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Sample records for ft waxes composition

  1. Biocidal Wax Composition and Preparation Thereof.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    WAX COMPOSITION AND PREPARATION THEREOF 2 3 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE 4 A biocidal wax composition for preventing corrosion and 5 biological fouling...13 by marine growth or corrosion . Wooden blocks and piers can be 14 destroyed in a few years if left untreated. Many of the 15 traditional treatments...capability or strength 18 through corrosion and marine growth on their surfaces. 19 One approach to reducing marine growth is coating the sur- 20 face

  2. Process for producing a petroleum wax composition

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a process for producing a wax composition. It comprises: vacuum distilling a petroleum feed to prepare a 650 distillate heavy intermediate petroleum wax, having a melting point range of from about 155{degrees}F. to about 185{degrees}F., subjecting the heavy intermediate petroleum wax to furfural/duosol solvent extraction, dissolving and crystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, dissolving and recrystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, percolating the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax in the molten state through a clay bed; and blending the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax from about 50 weight percent to about 90 weight percent with from about 10 weight percent to about 30 weight percent of a polymeric compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer, polypropylene and mixtures there of and having a molecular weight of from about 2,000 to about 100,000 and a melt index of from about 1 to about 250{degrees} at 375{degrees}F.

  3. Determination of the aromatic compounds in plant cuticular waxes using FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubis, Eligiusz N.; Dubis, Alina T.; Popławski, J.

    2001-09-01

    The infrared study of the aromatic components of hops ( Humulus lupulus) cuticular wax was performed. HATR FT-IR technique for fresh leaves and their extract analysis was applied. Phenylmethyl myristate, 2-phenylethyl myristate and docosyl benzoate were synthesized and used as reference standards. An absorption band in the range of 709-966 cm -1 indicates the presence of aromatic esters in plant cuticular waxes.

  4. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1995-09-30

    The use of solid acids, especially Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}, to convert long chain alkanes and Fischer-Tropsch waxes to liquid fuels under mild reaction conditions was explored in this work. Anion and/or hydrogenation metal modified zirconium oxides were synthesized, characterized, and tested for hydrocracking and hydroisomerization. of model compounds, chiefly with n-hexadecane. The relationship between catalytic activity and acidic character of the bifunctional Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst was investigated.

  5. What do microbes encounter at the plant surface? Chemical composition of pea leaf cuticular waxes.

    PubMed

    Gniwotta, Franka; Vogg, Gerd; Gartmann, Vanessa; Carver, Tim L W; Riederer, Markus; Jetter, Reinhard

    2005-09-01

    In the cuticular wax mixtures from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) cv Avanta, cv Lincoln, and cv Maiperle, more than 70 individual compounds were identified. The adaxial wax was characterized by very high amounts of primary alcohols (71%), while the abaxial wax consisted mainly of alkanes (73%). An aqueous adhesive of gum arabic was employed to selectively sample the epicuticular wax layer on pea leaves and hence to analyze the composition of epicuticular crystals exposed at the outermost surface of leaves. The epicuticular layer was found to contain 74% and 83% of the total wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. The platelet-shaped crystals on the adaxial leaf surface consisted of a mixture dominated by hexacosanol, accompanied by substantial amounts of octacosanol and hentriacontane. In contrast, the ribbon-shaped wax crystals on the abaxial surface consisted mainly of hentriacontane (63%), with approximately 5% each of hexacosanol and octacosanol being present. Based on this detailed chemical analysis of the wax exposed at the leaf surface, their importance for early events in the interaction with host-specific pathogenic fungi can now be evaluated. On adaxial surfaces, approximately 80% of Erysiphe pisi spores germinated and 70% differentiated appressoria. In contrast, significantly lower germination efficiencies (57%) and appressoria formation rates (49%) were found for abaxial surfaces. In conclusion, the influence of the physical structure and the chemical composition of the host surface, and especially of epicuticular leaf waxes, on the prepenetration processes of biotrophic fungi is discussed.

  6. Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Cao, Shifeng; Fang, Xiangjun; Chen, Hangjun; Xiao, Shangyue

    2017-03-15

    The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time. Notably, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione were only detected in highbush (V. corymbosum) and rabbiteye (V. ashei) blueberries, respectively. The results of SEM showed that a large amount of tubular wax deposited on the surface of blueberry fruits. There was no apparent difference in wax morphology among the nine cultivars.

