three networks indicate that red jungle fowls share haplotypes with domestic chickens. In addition, we found that haplotypes H1 and HE1 were positively associated with high-altitude adaptation, whereas haplotypes H4 and HE4 showed a negative correlation with high-altitude adaptation in Tas2rs. Although, chicken has only three Tas2rs, our results showed that both Sichuan domestic chickens and Tibetan chickens have abundant haplotypes in Tas2rs, especially in Tas2r7, which might help chickens to recognize a wide variety of bitter-tasting compounds. PMID:27659339

  2. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P < 0.05). There was no additional effect of the sweeter glucose + saccharin solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  3. How Do Fruits Ripen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A fruit is alive, and for it to ripen normally, many biochemical reactions must occur in a proper order. After pollination, proper nutrition, growing conditions, and certain plant hormones cause the fruit to develop and grow to proper size. During this time, fruits store energy in the form of starch and sugars, called photosynthates because they…

  4. Sequence Analysis of Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoires in Different Ruminant Species

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro Ferreira, Ana; Tomás Marques, Andreia; Bhide, Mangesh; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka; Hollung, Kristin; Knight, Christopher Harold; Raundrup, Katrine; Lippolis, John; Palmer, Mitchell; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana Sousa; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2015-01-01

    Bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. At the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (T2R) present at the surface of taste receptor cells in the gustatory papillae. Our work aims at exploring the phylogenetic relationships of T2R gene sequences within different ruminant species. To accomplish this goal, we gathered a collection of ruminant species with different feeding behaviors and for which no genome data is available: American bison, chamois, elk, European bison, fallow deer, goat, moose, mouflon, muskox, red deer, reindeer and white tailed deer. The herbivores chosen for this study belong to different taxonomic families and habitats, and hence, exhibit distinct foraging behaviors and diet preferences. We describe the first partial repertoires of T2R gene sequences for these species obtained by direct sequencing. We then consider the homology and evolutionary history of these receptors within this ruminant group, and whether it relates to feeding type classification, using MEGA software. Our results suggest that phylogenetic proximity of T2R genes corresponds more to the traditional taxonomic groups of the species rather than reflecting a categorization by feeding strategy. PMID:26061084

  5. Sequence Analysis of Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoires in Different Ruminant Species.

    PubMed

    Monteiro Ferreira, Ana; Tomás Marques, Andreia; Bhide, Mangesh; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka; Hollung, Kristin; Knight, Christopher Harold; Raundrup, Katrine; Lippolis, John; Palmer, Mitchell; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana Sousa; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2015-01-01

    Bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. At the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (T2R) present at the surface of taste receptor cells in the gustatory papillae. Our work aims at exploring the phylogenetic relationships of T2R gene sequences within different ruminant species. To accomplish this goal, we gathered a collection of ruminant species with different feeding behaviors and for which no genome data is available: American bison, chamois, elk, European bison, fallow deer, goat, moose, mouflon, muskox, red deer, reindeer and white tailed deer. The herbivores chosen for this study belong to different taxonomic families and habitats, and hence, exhibit distinct foraging behaviors and diet preferences. We describe the first partial repertoires of T2R gene sequences for these species obtained by direct sequencing. We then consider the homology and evolutionary history of these receptors within this ruminant group, and whether it relates to feeding type classification, using MEGA software. Our results suggest that phylogenetic proximity of T2R genes corresponds more to the traditional taxonomic groups of the species rather than reflecting a categorization by feeding strategy.

  6. Expression of bitter taste receptor Tas2r105 in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Gu, Fu; Jiang, Li; Chen, Fuxue; Li, Feng

    2015-03-20

    The kidney is the most important excretory organ in the body and plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in vivo by conserving body fluid and electrolytes and removing metabolic waste. In this study, three types of transgenic system were used to investigate the expression of the bitter taste receptor Tas2r105 in mouse renal tissue (Tas2r105-GFP/Cre, Tas2r105-GFP/Cre-DTA and Tas2r105-GFP/Cre-LacZ). The results suggest that bitter taste receptors Tas2r105 and Tas2r106 are expressed in the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule, including the proximal tubule and distal tubule. Expression of α-gustducin, an important component of taste signal transduction, was also detected in mouse kidney. Meanwhile, conditional diphtheria toxin (DTA) expression in Tas2r105+ cells caused an increase in size of the glomerulus and renal tubule, accompanied by a decrease in cell density in the glomerulus. This indicates that Tas2r105+ cells play an important role in maintaining the structure of the glomerulus and renal tubules. Overall, the current study collectively demonstrates that cells labeled by bitter taste receptor expression may play a critical role in controlling human health, and have properties far beyond the original concept of taste perception.

  7. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Sayed Abolfazl; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Arabian, Saber

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicated gums are intended to be chewed and act either locally, absorbed via the buccal mucosa or swallowed with saliva. We prepared the metformin gum to overcome its side effects including vomiting, diarrhea, and abdomen discomfort. Furthermore, it could be useful for those who have swallowing problems. Materials and Methods: Metformin hydrochloride (250 mg) with suitable sweeteners was mixed manually for 5 min. This mixture was spray dried, freeze dried, or directly mixed with chewing gum base. Glycerin, xylitol, and menthol were added and the produced paste was kept in the freezer for 2 h to be stable. As the metformin shows bitter taste, we tried to mask this unpleasant taste with using different methods explained. The releasing pattern was evaluated by using a mechanical chewing machine. The best formulation with the optimized releasing pattern, suitable physicochemical properties and pleasant taste were selected. Content uniformity, releasing percent, and other physicochemical properties were identified as well. Taste, flavor, and appearance characteristics were evaluated by using a self-made questionnaire based on the hedonic test method. Results: The chewing gum dosage content was about 86.2%. The release rate of metformin chewing gum was about 70% after 5 min of mastication. Masking the bitter taste of drug was achieved by using acesulfame-isomalt as sweeteners and prepared it by freeze drying equipment. Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate. PMID:24800181

  8. Perinatal administration of a bitter tastant influences gene expression in chicken palate and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Niv, Masha Y; Uni, Zehava

    2014-12-31

    Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) and downstream effectors are responsible for mediating bitterness perception and regulation of food choice in mammals. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated the expression of three Tas2rs and taste signal transduction molecules, α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and TRPM5, in the palate, tongue, and gastrointestinal tract sections in chicken. The bitter tastant quinine activates all three chicken Tas2rs in vitro as shown using calcium-imaging assays of transfected cells. Administration of quinine postnatally or perinatally (both pre- and posthatch) to chickens increased the expression of Tas2r genes in the palate by 6.45-fold (ggTas2r1 postnatal treatment), 4.86-fold (ggTas2r1 perinatal treatment), and 4.48-fold (ggTas2r7 postnatal treatment) compared to the genes' expression in the naı̈ve group respectively, and affected taste related gene expression in the duodenum. Whereas no-choice intake of quinine solution was not significantly lower than that of water in naı̈ve chicks, the treatment groups postnatal, prenatal, and perinatal showed significantly lower intake of quinine by 56.1, 47.7, and 50.2%, respectively, suggesting a possible trend toward sensitization. These results open new venues toward unraveling the formative stages shaping food intake and nutrition in chicken.

  9. Birds Generally Carry a Small Repertoire of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-01-01

    As they belong to the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates, birds have long been believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste is fundamental in birds to recognize dietary toxins (which are typically bitter) in potential food sources. To characterize the evolution of avian bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) and to test whether dietary toxins have shaped the repertoire size of avian Tas2rs, we examined 48 genomes representing all but 3 avian orders. The total number of Tas2r genes was found to range from 1 in the domestic pigeon to 12 in the bar-tailed trogon, with an average of 4, which suggested that a much smaller Tas2r gene repertoire exists in birds than in other vertebrates. Furthermore, we uncovered a positive correlation between the number of putatively functional Tas2rs and the abundance of potential toxins in avian diets. Because plant products contain more toxins than animal tissues and insects release poisonous defensive secretions, we hypothesized that herbivorous and insectivorous birds may demand more functional Tas2rs than carnivorous birds feeding on noninsect animals. Our analyses appear to support this hypothesis and highlight the critical role of taste perception in birds. PMID:26342138

  10. Lineage-Specific Loss of Function of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes in Humans and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Go, Yasuhiro; Satta, Yoko; Takenaka, Osamu; Takahata, Naoyuki

    2005-01-01

    Since the process of becoming dead genes or pseudogenes (pseudogenization) is irreversible and can occur rather rapidly under certain environmental circumstances, it is one plausible determinant for characterizing species specificity. To test this evolutionary hypothesis, we analyzed the tempo and mode of duplication and pseudogenization of bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes in humans as well as in 12 nonhuman primates. The results show that primates have accumulated more pseudogenes than mice after their separation from the common ancestor and that lineage-specific pseudogenization becomes more conspicuous in humans than in nonhuman primates. Although positive selection has operated on some amino acids in extracellular domains, functional constraints against T2R genes are more relaxed in primates than in mice and this trend has culminated in the rapid deterioration of the bitter-tasting capability in humans. Since T2R molecules play an important role in avoiding generally bitter toxic and harmful substances, substantial modification of the T2R gene repertoire is likely to reflect different responses to changes in the environment and to result from species-specific food preference during primate evolution. PMID:15744053

  11. Birds Generally Carry a Small Repertoire of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-04

    As they belong to the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates, birds have long been believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste is fundamental in birds to recognize dietary toxins (which are typically bitter) in potential food sources. To characterize the evolution of avian bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) and to test whether dietary toxins have shaped the repertoire size of avian Tas2rs, we examined 48 genomes representing all but 3 avian orders. The total number of Tas2r genes was found to range from 1 in the domestic pigeon to 12 in the bar-tailed trogon, with an average of 4, which suggested that a much smaller Tas2r gene repertoire exists in birds than in other vertebrates. Furthermore, we uncovered a positive correlation between the number of putatively functional Tas2rs and the abundance of potential toxins in avian diets. Because plant products contain more toxins than animal tissues and insects release poisonous defensive secretions, we hypothesized that herbivorous and insectivorous birds may demand more functional Tas2rs than carnivorous birds feeding on noninsect animals. Our analyses appear to support this hypothesis and highlight the critical role of taste perception in birds.

  12. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  13. Targeting extra-oral bitter taste receptors modulates gastrointestinal motility with effects on satiation

    PubMed Central

    Avau, Bert; Rotondo, Alessandra; Thijs, Theo; Andrews, Christopher N.; Janssen, Pieter; Tack, Jan; Depoortere, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are present in extra-oral tissues, including gut endocrine cells. This study explored the presence and mechanism of action of TAS2R agonists on gut smooth muscle in vitro and investigated functional effects of intra-gastric administration of TAS2R agonists on gastric motility and satiation. TAS2Rs and taste signalling elements were expressed in smooth muscle tissue along the mouse gut and in human gastric smooth muscle cells (hGSMC). Bitter tastants induced concentration and region-dependent contractility changes in mouse intestinal muscle strips. Contractions induced by denatonium benzoate (DB) in gastric fundus were mediated via increases in intracellular Ca2+ release and extracellular Ca2+-influx, partially masked by a hyperpolarizing K+-efflux. Intra-gastric administration of DB in mice induced a TAS2R-dependent delay in gastric emptying. In hGSMC, bitter compounds evoked Ca2+-rises and increased ERK-phosphorylation. Healthy volunteers showed an impaired fundic relaxation in response to nutrient infusion and a decreased nutrient volume tolerance and increased satiation during an oral nutrient challenge test after intra-gastric DB administration. These findings suggest a potential role for intestinal TAS2Rs as therapeutic targets to alter gastrointestinal motility and hence to interfere with hunger signalling. PMID:26541810

  14. Independent, reciprocal neuromodulatory control of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity during starvation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Hidehiko K.; Panse, Ketaki; Anderson, David J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY An organism’s behavioral decisions often depend upon the relative strength of appetitive and aversive sensory stimuli, the relative sensitivity to which can be modified by internal states like hunger. However, whether sensitivity to such opposing influences is modulated in a unidirectional or bidirectional manner is not clear. Starved flies exhibit increased sugar and decreased bitter sensitivity. It is widely believed that only sugar sensitivity changes, and that this masks bitter sensitivity. Here we use gene- and circuit-level manipulations to show that sweet- and bitter-sensitivity are independently and reciprocally regulated by starvation in Drosophila. We identify orthogonal neuromodulatory cascades that oppositely control peripheral taste sensitivity for each modality. Moreover, these pathways are recruited at increasing hunger levels, such that low-risk changes (higher sugar sensitivity) precede high-risk changes (lower sensitivity to potentially toxic resources). In this way, state intensity-dependent, reciprocal regulation of appetitive and aversive peripheral gustatory sensitivity permits flexible, adaptive feeding-decisions. PMID:25451195

  15. Birds Generally Carry a Small Repertoire of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-01

    As they belong to the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates, birds have long been believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste is fundamental in birds to recognize dietary toxins (which are typically bitter) in potential food sources. To characterize the evolution of avian bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) and to test whether dietary toxins have shaped the repertoire size of avian Tas2rs, we examined 48 genomes representing all but 3 avian orders. The total number of Tas2r genes was found to range from 1 in the domestic pigeon to 12 in the bar-tailed trogon, with an average of 4, which suggested that a much smaller Tas2r gene repertoire exists in birds than in other vertebrates. Furthermore, we uncovered a positive correlation between the number of putatively functional Tas2rs and the abundance of potential toxins in avian diets. Because plant products contain more toxins than animal tissues and insects release poisonous defensive secretions, we hypothesized that herbivorous and insectivorous birds may demand more functional Tas2rs than carnivorous birds feeding on noninsect animals. Our analyses appear to support this hypothesis and highlight the critical role of taste perception in birds. PMID:26342138

  16. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water). PMID:23137023

  17. Expression of bitter taste receptor Tas2r105 in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Gu, Fu; Jiang, Li; Chen, Fuxue; Li, Feng

    2015-03-20

    The kidney is the most important excretory organ in the body and plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in vivo by conserving body fluid and electrolytes and removing metabolic waste. In this study, three types of transgenic system were used to investigate the expression of the bitter taste receptor Tas2r105 in mouse renal tissue (Tas2r105-GFP/Cre, Tas2r105-GFP/Cre-DTA and Tas2r105-GFP/Cre-LacZ). The results suggest that bitter taste receptors Tas2r105 and Tas2r106 are expressed in the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule, including the proximal tubule and distal tubule. Expression of α-gustducin, an important component of taste signal transduction, was also detected in mouse kidney. Meanwhile, conditional diphtheria toxin (DTA) expression in Tas2r105+ cells caused an increase in size of the glomerulus and renal tubule, accompanied by a decrease in cell density in the glomerulus. This indicates that Tas2r105+ cells play an important role in maintaining the structure of the glomerulus and renal tubules. Overall, the current study collectively demonstrates that cells labeled by bitter taste receptor expression may play a critical role in controlling human health, and have properties far beyond the original concept of taste perception. PMID:25681767

  18. Depletion of bitter taste transduction leads to massive spermatid loss in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Zhou, Minliang

    2012-06-01

    Bitter taste perception is an important sensory input warning against the ingestion of toxic and noxious substances. Bitter receptors, a family of ~30 highly divergent G-protein-coupled receptors, are exclusively expressed in taste receptor cells that contain the G-protein α-subunit gustducin, bind to α-gustducin in vitro, and respond to bitter tastes in functional expression assays. We generated a taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5)-Cre/green fluorescent protein reporter transgenic mouse to investigate the tissue distribution of T2R5. Our results showed that Cre gene expression in these mice was faithful to the expression of T2R5 in taste tissue. More surprisingly, immunostaining and X-gal staining revealed T2R5 expression in the testis. Ablation of T2R5 + cells led to a smaller testis and removed the spermatid phase from most of the seminiferous tubules. The entire taste transduction cascade (α-gustducin, Ggamma13, phospholipase Cβ2) was detected in spermatogenesis, whereas transient receptor potential, cation channel subfamily M member 5 (Trpm5), was observed only in the later spermatid phase. In short, our results indicate that the taste transduction cascade may be involved in spermatogenesis. PMID:22266327

  19. Acetaminophen-containing chewable tablets with suppressed bitterness and improved oral feeling.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Hiraku; Hisamatsu, Seiji; Masuda, Kosuke; Takahashi, Yuri; Iwata, Masanori; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2004-06-18

    The aim of this study was to develop acetaminophen chewable tablets with suppressed bitterness and improved oral feeling by examination of hard fats as the matrix base and of sweetening agents as corrigents. Witepsol H-15, W-35, S-55, E-75 and E-85, and Witocan H and 42/44 were used as hard fats. Witocan H and 42/44 were selected in view of improved oral feeling. Witocan H/Witocan 42/44 mixture tablets showed different melting characteristics and drug release rates dependent on their ratios, and those with the Witocan H/Witocan 42/44 ratio of 92.5% (w/w) and more showed good drug release. Sucrose, xylitol, saccharin, saccharin sodium, aspartame and sucralose were used as sweetening agents, and applied alone or with Benecoat BMI-40 or cocoa powder. The Witocan H tablet with 1% (w/w) saccharin plus 5% (w/w) Benecoat BMI-40 (Sc1-B5), and the Witocan H/Witocan 42/44 (92.5:7.5, w/w) mixture tablet with 1% (w/w) aspartame plus 5% (w/w) Benecoat BMI-40 suppressed bitterness and sweetness excellently, but the former tablet showed better drug release. Thus, the Witocan H tablet with Sc1-B5 is suggested as the best acetaminophen chewable tablet, exhibiting suppressed bitterness, low sweetness, improved oral feeling and good drug release.

