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Sample records for fruit flies diptera

  1. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  2. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  3. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  4. Attraction of nontarget species to fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) male lures and decaying fruit flies in traps in hawaii.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Luc; Rubinoff, Daniel; Vargas, Roger I

    2009-10-01

    Synthetic male lures are commonly used to monitor and mass trap pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). However, there has been much dispute as to the nontarget impacts of such lures on beneficial and native insects. To evaluate nontarget attraction effects, traps baited with Cue-Lure and methyl eugenol were maintained and emptied weekly in a range of native and non-native forest and commercial orchard and backyard sites on Hawaii and Maui Islands. Lure trap captures were compared against those from unbaited control traps and traps artificially baited with decaying fruit flies to mimic the effect of accumulation of dead trapped target flies in male lure traps. Cue-Lure did not attract nontargets, and methyl eugenol attracted low but significant numbers of five species of flower-associated insects (honey bees, syrphid flies, nitidulid beetles, and endemic crambid moths) and two endemic Hawaiian species of sciarids (Diptera) and mirids (Hemiptera). Saprophagous nontargets, mostly Diptera, were abundant and diverse in traps baited with decaying flies and in male lure traps where accumulation of dead flies occurred but not in male lure traps with few or no fruit fly captures. Most of the previously published records of attraction to methyl eugenol are shown to actually be secondary attraction to decaying fruit flies. Endemic nontargets were collected in native and adjacent forest, but almost exclusively invasive species were attracted to traps placed in non-native habitats. Attraction of flower-associated species may be minimized if methyl eugenol traps are placed in trees after flowering season in orchards.

  5. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  6. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  7. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  8. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  9. Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-10-01

    Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present.

  10. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  11. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

    2010-08-01

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatment research against tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) has used artificially infested fruit with the unstated and untested assumption that the method adequately simulated a natural situation. We compare grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfayden, naturally infested by Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), via oviposition until larvae reached the late third instar versus insertion of diet-reared third instars into holes made in grapefruits 24 h before irradiation; the latter technique has been used in other studies. Both infestation techniques resulted in statistically indistinguishable results, indicating that insertion of diet-reared third instar Mexican fruit fly into holes bored into grapefruit and subsequently sealed 24 h before irradiation would adequately represent natural infestation and could be used to develop a radiation phytosanitary treatment of the insect in grapefruit when prevention of adult emergence is used as the measure of efficacy. Nevertheless, it may not be advisable to extend this conclusion to other fruit fly/fruit combinations without doing appropriate comparison studies. Dissection of puparia from nonirradiated control insects that failed to emerge as adults showed a relatively even distribution of mortality among the developmental stages within the puparium. In contrast, dissection of puparia from irradiated third instars that did not emerge as adults revealed a sharp attenuation in development from cryptocephalic to phanerocephalic pupae demonstrating this transition to be the developmental step most affected by radiation.

  12. Olfactory response of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Citrus aurantium volatiles.

    PubMed

    Rasgado, Milton A; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Toledo, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of male and female Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of bitter orange fruit, Citrus aurantium L. In field cage tests, the number of A. ludens caught in Multilure traps baited with mature green bitter orange fruit was significantly higher than the number captured in traps baited with ripe yellow bitter orange fruit and control (unbaited traps). Both sexes were more attracted to mature green bitter orange fruit extracts than to controls in both flight tunnel and field cage assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the mature green bitter orange fruit volatiles identified 10 different compounds. Limonene was the most abundant volatile compound, followed by an unknown compound, tentatively identified as trans-ocimene. Linalool, beta-pinene, and methyl salicylate were found in lower proportions. Both sexes of A. ludens evoked higher antennal response to linalool, methyl salicylate, and to a blend of these four components in comparison with limonene, and beta-pinene. In flight tunnel, both sexes were more attracted and landed more often on spheres baited with the four-component blend compared with control spheres. In field cage tests, Multilure traps baited with the four-component blend captured significantly more A. ludens flies than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein or control traps.

  13. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  14. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  15. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  16. Thermal death kinetics of Mediterranean, Malaysian, melon, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and third instars.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, John W; Tang, Juming; Wang, Shaojin

    2009-04-01

    The late-aged egg and third-instar life stages of laboratory-reared Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel); Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett; and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), (Diptera: Tephritidae); and the third instars of wild Mediterranean fruit fly were exposed to thermal treatments. A heating block system was used to determine the thermal death kinetics of the four fruit fly species. Treatments consisted of heating the fruit fly life stages to 44, 46, 48, and 50 degrees C and holding for different times ranging from 0 to 120 min depending on the thermal mortality response and time required to obtain 100% mortality for each species and life stage. The 0.5-order kinetic model had the best fit to the survival ratio for all the treatment temperatures and was used to predict lethal times. The thermal death time (TDT) curves showed a tolerance order of Mediterranean fruit fly eggs < or = third instars at 44, 46, and 50 degrees C, third instars < or = eggs at 48 degrees C, and wild third instars < the laboratory-reared third instars. Comparison between Mediterranean fruit fly third instar thermotolerance from Hawaii and Israel showed that Israel Mediterranean fruit fly was more thermotolerant. A comparison of minimum treatment times at a given temperature required to obtain 100% mortality of laboratory-reared Malaysian, Mediterranean (Hawaii and Israel strains), melon, Mexican, and oriental fruit fly eggs or third instars and wild Mediterranean fruit fly (Hawaii strain) eggs or third instars showed that oriental fruit fly was the most thermotolerant among the third instars, and the difference in heat tolerance between third instars and eggs was negligible at 50 degrees C.

  17. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

    2013-10-01

    Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11 degrees C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11 degrees C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C),and irradiation (0 > 30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy. No melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degrees C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments.

  18. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from some localities of Paraguay: new records, checklist, and illustrated key.

    PubMed

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated.

  19. High summer temperatures affect the survival and reproduction of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Nadel, Hannah

    2009-10-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an invasive pest in California. Identifying environmental constraints that affect the geographic distribution and abundance of any invasive insect pest is fundamental to its effective management. California's Central Valley, where most commercial olives are grown, is extremely hot during the summer, with maximum daily temperatures consistently >35.0 degrees C. This study examined the effects of two diurnal temperature regimens (low 18.3 degrees C, high 35.0 or 37.8 degrees C) reflecting summer conditions in the valley, and one control temperature regimen (low 18.3 degrees C, high 23.9 degrees C) on the fly's survival and reproductive success in the laboratory. The temperature regimen of 18.3-35.0 degrees C resulted in delayed egg maturation and reduced production of mature eggs compared with the control temperature regimen. Egg maturation was possible at the higher temperature regimen when females were provided with water and food, and egg-laying occurred during the cold phase of the temperature cycle. Access to olive fruit and oviposition itself further promoted egg maturation. Under exposure to the 18.3-35.0 degrees C temperature regimen, approximately 50% of eggs died, and the remainder that hatched died as first instars. No egg hatch occurred at the temperature treatment of 18.3-37.8 degrees C. We confirmed these laboratory results through field cage studies with adult B. oleae, conducted in the summer of 2007 and 2008. Under ambient summer temperatures, adult B. oleae survived for 1-2 wk, and females readily laid eggs when provided water and food. No offspring developed in midsummer of 2007, and <2% of the offspring developed to adults in summer 2008 trials. These results suggest that high summer temperatures limit the fly's abundance in California's Central Valley.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

    2011-02-01

    Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.

  1. Chemosterilant bait stations coupled with sterile insect technique: an integrated strategy to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Vacas, S; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Alfaro, C

    2011-10-01

    During 2008 and 2009, the efficacy of the combination of two Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), control techniques, sterile insect technique (SIT) and a chemosterilant bait station system (Adress), was tested in three crops: citrus (Citrus spp.), stone fruit (Prunus spp.), and persimmon (Diospyros spp.). Two thousand sterile males were released per ha each week in the whole trial area (50,000 ha, SIT area). For 3,600 ha, within the whole trial area, 24 Adress traps per ha were hung (SIT + Adress area). Ten SIT + Adress plots and 10 SIT plots in each of three different fruit crops were arranged to assess Mediterranean fruit fly population densities and fruit damage throughout the trial period. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment, the male and female populations were each monitored from August 2008 to November 2009, and injured fruit was assessed before harvest. Results showed a significant reduction in the C. capitata population in plots treated with both techniques versus plots treated only with the SIT. Likewise, a corresponding reduction in the percentage of injured fruit was observed. These data indicate the compatibility of these techniques and suggest the possibility of using Adress coupled with SIT to reduce C. capitata populations in locations with high population densities, where SIT alone is not sufficiently effective to suppress fruit fly populations to below damaging levels.

  2. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  3. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  4. Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with adult laboratory Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Kuzina, L V; Peloquin, J J; Vacek, D C; Miller, T A

    2001-04-01

    From the guts of new and old colonies (female and male) of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae), we identified a total of 18 different bacterial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Vibrionaceae, Micrococcaceae, Deinococcacea, Bacillaceae, and the genus Listeria. Enterobacter, Providencia, Serratia, and Staphylococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated genera, with Citrobacter, Streptococcus, Aerococcus, and Listeria found less frequently. We found Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Providencia stuartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa only in the new colony, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae only in the old colony. We also studied resistance/sensitivity to 12 antibiotics for six bacterial isolates such as Enterobacter cloacae, E. sakazakii, K. pneumoniae spp., Providencia rettgeri, P. aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus. Isolates on the whole were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin (five of six isolates) and sensitive to rifampin and streptomycin (six of six isolates). Antibiotic resistance profiles might be useful characteristics for distinguishing among species and strains of these bacteria, probably having ecological significance with respect to intra- and inter-specific competition within host cadavers, and could have implications for the utility of these organisms for biological control, including the alternative control strategy, paratransgenesis.

  5. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide fumigation is a major phytosanitary treatment for a wide variety of quarantine pests, including tephritid fruit flies. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is a quarantine pest of a number of fruits, including citrus exported from Texas, Mexico and Central American countries....

  7. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  8. Attractant-based systems as pesticide alternatives for control of tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass trapping and attract-and-kill bait stations are two attractant based systems that are being used or are under development as pesticide alternatives for control of a number of pest tephritid fruit flies. Results of field trials for suppression of Caribbean fruit flies in guava orchards in Florid...

  9. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California table olives, USA: Invasion, distribution, and management implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was discovered in California in late 1998. Thereafter, intensive research was conducted to develop pest control methods in table olives. The life history of olive fruit fly was elucidated, and the distribution and abundance of the adults determined through ...

  10. Toxicological studies of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides for controlling the fruit fly Dacus ciliatus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Maklakov, A; Ishaaya, I; Freidberg, A; Yawetz, A; Horowitz, A R; Yarom, I

    2001-10-01

    The fruit fly Dacus ciliatus Loew is a pest of the fruits of many cucurbit species. We studied the effect of organaophosphate and pyrethroid compounds on the adult flies by using surface contact and oral administration. In contrast to other fruit flies, we found that organophosphates were ineffective against D. ciliatus. This was supported by the insignificant decrease of head acetylcholinesterase activity. All tested pyrethroids showed satisfactory killing ability, rapid and massive knockdown effect, and prevention of oviposition. Piperonyl butoxide considerably increased the toxicity of pyrethroids, which can be explained by oxidase detoxification of these compounds in D. ciliatus. It can be concluded that pyrethroids have high potential for controlling D. ciliatus.

  11. Effectiveness of a sprayable male annihilation treatment with a biopesticide against fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) attacking tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SPLAT-MAT Spinosad ME(aka STATIC Spinosad ME),an "attract and kill" sprayable biopesticide, was evaluated as an area wide suppression treatment against Bactrocera carambolae(Drew & Hancock),carambola fruit fly, in Brazil and Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel),oriental fruit fly, in Hawaii. In Brazil, a sin...

  12. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  13. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: Effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...

  14. Habitat-specific flight period in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus; Gut, Larry J

    2007-12-01

    Flight periods of the cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), were compared in the major sweet and tart cherry-growing regions of Michigan, among neglected orchards, managed orchards, and natural areas containing the ancestral host, black cherry. Traps were deployed from early June to late September 2005 and 2006. Captures indicated that cherry fruit fly has an early flight (June-July) in neglected orchards, a mid-season flight peaking immediately after harvest (June-August) in managed orchards, and an extended flight covering most of the season (June-September) in natural areas. We found that the period of fruit infestation mirrored the flight period in neglected and managed orchards. In natural areas, we found infestation late in the season only. The relative emergence periods for adults reared from pupae collected from the three habitats and maintained under the same conditions coincided with adult flight periods for each habitat. We also studied factors related to fruit availability that may have a role in shaping the flight periods. Fruit abundance decreased rapidly early in the season in neglected orchards, whereas in managed orchards, fruit left after harvest remained on the trees until late August. Measurements of fruit size and skin firmness revealed that fly activity in neglected and managed orchards began immediately after fruit increased in size and skin firmness decreased, whereas in natural areas, the flight began before fruit matured. In managed orchards, fruit harvest and insecticide sprays likely maintain the late flight period of resident fly populations by preventing the use of fruit earlier in the season. However, a significant proportion of these resident flies may still emerge before harvest and increase the risk of costly fruit infestation.

  15. Reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in managed and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus; Alston, Diane G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the timing of reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), a key pest of sweet and tart cherries in the eastern United States. To determine when cherry fruit fly females become reproductively mature in managed and natural habitats, we deployed traps in sweet and tart cherry orchards and nearby stands of the ancestral host tree, black cherry. Flies were removed from the traps and females were dissected to determine the presence of fully developed eggs. We found that capture of reproductively mature female flies occurred earlier in orchards that are not sprayed with insecticides than in sprayed orchards or in black cherry tree sites. In addition, the gap between the flights of immature and mature females in unmanaged sweet or tart cherry orchards was shorter than in managed orchards or black cherry tree sites. We also determined fruit color, size, and skin hardness to characterize the progression of fruit maturity. We found that fruit became mature earlier in sweet and tart cherry orchards than in black cherry tree sites. This study indicates that the timing of female reproductive maturity is plastic and varies among cherry fruit fly populations present in distinct habitats. Variation in the timing of reproductive maturity is related to the fruit maturity period of distinct host plant species and to orchard management.

  16. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

  17. Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) host status determination: critical conceptual, methodological, and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Mangan, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Although fruit fly host status determination/designation lies at the heart of strategic decisions on national and international trade of fruit and vegetables, all attempts thus far to define host plant status have been contentious and as a result long-standing disputes between commercial partners throughout the world have lingered over decades. Part of the problem is that too little effort has been devoted to understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in host plant use by fruit flies and that instead economic and political interests usually prevail. Here we review the most important evolutionary, biological, ecological, physiological, and behavioral aspects that drive host use by fruit flies, and then construct a flow diagram rooted in these fundamentals that outlines a series of steps and definitions to determine if a particular fruit or vegetable (and cultivars thereof) is a natural host, or a conditional (potential, artificial) host, or a nonhost. Along the way, we incorporate risk analysis considerations and propose that the underlying complexity determining host plant utilization by fruit flies requires a flexible systems approach capable of realistically dealing with fly/host/environment/geographic variability on a case-by-case basis.

  18. Genetic identification of an unknown Rhagoletis fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Chinese crabapple: implications for apple pest management.

    PubMed

    St Jean, Gilbert; Egan, Scott P; Yee, Wee L; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2013-06-01

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious introduced quarantine pest in the apple (Malus spp.)-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. In August 2011, seven fly larvae of unknown origin were discovered infesting fruit of an exotic Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Aiton) Borkhausen, in Kennewick, Benton County, WA. If confirmed, Chinese crabapple would have represented a new host for R. pomonella in Washington and triggered quarantine measures in a surrounding three-county region of the state. Here, we establish, based on five microsatellite loci, the identity of the crabapple-infesting larvae as the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, representing a new host record for the fly. Morphological analysis of six flies reared to adulthood confirmed the genetic identification. The results demonstrate the utility of integrating rapid genetic identification methods with field surveys of economic pests, which decreased detection times by months, and avoided enacting costly quarantine measures that saved local and federal bodies > US$0.5 million in monitoring, inspection, and control costs. We discuss current ongoing efforts to develop rapid, accurate, and inexpensive on site DNA-based detection tools for R. pomonella that would have general applicability for the control of pest insects.

  19. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.

  20. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  1. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  2. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha luden (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Enkerlin, Walther; Liedo, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities.

  3. Overwintering survival of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and two introduced parasitoids in California.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Nadel, Hannah; Johnson, Marshall W; Blanchet, Arnaud; Argov, Yael; Pickett, Charles H; Daane, Kent M

    2013-06-01

    The overwintering survival and development of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and P. lounsburyi (Silvestri), were investigated at sites in California's interior valley and coastal region. In the interior valley, adult flies survived up to 4-6 mo during the winter when food was provided. Adult female flies could oviposit in late fall and early winter on nonharvested fruit and, although egg survival was low (0.23-8.50%), a portion of the overwintered cohort developed into adults the following spring; percentage of survival was negatively correlated to daily minimum temperature. P. humilis and P. lounsburyi successfully oviposited into host larvae in late fall, and their progeny developed into adults the following spring, although with a low percentage (0-11.9%) survivorship. Overwintering survival of puparia of the olive fruit fly and immature larvae of P. humilis and P. lounsburyi (inside host puparia), buried in the soil, were tested at an interior valley and coastal site. Survival of olive fruit fly ranged from 0 to 60% and was affected by the trial date and soil moisture. Overwintering survival of both the fruit fly and tested parasitoids was lower at the colder interior valley than the coastal site; P. humilis immature stages had the highest mortality levels while B. oleae pupae had the lowest mortality levels. The spring emergence pattern of the tested insects was well predicted by a degree-day model. We discuss factors potentially impeding establishment of introduced olive fruit fly parasitoids in California and elsewhere.

  4. Temperature-Mediated Kill and Oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Presence of Spinosad.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2016-02-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the efficacy of spinosad can be useful for improving fly control. Here, the major objective was to determine if temperature mediates kill and oviposition of R. indifferens in the presence of low spinosad coverage in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted by placing flies in cages with cherries and with a Petri dish containing 3-12 small spots of dry spinosad at 18.3, 23.9, and 29.4°C. Effects of spinosad rates were also determined. More flies were killed at 23.9 and 29.4°C than at 18.3°C by 1-7 d post exposure. More flies were killed at 29.4 than 23.9°C by 1 d post exposure. However, flies laid more eggs at these temperatures than at 18.3°C. Higher spinosad rates increased kill and decreased oviposition, but even within the highest rate, oviposition was greater at 29.4 than 18.3°C. More flies walked over 5-min observation periods at 29.4 and 23.9°C than 18.3°C, suggesting higher temperatures up to 29.4°C increase kill by increasing fly contact with spinosad as well as increase oviposition rate. Results suggest that spinosad rates in sprays used against R. indifferens should be greater at higher than lower ambient temperatures.

  5. The effect of irradiation and mass rearing on the anti-predator behaviour of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rao, D; Aguilar-Argüello, S; Montoya, P; Díaz-Fleischer, F

    2014-04-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major pests worldwide. The sterile insect technique, where millions of flies are reared, sterilized by irradiation and then released, is one of the most successful and ecologically friendly methods of controlling populations of these pests. The mating behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated flies has been compared in earlier studies, but there has been little attention paid to the anti-predator behaviour of mass-reared flies, especially with respect to wild flies. Tephritid flies perform a supination display to their jumping spider predators in order to deter attacks. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using this display to determine the anti-predator capabilities of mass-reared irradiated, non-irradiated flies, and wild flies. We used an arena setup and observed bouts between jumping spiders (Phidippus audax Hentz) and male Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). We show that although all flies performed a supination display to their predator, wild flies were more likely to perform a display and were significantly more successful in avoiding attack than mass-reared flies. We suggest that this interaction can be used to develop a rapid realistic method of quality control in evaluating anti-predator abilities of mass-reared fruit flies.

  6. Artificial rearing of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising althernative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produ...

  7. Exposure to tea tree oil enhances the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aroma of various plant essential oils has been shown to enhance the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Laboratory observations revealed that male medflies show strong short-range attraction to tea tree oil (TTO hereafter) deri...

  8. Ovary development in two genetic strains of Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olfactory reception and behavioral responses to semiochemicals are influenced by an insect's physiological state, including sexual maturity. For tephritid fruit flies, reliable methods are needed for assessing maturity status of field-caught adults. Previously, we developed a six-stage system to cla...

  9. Antennal and behavioral responses to putrescine and ammonium bicarbonate in the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trapping system for Anastrepha fruit flies uses a 2-component lure that emits ammonia and putrescine, both regarded as protein cues. This study used electroantennography and flight tunnel bioassays to quantify olfactory and behavioral responses of A. suspensa to vapors from ammonium bicar...

  10. Attraction and electroantennographic responses of male mediterranean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) to six plant essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile secondary metabolites emitted from plants (and concentrated in plant essential oils) are suspected to attract males of the Mediterranean fruit fly to their calling sites. We investigated the differential attractiveness of various natural essential oils in comparison with trimedlure to (1) s...

  11. Irradiation of mangoes as a postharvest quarantine treatment for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bustos, María E; Enkerlin, Walther; Reyes, Jesús; Toledo, Jorge

    2004-04-01

    Mangoes infested with third instar larvae were irradiated using Co-60 gamma rays and a dose interval of 2-250 Gy to assess the irradiation dose required to prevent adult emergence of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens), the West Indies fruit fly (A. obliqua), the sapote fruit fly (A. serpentina), and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Doses of 76.9, 87.3, 91.4 and 112.7 Gy, were estimated to inhibit 99.9968% (probit 9) of adult emergence forA. obliqua, A. serpentina, A. ludens, and C. capitata, respectively. Using mangoes infested with a total of 100,000 larvae of each species, the results obtained in the laboratory were confirmed using a dose of 100 Gy for the Anastrepha species and 150 Gy for C. capitata. No adult emergence was observed for any of the four species compared with approximately 80% emergence in the controls. A dose of 150 Gy is recommended as a generic quarantine treatment against potential infestation of these species in exported mangoes. A minor decrease in the ascorbic acid content was the only adverse effects observed in irradiated mangoes.

  12. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  13. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, "GT" screen towers and "MX" screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fly densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm²) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb® and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb® and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb® powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fly sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fly species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs.

  14. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species.

  15. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Neven, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species. PMID:26106089

  16. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species.

  17. Impact of Prolonged Absence of Low Temperature on Adult Eclosion Patterns of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2017-03-25

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in tropical export markets because cold temperatures, below 5 °C, in those regions appear insufficient to complete diapause. However, it is unclear how prolonged absence of cold exposure affects diapause termination in R. indifferens. Here, we examined this question by exposing R. indifferens pupae for 40 wk to simulated temperate and tropical conditions of 23 or 26 °C, 40 or 80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 or 12:12 (L:D) h. Eclosion patterns among fly groups in the four conditions did not differ. For all groups, fly eclosion from pupae not exposed to cold exhibited a bimodal distribution. The first major peak, comprising 3.2% of the total fly emergence, occurred at 1-10 wk. The second major peak, comprising the remaining 96.8%, occurred at a mode of ∼30 wk. Based on responses to no cold and cold (3 ± 1.5 °C) exposures, there were three distinct pupal diapause groups: the first eclosion group was likely nondiapausing pupae; the second eclosion group was likely diapausing pupae; a third group that remained viable but did not produce adults after 40 wk may represent prolonged dormancy pupae. We suggest that eclosion of adults after prolonged absence of cold exposure needs to be incorporated into models for potential fly establishment in warm climates.

  18. Pupal development and pigmentation process of a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera (Insecta, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki

    2017-03-09

    Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.

  19. Novel Bait Stations for Attract-and-Kill of Pestiferous Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel, visually attractive bait station was developed in Hawaii for application of insecticidal baits against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The bai...

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of nanos in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    The gene nanos (nos) is a maternal-effect gene that plays an important role in posterior patterning and germ cell development in early stage embryos. nos is known from several diverse insect species, but has so far not been described for any Tephritid fruit fly. Here, we report the molecular cloning and expression pattern of the nos orthologous gene, Ccnos, in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, which is a destructive pest of high agricultural importance. CcNOS contains 398 amino acids and has a C-terminal region with two conserved CCHC zinc-binding motifs known to be essential for NOS function. Transcripts of Ccnos were confirmed by in situ hybridization to be maternally-derived and localized to the posterior pole of early stage embryos. Regulatory regions of nos have been employed in genetic engineering in some dipterans such as Drosophila and mosquitoes. Given the similarity in spatial and temporal expression between Ccnos and nos orthologs from other dipterans, its regulatory regions will be valuable to generate additional genetic tools that can be applied for engineering purposes to improve the fight against this devastating pest.

  1. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose {ge}20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

    2009-12-01

    Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity.

  3. Economic and Highly Effective Trap-Lure Combination to Monitor the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Orchard Level.

    PubMed

    Lasa, R; Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Antonio, S; Aluja, M

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring population levels of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), at the orchard level prior and during the fruit ripening period can result in significant savings in the costs of managing this pestiferous insect. Unfortunately, to date, no highly effective and economically viable trap is available to growers. To move toward this goal, trap-lure combinations were evaluated in trials performed in citrus orchards in Veracruz, Mexico. CeraTrap, an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein from pig intestinal mucose, was 3.6 times more attractive to A. ludens than the most commonly used bait of Captor (hydrolyzed protein and borax) when using Multilure traps. When several commercial traps were evaluated, the efficacy of a simple and inexpensive transparent polyethylene (PET) bottle with 10-mm lateral holes was similar to that of the costly Multilure trap when baited with CeraTrap and significantly more effective than a Multilure trap baited with Captor. PET bottles filled with Cera Trap, rebaited at 8-wk intervals, and tested in trials encompassing 72 ha of citrus groves, were significantly more effective than Multilure traps baited with Captor that need to be serviced weekly. In addition to this relevant finding, CeraTrap baited traps detected A. ludens at lower population densities and attracted a significantly higher number of flies at all densities when compared with Captor-baited traps. We conclude that CeraTrap represents a cost-effective and highly efficient bait that will enable us to pursue the goal of developing economic thresholds, a badly needed management tool for A. ludens.

  4. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early research during the 1930’s focused on attractants for the Mexican fruit fly indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were ca...

  5. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; Shelly, T.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author) [Spanish] Los articulos presentados en este numero se enfocan en el desarrollo y la validacion de procedimientos para mejorar la calidad total de moscas de las frutas esteriles para su uso en programas de manejo integrado de plagas en donde la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) es uno de los componentes clave. El grupo fue coordinado y parcialmente financiado por la Division Conjunta de Tecnicas Nucleares para la Alimentacion y la Agricultura de la FAO/OIEA, Viena, Austria, por un periodo de

  6. Potential increase in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) interceptions using ionizing irradiation phytosanitary treatments.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J

    2008-06-01

    Irradiation postharvest phytosanitary treatments are used increasingly and show further promise because of advantages compared with other treatments. Its chief disadvantage is that, unlike all other commercially used treatments, it does not provide acute mortality, although it prevents insects from completing development or reproducing. The objective of this research was to determine to what extent irradiated egg and early instars of tephritids would develop to later instars that could be found by phytosanitary inspectors or consumers. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), eggs and first instars in grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfayden, were irradiated with 70-250 Gy and held at approximately equal to 27 degrees C until third instars completed development. The accepted minimum absorbed phytosanitary dose for this pest is 70 Gy, although higher doses may be applied under commercial conditions. The more developed a fruit fly before it was irradiated, the greater the proportion that survived to the third instar. Also, dose was inversely related to developmental success, e.g., a mean of approximately 65 and 35%, respectively, of late first instars reached the third instar when irradiated with 70 and 250 Gy. Of those, 65.1 and 23.4%, respectively, pupariated, although no adults emerged. Irradiation may result in a greater frequency of live (albeit incapable of resulting in an infestation) larvae being found than would be expected compared with other treatments that provide acute mortality. The regulatory community should be aware of this and the fact that it does not increase the risk of irradiation phytosanitary treatments resulting in an infestation of quarantine pests.

  7. Controlled-release panel traps for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, B A; Cunningham, R T; Chambers, D L; Avery, J W; Harte, E M

    1994-10-01

    Solid, controlled-release dispensers containing 2 g of the synthetic attractant trimedlure now are used in Jackson traps to detect the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Panel traps consisting of trimedlure mixed in a sticky substance and spread on the surfaces of a plastic panel are used to delineate the limits of discovered insect infestations in California. We describe the development of controlled-release, polymeric panels that prolong release of trimedlure and a highly attractive analog, ceralure. Attractants were incorporated in a polyethylene matrix to form panels and in a polymer coating on cardboard panels that then were evaluated by biological and chemical assay. In addition, commercial polymer matrix panels were evaluated. Field bioassay tests conducted in Hilo, HI, using released flies and in Guatemala in a natural population showed that the polyethylene matrix panel became brittle and cracked during field exposure and that release rates of the attractants were relatively low. The coated cardboard panels were stable under field conditions and yielded high fly captures for up to 6 wk. Farma Tech commercial panels containing 12.3 and 23.4 g of trimedlure remained highly attractive throughout a 134-d test in Hawaii and appear to be a long-lasting alternative to panels coated with trimedlure in Stikem. The cost of the relatively high dose of trimedlure is offset by the prolonged active life of the panel. Commercial panels from AgriSense (10 g trimedlure and 10 g ceralure) released the attractants at a slower rate and were less attractive.

  8. Evidence for potential of managing some African fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) using the mango fruit fly host-marking pheromone.

    PubMed

    Kachigamba, Donald L; Ekesi, Sunday; Ndungu, Mary W; Gitonga, Linus M; Teal, Peter E A; Torto, Baldwyn

    2012-12-01

    We investigated conspecific and heterospecific oviposition host discrimination among four economically important fruit fly pests of mango in Africa (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann; C. fasciventris, Bezzi; C. rosa, Karsch, and C. cosyra, Walker) with regard to host-marking behavior and fecal matter aqueous solutions. The objective of the study was to get insight into the potential of managing these pests using the host-marking technique. Observations were done on mango slices marked by the flies and treated with aqueous solutions of fecal matter of the flies, respectively. In both host-marking and fecal matter experiments, C. cosyra, which is the most destructive species of the four on mango, was exceptional. It only discriminated against hosts treated with its fecal matter but with lower sensitivity while C. capitata and C.fasciventris discriminated against hosts marked by it or treated with its fecal matter and with higher sensitivity. Our results provide evidence for potential of managing some of the major fruit fly species infesting mango in Africa using the host-marking pheromone of the mango fruit fly, C. cosyra.

  9. Evidence for potential of managing some african fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) using the mango fruit fly host-marking pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated conspecific and heterospecific oviposition host discrimination among four economically important fruit fly pests of mango in Africa (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann; C. fasciventris, Bezzi; C. rosa, Karsch, and C. cosyra, Walker) with regard to host-marking behavior and fecal matter aq...

  10. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens.

  11. Threshold Concentration of Limonoids (Azamax) for Preventing Infestation by Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Forim, M R; Sá, I C G

    2015-04-01

    This study identified the threshold concentration of limonoids for the complete inhibition of oviposition of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in grapes 'Itália.' Choice and no-choice experiments with the insect were performed. The three no-choice bioassays were conducted following a completely randomized design with 18 treatments (three densities of insects [one, two, or three females]×five concentrations of limonoids and control) and 20 replicates. In a free choice bioassay, two fruits per cage (a treatment grape and a control) were provided for ovipositing. Three densities of insects (one, two, or three females) were used, with 15 replicates. Bioassays were conducted at 25±2°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The inhibition of oviposition of C. capitata was concentration dependent, with infestation occurring at lower concentrations of azadirachtin (+3-tigloylazadirachtol) and complete inhibition occurring at concentrations at or exceeding 100 ppm azadirachtin (+28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol), maintaining protective effects even at the most densely populated treatment (three females per fruit). When the pest had a free choice of host grapes (treatment vs. control), severe inhibition was observed at concentrations≥50 ppm azadirachtin (+14.3 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol). We conclude that a threshold concentration of 100 ppm azadirachtin (+28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol) is capable of preventing grape infestation. This concentration is likely to provide a reliable level of protection, as the experimental population density of three females per fruit usually does not occur in the field and wild flies usually have more host options.

  12. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  13. Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) and the phenology of its native host plant, Yellow Chapote (Rutaceae) in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In northeastern Mexico, the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), breeds on its native host, yellow chapote, Casimiroa greggii (Wats.), which typically produces fruit in the spring. Peak populations of the fly occur in late spring or early summer when adults emerge from the generation of lar...

  14. Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and conditions in California olive orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europae...

  15. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  16. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  17. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  18. Population structure and cryptic genetic variation in the mango fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Delatte, Hélène; Nzogela, Yasinta Beda; Simiand, Christophe; Quilici, Serge; De Meyer, Marc; Mwatawala, Maulid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The fruit fly Ceratitis cosyra is an important agricultural pest negatively affecting the mango crop production throughout Africa and also feeding on a variety of other wild and cultivated hosts. The occurrence of deeply divergent haplotypes, as well as extensive morphological variability, previously suggested possible cryptic speciation within Ceratitis cosyra. Here we provide the first large-scale characterisation of the population structure of Ceratitis cosyra with the main objective of verifying cryptic genetic variation. A total of 348 specimens from 13 populations were genotyped at 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) deviations were observed in 40.4% of locus-population combinations and suggested the occurrence of genetic substructuring within populations. Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) showed genetic divergence between the vast majority of vouchers from Burundi and Tanzania (plus a few outliers from other African countries) and all other specimens sampled. Individual Bayesian assignments confirmed the existence of two main genotypic groups also occurring in sympatry. These data provided further support to the hypothesis that Ceratitis cosyra might include cryptic species. However, additional integrative taxonomy, possibly combining morphological, ecological and physiological approaches, is required to provide the necessary experimental support to this model. PMID:26798276

  19. Global Assessment of Seasonal Potential Distribution of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Szyniszewska, Anna M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  20. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  1. The current and future potential geographic range of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Liao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Guan-Sheng; Wu, Xing-Xia; Ni, Wen-Long; Qü, Wei-Wei

    2014-04-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), is one of the most important pests throughout the Americas. CLIMEX 3.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of this pest. Under current climatic conditions, A. obliqua is predicted to be able to establish throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including not only North and South America, where it has been reported, but also southern Asia, northeastern Australia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion may be cold stress. Climate change expands the potential distribution of A. obliqua poleward as cold stress boundaries recede, but the predicted distribution in northwestern Australia and northern parts of Sub-Saharan Africa will decrease because of heat stress. Considering the widely suitable range for A. obliqua globally and in China, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.

  2. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, Anna M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.

  3. Efficacy of ground spray application of bait sprays with malathion or spinosad on Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Texas citrus.