  7. The Influence of Source Biases on Sedimentary Leaf Waxes and Their Stable Isotope Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freimuth, E. J.; Lowell, T. V.; Wiles, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf waxes and their carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic compositions are an important tool to understand past changes in paleoclimate and paleovegetation. Important recent advances in our understanding about the isotopic signal preserved in sedimentary leaf waxes have been inferred from studies made on individual modern plants. However, paleoreconstructions are based on sedimentary leaf waxes, which reflect mixing between multiple sources, such as ablated leaf waxes from nearby or from afar, wind blown leaf litter, and riverine transported leaf waxes. Each of these sources integrates leaf waxes from different species and growth forms, likely resulting in source-specific taphonomic biases on sedimentary leaf wax isotopes. To better understand source biases in sedimentary leaf waxes, we investigated n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids and their carbon and hydrogen isotopes in vegetation and lake sediments at Brown's Lake and Bog, a 'simple' forested closed-basin lake in northeastern Ohio. Interestingly, we found that tree n-alkane δD varied substantially during the growing season, broadly tracking changes in source water composition. However, δD values of n-alkanes in the tree leaf litter did not match that of the most recent sedimentary n-alkanes. Instead, surface sediment n-alkane δD more closely matched that of the woody shrubs and grasses growing right around the lake. n-Alkanoic acid data is forthcoming. We are currently exploring lake sediment n-alkane accumulation rates against midwestern flux rates of wind blown leaf waxes from afar. Our preliminary results suggest that although studies made on individual leaves are indeed important, we may need to consider additional leaf wax sources that potentially influence sedimentary archives.

  8. Bioinspired Composite Coating with Extreme Underwater Superoleophobicity and Good Stability for Wax Prevention in the Petroleum Industry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weitao; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Yang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Liu, Huicong

    2015-10-13

    Wax deposition is a detrimental problem that happens during crude oil production and transportation, which greatly reduces transport efficiency and causes huge economic losses. To avoid wax deposition, a bioinspired composite coating with excellent wax prevention and anticorrosion properties is developed in this study. The prepared coating is composed of three films, including an electrodeposited Zn film for improving corrosion resistance, a phosphating film for constructing fish-scale morphology, and a silicon dioxide film modified by a simple spin-coating method for endowing the surface with superhydrophilicity. Good wax prevention performance has been investigated in a wax deposition test. The surface morphology, composition, wetting behaviors, and stability are systematically studied, and a wax prevention mechanism is proposed, which can be calculated from water film theory. This composite coating strategy which shows excellent properties in both wax prevention and stability is expected to be widely applied in the petroleum industry.

  9. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1993-03-26

    In the last quarters a new class of solid superacids, including sulfated zirconium-hafnium oxides and ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] modified by Mn and Fe, were synthesized and shown to be active for isomerization and hydrocracking of hexadecane (n-C[sub 16]H[sub 34]). The reaction was carried out in a tubing bomb under mild conditions: 2.5 MPa and 433 K. Pt/HfO[sub 2]S0[sub 4] catalyst exhibited a low activity for hydrocracking of n-C[sub 16], but the addition of ZrO[sub 2] to the sulfated hafnium improved its activity considerably. An 85 wt % conversion level was achieved when the molar ratio of ZrO[sub 2] to HfO[sub 2] reached 1:1, indicating the possibility of a synergistic effect between zirconium and hafnium. It has recently been reported that Mn,Fe/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] is about three orders of magnitude more active than ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] for isomerizing n-butane. As a result, an 0.5%Mn1.5%Fe/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] catalyst was prepared according to a procedure given in a patent. It was found that, without Pt, the catalyst was inactive for hydrocracking of n-C[sub 16], possibly by deactivation due to coking. It is interesting that a 68 wt % conversion level was achieved after incorporation of Pt along with a product distribution that was shifted towards longer chain paraffins. ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4]has been reported to be a superacid with H[sub 0] < [minus]16 as measured by the Hammett indicator method. However, the acid strength of some ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] based catalysts, such as the mentioned catalysts, could not be measured by using Hammett indicators because the catalysts are colored gray. We successfully modified an in situ FT-IR analytical system to characterize the acidity of these catalysts. We have applied the method using pyridine as adsorbate to demonstrate their acid strength. Preliminary results indicated a level of acidity of our catalysts which is consistent with their performance in hydrocracking of n-C[sub 16].

  10. The Behavior of Some Waxes in Composition B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    DR.DAR-’ISS IS NUMEEH OF PAGES ’VDTFORRINIi dleeUjt aiI leedof.) I1S. SECURITY CLAWS ( of tAis roper) US5 Army Armament Research and Development Command... accounted for the differences observed in the properties of the mixture. The question of wettability of RDX by waxes must be resolved first at ambient...Desensitization of Explosives," AWRE No. 0-15/65, (1965). 11. Evans Research and Development Corp, "Studies on Surface Properties of High Explosives

  11. Composition of epicuticular wax on Prosopis glandulosa leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeux, H.S. Jr.; Wilkinson, R.E. Univ. of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, Experiment )

    1990-06-01

    Epicuticular wax on leaves of field-grown honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) trees consisted of 35% esters, 32% alkanes, 25% free fatty alcohols, and 7% free fatty acids. Aldehydes were present in very low concentrations. The number of carbon atoms (C{sub n}) of alkanes ranged from 25 to 31, with a maximum (57%) at 29. Esters consisted of fatty acids with C{sub n} of 16, 18, and 20, with most (70%) at 18 and fatty alcohols with C{sub n} of 24-32. The C{sub n} of free fatty alcohols and free fatty acids also ranged from 24 to 32. Only primary alcohols were present. Immediately after exposure of glasshouse-grown seedlings to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 4 h, 60% of the recovered {sup 14}C was incorporated into free fatty acids; the percentage decreased progressively to 18% 8 h after exposure and remained stable thereafter. The proportion of {sup 14}C in free fatty alcohols increased from ca. 12% immediately after exposure to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to 55% at 8 h. Little {sup 14}C was associated with other wax components over the 24-h period; 3% or less was incorporated into alkanes.