  20. Sequence Analysis of Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoires in Different Ruminant Species.

    PubMed

    Monteiro Ferreira, Ana; Tomás Marques, Andreia; Bhide, Mangesh; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka; Hollung, Kristin; Knight, Christopher Harold; Raundrup, Katrine; Lippolis, John; Palmer, Mitchell; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana Sousa; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2015-01-01

    Bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. At the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (T2R) present at the surface of taste receptor cells in the gustatory papillae. Our work aims at exploring the phylogenetic relationships of T2R gene sequences within different ruminant species. To accomplish this goal, we gathered a collection of ruminant species with different feeding behaviors and for which no genome data is available: American bison, chamois, elk, European bison, fallow deer, goat, moose, mouflon, muskox, red deer, reindeer and white tailed deer. The herbivores chosen for this study belong to different taxonomic families and habitats, and hence, exhibit distinct foraging behaviors and diet preferences. We describe the first partial repertoires of T2R gene sequences for these species obtained by direct sequencing. We then consider the homology and evolutionary history of these receptors within this ruminant group, and whether it relates to feeding type classification, using MEGA software. Our results suggest that phylogenetic proximity of T2R genes corresponds more to the traditional taxonomic groups of the species rather than reflecting a categorization by feeding strategy. PMID:26061084

  1. The marked inhibition of the bitter taste of Polymyxin B sulfate and trimethoprim x sulfamethoxazole by flavored BMI-60 in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Hoshi, M; Igarashi, A; Ogata, H; Edo, K

    1999-09-01

    Taste acceptability of ground Polymyxin B sulfate and Bactramin C tablets was examined when flavored BMI-60, a food additive, was added. Both adult and child volunteers found the bitter taste of the two drugs markedly inhibited, making it clinically useful. Noncompliance, due to this bitterness, was improved using flavored BMI-60. The most striking characteristic of flavored BMI-60 is the ease of preparation compared with the manufacture of other hospital pharmaceuticals such as jelly, gummi and candy done to mask bitterness.

  2. [Comparative analysis of ergogenic efficacy of energy drinks components (caffeine and bitter orange extract) in combination with alcohol].

    PubMed

    Anuchin, A M; Iuvs, G G

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of ergogenic effects of caffeine and bitter orange exract combined with alcohol is presented in the article. Investigations were performed on 3 groups (8 animals in each group) of male Wistar rats aged 4 months. Animals in group 1 were treated orally for 7 days, the mixture comprising caffeine and alcohol (0.6 g of caffeine, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 4.28 mg caffeine per kg of body weight. Animals in group 2 received a mixture containing bitter orange extract and alcohol (1 g bitter orange extract, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 0.43 mg of synephrine per kg body weight. Animals in the control group received the same volume (7.1 ml/kg) 7.2% aqueous solution of ethanol. Group of animals consumed caffeine in mixture with alcohol and the control group exhibited a significant weight gain, while the body weight of animals treated with the extract of bitter orange didn't significantly change. Using the methodology of the open field the effects of caffeine and bitter orange extract in combination with alcohol on the ratio of the active components of the orienting-exploratory behavior and passive-defensive behavior have been determined. Administration of mixture with caffeine increased locomotory activity by 164%, administration of bitter orange extract didn't affect this performance. Introduction of caffeine containing mixture significantly reduced the level of situational anxiety, which was manifested in the reduction of time spent by the animal in the center of the arena. The effects of ergogenic components on the performance of static and dynamic muscle endurance have been investigated. Single administration of the mixture containing caffeine, after 30 min caused a significant increase in performance and, consequently, endurance of glycolytic muscle fibers measured using the "inverted grid" test. Animals from this group produced 186% more work compared with control animals. Acute

  3. [Comparative analysis of ergogenic efficacy of energy drinks components (caffeine and bitter orange extract) in combination with alcohol].

    PubMed

    Anuchin, A M; Iuvs, G G

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of ergogenic effects of caffeine and bitter orange exract combined with alcohol is presented in the article. Investigations were performed on 3 groups (8 animals in each group) of male Wistar rats aged 4 months. Animals in group 1 were treated orally for 7 days, the mixture comprising caffeine and alcohol (0.6 g of caffeine, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 4.28 mg caffeine per kg of body weight. Animals in group 2 received a mixture containing bitter orange extract and alcohol (1 g bitter orange extract, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 0.43 mg of synephrine per kg body weight. Animals in the control group received the same volume (7.1 ml/kg) 7.2% aqueous solution of ethanol. Group of animals consumed caffeine in mixture with alcohol and the control group exhibited a significant weight gain, while the body weight of animals treated with the extract of bitter orange didn't significantly change. Using the methodology of the open field the effects of caffeine and bitter orange extract in combination with alcohol on the ratio of the active components of the orienting-exploratory behavior and passive-defensive behavior have been determined. Administration of mixture with caffeine increased locomotory activity by 164%, administration of bitter orange extract didn't affect this performance. Introduction of caffeine containing mixture significantly reduced the level of situational anxiety, which was manifested in the reduction of time spent by the animal in the center of the arena. The effects of ergogenic components on the performance of static and dynamic muscle endurance have been investigated. Single administration of the mixture containing caffeine, after 30 min caused a significant increase in performance and, consequently, endurance of glycolytic muscle fibers measured using the "inverted grid" test. Animals from this group produced 186% more work compared with control animals. Acute

  4. DNA Sequence and Expression Variation of Hop (Humulus lupulus) Valerophenone Synthase (VPS), a Key Gene in Bitter Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Consuelo B.; Whittock, Lucy D.; Whittock, Simon P.; Leggett, Grey; Koutoulis, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Background The hop plant (Humulus lupulus) is a source of many secondary metabolites, with bitter acids essential in the beer brewing industry and others having potential applications for human health. This study investigated variation in DNA sequence and gene expression of valerophenone synthase (VPS), a key gene in the bitter acid biosynthesis pathway of hop. Methods Sequence variation was studied in 12 varieties, and expression was analysed in four of the 12 varieties in a series across the development of the hop cone. Results Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in VPS, seven of which were synonymous. The two non-synonymous polymorphisms did not appear to be related to typical bitter acid profiles of the varieties studied. However, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of VPS expression during hop cone development showed a clear link with the bitter acid content. The highest levels of VPS expression were observed in two triploid varieties, ‘Symphony’ and ‘Ember’, which typically have high bitter acid levels. Conclusions In all hop varieties studied, VPS expression was lowest in the leaves and an increase in expression was consistently observed during the early stages of cone development. PMID:18519445

  5. Breeding of 'Manten-Kirari', a non-bitter and trace-rutinosidase variety of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Here, we developed a new Tartary buckwheat cultivar 'Manten-Kirari', whose flour contains only trace amounts of rutinosidase and lacked bitterness. The trace-rutinosidase breeding line 'f3g-162' (seed parent), which was obtained from a Nepalese genetic resource, was crossed with 'Hokkai T8' (pollen parent), the leading variety in Japan, to improve its agronomic characteristics. The obtained progeny were subjected to performance test. 'Manten-Kirari' had no detectable rutinosidase isozymes in an in-gel detection assay and only 1/266 of the rutinosidase activity of 'Hokkai T8'. Dough prepared from 'Manten-Kirari' flour contained almost no hydrolyzed rutin, even 6 h after the addition of water, whereas the rutin in 'Hokkai T8' dough was completely hydrolyzed within 10 min. In a sensory evaluation of the flour from the two varieties, nearly all panelists detected strong bitterness in 'Hokkai T8', whereas no panelists reported bitterness in 'Manten-Kirari'. This is the first report to describe the breeding of a Tartary buckwheat cultivar with reduced rutin hydrolysis and no bitterness in the prepared flour. Notably, the agronomic characteristics of 'Manten-Kirari' were similar to those of 'Hokkai T8', which is the leading variety in Japan. Based on these characteristics, 'Manten-Kirari' is a promising for preparing non-bitter, rutin-rich foods.

  6. Psychophysical Effects of Increasing Oil Concentrations on Saltiness and Bitterness Perception of Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2015-08-01

    Limited research has been done to investigate saltiness and bitterness perceptions of NaCl, KCl, and caffeine in emulsion systems. Saltiness and bitterness intensities of emulsions prepared with different concentrations of oil [0% (that is, solution), 20%, 40%, canola oil] and different concentrations of 3 tastants (NaCl [0.5% to 1.0%], KCl [0.5% to 1.5%], and caffeine [0.05 to 0.15%]) were measured using the Spectrum™ descriptive method (N = 16) and the Electronic-tongue (E-tongue). Linear regression and the Stevens' power law were used to model the taste intensities against the tastant concentrations. From the descriptive data, saltiness intensities in emulsions were higher than solutions, demonstrating a saltiness-enhancing effect imparted by oil. Bitterness intensities in emulsions were lower compared to those of solutions for caffeine, but they were similar for KCl. This demonstrated that oil suppressed bitterness for caffeine. E-tongue saltiness measurements were corresponding to those of the descriptive data; however, E-tongue bitterness intensities of KCl showed an opposite pattern.

  7. Preserving Fresh Fruit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Geo-Centers, Inc. has developed an Ethlyene Monitoring and Control System through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center. As plants grow, they produce by products of ethylene and ammonia which are harmful to plant development. The system provides optimal exposure of fruit to ethylene since the proper balance in ethylene is necessary to prevent fruit loss. It can be used to monitor the de-greening process of citrus fruits, in particular.

  8. Sweet and bitter taste: structure and conformations of two aspartame dipeptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, E; Gavuzzo, E; Santini, A; Kent, D R; Zhu, Y F; Zhu, Q; Mahr, C; Goodman, M

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis and X-ray diffraction analysis of two dipeptide taste ligands have been carried out as part of our study of the molecular basis of taste. The compounds L-aspartyl-D-alpha-methylphenylalanine methyl ester [L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe] and L-aspartyl-D-alanyl-2,2,5, 5-tetramethylcyclopentanyl ester [L-Asp-D-Ala-OTMCP] elicit bitter and sweet taste, respectively. The C-terminal residues of the two analogues adopt distinctly different conformations in the solid state. The aspartyl moiety assumes the same conformation found in other dipeptide taste ligands with the side-chain carboxylate and the amino groups forming a zwitterionic ring with a conformation defined by psi, chi 1 = 157.7 degrees, -61.5 degrees for L-Asp-D-Ala-OTMCP and 151.0 degrees, -68.8 degrees for L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe. In the second residue, a left-handed helical conformation is observed for the (alpha Me)Phe residue of L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe with phi 2 = 49.0 degrees and psi 2 = 47.9 degrees, while the Ala residue of L-Asp-D-Ala-OTMCP adopts a semi-extended conformation characterized by dihedral angles phi 2 = 62.8 degrees and psi 2 = -139.9 degrees. The solid-state structure of the bitter L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe is extended: while the crystal structure of the sweet L-Asp-D-OTMCP roughly adopts the typical L-shaped structure shown by other sweeteners. The data of L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe are compared with those of its diastereoisomer L-Asp-L-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe. Conformational analysis of the two taste ligands in solution by NMR and computer simulations agrees well with our model for sweet and bitter tastes. PMID:9223014

  9. Efficacy of various techniques on biochemical characteristics and bitterness of pummelo juice.

    PubMed

    Kore, Vijaykumar T; Chakraborty, I

    2015-09-01

    The consumer acceptability of pummelo juice is affected badly due to the presence of bitter principles in it. Therefore in order to avoid such bitterness development, the extracted juice from pummelo was subjected to five different treatments like juice diffused into syrup (70°Brix), lye peeling of segments in boiling NaOH for 2-3 min, increasing the pH of juice, hot water treatment (50 °C) prior to peeling for 20 min and without any treatment (control) for suppressing the development of bitterness in the juice. Based on bio-chemical analysis, diffusion of juice into syrup (70°Brix) showed better result as compared to other treatments. The maximum amount of TSS was found in juice diffused into syrup (i. e. 45, 30 and 15°Brix) along with highest TSS/acid ratio (92.21, 49.87 and 17.53). Higher amount of acidity was observed in pH adjusted samples with 4.25, 4.50 and 4.75 respectively. However, control samples showed higher amount of ascorbic acid (73.97 mg/100 ml juice) content followed by pH adjusted samples. The highest organoleptic score for taste (8.00), colour (8.83), aroma (8.66), overall acceptability (7.88) and extent of debittering (7.50) were recorded in juice diffused into syrup 70°Brix and achieved final TSS of juice at 45, 30 and 15°Brix respectively. Moreover, the above treatment (juice diffused into syrup 70°Brix) showed promising low cost and easy to adopt technique of debittering in respect of extent of debittering and maintaining sensory quality during storage of pummel juice. PMID:26345031

  10. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

    PubMed

    Morimoto-Kobayashi, Yumie; Ohara, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Chika; Kitao, Sayoko; Wang, Guanying; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Katayama, Mikio; Nagai, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB) appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA). Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional foods or

  11. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto-Kobayashi, Yumie; Ohara, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Chika; Kitao, Sayoko; Wang, Guanying; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Katayama, Mikio; Nagai, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB) appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA). Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional foods or

  12. New Insights into Enhancing Maximal Exercise Performance Through the Use of a Bitter Tastant.

    PubMed

    Gam, Sharon; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2016-10-01

    It is generally acknowledged that for an orally administered ergogenic aid to enhance exercise performance it must first be absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract before exerting its effects. Recently, however, it has been reported that some ergogenic aids can affect exercise performance without prior absorption by the gastrointestinal tract. This is best illustrated by studies that have shown that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution, without swallowing it, significantly improves exercise performance. The ergogenic effects of CHO mouth rinsing in these studies have been attributed to the activation of the brain by afferent taste signals, but the specific mechanisms by which this brain activation translates to enhanced exercise performance have not yet been elucidated. Given the benefits of CHO mouth rinsing for exercise performance, this raises the issue of whether other types of tastants, such as bitter-tasting solutions, may also improve exercise performance. Recently, we performed a series of studies investigating whether the bitter tastant quinine can improve maximal sprint performance in competitive male cyclists, and, if so, to examine some of the possible mechanisms whereby this effect may occur. These studies have shown that mouth rinsing and ingesting a bitter-tasting quinine solution can significantly improve the performance of a maximal cycling sprint. There is also evidence that the ergogenic effect of quinine is mediated, at least in part, by an increase in autonomic nervous system activation and/or corticomotor excitability. The purpose of this article is to discuss the results and implications of these recent studies and to suggest avenues for further research, which may add to the understanding of the way the brain integrates signals from the oral cavity with motor behaviour, as well as uncover novel strategies to improve exercise performance.

  13. Cholinergic chemosensory cells of the thymic medulla express the bitter receptor Tas2r131.

    PubMed

    Soultanova, Aichurek; Voigt, Anja; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Boehm, Ulrich; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    The thymus is the site of T cell maturation which includes positive selection in the cortex and negative selection in the medulla. Acetylcholine is locally produced in the thymus and cholinergic signaling influences the T cell development. We recently described a distinct subset of medullary epithelial cells in the murine thymus which express the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and components of the canonical taste transduction cascade, i.e. transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), phospholipase Cβ(2), and Gα-gustducin. Such a chemical phenotype is characteristic for chemosensory cells of mucosal surfaces which utilize bitter receptors for detection of potentially hazardous compounds and cholinergic signaling to initiate avoidance reflexes. We here demonstrate mRNA expression of bitter receptors Tas2r105, Tas2r108, and Tas2r131 in the murine thymus. Using a Tas2r131-tauGFP reporter mouse we localized the expression of this receptor to cholinergic cells expressing the downstream elements of the taste transduction pathway. These cells are distinct from the medullary thymic epithelial cells which promiscuously express tissue-restricted self-antigens during the process of negative selection, since double-labeling immunofluorescence showed no colocalization of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), the key mediator of negative selection, and TRPM5. These data demonstrate the presence of bitter taste-sensing signaling in cholinergic epithelial cells in the thymic medulla and opens a discussion as to what is the physiological role of this pathway.

  14. Efficacy of various techniques on biochemical characteristics and bitterness of pummelo juice.

    PubMed

    Kore, Vijaykumar T; Chakraborty, I

    2015-09-01

    The consumer acceptability of pummelo juice is affected badly due to the presence of bitter principles in it. Therefore in order to avoid such bitterness development, the extracted juice from pummelo was subjected to five different treatments like juice diffused into syrup (70°Brix), lye peeling of segments in boiling NaOH for 2-3 min, increasing the pH of juice, hot water treatment (50 °C) prior to peeling for 20 min and without any treatment (control) for suppressing the development of bitterness in the juice. Based on bio-chemical analysis, diffusion of juice into syrup (70°Brix) showed better result as compared to other treatments. The maximum amount of TSS was found in juice diffused into syrup (i. e. 45, 30 and 15°Brix) along with highest TSS/acid ratio (92.21, 49.87 and 17.53). Higher amount of acidity was observed in pH adjusted samples with 4.25, 4.50 and 4.75 respectively. However, control samples showed higher amount of ascorbic acid (73.97 mg/100 ml juice) content followed by pH adjusted samples. The highest organoleptic score for taste (8.00), colour (8.83), aroma (8.66), overall acceptability (7.88) and extent of debittering (7.50) were recorded in juice diffused into syrup 70°Brix and achieved final TSS of juice at 45, 30 and 15°Brix respectively. Moreover, the above treatment (juice diffused into syrup 70°Brix) showed promising low cost and easy to adopt technique of debittering in respect of extent of debittering and maintaining sensory quality during storage of pummel juice.