    PubMed

    Conway, Hugh E; Forrester, O Thomas

    2011-04-01

    An important component in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), eradication program is bait spray application to knock down localized A. ludens infestations enhancing the sterile to wild fly ratio and increasing the effectiveness of the sterile insect release program. Efficacy tests were conducted using spray equipment that applies ultralow application rates of malathion NU-LURE or GF-120 spinosad by ground into citrus. Trapit Dome traps located in fields treated with malathion NU-LURE and GF-120 spinosad high rate caught significantly fewer flies than the control in all replications. Treatments reduced the Mexican fruit fly populations by 99.1 and 92.5% with malathion and 98.2 and 89.9% with GF-120 spinosad high rate. Traps in plots with lower rates of GF-120 reduced fly populations by 76.3 and 74.3% in winter and summer test, respectively. There was no indication of fly repulsion from either malathion or GF-120 spinosad during this test. The bait spray option using ground spray equipment to apply ultra-low rates of either malathion NU-LURE or GF-120 spinosad high rate is a viable cost effective treatment method to treat small acreages for A. ludens. For organic growers, the ground spray equipment is effective in applying GF-120 spinosad at the labeled rates.

  4. Half of the European fruit fly species barcoded (Diptera, Tephritidae); a feasibility test for molecular identification

    PubMed Central

    Smit, John; Reijnen, Bastian; Stokvis, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A feasibility test of molecular identification of European fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on COI barcode sequences has been executed. A dataset containing 555 sequences of 135 ingroup species from three subfamilies and 42 genera and one single outgroup species has been analysed. 73.3% of all included species could be identified based on their COI barcode gene, based on similarity and distances. The low success rate is caused by singletons as well as some problematic groups: several species groups within the genus Terellia and especially the genus Urophora. With slightly more than 100 sequences – almost 20% of the total – this genus alone constitutes the larger part of the failure for molecular identification for this dataset. Deleting the singletons and Urophora results in a success-rate of 87.1% of all queries and 93.23% of the not discarded queries as correctly identified. Urophora is of special interest due to its economic importance as beneficial species for weed control, therefore it is desirable to have alternative markers for molecular identification. We demonstrate that the success of DNA barcoding for identification purposes strongly depends on the contents of the database used to BLAST against. Especially the necessity of including multiple specimens per species of geographically distinct populations and different ecologies for the understanding of the intra- versus interspecific variation is demonstrated. Furthermore thresholds and the distinction between true and false positives and negatives should not only be used to increase the reliability of the success of molecular identification but also to point out problematic groups, which should then be flagged in the reference database suggesting alternative methods for identification. PMID:24453563

  5. Evaluation of the Host Status of Mature Green Papayas 'Maradol' for the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    The suitability of mature green 'Maradol' papaya as a host of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was studied under field and laboratory conditions. Field tests were conducted on commercial-ripened and spot-ripened fruit in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas. Fruits at exportation ripeness are in "commercial ripeness", while fruits that are harvested immediately preceding exportation ripeness are in "spot ripeness." The field tests consisted of forced infestation experiments that evaluated papayas at two ripeness stages: the commercial- or exportation-ripened fruit (green fruits with one or two yellow stripes) and fruit before exportation ripeness called "spot ripeness." These tests were conducted in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Laboratory trials were performed with commercial-ripened fruit only. Fruit from four different postharvest periods (3, 24, 48, and 72 h) were exposed to groups of gravid flies. No larvae emerged from the fruit that was collected in the field experiments. However, some larvae and several fertile flies were obtained from the commercial-ripened fruit 72 h postharvest but not 3, 24, and 48 h postharvest in the laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the commercially ripe fruits of papaya Maradol were resistant to or free from infestation of A. ludens flies under field conditions, though these fruits must be considered nonnatural, conditional host because they became infested in the laboratory.

  6. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...

  7. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  8. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  9. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-08

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  10. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  11. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  12. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B

    2014-04-01

    Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards.

  13. Host breadth and parasitoids of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David A; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Twenty fruit species representing 12 families were collected from various regions in western Puerto Rico and monitored for the emergence of Anastrepha spp. pupae. We collected 14,154 tephritid pupae from 16 fruit species representing 10 families. The relative infestations of these fruits (pupae per kilogram of fruit) were recorded. Recorded host ranges were not in complete agreement with those reported in the literature. This host-use pattern should give pause to regulators of fruit importation and exportation that base their decisions on literature from regions other than those of immediate interest to them. We recovered the braconid parasitoid Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) from tephritid pupae collected from Mangifera indica L., Spondias mombin L., Psidium guajava L., Chrysobalanus icacos L., Terminalia catappa L., and Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel. We collected one specimen of the parasitoid Doryctobracon aerolatus (Szepligeti) from the west coast (Añasco), which had not been previously reported in Puerto Rico. We present a preliminary phenology of what are probably the primary fruit hosts of the Anastrepha spp. of Puerto Rico. We also present the first report of Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel and Coffea arabica L. as reproductive hosts of A. suspensa.

  14. Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-12-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed.

  15. Risk of introducing exotic fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa (Diptera: Tephritidae), into southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Wu, Jiajiao; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Runjie

    2010-08-01

    Exotic fruit flies (Ceratitis spp.) are often serious agricultural pests. Here, we used, pathway analysis and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the risk of introduction of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch, into southern China with fruit consignments and incoming travelers. Historical data, expert opinions, relevant literature, and archives were used to set appropriate parameters in the pathway analysis. Based on the ongoing quarantine/ inspection strategies of China, as well as the interception records, we estimated the annual number of each fruit fly species entering Guangdong province undetected with commercially imported fruit, and the associated risk. We also estimated the gross number of pests arriving at Guangdong ports with incoming travelers and the associated risk. Sensitivity analysis also was performed to test the impact of parameter changes and to assess how the risk could be reduced. Results showed that the risk of introduction of the three fruit fly species into southern China with fruit consignments, which are mostly transported by ship, exists but is relatively low. In contrast, the risk of introduction with incoming travelers is high and hence deserves intensive attention. Sensitivity analysis indicated that either ensuring all shipments meet current phytosanitary requirements or increasing the proportion of fruit imports sampled for inspection could substantially reduce the risk associated with commercial imports. Sensitivity analysis also provided justification for banning importation of fresh fruit by international travelers. Thus, inspection and quarantine in conjunction with intensive detection were important mitigation measures to reduce the risk of Ceratitis spp. introduced into China.

  16. Identifying Insects with Incomplete DNA Barcode Libraries, African Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Test Case

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Breman, Floris C.; Backeljau, Thierry; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general working strategy to deal with incomplete reference libraries in the DNA barcoding identification of species. Considering that (1) queries with a large genetic distance with their best DNA barcode match are more likely to be misidentified and (2) imposing a distance threshold profitably reduces identification errors, we modelled relationships between identification performances and distance thresholds in four DNA barcode libraries of Diptera (n = 4270), Lepidoptera (n = 7577), Hymenoptera (n = 2067) and Tephritidae (n = 602 DNA barcodes). In all cases, more restrictive distance thresholds produced a gradual increase in the proportion of true negatives, a gradual decrease of false positives and more abrupt variations in the proportions of true positives and false negatives. More restrictive distance thresholds improved precision, yet negatively affected accuracy due to the higher proportions of queries discarded (viz. having a distance query-best match above the threshold). Using a simple linear regression we calculated an ad hoc distance threshold for the tephritid library producing an estimated relative identification error <0.05. According to the expectations, when we used this threshold for the identification of 188 independently collected tephritids, less than 5% of queries with a distance query-best match below the threshold were misidentified. Ad hoc thresholds can be calculated for each particular reference library of DNA barcodes and should be used as cut-off mark defining whether we can proceed identifying the query with a known estimated error probability (e.g. 5%) or whether we should discard the query and consider alternative/complementary identification methods. PMID:22359600

  17. Insecticide toxicity to oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is influenced by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuying; Jin, Tao; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental factors (temperature, dose, dietary source, and feeding density) on the insecticide tolerance of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The results indicated that the toxicities of trichlorphon and abamectin to B. dorsalis increased with an increase in temperature. At 15-35 degrees C, the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin decreased with an increase in temperature at low doses (0.82 and 1.86 mg/L), but was similar at a high dose (4.18 mg/L). These results demonstrated that the temperature coefficient of beta-cypermethrin was related to both temperature and dosage. The insecticide sensitivity of B. dorsalis reared on different dietary sources was significantly different. Trichlorphon sensitivity of B. dorsalis fed on banana was the highest with an LC50 of 1.61 mg/L, followed by on apple, carambola, semiartificial diet, pear, mango, guava, orange, and papaya. With an increasing feeding density, the sensitivity of B. dorsalis adults to trichlorphon increased, while the sensitivities of B. dorsalis adults to abamectin and beta-cypermethrin decreased. The differences between LC50 values of insects reared at densities of 10 and 13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet to trichlorphon, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin were not significant. This result suggested that representative toxicity could be obtained by using adults developed at a feeding density between 10-13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet. Adult body weight was positively correlated with the LC50 value of trichlorphon, but was negatively correlated with the toxicities of abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. These results suggested that the effects of adult body weight on the toxicity of insecticides were different among different chemicals.

  18. Identifying insects with incomplete DNA barcode libraries, African fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a test case.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Breman, Floris C; Backeljau, Thierry; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general working strategy to deal with incomplete reference libraries in the DNA barcoding identification of species. Considering that (1) queries with a large genetic distance with their best DNA barcode match are more likely to be misidentified and (2) imposing a distance threshold profitably reduces identification errors, we modelled relationships between identification performances and distance thresholds in four DNA barcode libraries of Diptera (n = 4270), Lepidoptera (n = 7577), Hymenoptera (n = 2067) and Tephritidae (n = 602 DNA barcodes). In all cases, more restrictive distance thresholds produced a gradual increase in the proportion of true negatives, a gradual decrease of false positives and more abrupt variations in the proportions of true positives and false negatives. More restrictive distance thresholds improved precision, yet negatively affected accuracy due to the higher proportions of queries discarded (viz. having a distance query-best match above the threshold). Using a simple linear regression we calculated an ad hoc distance threshold for the tephritid library producing an estimated relative identification error <0.05. According to the expectations, when we used this threshold for the identification of 188 independently collected tephritids, less than 5% of queries with a distance query-best match below the threshold were misidentified. Ad hoc thresholds can be calculated for each particular reference library of DNA barcodes and should be used as cut-off mark defining whether we can proceed identifying the query with a known estimated error probability (e.g. 5%) or whether we should discard the query and consider alternative/complementary identification methods.

  19. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, R; Lopes, D J H; Mexia, A M M; Mumford, J D

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010-2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance's sensitivity on Terceira Island.

  20. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, R.; Lopes, D.J.H.; Mexia, A.M.M.; Mumford, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010–2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance’s sensitivity on Terceira Island. PMID:28082349

  1. Adult diet and male-female contact effects on female reproductive potential in Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) (Diptera tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    Wild strains of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) placed into laboratory rearing conditions are subjected to selection pressures caused by the diet, cages, density of flies, and other factors. Selection that changes mating behavior of the strain may result in less effective males released in sterile insect programs. Tests were performed to examine the effects of protein in diet and adult interactions on egg production and mating during sexual maturation of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) in laboratory cages. Flies were offspring of wild flies collected from Chiapas or Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and reared on Valencia oranges. Experiments demonstrated effects of yeast hydrolysate protein in adult diet and pairing with males on production of mature and immature eggs, numbers of females producing eggs, and mating with females aged 15 d. Addition of protein to 4% fructose in the adult diet approximately tripled mature egg production in females maintained for the total maturation period with an equal number of males. Females that matured without males produced approximately 33% more-mature eggs when fed protein than those fed no protein. Total egg production of females matured without males and fed sugar only or sugar with protein was more than twice that of females matured with males. Tests to examine the effects of male and female diet separately on female egg production showed slightly higher egg production in females fed protein, or females paired with males fed protein, but these differences were not significant. The most definitive effects were that combining wild strain females and males in cages during maturation reduced egg production. This effect was greatest when flies were not fed protein.

  2. Detection of Caribbean fruit fly [(Anastrepha suspensa Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)]-infested grapefruit with portable gas chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New technologies are being sought by plant protection officials to more quickly and efficiently identify concealed pests in imported commodities. The zNose portable gas chromatography unit was investigated as a tool for identifying organic volatile signatures indicative of Caribbean fruit fly infest...

  3. Effects of Several Newer Insecticides and Kaolin on Oviposition and Adult Mortality in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of newer insecticides and kaolin-based particle film (Surround™ WP Crop Protectant), on oviposition and mortality in the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In a no-choice experiment, azinphos-methyl sprayed on cherries reduced oviposition by 98.5% comp...

  4. Captures of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in biolure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  5. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  6. An Evaluation of Alternative Insecticides to Diazinon for Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diazinon has been used extensively in the past as part of California eradication programs for tephritid fruit flies, but is being phased out for this purpose in the United States. Therefore, in this study, the toxicity of Platinum®, Force®, Admire®, Regent®, and Warrior® was estimated after applica...

  7. Evaluating the use of irradiated caribean fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) larvae for laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing and augmentative release of hymenopterous parasitoids has been a component of area-wide management programs for several tephritid fruit flies, including pestiferous species of the genus Anastrepha (Cancino and Montoya, in press). Laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szeplige...

  8. Suitability of a liquid larval diet for rearing the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet as an artificial rearing medium was successfully tested for the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock. The biological parameters studied were pupal weight, adult emergence and fliers, sex ratio, fecundity and fertility. The insects performed most satisfa...

  9. A safe and effective propylene glycol based capture liquid for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) traps baited with synthetic lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antifreeze is often used as the capture liquid in insect traps for its preservation and evaporation attributes. In tests reported herein, fruit fly traps using non-toxic household propylene glycol based antifreeze captured significantly more Anastrepha ludens than did traps with the automotive anti...

  10. Attraction and electroantennogram responses of male Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to volatile chemicals from Persea, Litchi and Ficus wood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trimedlure is the most effective male-targeted lure for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). A similar response is elicited by plant substances that contain a-copaene, a naturally-occurring sesquiterpene. a-copaene is a complex, highly-volatile, widely-distributed plant comp...

  11. Antennal responses of West Indian and Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to monitor and detect tephritid fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha currently involve MultiLure traps baited with two food-based synthetic attractants; ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). These baits are used in Central America, Florida, Texas, and the Caribbean, each region...

  12. Tapachula-7, a new genetic sexing strain of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): sexual compatibility and competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Dina; Meza, J Salvador; Zepeda, Silvia; Solís, Eduardo; Quintero-Fong, J Luis

    2013-04-01

    A new genetic sexing strain of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), was evaluated in tests of sexual behavior to determine its possible application using the sterile insect technique. Tests in field cages measuring time to sexual maturity, compatibility with wild flies, and competitiveness were compared between the genetic sexing strain, Tapachula-7, and the mass-reared standard bisexual strain. The results indicated that the onset of sexual maturity was similar for both laboratory strains. Males from the Tapachula-7 strain do not differ from the standard bisexual strain in compatibility and competitiveness with wild insects. The results indicate that the release of Tapachula-7 males in the field would be viable in programs that use the sterile insect technique for the control of the Mexican fruit fly.

  13. Comparison of two synthetic food-odor lures for captures of feral Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico and implications regarding use of irradiated flies to assess lure efficacy.

    PubMed

    Robacker, David C; Thomas, Donald B

    2007-08-01

    Feral Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were trapped in a citrus orchard in Mexico by using two types of synthetic food-odor lures, the AFF lure (Anastrepha fruit fly lure, APTIV, Inc., Portland, OR) and the BioLure (two-component MFF lure, Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR). In Multilure traps (Better World Manufacturing, Inc., Miami, FL) containing water, BioLures captured about the same numbers of flies as AFF lures. In Multilure traps containing antifreeze solution, BioLures captured 2 and 5 times more flies than AFF lures in two experiments. BioLures, and AFF lures did not differ in attractiveness when used on sticky traps (Intercept trap, APTIV, Inc.; and sticky cylinder trap). Multilure traps captured >4 times as many flies as sticky traps with the exception that captures of females did not differ between Multilure and sticky traps baited with AFF lures. The percentage of females captured in Multilure traps was greater when traps were baited with BioLures compared with AFF lures, but the reverse was true for sticky traps. Sticky cylinder traps captured a higher percentage of females than Multilure traps. The most effective trap/lure combination was the Multilure trap baited with BioLure and antifreeze. In comparison with tests of these two lures in Texas, results were similar for Multilure traps, but they differed for sticky cylinder traps in that AFF lures were consistently more attractive than BioLures in Texas, but not in Mexico.

  14. Mortality and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of food.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2011-02-01

    Spinosad bait is used to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), by killing flies before they oviposit. However, effects of different insecticide baits on management of reproductively mature flies are largely unknown. Objectives here were to determine mortality and oviposition of reproductively mature R. indifferens exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of dried yeast extract and sucrose food. Spinosad bait (spinosad in a mix of protein, sugar, and other ingredients) was compared with acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure + sucrose bait. When flies were exposed to treatments and then offered cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., for oviposition or when they were exposed to treatments and cherries simultaneously, both thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait resulted in higher mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait. Exposures to thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait for six and 24 h were similarly effective, but 6-h exposures to spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait were less effective than 24-h exposures. There was little difference between sucrose and Nu-Lure + sucrose baits. When food was present, thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait caused greater mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait, but when food was absent, patterns were less consistent. Because of its ability to kill flies sooner after it is exposed to flies when food is present or absent, thiamethoxam or imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure bait may reduce infestations in cherries more than spinosad bait when mature R. indifferens are present in orchards.

  15. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Galun, R.; Gothilf, S.; Blondheim, S.; Sharp, J.L.; Mazor, M.; Lachman, A.

    1985-12-01

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method.

  16. Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae), a new invasive fruit fly pest for the Afrotropical region: host plant range and distribution in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Goergen, Georg; Vayssières, Jean-François; Gnanvossou, Désiré; Tindo, Maurice

    2011-08-01

    In 2003, the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Drew et al. 2005), of possible Sri Lankan origin, has been detected in the East and about 1 yr later in West Africa. In regular surveys in Benin and Cameroon covering 4 yr, samples from 117 plant species across 43 families have been obtained. Incubation of field-collected fruits demonstrate that in West and Central Africa (WCA) B. invadens is highly polyphagous, infesting wild and cultivated fruits of at least 46 species from 23 plant families with guava (Psidium spp.), mango (Mangifera spp.), and citrus (spp.), and the wild hosts tropical almond (Terminalia catappa L.), African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte) Baill.), and sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn.) showing the highest infestation index. B. invadens occurs in 22 countries of WCA with new records for Angola, Central African Republic, the Congo, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sierra Leone. Overall, the pest has spread across a North-South distance of ≍5,000 km representing a contiguous area of >8.3 million km(2) within WCA. B. invadens has adapted to a wide range of ecological and climatic conditions extending from low land rainforest to dry savanna. Because of its highly destructive and invasive potential, B. invadens poses a serious threat to horticulture in Africa if left uncontrolled. Moreover, the presence of this quarantine pest causes considerable restrictions on international trade of affected crops.

  17. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  18. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pascacio-Villafán, C.; Williams, T.; Sivinski, J.; Birke, A.; Aluja, M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  19. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  20. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies.

  1. Pattern of association between endemic Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their symbiotic bacteria: Evidence of cospeciation events and proposal of "Candidatus Stammerula trupaneae".

    PubMed

    Viale, E; Martinez-Sañudo, I; Brown, J M; Simonato, M; Girolami, V; Squartini, A; Bressan, A; Faccoli, M; Mazzon, L

    2015-09-01

    Several insect lineages have evolved mutualistic association with symbiotic bacteria. This is the case of some species of mealybugs, whiteflies, weevils, tsetse flies, cockroaches, termites, carpenter ants, aphids and fruit flies. Some species of Tephritinae, the most specialized subfamily of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), harbour co-evolved vertically transmitted, bacterial symbionts in their midgut, known as "Candidatus Stammerula spp.". The 25 described endemic species of Hawaiian tephritids, plus at least three undescribed species, are taxonomically distributed among three genera: the cosmopolitan genus Trupanea (21 described spp.), the endemic genus Phaeogramma (2 spp.) and the Nearctic genus Neotephritis (2 spp.). We examined the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the endemic tephritids of the Hawaiian Islands, which represent a spectacular example of adaptive radiation, and tested the concordant evolution between host and symbiont phylogenies. We detected through PCR assays the presence of specific symbiotic bacteria, designated as "Candidatus Stammerula trupaneae", from 35 individuals of 15 species. The phylogeny of the insect host was reconstructed based on two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (16S rDNA and COI-tRNALeu-COII), while the bacterial 16S rRNA was used for the symbiont analysis. Host and symbiont phylogenies were then compared and evaluated for patterns of cophylogeny and strict cospeciation. Topological congruence between Hawaiian Tephritinae and their symbiotic bacteria phylogenies suggests a limited, but significant degree of host-symbiont cospeciation. We also explored the character reconstruction of three host traits, as island location, host lineage, and host tissue attacked, based on the symbiont phylogenies under the hypothesis of cospeciation.

  2. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Cocquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  3. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-02-01

    The biology of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse, and in canning olives, Olea europaea L., in relation to California regional climates. Adults survived in laboratory tests at constant temperatures and relative humidities of 5 degrees C and 83%; 15 degrees C and 59%; 25 degrees C and 30%; and 35 degrees C and 29% for 15, 6, 3, and 2 d without provisions of food and water and for 37, 63, 25, and 4 d with provisions, respectively. In a divided greenhouse, adults survived for 8-11 d in the warm side (36 degrees C and 31% RH daytime); and in the cool side (26 degrees C and 63% RH daytime) 10 d without provisions and 203 d with provisions. A significantly greater number of adults survived in the cool side than the warm side, and with provisions than without. First and last eggs were oviposited in olive fruit when females were 6 and 90 d old, respectively. The highest number of eggs was 55 per day in 10 olive fruit oviposited by 10 28 d-old females, with maximum egg production by 13-37 d-old females. A significantly greater number of ovipositional sites occurred in all sizes of immature green fruit when exposed to adults in cages for 5 d than 2 d. Adults emerged from fruit with a height of > or = 1.0 cm or a volume of > or = 0.2 cm3. More than seven adults per 15 fruit emerged from field infested fruit with a height of 1.1 cm and volume of 0.1 cm3. Larval length was significantly different among the first, second, and third instars and ranged from 0.7 to 1.6, 2.4-4.3, and 4.8-5.6 mm at 14 degrees C; 0.8-1.1, 1.9-2.9, and 3.9-4.4 mm at 21 degrees C, and 0.7-1.3, 2.4-2.9, and 4.4-4.8 mm at 26 degrees C, respectively. Survival of pupae to the adult stage was significantly lower at 26 degrees C than 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. The period of adult emergence began at 38, 14, and 11 d over a period of 8, 5, and 1 d at 14, 21, and 26 degrees C, respectively. Findings were related to the occurrence and control of California

  4. Efficacy of two synthetic food-odor lures for Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) is determined by trap type.

    PubMed

    Robacker, David C; Czokajlo, Darek

    2005-10-01

    Sterile mass-reared Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), were trapped in a citrus orchard by using multilure traps and cylindrical sticky traps baited with Advanced Pheromone Technologies Anastrepha fruit fly (AFF) lures or Suterra BioLure two-component (ammonium acetate and putrescine) MFF lures (BioLures). The cylinder trap/AFF lure combination was the best trap over the first 6 wk, the multilure trap/BioLure combination was best during weeks 6-12, and the multilure trap/AFF lure combination was best during the last 6 wk. The multilure trap/BioLure combination was best overall by 36% over the cylinder trap/AFF lure combination, and 57% over the multilure trap/AFF lure combination. Cylinder traps with BioLures were the least effective trap/lure combination throughout the experiment, capturing only half as many flies as cylinder traps with AFF lures. Captures with cylinder traps baited with either lure and multilure traps with BioLures were female biased. For the most part, both lures remained highly attractive and emitted detectable amounts of attractive components under hot field conditions for the duration of the 18-wk experiment. Total emission of ammonia was 4 times greater and 1-pyrroline at least 10 times greater from AFF lures compared with BioLures. Correlations of trap and lure performance with ammonia emission and weather were determined, but no conclusions were possible. Results indicate that BioLures would be the lure of choice in multilure or other McPhail-type traps and AFF lures would be superior with most sticky traps or kill stations that attract flies to outer (not enclosed) surfaces.

  5. Heating rate and induced thermotolerance in Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, a quarantine pest of citrus and mangoes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D B; Shellie, K C

    2000-08-01

    A bioassay and graduated temperature water baths were used to document the induction of thermotolerance in third-instar Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). The 99% lethal time dose for larvae exposed to 44 degrees C core temperatures in artificial fruit is 61.5 min when a slow heating rate (120 min ramp) is applied, but only 41.9 min when a fast heating rate (15 min ramp) is applied. In electrophoretic profiles a heat inducible protein of molecular weight 32 kDa was detected in 76% of the larvae exposed to the slow ramp treatment, but only 42% of the larvae in the fast ramp treatment. Results from this research demonstrate that thermotolerance can be induced under conditions used to commercially disinfest fresh produce and highlight the necessity for specifying heating rates in quarantine treatment schedules.

  6. Seasonal Amounts of Nutrients in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Relation to Nutrient Availability on Cherry Plant Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and the availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral necta...

  7. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I. Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  8. Dispersion of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at high and low densities and consequences of mismatching dispersions of wild and sterile flies

    SciTech Connect

    Meats, A.

    2007-03-15

    Both wild and released (sterile) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and wild Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) in Australia had patchy distributions and comparisons with predictions of the negative binomial model indicated that the degree of clumping was sometimes very high, particularly at low densities during eradication. An increase of mean recapture rate of sterile B. tryoni on either of 2 trap arrays was not accompanied by a reduction in its coefficient of variation and when recapture rates were high, the percentage of traps catching zero decreased only slightly with increase in recapture rate, indicating that it is not practicable to decrease the heterogeneity of dispersion of sterile flies by increasing the number released. There was often a mismatch between the dispersion patterns of the wild and sterile flies, and the implications of this for the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) were investigated with a simulation study with the observed degrees of mismatch obtained from the monitoring data and assuming the overall ratio of sterile to wild flies to be 100:1. The simulation indicated that mismatches could result in the imposed rate of increase of wild flies being up to 3.5 times higher than that intended (i.e., 0.35 instead of 0.1). The effect of a mismatch always reduces the efficiency of SIT. The reason for this asymmetry is discussed and a comparison made with host-parasitoid and other systems. A release strategy to counter this effect is suggested. (author) [Spanish] Las moscas naturales y liberadas (esteriles) de Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) y Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) en Australia tuvieron distribuciones en parches y sus compariciones con las predicciones de un modelo binomial negativo indicaron un nivel de agregacion a veces fue muy alto, particularmente en las densidades bajas durante de eradicacion. Un aumento en el promedio de la tasa de B. tryoni esteriles recapturadas en las

  9. Development, genetic and cytogenetic analyses of genetic sexing strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha ludens is among the pests that have a major impact on México's economy because it attacks fruits as citrus and mangoes. The Mexican Federal government uses integrated pest management to control A. ludens through the Programa Nacional Moscas de la Fruta [National Fruit Fly Program, SAGARPA-SENASICA]. One of the main components of this program is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which is used to control field populations of the pest by releasing sterile flies. Results To increase the efficiency of this technique, we have developed a genetic sexing strain (GSS) in which the sexing mechanism is based on a pupal colour dimorphism (brown-black) and is the result of a reciprocal translocation between the Y chromosome and the autosome bearing the black pupae (bp) locus. Ten strains producing wild-type (brown pupae) males and mutant (black pupae) females were isolated. Subsequent evaluations for several generations were performed in most of these strains. The translocation strain named Tapachula-7 showed minimal effect on survival and the best genetic stability of all ten strains. Genetic and cytogenetic analyses were performed using mitotic and polytene chromosomes and we succeeded to characterize the chromosomal structure of this reciprocal translocation and map the autosome breakpoint, despite the fact that the Y chromosome is not visible in polytene nuclei following standard staining. Conclusions We show that mitotic and polytene chromosomes can be used in cytogenetic analyses towards the development of genetic control methods in this pest species. The present work is the first report of the construction of GSS of Anastrepha ludens, with potential use in a future Moscafrut operational program. PMID:25472896

  10. A high-throughput detection method for invasive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species based on microfluidic dynamic array.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Fu, Wei; Clarke, Anthony R; Schutze, Mark Kurt; Susanto, Agus; Zhu, Shuifang; Li, Zhihong

    2016-11-01

    Invasive species can be detrimental to a nation's ecology, economy and human health. Rapid and accurate diagnostics are critical to limit the establishment and spread of exotic organisms. The increasing rate of biological invasions relative to the taxonomic expertise available generates a demand for high-throughput, DNA-based diagnostics methods for identification. We designed species-specific qPCR primer and probe combinations for 27 economically important tephritidae species in six genera (Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Carpomya, Ceratitis, Dacus and Rhagoletis) based on 935 COI DNA barcode haplotypes from 181 fruit fly species publically available in BOLD, and then tested the specificity for each primer pair and probe through qPCR of 35 of those species. We then developed a standardization reaction system for detecting the 27 target species based on a microfluidic dynamic array and also applied the method to identify unknown immature samples from port interceptions and field monitoring. This method led to a specific and simultaneous detection for all 27 species in 7.5 h, using only 0.2 μL of reaction system in each reaction chamber. The approach successfully discriminated among species within complexes that had genetic similarities of up to 98.48%, while it also identified all immature samples consistent with the subsequent results of morphological examination of adults which were reared from larvae of cohorts from the same samples. We present an accurate, rapid and high-throughput innovative approach for detecting fruit flies of quarantine concern. This is a new method which has broad potential to be one of international standards for plant quarantine and invasive species detection.

  11. Combining field phenological observations with distribution data to model the potential distribution of the fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    de Villiers, M; Hattingh, V; Kriticos, D J

    2013-02-01

    Despite the potential for phenological and abundance data to improve the reliability of species niche models, they are seldom used. The aim of this study was to combine information on the distribution, relative abundance and seasonal phenology of Natal fruit fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae), in South Africa to model its potential global distribution. Bucket traps, baited with Biolure, were used to trap C. rosa in different climatic regions of South Africa over a two-year period. A CLIMEX niche model of the potential global distribution of C. rosa was fitted using the collected trapping data and other distribution records from South Africa. Independent distribution records for elsewhere in Africa were reserved for model validation. The CLIMEX model results conformed well to the South African trapping data, including information on relative abundance and seasonal phenology, as well as to the pattern of presence records of the species elsewhere in Africa. The model suggests that under recent historical conditions a large part of South America, Central America, Mexico and southern USA may be climatically suitable for establishment of C. rosa. In Europe, climatically suitable habitat is restricted to coastal regions of the Mediterranean, in Asia, mostly to the southern and south eastern countries, and in Australia mostly to the wetter south and east. The independent cross-validation provided by South African relative abundance and seasonal phenology data, central African distribution data and relevant species specific biological information provides greater confidence in the modelled potential distribution of C. rosa.

  12. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  13. Evaluation of SPLAT with spinosad and methyl eugenol or cue-lure for "attract-and-kill" of oriental and melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Hertlein, Mark; Neto, Agenor Mafra; Coler, Reginald; Piñero, Jaime C

    2008-06-01

    Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) "attract-and-kill" sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared with other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively. Field tests were conducted with three different dispensers (Min-U-Gel, Acti-Gel, and SPLAT) and two different insecticides (naled and spinosad). SPLAT ME with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel ME with naled formulation up to 12 wk. SPLAT C-L with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel C-L with naled formulation during weeks 7 to12, but not during weeks 1-6. In subsequent comparative trials, SPLAT ME + spinosad compared favorably with the current standard of Min-U-Gel ME + naled for up to 6 wk, and it was superior from weeks 7 to 12 in two separate tests conducted in a papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchard and a guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard, respectively. In outdoor paired weathering tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers (SPLAT + spinosad, SPLAT + naled, and Min-U-Gel + naled) were effective up to 70 d. Weathered ME dispensers with SPLAT + spinosad compared favorably with SPLAT + naled and Min-U-Gel + naled, and they were equal to fresh dispensers for 21-28 d, depending on location. Our current studies indicate that SPLAT ME and SPLAT C-L sprayable attract-and-kill dispensers containing spinosad are a promising substitute for current liquid organophosphate insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii.

  14. Analysis of Seasonal Risk for Importation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), via Air Passenger Traffic Arriving in Florida and California.

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, A M; Leppla, N C; Huang, Z; Tatem, A J

    2016-09-04

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the most economically damaging pests in the world and has repeatedly invaded two major agricultural states in the United States, Florida and California, each time requiring costly eradication. The Mediterranean fruit fly gains entry primarily in infested fruit carried by airline passengers and, since Florida and California each receive about 13 million international passengers annually, the risk of Mediterranean fruit fly entering the United States is potentially very high. The risk of passengers bringing the pest into Florida or California from Mediterranean fruit fly-infested countries was determined with two novel models, one estimated seasonal variation in airline passenger number and the other defined the seasonal and spatial variability in Mediterranean fruit fly abundance. These models elucidated relationships among the risk factors for Mediterranean fruit fly introduction, such as amount of passenger traffic, routes traveled, season of travel, abundance of Mediterranean fruit fly in countries where flights departed, and risk of the pest arriving at destination airports. The risk of Mediterranean fruit fly being introduced into Florida was greatest from Colombia, Brazil, Panama, Venezuela, Argentina, and Ecuador during January-August, whereas primarily the risk to California was from Brazil, Panama, Colombia, and Italy in May-August. About three times more Mediterranean fruit flies were intercepted in passenger baggage at airports in Florida than California, although the data were compromised by a lack of systematic sampling and other limitations. Nevertheless, this study achieved the goal of analyzing available data on seasonal passenger flow and Mediterranean fruit fly population levels to determine when surveillance should be intensified at key airports in Florida and California.

  15. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por

  16. First instar larvae morphology of Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies. Implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Félix D; Liedo, Pablo; Nieto-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Mireles, Héctor; Barrera, Juan F; Montoya, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the first instars of the Opiinae braconids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Utetes anastrephae and Opius hirtus (the first is exotic, and the others are natives to Mexico), parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies, are described and compared. The possible implications on interspecific competition among these species are discussed. The most significant adaptations found were: (1) the mouth apparatus, where the large mandibles and fang-shaped maxillary lobes present in D. longicaudata and U. anastrephae larvae were absent in O. hirtus, D. areolatus and D. crawfordi larvae, and (2) the degree of mobility for exploration and escape, such as the lateral and caudal appendages that were only present in D. longicaudata (ventrolateral appendages in the base of the head capsule), U. anastrephae (caudal lobe with two appendages) and D. areolatus (caudal lobe with a round apex with a globular shape). The first instar larvae of the species D. longicaudata show morphological adaptations that apparently confer competitive advantages against the larvae of D. areolatus, D. crawfordi and O. hirtus. However, the first instar larvae of U. anastrephae show larger mandibles, an adaptation that could enable this species to resist competition from D. longicaudata.

  17. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  18. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field.

  19. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, α-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + α-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + α-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, α-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; α-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene expression profiling of the

  20. Gas-exchange patterns of Mediterranean fruit fly Pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): A tool to forecast developmental stage

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Alchanatis, V.