  15. Selection on the human bitter taste gene, TAS2R16, in Eurasian populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Pakstis, Andrew J; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2011-06-01

    Bitter taste is one of the most important senses alerting humans to noxious foods. In gatherer communities, sensitivity to bitterness is presumably advantageous because of various noxious plants. TAS2R16 is the gene coding the taste receptor molecules for some of the most common toxins in plants. A previous study of this gene indicated selection has increased the frequency of a derived allele in this gene that arose before the human expansion out of Africa. We have applied a different methodology for detecting selection, the Long Range Haplotype (LRH) analysis, to TAS2R16 in a larger sampling of populations from around the world. The haplotype with the derived alleles at both the functional polymorphism and a polymorphism in the regulatory region of TAS2R16 showed evidence for recent positive selection in most of the Eurasian populations, though the highest selection signal occurs in Mbuti Pygmies, an African hunter-gatherer group. In Eurasia, only populations of Mesopotamia and the southeast coast of China have no signals of selection. The evidence of recent selection found in most Eurasian populations differs from the geographic pattern seen in the earlier study of selection. One can speculate that the difference may result from a gathering lifestyle extending into the most recent 10,000 yrs and the need to recognize newly encountered bitter natural toxins as populations expanded into new environments and the biota changes with the ending of the most recent ice age. Alternatively, the promoter region variant may be a marker for altered function beyond what the derived amino acid allele conferred. PMID:21740153

  16. Cholinergic chemosensory cells of the thymic medulla express the bitter receptor Tas2r131.

    PubMed

    Soultanova, Aichurek; Voigt, Anja; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Boehm, Ulrich; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    The thymus is the site of T cell maturation which includes positive selection in the cortex and negative selection in the medulla. Acetylcholine is locally produced in the thymus and cholinergic signaling influences the T cell development. We recently described a distinct subset of medullary epithelial cells in the murine thymus which express the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and components of the canonical taste transduction cascade, i.e. transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), phospholipase Cβ(2), and Gα-gustducin. Such a chemical phenotype is characteristic for chemosensory cells of mucosal surfaces which utilize bitter receptors for detection of potentially hazardous compounds and cholinergic signaling to initiate avoidance reflexes. We here demonstrate mRNA expression of bitter receptors Tas2r105, Tas2r108, and Tas2r131 in the murine thymus. Using a Tas2r131-tauGFP reporter mouse we localized the expression of this receptor to cholinergic cells expressing the downstream elements of the taste transduction pathway. These cells are distinct from the medullary thymic epithelial cells which promiscuously express tissue-restricted self-antigens during the process of negative selection, since double-labeling immunofluorescence showed no colocalization of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), the key mediator of negative selection, and TRPM5. These data demonstrate the presence of bitter taste-sensing signaling in cholinergic epithelial cells in the thymic medulla and opens a discussion as to what is the physiological role of this pathway. PMID:26102274

  17. Sweet and bitter taste: structure and conformations of two aspartame dipeptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, E; Gavuzzo, E; Santini, A; Kent, D R; Zhu, Y F; Zhu, Q; Mahr, C; Goodman, M

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis and X-ray diffraction analysis of two dipeptide taste ligands have been carried out as part of our study of the molecular basis of taste. The compounds L-aspartyl-D-alpha-methylphenylalanine methyl ester [L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe] and L-aspartyl-D-alanyl-2,2,5, 5-tetramethylcyclopentanyl ester [L-Asp-D-Ala-OTMCP] elicit bitter and sweet taste, respectively. The C-terminal residues of the two analogues adopt distinctly different conformations in the solid state. The aspartyl moiety assumes the same conformation found in other dipeptide taste ligands with the side-chain carboxylate and the amino groups forming a zwitterionic ring with a conformation defined by psi, chi 1 = 157.7 degrees, -61.5 degrees for L-Asp-D-Ala-OTMCP and 151.0 degrees, -68.8 degrees for L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe. In the second residue, a left-handed helical conformation is observed for the (alpha Me)Phe residue of L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe with phi 2 = 49.0 degrees and psi 2 = 47.9 degrees, while the Ala residue of L-Asp-D-Ala-OTMCP adopts a semi-extended conformation characterized by dihedral angles phi 2 = 62.8 degrees and psi 2 = -139.9 degrees. The solid-state structure of the bitter L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe is extended: while the crystal structure of the sweet L-Asp-D-OTMCP roughly adopts the typical L-shaped structure shown by other sweeteners. The data of L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe are compared with those of its diastereoisomer L-Asp-L-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe. Conformational analysis of the two taste ligands in solution by NMR and computer simulations agrees well with our model for sweet and bitter tastes.

  18. Dextromethorphan Mediated Bitter Taste Receptor Activation in the Pulmonary Circuit Causes Vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D.; Chakraborty, Raja; Pydi, Sai P.; Bhullar, Rajinder P.; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-01-01

    Activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in human airway smooth muscle cells leads to muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This finding led to our hypothesis that T2Rs are expressed in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and might be involved in regulating the vascular tone. RT-PCR was performed to reveal the expression of T2Rs in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Of the 25 T2Rs, 21 were expressed in these cells. Functional characterization was done by calcium imaging after stimulating the cells with different bitter agonists. Increased calcium responses were observed with most of the agonists, the largest increase seen for dextromethorphan. Previously in site-directed mutational studies, we have characterized the response of T2R1 to dextromethorphan, therefore, T2R1 was selected for further analysis in this study. Knockdown with T2R1 specific shRNA decreased mRNA levels, protein levels and dextromethorphan-induced calcium responses in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells by up to 50%. To analyze if T2Rs are involved in regulating the pulmonary vascular tone, ex vivo studies using pulmonary arterial and airway rings were pursued. Myographic studies using porcine pulmonary arterial and airway rings showed that stimulation with dextromethorphan led to contraction of the pulmonary arterial and relaxation of the airway rings. This study shows that dextromethorphan, acting through T2R1, causes vasoconstrictor responses in the pulmonary circuit and relaxation in the airways. PMID:25340739

  19. Using milk fat to reduce the irritation and bitter taste of ibuprofen

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Samantha M.; Zhou, Lisa; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Bitterness and irritation elicited by pharmaceutically active molecules remain problematic for pediatric medications, fortified foods and dietary supplements. Few effective methods exist for reducing these unpalatable sensations, negatively impacting medication compliance and intake of beneficial phytonutrients. A physicochemical approach to masking these sensations may be the most successful approach for generalizability to a wide range of structurally and functionally unique compounds. Here, solutions of the non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, were prepared in milk products with varying fat content. Our hypothesis, based on other reports of similar phenomena, was that increasing the fat content would cause ibuprofen to selectively partition into the fat phase, thereby reducing interaction with sensory receptors and decreasing adversive sensations. Quantification of the aqueous concentration of ibuprofen was performed using an isocratic HPLC method coupled with an external standard curve. Sensory testing showed a modest but significant decrease (~20%) in irritation ratings between the skim milk (0% fat) and the half-and-half (11% fat) samples, indicating that increased fat may contribute to a reduced sensory response. Bitterness was not reduced, remaining constant over all fat levels. The HPLC results indicate a constant amount of ibuprofen remained in the aqueous phase regardless of fat level, so a simple partitioning hypothesis cannot explain the reduced irritancy ratings. Association of ionized ibuprofen with continuous phase solutes such as unabsorbed protein should be explored in future work. PMID:23527314

  20. A Subset of Mouse Colonic Goblet Cells Expresses the Bitter Taste Receptor Tas2r131

    PubMed Central

    Prandi, Simone; Bromke, Marta; Hübner, Sandra; Voigt, Anja; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik

    2013-01-01

    The concept that gut nutrient sensing involves taste receptors has been fueled by recent reports associating the expression of taste receptors and taste-associated signaling molecules in the gut and in gut-derived cell lines with physiological responses induced by known taste stimuli. However, for bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs), direct evidence for their functional role in gut physiology is scarce and their cellular expression pattern remained unknown. We therefore investigated Tas2r expression in mice. RT-PCR experiments assessed the presence of mRNA for Tas2rs and taste signaling molecules in the gut. A gene-targeted mouse strain was established to visualize and identify cell types expressing the bitter receptor Tas2r131. Messenger RNA for various Tas2rs and taste signaling molecules were detected by RT-PCR in the gut. Using our knock-in mouse strain we demonstrate that a subset of colonic goblet cells express Tas2r131. Cells that express this receptor are absent in the upper gut and do not correspond to enteroendocrine and brush cells. Expression in colonic goblet cells is consistent with a role of Tas2rs in defense mechanisms against potentially harmful xenobiotics. PMID:24367558

  1. Fluorescence-based optimization of human bitter taste receptor expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Taishi; Ito, Keisuke; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Tokuda, Natsuko; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Misaka, Takumi; Nomura, Norimichi; Murata, Takeshi; Abe, Keiko; Iwata, So; and others

    2009-05-15

    Human TAS2 receptors (hTAS2Rs) perceive bitter tastants, but few studies have explored the structure-function relationships of these receptors. In this paper, we report our trials on the large-scale preparations of hTAS2Rs for structural analysis. Twenty-five hTAS2Rs were expressed using a GFP-fusion yeast system in which the constructs and the culture conditions (e.g., the signal sequence, incubation time and temperature after induction) were optimized by measuring GFP fluorescence. After optimization, five hTAS2Rs (hTAS2R7, hTAS2R8, hTAS2R16, hTAS2R41, and hTAS2R48) were expressed at levels greater than 1 mg protein/L of culture, which is a preferable level for purification and crystallization. Among these five bitter taste receptors, hTAS2R41 exhibited the highest detergent solubilization efficiency of 87.1% in n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltopyranoside (DDM)/cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Fluorescence size-exclusion chromatography showed that hTAS2R41 exhibited monodispersity in DDM/CHS without aggregates, suggesting that hTAS2R41 is a good target for future crystallization trials.

  2. Bitter triggers acetylcholine release from polymodal urethral chemosensory cells and bladder reflexes.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Filipski, Katharina; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Fronius, Martin; Althaus, Mike; Rafiq, Amir; Papadakis, Tamara; Renno, Liane; Jurastow, Innokentij; Wessels, Lars; Wolff, Miriam; Schütz, Burkhard; Weihe, Eberhard; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Klein, Jochen; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Chemosensory cells in the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract ("brush cells") use the canonical taste transduction cascade to detect potentially hazardous content and trigger local protective and aversive respiratory reflexes on stimulation. So far, the urogenital tract has been considered to lack this cell type. Here we report the presence of a previously unidentified cholinergic, polymodal chemosensory cell in the mammalian urethra, the potential portal of entry for bacteria and harmful substances into the urogenital system, but not in further centrally located parts of the urinary tract, such as the bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis. Urethral brush cells express bitter and umami taste receptors and downstream components of the taste transduction cascade; respond to stimulation with bitter (denatonium), umami (monosodium glutamate), and uropathogenic Escherichia coli; and release acetylcholine to communicate with other cells. They are approached by sensory nerve fibers expressing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and intraurethral application of denatonium reflexively increases activity of the bladder detrusor muscle in anesthetized rats. We propose a concept of urinary bladder control involving a previously unidentified cholinergic chemosensory cell monitoring the chemical composition of the urethral luminal microenvironment for potential hazardous content. PMID:24843119

  3. Impact of Prior Consumption on Sour, Sweet, Salty, and Bitter Tastes.

    PubMed

    Christina, Josephine; Palma-Salgado, Sindy; Clark, Diana; Kahraman, Ozan; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-02-01

    Food sensory tests generally require panelists to abstain from food or beverage consumption 30 min to an hour before a tasting session. However, investigators do not have a complete control over panelists' intentional or unintentional consumption prior to a tasting session. Currently, it is unclear how prior consumption impacts the results of the tasting session. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temporary and lingering mouth irritation caused by the consumption of coffee, orange juice, and gum within 1, 15, or 30 min prior to the tasting session on the perception of 4 basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Fifty-two panelists were served a beverage (orange juice, coffee, and water) or were asked to chew a piece of gum, and then, remained in the waiting room for 1, 15, or 30 min. They were then asked to report taste intensities using 15-cm unstructured line scales. Mean intensities of all tastes were not significantly different when orange juice was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min when compared to water. Mean intensities of bitter were significantly lower when coffee was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min than when water was a primer. Mean intensities of sweet were significantly lower when gum was a primer at 1 and 15 min than when water was a primer. The findings showed that it is necessary for 30 min or more waiting period of no food or beverage consumption prior to sensory testing. PMID:26709855

  4. Impact of Prior Consumption on Sour, Sweet, Salty, and Bitter Tastes.

    PubMed

    Christina, Josephine; Palma-Salgado, Sindy; Clark, Diana; Kahraman, Ozan; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-02-01

    Food sensory tests generally require panelists to abstain from food or beverage consumption 30 min to an hour before a tasting session. However, investigators do not have a complete control over panelists' intentional or unintentional consumption prior to a tasting session. Currently, it is unclear how prior consumption impacts the results of the tasting session. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temporary and lingering mouth irritation caused by the consumption of coffee, orange juice, and gum within 1, 15, or 30 min prior to the tasting session on the perception of 4 basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Fifty-two panelists were served a beverage (orange juice, coffee, and water) or were asked to chew a piece of gum, and then, remained in the waiting room for 1, 15, or 30 min. They were then asked to report taste intensities using 15-cm unstructured line scales. Mean intensities of all tastes were not significantly different when orange juice was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min when compared to water. Mean intensities of bitter were significantly lower when coffee was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min than when water was a primer. Mean intensities of sweet were significantly lower when gum was a primer at 1 and 15 min than when water was a primer. The findings showed that it is necessary for 30 min or more waiting period of no food or beverage consumption prior to sensory testing.

  5. Development of Bitter Taste Sensor Using Ionic-Liquid/Polymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutagawa, Nobuyuki; Toida, Jinichi; Amano, Yoshihiko; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi; Arikawa, Yukihiko

    A taste sensor is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes as transducers which convert taste information to electric signal. Thus, the role of membranes is very important to detect various taste components. In this paper, we developed novel membranes which specifically respond to quinine that is typical bitter substances. These membranes were composed of hydrophobic ionic liquid such as N, N, N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 1-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate, a plasticizer, 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether and a polymer, polyvinyl chloride. In addition to quinine, they also showed response to both several kinds of alkaloids such as caffeine and strychnine, and non-alkaloid such as phenylthiocarbamide. The order of these responses was equal to that of the tongue glossopharyngeal nerve of flog. Furthermore, there were the other alkaloids which response to these membranes. Especially in these alkaloids, they showed high response to denatonium benzoate and berberin chloride which have a strong bitter taste.

  6. Simultaneous determination of prenylflavonoid and hop bitter acid in beer lee by HPLC-DAD-MS.

    PubMed

    Kao, T H; Wu, G Y

    2013-11-15

    An HPLC-DAD-MS method with high accuracy and precision was developed for determination of prenylflavonoids and hop bitter acids in beer lee, a by-product from beer brewing process. Four prenylflavonoids and nine hop bitter acids can be simultaneously separated in 29 min using a Thermo HyPURITY C18 column in combination with diode array dectector and mass spectrometer with HPLC solvent gradient system of phosphoric acid aqueous solution at pH 1.6 and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and detection wavelength at 314 nm. Beer lee is found to contain isoxanthohumol (36.2 μg/g), xanthohumol (29.6 μg/g), 8-prenylnaringenin (7.84 μg/g), 6-prenylnaringenin (19.2 μg/g), cohumulone (44.7 μg/g), humulone (123 μg/g), adhumulone (21.8 μg/g), colupulone (44.2 μg/g), lupulone (33.2 μg/g), and adlupulone (5.76 μg/g).

  7. Prototype of 10 Tesla Water Cooled Bitter-type Magnet System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W. J.; Riverva, W. F.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    A 1 Tesla water cooled Bitter-type magnetic system has been designed and is under construction at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). It is a scaled version of a 10 T Bitter-type magnet that will be used in dusty plasma experiments where dust larger than 500 nm diameter will be strongly magnetized. We present here the design methods used for both magnets, and discuss the design parameters that drive the magnet cooling and power storage bank subsystems. The pressure vessel and plasma vacuum chamber subsystems are then built with the aforementioned subsystems as constraints. To validate our design, magnetic field and temperature measurements within the prototype magnet are compared to finite element analysis (FEA) and analytical methods used for preliminary designing. This knowledge will be used to finalize the 10 T magnet design. Once operational, the 10 T magnet will be programmable to be on for at least ten seconds to several minutes, with up to 20 plasma events planned per day.

  8. Bitter triggers acetylcholine release from polymodal urethral chemosensory cells and bladder reflexes.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Filipski, Katharina; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Fronius, Martin; Althaus, Mike; Rafiq, Amir; Papadakis, Tamara; Renno, Liane; Jurastow, Innokentij; Wessels, Lars; Wolff, Miriam; Schütz, Burkhard; Weihe, Eberhard; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Klein, Jochen; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Chemosensory cells in the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract ("brush cells") use the canonical taste transduction cascade to detect potentially hazardous content and trigger local protective and aversive respiratory reflexes on stimulation. So far, the urogenital tract has been considered to lack this cell type. Here we report the presence of a previously unidentified cholinergic, polymodal chemosensory cell in the mammalian urethra, the potential portal of entry for bacteria and harmful substances into the urogenital system, but not in further centrally located parts of the urinary tract, such as the bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis. Urethral brush cells express bitter and umami taste receptors and downstream components of the taste transduction cascade; respond to stimulation with bitter (denatonium), umami (monosodium glutamate), and uropathogenic Escherichia coli; and release acetylcholine to communicate with other cells. They are approached by sensory nerve fibers expressing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and intraurethral application of denatonium reflexively increases activity of the bladder detrusor muscle in anesthetized rats. We propose a concept of urinary bladder control involving a previously unidentified cholinergic chemosensory cell monitoring the chemical composition of the urethral luminal microenvironment for potential hazardous content.

  9. Isolation of bitter acids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) using countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Clinton J; Harris, Guy; Urban, Jan; Tripp, Matthew L; Bland, Jeffrey S; Carroll, Brian J

    2012-05-01

    Commercially available hops (Humulus lupulus L.) bitter acid extracts contain a mixture of three major congeners (co-, n-, and ad-) in addition to cis/trans diastereomers for each congener. Individual isomerized α-acids were obtained by the consecutive application of two separate countercurrent chromatography methods. First, individual isomerized α-acid congeners as a mixture of cis/trans diastereomers were obtained using a solvent system consisting of hexane and aqueous buffer. The second purification, capable of separating cis/trans diastereomers, was accomplished using a quaternary solvent system; an alternative procedure using β-cyclodextrin followed by countercurrent chromatography was also investigated. The NaBH(4) reduction of the purified isomerized α-acid compounds followed by countercurrent chromatography purification resulted in individual ρ iso α-acids (>95%). Similarly, catalytic hydrogenation of the purified isomerized α-acid compounds followed by countercurrent chromatography purification produced individual tetrahydro isomerized α-acids (>95%). Reported herein is a widely applicable approach that focuses on three critical variables--solvent system composition, pH, and buffer-to-sample ratio--that enable the efficient purification of individual bitter acids (≥95%) from commercially available hops extracts.

  10. Dextromethorphan mediated bitter taste receptor activation in the pulmonary circuit causes vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D; Singh, Nisha; Sikarwar, Anurag S; Chakraborty, Raja; Pydi, Sai P; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Chelikani, Prashen

    2014-01-01

    Activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in human airway smooth muscle cells leads to muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This finding led to our hypothesis that T2Rs are expressed in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and might be involved in regulating the vascular tone. RT-PCR was performed to reveal the expression of T2Rs in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Of the 25 T2Rs, 21 were expressed in these cells. Functional characterization was done by calcium imaging after stimulating the cells with different bitter agonists. Increased calcium responses were observed with most of the agonists, the largest increase seen for dextromethorphan. Previously in site-directed mutational studies, we have characterized the response of T2R1 to dextromethorphan, therefore, T2R1 was selected for further analysis in this study. Knockdown with T2R1 specific shRNA decreased mRNA levels, protein levels and dextromethorphan-induced calcium responses in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells by up to 50%. To analyze if T2Rs are involved in regulating the pulmonary vascular tone, ex vivo studies using pulmonary arterial and airway rings were pursued. Myographic studies using porcine pulmonary arterial and airway rings showed that stimulation with dextromethorphan led to contraction of the pulmonary arterial and relaxation of the airway rings. This study shows that dextromethorphan, acting through T2R1, causes vasoconstrictor responses in the pulmonary circuit and relaxation in the airways. PMID:25340739

  11. In vitro evaluation of potential bitterness-masking terpenoids from the Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Fletcher, Joshua N; Lv, Wei; Deng, Ye; Vincent, Michael A; Slack, Jay P; McCluskey, T Scott; Jia, Zhonghua; Cushman, Mark; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2014-07-25

    In a screening of extracts of selected plants native to Ohio against the human bitterness receptor hTAS2R31, a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) was determined to have hTAS2R31 antagonistic activity and, thus, was fractionated for isolation of potential bitterness-masking agents. One new labdane diterpenoid, solidagol (1), and six known terpenoids, including two labdane diterpenoids (2 and 3), three clerodane diterpenoids (6β-angeloyloxykolavenic acid, 6β-tigloyloxykolavenic acid, and crotonic acid), and a triterpenoid (longispinogenin), were isolated. Among these compounds, 3β-acetoxycopalic acid (2) was found to be the first member of the labdane diterpene class shown to have inhibitory activity against hTAS2R31 activation (IC50 8 μM). A homology model of hTAS2R31 was constructed, and the molecular docking of 2 to this model indicated that this diterpenoid binds well to the active site of hTAS2R31, whereas this was not the case for the closely structurally related compound 3 (sempervirenic acid). The content of 2 in the chloroform-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of S. canadensis was up to 2.24 g/100 g dry weight, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24999828

  12. Receptors for bitter, sweet and umami taste couple to inhibitory G protein signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ozeck, Mark; Brust, Paul; Xu, Hong; Servant, Guy

    2004-04-12

    Taste receptors are thought to couple to the G protein Galpha-gustducin to initiate signal transduction cascades leading to taste perception. To further characterize the G protein-coupling selectivity of these receptors, we expressed them in HEK293 cells and monitored the modulation of different signaling pathways upon stimulation. We found that the bitter compound cycloheximide induces phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases1 and 2 (ERK 1/2) and inhibits cAMP accumulation in HEK293 cells expressing the mouse bitter T2R(5) receptor. These effects are totally abolished upon treatment with pertussis toxin. On the other hand, sweeteners and monosodium glutamate induce phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and inhibit cAMP accumulation in HEK293 cells expressing the human sweet T1R(2)/T1R(3) receptor and the human umami T1R(1)/T1R(3) receptor, respectively. The effects of these taste modalities are also prevented by treatment with pertussis toxin. Collectively, our results show that taste receptors can functionally couple to Galpha(i/o) proteins to transmit intracellular signals.

  13. The effect of various substances on the suppression of the bitterness of quinine-human gustatory sensation, binding, and taste sensor studies.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomoko; Tanigake, Atsu; Miyanaga, Yohko; Ogawa, Tazuko; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Kenji; Uchida, Takahiro

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of suppression of the perceived bitterness of quinine by various substances and to examine the mechanism of bitterness suppression. The following compounds were tested for their ability to suppress bitterness: sucrose, a natural sweetener; aspartame, a noncaloric sweetener; sodium chloride (NaCl) as the electrolyte; phosphatidic acid, a commercial bitterness suppression agent; and tannic acid, a component of green tea. These substances were examined in a gustatory sensation test in human volunteers, a binding study, and using an artificial taste sensor. Sucrose, aspartame, and NaCl were effective in suppressing bitterness, although at comparatively high concentrations. An almost 80% inhibition of bitterness (calculated as concentration %) of a 0.1 mM quinine hydrochloride solution required 800 mM of sucrose, 8 mM of aspartame, and 300 mM NaCl. Similar levels of bitterness inhibition by phosphatidic acid and tannic acid (81.7, 61.0%, respectively) were obtained at much lower concentrations (1.0 (w/v)% for phosphatidic acid and 0.05 (w/v)% for tannic acid). The mechanism of the bitterness-depressing effect of phosphatidic acid and tannic acid was investigated in terms of adsorption and masking at the receptor site. With phosphatidic acid, 36.1% of the bitterness-depressing effect was found to be due to adsorption, while 45.6% was due to suppression at the receptor site. In the case of 0.05 (w/v)% tannic acid, the total bitterness-masking effect was 61.0%. The contribution of the adsorption effect was about 27.5% while the residual masking effect at the receptor site was almost 33%. Further addition of tannic acid (0.15 (w/v)%), however, increased the bitterness score of quinine, which probably represents an effect of the astringency of tannic acid itself. Finally, an artificial taste sensor was used to evaluate or predict the bitterness-depressing effect. The sensor output profile was shown to reflect the

  14. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  15. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute. PMID:25757430

  16. Bitter Orange

    MedlinePlus

    65998 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/bitterorange ... us ... 65998 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/bitterorange ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 65998 ... https://nccih. ...

  17. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  18. Seedless fruit production by hormonal regulation of fruit set.

    PubMed

    Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-02-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. PMID:22253976

  19. Examination of the perception of sweet- and bitter-like taste qualities in sucralose preferring and avoiding rats.

    PubMed

    Torregrossa, A-M; Loney, G C; Smith, J C; Eckel, L A

    2015-03-01

    Sucralose avoiding rats detect a bitter-like taste quality in concentrations of sucralose that are strongly preferred over water by sucralose preferring rats. Here, we investigated whether sucralose preferrers (SP) also detect a bitter-like quality in sucralose that may be masked by an increased perception of sucralose's sweet-like quality. A microstructural analysis of sucralose intake revealed that, at concentrations they avoided in preference tests, sucralose avoiders (SA) consumed smaller and fewer bouts of sucralose than SP. Interestingly, the concentration-dependent increase in sucralose preference in SP was not associated with larger bouts or increased lick rate, two measures that are expected to increase with increasing perceived sweetness. This suggests that SP can detect an aversive quality in sucralose, but this perception of a presumably bitter-like quality may be masked by increased salience of a sweet-like quality that sustains high levels of intake in SP. Further evidence for increased sweet-taste perception in SP, relative to SA, was obtained in a second study in which SP consumed more of a palatable sweet-milk diet than SA. These are the first data to suggest that SP are not blind to the bitter-like quality in sucralose, and that there may be differences in sweet-taste perception between SP and SA. PMID:25497078

  20. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides. PMID:25996959

  1. Identification and RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS quantitation of bitter-tasting beta-acid transformation products in beer.

    PubMed

    Haseleu, Gesa; Intelmann, Daniel; Hofmann, Thomas

    2009-08-26

    Thermal treatment of the hop beta-acid colupulone under wort boiling conditions, followed by LC-TOF-MS and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy, revealed cohulupone, hulupinic acid, nortricyclocolupone, two tricyclocolupone epimers, two dehydrotricyclocolupone epimers, two hydroxytricyclocolupone epimers, and two hydroperoxytricyclocolupone epimers as the major bitter-tasting beta-acid transformation products. Among these compounds, the chemical structures of the hydroxy- as well as the hydroperoxytricyclocolupone epimers have not previously been confirmed by 1D/2D NMR experiments. Depending on their chemical structure, these compounds showed rather low recognition thresholds ranging from 7.9 to 90.3 micromol/L. The lowest thresholds of 7.9 and 14.7 micromol/L were found for cohulupone, imparting a short-lasting, iso-alpha-acid-like bitter impression, and for hydroxytricyclocolupone, exhibiting a long-lasting, lingering, and harsh bitterness perceived on the posterior tongue and throat. Furthermore, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis allowed for the first time a simultaneous detection and quantitation of these bitter-tasting beta-acid transformation products in a range of commercial beer samples without any sample cleanup. Depending on the type of beer, these studies revealed remarkable differences in the concentrations of the individual beta-acid transformation products.

  2. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides.

  3. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p <0.05) in comparison to Ledang variety, possibly due to the amount of naringin. Three types of hydroxycinnamic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic and coumaric acid) and three compounds of flavanones (naringin, hesperidin and narirutin) were found in both fruit juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p <0.05) on the total phenolic compounds of both varieties. This study in summary provides a compositional database for Malaysian pummelo fruit juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice. PMID:26243926

  4. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p <0.05) in comparison to Ledang variety, possibly due to the amount of naringin. Three types of hydroxycinnamic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic and coumaric acid) and three compounds of flavanones (naringin, hesperidin and narirutin) were found in both fruit juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p <0.05) on the total phenolic compounds of both varieties. This study in summary provides a compositional database for Malaysian pummelo fruit juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice.

  5. Serum proteins and some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens fed with raw and treated bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J

    2007-03-15

    This study carried out to evaluate the effect of bitter vetch seeds on serum proteins and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 1320 one-day-old broiler chicks of a commercial breed were placed in 64 pens. Treatments were included raw and four different processed bitter vetch seeds in three levels (150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) and a corn-soybean based diet as control. Each treatment group consisted of four replicates. Processing methods were included soaked in water for 12 h, autoclaved, then dried at room temperature (SAD); ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD); ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSCD) and ground, soaked at 1% acetic acid solution for 24 h at 60 degrees C (AA). Feeding raw, AA and GSAD seeds decreased serum albumin significantly (p<0.05) in 21-days-old chicks. Chickens that fed with raw and treated bitter vetch seed had lower alpha 1 and gamma globulins than control (p<0.05). Increasing raw and treated bitter vetch seeds from 15 to 30 and 45% decreased albumin, alpha 1 and gamma globulins and increased alpha 2 and beta globulins significantly (p<0.05). In 14-days-old chicks feeding raw and treated biter vetch had no effect on serum urea, but uric acid concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Feeding SAD seeds increased serum urea significantly (p<0.05), but uric acid concentration did not change with feeding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds in 42-day-old chicks. Adding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds to diet increased T4 and decreased T3 concentrations in all ages. At 28-days-old chicks, feeding raw and treated biter vetch seeds decreased alkaline phosphatase concentration significantly than control. Results showed that raw bitter vetch seeds have some toxic effects on metabolism in broiler chickens and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of this seed.

  6. Direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil using a pH-based flow-injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mesa, José A; Mateos, Raquel

    2007-05-16

    Flavor and taste are sensorial attributes of virgin olive oil (VOO) highly appreciated by consumers. Among the organoleptic properties of VOO, bitterness is related to the natural phenolic compounds present in the oil. Sensorial analysis is the official method to evaluate VOO flavor and bitterness, which requires highly specialized experts. Alternatively, methods based on physicochemical determinations could be useful for the industry. The present work presents a flow-injection analysis system for the direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in VOO without prior isolation, based on the spectral shift undergone by phenolic compounds upon pH variation. This system enables a complete automation of the process, including dilution of the sample and its sequential injection into buffer solutions of acidic and alkaline pH. The variation of the absorbance at 274 nm showed a high correlation with bitterness and the total phenolic content of VOO, due to the close relationship between these two parameters. Thus, the proposed method determines the bitterness and phenolic compounds, with results similar to those from reference methods (relative errors ranging from 1% to 8% for bitterness and from 2% and 7% for phenolic compounds). The precision evaluated at two levels of both parameters ranged between 0.6% and 1.5% for bitterness and between 0.7% and 2.6% for phenolic compounds.

  7. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and syner...

  8. Maximizing Antioxidants in Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits contain high levels of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamins, and phenols. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including free radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, singlet and triplet oxygen quenchers, enzyme inhibitors, and synerg...

  9. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  10. A Review of the Human Clinical Studies Involving Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine

    PubMed Central

    Stohs, Sidney J.; Preuss, Harry G.; Shara, Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions. PMID:22991491

  11. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  12. A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Preuss, Harry G; Shara, Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions. PMID:22991491

  13. Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Wood, Elizabeth; Rogel Castillo, Cristian; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2013-08-14

    Amygdalin is a cynaogenic diglucoside responsible for the bitterness of almonds. Almonds display three flavor phenotypes, nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter. Herein, the amygdalin content of 20 varieties of nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds from four primary growing regions of California was determined using solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS). The detection limit for this method is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL (3 times the signal-to-noise ratio) and the LOQ is 0.33 ng/mL (10 times the signal-to-noise ratio), allowing for the reliable quantitation of trace levels of amygdalin in nonbitter almonds (0.13 mg/kg almond). Results indicate that amygdalin concentrations for the three flavor phenotypes were significantly different (p < 0.001). The mean concentrations of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds are 63.13 ± 57.54, 992.24 ± 513.04, and 40060.34 ± 7855.26 mg/kg, respectively. Levels of amygdalin ranged from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in nonbitter, from 523.50 to 1772.75 mg/kg in semibitter, and from 33006.60 to 53998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds. These results suggest that phenotype classification may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels. Growing region had a statistically significant effect on the amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties (p < 0.05).

  14. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  15. Relationship between the amount of bitter substances adsorbed onto lipid/polymer membrane and the electric response of taste sensors.

    PubMed

    Toko, Kiyoshi; Hara, Daichi; Tahara, Yusuke; Yasuura, Masato; Ikezaki, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    The bitterness of bitter substances can be measured by the change in the membrane electric potential caused by adsorption (CPA) using a taste sensor (electronic tongue). In this study, we examined the relationship between the CPA value due to an acidic bitter substance and the amount of the bitter substance adsorbed onto lipid/polymer membranes, which contain different lipid contents, used in the taste sensor. We used iso-α-acid which is an acidic bitter substance found in several foods and beverages. The amount of adsorbed iso-α-acid, which was determined by spectroscopy, showed a maximum at the lipid concentration 0.1 wt % of the membrane, and the same phenomenon was observed for the CPA value. At the higher lipid concentration, however, the amount adsorbed decreased and then remained constant, while the CPA value decreased monotonically to zero. This constant adsorption amount was observed when the membrane potential in the reference solution did not change with increasing lipid concentration. The decrease in CPA value in spite of the constant adsorption amount is caused by a decrease in the sensitivity of the membrane as the surface charge density increases. The reason why the peaks appeared in both the CPA value and adsorption amount is based on the contradictory adsorption properties of iso-α-acid. The increasing charged lipid concentration of the membrane causes an increasing electrostatic attractive interaction between iso-α-acid and the membrane, but simultaneously causes a decreasing hydrophobic interaction that results in decreasing adsorption of iso-α-acid, which also has hydrophobic properties, onto the membrane. Estimates of the amount of adsorption suggest that iso-α-acid molecules are adsorbed onto both the surface and interior of the membrane. PMID:25184491

  16. A Heteromeric Membrane-Bound Prenyltransferase Complex from Hop Catalyzes Three Sequential Aromatic Prenylations in the Bitter Acid Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoxun; Ban, Zhaonan; Qin, Hao; Ma, Liya; King, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Bitter acids (α and β types) account for more than 30% of the fresh weight of hop (Humulus lupulus) glandular trichomes and are well known for their contribution to the bitter taste of beer. These multiprenylated chemicals also show diverse biological activities, some of which have potential benefits to human health. The bitter acid biosynthetic pathway has been investigated extensively, and the genes for the early steps of bitter acid synthesis have been cloned and functionally characterized. However, little is known about the enzyme(s) that catalyze three sequential prenylation steps in the β-bitter acid pathway. Here, we employed a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) system for the functional identification of aromatic prenyltransferase (PT) genes. Two PT genes (HlPT1L and HlPT2) obtained from a hop trichome-specific complementary DNA library were functionally characterized using this yeast system. Coexpression of codon-optimized PT1L and PT2 in yeast, together with upstream genes, led to the production of bitter acids, but no bitter acids were detected when either of the PT genes was expressed by itself. Stepwise mutation of the aspartate-rich motifs in PT1L and PT2 further revealed the prenylation sequence of these two enzymes in β-bitter acid biosynthesis: PT1L catalyzed only the first prenylation step, and PT2 catalyzed the two subsequent prenylation steps. A metabolon formed through interactions between PT1L and PT2 was demonstrated using a yeast two-hybrid system, reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation, and in vitro biochemical assays. These results provide direct evidence of the involvement of a functional metabolon of membrane-bound prenyltransferases in bitter acid biosynthesis in hop. PMID:25564559

  17. Quantitative studies on the influence of the bean roasting parameters and hot water percolation on the concentrations of bitter compounds in coffee brew.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Simone; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of roasting time and temperature on the degradation of the bitter precursors 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (1), 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (2), and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (3) as well as the formation of bitter tastants during coffee roasting, we prepared coffee brews from beans roasted either at 260 degrees C for 60-600 s or for 240 s at 190-280 degrees C. By means of HPLC-UV/vis and HPLC-MS/MS, bitter-tasting monocaffeoyl quinides (4-8), dicaffeoyl quinides (9-11), and 4-vinylcatechol oligomers (12-20) as well as the parent bitter precursors 1-3 were quantitatively analyzed in these brews. Quinides 4-11, exhibiting a coffee-typical bitter taste profile, were found to be preferentially formed under slight to medium roasting degrees and were observed to be degraded again to generate harsh bitter-tasting 4-vinylcatechol oligomers under more severe roasting conditions, thus matching the change in bitter taste quality observed by means of sensory studies. In addition, quantitative studies of the release profile of bitter compounds from ground coffee upon water percolation revealed that compounds 1-8 were rapidly extracted, dicaffeoyl quinides 9-11 were released rather slowly, and, in particular, compounds 12-17 were found to show strong retention to the ground coffee material. These data imply that the knowledge-based control of the roasting and/or the extraction conditions might be helpful in tailoring the bitter taste signature of coffee beverages. PMID:20180507

  18. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana M.; Marques, Andreia T.; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S.; Almeida, André M.

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  19. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana M; Marques, Andreia T; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S; Almeida, André M

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  20. The separation and determination of quinine in bitter drinks by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Trenerry, V C; Ward, C M

    1996-01-01

    A rapid method for the determination of quinine in bitter drinks by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection is described. The beverage is simply diluted with deionized water, filtered, and analyzed using a 75 cm x 75 micrometer uncoated fused-silica capillary column with a buffer consisting of 15% methanol and 85% of a mixture of 0.05 M cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), 0.01 M sodium tetraborate, and 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate, pH 8.6, with an operating voltage of -25 kV. The levels of quinine determined by MECC were in good agreement with those determined by HPLC. The CVs for area calculation (2.1%, n = 7) and migration time variation (1.3%, n = 20) for multiple injections of a sample solution by MECC were satisfactory.