    2007-03-15

    The pattern of gas-exchange (CO{sub 2} emission) was investigated for developing Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) pupae incubated at different temperatures. This study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of gas-exchange systems in the determination of physiological age in developing pupae that are mass produced for sterile insect technique projects. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission was measured in a closed flow-through system connected to commercial infrared gas analysis equipment. Metabolic activity (rate of CO{sub 2} emission) was related to pupal eye-color, which is the current technique used to determine physiological age. Eye-color was characterized digitally with 3 variables (Hue, Saturation and Intensity), and color separated by discriminant analysis. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission throughout pupal development followed a U-shape, with high levels of emission during pupariation, pupal transformation and final pharate adult stages. Temperature affected the development time of pupae, but not the basic CO{sub 2} emission patterns during development. In all temperatures, rates of CO{sub 2} emission 1 and 2 d before adult emergence were very similar. After mid larval-adult transition (e.g., phanerocephalic pupa), digital eye-color was significantly correlated with CO{sub 2} emission. Results support the suggestion that gas-exchange should be explored further as a system to determine pupal physiological age in mass production of fruit flies. (author) [Spanish] En el presente estudio se investigaron los patrones de intercambio gaseoso (emision de CO{sub 2}) en pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) incubadas a diferentes temperaturas. El estudio fue realizado con la finalidad de explorar la utilizacion de sistemas de intercambio gaseoso en la determinacion de la edad fisiologica de pupas durante su produccion masiva en proyectos de mosca esteril. La proporcion de emision de CO{sub 2} fue

  1. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-03-15

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [Spanish] El exito de los programas de control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) que integran la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) esta basado en la capacidad de machos esteriles para competir en el campo por sus parejas. Las Islas de Madeira consisten de 2 islas pobladas (Madeira y Porto Santo) donde la mosca mediterranea de la fruta esta presente. Para evaluar la compatibilidad y el funcionamiento sexual de moscas esteriles nosotros realizamos una serie de pruebas de jaula en el

  2. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control.

  3. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  4. Seasonal amounts of nutrients in Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their relation to nutrient availability on cherry plant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2008-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of sweet cherry trees, were determined from late May to late June 2005 and of sugar from EFNs from mid-May to late June 2007 in Washington state. Protein amounts in male and female flies did not differ over the season. Nitrogen was present on leaves, fruit, and EFNs during the sampling period, but amounts on leaves and fruit were lower in late May than the rest of the season. Sugar amounts in flies did not differ over the season. Sugar was present on leaf, fruit, and EFN surfaces all season, but amounts on all three were lower in late May than later in the season. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars on all plant surfaces, but sucrose was also present in nectar from EFNs. In outdoor and field cage experiments in 2004 and 2006, more flies survived when cherry branches with leaves and fruit were present than absent. Results suggest that R. indifferens maintains stable protein and sugar levels throughout the season because sufficient amounts of nutrients are found in cherry trees during this time and that increases in nutrient availability caused by ripening and damaged cherries later in the season do not result in increased amounts of nutrients in flies.

  5. Longevity of multiple species of tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) provided exotic and sympatric-fruit based diets.

    PubMed

    Stuhl, Charles; Cicero, Lizette; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Lapointe, Stephen; Paranhos, Beatriz Jordão; Aluja, Martín

    2011-11-01

    While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae), can survive on fruit juices as they seep from injured fruit. An ability to exploit fruit juice would allow such a parasitoid to efficiently forage for hosts and food sources simultaneously. Two New World opiines, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck), are also prominent Anastrepha parasitoids and are roughly sympatric. All three species were provided with: (1) pulp and juice diets derived from a highly domesticated Old World fruit (orange, Citrus sinensis L.) that is only recently sympatric with the Mexican flies and parasitoids and so offered little opportunity for the evolution of feeding-adaptations and (2) a less-domesticated New World fruit (guava, Psidium guajava L.), sympatric over evolutionary time with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. Both sexes of D. longicaudata died when provided guava pulp or juice at a rate similar to a water-only control. D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, presumably adapted to the nutrient/chemical constituents of guava, also died at a similar rate. Survival of all three species on orange pulp and juice was greater than on water, and often equaled that obtained on a honey and water solution. In confirmatory experiments in Mexico, D. areolatus and U. anastrephae, as well as other tephritid parasitoids Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) and Opius hirtus (Fisher), all died at a significantly higher rates when provided guava in comparison to a honey and water diet. Such a result is likely due to guavas being repellent, innutritious or toxic. D. longicaudata clearly consumed guava juice tagged with a colored dye. Dilutions of orange and guava juice resulted in shorter lifespans than dilutions of orange

  6. Bartonella species in bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from western Africa.

    PubMed

    Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y

    2012-03-01

    Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.

  7. Simulated field applications of insecticide soil drenches for control of Tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key component in tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) area-wide IPM programs has been application of insecticidal soil drenches under the drip line of host trees where fruit flies have been detected and as a regulatory treatment in the certification process for movement of nursery stock outs...

  8. Recent progress in a classical biological control program for olive fruit fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe damage to olive production worldwide. Control of olive fruit fly typically relies on pesticides, and under such conditions the impact of natural enemies is relatively low. About 15 years ago, the USDA-ARS European Biologic...

  9. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  10. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  11. Breakfast of champions or kiss of death? Survival and sexual performance of protein-fed, sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuval, B.; Maor, M.; Levy, K.; Kaspi, R.; Taylor, P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly being used around the world to control Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly as part of an area-wide integrated approach. One option that may improve the effectiveness of the SIT, by increasing the sexual competitiveness of released sterile males, consists of feeding males protein during the post-teneral stage, a diet that increases sexual performance of wild males. We examine the effects of diet on the successive hurdles males must overcome in order to inseminate females, i.e., joining leks, copulating females, having their sperm stored and inhibition of female remating. In addition, we address the effects of diet on post-release foraging success, longevity, and the ability to withstand starvation. While protein feeding universally increases the sexual success of wild males, its effect on sterile males varies with strain, experimental settings, and environmental conditions. In some cases, treatments that resulted in the best sexual performance were significantly associated with increased vulnerability to starvation. However, no particular diet affected the ability of sterile males to find nutrients in the field when these where available. We suggest it may be better to release relatively short-lived flies that are highly competitive, rather than long-lived, sexually ineffective ones. (author) [Spanish] El uso de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) esta aumentando alrededor del mundo para el control de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), la mosca mediterranea de la fruta como parte de un enfoque integrado por toda el area. Una opcion que puede mejorar la eficiencia de TIE, por medio del aumento de la capacidad de los machos esteriles liberados para competir, consiste en la alimentacion de los machos con proteina durante la etapa de pos-teneral, una dieta que aumenta el desempeno sexual de los machos naturales. Nosotros examinamos los efectos de la

  12. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8–1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8–1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8–1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8–1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  13. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  14. Evaluation of SPLAT with Spinosad and Methyl Eugenol or Cue-Lure for "Attract-and-Kill" of Oriental and Melon Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SPLAT(TM) ME (methyl eugenol) and C-L (cue-lure) “attract and kill” sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared to other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, and B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, respectively. Fie...

  15. Characterizing the developmental transcriptome of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) through comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster utilizing modENCODE datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops throughout Asia, and is considered a high risk pest for establishment in the mainland United States. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family ...

  16. A calendrical method for predicting generation cycles of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae), triggering citrus quarantines in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican fruit fly is an invasive pest of citrus and other commercial fruits that triggers quarantine restrictions when it is detected in the United States. The citrus crop in south Texas is especially vulnerable to infestations because of its proximity to the border areas of Mexico where the pe...

  17. Alcohol dehydrogenase activities and ethanol tolerance in Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae) fruit-fly species and their hybrids

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) system is one of the earliest known models of molecular evolution, and is still the most studied in Drosophila. Herein, we studied this model in the genus Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae). Due to the remarkable advantages it presents, it is possible to cross species with different Adh genotypes and with different phenotype traits related to ethanol tolerance. The two species studied here each have a different number of Adh gene copies, whereby crosses generate polymorphisms in gene number and in composition of the genetic background. We measured certain traits related to ethanol metabolism and tolerance. ADH specific enzyme activity presented gene by environment interactions, and the larval protein content showed an additive pattern of inheritance, whilst ADH enzyme activity per larva presented a complex behavior that may be explained by epistatic effects. Regression models suggest that there are heritable factors acting on ethanol tolerance, which may be related to enzymatic activity of the ADHs and to larval mass, although a pronounced environmental effect on ethanol tolerance was also observed. By using these data, we speculated on the mechanisms of ethanol tolerance and its inheritance as well as of associated traits. PMID:21637665

  18. The preimaginal phases and development of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D; Fernández, Severiano

    2009-10-01

    The development and morphology of the immature phases of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae) using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is granulated, and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The labrum of the first instar larva does not have sensilla, and the second to fourth instar larvae have setae on the head. The mature larva is characterized by the position and number of the integumental differentiations (sensilla and setae). On completion of larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. As for the adult, the mandibles of the pupae are toothed. Five larval instars are recorded, based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles in combination with characters such as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was 18-20 days for males and 21-23 days for females at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 relative humidity, and a 16L:8D photoperiod. The results show that the eggs and different larval instars of this parasitoid can be unambiguously identified only by scanning electron microscope.

  19. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  20. There is no magic fruit fly trap: multiple biological factors influence the response of adult Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) individuals to MultiLure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2009-02-01

    Field-cage experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of MultiLure traps (Better World MFG Inc., Fresno, CA) baited with NuLure (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, PA) or BioLure (Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR) in capturing individually marked Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), of both sexes. Experimental treatments involved wild and laboratory-reared flies of varying ages (2-4 and 15-18 d) and dietary histories (sugar only, open fruit, open fruit plus chicken feces, and hydrolyzed protein mixed with sugar). Data were divided into two parts: total captures over a 24-h period and trap visits/landings, entrances into interior of trap ,and effective captures (i.e., drowning in liquid bait or water) over a 5-h detailed observation period (0600-1100 hours). The response to the two baits varied by fly species, gender, physiological state, age, and strain. Importantly, there were several highly significant interactions among these factors, underlining the complex nature of the response. The two baits differed in attractiveness for A. obliqua but not A. ludens. The effect of strain (wild versus laboratory flies) was significant for A. ludens but not A. obliqua. For effect of dietary history, adults of both species, irrespective of sex, were significantly less responsive to both baits when fed on a mixture of protein and sugar when compared with adults fed the other diets. Finally, we confirmed previous observations indicating that McPhail-type traps are quite inefficient. Considering the total 24-h fly tenure in the cage, and independent of bait treatment and fly type (i.e., strain, adult diet, gender and age), of a total of 2,880 A. obliqua and 2,880 A. ludens adults released into the field cages over the entire study (15 replicates), only 564 (19.6%) and 174 (6%) individuals, respectively, were effectively caught. When only considering the 5-h detailed

  1. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  2. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  3. Trapping African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...

  4. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  5. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David A; Kendra, Paul E; Van Bloem, Skip; Whitmire, Stefanie; Mizell, Russ; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) in two orchards with hosts of these flies (mango, Mangifera indica L., and carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), as well as in forest fragments bordering these orchards. Contour maps were constructed to measure population distributions in and around orchards. Our results indicate that Anastrepha populations are focused around host fruit in both space and time, that traps do not draw fruit flies away from hosts, even when placed within 15 m of the host, and that lures continue to function for 6 mo in the field. The contour mapping analyses reveal that populations of fruit flies are focused around ovipositional hosts. Although the trapping system does not have a very long effective sampling range, it is ideal, when used in combination with contour analyses, for assessing fine-scale (on the order of meters) population distributions, including identifying resources around which fly populations are focused or, conversely, assessing the effectiveness of management tools. The results are discussed as they pertain to monitoring and detecting Anastrepha spp. with the McPhail-type trap and ammonium acetate and putrescine baiting system and the dispersal of these flies within Puerto Rico.

  6. Regional suppression of Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the Pacific through biological control and prospects for future introductions into other areas of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera fruit fly species are important economically throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS, U.S Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world wide leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawa...

  7. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), infestation in host fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the initiation of Island-wide population suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern...

  8. EAG and behavioral responses of the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) to terminal diamines in a food-based lure.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current monitoring programs for Anastrepha fruit flies utilize a food-based synthetic lure consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine (1, 4 diaminobutane). Identification of additional attractant chemicals may lead to development of a more effective trapping system. This study, conducted with the...

  9. Evaluation of Cuelure and Methyl Eugenol solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) monitoring and control in Tahiti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance of solid male lure (cuelure (C-L)/raspberry ketone (RK) - against Bactrocera tyroni (Froggatt), and methyl eugenol (ME) - against oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and insecticide formulations, were evaluated in Tahiti Island (French Polynesia), as alternatives to current monitori...

  10. Functional analysis of five trypsin-like protease genes in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Li; Hou, Ming-Zhe; Shen, Guang-Mao; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Jia, Fu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Insect midgut proteases catalyze the release of free amino acids from dietary proteins and are essential for insect normal development. To date, digestive proteases as potential candidates have made great progress in pest control. To clarify the function of trypsin-like protease genes in the digestive system of Bactrocera dorsalis, a serious pest of a wide range of tropical and subtropical fruit and vegetable crops, five trypsin genes (BdTry1, BdTry2, BdTry3, BdTry4 and BdTry5) were identified from transcriptome dataset, and the effects of feeding condition on their expression levels were examined subsequently. RNA interference (RNAi) was applied to further explore their function on the growth of B. dorsalis. The results showed that all the BdTrys in starving midgut expressed at a minimal level but up-regulated upon feeding (except BdTry3). Besides, RNAi by feeding dsRNAs to larvae proved to be an effective method to cause gene silencing and the mixed dsRNAs of the five BdTrys slowed larvae growth of B. dorsalis. The current data suggest that trypsin genes are actively involved in digestion process of B. dorsalis larvae and thereafter play crucial roles in their development.

  11. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  12. Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field.

  13. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  14. Responses of multiple species of Tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Braconidae:Opiinae) to sympatric and exotic and fruit volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Opiine braconid parasitoids of tephritid pests have augmentative biological control potential, but there are no synthetic attractants to monitor their survival and dispersal following release. Adults feed on fruit juices and these could be sources of attractive compounds. While orange juice (Citrus ...

  15. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  16. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  17. Effects of a fruit and host-derived compound on orientation and oviposition in Utetes anastrephae, a little studied opiine braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoid of Anastrepha spp. fruit flies (Tephritidae:Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentative biological control of tephritid fruit flies would benefit from: 1) synthetic attractants to monitor the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids and 2) synthetic oviposition stimulants to more economical to produce parasitoid species that are now prohibitively costly to mass-rear....

  18. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific variation within Anastre...

  19. Phylogeography of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, inferred with mtDNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the West Indian fruit fly, is a frugivorous pest that occasionally finds its way to commercial growing areas outside its native distribution. It inhabits areas in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean, with occasional infestations...

  20. Virulence of selected entomopathogenic fungi against the olive fruit fly and their potential for biocontrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most serious pest of cultivated olives worldwide. Its recent invasion into North America, specifically California, has initiated renewed interest in management strategies for this pest. Research into classical biological control ha...

  1. Commercial yellow sticky strips more attractive than yellow boards to western cherry fruit fly (Dipt., Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Thin rectangular sheets of yellow plastic allow higher light passage than yellow boards and may b...

  2. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Leblanc, Luc; Harris, Ernest J.; Manoukis, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri); similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway) were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa). Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more recent successes against Bactrocera spp. and related tephritids, and outline simple rearing and release methods to facilitate this goal. PMID:26466626

  3. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against sp...

  4. Genetic identification of an unknown Rhagoletis fruit fly infesting Chinese crabapple (Malus spectabilis): implications for apple pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious introduced quarantine pest in the apple-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. In August 2011, seven fly larvae of unknown origin were discovered infesting fruit of an exotic Chinese crabapple, Malus s...

  5. Insecticidal activity of a Moroccan strain of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes LD-37 on larvae, pupae and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Samri, S E; Baz, M; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Zitouni, A; El Meziane, A; Barakate, M

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is considered the most important fruit pest worldwide. Its management is mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides. Although these conventional pesticides are effective at high doses, they cause considerable human health and environment problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess insecticidal activity of Moroccan actinobacteria against C. capitata. A total of 12 preselected actinobacteria isolated from various Moroccan habitats were screened for their insecticidal activity against larvae, pupae and adults of C. capitata. Four actinobacteria isolates were significantly active against the first-instar larvae, and nine were active against the medfly adult, while no significant mortality was obtained against the third-instar larval and pupal stages. Among the selected isolates, the biological screening revealed that strain Streptomyces LD-37, which showed 99.4% similarity with Streptomyces phaeochromogenes, exhibited the maximal corrected larval mortality of 98%. Moreover, the isolates AS1 and LD-37 showed the maximum significant corrected mortality against adults of 32.5 and 28.2%, respectively. The crude extract obtained from a fermented culture of strain S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 was separated into six fractions by thin layer chromatography. Fractions F3 and F4 caused a significant corrected larval mortality of 66.7 and 53.3%, respectively; whereas the maximum reduction in adult emergence was obtained with fraction F4. This finding could be useful for utilizing S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 as an alternative to chemical insecticides in pest management of C. capitata.

  6. Male-specific Y-linked transgene markers to enhance biologically-based control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reliable marking systems are critical to the prospective field release of transgenic insect strains. This is to unambiguously distinguish released insects from wild insects in the field that are collected in field traps, and tissue-specific markers, such as those that are sperm-specific, have particular uses such as identifying wild females that have mated with released males. For tephritid fruit flies such as the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, polyubiquitin-regulated fluorescent protein body markers allow transgenic fly identification, and fluorescent protein genes regulated by the spermatocyte-specific β2-tubulin promoter effectively mark sperm. For sterile male release programs, both marking systems can be made male-specific by linkage to the Y chromosome. Results An A. ludens wild type strain was genetically transformed with a piggyBac vector, pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3}, having the polyubiquitin-regulated EGFP body marker, and the β2-tubulin-regulated DsRed.T3 sperm-specific marker. Autosomal insertion lines effectively expressed both markers, but a single Y-linked insertion (YEGFP strain) expressed only PUbnlsEGFP. This insertion was remobilized by transposase helper injection, which resulted in three new autosomal insertion lines that expressed both markers. This indicated that the original Y-linked Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3 marker was functional, but specifically suppressed on the Y chromosome. The PUbnlsEGFP marker remained effective however, and the YEGFP strain was used to create a sexing strain by translocating the wild type allele of the black pupae (bp+) gene onto the Y, which was then introduced into the bp- mutant strain. This allows the mechanical separation of mutant female black pupae from male brown pupae, that can be identified as adults by EGFP fluorescence. Conclusions A Y-linked insertion of the pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3} transformation vector in A. ludens resulted in male-specific expression of the EGFP

  7. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes. PMID:25471105

  8. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes.

  9. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  10. Fitness Cost Implications of PhiC31-Mediated Site-Specific Integrations in Target-Site Strains of the Mexican Fruit Fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Meza, José S.; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R.; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Handler, Alfred M.; Schetelig, Marc F.

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understanding the fitness cost implications of these manipulations for transgenic strain applications is critical. In this study independent piggyBac-mediated attP target-sites marked with DsRed were created in several genomic positions in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. Two of these strains, one having an autosomal (attP_F7) and the other a Y-linked (attP_2-M6y) integration, exhibited fitness parameters (dynamic demography and sexual competitiveness) similar to wild type flies. These strains were thus selected for targeted insertion using, for the first time in mexfly, the phiC31-integrase recombination system to insert an additional EGFP-marked transgene to determine its effect on host strain fitness. Fitness tests showed that the integration event in the int_2-M6y recombinant strain had no significant effect, while the int_F7 recombinant strain exhibited significantly lower fitness relative to the original attP_F7 target-site host strain. These results indicate that while targeted transgene integrations can be achieved without an additional fitness cost, at some genomic positions insertion of additional DNA into a previously integrated transgene can have a significant negative effect. Thus, for targeted transgene insertions fitness costs must be evaluated both previous to and subsequent to new site-specific insertions in the target-site strain. PMID:25303238

  11. Fitness cost implications of PhiC31-mediated site-specific integrations in target-site strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Meza, José S; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Handler, Alfred M; Schetelig, Marc F

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understanding the fitness cost implications of these manipulations for transgenic strain applications is critical. In this study independent piggyBac-mediated attP target-sites marked with DsRed were created in several genomic positions in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. Two of these strains, one having an autosomal (attP_F7) and the other a Y-linked (attP_2-M6y) integration, exhibited fitness parameters (dynamic demography and sexual competitiveness) similar to wild type flies. These strains were thus selected for targeted insertion using, for the first time in mexfly, the phiC31-integrase recombination system to insert an additional EGFP-marked transgene to determine its effect on host strain fitness. Fitness tests showed that the integration event in the int_2-M6y recombinant strain had no significant effect, while the int_F7 recombinant strain exhibited significantly lower fitness relative to the original attP_F7 target-site host strain. These results indicate that while targeted transgene integrations can be achieved without an additional fitness cost, at some genomic positions insertion of additional DNA into a previously integrated transgene can have a significant negative effect. Thus, for targeted transgene insertions fitness costs must be evaluated both previous to and subsequent to new site-specific insertions in the target-site strain.

  12. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  13. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  14. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and mRNA Expression of a Chitin Synthase 2 Gene from the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Yang, Wen-Jia; Cong, Lin; Xu, Kang-Kang; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis. PMID:23965972

  15. Genetic analysis of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations based on mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 gene sequences from India and other Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Lemtur, Moanaro

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the genetic diversity and demographic history of Bactrocera dorsalis, a destructive and polyphagous insect pest of fruit crops in diverse geographic regions of India. 19 widely dispersed populations of the fly from India and other Asian countries were analysed using partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) genes to investigate genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history in the region. Genetic diversity indices [number of haplotypes (H), haloptype diversity (Hd), nucleotide diversity (π) and average number of nucleotide difference (k)] of populations revealed that B. dorsalis maintains fairly high level of genetic diversity without isolation by distance among the geographic regions. Demographic analysis showed significant (negative) Tajimas' D and Fu's F S with non significant sum of squared deviations (SSD) values, which indicate the possibility of recent sudden expansion of species and is further supported through distinctively star-like distribution structure of haplotypes among populations. Thus, the results indicate that both ongoing and historical factors have played important role in determining the genetic structure and diversity of the species in India. Consequently, sterile insect technique (SIT) could be a possible management strategy of species in the regions.

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization and mRNA expression of a chitin synthase 2 gene from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Yang, Wen-Jia; Cong, Lin; Xu, Kang-Kang; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-08-19

    Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis.

  17. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  18. Effect of larval host food substrate on egg load dynamics, egg size and adult female size in four species of braconid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Lizette; Sivinski, John; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Life history theory predicts that individuals will allocate resources to different traits so as to maximize overall fitness. Because conditions experienced during early development can have strong downstream effects on adult phenotype and fitness, we investigated how four species of synovigenic, larval-pupal parasitoids that vary sharply in their degree of specialization (niche breadth) and life history (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Opius hirtus and Utetes anastrephae), allocate resources acquired during the larval stage towards adult reproduction. Parasitoid larvae developed in a single host species reared on four different substrates that differed in quality. We measured parasitoid egg load at the moment of emergence and at 24 h, egg numbers over time, egg size, and also adult size. We predicted that across species the most specialized would have a lower capacity to respond to changes in host substrate quality than wasps with a broad host range, and that within species, females that emerged from hosts that developed in better quality substrates would have the most resources to invest in reproduction. Consistent with our predictions, the more specialized parasitoids were less plastic in some responses to host diet than the more generalist. However, patterns of egg load and size were variable across species. In general, there was a remarkable degree of reproductive effort-allocation constancy within parasitoid species. This may reflect more "time-limited" rather than "egg-limited" foraging strategies where the most expensive component of reproductive success is to locate and handle patchily-distributed and fruit-sequestered hosts. If so, egg costs, independent of degree of specialization, are relatively trivial and sufficient resources are available in fly larvae stemming from all of the substrates tested.

  19. Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2015-08-25

    The Korean crane fly species of the genus Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is taxonomically revised. H. gloriosus gloriosus (Alexander, 1924) is redescribed. A new species Heterangaeus koreanus n. sp., which is the first species of Pediciidae from South Korea, is described and illustrated.

  20. Comparative analysis of development and survival of two Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations from Kenya and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tanga, Chrysantus M.; Manrakhan, Aruna; Daneel, John-Henry; Mohamed, Samira A.; Fathiya, Khamis; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparative analysis of development and survivorship of two geographically divergent populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch designated as Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya and South Africa were studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 °C). Temperature range for development and survival of both populations was 15–35 °C. The developmental duration was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature for Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries. Survivorship of all the immature stages of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya was highest over the range of 20–30 °C (87–95%) and lowest at 15 and 35 °C (61–76%). Survivorship of larvae of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from South Africa was lowest at 35 °C (22%) and 33 °C (0.33%), respectively. Results from temperature summation models showed that Ceratitis rosa R2 (egg, larva and pupa) from both countries were better adapted to low temperatures than R1, based on lower developmental threshold. Minimum larval temperature threshold for Kenyan populations were 11.27 °C and 6.34 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) compared to 8.99 °C and 7.74 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) for the South African populations. Total degree-day (DD) accumulation for the Kenyan populations were estimated at 302.75 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 413.53 (Ceratitis rosa R2) compared to 287.35 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 344.3 (Ceratitis rosa R2) for the South African populations. These results demonstrate that Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries were physiologically distinct in their response to different temperature regimes and support the existence of two genetically distinct populations of Ceratitis rosa. It also suggests the need for taxonomic revision of Ceratitis rosa, however, additional information on morphological characterization of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 is needed. PMID:26798273

  1. Comparative analysis of development and survival of two Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations from Kenya and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tanga, Chrysantus M; Manrakhan, Aruna; Daneel, John-Henry; Mohamed, Samira A; Fathiya, Khamis; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analysis of development and survivorship of two geographically divergent populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch designated as Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya and South Africa were studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 °C). Temperature range for development and survival of both populations was 15-35 °C. The developmental duration was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature for Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries. Survivorship of all the immature stages of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya was highest over the range of 20-30 °C (87-95%) and lowest at 15 and 35 °C (61-76%). Survivorship of larvae of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from South Africa was lowest at 35 °C (22%) and 33 °C (0.33%), respectively. Results from temperature summation models showed that Ceratitis rosa R2 (egg, larva and pupa) from both countries were better adapted to low temperatures than R1, based on lower developmental threshold. Minimum larval temperature threshold for Kenyan populations were 11.27 °C and 6.34 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) compared to 8.99 °C and 7.74 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) for the South African populations. Total degree-day (DD) accumulation for the Kenyan populations were estimated at 302.75 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 413.53 (Ceratitis rosa R2) compared to 287.35 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 344.3 (Ceratitis rosa R2) for the South African populations. These results demonstrate that Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries were physiologically distinct in their response to different temperature regimes and support the existence of two genetically distinct populations of Ceratitis rosa. It also suggests the need for taxonomic revision of Ceratitis rosa, however, additional information on morphological characterization of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 is needed.

  2. Male and female condition influence mating performance and sexual receptivity in two tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with contrasting life histories.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Rull, J; Sivinski, J; Trujillo, G; Pérez-Staples, D

    2009-12-01

    Recent recognition of widespread polyandry in insects has generated considerable interest in understanding why females mate multiple times and in identifying factors that affect mating rate and inhibit female remating. However, little attention has been paid to understanding the question from both a female and male perspective, particularly with respect to factors that may simultaneously influence female remating rates. Here, we report on a study aimed at ascertaining the possible interactive effects that male and female size and diet, and female access to a host could have on mating latency, probability, and duration and female refractory period using two tropical fruit fly species with contrasting life histories. Of all factors tested, adult diet played the most significant role. Both Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua males which had constant access to protein and sucrose mated more often, had shorter copulations and induced longer refractory periods in females than males fed a low quality diet (sucrose offered every third day). Female size and the interaction with male diet determined how quickly female A. ludens mated for the first time. Smaller females mated sooner with low quality fed males than with high quality fed males while there was no difference for large females, suggesting that male choice may be at play if high quality fed males discriminate against smaller females. Copulation duration also depended on both male and female nutritional condition, and the interaction between male diet and female size and diet. Large and high quality fed females had shorter copulations regardless of male condition. Importantly, for A. ludens, female refractory period depended on male size and the nutritional condition of both males and females, which could indicate that for this species, female receptivity does not depend only on the condition of the male ejaculate. For A. obliqua refractory period was associated with the interaction between male size and diet

  3. Area-wide suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Kamuela, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Mau, Ronald F L; Jang, Eric B; Klungness, Lester M; McInnis, Donald O; Harris, Ernest B; McQuate, Grant T; Bautista, Renato C; Wong, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated an area-wide fruit fly management program in Hawaii in 2000. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. This paper documents suppression of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a 40 km2 area containing urban, rural and agricultural zones during a 6 year period. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. In addition, small numbers of sterile males were released against B. dorsalis. Substantial reductions in fruit infestation levels were achieved for both species (90.7 and 60.7% for C. capitata and B. dorsalis, respectively) throughout the treatment period. Fruit fly captures in the 40 km2 treatment area were significantly lower during the 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated areas. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed.

  4. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Cancino, Jorge; Ruiz, Lía

    2012-09-20

    The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies.

  5. Packing of Fruit Fly Parasitoids for Augmentative Releases

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo; Cancino, Jorge; Ruiz, Lía

    2012-01-01

    The successful application of Augmentative Biological Control (ABC) to control pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) confronts two fundamental requirements: (1) the establishment of efficient mass rearing procedures for the species to be released, and (2) the development of methodologies for the packing and release of parasitoids that permit a uniform distribution and their optimal field performance under an area-wide approach. Parasitoid distributions have been performed by ground and by air with moderate results; both options face challenges that remain to be addressed. Different devices and strategies have been used for these purposes, including paper bags and the chilled adult technique, both of which are commonly used when releasing sterile flies. However, insect parasitoids have morphological and behavioral characteristics that render the application of such methodologies suboptimal. In this paper, we discuss an alternate strategy for the augmentative release of parasitoids and describe packing conditions that favor the rearing and emergence of adult parasitoids for increased field performance. We conclude that the use of ABC, including the packaging of parasitoids, requires ongoing development to ensure that this technology remains a viable and effective control technique for pest fruit flies. PMID:26466634

  6. Tephritid fruit fly transgenesis and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...

  7. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue.

  8. Improvement of mass-rearing procedures for an olive fruit fly parasitoid – duration of exposure to hosts affects production of Psyttalia lounsburyi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe economic damage in California. Control of this fly is currently limited to pesticides. The USDA-ARS European Biological Control Laboratory in Montpellier, France established a classical biological control program nearly 15 y...

  9. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    PubMed

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  10. Interaction between visual and olfactory cues during host finding in the tomato fruit fly Neoceratitis cyanescens.

    PubMed

    Brévault, Thierry; Quilici, Serge

    2010-03-01

    Herbivorous insects searching for a host plant need to integrate a sequence of multimodal sensory inputs. We conducted a series of no-choice experiments in a laboratory wind tunnel to examine the behavioral response of the specialist fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens (Diptera: Tephritidae), to host visual and olfactory stimuli presented singly or in combination (e.g., colored fruit model with or without host fruit odor). We also studied the influence of wind flow, age, and sex on the response of flies. In two-choice experiments, we evaluated the ability of mature females to discriminate between two fruit models emitting host vs. non-host fruit odor or clean air. Neoceratitis cyanescens mature females can use independently or interactively olfactory and visual stimuli to locate their host, whereas immature females and males respond primarily to host fruit odor. In the absence of wind, mature females mainly use visual information to locate the host fruit. In wind, host fruit odor significantly increases the probability and speed of locating the host fruit. In a two-choice situation between two bright orange spheres, flies accurately detected the sphere emitting host fruit odor vs. non-host fruit odor or odorless air. Nevertheless, they preferred to land on the bright orange sphere when the sphere emitting host fruit odor was blue. Furthermore, when odor source and fruit model were spatially decoupled (90 or 180 degrees ), >50% flies that landed on the fruit model initially performed an oriented flight toward the odor source, then turned back to the fruit model while in flight or after one landing, thus suggesting visual information to be the ultimate indicator of host fruit.

  11. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Claudia; Grunder, Jürg

    2012-10-16

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  12. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Grunder, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities. PMID:26466721

  13. Indigenous and Invasive Fruit Fly Diversity along an Altitudinal Transect in Eastern Central Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Katrien; Mwatawala, Maulid; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The relative abundance of indigenous and invasive frugivorous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) was evaluated spatially and temporally along an altitudinal transect between 581–1650 m in the Uluguru Mountains near Morogoro, Tanzania. The polyphagous invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and the indigenous fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch show a similar temporal pattern, but are largely separated spatially, with B. invadens being abundant at lower elevation and C. rosa predominant at higher elevation. The polyphagous indigenous C. cosyra (Walker) coincides with B. invadens but shows an inverse temporal pattern. The cucurbit feeders B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus bivittatus (Bigot) show a similar temporal pattern, but the former is restricted to lower elevations. Host availability and climatic differences seem to be the determining factors to explain the differences in occurrence and abundance in time and space. PMID:22935017

  14. Distribution and abundance of Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Changbunjong, Tanasak; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Maneeon, Pattarapon; Ganpanakngan, Manoch; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Sriwichai, Patchara; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn

    2012-11-01

    Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) include species of parasitic flies of medical and veterinary importance. The adult flies feed on the blood of mammals and may transmit several parasites and pathogens. We conducted an entomological survey of Stomoxyini flies from different sites in Thailand. Stomoxyini flies were collected at four major types of sites: zoos, livestock farms, wildlife conservation areas and a national park using vavoua traps between November 2010 and April 2011. A total of 3,314 Stomoxyini flies belonging to the genera Stomoxys, Haematobosca, Haematostoma and Haematobia were collected. Eight species were identified: S. calcitrans (46.6%), S. uruma (26.8%), S. pulla (4.3%), S. indicus (0.7%), S. sitiens (0.1%), H. sanguinolenta (11.2 %), H. austeni (0.5%) and H. irritans exigua (9.8%). The diversity of Stomoxyini flies in the livestock farms was higher than the other sites. Altitude correlated with the number of flies. This study provides information that may be useful for Stomoxyini flies control.