  1. Analysis of a Lipid/Polymer Membrane for Bitterness Sensing with a Preconditioning Process

    PubMed Central

    Yatabe, Rui; Noda, Junpei; Tahara, Yusuke; Naito, Yoshinobu; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    It is possible to evaluate the taste of foods or medicines using a taste sensor. The taste sensor converts information on taste into an electrical signal using several lipid/polymer membranes. A lipid/polymer membrane for bitterness sensing can evaluate aftertaste after immersion in monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is called “preconditioning”. However, we have not yet analyzed the change in the surface structure of the membrane as a result of preconditioning. Thus, we analyzed the change in the surface by performing contact angle and surface zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and gas cluster ion beam time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-TOF-SIMS). After preconditioning, the concentrations of MSG and tetradodecylammonium bromide (TDAB), contained in the lipid membrane were found to be higher in the surface region than in the bulk region. The effect of preconditioning was revealed by the above analysis methods. PMID:26404301

  2. Sensing developing biofilms: the bitter receptor T2R38 on myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Gaida, Matthias Martin; Dapunt, Ulrike; Hänsch, Gertrud Maria

    2016-04-01

    Quorum-sensing molecules, also known as autoinducer, are essential for bacterial biofilm formation. Our focus is on N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (AHL-12), because it is also known as an 'interkingdom signalling molecule', which means that it also interacts with mammalian cells. AHL-12 activates defence-relevant functions of phagocytic cells, including enhancement of phagocytosis, increased expression of adhesion receptors and induction of chemotaxis. This leads to the hypothesis that early recognition of developing biofilms might be the key to a successful host defence against biofilm infection. In that context we studied activation of phagocytic cells by AHL-12, and found that phagocytes are activated via a rather specialized receptor that was not previously described on myeloid cells, the bitter taste receptor T2R38. Taste receptors are commonly associated with cells of the gustatory system. The extragustatory expression, however, suggests an additional role, namely the sensing of the onset of bacterial biofilm infection. PMID:26782143

  3. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Huiling; Yu, Xinchi; Lu, Ailin; Cao, Haoqiang; Zhou, Bohang; Zhou, Le; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide. PMID:27589723

  4. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond.

    PubMed

    Geng, Huiling; Yu, Xinchi; Lu, Ailin; Cao, Haoqiang; Zhou, Bohang; Zhou, Le; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide. PMID:27589723

  5. Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond.

    PubMed

    Geng, Huiling; Yu, Xinchi; Lu, Ailin; Cao, Haoqiang; Zhou, Bohang; Zhou, Le; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-08-29

    The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide.

  6. Immunomodulatory role of bitter melon extract in inhibition of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma growth.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Muhammad, Naoshad; Steele, Robert; Peng, Guangyong; Ray, Ratna B

    2016-05-31

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer and leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Despite the advancement in treatment procedures the overall survival rate of patients has not considerably enhanced in the past few decades. Therefore, new strategies to achieve a favorable response for the improvement in the prognosis of HNSCC are urgently needed. In this study, we examined the role of bitter melon extract (BME) in HNSCC tumor microenvironment. Mouse head and neck cancer (SCCVII) cells were subcutaneously injected into the flanks of syngeneic mice. We observed that oral gavage of BME significantly inhibits the tumor growth in mice as compared to control group. Further study suggested that BME inhibits cell proliferation as evident from low expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and c-Myc in the tumors of BME fed mice as compared to that of control group. We next investigated the role of BME as an immunomodulator in HNSCC model. Forkhead box protein P3+ (FoxP3+) T cells suppress tumor immunity. Our data suggested that BME treatment decreases the infiltrating regulatory T (Treg) cells by inhibiting FoxP3+ populations in the tumors and in spleens. Additionally, BME treatment reduces Th17 cell population in the tumor. However, BME treatment did not alter Th1 and Th2 cell populations. Together, our findings offer a new insight into how bitter melon extract inhibits head and neck tumor growth by modulating cell proliferation and Treg populations, with implications for how to control tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor progression. PMID:27120805

  7. A bitter pill for type 2 diabetes? The activation of bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 can stimulate GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine L-cells

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hung; Hui, Hongxiang; Morvaridi, Susan; Cai, Jiena; Zhang, Sanqi; Tan, Jun; Wu, Vincent; Levin, Nancy; Knudsen, Beatrice; Goddard, William A.; Pandol, Stephen J.; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been found in many extra-oral locations like the gastrointestinal (GI) system, respiratory system, and brain, though its function at these locations is only beginning to be understood. To probe the receptor’s potential metabolic role, immunohistochemistry of human ileum tissues was performed, which showed that the receptor was co-localized with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in L-cells. In a previous study, we had modeled the structure of this receptor for its many taste-variant haplotypes (Tan et al. 2011), including the taster haplotype PAV. The structure of this haplotype was then used in a virtual ligand screening pipeline using a collection of ~2.5 million purchasable molecules from the ZINC database. Three compounds (Z7, Z3, Z1) were purchased from the top hits and tested along with PTU (known TAS2R38 agonist) in in vitro and in vivo assays. The dose-response study of the effect of PTU and Z7 on GLP-1 release using wild-type and TAS2R38 knockout HuTu-80 cells showed that the receptor TAS2R38 plays a major role in GLP-1 release due to these molecules. In vivo studies of PTU and the three compounds showed that they each increase GLP-1 release. PTU was also chemical linked to cellulose to slow its absorption and when tested in vivo, it showed an enhanced and prolonged GLP-1 release. These results suggest that the GI lumen location of TAS2R38 on the L-cell makes it a relatively safe drug target as systemic absorption is not needed for a TAS2R38 agonist drug to effect GLP-1 release. PMID:27208775

  8. A bitter pill for type 2 diabetes? The activation of bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 can stimulate GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine L-cells.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung; Hui, Hongxiang; Morvaridi, Susan; Cai, Jiena; Zhang, Sanqi; Tan, Jun; Wu, Vincent; Levin, Nancy; Knudsen, Beatrice; Goddard, William A; Pandol, Stephen J; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been found in many extra-oral locations like the gastrointestinal (GI) system, respiratory system, and brain, though its function at these locations is only beginning to be understood. To probe the receptor's potential metabolic role, immunohistochemistry of human ileum tissues was performed, which showed that the receptor was co-localized with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in L-cells. In a previous study, we had modeled the structure of this receptor for its many taste-variant haplotypes (Tan et al. 2011), including the taster haplotype PAV. The structure of this haplotype was then used in a virtual ligand screening pipeline using a collection of ∼2.5 million purchasable molecules from the ZINC database. Three compounds (Z7, Z3, Z1) were purchased from the top hits and tested along with PTU (known TAS2R38 agonist) in in vitro and in vivo assays. The dose-response study of the effect of PTU and Z7 on GLP-1 release using wild-type and TAS2R38 knockout HuTu-80 cells showed that the receptor TAS2R38 plays a major role in GLP-1 release due to these molecules. In vivo studies of PTU and the three compounds showed that they each increase GLP-1 release. PTU was also chemical linked to cellulose to slow its absorption and when tested in vivo, it showed an enhanced and prolonged GLP-1 release. These results suggest that the GI lumen location of TAS2R38 on the L-cell makes it a relatively safe drug target as systemic absorption is not needed for a TAS2R38 agonist drug to effect GLP-1 release. PMID:27208775

  9. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School.

    PubMed

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find that the fraction of students eating a full serving of whole fruit increased from 4.3% to 45.1%. As such, school districts should consider offering fruit smoothies as part of a set of interventions designed to increase fruit consumption at school.

  10. Extraction, quantification, and antioxidant activities of phenolics from pericarp and seeds of bitter melons (Momordica charantia) harvested at three maturity stages (immature, mature, and ripe).

    PubMed

    Horax, Ronny; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Chen, Pengyin

    2010-04-14

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is an exotic vegetable used for consumption and medicinal purposes mainly throughout Asia. Phenolics were extracted from pericarp (fleshy portion) and seeds of bitter melons harvested at three maturation stages (immature, mature, and ripe) using ethanol and water solvent systems. Total phenolic assessment demonstrated 80% of ethanol to be the optimal solvent level to extract phenolics either from pericarp or seed. Main phenolic constituents in the extracts were catechin, gallic acid, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, and epicatechin. Free radical scavenging assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) demonstrated the bitter melon extracts as slow rate free radical scavenging agents. There were low correlations between the total phenolic contents and antiradical power values of the extracts, suggesting a possible interaction among the phenolic constituents occurred. Bitter melon phenolic extracts contain natural antioxidant substances, and could be used as antioxidant agents in suitable food products.

  11. Rapid and sensitive ultrasonic-assisted derivatisation microextraction (UDME) technique for bitter taste-free amino acids (FAA) study by HPLC-FLD.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Li, Jun; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; Li, Guoliang; Song, Cuihua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2014-01-15

    Amino acids, as the main contributors to taste, are usually found in relatively high levels in bitter foods. In this work, we focused on seeking a rapid, sensitive and simple method to determine FAA for large batches of micro-samples and to explore the relationship between FAA and bitterness. Overall condition optimisation indicated that the new UDME technique offered higher derivatisation yields and extraction efficiencies than traditional methods. Only 35min was needed in the whole operation process. Very low LLOQ (Lower limit of quantification: 0.21-5.43nmol/L) for FAA in twelve bitter foods was obtained, with which BTT (bitter taste thresholds) and CABT (content of FAA at BTT level) were newly determined. The ratio of CABT to BTT increased with decreasing of BTT. This work provided powerful potential for the high-throughput trace analysis of micro-sample and also a methodology to study the relationship between the chemical constituents and the taste.

  12. An electronic tongue: evaluation of the masking efficacy of sweetening and/or flavoring agents on the bitter taste of epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Ousama; Simons, F Estelle R; Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem; Simons, Keith J

    2010-06-01

    An epinephrine (E) tablet is under development for sublingual (SL) administration for the first-aid treatment of anaphylaxis; however, the inherent bitterness of E may hinder acceptability by patients, especially children. To assess the degree of E bitterness and to predict the masking effects of sweetening and/or flavoring non-medicinal ingredients (NMIs), the potential usefulness of an electronic tongue (e-Tongue) was evaluated. The e-Tongue sensors were conditioned, calibrated, and tested for taste discrimination. Six standard active pharmaceutical ingredients were used to build and validate a bitterness model which was then used to assess E bitartrate (EB) solutions from 0.3-9 mM. Taste-masking efficiency of aspartame (ASP), acesulfame potassium (ASK), and citric acid (CA) each at 0.5 mM was evaluated. Using EB 9 mM, the bitterness score was 20 on a scale of 20 (unacceptable) down to 1 (not detected). When NMIs 0.5 mM were added, neither ASK (17.2, unacceptable) nor was ASP (14.0, limit acceptable) effective in masking the bitter taste. When the combination of ASK and ASP was used, the bitterness score was reduced to 9.2 (acceptable). However, the addition of CA alone resulted in the best reduction of the bitterness score to 3.3 (not detected). Using the e-Tongue, the incorporation of a variety of sweetening and/or flavoring NMIs into a SL tablet of E could be shown to mask its bitter taste by up to 80%. These results should be confirmed by in vivo studies.

  13. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    MedlinePlus

    ... at breakfast At breakfast, top your cereal with bananas, peaches, or strawberries; add blueberries to pancakes; drink ... fruit at lunch At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from ...

  14. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Indicates Association of P-Glycoprotein Substrate or Inhibitor Character with Bitterness Intensity, Measured with a Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yano, Kentaro; Mita, Suzune; Morimoto, Kaori; Haraguchi, Tamami; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Miyako; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) regulates absorption of many drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and their accumulation in tumor tissues, but the basis of substrate recognition by P-gp remains unclear. Bitter-tasting phenylthiocarbamide, which stimulates taste receptor 2 member 38 (T2R38), increases P-gp activity and is a substrate of P-gp. This led us to hypothesize that bitterness intensity might be a predictor of P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status. Here, we measured the bitterness intensity of a panel of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrates with various taste sensors, and used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status and various physical properties, including intensity of bitter taste measured with the taste sensor. We calculated the first principal component analysis score (PC1) as the representative value of bitterness, as all taste sensor's outputs shared significant correlation. The P-gp substrates showed remarkably greater mean bitterness intensity than non-P-gp substrates. We found that Km value of P-gp substrates were correlated with molecular weight, log P, and PC1 value, and the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the linear regression equation was 0.63. This relationship might be useful as an aid to predict P-gp substrate status at an early stage of drug discovery.

  15. Properties of a new protein film from bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and effect of CaCl₂ on its hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Arabestani, Akram; Kadivar, Mahdi; Shahedi, Mohmmad; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Porta, Raffaele

    2013-06-01

    This work was aimed to investigate the potential preparation of an edible film from bitter vetch seed proteins. The film was cast from bitter vetch protein concentrate (BPC) and glycerol. CaCl₂ at the ratio of 0.1-1% (w/w) of the BPC was tested to improve film properties, specially its hydrophobicity. Some physicochemical properties of the films obtained in the absence and presence of CaCl₂ were evaluated. The results indicated that moisture content, total soluble matter, water vapour permeability and contact angle of the films prepared in the presence of CaCl₂ were significantly modified in comparison with the control values, while their mechanical properties did not significantly change. The surface morphology of the films was also considerably affected by the presence of CaCl₂. Therefore, CaCl₂ could improve BPC-films barrier properties especially their hydrophobicity, even though calcium concentration seems to be a crucial factor.

  16. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  17. The immobilization of all spermatozoa in vitro by bitter lemon drink and the effect of alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Nwoha, P U

    1992-12-01

    Researchers at Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, collected semen samples from 7 healthy men 25-30 years old who had abstained from sex for at least 5 days in order to examine the spermicidal action of 4 soft drinks (Krest bitter lemon, Afri-Cola, Coca-Cola, and Pepsi-Cola), the effect of increased temperature of the drinks on spermicidal action, and the effect of changing the soft drinks from an acid, as it comes from the factory, (ph 2.4) to an alkaline (pH 7.5). Increasing the temperature of the soft drinks from room temperature (22 degrees Celsius) to body temperatures (37 degrees Celsius) did not significantly change the spermicidal action any of the soft drinks. All soft drinks with an acid pH, except Coca-Cola, had a significantly lower percent of sperm motility than those with an alkaline pH (0-42.3% vs. 20-52.1%; p .001). In fact, Krest bitter lemon in its factory form (acid pH) completely immobilized all spermatozoa within 1 minute after the researchers diluted the semen with the soft drink. Alkaline Coca-Cola had a significantly lower percent of sperm motility than did acid Coca-Cola (35.8% vs. 46.5%; p .001). Other than Krest bitter lemon, the significant decreases in sperm motility were not enough to prevent pregnancy. These findings indicated that researchers should test Krest bitter lemon for effectiveness as a postcoital contraceptive. If indeed it proves effective, it has great potential as such a contraceptive among the poor in the densely population developed countries since it is readily available and inexpensive.

  18. Changes in taste receptor cell [Ca2+]i modulate chorda tympani responses to bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli

    PubMed Central

    DeSimone, John A.; Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Ren, ZuoJun; Mummalaneni, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between taste receptor cell (TRC) intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to bitter (quinine and denatonium), sweet (sucrose, glycine, and erythritol), and umami [monosodium glutamate (MSG) and MSG + inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP)] taste stimuli was investigated before and after lingual application of ionomycin (Ca2+ ionophore) + Ca2+, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM; Ca2+ chelator), U73122 (phospholipase C blocker), thapsigargin (Ca2+-ATPase blocker), and diC8-PIP2 (synthetic phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate). The phasic CT response to quinine was indifferent to changes in [Ca2+]i. However, a decrease in [Ca2+]i inhibited the tonic part of the CT response to quinine. The CT responses to sweet and umami stimuli were indifferent to changes in TRC [Ca2+]i. However, a decrease in [Ca2+]i attenuated the synergistic effects of ethanol on the CT response to sweet stimuli and of IMP on the glutamate CT response. U73122 and thapsigargin inhibited the phasic and tonic CT responses to bitter, sweet, and umami stimuli. Although diC8-PIP2 increased the CT response to bitter and sweet stimuli, it did not alter the CT response to glutamate but did inhibit the synergistic effect of IMP on the glutamate response. The results suggest that bitter, sweet, and umami taste qualities are transduced by [Ca2+]i-dependent and [Ca2+]i-independent mechanisms. Changes in TRC [Ca2+]i in the BAPTA-sensitive cytosolic compartment regulate quality-specific taste receptors and ion channels that are involved in the neural adaptation and mixture interactions. Changes in TRC [Ca2+]i in a separate subcompartment, sensitive to inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin but inaccessible to BAPTA and ionomycin + Ca2+, are associated with neurotransmitter release. PMID:22993258

  19. Bitter-sensitive gustatory receptor neuron responds to chemically diverse insect repellents in the common malaria mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Jackson T.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    Female mosquitoes feed on blood from animal hosts to obtain nutritional resources used for egg production. These contacts facilitate the spread of harmful human diseases. Chemical repellents are used to disrupt mosquito host-seeking and blood-feeding behaviors; however, little is known about the gustatory sensitivity of mosquitoes to known repellents. Here, we recorded electrical responses from gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) housed within the labellar sensilla of female Anopheles quadrimaculatus to N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), picaridin, IR3535, 2-undecanone, p-menthane-3,8-diol, geraniol, trans-2-hexen-1-ol, quinine, and quinidine. A bitter-sensitive GRN responded to all tested repellents and quinine, a known feeding deterrent. Responses of the bitter-sensitive neuron to quinine and an isomer, quinidine, did not differ. Delayed bursts of electrical activity were observed in response to continuous stimulation with synthetic repellents at high concentrations. Electrophysiological recordings from bitter-sensitive GRNs associated with mosquito gustatory sensilla represent a convenient model to evaluate candidate repellents.

  20. Expression of bitter taste receptors of the T2R family in the gastrointestinal tract and enteroendocrine STC-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S. Vincent; Rozengurt, Nora; Yang, Moon; Young, Steven H.; Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Although a role for the gastric and intestinal mucosa in molecular sensing has been known for decades, the initial molecular recognition events that sense the chemical composition of the luminal contents has remained elusive. Here we identified putative taste receptor gene transcripts in the gastrointestinal tract. Our results, using reverse transcriptase–PCR, demonstrate the presence of transcripts corresponding to multiple members of the T2R family of bitter taste receptors in the antral and fundic gastric mucosa as well as in the lining of the duodenum. In addition, cDNA clones of T2R receptors were detected in a rat gastric endocrine cell cDNA library, suggesting that these receptors are expressed, at least partly, in enteroendocrine cells. Accordingly, expression of multiple T2R receptors also was found in STC-1 cells, an enteroendocrine cell line. The expression of α subunits of G proteins implicated in intracellular taste signal transduction, namely Gαgust, and Gαt-2, also was demonstrated in the gastrointestinal mucosa as well as in STC-1 cells, as revealed by reverse transcriptase–PCR and DNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Furthermore, addition of compounds widely used in bitter taste signaling (e.g., denatonium, phenylthiocarbamide, 6-n-propil-2-thiouracil, and cycloheximide) to STC-1 cells promoted a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These results demonstrate the expression of bitter taste receptors of the T2R family in the mouse and rat gastrointestinal tract. PMID:11854532

  1. Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Tunisian Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Peel and Juice and Determination of Their Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jabri karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23841062

  2. Synthesis of rebaudioside A from stevioside and their interaction model with hTAS2R4 bitter taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Singla, Ramit; Jaitak, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Steviol glycosides (SG's) from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) have been used as a natural low-calorie sweeteners. Its aftertaste bitterness restricts its use for human consumption and limits its application in food and pharmaceutical products. In present study, we have performed computational analysis in order to investigate the interaction of two major constituents of SG's against homology model of the hTAS2R4 receptor. Molecular simulation study was performed using stevioside and rebaudioside A revealed that, sugar moiety at the C-3'' position in rebaudioside A causes restriction of its entry into the receptor site thereby unable to trigger the bitter reception signaling cascade. Encouraged by the current finding, we have also developed a greener route using β-1,3-glucanase from Irpex lacteus for the synthesis of de-bittered rebaudioside A from stevioside. The rebaudioside A obtained was of high quality with percent conversion of 62.5%. The results here reported could be used for the synthesis of rebaudioside A which have large application in food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26976334

  3. LC-MS/MS quantitation of hop-derived bitter compounds in beer using the ECHO technique.

    PubMed

    Intelmann, Daniel; Haseleu, Gesa; Hofmann, Thomas

    2009-02-25

    A new quantification method for hop-derived bitter compounds in beer was developed. By means of LC-MS/MS operating in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, a total of 26 hop-derived bitter compounds, namely, the post-, co-, n-, ad-, pre-, and adpre-congeners of iso-alpha-acids, alpha-acids, and beta-acids, as well as the prenylflavonoid isoxanthohumol and the chalcone xanthohumol, could be simultaneously detected for the first time in a single HPLC run in authentic beer samples without any cleanup procedures. To compensate for the effect of coextracted matrix components in LC-MS/MS analysis, the so-called ECHO technique was applied for the first time as a suitable strategy for the quantitative analysis of the hop-derived bitter compounds in fresh and stored beer. On the basis of quantitative data, the remarkable instability of alpha-acids and trans-iso-alpha-acids was confirmed, and it was observed that the degradation of trans-iso-alpha-acids during the storage of beer is not dependent from the nature of the alkanoyl side chain of the congeners. In contrast, an increase of the concentrations of beta-acids and of the prenylflavonoid isoxanthohumol as well as of the chalcone xanthohumol during the storage of beer was observed.

  4. Bitter-sensitive gustatory receptor neuron responds to chemically diverse insect repellents in the common malaria mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Jackson T; Dickens, Joseph C

    2016-06-01

    Female mosquitoes feed on blood from animal hosts to obtain nutritional resources used for egg production. These contacts facilitate the spread of harmful human diseases. Chemical repellents are used to disrupt mosquito host-seeking and blood-feeding behaviors; however, little is known about the gustatory sensitivity of mosquitoes to known repellents. Here, we recorded electrical responses from gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) housed within the labellar sensilla of female Anopheles quadrimaculatus to N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), picaridin, IR3535, 2-undecanone, p-menthane-3,8-diol, geraniol, trans-2-hexen-1-ol, quinine, and quinidine. A bitter-sensitive GRN responded to all tested repellents and quinine, a known feeding deterrent. Responses of the bitter-sensitive neuron to quinine and an isomer, quinidine, did not differ. Delayed bursts of electrical activity were observed in response to continuous stimulation with synthetic repellents at high concentrations. Electrophysiological recordings from bitter-sensitive GRNs associated with mosquito gustatory sensilla represent a convenient model to evaluate candidate repellents.

  5. Characterization of bioactive compounds in Tunisian bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel and juice and determination of their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Jabri Karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  6. Bitter-sensitive gustatory receptor neuron responds to chemically diverse insect repellents in the common malaria mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Jackson T; Dickens, Joseph C

    2016-06-01

    Female mosquitoes feed on blood from animal hosts to obtain nutritional resources used for egg production. These contacts facilitate the spread of harmful human diseases. Chemical repellents are used to disrupt mosquito host-seeking and blood-feeding behaviors; however, little is known about the gustatory sensitivity of mosquitoes to known repellents. Here, we recorded electrical responses from gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) housed within the labellar sensilla of female Anopheles quadrimaculatus to N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), picaridin, IR3535, 2-undecanone, p-menthane-3,8-diol, geraniol, trans-2-hexen-1-ol, quinine, and quinidine. A bitter-sensitive GRN responded to all tested repellents and quinine, a known feeding deterrent. Responses of the bitter-sensitive neuron to quinine and an isomer, quinidine, did not differ. Delayed bursts of electrical activity were observed in response to continuous stimulation with synthetic repellents at high concentrations. Electrophysiological recordings from bitter-sensitive GRNs associated with mosquito gustatory sensilla represent a convenient model to evaluate candidate repellents. PMID:27108454

  7. Fractions through Fruit Salad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Lisa

    1987-01-01

    The mathematics concept of fractions was taught to a group of learning disabled, dyslexic, and multiply handicapped students (15-20 years old) by preparing a fruit salad. Enthusiastic student participation and enhanced knowledge illustrated the effectiveness of employing several sensory modes in learning activities. (CB)

  8. Emerging fruit crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  9. Study of mechanical and morphological properties of bio-based polyethylene (HDPE) and sponge-gourds (Luffa-cylindrica) agroresidue composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escocio, Viviane A.; Visconte, Leila L. Y.; Cavalcante, Andre de P.; Furtado, Ana Maria S.; Pacheco, Elen B. A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Brazil has a remarkable position in the use of renewable energy. The potential of natural resources in Brazil has motivated the use of these renewable resources to make technologies more sustainable. From the large variety of commercially available High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) from different sources, two were chosen for investigation: one produced from sugarcane ethanol, and the other one, a conventional polyethylene, produced from fossil resources. In the preparation of the composites, sponge-gourds also called Luffa cylindrica were selectec. The main application of this product is as bath sponge, whose production generates scraps that are generally burnt. In this work, the composites were prepared by blending the sponge scrap at different proportions (10, 20, 30 and 40% wt/wt) with high density polyethylene (HDPE) from renewable source by extrusion. The melt flow index analysis of the composites was determined and specimens were obtained by injection molding for the assessment of mechanical properties such as tensile (elasticity modulus), flexural and Izod impact strengths. The microstructure of the impact fractured surface of the specimen also was determined. The results showed that the addition of sponge scrap affects positively all the properties studied as compared to HDPE. The results of tensile strength, elasticity modulus and flexural strength were similar to those observed in the literature for composites of HDPE from fossil source. The microstructure corroborates the results of mechanical properties. It was shown that the sponge scrap has potential to be applied as cellulosic filler for renewable polyethylene, providing a totally renewable material with good mechanical properties.

  10. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting affects nitrogen metabolism in NaCl-stressed watermelon leaves and enhances short-term salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjuan; Lu, Xiaomin; Yan, Bei; Li, Bin; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-05-01

    The plant growth, nitrogen absorption, and assimilation in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) were investigated in self-grafted and grafted seedlings using the salt-tolerant bottle gourd rootstock Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) exposed to 100mM NaCl for 3d. The biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate were significantly increased by rootstock while these values were remarkably decreased by salt stress. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted plants showed higher salt tolerance with higher biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate under salt stress. Salinity induced strong accumulation of nitrate, ammonium and protein contents and a significant decrease of nitrogen content and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in leaves of self-grafted seedlings. In contrast, salt stress caused a remarkable decrease in nitrate content and the activities of GS and GOGAT, and a significant increase of ammonium, protein, and nitrogen contents and NR activity, in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Compared with that of self-grafted seedlings, the ammonium content in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings was much lower under salt stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was notably enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings, whereas it was significantly inhibited in leaves of self-grafted seedlings, under salinity stress. Three GDH isozymes were isolated by native gel electrophoresis and their expressions were greatly enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings than those of self-grafted seedlings under both normal and salt-stress conditions. These results indicated that the salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings might (be enhanced) owing to the higher nitrogen absorption and the higher activities of enzymes for nitrogen assimilation induced by the rootstock. Furthermore, the detoxification of ammonium by GDH when the GS/GOGAT pathway

  11. Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: a case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes comprises 90–100 species that occur from India to Japan and southeast to Australia and Fiji. Most species have large white or pale yellow petals with conspicuously fringed margins, the fringes sometimes several cm long. Pollination is usually by hawkmoths. Previous molecular data for a small number of species suggested that a monophyletic Trichosanthes might include the Asian genera Gymnopetalum (four species, lacking long petal fringes) and Hodgsonia (two species with petals fringed). Here we test these groups’ relationships using a species sampling of c. 60% and 4759 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA. To infer the time and direction of the geographic expansion of the Trichosanthes clade we employ molecular clock dating and statistical biogeographic reconstruction, and we also address the gain or loss of petal fringes. Results Trichosanthes is monophyletic as long as it includes Gymnopetalum, which itself is polyphyletic. The closest relative of Trichosanthes appears to be the sponge gourds, Luffa, while Hodgsonia is more distantly related. Of six morphology-based sections in Trichosanthes with more than one species, three are supported by the molecular results; two new sections appear warranted. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses suggest an Oligocene origin of Trichosanthes in Eurasia or East Asia, followed by diversification and spread throughout the Malesian biogeographic region and into the Australian continent. Conclusions Long-fringed corollas evolved independently in Hodgsonia and Trichosanthes, followed by two losses in the latter coincident with shifts to other pollinators but not with long-distance dispersal events. Together with the Caribbean Linnaeosicyos, the Madagascan Ampelosicyos and the tropical African Telfairia, these cucurbit lineages represent an ideal system for more detailed studies of the evolution and function of petal fringes in plant-pollinator mutualisms. PMID:22759528

  12. “The Bitter Laughter”. When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion

    PubMed Central

    D’Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called “just a joke effect” (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a “bitter laughter.” The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between “surface” and “deep” parody (Poggi and D’Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician’s gender. PMID:27555825

  13. Is sensory-specific satiety for a bitter-sweet infusion modulated by context?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, David; Secchiari, Florencia; Calviño, Amalia

    2015-03-01

    The sensory-affective attributes of beverages have an important influence on a given intake and successive consumptions because of sensory-specific satiety (SSS; defined as a decrease in pleasantness ratings of a food eaten relative to uneaten foods). No studies have, however, investigated how multiple sessions of SSS for familiar drinks over a period of several days up to a week may change their pleasantness and how these hedonic-related judgments are affected by the context during SSS testing. With twenty-six participants, the present study explored the medium lasting and contextual effects of repeated SSS sessions for a bitter-sweet infusion on olfactory and flavour pleasantness over the course of three exposures in either a laboratory or a cafeteria setting. The results showed olfactory and flavour SSS for the infusion following each consumption in both the artificial and the natural setting. More interestingly, despite the failure to detect medium-term SSS (i.e., a greater decrease in pleasantness ratings of a food eaten relative to uneaten foods after repeated SSS sessions over several days as compared to the first SSS session), a contextual modulation of olfactory SSS was observed with a lesser overall magnitude in the cafeteria compared to the laboratory setting. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of eating location on the development of satiation and the differential contextual sensitivity of SSS for orthonasal odours and flavours has not been reported previously. The implications of potential environmental control of SSS are considered in this study.

  14. Global diversity in the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: revisiting a classic evolutionary PROPosal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risso, Davide S.; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Pagani, Luca; Robino, Antonietta; Morini, Gabriella; Tofanelli, Sergio; Carrai, Maura; Campa, Daniele; Barale, Roberto; Caradonna, Fabio; Gasparini, Paolo; Luiselli, Donata; Wooding, Stephen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    The ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a polymorphic trait mediated by the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor gene. It has long been hypothesized that global genetic diversity at this locus evolved under pervasive pressures from balancing natural selection. However, recent high-resolution population genetic studies of TAS2Rs suggest that demographic events have played a critical role in the evolution of these genes. We here utilized the largest TAS2R38 database yet analyzed, consisting of 5,589 individuals from 105 populations, to examine natural selection, haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium to estimate the effects of both selection and demography on contemporary patterns of variation at this locus. We found signs of an ancient balancing selection acting on this gene but no post Out-Of-Africa departures from neutrality, implying that the current observed patterns of variation can be predominantly explained by demographic, rather than selective events. In addition, we found signatures of ancient selective forces acting on different African TAS2R38 haplotypes. Collectively our results provide evidence for a relaxation of recent selective forces acting on this gene and a revised hypothesis for the origins of the present-day worldwide distribution of TAS2R38 haplotypes.

  15. A modified Bitter-type electromagnet and control system for cold atom experiments.

    PubMed

    Luan, Tian; Zhou, Tianwei; Chen, Xuzong; Ma, Zhaoyuan

    2014-02-01

    We present a modified Bitter-type electromagnet which features high magnetic field, fine electronic properties and efficient heat removal. The electromagnet is constructed from a stack of copper layers separated by mica layers that have the same shape. A distinctive design of cooling channels on the insulating layers and the parallel ducts between the layers ensures low resistance for cooling water to flow. A continuous current control system is also made to regulate the current through the electromagnet. In our experiment, versatile electromagnets are applied to generate magnetic field and gradient field. From our measurements, a peak magnetic field of 1000 G and a peak gradient field of 80 G/cm are generated in the center of the apparatuses which are 7 cm and 5 cm away from the edge of each electromagnet with a current of 230 A and 120 A, respectively. With the effective feedback design in the current control system and cooling water flow of 3.8 l/min, the stability of the current through the electromagnets can reach 10(-5). PMID:24593377

  16. Development of a Split Bitter-type Magnet System for Dusty Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Evan; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.

    2014-10-01

    A 10 Tesla Bitter-type magnetic system is under development at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). We present here an optimization technique that uses differential evolution to minimize the omhic heating produced by the coils, while constraining the magnetic field in the experimental volume. The code gives us the optimal dimensions for the coil system including: coil length, turn thickness, disks radii, resistance, and total current required for a constant magnetic field. Finite element parametric optimization is then used to establish the optimal design for water cooling holes. Placement of the cooling holes will also take into consideration the magnetic forces acting on the copper alloy disks to ensure the material strength is not compromised during operation. The proposed power and cooling water delivery subsystems for the coils are also presented. Upon completion and testing of the magnet system, planned experiments include the propagation of magnetized waves in dusty plasma crystals under various boundary conditions, and viscosity in rotational shear flow, among others.

  17. Induction of differentiation of myelogenous leukemia cells by humulone, a bitter in the hop.

    PubMed

    Honma, Y; Tobe, H; Makishima, M; Yokoyama, A; Okabe-Kado, J

    1998-07-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation of myelomonocytic leukemia cells, but its clinical use is limited by the adverse effect of hypercalcemia. VD3 mobilizes calcium stores from bone by inducing the dissolution of bone mineral and matrix. We have recently found that humulone, a bitter in the hop extract for beer brewing, effectively inhibits bone resorption. In this study we examined the effect of humulone on the differentiation of human myelogenous leukemia cells. Humulone alone inhibited the growth of monoblastic leukemia U937 cells while only slightly increasing differentiation markers such as nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-reducing and lysozyme activities. Humulone effectively enhanced the differentiation-inducing action of VD3. Other myelomonocytic leukemia cells were induced to differentiate by VD3 and this was also enhanced by humulone. Since humulone is a less-toxic inhibitor of bone resorption, the combination of humulone and VD3 may be useful in differentiation therapy of myelomonocytic leukemia.

  18. "The Bitter Laughter". When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called "just a joke effect" (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a "bitter laughter." The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between "surface" and "deep" parody (Poggi and D'Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician's gender.

  19. Global diversity in the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: revisiting a classic evolutionary PROPosal

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Davide S.; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Pagani, Luca; Robino, Antonietta; Morini, Gabriella; Tofanelli, Sergio; Carrai, Maura; Campa, Daniele; Barale, Roberto; Caradonna, Fabio; Gasparini, Paolo; Luiselli, Donata; Wooding, Stephen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a polymorphic trait mediated by the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor gene. It has long been hypothesized that global genetic diversity at this locus evolved under pervasive pressures from balancing natural selection. However, recent high-resolution population genetic studies of TAS2Rs suggest that demographic events have played a critical role in the evolution of these genes. We here utilized the largest TAS2R38 database yet analyzed, consisting of 5,589 individuals from 105 populations, to examine natural selection, haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium to estimate the effects of both selection and demography on contemporary patterns of variation at this locus. We found signs of an ancient balancing selection acting on this gene but no post Out-Of-Africa departures from neutrality, implying that the current observed patterns of variation can be predominantly explained by demographic, rather than selective events. In addition, we found signatures of ancient selective forces acting on different African TAS2R38 haplotypes. Collectively our results provide evidence for a relaxation of recent selective forces acting on this gene and a revised hypothesis for the origins of the present-day worldwide distribution of TAS2R38 haplotypes. PMID:27138342

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid, quantitative analysis of bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus).

    PubMed

    Killeen, Daniel P; Andersen, David H; Beatson, Ron A; Gordon, Keith C; Perry, Nigel B

    2014-12-31

    Hops, Humulus lupulus, are grown worldwide for use in the brewing industry to impart characteristic flavor and aroma to finished beer. Breeders produce many varietal crosses with the aim of improving and diversifying commercial hops varieties. The large number of crosses critical to a successful breeding program imposes high demands on the supporting chemical analytical laboratories. With the aim of reducing the analysis time associated with hops breeding, quantitative partial least-squares regression (PLS-R) models have been produced, relating reference data acquired by the industrial standard HPLC and UV methods, to vibrational spectra of the same, chemically diverse hops sample set. These models, produced from rapidly acquired infrared (IR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman spectra, were appraised using standard statistical metrics. Results demonstrated that all three spectroscopic methods could be used for screening hops for α-acid, total bitter acids, and cohumulone concentrations in powdered hops. Models generated from Raman and IR spectra also showed potential for use in screening hops varieties for xanthohumol concentrations. NIR analysis was performed using both a standard benchtop spectrometer and a portable NIR spectrometer, with comparable results obtained by both instruments. Finally, some important vibrational features of cohumulone, colupulone, and xanthohumol were assigned using DFT calculations, which allow more insightful interpretation of PLS-R latent variable plots.