  15. Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Emilio; Giorgini, Massimo; Cascone, Pasquale; Carpenito, Simona; van Achterberg, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to D. suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for D. suzukii, biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of D. suzukii to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus Asobara Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of Asobara, of which two associated with D. suzukii, namely A. japonica and A leveri, and five new to science, namely Asobara brevicauda, A. elongata, A mesocauda, A unicolorata, A. triangulata. Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by D. suzukii. PMID:26840953

  16. A new blend of white sapote fruit volatiles as potential attractant to Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    González, Ricardo; Toledo, Jorge; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Virgen, Armando; Santiesteban, Antonio; Malo, Edi A

    2006-12-01

    The behavioral and electrophysiological responses of nonirradiated male and female Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Oerst. (Rutaceae), volatiles were investigated. Females flew upwind and landed more often on fruit than on artificial fruit in wind tunnel bioassays. Males flew upwind (but not landed) more frequently on fruit than on artificial fruit. Porapak Q volatile extracts of white sapote also elicited upwind flight and landing on artificial fruit for both sexes. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of white sapote extracts revealed that antennae of both sexes responded to eight compounds. Two peaks were unidentified because they did not separate from the solvent. Subsequent peaks were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as styrene, myrcene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool in a proportion of 50: 21: 0.5: 27: 1.5, respectively. Eight peaks were tentatively identified as beta-trans-ocimene. The number of A. ludens captured in multilure traps baited with the synthetic white sapote blend was higher than the flies captured by the multilure unbaited traps (control) in field cages. However, the number of flies captured by traps baited with the white sapote blend was not different from that of flies captured by traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Using standard chemical ecology techniques, we found potential attractants from wild sapote fruit for monitoring and management of A. ludens population.

  17. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    PubMed

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs.

  18. Multiplex PCR in Determination of Opiinae Parasitoids of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera sp., Infesting Star Fruit and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. PMID

  19. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  20. Evolution: Fruit Fly Clocks on the Edge.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2017-03-20

    Fruit flies evolved in tropical regions under stable light-dark cycles. However, their photosensitive circadian clock had to adapt to extreme seasonal photoperiods during their colonisation of temperate regions. This was achieved by changing the neuronal expression of two key clock-related components.

  1. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  2. Improve California trap programs for detection of fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are >160,000 federal and state fruit fly detection traps deployed in southern and western U.S. States and Puerto Rico. In California alone, >100,000 traps are deployed and maintained just for exotic fruit flies detection. Fruit fly detection and eradication requires deployment of large numbers...

  3. Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), Infestation in Host Fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan Before the Initiation of Island-wide Population Suppression, as Recorded in Publications of Japanese Public Institutions

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Teruya, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here. Bactrocera cucurbitae infestation was documented in 24 plant taxa of four plant families (Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, and Solanaceae), with the following four new hosts identified: Ficus erecta Thunb., F. pumila L. (Moraceae), Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae), and Zehneria liukiuensis Jeffrey ex Walker (Cucurbitaceae). PMID:26816487

  4. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their associations with native host plants in a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uramoto, K; Martins, D S; Zucchi, R A

    2008-10-01

    The results presented in this paper refer to a host survey, lasting approximately three and a half years (February 2003-July 2006), undertaken in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, a remnant area of the highly endangered Atlantic Rain Forest located in Linhares County, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A total of 330 fruit samples were collected from native plants, representing 248 species and 51 plant families. Myrtaceae was the most diverse family with 54 sampled species. Twenty-eight plant species, from ten families, are hosts of ten Anastrepha species and of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Among 33 associations between host plants and fruit flies, 20 constitute new records, including the records of host plants for A. fumipennis Lima and A. nascimentoi Zucchi. The findings were discussed in the light of their implications for rain forest conservation efforts and the study of evolutionary relationships between fruit flies and their hosts.

  5. Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), Infestation in Host Fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan Before the Initiation of Island-wide Population Suppression, as Recorded in Publications of Japanese Public Institutions.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Teruya, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern Islands of Japan. It was subsequently eradicated from these islands by an eradication program that extended from 1972 to 1993. As part of an effort to develop a worldwide database on the status of fruits as hosts of melon fly, the infestation data gathered from host fruits collected in this eradication program, before the initiation of suppression activities, are summarized here. Bactrocera cucurbitae infestation was documented in 24 plant taxa of four plant families (Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, and Solanaceae), with the following four new hosts identified: Ficus erecta Thunb., F. pumila L. (Moraceae), Solanum erianthum D. Don (Solanaceae), and Zehneria liukiuensis Jeffrey ex Walker (Cucurbitaceae).

  6. Field captures of wild melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) with an improved male attractant, raspberry ketone formate.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; Casana-Giner, Victor; Oliver, James E

    2007-08-01

    Field-trapping evaluations of the new male attractant, formic acid 4-(3-oxobutyl) phenyl ester (raspberry ketone formate [RKF]) were conducted in Hawaii with wild populations of melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine its activity in the field and to evaluate new plastic matrix formulations. All tests were compared with the standard melon fly attractant 4-(4-acetoxyphenyl) -2-butanone (cuelure [CL]), which is the attractant of choice for detection programs aimed at melon fly and other cuelure-responding Bactrocera fruit flies. Results of these tests over a range of doses on cotton wicks showed that at a 1-g dose raspberry ketone formate was 1.5-2 times more attractive compared with cuelure for up to 11 wk in the field. Lower doses applied on cotton wicks were less active, presumably due to hydrolysis of RKF to raspberry ketone. Raspberry ketone formate embedded in a plastic plug formulation also was field tested, and it was shown to be more attractive to male melon fly compared with cuelure. The use of this new attractant in control and detection programs is discussed.

  7. New genera of Australian stiletto flies (Diptera, Therevidae)

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael E.; Winterton, Shaun L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new stiletto fly genera of Agapophytinae (Diptera: Therevidae) are described from Australia. Sidarena gen. n. comprises six new species (Sidarena aurantia sp. n., Sidarena flavipalpa sp. n., Sidarena geraldton sp. n., Sidarena hortorum sp. n., Sidarena macfarlandi sp. n., and Sidarena yallingup sp. n.) and is largely endemic to Western Australia. Zelothrix gen. n. is described based on two species; Zelothrix warrumbungles sp. n. is a locally abundant species in Eastern Australia, while Zelothrix yeatesi sp. n. is restricted to southwestern Western Australia. These sister genera are likely closely related to Taenogerella Winterton & Irwin and Actenomeros Winterton & Irwin. PMID:27853402

  8. Fruit Flies in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Wangler, Michael F.; Yamamoto, Shinya; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Many scientists complain that the current funding situation is dire. Indeed, there has been an overall decline in support in funding for research from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. Within the Drosophila field, some of us question how long this funding crunch will last as it demotivates principal investigators and perhaps more importantly affects the long-term career choice of many young scientists. Yet numerous very interesting biological processes and avenues remain to be investigated in Drosophila, and probing questions can be answered fast and efficiently in flies to reveal new biological phenomena. Moreover, Drosophila is an excellent model organism for studies that have translational impact for genetic disease and for other medical implications such as vector-borne illnesses. We would like to promote a better collaboration between Drosophila geneticists/biologists and human geneticists/bioinformaticians/clinicians, as it would benefit both fields and significantly impact the research on human diseases. PMID:25624315

  9. The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, M.K.; Singh, Ram; Naresh, J.S.; Sharma, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is distributed widely in temperate, tropical, and sub-tropical regions of the world. It has been reported to damage 81 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), snap melon (C. melo var. momordica), and snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). The extent of losses vary between 30 to 100%, depending on the cucurbit species and the season. Its abundance increases when the temperatures fall below 32° C, and the relative humidity ranges between 60 to 70%. It prefers to infest young, green, soft-skinned fruits. It inserts the eggs 2 to 4 mm deep in the fruit tissues, and the maggots feed inside the fruit. Pupation occurs in the soil at 0.5 to 15 cm below the soil surface. Keeping in view the importance of the pest and crop, melon fruit fly management could be done using local area management and wide area management. The melon fruit fly can successfully be managed over a local area by bagging fruits, field sanitation, protein baits, cue-lure traps, growing fruit fly-resistant genotypes, augmentation of biocontrol agents, and soft insecticides. The wide area management program involves the coordination of different characteristics of an insect eradication program (including local area options) over an entire area within a defensible perimeter, and subsequently protected against reinvasion by quarantine controls. Although, the sterile insect technique has been successfully used in wide area approaches, this approach needs to use more sophisticated and powerful technologies in eradication programs such as insect transgenesis and geographical information systems, which could be deployed over a wide area. Various other options for the management of fruit fly are also discussed in relation to their bio-efficacy and economics for effective management of this pest. PMID:17119622

  10. Relationships between parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae), fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants based on 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, and ND1 gene sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Yaakop, S.

    2013-11-01

    Opiinae is among the l0 largest subfamilies under the family Braconidae. Opiines species have great potential as natural enemies against fruit fly pests. Before using them as a biological control agent, construction of the phylogenetic trees could facilitate in the molecular identification of individual species and their relationships among members of the Opiines, as well as between Opiines and their host plants. Larval specimens of tephritids were collected from four crop species at five localities throughout the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 44 specimens of opiines had successfully emerged from the hosts, fruit fly larvae. The DNA sequences of 12S and 16S rRNA were obtained for the braconids while the mitochondrial ND1 sequences were obtained for the tephritids species through polymerase chain reaction. Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian trees were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 and MrBayes 3.1.2 to identify the relationships among the taxa. This study illustrates the phylogenetic relationships among parasitoid opiines collected and reared from parasitized fruit flies. The phylogenetic trees constructed based on the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA sequences exhibited similar topology and sequence divergence. The opiines were divided into several clades and subclades according to the genus and species. Each clade also was supported by the similar host plants with high support values. However, their pests were not specific, except for Bactrocera cucurbitae. This study has reconfirmed the associations between Opiinae, tephritids, and host plants based on molecular data.

  11. The mitochondrial genome of Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich (Diptera: Tachinidae) and the evolutionary timescale of Tachinid flies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhe; Su, Tian-Juan; Chesters, Douglas; Wang, Shi-di; Ho, Simon Y W; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Chun-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae), which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene.

  12. The Mitochondrial Genome of Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich (Diptera: Tachinidae) and the Evolutionary Timescale of Tachinid Flies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhe; Su, Tian-juan; Chesters, Douglas; Wang, Shi-di; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Zhu, Chao-dong; Chen, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Chun-tian

    2013-01-01

    Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae), which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene. PMID:23626734

  13. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory. PMID:19182539

  14. New Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859 Crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) of North and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2015-02-27

    Two new species of Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859, crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae) from the Korean peninsula are described, illustrated and compared with already known and related species. An identification key and check-list of all Korean Dicranoptycha is presented.

  15. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  16. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    PubMed

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed.

  17. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.

  18. The fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) described by Theodor Becker from Iran and Western China revisited in the collections of the Zoological Institute, Saint-Petersburg and Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

    PubMed

    Korneyev, Severyn V; Korneyev, Valery A

    2017-01-31

    The type specimens of fruit flies described by Dr. Theodor Becker based on material collected in China (Xinjiang and Xizang) and Iran by Russian expeditions directed by Petr Kozlov and Mykola Zarudny are listed and figured. They are deposited in the collection of the Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg with some duplicates in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Current concepts of the species, their morphological characters (illustrated by photographs of type specimens), current condition, and nomenclature are discussed.

  19. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on the Fertility and Fecundity of Two Species of Fruit Flies and Horizontal Transmission of Mycotic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sookar, P.; Bhagwant, S.; Allymamod, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    In Mauritius, the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata Saunders (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are the major pest of fruits and vegetables, respectively. Fruit growers make use of broad-spectrum insecticides to protect their crops from fruit fly attack. This method of fruit fly control is hazardous to the environment and is a threat to beneficial insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which was isolated from the soils of Mauritius, was used to investigate whether fungus-treated adult fruit flies could transfer conidia to non-treated flies during mating, and whether fungal infection could have an effect on mating behavior, fecundity, and fertility of the two female fruit fly species. When treated male flies were maintained together with non-treated female flies, they were able to transmit infection to untreated females, resulting in high mortalities. Similarly, fungus-infected female flies mixed with untreated males also transmitted infections to males, also resulting in high mortalities. Infection by M. anisopliae also resulted in the reduction of the number of eggs produced by females of B. cucurbitae. The results suggest that M. anisopliae may have potential for use in integrated control programs of B. zonata and B. cucurbitae using the sterile insect technique in Mauritius. PMID:25201230

  20. Observations on Hilltopping in Thick-Headed Flies (Diptera: Conopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Maurizio; Gibson, Joel F.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observations of hilltopping behaviour in the thick-headed flies (Diptera: Conopidae) have only been mentioned once in the literature. Hilltop collecting, however, may be an effective way to survey these endparasitoids. The first evidence of hilltopping in species belonging to the subfamilies Myopinae and Dalmanniinae is presented and discussed. Field observations were conducted on Colle Vescovo, Italy and Mount Rigaud, Canada, and museum specimens were examined. Observations and records indicate that four species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, and Zodion are hilltoppers on Colle Vescovo, while three species in the genera Myopa and Physocephala are hilltoppers on three hilltops near Ottawa, Canada. Fifteen additional species of conopids have been collected on hilltops and could possibly utilize hilltops in some years as a part of their mating strategy. Detailed phenologies and observations of mating and perching behaviours are given for species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, Physocephala, and Zodion. The importance of hilltop habitat preservation is stressed. PMID:20578949

  1. Limonia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija

    2017-02-09

    The Korean species of Limonia Meigen, 1803 crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) are taxonomically revised. Species L. annulata Lackschewitz, 1940 (Lackschewitz, Pagast, 1940), L. bidens Savchenko, 1979, L. episema Alexander, 1924, L. fusciceps fusciceps Alexander, 1924, L. juvenca Alexander, 1935, L. messaurea messaurea Mendl, 1971, L. nemoralis Savchenko, 1983 are new records for the Korean peninsula and L. pia n. sp. is described. Synonymy of L. venerabilis Alexander, 1938 with L. macrostigma (Schummel, 1829) is confirmed. L. tanakai (Alexander, 1921) is not confirmed for the Korean Peninsula. An identification key, redescriptions and illustrations of all species and both sexes of adults, if they were found in Korea, are presented. Descriptions, illustrations and habitat characteristics are given for the previously unknown larva and pupa of L. parvipennis Alexander, 1940. Distinguishing morphological characters of the last instar larvae of Korean Limonia are discussed. Keys to the known Korean Limonia larvae and pupae are compiled.

  2. DNA Barcodes for the Northern European Tachinid Flies (Diptera: Tachinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Mutanen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    This data release provides COI barcodes for 366 species of parasitic flies (Diptera: Tachinidae), enabling the DNA based identification of the majority of northern European species and a large proportion of Palearctic genera, regardless of the developmental stage. The data will provide a tool for taxonomists and ecologists studying this ecologically important but challenging parasitoid family. A comparison of minimum distances between the nearest neighbors revealed the mean divergence of 5.52% that is approximately the same as observed earlier with comparable sampling in Lepidoptera, but clearly less than in Coleoptera. Full barcode-sharing was observed between 13 species pairs or triplets, equaling to 7.36% of all species. Delimitation based on Barcode Index Number (BIN) system was compared with traditional classification of species and interesting cases of possible species oversplits and cryptic diversity are discussed. Overall, DNA barcodes are effective in separating tachinid species and provide novel insight into the taxonomy of several genera. PMID:27814365

  3. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly. PMID:22754363

  4. Cellular Potts Models of Fruit Fly Embryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohner, Jason; Hutson, Shane

    2006-11-01

    Biologists have extensively studied embryonic development in the fruit fly (Drosophila melangaster) as a model for morphogenesis. Our overall goal is to understand how the cellular rearrangements of morphogenesis are caused by the underlying forces between cells. To that end, we are developing means to replicate fruit fly embryogenesis (from cellular differentiation to dorsal closure) using cellular Potts models. Cells are described as collections of like ``spins''; and spin-spin interaction energies are used to describe the forces along cell boundaries. Using a four state (spin-type) model (three tissue types and the surrounding media) we have reproduced cell sorting as well as engulfment of a surface grouping of tissue. Cell sorting can be accomplished using only the spin-spin interaction energies with the volume components being used only for cell size management. We are currently attempting to replicate the experimentally determined geometry and dynamics of dorsal closure. This modeling will take advantage of software tools developed at Notre Dame for looking at cellular Potts models and packaged as CompuCell3D.

  5. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  6. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  7. Distribution of olive fruit fly in California based on fruit infestations since the 1998 invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was first discovered in Los Angeles, California in 1998. Eradication and containment programs were immediately initiated, but within four years the olive pest was detected throughout the state. Olive fruit fly is not tolerated in canned fruit, and the insec...

  8. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... from the State of Michoacan, Mexico, requirements for treatment or origin from an area free of Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados imported from Peru, and requirements for trapping or origin from an..., Mexico, the treatment requirements and origin restrictions for Mediterranean fruit fly for imported...

  9. A Fruitful Endeavor: Modeling ALS in the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2014-01-01

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585

  10. Attractant for vinegar fly, Drosophila busckii, and cluster fly, Pollenia rudis (Diptera: Drosophilidae et Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Buda, Vincas; Radziute, Sandra; Lutovinovas, Erikas

    2009-01-01

    A field test carried out in an industrial greenhouse in Lithuania revealed the attractiveness of synthetic methyl salicylate (MeSa) to two dipteran species: the vinegar fly, Drosophila busckii (Drosophilidae), and the cluster fly, Pollenia rudis (Calliphoridae). The attractant for the former fly species was especially effective, as sticky traps containing 0.25 ml of MeSa captured (814 +/- 55) D. busckii flies/trap on average compared to (12 +/- 4) flies/trap in control traps. The mean capture of P. rudis [(42 +/- 4) flies/trap] was significantly higher in MeSa-baited traps compared to the control traps [(13 +/- 4) flies/trap]. The presence of MeSa in emissions of many fruits suitable for D. busckii feeding allows to attribute this attractant to kairomones. In case of P. rudis, MeSa should be attributed to synomones (compounds beneficial for both receiver and sender), because adult flies feeding on flowers act as pollinators. This is the first report on the field-active attractant for D. busckii and the second for P. rudis.

  11. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Follett, Peter A.; Liquido, Nicanor J.; Sylva, Charmaine D.

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  12. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  13. Change of name for the Oriental robber fly Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae, Asilinae), nec Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Fisher, Eric

    2015-08-14

    A new name for the Oriental genus Nyssomyia Hull, 1962 (Diptera: Asilidae) is proposed. Homonymy exists between this Oriental robber fly genus and the more senior Neotropical phlebotomine sand fly genus Nyssomyia Barretto, 1962 (sensu Galati 2003) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and the following replacement name is proposed: Ekkentronomyia nom. nov. for Nyssomyia Hull (nec Barretto 1962). Accordingly, a new combination is herein proposed for the only species currently included in this genus: Ekkentronomyia ochracea (Hull, 1962) comb. nov.

  14. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  15. Differences in Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Flies in Relation to Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Mohamed, Hend O.; Ali, Nashat A.

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit. PMID:25688086

  16. Vision-mediated exploitation of a novel host plant by a tephritid fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Vargas, Roger I

    2017-01-01

    Shortly after its introduction into the Hawaiian Islands around 1895, the polyphagous, invasive fruit fly Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was provided the opportunity to expand its host range to include a novel host, papaya (Carica papaya). It has been documented that female B. cucurbitae rely strongly on vision to locate host fruit. Given that the papaya fruit is visually conspicuous in the papaya agro-ecosystem, we hypothesized that female B. cucurbitae used vision as the main sensory modality to find and exploit the novel host fruit. Using a comparative approach that involved a series of studies under natural and semi-natural conditions in Hawaii, we assessed the ability of female B. cucurbitae to locate and oviposit in papaya fruit using the sensory modalities of olfaction and vision alone and also in combination. The results of these studies demonstrate that, under a variety of conditions, volatiles emitted by the novel host do not positively stimulate the behavior of the herbivore. Rather, vision seems to be the main mechanism driving the exploitation of the novel host. Volatiles emitted by the novel host papaya fruit did not contribute in any way to the visual response of females. Our findings highlight the remarkable role of vision in the host-location process of B. cucurbitae and provide empirical evidence for this sensory modality as a potential mechanism involved in host range expansion.

  17. Chromosomal duplications in bacteria, fruit flies, and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lupski, J.R.; Weinstock, G.M.; Roth, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Tandem duplication of chromosomal segments has been recognized as a frequent mutational mechanism in several genetic model systems. In bacteria, fruit flies, and humans, duplications form by similar molecular mechanisms and appear to be important in genome evolution. 80 refs.

  18. Global Establishment Risk of Economically Important Fruit Fly Species (Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yujia; Paini, Dean R.; Wang, Cong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The global invasion of Tephritidae (fruit flies) attracts a great deal of attention in the field of plant quarantine and invasion biology because of their economic importance. Predicting which one in hundreds of potential invasive fruit fly species is most likely to establish in a region presents a significant challenge, but can be facilitated using a self organising map (SOM), which is able to analyse species associations to rank large numbers of species simultaneously with an index of establishment. A global presence/absence dataset including 180 economically significant fruit fly species in 118 countries was analysed using a SOM. We compare and contrast ranked lists from six countries selected from each continent, and also show that those countries geographically close were clustered together by the SOM analysis because they have similar fruit fly assemblages. These closely clustered countries therefore represent greater threats to each other as sources of invasive fruit fly species. Finally, we indicate how this SOM method could be utilized as an initial screen to support prioritizing fruit fly species for further research into their potential to invade a region. PMID:25588025

  19. Global establishment risk of economically important fruit fly species (Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Qin, Yujia; Paini, Dean R; Wang, Cong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The global invasion of Tephritidae (fruit flies) attracts a great deal of attention in the field of plant quarantine and invasion biology because of their economic importance. Predicting which one in hundreds of potential invasive fruit fly species is most likely to establish in a region presents a significant challenge, but can be facilitated using a self organising map (SOM), which is able to analyse species associations to rank large numbers of species simultaneously with an index of establishment. A global presence/absence dataset including 180 economically significant fruit fly species in 118 countries was analysed using a SOM. We compare and contrast ranked lists from six countries selected from each continent, and also show that those countries geographically close were clustered together by the SOM analysis because they have similar fruit fly assemblages. These closely clustered countries therefore represent greater threats to each other as sources of invasive fruit fly species. Finally, we indicate how this SOM method could be utilized as an initial screen to support prioritizing fruit fly species for further research into their potential to invade a region.

  20. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  1. The Temporal Pattern of Mating Behavior of the Fruit Fly, Anastrepha zenildae in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Lucia M.; Araújo, Arrilton; Mendes, Norma H.D.; de Souza, João M.G.A.; Menezes, Alexandre A.L.

    2011-01-01

    The state of Rio Grande do Norte is an important fruit-producing and exporting area in northeastern Brazil. The success of this industry depends on fruit fly population control, especially in fly-free exporting zones. However, many fruits are not exported because of quarantine restrictions imposed by importing countries. A survey in the state has detected a considerable increase of the fruit fly, Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi (Diptera: Tephritidae), probably a result of the introduction of irrigated guava orchards that make fruit available all year. Knowledge of the sexual behavior of Tephritidae has great importance to pest control programs, particularly those that employ the Sterile Insect Technique. In order to characterize the reproductive behavior of A. zenildae, 32 individuals (16 males; 16 females) in each of six generations were submitted to an artificial 12:12 L:D cycle (750: < 1 lux, lights on 07:00–19:00) and observed over their lifetimes. The courtship and copulation occurred in leks and the episodes varied with the time of day, courtship being most frequent between Zeitgeber time (ZT) 3 and ZT 7, peaking at ZT 5–6. Copulations occurred between ZT 2 and ZT 8, with a higher frequency between ZT 5–7 and a peak at ZT 6. Mean duration was 0.28 ± 0.03 min/male (range: 5–163 min). Males in the leks attempted to copulate mainly between ZT 3 and ZT 7 with a peak at ZT 6, and males outside leks peaked at ZT 7. The different timing of sexual behaviors among related sympatric species, including A. zenildae, may contribute to species isolation. PMID:22236152

  2. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  3. Pollinating flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...

  4. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26083385

  5. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  6. Classical Olfactory Conditioning in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning. PMID:25837420

  7. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia Li; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  8. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  9. Susceptibility of Olive Fruit in Relation to Olive Fruit Fly Development and Ovipositional Period in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), females oviposited their first and last eggs in olive fruit, Olea europaea L., when females were 6 and 90 d-old, respectively. The highest mean numbers of eggs per day in 10 olive fruit (55) were oviposited by 28 d-old females, and peak egg production occ...

  10. Intra- and interspecific competition and host race formation in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Feder, Jeffrey L; Reynolds, Katherine; Go, Wesley; Wang, Emma C

    1995-04-01

    Intra- and interspecific resource competition are potentially important factors affecting host plant use by phytophagous insects. In particular, escape from competitors could mediate a successful host shift by compensating for decreased feeding performance on a new plant. Here, we examine the question of host plant-dependent competition for apple (Malus pumila)- and hawthorn (Crataegus mollis)-infesting larvae of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) at a field site near Grant, Michigan, USA. Interspecific competition from tortricid (Cydia pomonella, Grapholita prunivora, and Grapholita packardi) and agonoxenid (subfamily Blastodacninae) caterpillars and a curculionid weevil (Conotrachelus crataegi) was much stronger for R. pomonella larvae infesting the ancestral host hawthorn than the derived host apple. Egg to pupal survivorship was estimated as 52.8% for fly larvae infesting hawthorn fruit without caterpillars and weevils compared to only 27.3% for larvae in harthorns with interspecific insects. Survivorship was essentially the same between fly larvae infesting apples in the presence (44.8%) or absence (42.6%) of interspecific insects. Intraspecific competition among maggots was also stronger in hawthorns than apples. The order or time that a larva exited a hawthorn fruit was a significant determinant of its pupal mass, with earlier emerging larvae being heavier than later emerging larvae. This was not the case for larvae in apples, as the order or time that a larva exited an apple fruit had relatively little influence on its pupal mass. Our findings suggest that decreased performance related to host plant chemistry/nutrition may restrict host range expansion and race formation in R. pomonella to those plants where biotic/ecological factors (i.e. escape from competitors and parasitoids) adequately balance the survivorship equation. This balance permits stable fly populations to persist on novel plants, setting the stage for the

  11. Ultrastructure of the Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Azza A.; Ali, Nashat A.; Mohamed, Hend O.

    2014-01-01

    Antennal morphology and funicular sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study focused on the sensillae found on the antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus that bears the arista) of B. zonata. Antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of the males. The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, were heavily covered with microtrichia and bear bristles. Numerous microtrichia as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic, clavate, and coeloconic sensillae were observed on the funiculus. SEM studies showed some differences in size and also in position of some sensillae on the antennae of the females of B. zonata. The sensillae found on the funiculus, such as trichoid and basiconic sensillae, were significantly larger in females. PMID:25373192

  12. A Modified Trap for Adult Sampling of Medically Important Flies (Insecta: Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rafinejad, Javad; Nozari, Jamasb; Rassi, Yavar; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bait-trapping appears to be a generally useful method of studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to construct a new adult flytrap by some modifications in former versions and to evaluate its applicability in a subtropical zone in southern Iran. Methods: The traps were constructed with modification by adding some equipment to a polyethylene container (18× 20× 33 cm) with lid. The fresh sheep meat was used as bait. Totally 27 adult modified traps were made and tested for their efficacies to attract adult flies. The experiment was carried out in a range of different topographic areas of Fars Province during June 2010. Results: The traps were able to attract various groups of adult flies belonging to families of: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Faniidae. The species of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) include the majority of the flies collected by this sheep-meat baited trap. Conclusion: This adult flytrap can be recommended for routine field sampling to study diversity and population dynamics of flies where conducting of daily collection is difficult. PMID:23378969

  13. Development and Oviposition Preference of House Flies and Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Six Substrates From Florida Equine Facilities.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J; Hogsette, J A; Leppla, N C

    2014-11-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine the success and duration of larval development and oviposition preferences on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. Substrates tested were hay soiled with urine and manure, fresh horse manure, pine shaving bedding soiled with urine and manure (<12 h old), pine shaving bedding soiled with urine and manure (aged >72 h in a manure pile), builders sand bedding soiled with urine and manure aged 3 d, and soil from an overgrazed pasture mixed with urine and manure of variable age. House fly larvae failed to develop into adults in hay, soil, and sand substrates. Stable flies preferred to oviposit on substrates with plant material and not on fresh manure. However, when eggs were added to the substrates, pupariation was maximal in fresh manure and the fresh pine shaving substrate. Stable flies developed in all six equine substrates, but development was less successful on the substrates with soil. In choice tests, fresh manure and the fresh pine shaving substrates were the most attractive for house fly oviposition. These substrates also yielded the greatest number of house fly puparia from artificially added eggs. An understanding of oviposition preferences and differential larval development of house flies and stable flies on these substrates may help develop options for reducing pest populations by effectively managing equine waste and selecting appropriate bedding materials.

  14. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. II. Assessment of the optimal temperature and the substrate for male-only production

    SciTech Connect

    Maman, E.; Caceres, C.

    2007-03-15

    The present study has been conducted to assess the effect and interaction of various storage substrates and conditions on eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Tests were carried out with the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 8/D53, a strain that carries a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that allows the selective killing of female zygotes. This study identifies strategies to enhance the storage and transport conditions through assessment of effect on egg, pupal and adult survival in order to facilitate the establishment of satellite mass rearing facilities for the production of male medflies. Eggs were immersed in two different substrates and stored at different temperatures and for different time periods. Findings from this study suggest that egg storage periods, and to some extent, the storage substrates have significant effects on pupal and adult survival. For 72-h storage periods, the eggs preserved in agar solution at 10 deg. C produced the most pupae. There was an inverse relationship between the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the substrate during storage and the quality and survival of the stored/transported eggs. Apparently low levels of dissolved oxygen reduce metabolic rates, allowing the storage period to be prolonged. (author) [Spanish] El presente estudio fue conducido para evaluar el efecto e interaccion de varios substratos y condiciones de almacenamiento en huevos de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Las pruebas se realizaron con la cepa en la cual es posible separar los sexos geneticamente VIENNA 8/D53, la cual contiene una mutacion letal sensible a la temperatura que permite la eliminacion selectiva de los zigotos femeninos. Este estudio identifica estrategias para mejorar las condiciones de almacenamiento y transporte por medio de la evaluacion de su efecto en la supervivencia de huevos, pupas y adultos, esto para facilitar el establecimiento de laboratorios

  15. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. 1. Effect of temperature, embryo age , and storage time on survival and quality

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Wornoayporn, V.; Islam, S.M.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-03-15

    The operational use of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing strains in Sterile Insect Technique applications can be maximized by developing methods for effective shipment of eggs. This would enable a central production facility to maintain the relevant mother stocks and large colonies to supply eggs to satellite centers that would mass produce only males for irradiation and release. In order to achieve this, the survival of medfly embryos of different ages was assessed after storage at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 deg. C in water for different periods of time. Survival was affected by all 3 variables, i.e., embryo age, water temperature, and length of storage. Storage of embryos at any temperature for 120 h resulted in almost no survival. Controlling the age of the embryo at the time of the temperature treatment is crucial for the success of this procedure. Embryos collected between 0 to 12 h after oviposition and pre-incubated at 25 deg. C for 12 h provide a suitable 72 h window for shipment when maintained between 10 to 15 deg. C. Under these conditions, no significant reductions in survival during all the developmental stages were observed. (author) [Spanish] El uso operacional de cepas de la mosca del mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) en las cuales es posible separar los sexos a traves de mecanismos geneticos para su utilizacion en la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), puede ser maximizado con el desarrollo de metodos efectivos para el envio y transporte de huevos. Esto permite que un laboratorio de produccion centralizada mantenga las respectivas colonias responsables por la produccion de huevos para este abastecer laboratorios satelites responsables por la produccion masiva de solamente machos para subsiguiente irradiacion y liberacion. Para ser posible esta alternativa fue evaluada la supervivencia de embriones de diferentes edades despues de su almacenamiento en agua a 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 deg. C por diferentes

  16. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.

  17. Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Kopp, Artyom; Kimbrell, Deborah A; Leal, Walter S

    2010-05-18

    Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the "empty neuron" system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.

  18. Molecular Phylogeny and Identification of the Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata, Established in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Samie, Emtithal M.; El Fiky, Zaki A.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic structure of the Egyptian peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae)) population was analyzed using total RNA from adult females. A portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 369 bp was amplified using RT-PCR, and was sequenced and analyzed to clarify the phylogenetic relationship of B. zonata established in Egypt. The data suggested that the gene shared a similarity in sequence compared to Bactrocera COI gene found in GenBank. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed based on nucleotide sequences in order to examine the position of the Egyptian population among many other species of fruit flies. The results indicate that four accession numbers of B. zonata (three from New Zealand and one from India) are closely related, while the Egyptian B. zonata are close to the 71 accession numbers of Bactrocera include one B. zonata from New Zealand. These two B. zonata from Egypt and New Zealand showed a close relationship in neighbor—joining analysis using the seven accession numbers of B. zonata. In addition, a theoretical restriction map of the homology portion of the COI gene was constructed using 212 restriction enzymes obtained from the restriction enzyme database to identify the Egyptian and New Zealand B. zonata. PMID:22958094

  19. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional–integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. PMID:25762650

  20. Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.

    PubMed

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world.

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet

    PubMed Central

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

  2. Do Fruit Ripening Volatiles Enable Resource Specialism in Polyphagous Fruit Flies?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John Paul; Carlsson, Mikael A; Villa, Tommaso F; Dekker, Teun; Clarke, Anthony R

    2016-09-01

    Frugivorous tephritid fruit flies have lineages with high levels of host generalism. These insects use olfaction to locate fruits, but how they are able to recognize the odors of so many different host species is poorly understood. We used a series of behavioral experiments to investigate the role of fruit ripening volatiles as host cues in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), a polyphagous pest in Australia. Odors of mature guava (Psidium guajava) attracted female and male flies more strongly than three other ripening stages and guava pulp. We analyzed volatiles from guava odor and selected eleven compounds, all of which elicited an electrophysiological response in the antenna of female flies. Three of these, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, and ethyl propionate, were released at the highest rates from the most attractive ripening stage. In behavioral trials, these three esters were not attractive individually, whereas a combination was necessary and sufficient in attracting female flies. The three-component blend was as attractive as the entire 11-component blend, which without these key volatiles was not attractive. Moreover, injecting low ranking hosts (squash and cucumber) with the three volatiles increased attraction in ovipositing female flies. These fruit flies are classed as generalists, but like many polyphagous insects they could be regarded as resource specialists, preferring specific plant reproductive stages with predictable odor cues. Exploring olfaction from this perspective could improve our understanding of host choice in polyphagous insects, and the selection of volatiles to be used as attractants in insect pest management.

  3. Dispersal of Rhagoletis cerasi in Commercial Cherry Orchards: Efficacy of Soil Covering Nets for Cherry Fruit Fly Control

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Baker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Demand for organic cherries offers producers a premium price to improve their commercial viability. Organic standards require that producers find alternatives to pesticides. Soil treatments to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephrididae) appear to be an attractive option. However, soil treatments can only be effective if the migration of flies is low, because mature flies may migrate from near-by trees for oviposition. To examine the general potential of soil treatments and to understand the dispersal and flight behaviour of R. cerasi within orchards, experiments using netting to cover the soil were conducted in two orchards with different pest pressure during two years. The netting reduced flight activity by 77% and fruit infestation by 91%. The data showed that the flies have a dispersal of less than 5 m within orchards, which is very low. The low thresholds for tolerance for infested fruit in the fresh market creates a strong economic incentive for control, therefore, soil covering is a promising strategy for controlling R. cerasi in commercial orchards. PMID:26466801

  4. Survival of the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) on Truvia and Other Sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael L; Fowler, Fallon E; Denning, Steven S; Watson, David W

    2017-04-05

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a disease vector of mechanically transmitted pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Opportunities for pathogen transmission can increase as fly longevity increases. Dietary preferences play an important role in insect longevity; therefore, we investigated house fly preferences, sucrose availability, and caloric constraints on house fly longevity. Experimental goals were: 1) to test the effects of calorie restriction on survival of house flies by manipulating concentrations of erythritol (low caloric content) and sucrose (high caloric content), and comparing commercial sweeteners of differing calorie content, 2) to identify house fly preferences for either erythritol or sucrose, and 3) to evaluate the insecticidal activity or toxicity of erythritol on house flies. Our data show that house flies may prefer high calorie options when given a choice and that house fly longevity likely increases as calorie content increases. Additionally, no significant differences in longevity were observed between the water only control (zero calories) and erythritol treatments. This suggests that decreased survival rates and death could be the result of starvation rather than insecticidal activity. This research furthers our understanding of house fly survival and sugar-feeding behavior.

  5. Persistence and Retention of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Rochon, K; Baker, R B; Almond, G W; Gimeno, I M; Pérez de León, A A; Watson, D W

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the acquisition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus by the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae; Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) through a bloodmeal, and virus persistence in the digestive organs of the fly using virus isolation and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Stable flies were fed blood containing live virus, modified live vaccine virus, chemically inactivated virus, or no virus. Stable flies acquired PRRSV from the bloodmeal and the amount of virus in the flies declined with time, indicating virus did not replicate in fly digestive tissues. Virus RNA was recovered from the flies fed live virus up to 24 h postfeeding using virus isolation techniques and 96 h using qRT-PCR. We further examined the fate of PRRSV in the hemolymph of the flies following intrathoracic injection to bypass the midgut barrier. PRRSV was detected in intrathoracically inoculated adult stable flies for 10 d using qRT-PCR. In contrast to what we observed in the digestive tract, detectable virus quantities in the intrathoracically inoculated stable flies followed an exponential decay curve. The amount of virus decreased fourfold in the first 3 d and remained stable thereafter, up to 10 d.

  6. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452

  7. The crane flies (Diptera: Tipuloidea) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Matthew J.; Parker, Charles R.; Bernard, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    The list of crane flies (Diptera: Ptychopteridae, Tipuloidea, Trichoceridae) known from Great Smoky Mountains National Park is updated. Sampling in association with the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Great Smoky Mountains National Park resulted in the addition of 107 new Park records, bringing the current list to 250 species. This species assemblage is much richer than those of surrounding areas, although similar in composition. Total richness is estimated to be between 450 and 500 species for Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  8. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  9. Activity patterns and parasitism rates of fire ant decapitating flies (Diptera:Phoridae:Pseudacteon spp.) in their native Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: This work describes the annual and daily activity patterns of two parasitoid fly communities of the fire ant S. invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in their native Argentina. Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) flies were censused monthly for one year at two sites in northwestern Corr...

  10. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  11. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), monitored with ChamP traps captured the highest numbers of adults in olive trees, Olea europaea, in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Significantly more adults were captured in Pherocon ® AM traps than ChamP tra...

  12. Dietary wheat germ oil and age influences fatty acid compositions in adult oriental fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterile Insect Technique programs have been developed for management of several tephritid fruit fly pests. These programs are based on continous production of adult fruit flies. The high expense of mass-rearing oriental fruit flies drive research to improve the cost effectiveness of rearing programs...

  13. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  14. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  15. Transcriptome of the egg parasitoid Fopius arisanus, an important biocontrol tool for Tephritid fruit fly suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The Braconoid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan) has been utilized for biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), both phytophagous fruit flies pest of economic importance in Hawaii. We have sequenced and assembled t...

  16. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  17. Limits to the host range of the highly polyphagous tephritid fruit fly Anastrepha ludens in its natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Birke, A; Acosta, E; Aluja, M

    2015-12-01

    Anastepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly polyphagous fruit fly that is able to develop in a wide range of hosts. Understanding the limits of this pest's host range could provide valuable information for pest management and plant breeding for pest resistance. Previous studies have shown that guavas (Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.), are not attacked under natural conditions by A. ludens. To understand this phenomenon, guavas were exposed to natural infestation by A. ludens and to other fruit fly species that infest guavas in nature (Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastepha obliqua (Macquart)). Once the susceptible phenological stage of guavas was determined, fruit infestation levels were compared between A. ludens and A. striata. Choice and non-choice tests were performed under field-cage conditions. Under field conditions, guavas were susceptible to A. striata and A. fraterculus attack all the way from when fruit was undeveloped to when fruit began to ripen. No infestation by A. ludens was recorded under natural conditions. Similar results were obtained when forced exposures were performed, indicating that unripe guavas were preferred by A. striata over ripe fruit, and that infestation rates were higher at early fruit maturity stages. Under forced oviposition conditions, A. ludens larvae were unable to develop in unripe guavas but did so in fully ripe fruit. However, A. ludens fitness parameters were dramatically affected, exhibiting reduced survival and reduced pupal weight compared to conspecifics that developed in a natural host, grapefruit. We confirm that P. guajava should not be treated as a natural host of this pestiferous species, and suggest that both behavioral aspects and the fact that larvae are unable to adequately develop in this fruit, indeed represent clear limits to A. ludens's broad host range.

  18. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  19. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-09-25

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests.

  20. Superparasitism in the Fruit Fly Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Implications for Mass Rearing and Augmentative Release

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo; Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Superparasitism, a strategy in which a female lays eggs in/on a previously parasitized host, was attributed in the past to the inability of females to discriminate between parasitized and non-parasitized hosts. However, superparasitism is now accepted as an adaptive strategy under specific conditions. In fruit fly parasitoids, superparasitism has mainly been studied as concerns the new association between Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), wherein this phenomenon is a common occurrence in both mass rearing and field conditions. Studies of this species have shown that moderate levels of superparasitism result in a female-biased sex ratio and that both massreared and wild females superparasitize their hosts without detrimental effects on offspring demographic parameters, including longevity and fecundity. These studies suggest that superparasitism in this species is advantageous. In this paper, we review superparasitism in D. longicaudata, discuss these findings in the context of mass rearing and field releases and address the possible implications of superparasitism in programs employing augmentative releases of parasitoids for the control of fruit fly pests. PMID:26466718

  1. Predicting Fruit Fly's Sensing Rate From Insect Flight Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jane; Chang, Song

    2013-11-01

    Without sensory feedbacks, flies cannot fly. Exactly how sensory feedback controls work in flying insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure in order to stabilize their flight? What kinds of neural computations and muscle activities are involved in order to correct their flight course or to turn? How often and how fast do animals adjust their wings to remain stable? To understand the algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we have developed a simulation tool to study flapping flight, where motions of the insect body and wings are coupled instantaneously. To stabilize the flight in the simulation, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds both on the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting these findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we give a sharper bound on the sensing rate and further reason that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing-beat in order to stabilize their flight.

  2. Taste and pheromone perception in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ebbs, Michelle L; Amrein, Hubert

    2007-08-01

    Taste is an essential sense for detection of nutrient-rich food and avoidance of toxic substances. The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system provides an excellent model to study taste perception and taste-elicited behaviors. "The fly" is unique in the animal kingdom with regard to available experimental tools, which include a wide repertoire of molecular-genetic analyses (i.e., efficient production of transgenics and gene knockouts), elegant behavioral assays, and the possibility to conduct electrophysiological investigations. In addition, fruit flies, like humans, recognize sugars as a food source, but avoid bitter tasting substances that are often toxic to insects and mammals alike. This paper will present recent research progress in the field of taste and contact pheromone perception in the fruit fly. First, we shall describe the anatomical properties of the Drosophila gustatory system and survey the family of taste receptors to provide an appropriate background. We shall then review taste and pheromone perception mainly from a molecular genetic perspective that includes behavioral, electrophysiological and imaging analyses of wild type flies and flies with genetically manipulated taste cells. Finally, we shall provide an outlook of taste research in this elegant model system for the next few years.

  3. An improved quarantine method for mangoes against the Mexican fruit fly based on high-pressure processing combined with heat.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Gonzalo; Candelario, Hugo Ernesto; Ramírez, José A; Montoya, Pablo; Loera-Gallardo, Jesús; Vázquez, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    The Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important insects infesting mangoes, citrus, and other fruits in Mexico and other Latin-American countries. Quarantine methods approved to destroy this insect decrease the shelf life of commodities. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of high-pressure processing using an initial temperature of 50 degrees C on the survivorship of eggs and larvae of the Mexican fruit fly. Eggs and larvae were pressurized at 25, 50, 75, 100, or 150 MPa for 0, 5, 10, or 20 min. The hatching ability of pressurized eggs of 1, 2, 3, and 4 days old and survivorship of the first, second, and third instars were registered. Further, the ability to pupate was studied in surviving third instars. The results showed that eggs were more resistant than larvae to the high-pressure processing. Treatments at 150 MPa at initial 50 degrees C for 10 min destroyed all eggs and larvae of A. ludens, indicating that this process might be useful as a quarantine method for infested mangoes or other fruits.

  4. Mexican Fruit Fly Populations in the Semi-Arid Highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in Northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vanoye-Eligio, V; Mora-Olivo, A; Gaona-García, G; Reyes-Zepeda, F; Rocandio-Rodríguez, M

    2017-01-04

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most important pests of citrus in Mexico. We report the results of an analysis of A. ludens populations that inhabit the semi-arid highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental in northeastern Mexico. This study aimed to provide information on population fluctuation of A. ludens and how it relates to climate variables, as well as insights into habitat and native parasitoids. Population peaked in the period July-November when ripe fruits of the wild host, Casimiroa pubescens Ramírez, were available. No adults were captured the rest of the year, suggesting that high populations depend on the availability of wild host fruit. No significant relationships between population fluctuation and climatic variables were observed, except for minimum temperature. Fruit samples of citron (Citrus medica L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and C. pubescens were collected to determine degree of infestation. Infestation levels (pupae/g) ranged between 0.0006 for citron, 0.0047 for pomegranate, and 0.0240 for C. pubescens. A native parasitoid of Tephritidae, Doryctobracon crawfordii (Viereck) (Braconidae), was identified. Parasitism percentage was calculated at 12.5% on C. pubescens fruits. No parasitoids were observed on citron or pomegranate fruit samples. These results contribute to knowledge on behavior of A. ludens native to temperate environments where no commercial hosts are available. Further research on host expansion of this pest in light of scenarios of global climate change is suggested.

  5. Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Can Distinguish Sterile, Released Flies from Wild Flies in Various Regions of the World.

    PubMed

    Parubrub, Arlene; Reyes, Ruel; Smallridge, Catherine J; Woods, Bill; Haymer, David

    2015-02-01

    In areas infested with pest species such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), many programs rely heavily on the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a form of biological control. However, when SIT treatments are used both for control of established infestations and for occasional outbreaks, for several reasons, programs are often unable to adequately quantify the success of this approach. Chief among these are difficulties associated with reliably and rapidly determining the strain of origin of males recaptured during and after the SIT program. In this study, we describe the use of a DNA-based marker that can be used to rapidly and reliably distinguish males originating from the two sterile strains that are most widely used in SIT rearing facilities from males originating from wild strains of various regions of the world. This method uses polymerase chain reaction amplification of material from individual specimens to directly analyze DNA sequence variants found within a portion of the mitochondrial ND4 subunit 4 (ND4) gene to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are diagnostic of different strains. Specifically, the SNPs described here reliably distinguish individual flies originating from the Vienna 7 and Vienna 8 strains used for sterile release from wild flies infesting various areas including Western Australia, Guatemala, and Hawaii. The availability of such markers for determination of the strain of origin of specimens, either from whole specimens or body parts (including their sperm), has great potential to improve the ability to monitor and quantify the success of any sterile release program.

  6. Antipredator behavior of the new mass-reared unisexual strain of the Mexican Fruit Fly.

    PubMed

    González-López, G I; Rao, D; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Orozco-Dávila, D; Pérez-Staples, D

    2016-06-01

    Tephritid pests controlled through the sterile insect technique (SIT) are mass-reared and subsequently released in affected areas. Several quality parameters are currently used to test adults, but none take into account interactions with a predator. When sterile males are released in the field, they will need to avoid predators until they reach sexual maturity and survive long enough to mate with wild females. Spiders are one of the most common predators that flies may encounter in release sites. In this study, we evaluated the antipredator behavior of a mass-reared sterile unisexual strain ('Tapachula-7') of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) against their spider predators. We sampled spiders in citrus trees to determine which families could be more common. We established the baseline activity rates of sterile Tapachula-7 (Tap-7) flies in comparison with wild flies. We also tested the behavior of the fertile and sterile bisexual strain and wild flies against hunting spiders (Family Salticidae) and orb building spiders (Family Tetragnathidae). We recorded 18 spider families, with Salticidae being the most dominant. Tap-7 flies diminished their activity in comparison with wild males at 1800 h but showed similar activity levels earlier in the day. When exposed to orb-web spiders (Leucauge venusta), Tap-7, fertile and sterile males from the bisexual strain had similar rates of survival, but Tap-7 males showed lower survival than wild males. Against hunting spiders (Phidippus audax), wild males had higher probability of defensive wing displays, but there was no difference in spider attack rates. In general, sterile Tap -7 males performed as well as males from the bisexual strain, although they had lower survival than wild males. This could be due to either mass-rearing and/or irradiation effects. We recommend the use of the defensive wing display behavior as a quality parameter and propose a rapid and effective method to evaluate fly

  7. Purification and characterization of an antimicrobial peptide, insect defensin, from immunized house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Dang, X L; Wang, Y S; Huang, Y D; Yu, X Q; Zhang, W Q

    2010-11-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is involved in phoretic movement of pathogenic agents, but it has a very efficient defense mechanism against infection. It is believed that antimicrobial peptides play a significant role in the defense system of the house fly. Here, we isolated a peptide from the immunized house fly pupae, measured its molecular mass (3987.6 Da) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight-mass spectrometry, and determined its amino acid sequence by using the Procise Protein Sequencing System (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The peptide was confirmed as a member of the insect defensin family. It displayed high activity against gram-positive bacteria but lower activity against gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the house fly defensin gene was constitutively expressed in naive pupae and strongly up-regulated after immunization. House fly defensin is an amphiphilic peptide with a structure similar to that of the CSalphabeta scaffold of insect defensin A from the flesh fly, Phormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated and characterized house fly antimicrobial peptide, and our work may provide useful information for developing pharmacologically active antimicrobial agents.

  8. The relationship between morphological and behavioral mimicry in hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Penney, Heather D; Hassall, Christopher; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Lamborn, Brent; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2014-02-01

    Palatable (Batesian) mimics of unprofitable models could use behavioral mimicry to compensate for the ease with which they can be visually discriminated or to augment an already close morphological resemblance. We evaluated these contrasting predictions by assaying the behavior of 57 field-caught species of mimetic hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and quantifying their morphological similarity to a range of potential hymenopteran models. A purpose-built phylogeny for the hover flies was used to control for potential lack of independence due to shared evolutionary history. Those hover fly species that engage in behavioral mimicry (mock stinging, leg waving, wing wagging) were all large wasp mimics within the genera Spilomyia and Temnostoma. While the behavioral mimics assayed were good morphological mimics, not all good mimics were behavioral mimics. Therefore, while the behaviors may have evolved to augment good morphological mimicry, they do not advantage all good mimics.

  9. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    PubMed

    Pavlidi, Nena; Dermauw, Wannes; Rombauts, Stephane; Chrysargyris, Antonios; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  10. Passive cellular microrheology in developing fruit fly embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Sarah; Ma, Xiaoyan; Lawrence, Stacey; Hutson, M. Shane

    2012-02-01

    The development of fruit fly (Drosophila) embryos involves spatial and temporal regulation of cellular mechanical properties. These properties can be probed in vivo using laser hole drilling experiments; however, this technique only infers relative forces. Conversion to absolute forces requires measurement of cellular viscoelastic properties. Here, we use passive microrheology of fluorescently labeled cell membranes to measure the viscoelastic properties of amnioserosa cells. These dynamic epithelial cells play an important mechanical role during two developmental stages: germ band retraction and dorsal closure. Passive microrheology in this system is confounded by active contractions in the cytoskeleton. Thus, the fruit fly embryos are transiently anesthetized with CO2, halting active cellular movements, leaving only passive Brownian motion. The power spectra of these fluctuations are well fit by a Lorentzian -- as expected for Brownian motion -- and allow us to extract cellular viscoelastic parameters at different developmental stages. These measured parameters inform previous hole-drilling experiments and provide inputs for quantitative computational models of fruit fly embryonic development.

  11. The Value of Patch-Choice Copying in Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shane; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Many animals copy the choices of others but the functional and mechanistic explanations for copying are still not fully resolved. We relied on novel behavioral protocols to quantify the value of patch-choice copying in fruit flies. In a titration experiment, we quantified how much nutritional value females were willing to trade for laying eggs on patches already occupied by larvae (social patches). Females were highly sensitive to nutritional quality, which was positively associated with their offspring success. Females, however, perceived social, low-nutrition patches (33% of the nutrients) as equally valuable as non-social, high-nutrition ones (100% of the nutrients). In follow-up experiments, we could not, however, either find informational benefits from copying others or detect what females' offspring may gain from developing with older larvae. Because patch-choice copying in fruit flies is a robust phenomenon in spite of potential costs due to competition, we suggest that it is beneficial in natural settings, where fruit flies encounter complex dynamics of microbial communities, which include, in addition to the preferred yeast species they feed on, numerous harmful fungi and bacteria. We suggest that microbial ecology underlies many cases of copying in nature. PMID:25375776

  12. Sesamin extends the mean lifespan of fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yuanyuan; Peng, Cheng; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the anti-ageing activity of sesamin and its effect on gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (Mth) and Rpn11 in Drosophila melanogaster. Results demonstrated that 0.2 % sesamin in diet prolonged the mean lifespan of OR wild fruit flies by 12 %, accompanied by up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2, CAT and Rpn11. Sesamin at 0.2 % in diet also attenuated paraquat-induced neurodegeneration with up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and Rpn11 in OR wild fruit flies. Supplementation of 0.2 % sesamin in diet increased the survival time of OR wild type flies and Alzheimer flies Aβ42 33769 when they were challenged with paraquat. Furthermore, sesamin-induced increase in the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes also suggests that the longevity promoting activity of sesamin are possibly due to its action as a hormetin by inducing oxidative stress response-mediated hormesis. It was concluded that sesamin extended the mean lifespan and alleviated the neurodegeneration in Drosophila melanogaster at least mediated by its interaction with genes SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and Rpn11, but not with gene Mth.

  13. Comparison of Rain-Fast Bait Stations Versus Foliar Bait Sprays for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2010-01-01

    Bait stations represent an environmentally friendly attract-and-kill approach to fruit fly population suppression. Recently a novel, visually attractive, rain-fast bait station was developed in Hawaii for potential use against multiple species of pestiferous fruit flies. Here, we compared the efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait applied either as foliar sprays or onto bait stations in reducing female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), population density and level of fruit infestation in commercial papaya orchards in Hawaii. Trapping and infestation data were used as indicators of the effectiveness of the two bait application methods. For the first 10 weeks of the study, captures of female B. dorsalis in monitoring traps were significantly greater in control plots than in plots treated with foliar sprays or bait stations. Six weeks after the first bait spray, incidence of infestation (i.e. number of fruit with one or more B. dorsalis larvae) of quarter to half-ripe papaya fruit was reduced by 71.4% and 63.1% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. Twelve weeks after first spray, incidence of infestation was reduced by only 54.5% and 45.4% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. About 42% less GF-120 was used in orchard plots with bait stations compared to those subject to foliar sprays. The impact of field sanitation on the outcome is also discussed. The results indicate that bait stations can provide a simple, efficient, and economical method of applying insecticidal baits to control fruit flies and a safer alternative to foliar sprays. PMID:21067423

  14. Feasibility study of utilizing simplified near infrared imaging for detecting fruit fly larvae in intact fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the previous research to classify intact mangoes infested with oriental fruit fly from the control ones using near infrared (NIR) spectra acquired by a spot-type handheld NIR instrument, an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the system by employing NIR imaging technology was conducted. ...

  15. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  16. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed.

  17. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231

  18. Environmental factors affecting early carcass attendance by four species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Texas.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Rachel M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-05-01

    As the most common primary colonizer of carrion, adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) play an important role in initiating arthropod-mediated breakdown of soft tissue; however, their timing is highly variable. This variability complicates the estimation of precolonization intervals or periods of insect activity by forensic entomologists. In this study, the size of the adult blow fly on swine carcasses was compared with various environmental conditions including time of day, temperature, wind speed, and light levels. Four trials were conducted: two in August and September 2008, one in January 2009, and one in February-March 2010. Of the measured variables, time of day was the only consistent factor explaining the population size of blow fly on a carcass, although precipitation and high winds affected winter-active Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Male flies were also collected, suggesting that carcasses may play additional roles in adult blow fly ecology beyond that of a simple oviposition site. For both sexes of flies, a strong diel pattern of behavior emerged, which could be useful in estimating precolonization intervals by considering the environmental conditions at a scene, and thus forensic entomologists may be better able to estimate the likelihood of adult activity at a carcass.

  19. A new species, new immature stages, and new synonymy in Australian Dasybasis flies (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2015-04-09

    Australian beach sand is a productive habitat for lower brachyceran fly larvae but often overlooked by collectors. We collected two species of tabanid larvae from coastal beach sand in southern New South Wales in August 2013. Both species belong to the Dasybasis macrophthalma species-group of Mackerras (1959), one a new species, and the other D. exulans (Erichson, 1842). We describe both new immature stages and the new species adult as Dasybasis rieki sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini). Trojan (1994b) elevated the D. macrophthalma species group to the genus Sznablius. We review the evidence for the generic status of Sznablius, and synonymize it with Dasybasis.

  20. Selected Insecticide Delivery Devices for Management of Horn Flies (Haematobia irritans) (Diptera: Muscidae) on Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Swiger, Sonja Lise; Payne, Richard D

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of the beef cattle industry. Horn fly adults are blood feeders that remain in constant contact with cattle, providing management opportunities via insecticide-impregnated ear tags. Controlling horn flies in the United States is time consuming and costly, but failure to implement management can lead to weight loss and decreased weight gain of calves and yearlings. In the past decade, new chemical combinations have been impregnated into ear tags for pest management. The objectives of this project were to 1) evaluate the efficacy of ear tags against horn fly populations and 2) determine if reduced fly density results in economic return. During 2013, data were compiled by insecticide class; treated cows averaged fly reductions of 198 (s = 38.91; n = 3) for macrocyclic lactone treatments, 175 (s = 62.74; n = 4) for pyrethroid treatments, and 174 (s = 35.28; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments compared with untreated animals (214; s = 50.38; n = 9). During 2014, mean fly reductions were 187 (s = 14.15; n = 4) for macrocyclic lactone, 147 (s = 61.41; n = 13) for pyrethroid, and 143 (s = 77.16; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments relative to the untreated (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). A novel technology, the VetGun application system, tested in 2014, resulted in fly reductions (121 ±, n = 4), but means were not statistically significant from the control (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). Treatment of cattle with ear tags significantly reduced horn fly numbers compared with untreated cattle.

  1. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide.

  2. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks.

  3. Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) colonising large carcasses in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Mądra, Anna; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2015-06-01

    Sarcophagidae are an important element of carrion insect community. Unfortunately, results on larval and adult Sarcophagidae from forensic carrion studies are virtually absent mostly due to the taxonomic problems with species identification of females and larvae. The impact of this taxon on decomposition of large carrion has not been reliably evaluated. During several pig carcass studies in Poland, large body of data on adult and larval Sarcophagidae was collected. We determined (1) assemblages of adult flesh flies visiting pig carrion in various habitats, (2) species of flesh flies which breed in pig carcasses, and (3) temporal distribution of flesh fly larvae during decomposition. Due to species identification of complete material, including larvae, females, and males, it was possible for the first time to reliably answer several questions related to the role of Sarcophagidae in decomposition of large carrion and hence define their forensic importance. Fifteen species of flesh flies were found to visit pig carcasses, with higher diversity and abundance in grasslands as compared to forests. Sex ratio biased towards females was observed only for Sarcophaga argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. similis and S. carnaria species group. Gravid females and larvae were collected only in the case of S. argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. melanura and S. similis. Sarcophaga caerulescens and S. similis bred regularly in carcasses, while S. argyrostoma was recorded only occasionally. First instar larvae of flesh flies were recorded on carrion earlier or concurrently with first instar larvae of blowflies. Third instar larvae of S. caerulescens were usually observed before the appearance of the third instar blowfly larvae. These results contest the view that flesh flies colonise carcasses later than blowflies. Sarcophaga caerulescens is designated as a good candidate for a broad forensic use in Central European cases.

  4. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) locomotion during a sounding rocket flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mark S.; Keller, Tony S.

    2008-05-01

    The locomotor activity of young Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) was studied during a Nike-Orion sounding rocket flight, which included a short-duration microgravity exposure. An infrared monitoring system was used to determine the activity level, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity of 240 (120 male, 120 female) fruit flies. Individual flies were placed in chambers that limit their motion to walking. Chambers were oriented both vertically and horizontally with respect to the rocket's longitudinal axis. Significant changes in Drosophila locomotion patterns were observed throughout the sounding rocket flight, including launch, microgravity exposure, payload re-entry, and after ocean impact. During the microgravity portion of the flight (3.8 min), large increases in all locomotion measurements for both sexes were observed, with some measurements doubling compared to pad (1 G) data. Initial effects of microgravity were probably delayed due to large accelerations from the payload despining immediately before entering microgravity. The results indicate that short-duration microgravity exposure has a large effect on locomotor activity for both males and females, at least for a short period of time. The locomotion increases may explain the increased male aging observed during long-duration exposure to microgravity. Studies focusing on long-duration microgravity exposure are needed to confirm these findings, and the relationship of increased aging and locomotion.

  5. Antocha crane flies from Taiwan (Diptera: Limoniidae: Limoniinae).

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Young, Chen W

    2015-11-27

    Taiwanese species of the crane fly subgenus Antocha (Antocha) Osten Sacken, 1860, are reviewed. Antocha (Antocha) taiwanensis, new species, is described and figured. Previously known species, Antocha (A.) bifida Alexander, 1924a and Antocha (A.) styx Alexander, 1930 are redescribed and illustrated. Antocha (A.) javanensis Alexander, 1915 is removed from the list of Taiwanese crane flies. Antocha (A.) gracillima Alexander, 1924b and species close to Antocha (A.) streptocera Alexander, 1949 are listed for the first time in Taiwan. Identification key for all Taiwanese Antocha species is given.

  6. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lynn A; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2010-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc).

  7. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...

  8. Laboratory colonization of the blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chrysomya rufifacies is a blow fly commonly found in corpses at crime scene investigations. This study was designed to develop laboratory colonization methods for Ch. rufifacies and utilize Chrysomya megacephala as its larval food source. Both fly species were collected in the wild and easily colon...

  9. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida “fly free zone” protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

  10. Phonotactic flight of the parasitoid fly Emblemasoma auditrix (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Tron, Nanina; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    The parasitoid fly Emblemasoma auditrix locates its hosts using acoustic cues from sound producing males of the cicada Okanagana rimosa. Here, we experimentally analysed the flight path of the phonotaxis from a landmark to the target, a hidden loudspeaker in the field. During flight, the fly showed only small lateral deviations. The vertical flight direction angles were initially negative (directed downwards relative to starting position), grew positive (directed upwards) in the second half of the flight, and finally flattened (directed horizontally or slightly upwards), typically resulting in a landing above the loudspeaker. This phonotactic flight pattern was largely independent from sound pressure level or target distance, but depended on the elevation of the sound source. The flight velocity was partially influenced by sound pressure level and distance, but also by elevation. The more elevated the target, the lower was the speed. The accuracy of flight increased with elevation of the target as well as the landing precision. The minimal vertical angle difference eliciting differences in behaviour was 10°. By changing the elevation of the acoustic target after take-off, we showed that the fly is able to orientate acoustically while flying.

  11. Visual responses of corn silk flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn silk flies are major pests impacting fresh market sweet corn production in Florida and Georgia. Control depends solely on well-times applications of insecticides to protect corn ear development. Surveillance depends on visual inspection of ears with no effective trapping methods currently ava...

  12. The horse and deer flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartlett, K.; Alm, S.R.; LeBrun, R.; Ginsberg, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Tabanidae of Rhode Island were surveyed using Rhode Island canopy traps placed at 20 locations in the state during the summers of 1999 and 2000. In total, 5,120 flies were collected, which included 55 species in the genera Chrysops, Hybomitra, Tabanus, Merycomyia, and Stonemyia. Distributional and ecological information is provided for each species in Rhode Island.

  13. External morphology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent ante...

  14. Distribution of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species and efficiency of capturing methods in Sanliurfa province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Sahin; Ozer, Nurdan

    2007-01-01

    The population dynamics of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied in Sanliurfa province in southeastern Turkey, in the country's largest focus of typical anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, during 2000-2002. Sand flies were collected at nine different sampling stations, located throughout the city, representing a cross section of urban and rural habitats. In total, 29,771 sand flies were collected, 45.35% of which were Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. In this study, the overall sand fly species diversity, relative abundance of each species, biodiversity, and similarity indices among sampling stations and efficiency of trapping methods were evaluated. Among the sampling stations, Sanliurfa city center and Suruç were shown to have the highest number of sand fly species; Harran-Akcakale and Hilvan habitats produced the largest number of individuals. The greatest similarity rates (80%) in terms of sand fly species were observed between Hilvan and city center, Harran-Akcakale and city center, Harran-Akcakale and Yenice, and Siverek and Viransehir. The lowest similarity rate (16%) was observed between Bozova-Birecik and city center. Comparison of biodiversity and similarity indices between the various sampling stations reveals the distribution of the suspected vector species and provides basic knowledge required to develop logical and effective control strategies. Among the trapping methods used, light traps showed the highest capture efficiency, above aspirators and sticky papers. It was concluded that light traps alone were sufficient to determine the sand fly fauna of the study area. It is recommended that the spatial and temporal dynamics of sand fly populations be monitored throughout the southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) construction period, considering the potential impact the project may have on mean temperature, humidity, and human population movements.

  15. Anthropic effects on sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) abundance and diversity in an Amazonian rural settlement, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Walkyria Rodrigues; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia María; Marialva, Eric Fabrício; Desmouliére, Sylvain J M; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2014-11-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are responsible for the transmission of protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniases. They are found predominantly in forests, but some species exploit environments that have been subject to deforestation and subsequent human colonization. Studies conducted in Brazil over the past 30 years show that some species are adapting to peri-urban and urban settings. We evaluated sand fly diversity and abundance in the rural settlement of Rio Pardo, Presidente Figueiredo Municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Settlement households were divided into four categories. These categories were determined by the human population density and the degree of deforestation in the immediate area. We used CDC light traps to sample the area surrounding 24 households (6 households in each category). Samples were taken on six occasions during September-November 2009 and June-August 2010. A total of 3074 sand fly specimens were collected, including 1163 females and 1911 males. These were classified into 13 genera and 52 species. The greatest abundance of sand flies and the greatest richness of species were observed in areas where human population density was highest. Our results show that changes in the human occupancy and vegetation management in rural settlements may affect the population dynamics and distribution of sand fly species, thereby affecting the local transmission of cutaneous leishmaniases.

  16. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thua Thien Hue and Lam Dong Provinces, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2015-05-21

    Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.

  17. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Cha, Dong H; Zack, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol that had been formulated in the water of the drowning solution of the trap, or dispensed from polypropylene vials with holes in the vial lids for diffusion of evaporated chemical. Numbers of both species of fly captured were greater with acetic acid and ethanol in glass McPhail traps, compared to four other similar wet trap designs. This combination of chemicals may be useful as an inexpensive and not unpleasant lure for monitoring or removing these two pest fly species.

  18. Light, heat, action: neural control of fruit fly behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Owald, David; Lin, Suewei; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a popular model to investigate fundamental principles of neural circuit operation. The sophisticated genetics and small brain permit a cellular resolution understanding of innate and learned behavioural processes. Relatively recent genetic and technical advances provide the means to specifically and reproducibly manipulate the function of many fly neurons with temporal resolution. The same cellular precision can also be exploited to express genetically encoded reporters of neural activity and cell-signalling pathways. Combining these approaches in living behaving animals has great potential to generate a holistic view of behavioural control that transcends the usual molecular, cellular and systems boundaries. In this review, we discuss these approaches with particular emphasis on the pioneering studies and those involving learning and memory. PMID:26240426

  19. Evolution of olfactory receptor in oriental fruit fly Dacus dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Esther R.; Mitchell, W. C.; Lee, Lena W. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Male oriental fruit flies (Dacus dorsalis) from colonies in Taiwan and Hawaii were evaluated for limit of response to various analogues of methyl eugenol. The results are interpreted in terms of the geometry and allosteric requirements of the antennal receptor that triggers the characteristic methyl eugenol reflex. This receptor has evolved for complementarity to all portions of the methyl eugenol molecule and responds only to ortho-substituted benzenes with adjacent oxygen atoms or isoelectronic equivalents. Substantial differences in responses of Taiwan and Hawaiian D. dorsalis suggest that perceptible evolution of the receptor protein has occurred during the past 50 years. A plausible scheme for the coevolution of dacini flies with plants containing phenylpropionoid essential oils is outlined. Images PMID:16592640

  20. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua.

    PubMed

    Scally, M; Into, F; Thomas, D B; Ruiz-Arce, R; Barr, N B; Schuenzel, E L

    2016-08-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific relationships within A. obliqua as well as interspecific relationships to other Anastrepha species using a multi-locus data set comprising nine loci (seven nuclear, two mitochondrial) with 105 operational taxonomic units. The results based on a concatenated set of nuclear loci strongly support the monophyly of A. obliqua and most of the other species previously identified by morphology. A split between Peruvian A. obliqua samples and those from other locations was also identified. These results contrast with prior findings of relationships within A. obliqua based on mitochondrial data, as we found a marked discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial loci. These analyses suggest that introgression, particularly between A. obliqua and fraterculus species, may be one explanation for the discrepancy and the high mitochondrial diversity reported for A. obliqua could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting.