  1. Global diversity in the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: revisiting a classic evolutionary PROPosal.

    PubMed

    Risso, Davide S; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Pagani, Luca; Robino, Antonietta; Morini, Gabriella; Tofanelli, Sergio; Carrai, Maura; Campa, Daniele; Barale, Roberto; Caradonna, Fabio; Gasparini, Paolo; Luiselli, Donata; Wooding, Stephen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a polymorphic trait mediated by the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor gene. It has long been hypothesized that global genetic diversity at this locus evolved under pervasive pressures from balancing natural selection. However, recent high-resolution population genetic studies of TAS2Rs suggest that demographic events have played a critical role in the evolution of these genes. We here utilized the largest TAS2R38 database yet analyzed, consisting of 5,589 individuals from 105 populations, to examine natural selection, haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium to estimate the effects of both selection and demography on contemporary patterns of variation at this locus. We found signs of an ancient balancing selection acting on this gene but no post Out-Of-Africa departures from neutrality, implying that the current observed patterns of variation can be predominantly explained by demographic, rather than selective events. In addition, we found signatures of ancient selective forces acting on different African TAS2R38 haplotypes. Collectively our results provide evidence for a relaxation of recent selective forces acting on this gene and a revised hypothesis for the origins of the present-day worldwide distribution of TAS2R38 haplotypes. PMID:27138342

  2. "The Bitter Laughter". When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called "just a joke effect" (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a "bitter laughter." The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between "surface" and "deep" parody (Poggi and D'Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician's gender. PMID:27555825

  3. Bitter melon extracts enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic agents through the modulation of multiple drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Deep; Venugopal, Anand; Standing, David; Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Dhar, Animesh; Mitra, Ashim; Anant, Shrikant

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that extracts of bitter melon (BME) can be used as a preventive/therapeutic agent in colon cancers. Here, we determined BME effects on anticancer activity and bioavailability of doxorubicin (DOX) in colon cancer cells. BME enhanced the effect of DOX on cell proliferation and sensitized the cells toward DOX upon pretreatment. Furthermore, there was both increased drug uptake and reduced drug efflux. We also observed a reduction in the expression of multidrug resistance conferring proteins (MDRCP) P-glycoprotein, MRP-2, and BCRP. Further BME suppressed DOX efflux in MDCK cells overexpressing the three efflux proteins individually, suggesting that BME is a potent inhibitor of MDR function. Next, we determined the effect of BME on PXR, a xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptor and a transcription factor that controls the expression of the three MDR genes. BME suppressed PXR promoter activity thereby suppressing its expression. Finally, we determined the effect of AMPK pathway on drug efflux because we have previously demonstrated that BME affects the pathway. However, inhibiting AMPK did not affect drug resistance, suggesting that BME may use different pathways for the anticancer and MDR modulating activities. Together, these results suggest that BME can enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of conventional chemotherapy.

  4. Efficient Continuous-Duty Bitter-Type Electromagnets for Cold Atom Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabulsky, Dylan; Ocola, Paloma; Parker, Colin; Gemelke, Nathan; Chin, Cheng

    2014-05-01

    We present the design, construction and characterization of Bitter-type electromagnets which can generate high magnetic fields under continuous operation with efficient heat removal for cold atom experiments. The electromagnets are constructed from a stack of alternating layers consisting of copper arcs and insulating polyester spacers. Efficient cooling of the copper is achieved via parallel rectangular water cooling channels between copper layers with low resistance to flow; a high ratio of the water-cooled surface area to the volume of copper ensures a short length scale ~1 mm to extract dissipated heat. High copper fraction per layer ensures high magnetic field generated per unit energy dissipated. The ensemble is highly scalable and compressed to create a watertight seal without epoxy. From our measurements, a peak field of 770 G is generated 14 mm away from a single electromagnet with a current of 400 A and a total power dissipation of 1.6 kW. With cooling water flowing at 3.8 l/min, the coil temperature only increases by 7 degrees Celsius under continuous operation.

  5. Efficient continuous-duty Bitter-type electromagnets for cold atom experiments.

    PubMed

    Sabulsky, Dylan O; Parker, Colin V; Gemelke, Nathan D; Chin, Cheng

    2013-10-01

    We present the design, construction, and characterization of Bitter-type electromagnets which can generate high magnetic fields under continuous operation with efficient heat removal for cold atom experiments. The electromagnets are constructed from a stack of alternating layers consisting of copper arcs and insulating polyester spacers. Efficient cooling of the copper is achieved via parallel rectangular water cooling channels between copper layers with low resistance to flow; a high ratio of the water-cooled surface area to the volume of copper ensures a short length scale (~1 mm) to extract dissipated heat. High copper fraction per layer ensures high magnetic field generated per unit energy dissipated. The ensemble is highly scalable and compressed to create a watertight seal without epoxy. From our measurements, a peak field of 770 G is generated 14 mm away from a single electromagnet with a current of 400 A and a total power dissipation of 1.6 kW. With cooling water flowing at 3.8 l/min, the coil temperature only increases by 7 °C under continuous operation.

  6. Efficient continuous-duty Bitter-type electromagnets for cold atom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabulsky, Dylan O.; Parker, Colin V.; Gemelke, Nathan D.; Chin, Cheng

    2013-10-01

    We present the design, construction, and characterization of Bitter-type electromagnets which can generate high magnetic fields under continuous operation with efficient heat removal for cold atom experiments. The electromagnets are constructed from a stack of alternating layers consisting of copper arcs and insulating polyester spacers. Efficient cooling of the copper is achieved via parallel rectangular water cooling channels between copper layers with low resistance to flow; a high ratio of the water-cooled surface area to the volume of copper ensures a short length scale (˜1 mm) to extract dissipated heat. High copper fraction per layer ensures high magnetic field generated per unit energy dissipated. The ensemble is highly scalable and compressed to create a watertight seal without epoxy. From our measurements, a peak field of 770 G is generated 14 mm away from a single electromagnet with a current of 400 A and a total power dissipation of 1.6 kW. With cooling water flowing at 3.8 l/min, the coil temperature only increases by 7 °C under continuous operation.

  7. A modified Bitter-type electromagnet and control system for cold atom experiments.

    PubMed

    Luan, Tian; Zhou, Tianwei; Chen, Xuzong; Ma, Zhaoyuan

    2014-02-01

    We present a modified Bitter-type electromagnet which features high magnetic field, fine electronic properties and efficient heat removal. The electromagnet is constructed from a stack of copper layers separated by mica layers that have the same shape. A distinctive design of cooling channels on the insulating layers and the parallel ducts between the layers ensures low resistance for cooling water to flow. A continuous current control system is also made to regulate the current through the electromagnet. In our experiment, versatile electromagnets are applied to generate magnetic field and gradient field. From our measurements, a peak magnetic field of 1000 G and a peak gradient field of 80 G/cm are generated in the center of the apparatuses which are 7 cm and 5 cm away from the edge of each electromagnet with a current of 230 A and 120 A, respectively. With the effective feedback design in the current control system and cooling water flow of 3.8 l/min, the stability of the current through the electromagnets can reach 10(-5).

  8. A modified Bitter-type electromagnet and control system for cold atom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Tian; Zhou, Tianwei; Chen, Xuzong; Ma, Zhaoyuan

    2014-02-01

    We present a modified Bitter-type electromagnet which features high magnetic field, fine electronic properties and efficient heat removal. The electromagnet is constructed from a stack of copper layers separated by mica layers that have the same shape. A distinctive design of cooling channels on the insulating layers and the parallel ducts between the layers ensures low resistance for cooling water to flow. A continuous current control system is also made to regulate the current through the electromagnet. In our experiment, versatile electromagnets are applied to generate magnetic field and gradient field. From our measurements, a peak magnetic field of 1000 G and a peak gradient field of 80 G/cm are generated in the center of the apparatuses which are 7 cm and 5 cm away from the edge of each electromagnet with a current of 230 A and 120 A, respectively. With the effective feedback design in the current control system and cooling water flow of 3.8 l/min, the stability of the current through the electromagnets can reach 10-5.

  9. A modified Bitter-type electromagnet and control system for cold atom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Tian; Zhou, Tianwei; Chen, Xuzong; Ma, Zhaoyuan

    2014-02-15

    We present a modified Bitter-type electromagnet which features high magnetic field, fine electronic properties and efficient heat removal. The electromagnet is constructed from a stack of copper layers separated by mica layers that have the same shape. A distinctive design of cooling channels on the insulating layers and the parallel ducts between the layers ensures low resistance for cooling water to flow. A continuous current control system is also made to regulate the current through the electromagnet. In our experiment, versatile electromagnets are applied to generate magnetic field and gradient field. From our measurements, a peak magnetic field of 1000 G and a peak gradient field of 80 G/cm are generated in the center of the apparatuses which are 7 cm and 5 cm away from the edge of each electromagnet with a current of 230 A and 120 A, respectively. With the effective feedback design in the current control system and cooling water flow of 3.8 l/min, the stability of the current through the electromagnets can reach 10{sup −5}.

  10. Cooling System Design for a Split High Field Bitter-type Electromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, William; Bates, Evan; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William

    2014-10-01

    For the purpose of analyzing magnetized dusty plasma at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), we are designing a split resistive electromagnet. When completed, the magnet will be capable of generating fields of 10 T for 10 seconds. The type of design proposed here was originally developed by Francis Bitter, and achieves high magnetic fields by helically stacked disk-shaped solenoids with axially oriented cooling channels. In order to ensure the safety and functionality of the apparatus, the geometry and placement of the cooling passages must be designed to establish a manageable temperature profile throughout the coil. The estimated power consumption from resistive losses is nearly 7 MW, thus it is imperative to optimize the cooling capacity of the system. The cooling capacity is limited by the mass of chilled water available at one time and the maximum achievable mass flow through the coils. The system is also designed to withstand the resultant mechanical stresses from the Lorentz force. Slot-shaped cooling channels are used. The number and placement of these channels is optimized through an iterative and integrated design process which combines analytic calculations with finite element analyses. The methodology and results of the design process is presented.

  11. Thermal Design of a Bitter-Type Electromagnet for Dusty Plasma Experiments: Prototype Design and Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, W. J.; Bates, E. M.; Romero-Talamás, Carlos; Rivera, W. F.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of analyzing magnetized dusty plasma at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Dusty Plasma Laboratory, we are designing a resistive water cooled Bitter-Type electromagnet. When completed, the magnet will be programmable to generate fields of up to 10 T for at least 10 seconds and up to several minutes. An analytic thermal design method was developed for establishing the location of elongated axial cooling passages. Comparisons with finite element analysis (FEA) data reveals that the thermal design method was capable of generating cooling channel patterns which establish manageable temperature profiles within the magnet. With our analytic method, cooling hole patterns can be generated in seconds instead of hours with FEA software. To further validate our thermal analysis as well as manufacturing techniques of our magnet design, we are now constructing a prototype electromagnet. The prototype is designed to operate continuously at 1 T with a current of 750 A, and has four diagnostic ports that can accommodate thermocouples and optical access to the water flow. A 1.25 inch diameter bore allows for axial field measurements and provides space for small scale experiments. Thermal analysis and specifics of the electromagnet design are presented.

  12. Parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Gorguet, B; van Heusden, A W; Lindhout, P

    2005-03-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development is a very attractive trait for growers and consumers. In tomato, three main sources of facultative parthenocarpy, pat, pat-2, pat-3/pat-4, are known to have potential applications in agriculture. The parthenocarpic fruit development in these lines is triggered by a deregulation of the hormonal balance in some specific tissues. Auxins and gibberellins are considered as the key elements in parthenocarpic fruit development of those lines. An increased level of these hormones in the ovary can substitute for pollination and trigger fruit development. This has opened up genetic engineering approaches for parthenocarpy that have given promising results, both in quality and quantity of seedless fruit production. PMID:15822008

  13. Dose-Dependent Effects of L-Arginine on PROP Bitterness Intensity and Latency and Characteristics of the Chemical Interaction between PROP and L-Arginine

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Melania; Arca, Massimiliano; Aragoni, Maria Carla; Cabras, Tiziana; Caltagirone, Claudia; Castagnola, Massimo; Crnjar, Roberto; Messana, Irene; Tepper, Beverly J.; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation in the ability to taste the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a complex trait that has been used to predict food preferences and eating habits. PROP tasting is primarily controlled by polymorphisms in the TAS2R38 gene. However, a variety of factors are known to modify the phenotype. Principle among them is the salivary protein Ps-1 belonging to the basic proline-rich protein family (bPRP). Recently, we showed that oral supplementation with Ps-1 as well as its related free amino acids (L-Arg and L-Lys) enhances PROP bitterness perception, especially for PROP non-tasters who have low salivary levels of Ps-1. Here, we show that salivary L-Arg levels are higher in PROP super-tasters compared to medium tasters and non-tasters, and that oral supplementation with free L-Arg enhances PROP bitterness intensity as well as reduces bitterness latency in a dose-dependent manner, particularly in individuals with low salivary levels of both free L-Arg and Ps-1 protein. Supplementation with L-Arg also enhanced the bitterness of caffeine. We also used 1H-NMR spectroscopy and quantum-mechanical calculations carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) to characterize the chemical interaction between free L-Arg and the PROP molecule. Results showed that the –NH2 terminal group of the L-ArgH+ side chain interacts with the carbonyl or thiocarbonyl groups of PROP by forming two hydrogen bonds with the resulting charged adduct. The formation of this PROP•ArgH+ hydrogen-bonded adduct could enhance bitterness intensity by increasing the solubility of PROP in saliva and its availability to receptor sites. Our data suggest that L-Arg could act as a ‘carrier’ of various bitter molecules in saliva. PMID:26103639

  14. Using different ratios of bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seed for moult induction and post-moult performance in commercial laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, L; Sadeghi, Gh

    2009-03-01

    1. The applicability of different ratios of bitter vetch seed as a new method for moult induction in laying hens was studied. The effectiveness of bitter vetch seed on post-moult production and post-moult egg quality was also investigated. 2. A total of 120 Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 78 weeks of age, were used in this study. The hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups of 24 birds each. The treatments were 30% bitter vetch seed (BV30) diet, 60% bitter vetch seed (BV60) diet, 90% bitter vetch seed (90BV) diet, feed withdrawal method (FW) and full-fed non-moulted control (CON). 3. Egg production ceased first in FW and BV90 treated hens and last in BV30 treated hens. As the percentage of bitter vetch seed increased in the moulting ration, feed intake decreased and body weight loss increased during the 10-d moult induction period. Time to first egg production was significantly greater in hens exposed to the FW and BV90 diets. 4. FW and BV90 treatment hens had significantly higher hen-d egg production than non-moulted control hens. Egg weight was significantly higher in BV30 and BV90 treatments. There were no differences in egg mass, feed intake and mortality among experimental treatments during the post-moult period. 5. No significant improvements were observed in exterior or interior egg quality in moulted hens, except for Haugh units, which were significantly higher in moulted hens when compared to the non-moulted control hens. 6. In conclusion, the present study showed ad libitum feeding of a layer ration with 90% of bitter vetch seed for 10 d proved to be effective for inducing moult, increasing post-moult egg production and improving some internal egg quality parameters.

  15. In vitro and in vivo correlation of disintegration and bitter taste masking using orally disintegrating tablet containing ion exchange resin-drug complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Il; Cho, Sang-Min; Cui, Jing-Hao; Cao, Qing-Ri; Oh, Euichaul; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-10-15

    Although the taste-masking of bitter drug using ion exchange resin has been recognized, in vitro testing using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue) and in vivo bitterness test by human panel test was not fully understood. In case of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing bitter medicine, in vitro and in vivo disintegration is also importance for dosage performance. Donepezil hydrochloride was chosen as a model drug due to its bitterness and requires rapid disintegration for the preparation of ODT. In this study, ion exchange resin drug complex (IRDC) at three different ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1) was prepared using a spray-drying method and then IRDC-loaded ODT containing superdisintegrants (crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate) were prepared by the direct compression method. The physical properties and morphologies were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and electrophoretic laser scattering (ELS), respectively. The in vitro taste-masking efficiency was measured with an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). In vivo bitterness scale was also evaluated by human volunteers and then we defined new term, "bitterness index (BI)" to link in vitro e-Tongue. There was a good correlation of IRDC between in vitro e-Tongue values and in vivo BI. Furthermore, IRDC-loaded ODT showed good in vitro/in vivo correlation in the disintegration time. The optimal IRDC-loaded ODTs displayed similar drug release profiles to the reference tablet (Aricept(®) ODT) in release media of pH 1.2, pH 4.0, pH 6.8 and distilled water but had significantly better palatability in vivo taste-masking evaluation. The current IRDC-loaded ODT according to the in vitro and in vivo correlation of disintegration and bitter taste masking could provide platforms in ODT dosage formulations of donepezil hydrochloride for improved patient compliances. PMID:23933050

  16. Dose-Dependent Effects of L-Arginine on PROP Bitterness Intensity and Latency and Characteristics of the Chemical Interaction between PROP and L-Arginine.