  1. BdorOBP83a-2 Mediates Responses of the Oriental Fruit Fly to Semiochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Lin, Jintian; Zhang, He; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most destructive pests throughout tropical and subtropical regions in Asia. This insect displays remarkable changes during different developmental phases in olfactory behavior between sexually immature and mated adults. The olfactory behavioral changes provide clues to examine physiological and molecular bases of olfactory perception in this insect. We comparatively analyzed behavioral and neuronal responses of B. dorsalis adults to attractant semiochemicals, and the expression profiles of antenna chemosensory genes. We found that some odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) were upregulated in mated adults in association with their behavioral and neuronal responses. Ligand-binding assays further showed that one of OBP83a orthologs, BdorOBP83a-2, binds with high affinity to attractant semiochemicals. Functional analyses confirmed that the reduction in BdorOBP83a-2 transcript abundance led to a decrease in neuronal and behavioral responses to selected attractants. This study suggests that BdorOBP83a-2 mediates behavioral responses to attractant semiochemicals and could be a potential efficient target for pest control. PMID:27761116

  2. Epithelial self-organization in fruit fly embryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, M. Shane

    2010-03-01

    During fruit fly embryogenesis, there are several morphogenetic events in which sheets of epithelial cells expand, contract and bend due to coordinated intra- and intercellular forces. This tissue-level reshaping is accompanied by changes in the shape and arrangement of individual cells -- changes that can be measured quantitatively and dynamically using modern live-cell imaging techniques. Such data sets represent rich targets for computational modeling of self-organization; however, reproducing the observed cell- and tissue-level reshaping is not enough. The inverse problem of using cell shape changes to determine cell-level forces is ill-posed -- yielding non-unique solutions that cannot discriminate between active changes in cell shape and passive deformation. These non-unique solutions can be tested experimentally using in vivo laser-microsurgery -- i.e., cutting a targeted region of an epithelium and carefully tracking the temporal and spatial dependence of the subsequent strain relaxation. This technique uses a variety of incisions (hole, line or closed curve) to probe different aspects of epithelial mechanics: the local mesoscopic strain; the distribution of intracellular forces; changes in the cell-level power-law rheology; and the question of active versus passive deformation. I will discuss my group's work using laser-microsurgery to investigate two morphogenetic events in fruit fly embryogenesis: germband retraction and dorsal closure. In both cases, we find a substantial active mechanical role for the amnioserosa -- an epithelium that undergoes apoptosis near the end of embryogenesis and makes no part of the fly larva -- in reshaping an adjacent epithelium that becomes the larval epidermis. In these examples, self-organization of the fly embryo relies not only on self-organization of individual tissues, but also on the mechanical interactions between tissues.

  3. Evaluation of imported parasitoid fitness for biocontrol of olive fruit fly in California olives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ...

  4. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  5. Pseudacteon calderensis, a new fly species (Diptera:Phoridae) attacking the fire ant Solenopsis interrupta (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) in northwestern Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Pseudacteon phorid fly Pseudacteon calderis (Diptera: Phoridae) is described from females attacking worker ants of Solenopsis interrupta Santschi in Salta and Jujuy provinces, northwestern Argentina. Pseudacteon calderis differs from almost all other South American Pseudacteon speci...

  6. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lynn A.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). PMID:22628901

  7. Preliminary list of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) of Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Thirty six species of horse flies (Tabanidae) were previously known from Serbia (Europe). The present faunistic study of horse flies (Tabanidae) has resulted in the recording of the 4 new species Atylotus fulvus (Meigen, 1804); Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1880; Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858; and Heptatoma pellucens (Fabricius, 1776), in the fauna of Serbia. The genus Heptatoma Meigen, 1803 is cited for the first time in the fauna of Serbia. 40 species are currently known from Serbia, belonging to nine genera. The fauna can be considered relatively poorly studied. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian type of fauna 23, followed by the South European group with 8 species, the Mediterranean group with 6 species, European group with 2 species and Central European group with 1 species. PMID:21998507

  8. Oviposition Substrate of the Mountain Fly Drosophila nigrosparsa (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tratter, Magdalena; Bächli, Gerhard; Kirchmair, Martin; Kaufmann, Rüdiger; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C.; Steiner, Florian M.

    2016-01-01

    The survival of insect larvae often depends on the mother’s choice of oviposition substrate, and thus, this choice is an essential part of an insect species’ ecology. Especially species with narrow substrate preferences may suffer from changes in substrate availability triggered by, for example, climate change. Recent climate warming is affecting species directly (e.g., physiology) but also indirectly (e.g., biological interactions) leading to mismatching phenologies and distributions. However, the preferred oviposition substrate is still unknown for many drosophilid species, especially for those at higher elevations. In this study, we investigated the oviposition-substrate preference of the montane-alpine fly Drosophila nigrosparsa in rearing and multiple-choice experiments using natural substrates in the laboratory. Insect emergence from field-collected substrates was tested. More than 650 insects were reared from natural substrates, among them 152 drosophilids but no individual of D. nigrosparsa. In the multiple-choice experiments, D. nigrosparsa preferred ovipositing on mushrooms (> 93% of eggs); additionally, a few eggs were laid on berries but none on other substrates such as cow faeces, rotten plant material, and soil. The flies laid 24 times more eggs per day when mushrooms were included in the substrates than when they were excluded. We infer that D. nigrosparsa is a mushroom breeder with some variation in oviposition choice. The flies favoured some mushrooms over others, but they were not specialised on a single fungal taxon. Although it is unclear if and how climate change will affect D. nigrosparsa, our results indicate that this species will not be threatened by oviposition-substrate limitations in the near future because of the broad altitudinal distribution of the mushrooms considered here, even if the flies will have to shift upwards to withstand increasing temperatures. PMID:27788257

  9. Battery-powered, electrocuting trap for stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Pickens, L G

    1991-11-01

    A solar-charged, battery-powered, electrocuting grid was combined with a white plywood base to make a portable, pulsed-current, pest-electrocuting device that attracted and killed stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), outdoors. The grid was powered once every 1-2 s by a 0.016-s pulse of 60-Hz alternating current of 4 mA and 9,500 V. Power was turned off at night by a photoresistor. The trap functioned continuously for 14 d with an unrecharged 12-V, 18A/h lawn-tractor battery and killed as many as 4,000 flies per day. Solar cells were used to charge a single 12-V battery continuously that operated 12 grids for a period of 90 d. The grid did not short circuit for any length of time even during heavy rainstorms or when large insects were killed. The incorporation of moiré patterns and the utilization of the correct size, orientation, and placement of wires made the electrocuting grid itself attractive to stable flies. The traps were spaced at distances of up to 120 m from the battery and pulse circuit. The electrocuting traps were more effective than sticky traps and avoided the problems associated with chemicals. They are well suited for use around calf pens, dog kennels, or large animal shelters.

  10. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions.

  11. Modafinil maintains waking in the fruit fly drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Joan C; Kirk, David; Panckeri, Karen; Miller, Matthew S; Pack, Allan I

    2003-03-15

    Fruit flies exhibit a sleep-like rest state that shares behavioral characteristics with mammalian sleep, including a homeostatic increase in rest after deprivation by mechanical methods. We tested the effect of modafinil, a novel wake-promoting agent, to discover whether its effect is conserved. Flies fed various concentrations of modafinil were compared to groups of control flies fed diluent only. Flies were also tested for a homeostatic response to the modafinil-related rest deprivation by examining rest and activity during recovery after 48H modafinil administration, compared to rest deprivation alone and to both treatments combined. The duration and consolidation of rest, and the duration, intensity, and circadian rhythms of activity were measured. Modafinil significantly and dose-dependently decreased rest when fed at concentrations from 2.5 mg/ml to 0.3125 mg/ml. Activity intensity was not increased, and circadian timing was unchanged, although the 2.5 mg/ml dose blunted the amplitude of overt circadian locomotor rhythms. Compared to controls, the duration of rest bouts was decreased in flies fed 2.5 mg/ml, and waking was frequently interrupted by 5-min periods of immobility. A rest rebound (significant increase in rest) followed withdrawal of either 2.5mg/ml or 0.625mg/ml modafinil after 48H. When directly compared to 6H total rest deprivation, the increase after withdrawal was briefer, reminiscent of the attenuated rest rebound seen in mammals, including humans, after modafinil. However, modafinil withdrawal combined with 6H total rest deprivation significantly enhanced the rebound, suggesting that a rest debt is accumulating during modafinil. We conclude that modafinil affects states of arousal in Drosophila in the same direction as it does in mammals. This discovery provides a tool for searching for conserved molecular mechanisms by which modafinil regulates rest and waking.

  12. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  13. New records of Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants in western Montana, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...

  14. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii Mastsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted-wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the U.S. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies ...

  15. Emergence of blueberry maggot flies (Diptera: tephritidae) from mulches and soil at various depths.

    PubMed

    Renkema, J M; Lynch, D H; Cutler, G C; Mackenzie, K; Walde, S J

    2012-04-01

    Control of blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran, typically is achieved with insecticides targeting adult flies before females oviposit in ripening fruit. Management strategies targeting other life stages have received less attention. We tested effects of compost or pine needle mulches on emergence of blueberry maggot flies under laboratory and field conditions. Few flies emerged from pupae that were buried under 20 cm of pine needles in all experiments, but burial in 20 cm of compost did not always result in low fly emergence. Burial of pupae in 5 cm of compost or pine needles did not reduce fly emergence compared with 1 cm in soil. Low emergence with increased mulch depth appeared to be primarily because of failure of flies to ascend to the surface after they exited puparia. Low emergence also was associated with high moisture levels causing rotten, discolored pupae, particularly in the laboratory in compost. No flies emerged from pupae buried in 1 cm of pine needles in the field. In this case no flies exited puparia, likely because high temperatures (>30°C) at the surface killed pupae. Thus, mulch application under highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) after maggots drop from berries can reduce emergence success of flies from buried pupae, but the level of control will depend on mulch depth and may vary with rainfall and temperature.

  16. DNA barcoding of human-biting black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pramual, Pairot; Thaijarern, Jiraporn; Wongpakam, Komgrit

    2016-12-01

    Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important insect vectors and pests of humans and animals. Accurate identification, therefore, is important for control and management. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcoding sequences to test the efficiency of species identification for the human-biting black flies in Thailand. We used human-biting specimens because they enabled us to link information with previous studies involving the immature stages. Three black fly taxa, Simulium nodosum, S. nigrogilvum and S. doipuiense complex, were collected. The S. doipuiense complex was confirmed for the first time as having human-biting habits. The COI sequences revealed considerable genetic diversity in all three species. Comparisons to a COI sequence library of black flies in Thailand and in a public database indicated a high efficiency for specimen identification for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum, but this method was not successful for the S. doipuiense complex. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two divergent lineages in the S. doipuiense complex. Human-biting specimens formed a separate clade from other members of this complex. The results are consistent with the Barcoding Index Number System (BINs) analysis that found six BINs in the S. doipuiense complex. Further taxonomic work is needed to clarify the species status of these human-biting specimens.

  17. Effectiveness of Genes for Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Resistance in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Shukle, Richard H; Cambron, Sue E; Moniem, Hossam Abdel; Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Redding, Julie; David Buntin, G; Flanders, Kathy L; Reisig, Dominic D; Mohammadi, Mohsen

    2016-02-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is the most important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) in the southeastern United States, and the deployment of genetically resistant wheat is the most effective control. However, the use of resistant wheat results in the selection of pest genotypes that can overcome formerly resistant wheat. We have evaluated the effectiveness of 16 resistance genes for protection of wheat from Hessian fly infestation in the southeastern United States. Results documented that while 10 of the genes evaluated could provide protection of wheat, the most highly effective genes were H12, H18, H24, H25, H26, and H33. However, H12 and H18 have been reported to be only partially effective in field evaluations, and H24, H25, and H26 may be associated with undesirable effects on agronomic traits when introgressed into elite wheat lines. Thus, the most promising new gene for Hessian fly resistance appears to be H33. These results indicate that identified highly effective resistance in wheat to the Hessian fly is a limited resource and emphasize the need to identify novel sources of resistance. Also, we recommend that the deployment of resistance in gene pyramids and the development of novel strategies for engineered resistance be considered.

  18. Cloning, sequence identification and expression profile analysis of α-L-fucosidase gene from the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Intra, Jari; Perotti, Maria-Elisa; Pasini, Maria Enrica

    2011-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive agricultural pests, a polyphagus insect of relevant economic importance and is widespread in many regions around the world. It is the best-studied fruit fly pest at genetic and molecular level and much has been learned on its ecology and behaviour. An α-L-fucosidase has been recently hypothesized to be involved in sperm-egg interactions in Drosophila melanogaster and in other Drosophila species. Here, a complete cDNA encoding a putative α-L-fucosidase of the medfly was amplified using the reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with degenerate based on the conserved coding sequence information of several insect α-L-fucosidases, cloned and sequenced (GenBank accession no. FJ177429). The coding region consisted of 1482 bp which encoded a 485-residues protein (named CcFUCA) with a predicted molecular mass of 56.1 kDa. The deduced protein sequence showed 75% amino acid identity to D. melanogaster α-L-fucosidase, and in fact the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that CcFUCA had closer relationships with the α-L-fucosidases of drosophilid species. The tissue expression analysis indicated that CcFuca was expressed in a single transcript in all tissues, suggesting a ubiquitous localization pattern of the encoded protein. Our findings provide novel insights on a gene encoding a protein potentially involved in primary gamete interactions in C. capitata.

  19. Developmental variation and amino acid sequences of cytochromes c of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the flesh fly Boettcherisca peregrina.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Inoue, H; Hiroyoshi, T; Matsubara, H; Yamanaka, T

    1986-10-01

    The amino acid sequences of cytochromes c purified from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the flesh fly Boettcherisca peregrina were determined. In contrast with the case of the housefly, isocytochromes c were not detected in these flies at any developmental stage. The sequence of fruit fly cytochrome c differed from that reported previously but was identical with that predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the fruit fly cytochrome c gene (DC4) (Limbach, K.J. & Wu, R. (1985) Nucl. Acids Res. 13, 631-644). Isocytochrome c of the fruit fly, reported to be encoded by the DC3 gene, was not detected as a functional cytochrome c molecule.

  20. DNA barcoding of tropical black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pramual, Pairot; Adler, Peter H

    2014-03-01

    The ecological and medical importance of black flies drives the need for rapid and reliable identification of these minute, structurally uniform insects. We assessed the efficiency of DNA barcoding for species identification of tropical black flies. A total of 351 cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences were obtained from 41 species in six subgenera of the genus Simulium in Thailand. Despite high intraspecific genetic divergence (mean = 2.00%, maximum = 9.27%), DNA barcodes provided 96% correct identification. Barcodes also differentiated cytoforms of selected species complexes, albeit with varying levels of success. Perfect differentiation was achieved for two cytoforms of Simulium feuerborni, and 91% correct identification was obtained for the Simulium angulistylum complex. Low success (33%), however, was obtained for the Simulium siamense complex. The differential efficiency of DNA barcodes to discriminate cytoforms was attributed to different levels of genetic structure and demographic histories of the taxa. DNA barcode trees were largely congruent with phylogenies based on previous molecular, chromosomal and morphological analyses, but revealed inconsistencies that will require further evaluation.

  1. A field test for host fruit odour discrimination and avoidance behaviour for Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Sim, S B; Mattsson, M; Feder, Jasmine L; Cha, D H; Yee, W L; Goughnour, R B; Linn, C E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-05-01

    Prezygotic isolation due to habitat choice is important to many models of speciation-with-gene-flow. Habitat choice is usually thought to occur through positive preferences of organisms for particular environments. However, avoidance of non-natal environments may also play a role in choice and have repercussions for post-zygotic isolation that preference does not. The recent host shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern United States is a model for speciation-with-gene-flow. However, the fly is also present in the western United States where it was likely introduced via infested apples ≤ 60 years ago. R. pomonella now attacks two additional hawthorns in the west, the native C. douglasii (black hawthorn) and the introduced C. monogyna (English ornamental hawthorn). Flight tunnel tests have shown that western apple-, C. douglasii- and C. monogyna-origin flies all positively orient to fruit volatile blends of their respective natal hosts in flight tunnel assays. Here, we show that these laboratory differences translate to nature through field-trapping studies of flies in the state of Washington. Moreover, western R. pomonella display both positive orientation to their respective natal fruit volatiles and avoidance behaviour (negative orientation) to non-natal volatiles. Our results are consistent with the existence of behaviourally differentiated host races of R. pomonella in the west. In addition, the rapid evolution of avoidance behaviour appears to be a general phenomenon for R. pomonella during host shifts, as the eastern apple and downy hawthorn host races also are antagonized by non-natal fruit volatiles.

  2. Efficacy of the Suterra biolure individual female fruit fly attractant packages vs. the Unipak version

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of putrescine with ammonium acetate into one unit had no significant effect on the attractance of Caribbean fruit fly to trap(s) when compared with the individual BioLure dispseners. Additionally, there were no significant differences in attractancy to the Mediterranean fruit fly wh...

  3. Rearing, Importation, and Release of Psyttalia humilis for Biocontrol of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control using imported parasitoids can be used to reduce olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations in olives. In 2008-2010, we mass produced the olive fruit fly larval parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Silvestri), at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, laboratory in...

  4. Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

  5. Quality Testing of Three Species of Tephritid Fruit Flies After Embryo Cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates characteristics commonly used to define insect quality or fitness by using a complement of three species of tephritid fruit flies obtained from cryopreserved embryos. The Mexican, Anastrepah ludens, Caribbean, A. suspense, and Mediterranean, Certatitis capitata, fruit flies were...

  6. An Inquiry-Based Investigation of Modes of Inheritance Using "Flightless" Fruit Flies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Farland, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    The various strains of flightless fruit flies that were developed at the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) and an exercise that helps students in determining the inheritance pattern in the fruit fly mutant trait are described. The study and the resulting exercise helped the students in scientifically determining the two important aspects of…

  7. Quality testing of three species of Tephritid fruit flies after embryo cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates characteristics commonly used to define insect quality or fitness by using a complement of three species of tephritid fruit flies obtained from cryopreserved embryos. The Mexican, Anastrepah ludens, Caribbean, A. suspense, and Mediterranean, Certatitis capitata, fruit flies were...

  8. Equipment for transporting live black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliiae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.; Adkins, T.R.

    1971-01-01

    In studies relating to the biology and ecology of black flies, live larvae of at least 70 species of Simuliidae have been collected from their natural breeding sites and transported in containers with nonagitated water for short distances to the laboratory. One of us (Tarshis 1966) found, however, that even small numbers of simuliid larvae cannot survive in containers with nonagitated water for more than 6 hr. Additionally, when massive numbers of larvae are introduced into transport containers in which the water is not agitated, the larvae perish because they become entangled within the masses of silken threads they emit whenever disturbed (Tarshis and Neil 1970). Therefore, when transporting larvae long distances or when transporting large numbers of larvae any distance, it is essential to agitate the water in the transport containers.

  9. Measuring Drosophila (fruit fly) activity during microgravity exposure.

    PubMed

    Miller, M S; Keller, T S

    1999-07-01

    Important advances in the understanding of the aging process could be obtained through comprehension of the changes experienced by Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) during microgravity. Previous experiments flown on Cosmos satellites and various Space Shuttle missions have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. Additionally, postflight analysis indicated an accelerated aging of the microgravity exposed male flies since they exhibited a significant decrease in mating ability and a consistently lower negative geotaxis response than the 1 g ground controls. The negative geotaxis response is the Drosophila's reaction to move opposite to the Earth's gravitational vector when disturbed in certain manners. Researchers have hypothesized that the accelerated aging, is due to an increased locomotor activity which causes a subsequent increase in mitochondrial activity. The increased mitochondrial activity, in turn, causes increased aging through accelerated damage to the mitochondrial system. An increase in locomotor activity was indicated by analyzing only a fraction (1/6th of a second) of the 15 minute video recordings of groups of Drosophila taken approximately every two days during a 14-day Space Shuttle flight. The increased locomotor activity may be related to the Drosophila's negative geotaxis response in that the flies may be reacting to the absence of normal gravity by continuously searching for the gravity vector. The aims of this study are to develop methods to accurately measure individual Drosophila activity, use these derived methods in 1 g to create a Drosophila activity baseline, and use the methods during short and long duration microgravity exposure (sounding rockets, parabolic flights, Space Shuttle, International Space Station, etc.) to examine Drosophila activity. The role of the negative geotaxis response on locomotor activity will be examined by using two strains of behaviorally selected

  10. The forensically important blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is more likely to walk than fly to carrion at low light levels.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua L; Palermo, Nicholas A; Theobald, Jamie C; Wells, Jeffrey D

    2016-09-01

    One factor that influences estimates of time since death using entomological evidence is whether or not blow flies nocturnally oviposit. Field studies focusing on egg laying have found it occurs on an inconsistent basis. A key but poorly understood factor in nocturnal oviposition is a blow fly's ability to locate carrion under low light levels. It has been speculated that blow flies are more likely to walk than fly to carrion during the night, but this has not been empirically tested. We directly compared guided walking versus flying using infrared sensors under low light levels in laboratory conditions for Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a blow fly previously described to be nocturnal. We found C. megacephala is more likely to walk than fly toward carrion under low light levels (p=0.016). We did not, however, find differences between males and females for walking (p=0.48) or flying (p=0.42) despite male C. megacephala possessing eyes better suited for increased light capture. These results demonstrate the need to better understand where blow flies go at night, as bodies found within a fly's walking distance are more likely to be colonized.

  11. Preparation and Use of an Easily Constructed, Inexpensive Chamber for Viewing Courtship Behaviors of Fruit Flies, Drosophila sp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Timothy J.; Labov, Jay B.

    1997-01-01

    Details the construction of a viewing chamber for fruit flies that connects to a dissecting microscope and features a design that enables students to easily move fruit flies in and out of the chamber. (DDR)

  12. The adult head morphology of the hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Schneeberg, Katharina; Polilov, Alexey; Harris, Marion O; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-11-01

    The adult head of the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor was examined and described in detail. Morphological features are evaluated with respect to phylogenetic implications and possible effects of miniaturisation. Preserved groundplan features of Diptera are the orthognathous orientation of the head, the vestiture of small microtrichia (possible autapomorphy), filiform antennae inserted frontally between the compound eyes, the presence of a clypeolabral muscle (possible autapomorphy), the presence of labellae (autapomorphy), and the presence of only one premental retractor. Potential synapomorphies of the groups assigned to Bibionomorpha are the origin of M. tentorioscapalis medialis on the frons and the loss of M. craniolacinialis. Further apomorphies of Cecidomyiidae identified in Mayetiola are the unusually massive anterior tentorial arm, the absence of the labro-epipharyngeal food channel, the absence of the lacinia, and the presence of antennal sensilla connected by a seta, a feature not known from any other group of Diptera. The very large size of the compound eyes (in relation to the entire head surface) and the complete loss of ocelli are possible effects of miniaturization. The large size of the brain (in relation to the cephalic lumen), the unusual shape of the optic lobes, and the absence of the frontal ganglion as a separate structure are probably also linked with size reduction.

  13. Temporal and spatial variation in infestation of fruit by Anastrepha spp. in Puerto Rico: Support for a fruit fly-free zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If Puerto Rico could establish and maintain a fruit fly-free zone in a portion of the island, growers could then export that fruit without expensive post-harvest measures, as well as dramatically increase the locations where they could export this fruit. Key in establishing a fruit fly-free zone is ...

  14. Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): a review

    PubMed Central

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Muenworn, Vithee; Desquesnes, Marc; Desoli, Florian; Charoenviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Duvallet, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Stomoxys flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens present in the blood and skin of their animal hosts, especially livestock, but occasionally humans. In livestock, their direct effects are disturbance, skin lesions, reduction of food intake, stress, blood loss, and a global immunosuppressive effect. They also induce the gathering of animals for mutual protection; meanwhile they favor development of pathogens in the hosts and their transmission. Their indirect effect is the mechanical transmission of pathogens. In case of interrupted feeding, Stomoxys can re-start their blood meal on another host. When injecting saliva prior to blood-sucking, they can inoculate some infected blood remaining on their mouthparts. Beside this immediate transmission, it was observed that Stomoxys may keep some blood in their crop, which offers a friendly environment for pathogens that could be regurgitated during the next blood meal; thus a delayed transmission by Stomoxys seems possible. Such a mechanism has a considerable epidemiological impact since it allows inter-herd transmission of pathogens. Equine infectious anemia, African swine fever, West Nile, and Rift Valley viruses are known to be transmitted by Stomoxys, while others are suspected. Rickettsia (Anaplasma, Coxiella), other bacteria and parasites (Trypanosoma spp., Besnoitia spp.) are also transmitted by Stomoxys. Finally, Stomoxys was also found to act as an intermediate host of the helminth Habronema microstoma and may be involved in the transmission of some Onchocerca and Dirofilaria species. Being cosmopolite, Stomoxys calcitrans might have a worldwide and greater impact than previously thought on animal and human pathogen transmission. PMID:23985165

  15. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera, phoridae) is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint. PMID:26207192

  16. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development.

    PubMed

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption.

  17. Chemotaxonomic Profile and Intraspecific Variation in the Blow Fly of Forensic Interest Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Paula, Michele C; Antonialli-Junior, William F; Mendonça, Angélica; Michelutti, Kamylla B; Eulalio, Aylson D M M; Cardoso, Claudia A L; de Lima, Thiago; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2017-01-01

    Necrophagous insects such as blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered crucial in forensic entomology. Identification at species level and determination of larval stage are the basis for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Insect evidence can also be used in the determination of crime scenes, since body displacement is common. The aim of this study was to determine the chemotaxonomic profile and intraspecific variability of the forensically important blow fly Chrysomya megacephala (F. 1794). Adults were collected in the municipalities of Dourados-MS (Brazil) and Rio Claro-SP (Brazil), and then transferred to the laboratory for oviposition and development of the immature stages. Chemical analysis of cuticular compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Cuticular chemical profiles varied significantly between the two populations, as well as between developmental stages, supporting the use of these compounds as a complementary tool to help identify the species and its stages, along with geographical variability. This could greatly accelerate forensic investigations, eliminating the need to allow the fly larvae to develop until adult stage in order to confirm the species identity and sample origin.

  18. DNA-based characterisation and classification of forensically important flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siew Hwa; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Mohd-Aris, Edah; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2010-06-15

    Insect larvae and adult insects found on human corpses provide important clues for the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI). Among all necrophagous insects, flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are considered as carrion flies of forensic importance. DNA variations of 17 Malaysian, two Indonesian and one Japanese flesh fly species are analysed using the mitochondrial COI and COII. These two DNA regions were useful for identifying most species experimented. However, characterisation of the species was not sufficiently made in the case of Sarcophaga javanica. Seventeen Malaysian species of forensic importance were successfully clustered into distinct clades and grouped into the six species groups: peregrina, albiceps, dux, pattoni, princeps and ruficornis. These groups correspond with generic or subgeneric taxa of the subfamily Sarcophaginae: Boettcherisca, Parasarcophaga, Liosarcophaga, Sarcorohdendorfia-Lioproctia, Harpagophalla-Seniorwhitea and Liopygia. The genetic variations found in COI and COII can be applied not only to identify the species of forensic importance, but also to understand the taxonomic positions, generic or subgeneric status, of the sarcophagine species.

  19. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Zelda R.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  20. Effectiveness comparison of multiple sticky-trap configurations for sampling Pseudacteon spp. phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae).

    PubMed

    Puckett, R T; Calixto, A A; Reed, J J; McDonald, D L; Drees, B Bart; Gold, R E

    2013-08-01

    A variety of traps have been developed for monitoring introduced populations of Pseudacteon spp. phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae) across their established range in the United States. Such traps typically exploit common aspects of phorid fly biology and behavior, such as their attraction to live or dead red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as well as the perching behavior of these parasitoids. However, populations of multiple species of phorid flies have been established in the United States to serve as biological control agents against S. invicta, and it is unclear if all trap designs are equally effective in sampling this variety of phorid species. This study investigated the effectiveness of six trap designs simultaneously during three sampling events in south-central Texas. Interactions between two species of phorid flies (Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier and P. curvatus B.) and their hosts have been intensively studied at this location for over eight years. When analyzed independently, there were no significant differences in the mean number of P. curvatus or P. tricuspis phorids collected by any of the trap designs during any of the sampling events. However, when the total number of phorids collected were combined, significant trap performance differentials were observed during the October 2010 sampling event. Furthermore, there were significant differences among male flies during the September 2012 observation. Additionally, a trap component cost comparison is provided. The consistent and relatively equivalent performance of the phorid traps investigated in these trials suggests that all are appropriate for phorid surveillance, and cost and ease-of-use considerations may be the most important criteria when selecting a trap design.

  1. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.

  2. 75 FR 12961 - Regulation of the Interstate Movement of Lemons from Areas Quarantined for Mediterranean Fruit Fly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Mediterranean Fruit Fly AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the list of regulated articles in our domestic fruit fly quarantine regulations. The... commercial packinghouses are not regulated articles for Mediterranean fruit fly. We are amending...

  3. Review of Australasian spider flies (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a revision of Panops Lamarck

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Australasian spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are reviewed, with all eight currently recognized genera diagnosed and figured. The panopine genus Panops Lamarck, 1804 from Australia and Indonesia is revised with four new species described, increasing the total number of species in the genus to nine: Panops aurum sp. n., Panops danielsi sp. n., Panops jade sp. n. and Panops schlingeri sp. n. Five species of Panops are redescribed: Panops austrae Neboiss, 1971, Panops baudini Lamarck, 1804, Panops boharti (Schlinger, 1959), comb. n., Panops conspicuus (Brunetti, 1926) and Panops grossi (Neboiss, 1971), comb. n. The monotypic genera Neopanops Schlinger, 1959 and Panocalda Neboiss, 1971 are synonymized with Panops. Keys to genera of Australasian Acroceridae and species of Panops, Helle Osten Sacken, 1896 and Australasian Pterodontia Gray, 1832 are included. PMID:22448114

  4. Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum, a new species of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2013-05-01

    Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Maewa National Park, Lampang Province, Thailand. This new species represents the fourth member of the subgenus Asiosimulium Takaoka & Chochoote, one of two small black fly subgenera endemic in the Oriental Region. It is characterized by a pear-shaped spermatheca in the female; a ventral plate in the male with a laterally compressed median keel directed ventrally and with a deep notch posteromedially, and aedeagal membrane with stout spines; and by 22 gill filaments in the pupa. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from three known species, Simulium (Asiosimulium) oblongum Takaoka & Choochote and Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, both from Thailand, and Simulium (Asiosimulium) suchitrae Takaoka from Nepal.

  5. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

  6. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  7. A normative theory of forgetting: lessons from the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system.

  8. Mate choice in fruit flies is rational and adaptive

    PubMed Central

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Fedina, Tatyana Y.; Pletcher, Scott D.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

    2017-01-01

    According to rational choice theory, beneficial preferences should lead individuals to sort available options into linear, transitive hierarchies, although the extent to which non-human animals behave rationally is unclear. Here we demonstrate that mate choice in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster results in the linear sorting of a set of diverse isogenic female lines, unambiguously demonstrating the hallmark of rational behaviour, transitivity. These rational choices are associated with direct benefits, enabling males to maximize offspring production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that female behaviours and cues act redundantly in mate detection and assessment, as rational mate choice largely persists when visual or chemical sensory modalities are impaired, but not when both are impaired. Transitivity in mate choice demonstrates that the quality of potential mates varies significantly among genotypes, and that males and females behave in such a way as to facilitate adaptive mate choice. PMID:28094789

  9. A Normative Theory of Forgetting: Lessons from the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system. PMID:24901935

  10. Phylogenetic radiation of the greenbottle flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Luciliinae)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kirstin A.; Lamb, Jennifer; Villet, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The subfamily Luciliinae is diverse and geographically widespread. Its four currently recognised genera (Dyscritomyia Grimshaw, 1901, Hemipyrellia Townsend, 1918, Hypopygiopsis Townsend 1916 and Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) contain species that range from saprophages to obligate parasites, but their pattern of phylogenetic diversification is unclear. The 28S rRNA, COI and Period genes of 14 species of Lucilia and Hemipyrellia were partially sequenced and analysed together with sequences of 11 further species from public databases. The molecular data confirmed molecular paraphyly in three species-pairs in Lucilia that hamper barcode identifications of those six species. Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina were confirmed as mutual sister species. The placements of Dyscritomyia and Hypopygiopsis were ambiguous, since both made Lucilia paraphyletic in some analyses. Recognising Hemipyrellia as a genus consistently left Lucilia s.l. paraphyletic, and the occasionally-recognised (sub)genus Phaenicia was consistently paraphyletic, so these taxa should be synonymised with Lucilia to maintain monophyly. Analysis of a matrix of 14 morphological characters scored for adults of all genera and for most of the species included in the molecular analysis confirmed several of these findings. The different degrees of parasitism were phylogenetically clustered within this genus but did not form a graded series of evolutionary stages, and there was no particular relationship between feeding habits and biogeography. Because of the ubiquity of hybridization, introgression and incomplete lineage sorting in blow flies, we recommend that using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers should be a procedural standard for medico-criminal forensic identifications of insects. PMID:27103874

  11. Phylogenetic radiation of the greenbottle flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Luciliinae).

    PubMed

    Williams, Kirstin A; Lamb, Jennifer; Villet, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Luciliinae is diverse and geographically widespread. Its four currently recognised genera (Dyscritomyia Grimshaw, 1901, Hemipyrellia Townsend, 1918, Hypopygiopsis Townsend 1916 and Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) contain species that range from saprophages to obligate parasites, but their pattern of phylogenetic diversification is unclear. The 28S rRNA, COI and Period genes of 14 species of Lucilia and Hemipyrellia were partially sequenced and analysed together with sequences of 11 further species from public databases. The molecular data confirmed molecular paraphyly in three species-pairs in Lucilia that hamper barcode identifications of those six species. Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina were confirmed as mutual sister species. The placements of Dyscritomyia and Hypopygiopsis were ambiguous, since both made Lucilia paraphyletic in some analyses. Recognising Hemipyrellia as a genus consistently left Lucilia s.l. paraphyletic, and the occasionally-recognised (sub)genus Phaenicia was consistently paraphyletic, so these taxa should be synonymised with Lucilia to maintain monophyly. Analysis of a matrix of 14 morphological characters scored for adults of all genera and for most of the species included in the molecular analysis confirmed several of these findings. The different degrees of parasitism were phylogenetically clustered within this genus but did not form a graded series of evolutionary stages, and there was no particular relationship between feeding habits and biogeography. Because of the ubiquity of hybridization, introgression and incomplete lineage sorting in blow flies, we recommend that using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers should be a procedural standard for medico-criminal forensic identifications of insects.

  12. Host status of Vaccinium reticulatum (Ericaceae) to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T

    2011-04-01

    Ohelo (Vaccicinium reticulatum Small) (Ericaceae) is a native Hawaiian plant that has commercial potential in Hawaii as a nursery crop to be transplanted for berry production or for sale as a potted ornamental. No-choice infestation studies were conducted to determine whether ohelo fruit are hosts for four invasive tephritid fruit fly species. Ohelo berries were exposed to gravid female flies ofBactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly),or Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in screen cages outdoors for 24 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Only B. dorsalis successfully attacked and developed in ohelo berries. In total, 1570 berries produced 10 puparia, all of which emerged as adults, for a fruit infestation rate of 0.0064% and an average of 0.0053 puparia per gram of fruit. By comparison, papaya fruit used as controls produced an average of 1.44 B. dorsalis puparia per g of fruit. Ohelo berry is a marginal host for B. dorsalis and apparently a nonhost for C. capitata, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons. Commercial plantings of ohelo will rarely be attacked by fruit flies in Hawaii.

  13. Vetufebrus ovatus n. gen., n. sp. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) vectored by a streblid bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae) in Dominican amber

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Both sexes of bat flies in the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) reside in the hair or on the wing membranes of bats and feed on blood. Members of the Nycteribiidae transmit bat malaria globally however extant streblids have never been implemented as vectors of bat malaria. The present study shows that during the Tertiary, streblids also were vectors of bat malaria. Results A new haemospororidan, Vetufebrus ovatus, n. gen., n. sp., (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) is described from two oocysts attached to the midgut wall and sporozoites in salivary glands and ducts of a fossil bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae) in Dominican amber. The new genus is characterized by ovoid oocysts, short, stubby sporozoites with rounded ends and its occurrence in a fossil streblid. This is the first haemosporidian reported from a streblid bat fly and shows that representatives of the Hippoboscoidea were vectoring bat malaria in the New World by the mid-Tertiary. Conclusions This report is the first evidence of an extant or extinct streblid bat fly transmitting malaria. Discovering a mid-tertiary malarial parasite in a fossil streblid that closely resembles members of a malarial genus found in nycteribiid bat flies today shows how little we know about the vector associations of streblids. While no malaria parasites have been found in extant streblids, they probably occur and it is possible that streblids were the earliest lineage of flies that transmitted bat malaria to Chiroptera. PMID:22152687

  14. Using Frons Width to Differentiate Blow Fly Species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Phormia regina (Meigen) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy).

    PubMed

    Langer, Sarah V; Kyle, Christopher J; Beresford, David V

    2017-03-01

    Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are morphologically similar blow fly species commonly used for estimating postmortem intervals. Field collection and storage of adults can result in color changes, in particular on calypters and palps; often collected specimens show damage such as wing fray or fungal growth. We measured the frons width: total head width ratio using photographs (ImageJ version 1.49) to differentiate these two species. Both sexes were distinguishable to species, with the greatest difference between males: 12.34% P. terraenovae versus 1.62% P. regina, less so for females: 40.25% P. terraenovae, versus 33.65% P. regina. Incorporating this feature into future blow fly keys would help with distinguishing field-caught specimens when other features are obstructed.

  15. Mitochondrial genome sequences of Nematocera (lower Diptera): evidence of rearrangement following a complete genome duplication in a winter crane fly.

    PubMed

    Beckenbach, Andrew T

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight representatives of lower Diptera, suborder Nematocera, along with nearly complete sequences from two other species, are presented. These taxa represent eight families not previously represented by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Most of the sequences retain the ancestral dipteran mitochondrial gene arrangement, while one sequence, that of the midge Arachnocampa flava (family Keroplatidae), has an inversion of the trnE gene. The most unusual result is the extensive rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of a winter crane fly, Paracladura trichoptera (family Trichocera). The pattern of rearrangement indicates that the mechanism of rearrangement involved a tandem duplication of the entire mitochondrial genome, followed by random and nonrandom loss of one copy of each gene. Another winter crane fly retains the ancestral diperan gene arrangement. A preliminary mitochondrial phylogeny of the Diptera is also presented.

  16. The Knight Stick Trap and Knight Stick Sticky Wraps: New Tools for Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Management.

    PubMed

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Kline, Daniel L

    2017-03-20

    Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), management can be difficult, especially in situations where pesticide usage is restricted or disallowed. Traps have been used for monitoring stable flies, but have rarely been used for management. The Knight Stick (KS) trap recently became available, and preliminary studies indicated that it might be an improvement to traps currently in use. The Olson Sticky Fly trap was chosen as the control trap for the purpose of comparisons. Both traps attract stable flies by alteration of light waves and capture flies on a sticky wrap covering the trap base. The KS trap captured 3× more stable flies than the Olson trap, whereas the Olson trap base covered with the KS Sticky wrap captured 3-5× more stable flies than the Olson trap base with the standard Olson Sticky wrap. This indicated inherent attraction from the KS Sticky wrap. This was supported when KS Tank wraps, a larger version of the KS Sticky wraps, applied to 51 kg of liquid propane (LP) tanks on Mosquito Magnet Independence traps producing CO2, captured significantly more stable flies and significantly more stable flies per square centimeter of sticky wrap than Olson Sticky Sleeve wraps applied to the LP tanks. In a final study, when two configurations of KS Tank wraps were applied to white plastic barrels and compared with three standard KS traps, mean numbers of stable flies captured were numerically similar. The significance of findings and potential uses for the traps are discussed.

  17. Direct Multiplex PCR (dmPCR) for the Identification of Six Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae), Including Major Leishmania Vectors of the Mediterranean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...

  18. Population structure of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) assessed on a global scale using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of livestock in the United States and worldwide. To assess the genetic variability in geographically distant stable flies, samples were obtained from four biogeographical regions: Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, and Aus...

  19. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers.

  20. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Chen, Kehui; Liedo, Pablo; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Morice, Amy E; Carey, James R

    2015-03-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males' access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability.

  1. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens

    PubMed Central

    HARWOOD, JAMES F.; CHEN, KEHUI; LIEDO, PABLO; MÜLLER, HANS-GEORG; WANG, JANE-LING; MORICE, AMY E.; CAREY, JAMES R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males’ access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability. PMID:25709143

  2. Influence of habitat pattern on orientation during host fruit location in the tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens.

    PubMed

    Brévault, T; Quilici, S

    2007-12-01

    Fruit flies have evolved mechanisms using olfactory and visual signals to find and recognize suitable host plants. The objective of the present study was to determine how habitat patterns may assist fruit flies in locating host plants and fruit. The tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens (Bezzi), was chosen as an example of a specialized fruit fly, attacking plants of the Solanaceae family. A series of experiments was conducted in an outdoor field cage wherein flies were released and captured on sticky orange and yellow spheres displayed in pairs within or above potted host or non-host plants. Bright orange spheres mimicking host fruit were significantly more attractive than yellow spheres only when placed within the canopy of host plants and not when either within non-host plants or above both types of plants. Additional experiments combining sets of host and non-host plants in the same cage, or spraying leaf extract of host plant (bug weed) on non-host plants showed that volatile cues emitted by the foliage of host plants may influence the visual response of flies in attracting mature females engaged in a searching behaviour for a laying site and in assisting them to find the host fruit. Moreover, the response was specific to mature females with a high oviposition drive because starved mature females, immature females and males showed no significant preference for orange spheres. Olfactory signals emitted by the host foliage could be an indicator of an appropriate habitat, leading flies to engage in searching for a visual image.

  3. Diversification in Hawaiian long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Campsicnemus): biogeographic isolation and ecological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; Evenhuis, Neal L; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Flies in the genus Campsicnemus have diversified into the second-largest adaptive radiation of Diptera in the Hawaiian Islands, with 179 Hawaiian endemic species currently described. Here we present the first phylogenetic analysis of Campsicnemus, with a focus on the Hawaiian fauna. We analyzed a combination of two nuclear (CAD, EF1α) and five mitochondrial (COI, COII, 12S, 16S, ND2) loci using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Campsicnemus. Our sampling included a total of 84 species (6 species from Europe, 1 from North America, 7 species from French Polynesia and 70 species from the Hawaiian Islands). The phylogenies were used to estimate divergence times, reconstruct biogeographic history, and infer ancestral ecological associations within this large genus. We found strong support for a South Pacific+Hawaiian clade, as well as for a monophyletic Hawaiian lineage. Divergence time estimates suggest that Hawaiian Islands were colonized approximately 4.6 million years ago, suggesting that most of the diversity within Campsicnemus evolved since the current high islands began forming ∼5 million years ago. We also observe a novel ecotype within the Pacific Campsicnemus; a widespread obligate water-skating form that has arisen multiple times across the Pacific Islands. Together, these analyses suggest that a combination of ecological, biogeographic and temporal factors have led to the impressive diversity of long-legged flies in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific.

  4. Baby Killers: Documentation and Evolution of Scuttle Fly (Diptera: Phoridae) Parasitism of Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Brood

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brian V.; Hash, John M.; Porras, Wendy; Amorim, Dalton de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous well-documented associations occur among species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), but examples of brood parasitism are rare and the mechanisms of parasitism often remain unsubstantiated. New information We present two video-documented examples of ant brood (larvae and pupae) parasitism by scuttle flies. In footage from Estação Biológica de Boracéia in Brazil, adult females of Ceratoconus setipennis Borgmeier can be seen attacking workers of Linepithema humile (Mayr) species group while they are carrying brood, and ovipositing directly onto brood in the nest. In another remarkable example, footage from the Soltis Center, near Peñas Blancas in Costa Rica, shows adult females of an unidentified species of the Apocephalus grandipalpus Borgmeier group mounting Pheidole Westwood brood upside-down and ovipositing while the brood are being transported by workers. Analysis of evolutionary relationships (in preparation) among Apocephalus Coquillett species shows that this is a newly derived behavior within the genus, as the A. grandipalpus group arises within a group of adult ant parasitoids. In contrast, relationships of Ceratoconus Borgmeier have not been studied, and the lifestyles of the other species in the genus are largely unknown. PMID:28325980

  5. Morphology and identification of first instars of African blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) commonly of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Villet, Martin H

    2011-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy images of the first instars of Calliphora croceipalpis Jaennicke, 1876; Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, 1818); Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann, 1830); and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are presented for the first time, and the following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antenna, maxillary palpus, facial mask, labial lobe, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles, and anal pads. Light microscopy photographs and line illustrations are provided for the cephaloskeleton in lateral and ventral views, and the "ectostomal sclerite" and "chitinized teeth" of the cephaloskeleton are recognized as integral parts of the mouthhooks. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. These results allow refinement, clarification, and correction of earlier descriptions, which are reviewed. The relative taxonomic importance of various morphological characters of the first instars of necrophagous blow flies is discussed, and details of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are highlighted as the characters most useful for species identification. Finally, a key for identifying first instars of common African carrion blow flies is provided.

  6. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  7. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year

  8. Laboratory Colonization of the Blow Flies, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Swiger, Sonja Lise; Hogsette, Jerome A; Butler, Jerry F

    2014-10-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were colonized so that larval growth rates could be compared. Colonies were also established to provide insight into the protein needs of adult C. rufifacies and developmental rates of the ensuing larvae. The C. megacephala and C. rufifacies laboratory colonies were reared for five and six generations, respectively, at 28°C. C. megacephala developmental mean rate from egg to adult was 20.4 ± 0.38 d. First-instar larvae emerge in 1.4 ± 0.24 d, second-instar larvae develop in 2.6 ± 0.38 d and third instars occur at 6.3 ± 0.72 d. Development from egg to pupation occurred in 12 ± 1.10 d. C. rufifacies developed at a mean rate of 16.2 ± 0.78 d from egg to adult emergence. Each stage occurred in succession from first-instar larvae 1.1 ± 0.25 d, second-instar larvae developed 2.3 ± 0.25 d later, and the third-instar larvae developed 5.7 ± 0.41 d later. The larvae pupated 10.0 ± 0.57 d after oviposition. Both of these flies can be collected in the wild and easily colonized using conditioned chicken as an oviposition and larval medium. C. megacephala apparently prefers a lower development and maintenance temperature than C. rufifacies, as evidenced by the high pupal mortality. Laboratory-reared C. rufifacies benefited from bloodmeal as a protein supplement to enhance egg production. C. rufifacies larvae were not observed preying on each other and additional larval species were not provided to serve as prey.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong-Bo; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jia, Fu-Xian; Hu, Fei; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most economically important pests in the world, causing serious damage to fruit production. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its development and its ability to resist insecticides. Analysis of the B. dorsalis transcriptome and its expression profile data is essential to extending the genetic information resources on this species, providing a shortcut that will support studies on B. dorsalis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using short read sequencing technology (Illumina). The results generated 484,628 contigs, 70,640 scaffolds, and 49,804 unigenes. Of those unigenes, 27,455 (55.13%) matched known proteins in the NCBI database, as determined by BLAST search. Clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene orthology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations were performed to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Genes related to insecticide resistance were analyzed in additional detail. Digital gene expression (DGE) libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (eggs, third-instar larvae, pupae, and adults). To confirm the DGE results, the expression profiles of six randomly selected genes were analyzed. Conclusion/Significance This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of B. dorsalis and makes a huge number of gene sequences available for further study, including both genes of known importance and genes of unknown function. The DGE data provide comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different developmental stages. This facilitates the study of the role of each gene in the developmental process and in insecticide resistance. PMID:22195006

  10. Evaluation of Food Lures for Capture and Monitoring of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Temperate Fruit Trees.

    PubMed

    Rosa, J M da; Arioli, C J; Santos, J P Dos; Menezes-Netto, A C; Botton, M

    2017-03-16

    The Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the main pest of fruit trees grown in temperate climates in the southern region of Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the major commercial food lures used in Brazil for trapping and monitoring of A. fraterculus in plum, pear, and feijoa orchards. The assessed lures were hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin (CeraTrap) and plant origin (BioAnastrepha), torula yeast + borax (Torula), and grape juice. Response variables included the rate of adult capture (flies per trap per day, FTD) and the percentage of females captured. We also evaluated the number of times the weekly capture rate exceeded the traditional threshold of 0.5 FTD for each lure. Traps baited with grape juice, currently used for monitoring A. fraterculus in Southern Brazil, captured fewer adults and a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures. CeraTrap trapped a greater number of A. fraterculus adults and, in some cases, a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures in pears. Traps baited with CeraTrap had greater capture rates (FTD), particularly during the stages of fruit maturation and harvest, and even in years with low population density of A. fraterculus, thus demonstrating greater sensitivity in the detection of this pest. These results show that, in order to detect and monitor the presence of A. fraterculus in plum, feijoa, and pear crops, protein-based lures are superior to grape juice, especially the animal protein CeraTrap.

  11. Wrinkled Peas and White-Eyed Fruit Flies: The Molecular Basis of Two Classical Genetic Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoile, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on bridging the gap between classical and molecular genetics for two traits: wrinkled seeds in garden peas and white eye color in fruit flies. Discusses the molecular details of the underlying basis of these traits. Contains 15 references. (JRH)

  12. A Plain English Map of the Chromosomes of the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the chromosomes of the fruit fly that contains genes from very different kinds of studies. Represents the work of nearly a century by thousands of researchers using a tremendous variety of techniques. (JRH)

  13. Growing diversity of trypanosomatid parasites of flies (Diptera: Brachycera): frequent cosmopolitism and moderate host specificity.

    PubMed

    Týč, Jiří; Votýpka, Jan; Klepetková, Helena; Suláková, Hana; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius

    2013-10-01

    Widely distributed, highly prevalent and speciose, trypanosomatid flagellates represent a convenient model to address topics such as host specificity, diversity and distribution of parasitic protists. Recent studies dealing with insect parasites of the class Kinetoplastea have been focused mainly on trypanosomatids from true bugs (Heteroptera), even though flies (Diptera, Brachycera) are also known as their frequent hosts. Phylogenetic position, host specificity and geographic distribution of trypanosomatids parasitizing dipteran hosts collected in nine countries on four continents (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea and Turkey) are presented. Spliced leader (SL) RNA gene repeats and small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were PCR amplified from trypanosomatids infecting the gut of a total of forty fly specimens belonging to nine families. While SL RNA was mainly used for barcoding, SSU rRNA was utilized in phylogenetic analyses. Thirty-six different typing units (TUs) were revealed, of which 24 are described for the first time and represent potential new species. Multiple infections with several TUs are more common among brachyceran hosts than in true bugs, reaching one third of cases. When compared to trypanosomatids from heteropteran bugs, brachyceran flagellates are more host specific on the genus level. From seven previously recognized branches of monoxenous trypanosomatids, the Blastocrithidia and "jaculum" clades accommodate almost solely parasites of Heteroptera; two other clades (Herpetomonas and Angomonas) are formed primarily by flagellates found in dipteran hosts, with the most species-rich Leishmaniinae and the small Strigomonas and "collosoma" clades remaining promiscuous. Furthermore, two new clades of trypanosomatids from brachyceran flies emerged in this study. While flagellates from brachyceran hosts have moderate to higher host specificity, geographic distribution of at least some of them seems to be

  14. The tympanal hearing organ of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea (Diptera, Tachinidae, Ormiini).

    PubMed

    Robert, D; Read, M P; Hoy, R R

    1994-01-01

    Tympanate hearing has evolved in at least 6 different orders of insects, but had not been reported until recently in the Diptera. This study presents a newly discovered tympanal hearing organ, in the parasitoid tachinid fly, Ormia ochracea. The hearing organ is described in terms of external and internal morphology, cellular organization of the sensory organ and preliminary neuroanatomy of the primary auditory afferents. The ear is located on the frontal face of the prothorax, directly behind the head capsule. Conspicuously visible are a pair of thin cuticular membranes specialized for audition, the prosternal tympanal membranes. Directly attached to these membranes, within the enlarged prosternal chamber, are a pair of auditory sensory organs, the bulbae acusticae. These sensory organs are unique among all auditory organs known so far because both are contained within an unpartitioned acoustic chamber. The prosternal chamber is connected to the outside by a pair of tracheae. The cellular anatomy of the fly's scolopophorous organ was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The bulba acustica is a typical chordotonal organ and it contains approximately 70 receptor cells. It is similar to other insect sensory organs associated with tympanal ears. The similarity of the cellular organization and tympanal morphology of the ormiine ear to the ears of other tympanate insects suggests that there are potent constraints in the design features of tympanal hearing organs, which must function to detect high frequency auditory signals over long distances. Each sensory organ is innervated by a branch of the frontal nerve of the fused thoracic ganglia. The primary auditory afferents project to each of the pro-, meso-, and metathoracic neuropils. The fly's hearing organ is sexually dimorphic, whereby the tympanal membranes are larger in females and the spiracles larger in males. The dimorphism presumably reflects differences in the acoustic behavior in the two sexes.

  15. 70 years of radiation genetics: Fruit flies, mice and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.

    1997-03-01

    Radiation protection`s function is to protect society from the potential hazards that might occur through the human use of radiation, whether it be from energy production, medical uses or other sources of exposure. To do so, various scientific bodies are called upon to develop risk estimates which will provide society with adequate protection to the adverse effects of radiation, as best we can understand those adverse affects. Geneticists have the added burden, in that they must attempt to provide protection not only to the offspring of the present generation but also for all subsequent generations. While most of us have difficulty in thinking of effects that might be manifest only one or two generations into the future, some have projected potential risks for 50 to 100 generations. Here the author reviews work on fruit flies and mice, and studies of human exposures, which has provided much of the foundational information upon which geneticists can derive conclusions with regard to radiation protection questions.

  16. Dynamics of Social Behavior in Fruit Fly Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Durisko, Zachary; Kemp, Rebecca; Mubasher, Rameeshay; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the extent and dynamics of social interactions among fruit fly larvae over time. Both a wild-type laboratory population and a recently-caught strain of larvae spontaneously formed social foraging groups. Levels of aggregation initially increased during larval development and then declined with the wandering stage before pupation. We show that larvae aggregated more on hard than soft food, and more at sites where we had previously broken the surface of the food. Groups of larvae initiated burrowing sooner than solitary individuals, indicating that one potential benefit of larval aggregations is an improved ability to dig and burrow into the food substrate. We also show that two closely related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, differ in their tendency to aggregate, which may reflect different evolutionary histories. Our protocol for quantifying social behavior in larvae uncovered robust social aggregations in this simple model, which is highly amenable to neurogenetic analyses, and can serve for future research into the mechanisms and evolution of social behavior. PMID:24740198

  17. Grazing trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and their paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications for the fossil record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Claps, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Recent trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were examined in a shallow pond in the floodplain of a braided river in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina. Collected specimens were identified as Stratiomys convexa van der Wulp. Simple, irregularly meandering trails were produced across the surface of a muddy-silty substrate. Since soldier fly larvae extend their caudal respiratory tube to the water-air interface, they are restricted to extremely shallow water. The presence of benthic algal remains within the mouthparts of the larvae suggests a feeding habit of algal grazing. If preserved, these trails would be included in the ichnogenus Helminthopsis, a common element in ancient freshwater ichnofaunas. Helminthopsis preserved in pond and lacustrine margin deposits younger than Late Jurassic is regarded as one possible trace fossil analogue of the trails documented herein. Additionally, it is suggested that larvae of many aquatic Diptera with similar ecologic restrictions are potential tracemakers of Helminthopsis and other simple trails in these environments, particularly in post-Paleozoic deposits. Studies of modern shallow aquatic habitats and reexamination of the ichnologic record stress the importance of fly larvae as tracemakers in lake margin and pond ecosystems. Ecologic requirements of soldier fly larvae make them inappropriate analogues of Helminthopsis tracemakers in deeper water, lacustrine settings. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.

  18. Lethal effects of the insect growth regulator cyromazine against three species of filth flies, Musca domestica L., Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), and Fannia canicularis (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) in cattle, swine, and chicken manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various species of so-called filth flies are a widespread problem where livestock, including poultry, is maintained and where manure accumulates. The house fly, Musca domestica L.; the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.); and the little house fly, Fannia canicularis (L.) (each Diptera: Muscidae), t...

  19. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  20. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  1. A Systems Approach to Mitigate Oriental Fruit Fly Risk in ‘Sharwil’ Avocados Exported From Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocados, Persea americana Miller, grown in Hawaii cannot be exported to the United States mainland without quarantine treatment for melon fly, oriental fruit fly, and Mediterranean fruit fly. The most widely grown cultivar of avocado in Hawaii is ‘Sharwil’. ‘Sharwil’, like other avocado varieties, ...

  2. Carambola Cultivar, Fruit Ripeness, and Damage by Conspecific Larvae Influence the Host-Related Behaviors of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits.

  3. Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T

    2011-01-01

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) populations. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. In an area-wide B. cucurbitae suppression trial, the question was raised as to whether cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), could be used as a B. cucurbitae roosting host. M. esculenta was of interest as a roosting host because, in contrast to many other identified preferred roosting hosts, it would also be a crop potentially increasing the productivity of the crop production system overall. As a short-lived and shrubby perennial, M. esculenta potentially constitutes a crop with more persistent roosting foliage than an annual crop such as corn, Zea mays L. (Cyperales: Poaceae), that has often been planted as a roosting host for B. cucurbitae control. Using protein-baited traps set amidst potted plants placed adjacent to a papaya Carica papaya L. (Violales: Caricaceae) orchard known to have established populations of B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, the effectiveness of M. esculenta as a roosting host was assessed by comparing its attractiveness to that of castor bean, Ricinus communis L (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), previously identified as one of the most attractive roosting hosts for B. cucurbitae, and to corn, a crop which has been planted as a roosting host for help in B. cucurbitae control. The results showed that use of M. esculenta as a roosting host is comparable to use of R. communis by both B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. These results provide encouragement to incorporate M. esculenta on a farm as a trap crop (i.e. site for bait spray application). This has the advantage of having the trap crop be a crop on its

  4. House fly (Diptera: Muscidae) activity near baits containing (Z)-9-tricosene and efficacy of commercial toxic fly baits on a southern California dairy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sarah M; Gerry, Alec C; Mullens, Bradley A

    2007-08-01

    Sticky card captures of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), were used to compare efficacy of screen-covered baits containing sugar, sugar and 0.1% (Z)-9-tricosene, sugar and 1.0% (Z)-9-tricosene, Golden Malrin [1.1% methomyl and 0.049% (Z)-9-tricosene], and Quick-Bayt [0.5% imidacloprid and 0.1% (Z)-9-tricosene]. The QuickBayt treatment caught more flies per hour (mean = 116.5) than sugar alone (mean = 81.0), but the addition of (Z)-9-tricosene to sugar did not increase fly capture compared with sugar alone. More males (65% of total) than females were collected on the sticky cards for all treatments. Fly kill by plain sugar (control) and the commercial baits Golden Malrin, QuikStrike Fly Abatement strips (1.0% nithiazine), and QuickBayt was tested over a 90-min period. An average of 1.4, 5.6, 363.0, and 1,266.0 flies were killed using sugar, Golden Malrin, QuikStrike, and QuickBayt, respectively. The similarity between Golden Malrin and plain sugar reflects severe resistance to this once effective methomyl bait. A no-choice feeding assay using lab-reared methomyl-susceptible and methomyl-resistant house flies was conducted with and without (Z)-9-tricosene. Adult mortality was significantly higher in the methomyl-susceptible strain exposed to treatments containing methomyl. Lower consumption of the methomyl treatments by resistant flies suggested resistance was behavioral and mortality was not influenced by (Z)-9-tricosene for either fly strain.

  5. Cryopreservation of embryos of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM) approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and e...

  6. Variation in Sharwil avocado maturity during the harvest season and resistance to fruit fly infestation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Avocados cannot be exported from Hawaii without a quarantine treatment to prevent the spread of fruit flies. Research on the maturity and infestability of ‘Sharwil’ avocados was conducted to support development of a systems approach for quarantine security of exported fruit. Th...

  7. Compendium of fruit fly host information (CoFFHI), version 1.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compendium of Fruit Fly Host Information (CoFFHI), developed through collaborative efforts of scientists in USDA-APHIS, USDA-ARS and the Center for Integrated Pest Management (CIPM) provides centralized, comprehensive documentation of what is known worldwide about the status of fruits and vegeta...

  8. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja M; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on the

  9. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    PubMed

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  10. How fruit flies came to launch the chromosome theory of heredity.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Elof Axel

    2013-01-01

    Fruit flies were used by several laboratories between 1901 and 1910 for studies of experimental evolution at Harvard, Indiana University, and Cold Spring Harbor before Thomas Hunt Morgan found his white-eyed mutation that we associate with the beginnings of the fly lab at Columbia University. The major players prior to Morgan were William Castle and his students at Harvard University, Frank Lutz at Cold Spring Harbor, and Fernandus Payne whose ideas for working with fruit flies were shaped by his studies of blind cave fauna at Indiana University. Payne's interests were stimulated by the work of Carl Eigenmann, an authority on blind cave fauna, and William Moenkhaus, who introduced Payne to fruit flies at Indiana University before Payne moved to Columbia to pursue graduate work with Morgan and Edmund Wilson. The motivations of the laboratories differed in the theories used for their work. Castle spread the word about the utility of fruit flies for research, but Payne gave Morgan his first fruit flies for research leading to the discovery of the white-eye mutation.

  11. Alcohol consumption as self-medication against blood-borne parasites in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Milan, Neil F; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-03-20

    Plants and fungi often produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit their consumption, but herbivores and fungivores that evolve resistance gain access to these resources and can also gain protection against nonresistant predators and parasites. Given that Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly larvae consume yeasts growing on rotting fruit and have evolved resistance to fermentation products, we decided to test whether alcohol protects flies from one of their common natural parasites, endoparasitoid wasps. Here, we show that exposure to ethanol reduces wasp oviposition into fruit fly larvae. Furthermore, if infected, ethanol consumption by fruit fly larvae causes increased death of wasp larvae growing in the hemocoel and increased fly survival without need of the stereotypical antiwasp immune response. This multifaceted protection afforded to fly larvae by ethanol is significantly more effective against a generalist wasp than a wasp that specializes on D. melanogaster. Finally, fly larvae seek out ethanol-containing food when infected, indicating that they use alcohol as an antiwasp medicine. Although the high resistance of D. melanogaster may make it uniquely suited to exploit curative properties of alcohol, it is possible that alcohol consumption may have similar protective effects in other organisms.

  12. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomine sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the urban area of Marrakech, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Boussaa, S; Guernaoui, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2005-08-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were collected continuously, using sticky traps, during 1 year from October 2002 to September 2003, in an urban area of Marrakech city (Morocco). A total of 3277 specimens were collected belonging to five species. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (54.6%) is the predominant species followed by Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) minuta (20%), S. (S.) fallax (11.3%), P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (10.3%) and P. (Larroussius) longicuspis (3.8%). Data analyses showed a mono-modal annual pattern for P. sergenti and a bi-modal one for the other species. P. papatasi, the proven vector of Leishmania major in Morocco, was active throughout the year. This species did not diapause in this region. P. papatasi population peaked in June and November, which relating to the periods of risk in this area. Its preferred temperature ranged between 32 and 36 degrees C but no significant correlation was found between its density and the temperature. Considering the high density and long activity period of P. papatasi, the area of Marrakech should be regarded as a potential focus for L. major. This suggests the need for a continuously surveillance to prevent risk of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  13. Phylogeography of the black fly Simulium aureohirtum (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thaijarern, Jiraporn; Sopaladawan, Piyamas Nanork; Wongpakam, Komgrit; Pramual, Pairot

    2014-08-01

    The black fly Simulium aureohirtum Brunetti (Diptera: Simuliidae) is geographically widespread and utilizes diverse habitats. Previous studies revealed high genetic diversity, suggesting that this species could be a species complex. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase II sequences to examine genetic structure and demographic history of S. aureohirtum in Thailand. High level of genetic variation was observed due to the existence of genetically divergent lineages (A, B, and C). Lineages A and C were geographically widespread, while lineage B was geographically restricted to the eastern part of Thailand. The geographic localization of lineage B suggested limitations in gene flow, which is most likely a result of ecologically different habitats. Large genetic differences between individuals of lineages A and C, but geographically sympatric distributions of the members of these lineages, are considered to represent an admixture of the populations that have evolved allopatrically. Historical environmental change during the Pleistocene glaciations is possibly the factor that drove the lineage divergence. Population demographic history analyses revealed recent population expansions in the three lineages dating back to the last glaciations. These observations further highlight the significance of the Pleistocene climatic change on current genetic structure and diversity of living organisms of the Southeast Asian mainland.

  14. DNA barcoding distinguishes pest species of the black fly genus Cnephia (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    PubMed

    Conflitti, I M; Pruess, K P; Cywinska, A; Powers, T O; Currie, D C

    2013-11-01

    Accurate species identification is essential for cost-effective pest control strategies. We tested the utility of COI barcodes for identifying members of the black fly genus Cnephia Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae). Our efforts focus on four Nearctic Cnephia species-Cnephia dacotensis (Dyar & Shannon), Cnephia eremities Shewell, Cnephia ornithophilia (Davies, Peterson & Wood), and Cnephia pecuarum (Riley)--the latter two being current or potential targets of biological control programs. We also analyzed one Palearctic species, Cnephia pallipes (Fries). Although Cnephia adults can be identified anatomically to species, control programs target the larval stage, which is difficult or impossible to distinguish morphologically. By using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian methods, we found that COI barcodes successfully identified three Nearctic Cnephia species, but not C. pecuarum. The Palearctic C. pallipes was also successfully identified. Despite nonmonophyly of C. pecuarum, we show that data from COI barcoding, in combination with geographical and ecological information, can be used to distinguish all four Nearctic species. Finally, we discussed 1) possible reasons for paraphyly in C. pecuarum, 2) topological concordance to previously reported chromosomal dendrograms, and 3) evolution of diverse feeding strategies within the genus Cnephia.

  15. Ultrastructure of antennal sensory organs of horse nasal-myiasis fly, Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D

    2015-07-01

    Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer, 1858) (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids or even attacking humans. The antennae of R. purpureus were examined using stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology was provided detailedly, together with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla. All the three antennal segments, antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus, are interspersed by microtrichiae. Only mechanoreceptors are detected on antennal scape and pedicel. On antennal funiculus, three types of sensilla were observed, including basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. Two features are characterized of this host-specific bot fly: (1) numerous sensory pits with branched basiconic sensilla on antennal funiculus and (2) the absence of trichoid sensilla. The function of these distinctive traits are discussed in association with the life history. We suggest that more sensory pits with branched sensilla could increase the sensitivity of olfactory system for host orientation, while the capability of pheromone identification might be reduced due to the absence of trichoid sensilla. Besides, we support both thermo- and chemo-functions of coeloconic sensilla.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Qinlai; Luo, Baihua; Wu, Chang; Wen, Jifang

    2016-01-01

    More than 1400 scuttle flies species in worldwide comprise the Megaselia genus, the largest genus in the family Phoridae. The complete mitochondrial genome of Megaselia scalaris, a medically important entomology was sequenced for the first time. The 15,599 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains one non-coding A + T-rich region. The arrangement of the genes was identical with other insect. Each of the base composition on heavy strand was as follows A: 38.87%, G: 13.74%, C: 9.46%, T: 37.93% and the A + T content 76.80%. The mitochondrial genome of M. scalaris presented may be valuable for determining phylogenetic relationships within the order Diptera and especially for the family Phoridae. These sequences could also be used to select reliable molecular markers for species identification in forensic entomology.

  17. Identification of forensically important sarcophagid flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in China based on COI and period gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yadong; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Yan, Weitao; Li, Pei; Cai, Jifeng; Wu, LiXiang

    2014-01-01

    Unequivocal identification of insect specimens is an essential requirement in forensic entomology. With the development of molecular identification, spate of discussions about the feature of the DNA fragments have been raised. Relying solely on single DNA fragment for delimiting closely related species is supposed to be dangerous. Aiming at obtaining more reliable markers that might be universally used, we explore the utility of 700-bp COI fragment and 678-bp period gene fragment in the identification of Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Thirty-six sarcophagid fly specimens were collected from 19 locations in 11 Chinese provinces. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced segments showed that all sarcophagid specimens were properly assigned into nine species with relatively strong supporting values, which indicated the possibility of separation congeneric species with COI and period gene fragments. The difference between intraspecific threshold and interspecific divergence confirmed that the combination of nuclear and mitochondrial genes for species identification is much more accurate. The results of this research will be instrumental for implementation of the Chinese Sarcophagidae database.

  18. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  19. Behavioral evidence for fruit odor discrimination and sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from its native host downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern U.S. is a model for sympatric host race formation. However, the fly is also present in the western U.S. where it ma...

  20. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-12-21

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  1. An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements. PMID:21750493

  2. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Flávio R. M.; Ricalde, Marcelo P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets. PMID:26466795

  3. Viability of Cabralea canjerana Extracts to Control the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus

    PubMed Central

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus. PMID:25373194

  4. Viability of Cabralea canjerana extracts to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus.

    PubMed

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-04-10

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus.