    PubMed

    Melis, Melania; Arca, Massimiliano; Aragoni, Maria Carla; Cabras, Tiziana; Caltagirone, Claudia; Castagnola, Massimo; Crnjar, Roberto; Messana, Irene; Tepper, Beverly J; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation in the ability to taste the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a complex trait that has been used to predict food preferences and eating habits. PROP tasting is primarily controlled by polymorphisms in the TAS2R38 gene. However, a variety of factors are known to modify the phenotype. Principle among them is the salivary protein Ps-1 belonging to the basic proline-rich protein family (bPRP). Recently, we showed that oral supplementation with Ps-1 as well as its related free amino acids (L-Arg and L-Lys) enhances PROP bitterness perception, especially for PROP non-tasters who have low salivary levels of Ps-1. Here, we show that salivary L-Arg levels are higher in PROP super-tasters compared to medium tasters and non-tasters, and that oral supplementation with free L-Arg enhances PROP bitterness intensity as well as reduces bitterness latency in a dose-dependent manner, particularly in individuals with low salivary levels of both free L-Arg and Ps-1 protein. Supplementation with L-Arg also enhanced the bitterness of caffeine. We also used 1H-NMR spectroscopy and quantum-mechanical calculations carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) to characterize the chemical interaction between free L-Arg and the PROP molecule. Results showed that the -NH2 terminal group of the L-ArgH+ side chain interacts with the carbonyl or thiocarbonyl groups of PROP by forming two hydrogen bonds with the resulting charged adduct. The formation of this PROP•ArgH+ hydrogen-bonded adduct could enhance bitterness intensity by increasing the solubility of PROP in saliva and its availability to receptor sites. Our data suggest that L-Arg could act as a 'carrier' of various bitter molecules in saliva. PMID:26103639

  17. Preparation of a Co-doped hierarchically porous carbon from Co/Zn-ZIF: An efficient adsorbent for the extraction of trizine herbicides from environment water and white gourd samples.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Caina; Li, Menghua; Ma, Ruiyang; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2016-05-15

    A Co-doped hierarchically porous carbon (Co/HPC) was synthesized through a facile carbonization process by using Co/ZIF-8 as the precursor. The textures of the Co/HPC were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibration sample magnetometry and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results showed that the Co/HPC is in good polyhedral shape with uniform size, sufficient magnetism, high surface area as well as hierarchical pores (micro-, meso- and macropores). To evaluate the extraction performance of the Co/HPC, it was applied as a magnetic adsorbent for the enrichment of triazine herbicides from environment water and white gourd samples prior to high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The main parameters that affected the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity for the four triazine herbicides was achieved with the correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9970. The limits of detection, based on S/N=3, were 0.02 ng/mL for water and 0.1-0.2 ng/g for white gourd samples, respectively. The recoveries of all the analytes for the method fell in the range from 80.3% to 120.6%. PMID:26992527

  18. Microbial safety of tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Strawn, Laura K; Schneider, Keith R; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2011-02-01

    There are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. Tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. Tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. Documented outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tropical fruits have occurred. Norovirus and Salmonella are the leading viral and bacterial pathogens, respectively, documented to have caused outbreaks of infections associated with consumption of tropical fruits. Sources of contamination of tropical fruit have been identified in the production environment and postharvest handling, primarily related to sanitation issues. Limited data exist on the specific route of transmission from these sources. Research on the microbial safety of tropical fruits is minimal; with the growing market for tropical fruit expected to increase by 33% in 2010 this research area needs to be addressed. The aim of this review is to discuss the foodborne pathogen outbreaks associated tropical fruit consumption, research previously completed on pathogen behavior on tropical fruits, preventive strategies for pathogen contamination, and research needs.

  19. Breeding of ‘Manten-Kirari’, a non-bitter and trace-rutinosidase variety of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.)

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we developed a new Tartary buckwheat cultivar ‘Manten-Kirari’, whose flour contains only trace amounts of rutinosidase and lacked bitterness. The trace-rutinosidase breeding line ‘f3g-162’ (seed parent), which was obtained from a Nepalese genetic resource, was crossed with ‘Hokkai T8’ (pollen parent), the leading variety in Japan, to improve its agronomic characteristics. The obtained progeny were subjected to performance test. ‘Manten-Kirari’ had no detectable rutinosidase isozymes in an in-gel detection assay and only 1/266 of the rutinosidase activity of ‘Hokkai T8’. Dough prepared from ‘Manten-Kirari’ flour contained almost no hydrolyzed rutin, even 6 h after the addition of water, whereas the rutin in ‘Hokkai T8’ dough was completely hydrolyzed within 10 min. In a sensory evaluation of the flour from the two varieties, nearly all panelists detected strong bitterness in ‘Hokkai T8’, whereas no panelists reported bitterness in ‘Manten-Kirari’. This is the first report to describe the breeding of a Tartary buckwheat cultivar with reduced rutin hydrolysis and no bitterness in the prepared flour. Notably, the agronomic characteristics of ‘Manten-Kirari’ were similar to those of ‘Hokkai T8’, which is the leading variety in Japan. Based on these characteristics, ‘Manten-Kirari’ is a promising for preparing non-bitter, rutin-rich foods. PMID:25914589

  20. Is sensory-specific satiety for a bitter-sweet infusion modulated by context?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, David; Secchiari, Florencia; Calviño, Amalia

    2015-03-01

    The sensory-affective attributes of beverages have an important influence on a given intake and successive consumptions because of sensory-specific satiety (SSS; defined as a decrease in pleasantness ratings of a food eaten relative to uneaten foods). No studies have, however, investigated how multiple sessions of SSS for familiar drinks over a period of several days up to a week may change their pleasantness and how these hedonic-related judgments are affected by the context during SSS testing. With twenty-six participants, the present study explored the medium lasting and contextual effects of repeated SSS sessions for a bitter-sweet infusion on olfactory and flavour pleasantness over the course of three exposures in either a laboratory or a cafeteria setting. The results showed olfactory and flavour SSS for the infusion following each consumption in both the artificial and the natural setting. More interestingly, despite the failure to detect medium-term SSS (i.e., a greater decrease in pleasantness ratings of a food eaten relative to uneaten foods after repeated SSS sessions over several days as compared to the first SSS session), a contextual modulation of olfactory SSS was observed with a lesser overall magnitude in the cafeteria compared to the laboratory setting. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of eating location on the development of satiation and the differential contextual sensitivity of SSS for orthonasal odours and flavours has not been reported previously. The implications of potential environmental control of SSS are considered in this study. PMID:25542889

  1. Copy Number Variation in TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptor Genes: Structure, Origin, and Population Genetics.

    PubMed

    Roudnitzky, Natacha; Risso, Davide; Drayna, Dennis; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Wooding, Stephen P

    2016-10-01

    Bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) harbor extensive diversity, which is broadly distributed across human populations and strongly associated with taste response phenotypes. The majority of TAS2R variation is composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, 2 closely positioned loci at 12p13, TAS2R43 and -45, harbor high-frequency deletion (Δ) alleles in which genomic segments are absent, resulting in copy number variation (CNV). To resolve their chromosomal structure and organization, we generated maps using long-range contig alignments and local sequencing across the TAS2R43-45 region. These revealed that the deletion alleles (43Δ and 45Δ) are 37.8 and 32.2kb in length, respectively and span the complete coding region of each gene (~1kb) along with extensive up- and downstream flanking sequence, producing separate CNVs at the 2 loci. Comparisons with a chimpanzee genome, which contained intact homologs of TAS2R43, -45, and nearby TAS2Rs, indicated that the deletions evolved recently, through unequal recombination in a cluster of closely related loci. Population genetic analyses in 946 subjects from 52 worldwide populations revealed that copy number ranged from 0 to 2 at both TAS2R43 and TAS2R45, with 43Δ and 45Δ occurring at high global frequencies (0.33 and 0.18). Estimated recombination rates between the loci were low (ρ = 2.7×10(-4); r = 6.6×10(-9)) and linkage disequilibrium was high (D' = 1.0), consistent with their adjacent genomic positioning and recent origin. Geographic variation pointed to an African origin for the deletions. However, no signatures of natural selection were found in population structure or integrated haplotype scores spanning the region, suggesting that patterns of diversity at TAS2R43 and -45 are primarily due to genetic drift.

  2. Bitter melon juice targets molecular mechanisms underlying gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Somasagara, Ranganatha R; Deep, Gagan; Shrotriya, Sangeeta; Patel, Manisha; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PanC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, and resistance towards gemcitabine, the front-line chemotherapy, is the main cause for dismal rate of survival in PanC patients; overcoming this resistance remains a major challenge to treat this deadly malignancy. Whereas several molecular mechanisms are known for gemcitabine resistance in PanC cells, altered metabolism and bioenergetics are not yet studied. Here, we compared metabolic and bioenergetic functions between gemcitabine-resistant (GR) and gemcitabine-sensitive (GS) PanC cells and underlying molecular mechanisms, together with efficacy of a natural agent bitter melon juice (BMJ). GR PanC cells showed distinct morphological features including spindle-shaped morphology and a decrease in E-cadherin expression. GR cells also showed higher ATP production with an increase in oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). Molecular studies showed higher expression of glucose transporters (GLUT1 and 4) suggesting an increase in glucose uptake by GR cells. Importantly, GR cells showed a significant increase in Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and their inhibition decreased cell viability, suggesting their role in survival and drug resistance of these cells. Recently, we reported strong efficacy of BMJ against a panel of GS cells in culture and nude mice, which we expanded here and found that BMJ was also effective in decreasing both Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and viability of GR PanC cells. Overall, we have identified novel mechanisms of gemcitabine resistance in PanC cells which are targeted by BMJ. Considering the short survival in PanC patients, our findings could have high translational potential in controlling this deadly malignancy. PMID:25672620

  3. Copy Number Variation in TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptor Genes: Structure, Origin, and Population Genetics.

    PubMed

    Roudnitzky, Natacha; Risso, Davide; Drayna, Dennis; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Wooding, Stephen P

    2016-10-01

    Bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) harbor extensive diversity, which is broadly distributed across human populations and strongly associated with taste response phenotypes. The majority of TAS2R variation is composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, 2 closely positioned loci at 12p13, TAS2R43 and -45, harbor high-frequency deletion (Δ) alleles in which genomic segments are absent, resulting in copy number variation (CNV). To resolve their chromosomal structure and organization, we generated maps using long-range contig alignments and local sequencing across the TAS2R43-45 region. These revealed that the deletion alleles (43Δ and 45Δ) are 37.8 and 32.2kb in length, respectively and span the complete coding region of each gene (~1kb) along with extensive up- and downstream flanking sequence, producing separate CNVs at the 2 loci. Comparisons with a chimpanzee genome, which contained intact homologs of TAS2R43, -45, and nearby TAS2Rs, indicated that the deletions evolved recently, through unequal recombination in a cluster of closely related loci. Population genetic analyses in 946 subjects from 52 worldwide populations revealed that copy number ranged from 0 to 2 at both TAS2R43 and TAS2R45, with 43Δ and 45Δ occurring at high global frequencies (0.33 and 0.18). Estimated recombination rates between the loci were low (ρ = 2.7×10(-4); r = 6.6×10(-9)) and linkage disequilibrium was high (D' = 1.0), consistent with their adjacent genomic positioning and recent origin. Geographic variation pointed to an African origin for the deletions. However, no signatures of natural selection were found in population structure or integrated haplotype scores spanning the region, suggesting that patterns of diversity at TAS2R43 and -45 are primarily due to genetic drift. PMID:27340135

  4. Bitter apricot essential oil induces apoptosis of human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Keyou; Yang, Wenhua; Li, Zhe; Jia, Wangwang; Li, Jiazhou; Zhang, Pengfei; Xiao, Tiancun

    2016-05-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that affects approximately 2% of the world's population. Conventional therapeutic approaches are not effective or necessarily safe for treating symptoms due to the serious side effects and resistance to currently prescribed drugs. Traditionally, in oriental medicine, apricot seed (Semen Armeniacae amarum) is used to treat skin diseases. However, the underlying mechanism of action has not been systematically elucidated. In the present study, the anti-proliferative effect of bitter apricot essential oil (BAEO) on cultured HaCaT cells was evaluated and the mechanism of action investigated. BAEO was isolated by hydrodistillation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis identified benzaldehyde (75.35%), benzoic acid (6.21%) and mandelonitrile (5.38%). HaCaT cell growth, measured by sulforhodamine B assay (SRB), was inhibited by BAEO with an IC50 value of 142.45 μg/ml. Apoptosis of HaCaT cells treated with BAEO was detected by cell cycle, flow cytometry, and western blot analyses. These measurements revealed G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, elevated numbers of early and late stage apoptotic cells, and caspases-3/8/9 and PARP activation. Z-VAD-FMK, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, attenuated BAEO-induced apoptosis. Also, increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 levels suggest that BAEO-induced apoptosis is mediated through both death receptor and mitochondrial pathways. Moreover, reduced Rel/NF-κB levels suggest that BAEO-mediated apoptosis is also associated with inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. These data suggest that BAEO is a naturally occurring material that functions as a potent pro-apoptotic factor for human keratinocytes. Thus, it is a promising candidate to treat psoriasis. PMID:26971222

  5. A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João Renato

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species.ResumoUma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

  6. Antimitogenic effect of bitter taste receptor agonists on airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pawan; Panebra, Alfredo; Pera, Tonio; Tiegs, Brian C; Hershfeld, Alena; Kenyon, Lawrence C; Deshpande, Deepak A

    2016-02-15

    Airway remodeling is a hallmark feature of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinical studies and animal models have demonstrated increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, and ASM thickness is correlated with severity of the disease. Current medications control inflammation and reverse airway obstruction effectively but have limited effect on remodeling. Recently we identified the expression of bitter taste receptors (TAS2R) on ASM cells, and activation with known TAS2R agonists resulted in ASM relaxation and bronchodilation. These studies suggest that TAS2R can be used as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. To further establish their effectiveness, in this study we aimed to determine the effects of TAS2R agonists on ASM growth and promitogenic signaling. Pretreatment of healthy and asthmatic human ASM cells with TAS2R agonists resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of ASM proliferation. The antimitogenic effect of TAS2R ligands was not dependent on activation of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, or high/intermediate-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels. Immunoblot analyses revealed that TAS2R agonists inhibit growth factor-activated protein kinase B phosphorylation without affecting the availability of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, suggesting TAS2R agonists block signaling downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Furthermore, the antimitogenic effect of TAS2R agonists involved inhibition of induced transcription factors (activator protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, E2 factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells) and inhibition of expression of multiple cell cycle regulatory genes, suggesting a direct inhibition of cell cycle progression. Collectively, these findings establish the antimitogenic effect of TAS2R agonists and identify a novel class of receptors and signaling pathways that can be targeted to reduce or prevent airway remodeling as well as

  7. Bitter and sweet taste receptors regulate human upper respiratory innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.; Kofonow, Jennifer M.; Rosen, Philip L.; Siebert, Adam P.; Chen, Bei; Doghramji, Laurel; Xiong, Guoxiang; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Kreindler, James L.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2014-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in the human airway detect harmful compounds, including secreted bacterial products. Here, using human primary sinonasal air-liquid interface cultures and tissue explants, we determined that activation of a subset of airway T2Rs expressed in nasal solitary chemosensory cells activates a calcium wave that propagates through gap junctions to the surrounding respiratory epithelial cells. The T2R-dependent calcium wave stimulated robust secretion of antimicrobial peptides into the mucus that was capable of killing a variety of respiratory pathogens. Furthermore, sweet taste receptor (T1R2/3) activation suppressed T2R-mediated antimicrobial peptide secretion, suggesting that T1R2/3-mediated inhibition of T2Rs prevents full antimicrobial peptide release during times of relative health. In contrast, during acute bacterial infection, T1R2/3 is likely deactivated in response to bacterial consumption of airway surface liquid glucose, alleviating T2R inhibition and resulting in antimicrobial peptide secretion. We found that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis have elevated glucose concentrations in their nasal secretions, and other reports have shown that patients with hyperglycemia likewise have elevated nasal glucose levels. These data suggest that increased glucose in respiratory secretions in pathologic states, such as chronic rhinosinusitis or hyperglycemia, promotes tonic activation of T1R2/3 and suppresses T2R-mediated innate defense. Furthermore, targeting T1R2/3-dependent suppression of T2Rs may have therapeutic potential for upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:24531552

  8. Dried fruit and dental health.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  9. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  10. Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

  11. [Dried fruit as sugar substitute?].

    PubMed

    Strübig, W; Gülzow, H J

    1989-09-01

    Alternative foodstuffs restrict the usage of household sugar and instead recommend sweet honey or dried fruits; in popular informative magazines raisins and dried fruit are even described as "healthy snacks". In this study, with the help of sugar clearance and lactic acid measurements, the cariogenic potential of dried fruits is to be better estimated. The results clearly show that the alternative recommendations do not promote healthy teeth. The cariogenic potential of the named foodstuffs is comparable to sucrose containing products. PMID:2635063

  12. The perception of quinine taste intensity is associated with common genetic variants in a bitter receptor cluster on chromosome 12

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle R.; Zhu, Gu; Breslin, Paul A.S.; Duke, Fujiko F.; Henders, Anjali K.; Campbell, Megan J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.

    2010-01-01

    The perceived taste intensities of quinine HCl, caffeine, sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and propylthiouracil (PROP) solutions were examined in 1457 twins and their siblings. Previous heritability modeling of these bitter stimuli indicated a common genetic factor for quinine, caffeine and SOA (22–28%), as well as separate specific genetic factors for PROP (72%) and quinine (15%). To identify the genes involved, we performed a genome-wide association study with the same sample as the modeling analysis, genotyped for approximately 610 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). For caffeine and SOA, no SNP association reached a genome-wide statistical criterion. For PROP, the peak association was within TAS2R38 (rs713598, A49P, P = 1.6 × 10−104), which accounted for 45.9% of the trait variance. For quinine, the peak association was centered in a region that contains bitter receptor as well as salivary protein genes and explained 5.8% of the trait variance (TAS2R19, rs10772420, R299C, P = 1.8 × 10−15). We confirmed this association in a replication sample of twins of similar ancestry (P = 0.00001). The specific genetic factor for the perceived intensity of PROP was identified as the gene previously implicated in this trait (TAS2R38). For quinine, one or more bitter receptor or salivary proline-rich protein genes on chromosome 12 have alleles which affect its perception but tight linkage among very similar genes precludes the identification of a single causal genetic variant. PMID:20675712

  13. Capsaicin receptors are colocalized with sweet/bitter receptors in the taste sensing cells of circumvallate papillae

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Wha; Lee, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Sang Bae

    2009-01-01

    We examined co-localization of vanilloid receptor (VR1) with sweet receptors T1R2, T1R3, or bitter receptor T2R6 in taste receptor cells of rat circumvallate papillae. Tissue sections of rat circumvallate papillae were doubly reacted with anti-VR1 antibodies and anti-T1R2, anti-T1R3 or anti-T2R6 antibodies, using double-immunofluorescence histochemistry technique. Localizations of VR1, T1Rs and T2R6 in the vallate taste cells containing α-gustducin were also examined. VR1 immunoreactivities (-ir) were observed in subsets of taste cells in the circumvallate papillae, and 96–99% of the vallate taste cells exhibiting T1R2-, T1R3- or T2R6-ir co-exhibited VR1-ir. Approximately half of T2R6-ir cells (~49%), and 50–58% of T1Rs-ir cells, co-exhibited α-gustducin-ir in the vallate taste buds. About 58% of VR1-ir cells in the vallate exhibited