  5. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    PubMed Central

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  6. The effect of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on the size and weight of mangos (Mangifera indica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Naqqash, Muhammad Nadir; Saeed, Qamar; Ghouri, Fozia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pollination has a great effect on the yield of fruit trees. Blow flies are considered as an effective pollinator compared to hand pollination in fruit orchards. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of different pollination methods in mango orchards. Methodology: The impact of pollination on quantity and quality of mango yield by blow flies was estimated by using three treatments, i.e., open pollinated trees, trees were covered by a net in the presence of blow flies for pollination, and trees were covered with a net but without insects. Results: The maximum number of flowers was recorded in irregular types of inflorescence, i.e., 434.80 flowers/inflorescence. Fruit setting (bud) was higher in open pollinated mango trees (i.e. 37.00/inflorescence) than enclosed pollination by blow flies (i.e. 22.34/inflorescence). The size of the mango fruit was the highest (5.06 mm) in open pollinated tree than those pollinated by blow flies (3.93 mm) and followed by without any pollinator (3.18 mm) at marble stage. We found that the maximum weight of mango fruit (201.19 g) was in open pollinated trees. Discussion: The results demonstrated that blow flies can be used as effective mango pollinators along with other flies and bees. The blow flies have shown a positive impact on the quality and quantity of mango. This study will be helpful in future and also applicable at farm level to use blow flies as pollinators that are cheap and easy to rear. PMID:27441107

  7. Identification of host blends that attract the African invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens.

    PubMed

    Biasazin, Tibebe Dejene; Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Hillbur, Ylva; Seyoum, Emiru; Dekker, Teun

    2014-09-01

    Bactrocera invadens, an invasive fruit fly species in the Afro-tropical region belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, causes considerable damage to fruit production and productivity. We sought to find attractants from hosts of B. invadens that could serve as baits in traps for monitoring and management of this pest. The attractiveness of volatiles from four different fruit species (mango, guava, banana and orange) at two stages of ripeness (ripe or unripe) was tested in an olfactometer assay. All fruits were attractive against a clean air control. Using hexane extracts of volatile collections of fruits, we demonstrated that male flies preferred the volatiles of ripe guava and orange over unripe fruit extracts. There was a slight difference in preference between females and males; females preferred orange to guava and mango, whereas males preferred mango and guava to orange. Gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to identify compounds to which B. invadens antennae were sensitive. GC/EAD recordings from distal and medio-central parts of the fly antenna showed responses to a number of compounds from each fruit species, with esters dominating the responses. Synthetic blends were made for each fruit species using the shared antennally active compounds in ratios found in the extracts. In the olfactometer, B. invadens was most attracted to the banana and orange blends, followed by the mango and guava blends. The synthetic banana blend was as attractive as the volatile collection of banana, although both were less attractive than the fruit. The results demonstrate that composing attractive blends from GC/EAD-active constituents shared by host fruits can be effective for formulating attractive synthetic host mimics for generalist fruit fly species, such as B. invadens.

  8. Notoatherix antiqua gen. et sp. nov., first fossil water snipe fly from the Late Jurassic of Australia (Diptera: Athericidae).

    PubMed

    Oberprieler, Stefanie K; Yeates, David K

    2014-09-22

    The first water snipe fly (Diptera: Tabanomorpha) fossil discovered in the Late Jurassic Talbragar Fish Bed in Australia is described and illustrated. Notoatherix antiqua gen. et sp. nov., described from a single wing specimen, is assigned to the family Athericidae based on the diagnostic feature of this family: the vein R2+3 ending very near to R1 (marginal cell closed). It is the first record of Athericidae from Australia and the oldest adult record of this family worldwide.

  9. Temporal Diversity and Abundance Patterns of Parasitoids of Fruit-Infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in the Argentinean Yungas: Implications for Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martin; Rull, Juan; Ovruski, Sergio M

    2016-10-01

    A 4-yr study was done to analyze seasonal patterns underlying host plant-fruit fly-parasitoid interactions in a secondary forest in the Argentinean Yunga and its importance for the implementation of conservation and augmentative biological control. Larval-pupal hymenopteran parasitoids associated with all host plants and fruit fly species were identified and the seasonal occurrence of fruit, infestation levels, parasitism percentage, and relative parasitoid abundance were determined. Three fruit fly species in two genera were found in association with surveyed plants, two of which (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)) are of major economic importance. Infestation levels were strongly influenced by environmental factors and peak fruit availability. Five fruit fly parasitoid species were recovered from fly pupae, four braconid species, and one figitid. Time windows for fruit fly population growth were pinpointed. Based on results, the present analysis proposes an effective fruit fly biological control strategy tailored for the northwestern Argentinean citrus-producing area.

  10. Is aggregated oviposition by the blow flies Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) really pheromone-mediated?

    PubMed

    Brodie, Bekka S; Wong, Warren H L; VanLaerhoven, Sherah; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    When female blow flies Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) oviposit in aggregations on carrion, even-aged larval offspring reportedly develop faster, and fewer are parasitized or preyed upon. The benefits of aggregated oviposition equally affect con- and heterospecific larvae sharing a resource. The benefits imply that female blow flies engage in coordinated, pheromone-mediated oviposition behavior. Yet, repeated attempts to identify oviposition pheromones have failed invoking doubt that they exist. Simply by regurgitating and feeding on carrion, flies may produce attractive semiochemicals. If flies were to aggregate in response to feeding flies rather than ovipositing flies, then the semiochemical cue(s) may be associated with the salivary gland. Working with L. sericata and P. regina and using liver as a surrogate oviposition medium, we test the hypotheses, and present data in their support, that (i) gravid or nongravid females ovipositing and/or feeding on liver enhance its attractiveness to gravid and nongravid females; (ii) females respond to semiochemicals from feeding heterospecific females; (iii) females respond equally well to semiochemicals from feeding con- and heterospecific females; (iv) macerated head tissues of females applied to liver enhance its attractiveness; and (v) females in direct contact with and feeding on liver, but not when next to yet physically separated from liver, enhance attraction of flies. We conclude that oviposition site-seeking females do not respond to an oviposition pheromone. Instead, they appear to coopt semiochemicals associated with feeding flies as resource indicators, taking chances that resources are suitable for oviposition, and that ovipositing flies are present.

  11. Medhost: An encyclopedic bibliography of the host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), version 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), causes direct damage to fruits and vegetables through oviposition and larval feeding. Rigorous quarantine procedures are currently enforced to prevent domestic and transnational spread of Medfly. Accessible and reliable informatio...

  12. An Additional Phytosanitary Cold Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Oroblanco' Citrus Fruit.

    PubMed

    Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy

    2017-01-12

    For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco.

  13. Neuronal encoding of sound, gravity, and wind in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Eriko; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2013-04-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster responds behaviorally to sound, gravity, and wind. Exposure to male courtship songs results in reduced locomotion in females, whereas males begin to chase each other. When agitated, fruit flies tend to move against gravity. When faced with air currents, they 'freeze' in place. Based on recent studies, Johnston's hearing organ, the antennal ear of the fruit fly, serves as a sensor for all of these mechanosensory stimuli. Compartmentalization of sense cells in Johnston's organ into vibration-sensitive and deflection-sensitive neural groups allows this single organ to mediate such varied functions. Sound and gravity/wind signals sensed by these two neuronal groups travel in parallel from the fly ear to the brain, feeding into neural pathways reminiscent of the auditory and vestibular pathways in the human brain. Studies of the similarities between mammals and flies will lead to a better understanding of the principles of how sound and gravity information is encoded in the brain. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these principles and discuss the advantages of the fruit fly as a model system to explore the fundamental principles of how neural circuits and their ensembles process and integrate sensory information in the brain.

  14. Commensal Bacteria Aid Mate-selection in the Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Commensal bacteria influence many aspects of an organism's behaviour. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Here, we present empirical evidence that commensal bacteria mediate mate-selection in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Male flies were attracted to female flies, but this attraction was abolished when female flies were fed with antibiotics, suggesting the role of the fly's microbiota in mediating mate-selection. We show that male flies were attracted to and ejaculated more sperm into females harbouring the microbiota. Using culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing, we isolated and identified different commensal bacteria, with Klebsiella oxytoca being the most abundant bacterial species. This preliminary study will enhance our understanding of the influence of commensal bacteria on mate-selection behaviour of B. dorsalis and may find use in devising control operations against this devastating pest.

  15. Circadian clocks of faster developing fruit fly populations also age faster.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pankaj; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Age-related changes in circadian rhythms have been studied in several model organisms including fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster. Although a general trend of period (τ) lengthening, reduction in rhythm strength and eventual arrhythmicity with increasing age has been reported, age-related changes in circadian rhythms have seldom been examined in the light of differences in the rate of ageing of the organism. We used four populations of fruit flies D. melanogaster which were selected to develop faster (as pre-adults) to ask if circadian clocks of these flies age faster than their controls. After 55 generations, the selected populations (FD) started developing ~29-h (~12 %) faster than the controls (BD) while their circadian clocks exhibited τ ~0.5-h shorter than the controls. We assayed the activity/rest behaviour and adult lifespan of virgin males from the FD and BD populations under constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that FD flies live significantly shorter, and markers of ageing of circadian rhythms set-in earlier in the FD flies compared to the BD controls, which suggests that circadian clocks of faster developing flies age faster than controls. These results can be taken to suggest that ageing of circadian clocks in fruit flies D. melanogaster is a function of its physiological rather than chronological age.

  16. Higher phylogeny of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritidae, Dacini): localised partition conflicts and a novel generic classification.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Verwimp, Christophe; White, Ian M; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationships within and among subtribes of the fruit fly tribe Dacini (Ceratitidina, Dacina, Gastrozonina) were investigated by sequencing four mitochondrial and one nuclear gene fragment. Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses were implemented on two datasets. The first, aiming at obtaining the strongest phylogenetic signal (yet, having lower taxon coverage), consisted of 98 vouchers and 2338 concatenated base pairs (bp). The second, aiming at obtaining the largest taxonomic coverage (yet, providing lower resolution), included 159 vouchers and 1200 concatenated bp. Phylogenetic relationships inferred by different tree reconstruction methods were largely congruent and showed a general agreement between concatenated tree topologies. Yet, local conflicts in phylogenetic signals evidenced a number of critical sectors in the phylogeny of Dacini fruit flies. All three Dacini subtribes were recovered as monophyletic. Yet, within the subtribe Ceratitidina only Perilampsis and Capparimyia formed well-resolved monophyletic groups while Ceratitis and Trirhithrum did not. Carpophthoromyia was paraphyletic because it included Trirhithrum demeyeri and Ceratitis connexa. Complex phylogenetic relationships and localised conflict in phylogenetic signals were observed within subtribe Dacina with (a) Dacus, (b) Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) and (c) all other Bactrocera species forming separate clades. The subgenus Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) is therefore raised to generic rank (Zeugodacus Hendel stat. nov.). Additionally, Bactrocera subgenera grouped under the Zeugodacus group should be considered under new generic combinations. Although there are indications that Zeugodacus and Dacus are sister groups, the exact relationship between Zeugodacus stat. nov., Dacus and Bactrocera still needs to be properly resolved.

  17. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.

    PubMed

    Orford, Katherine A; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane

    2015-04-22

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators.

  18. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886

  19. Effect of host decoys on the ability of the parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and Spalangia cameroni to parasitize house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) puparia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pteromalid pupal parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders and Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are commonly released on livestock farms for management of house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). To be effective, parasitoids must be able to locate live host puparia in co...

  20. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  1. Multi-state survey of picture-winged flies (Diptera:Ulidiidae) attacking sweet corn in the southern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four picture-winged fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) species in two genera were identified as direct pests of sweet and field corn ears in Florida from surveys conducted during 2007 and 2008. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited mostly in the silk canal to damage silk, kernels and cob rendering infested sweet...

  2. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  3. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  4. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  5. The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as a potential measure of human postmortem interval: observations and case histories.

    PubMed

    Lord, W D; Goff, M L; Adkins, T R; Haskell, N H

    1994-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), has been shown to be a ubiquitous inhabitant of both surface and buried human remains throughout the southern, central and western United States and Hawaii. Unlike most other species of forensically important Diptera, this species frequently dominates bodies in the dry/post decay stage of decomposition. Adults of the black soldier fly appear to initiate oviposition (egg laying) 20 to 30 days postmortem. Even at warm temperatures (27.8 degrees C), subsequent completion of the life cycle can require an additional 55 days. Life history data for H. illucens, when used in combination with data for other cohabiting arthropod species and viewed in the context of local environmental conditions, can provide medicolegal investigators with valuable parameters for estimating the postmortem intervals for badly decomposed remains.

  6. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with changing patterns in the transmission of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Fouque, Florence; Gaborit, Pascal; Issaly, Jean; Carinci, Romuald; Gantier, Jean-Charles; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Between March 2000 and December 2001 a survey of the sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) of French Guiana was carried out during 14 nights of captures with CDC light-traps and Malaise traps, and resulted in the collection of 2245 individuals of 38 species. The most abundant species were Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) ininii Floch & Abonnenc, Lu.(Psychodopygus) squamiventris maripaensis Floch & Abonnenc, and Lu .(Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata Mangabeira. Half of the collected sand flies females were dissected under field conditions and five species were found harboring Leishmania-like parasites. The Leishmania (Kinetoplastidae: Trypanosomatidae) species were identified by molecular typing, and for the first time Lu. (Nys.) flaviscutellata was found harboring Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and Lu. (Tri) ininii harboring unknown Leishmania. The first record for French Guiana of Lu. (Psy.) squamiventris maripaensis harboring L. (V.) naiffi, was also reported. The patterns of diversification of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in French Guiana are discussed.

  7. Genetic dissection of sleep-metabolism interactions in the fruit fly

    PubMed Central

    Yurgel, Maria E.; Masek, Pavel; DiAngelo, Justin; Keene, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of sleep and metabolism has enormous health consequences. Sleep loss is linked to increased appetite and insulin insensitivity, and epidemiological studies link chronic sleep deprivation to obesity-related disorders including type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interactions between sleep and metabolism involve the integration of signaling from brain regions regulating sleep, feeding, and metabolic function. Investigating the relationship between these processes provides a model to address more general questions of how the brain prioritizes homeostatically regulated behaviors. The availability of powerful genetic tools in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, allows for precise manipulation of neural function in freely behaving animals. There is a strong conservation of genes and neural circuit principles regulating sleep and metabolic function, and genetic screens in fruit flies have been effective in identifying novel regulators of these processes. Here, we review recent findings in the fruit fly that further our understanding of how the brain modulates sleep in accordance with metabolic state. PMID:25236355

  8. From trickle to flood: the large-scale, cryptic invasion of California by tropical fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Plant, Richard E.; Carey, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1954, when the first tropical tephritid fruit fly was detected in California, a total of 17 species in four genera and 11 386 individuals (adults/larvae) have been detected in the state at more than 3348 locations in 330 cities. We conclude from spatial mapping analyses of historical capture patterns and modelling that, despite the 250+ emergency eradication projects that have been directed against these pests by state and federal agencies, a minimum of five and as many as nine or more tephritid species are established and widespread, including the Mediterranean, Mexican and oriental fruit flies, and possibly the peach, guava and melon fruit flies. We outline and discuss the evidence for our conclusions, with particular attention to the incremental, chronic and insidious nature of the invasion, which involves ultra-small, barely detectable populations. We finish by considering the implications of our results for invasion biology and for science-based invasion policy. PMID:23926154

  9. Noninvasive Analysis of Microbiome Dynamics in the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Christine; Staubach, Fabian; Kuenzel, Sven; Baines, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The diversity and structure of the intestinal microbial community has a strong influence on life history. To understand how hosts and microbes interact, model organisms with comparatively simple microbial communities, such as the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), offer key advantages. However, studies of the Drosophila microbiome are limited to a single point in time, because flies are typically sacrificed for DNA extraction. In order to test whether noninvasive approaches, such as sampling of fly feces, could be a means to assess fly-associated communities over time on the same cohort of flies, we compared the microbial communities of fly feces, dissected fly intestines, and whole flies across three different Drosophila strains. Bacterial species identified in either whole flies or isolated intestines were reproducibly found in feces samples. Although the bacterial communities of feces and intestinal samples were not identical, they shared similarities and obviously the same origin. In contrast to material from whole flies and intestines, feces samples were not compromised by Wolbachia spp. infections, which are widespread in laboratory and wild strains. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we showed that simple nutritional interventions, such as a high-fat diet or short-term starvation, had drastic and long-lasting effects on the micobiome. Thus, the analysis of feces can supplement the toolbox for microbiome studies in Drosophila, unleashing the full potential of such studies in time course experiments where multiple samples from single populations are obtained during aging, development, or experimental manipulations. PMID:24014528

  10. Explosive radiation or uninformative genes? Origin and early diversification of tachinid flies (Diptera: Tachinidae).

    PubMed

    Winkler, Isaac S; Blaschke, Jeremy D; Davis, Daniel J; Stireman, John O; O'Hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Moulton, John K

    2015-07-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies at all taxonomic levels often infer rapid radiation events based on short, poorly resolved internodes. While such rapid episodes of diversification are an important and widespread evolutionary phenomenon, much of this poor phylogenetic resolution may be attributed to the continuing widespread use of "traditional" markers (mitochondrial, ribosomal, and some nuclear protein-coding genes) that are often poorly suited to resolve difficult, higher-level phylogenetic problems. Here we reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among a representative set of taxa of the parasitoid fly family Tachinidae and related outgroups of the superfamily Oestroidea. The Tachinidae are one of the most species rich, yet evolutionarily recent families of Diptera, providing an ideal case study for examining the differential performance of loci in resolving phylogenetic relationships and the benefits of adding more loci to phylogenetic analyses. We assess the phylogenetic utility of nine genes including both traditional genes (e.g., CO1 mtDNA, 28S rDNA) and nuclear protein-coding genes newly developed for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic findings, based on a limited set of taxa, include: a close relationship between Tachinidae and the calliphorid subfamily Polleninae, monophyly of Tachinidae and the subfamilies Exoristinae and Dexiinae, subfamily groupings of Dexiinae+Phasiinae and Tachininae+Exoristinae, and robust phylogenetic placement of the somewhat enigmatic genera Strongygaster, Euthera, and Ceracia. In contrast to poor resolution and phylogenetic incongruence of "traditional genes," we find that a more selective set of highly informative genes is able to more precisely identify regions of the phylogeny that experienced rapid radiation of lineages, while more accurately depicting their phylogenetic context. Although much expanded taxon sampling is necessary to effectively assess the monophyly of and relationships among major tachinid lineages and

  11. Species diversity within a community of the curcurbit fruit flies Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, and Dacus demmerezi roosting in corn borders near cucurbit production areas of Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Deguine, J-P; Atiama-Nurbel, T; Douraguia, E; Chiroleu, F; Quilici, S

    2012-01-01

    In order to better control fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacking Cucurbitaceae on Reunion Island (21°6 S/ 55°36 E), biological characteristics (seasonal fluctuation, relative abundance, sex ratio) of communities roosting in corn borders were investigated. The study was conducted in austral summer across a range of altitudes (750-1150 m) corresponding to the main areas of cucurbit cropping. Living adults were recorded roosting on corn planted within or around cucurbit fields. Results showed a high variability in seasonal fluctuation of populations according to local conditions. Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the least abundant species (27%) compared to Dacus ciliatus Loew (36%) and Dacus demmerezi Bezzi (37%). Relative abundance of B. Cucurbitae was lowest (< 18%) in high altitude sites (above 1000 m), where D. demmerezi was the most prevalent species (> 56%). Dacus ciliatus showed variable relative abundance (from 18 to 51%) depending on the experimental design (varying in location and in year). Sex ratio was also very variable from one species to another and from one experimental design to another.

  12. Canola, corn and vegetable oils as alternative for wheat germ oil in fruit fly liquid larval diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four wheat germ oil alternatives (corn oil, vegetable oil, canola oil with 10% vitamin E, and canola oil with 20% vitamin E) purchased from a Hawaii local supermarket were added into a fruit fly liquid larval diet as a supplement for rearing fruit fly larvae and were evaluated for the possibility to...

  13. Seasonal and Geographic Variation in Biodiversity of Forensically Important Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Weidner, L M; Jennings, D E; Tomberlin, J K; Hamilton, G C

    2015-09-01

    Determining the time of colonization of human or other animal remains by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) can play an important role in criminal investigations. However, blow fly presence in a given area is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic variables such as temperature and habitat. We wanted to assess the biodiversity of adult blow flies in New Jersey, USA, where very little is known about these taxa. Toward that end we collected adult blow flies biweekly from traps baited with bovine liver and placed across three regions in New Jersey over a 2-yr period (2011-2013). We collected and identified 9,257 adult calliphorids, comprising six genera and 12 species. Blow fly assemblages composed of these species varied by season, but community composition did not vary among regions within a given season. Three species, Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and Phormia regina (Meigen) comprised 88.5% of all adult blow flies collected (42.6, 25.9, 20.0%, respectively). Combining all regions, the dominant species for both spring and summer was L. coeruleiviridis comprising 35.1% of all adults caught in spring and 64.1% in summer. P. regina was the dominant species in fall, totaling 40.1% of all adults caught and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) was the dominant species for winter, totaling 44.8% of all adults caught. Our findings provide the first assessment of blow fly communities in New Jersey, and these results can be applied to surrounding states where data are severely lacking for forensic application.

  14. Are apple and hawthorn fruit volatiles more attractive than ammonium carbonate to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. In the eastern U.S. where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonel...

  15. Cricket Paralysis Virus, a Potential Control Agent for the Olive Fruit Fly, Dacus oleae Gmel

    PubMed Central

    Manousis, Thanasis; Moore, Norman F.

    1987-01-01

    Representatives of several families of insect viruses were tested for growth and pathogenicity in the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae Gmel. The viruses included nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, an iridovirus, two picornaviruses, and Trichoplusia ni small RNA virus (a member of the Nudaurelia β family), in addition to two naturally occurring viruses of the olive fruit fly. Two viruses, one of the two picornaviruses (cricket paralysis virus [CrPV] and the iridovirus (type 21 from Heliothis armigera), were found to replicate in adult flies. Flies which were fed on a solution containing CrPV for 1 day demonstrated a high mortality with 50% dying within 5 days and nearly 80% dying within 12 days of being fed. The virus was transmissible from infected to noninfected flies by fecal contamination. The CrPV which replicated in the infected flies was demonstrated to be the same as input virus by infection of Drosophila melanogaster cells and examination of the expressed viral proteins, immunoprecipitation of the virus purified from flies, and electrophoretic analysis of the structural proteins. Images PMID:16347255

  16. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  17. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    PubMed Central

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  18. Pitch perfect: how fruit flies control their body pitch angle.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Beatus, Tsevi; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely flying Drosophila melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturbed them using impulsive mechanical torques and filmed their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we found that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 deg in 29±8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process only 10±2 ms after the perturbation onset, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 deg--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw and roll control, our results on pitch show that flies' stabilization of each of these body angles is consistent with PI control.

  19. Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann), a new immigrant soldier fly in the United States (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae), a species widespread in the Old World, has been introduced and is apparently established in the eastern United States. Specimens were taken in Alexandria, Virginia in August of 2007....

  20. Checklist of the leaf-mining flies (Diptera, Agromyzidae) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025

  1. Phylogenetic relationships between flies of the Tephritinae subfamily (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mazzon, Luca; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Simonato, Mauro; Squartini, Andrea; Savio, Claudia; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2010-07-01

    The Tephritinae is considered the most specialized subfamily of fruit flies, predominantly infesting flowerheads of Asteraceae. Some species are known to host specific non-culturable symbiont bacteria ("Candidatus Stammerula spp.") in the midgut. In this work we (i) examined the phylogenetic relationships among the insect hosts, (ii) investigated the presence of bacteria in other hitherto unexamined species, and (iii) evaluated the phylogenetic congruence between insects and symbionts. A total of 33 Tephritinae species in 17 different genera were analyzed. Two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (16S rDNA and COI-tRNALeu-COII) were examined in the insect host, while the 16S was analyzed in the bacteria. From the phylogenetic trees, four of the five tribes considered were statistically supported by each of the clustering methods used. Species belonging to the tribe Noeetini never clustered at significant levels. The phylogenetic COI-tRNALeu-COII tree showed internal nodes more highly supported than the 16S phylogeny. The analysis of the distribution of symbiosis across the subfamily has highlighted the presence of bacteria only in the tribe Tephritini and in the genus Noeeta from the tribe Noeetini. A cophylogenetic analysis revealed a substantial congruence between hosts and symbionts. The interesting exceptions can be justified by events like losses, duplications and hosts switching opportunities, which are likely to arise during the biological cycle of the fly in consideration of the extracellular status of these symbionts.

  2. Prevalence of Candidatus Erwinia dacicola in wild and laboratory olive fruit fly populations and across developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Burrack, Hannah J; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-01

    The microbiome of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), a worldwide pest of olives (Olea europaea L.), has been examined for >100 yr as part of efforts to identify bacteria that are plant pathogens vectored by the fly or are beneficial endosymbionts essential for the fly's survival and thus targets for possible biological control. Because tephritid fruit flies feed on free-living bacteria in their environment, distinguishing between the transient, acquired bacteria of their diet and persistent, resident bacteria that are vertically transmitted endosymbionts is difficult. Several culture-dependent and -independent studies have identified a diversity of species in the olive fruit fly microbiome, but they have not distinguished the roles of the microbes. Candidatus Erwinia dacicola, has been proposed to be a coevolved endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly; however, this was based on limited samples from two Italian populations. Our study shows that C. Erwinia dacicola was present in all New and Old World populations and in the majority of individuals of all life stages sampled in 2 yr. Olive fruit flies reared on olives in the laboratory had frequencies of C. Erwinia dacicola similar to that of wild populations; however, flies reared on artificial diets containing antibiotics in the laboratory rarely had the endosymbiont. The relative abundance of C. Erwinia dacicola varied across development stages, being most abundant in ovipositing females and larvae. This uniform presence of C. Erwini dacicola suggests that it is a persistent, resident endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly.

  3. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Woli, P; Ortiz, B V; Buntin, D; Flanders, K

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is expected to have an influence on the population of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a serious insect pest of winter wheat in the southeastern United States. This study had two objectives: 1) to examine the effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Hessian fly infestation and 2) to develop a weather-based Hessian fly infestation model for wheat yield loss prediction. At least 20 years of Hessian fly infestation and wheat yield records from two locations in South Georgia were used for this study. The yearly values of infestation were separated by ENSO phase and tested to assess the infestation differences across ENSO phases. Each year, yield losses from infestation were calculated by subtracting the yields of resistant varieties from those of susceptible ones. The yield losses were then separated by ENSO phase and tested. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the contribution of monthly weather variables and changes in wheat acreage to Hessian fly infestation. Results showed that Hessian fly infestation and yield losses were greatest during the La Niña and least during the El Niño phase. The weather conditions that significantly increased the risk for infestation were those of the August-February period. The risk of infestation was higher during August-September under wetter, cooler conditions and during October-February under drier, warmer conditions. These findings could help wheat growers reduce the risk of infestation in the years that are expected to have more infestation through the adoption of necessary mitigation measures before the crop season.

  4. Proteomics/qPCR approach on estimating physical ages of wild male oriental fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male fruit flies reared in the laboratory in DKI-PBARC rearing facility in Hilo, Hawaii, were collected and whole insects were run through standard proteomic analysis. An odorant binding protein 99b (OBP) (Bdor0907381) located at molecular weight between 9226 dalton and PI 4.56 was identified throug...

  5. Small-scale field tests of attract-and-kill stations for pest Tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted at UF-TREC, Homestead to test efficacy of wax-matrix bait stations and mass trapping for control of the Caribbean fruit fly in a 5 by 30 tree guava planting. Results of the study and the ability to document control using small-scale field tests will be discussed....

  6. Inquiry-Based Environmental Science Investigations with the Fantastic Fruit Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Ashlie M.; Krall, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of inquiry in life science can be particularly daunting because of the additional management and care living systems require. However, there are some low-maintenance organisms that work well in the classroom. One of these is the common fruit fly, "Drosophila melanogaster." Its small size, low cost, easy availability and maintenance, and…

  7. Biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Israel: biological parameters of imported parasitoid wasps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three braconid species that parasitize the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), CERATITIS CAPITATA (Wiedemann) were recently imported into Israel. Several of their key biological parameters were studied. The longevities of the egg-attacking parasitoids FOPIUS ARISANUS and FOPIUS CERATITIVORUS, and t...

  8. Resveratrol modifies tephritid fruit fly response to nutritional and radiation stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol is a recently discovered compound. Three concentrations (50, 100, 200 µM) of resveratrol were evaluated against Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae by incorporating resveratrol into fruit fly liquid larval diet under the following conditions: 1) with or without wheat germ oil (WGO) in ...

  9. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae) and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O; Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André Luiz P; Marino, Celso Luiz; Selivon, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids. PMID:27648768

  10. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  11. Classic biological control of olive fruit fly in California, USA: release and recovery of introduced parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) in California led to a classical biological program. This study reports the release and recovery of two solitary larval endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) from sub-Saharan Africa, in two coa...

  12. Development of transgenic strains for the biological control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, is a highly significant agricultural pest species that has been genetically transformed with a piggyBac¬-based transposon vector system using independent vector and transposase helper plasmids. Estimated germ-line transformation frequencies were approximate...

  13. Molecular genetics of the Wolbachia endosymbionts that infect the parasitoids of tephritid fruit flies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information exists on the molecular genetics of the Wolbachia endosymbionts that infect the parasitoids of tephritid fruit flies. A better understanding of the bacteria could allow sex ratio manipulations that would improve the mass-rearing of natural enemies. Scientists at the Center for Me...

  14. Characterization of endosymbiotic bacteria in Psyttalia lounsburyi, a beneficial insect against the olive fruit fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization between different populations of one parasitoid of the olive fruit fly, Psyttalia lounsburyi, is challenged by reproductive isolations induced by microbial endosymbionts belonging to Wolbachia. In this study, we aimed at characterizing, using a Multi-Locus Sequence Typing appro...

  15. Reduction of optimal thermal range in aging western cherry fruit flies(Rhagoletis indifferens Curran)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance a...

  16. Sleep Homeostasis and General Anesthesia: Are Fruit Flies Well-Rested After Emergence From Propofol?

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benjamin; Strus, Ewa; Meng, Qing Cheng; Coradetti, Thomas; Naidoo, Nirinjini N.; Kelz, Max B.; Williams, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Shared neurophysiologic features between sleep and anesthetic-induced hypnosis indicate a potential overlap in neuronal circuitry underlying both states. Previous studies in rodents indicate that pre-existing sleep debt discharges under propofol anesthesia. We explored the hypothesis that propofol anesthesia also dispels sleep pressure in the fruit fly. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first time propofol has been tested in the genetically tractable model, Drosophila melanogaster. Methods Daily sleep was measured in Drosophila using a standard locomotor activity assay. Propofol was administered by transferring flies onto food containing various doses of propofol or equivalent concentrations of vehicle. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure tissue concentrations of ingested propofol. To determine if propofol anesthesia substitutes for natural sleep, we subjected flies to 10 hours (h) sleep deprivation (SD), followed by 6h propofol exposure, and monitored subsequent sleep. Results Oral propofol treatment causes anesthesia in flies as indicated by a dose-dependent reduction in locomotor activity (n=11–41 flies from each group) and increased arousal threshold (n=79–137). Recovery sleep in flies fed propofol after SD was delayed until after flies had emerged from anesthesia (n=30–48). SD was also associated with a significant increase in mortality in propofol-fed flies (n=44–46). Conclusions Together, these data indicate that fruit flies are effectively anesthetized by ingestion of propofol, and suggest that homologous molecular and neuronal targets of propofol are conserved in Drosophila. However, behavioral measurements indicate that propofol anesthesia does not satisfy the homeostatic need for sleep, and may compromise the restorative properties of sleep. PMID:26556728

  17. More than apples and oranges - Detecting cancer with a fruit fly's antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Martin; Lüdke, Alja; Münch, Daniel; Laudes, Thomas; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Martinelli, Eugenio; Lavra, Luca; Paolesse, Roberto; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Catini, Alexandro; Capuano, Rosamaria; di Natale, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells and non-cancer cells differ in their metabolism and they emit distinct volatile compound profiles, allowing to recognise cancer cells by their scent. Insect odorant receptors are excellent chemosensors with high sensitivity and a broad receptive range unmatched by current gas sensors. We thus investigated the potential of utilising the fruit fly's olfactory system to detect cancer cells. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we recorded an array of olfactory receptor neurons on the fruit fly's antenna. We performed multidimensional analysis of antenna responses, finding that cell volatiles from different cell types lead to characteristic response vectors. The distances between these response vectors are conserved across flies and can be used to discriminate healthy mammary epithelial cells from different types of breast cancer cells. This may expand the repertoire of clinical diagnostics, and it is the first step towards electronic noses equipped with biological sensors, integrating artificial and biological olfaction.

  18. Hybridization and the spread of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), in the Northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization could be an important process interjecting variation into insect populations enabling host plant shifts and the origin of new economic pests. Here, we examine whether hybridization between the native snowberry-infesting fruit fly Rhagoletis zephyria (Snow) and the introduced quarantine...

  19. Fruit fly scale robots can hover longer with flapping wings than with spinning wings.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Lentink, David

    2016-10-01

    Hovering flies generate exceptionally high lift, because their wings generate a stable leading edge vortex. Micro flying robots with a similar wing design can generate similar high lift by either flapping or spinning their wings. While it requires less power to spin a wing, the overall efficiency depends also on the actuator system driving the wing. Here, we present the first holistic analysis to calculate how long a fly-inspired micro robot can hover with flapping versus spinning wings across scales. We integrate aerodynamic data with data-driven scaling laws for actuator, electronics and mechanism performance from fruit fly to hummingbird scales. Our analysis finds that spinning wings driven by rotary actuators are superior for robots with wingspans similar to hummingbirds, yet flapping wings driven by oscillatory actuators are superior at fruit fly scale. This crossover is driven by the reduction in performance of rotary compared with oscillatory actuators at smaller scale. Our calculations emphasize that a systems-level analysis is essential for trading-off flapping versus spinning wings for micro flying robots.

  20. Discovering the flight autostabilizer of fruit flies by inducing aerial stumbles.

    PubMed

    Ristroph, Leif; Bergou, Attila J; Ristroph, Gunnar; Coumes, Katherine; Berman, Gordon J; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2010-03-16

    Just as the Wright brothers implemented controls to achieve stable airplane flight, flying insects have evolved behavioral strategies that ensure recovery from flight disturbances. Pioneering studies performed on tethered and dissected insects demonstrate that the sensory, neurological, and musculoskeletal systems play important roles in flight control. Such studies, however, cannot produce an integrative model of insect flight stability because they do not incorporate the interaction of these systems with free-flight aerodynamics. We directly investigate control and stability through the application of torque impulses to freely flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and measurement of their behavioral response. High-speed video and a new motion tracking method capture the aerial "stumble," and we discover that flies respond to gentle disturbances by accurately returning to their original orientation. These insects take advantage of a stabilizing aerodynamic influence and active torque generation to recover their heading to within 2 degrees in < 60 ms. To explain this recovery behavior, we form a feedback control model that includes the fly's ability to sense body rotations, process this information, and actuate the wing motions that generate corrective aerodynamic torque. Thus, like early man-made aircraft and modern fighter jets, the fruit fly employs an automatic stabilization scheme that reacts to short time-scale disturbances.