  12. Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev

    2009-04-15

    Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.

  13. Electro- and photodriven phase change composites based on wax-infiltrated carbon nanotube sponges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangjie; Zou, Ruqiang; Xia, Wei; Liu, Zhenpu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jinlong; Wang, Yingxia; Lin, Jianhua; Xia, Dingguo; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-12-21

    Organic phase change materials are usually insulating in nature, and they are unlikely to directly trigger latent heat storage through an electrical way. Here we report a multifunctional phase change composite in which the energy storage can be driven by small voltages (e.g., 1.5 V) or light illumination with high electro-to-heat or photo-to-thermal storage efficiencies (40% to 60%). The composite is composed of paraffin wax infiltrated into a porous, deformable carbon nanotube sponge; the latter not only acts as a flexible encapsulation scaffold for wax but also maintains a highly conductive network during the phase change process (for both solid and liquid states). Uniform interpenetration between the nanotube network and paraffin wax with high affinity results in enhanced phase change enthalpy and thermal conductivity compared to pure paraffin wax. Our phase change composite can store energy in practical ways such as by sunlight absorption or under voltages applied by conventional lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Estimation of cellulose crystallinity of lignocelluloses using near-IR FT-Raman spectroscopy and comparison of the Raman and Segal-WAXS methods.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Umesh P; Reiner, Richard R; Ralph, Sally A

    2013-01-09

    Of the recently developed univariate and multivariate near-IR FT-Raman methods for estimating cellulose crystallinity, the former method was applied to a variety of lignocelluloses: softwoods, hardwoods, wood pulps, and agricultural residues/fibers. The effect of autofluorescence on the crystallinity estimation was minimized by solvent extraction or chemical treatment or both. Additionally, when the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the Raman crystallinity assessment were investigated, it was found that syringyl lignin containing lignocelluloses generated somewhat higher crystallinity, whereas the presence of hemicellulose reduced the crystallinity. Overall, when autofluorescence was minimized and corrections made for hemicellulose and syringyl lignin contributions, the univariate Raman method performed well and estimated cellulose crystallinity accurately. Moreover, when the Raman and Segal-WAXS methods were compared, we observed that in the absence of significant fluorescence, the Raman method was influenced mostly by hemicellulose and syringyl lignin, whereas the Segal-WAXS was affected by various types of lignin and hemicellulose. It was concluded that the near-IR FT-Raman method with corrections for influences of syringyl lignin and hemicellulose can be used to correctly estimate cellulose crystallinity.

  15. Evaluating Changes in Paleo-temperature Gradients using Hydrogen Isotopic Compositions of Leaf-wax Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, S.; Huber, M.; Pagani, M.

    2014-12-01

    A long-standing problem in the paleoclimate modeling community has been the inability of the models to reproduce the shallow meridional temperature gradient (∆T) observed in proxy temperature records for the warm, greenhouse time intervals in Earth's history, such as the early Eocene. It is often stated that this mismatch indicates a missing high-latitude feedback mechanism in the climate models that would cause substantial polar amplification of warming. However, this issue is complicated by the potential biasing of proxy records due to issues related to temperature calibrations and/or diagenesis. In this study, we propose an alternative approach to estimate ∆T for these time intervals using hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf-wax biomarkers (dDleaf-wax) preserved in the sedimentary record. Today, dDleaf-wax is closely related to the hydrological cycle and source vegetation. In the mid- and high-latitudes, dDleaf-wax changes pertaining to the hydrological cycle can be interpreted using a Rayleigh distillation process, where evaporated moisture from the sub-tropics undergoes isotopic fractionation and becomes increasingly D-depleted during poleward transport. We develop a box model based on the Rayleigh distillation process that uses the global mean temperature for the time-period and geological archives of dDleaf-wax to estimate the meridional temperature gradient. We use this box model for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56Ma), a rapid-warming event in the early Eocene where global warming is accompanied by evidence for increased input of greenhouse gases. We compile existing leaf-wax dDleaf-wax records from the extra-tropics to estimate ∆T before and during the PETM. Preliminary results suggest that the temperature gradient increased during the body of the PETM, contradicting our expectations based on temperature proxies. We also use this approach to estimate ∆T during other intervals in earth's history, such as the early Eocene. Further

  16. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications.

  17. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in Arabidopsis lines with different transpiration rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Lawson, T.; Eley, Y.; McAusland, L.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen are used widely to investigate modern and ancient water cycles. The D/H composition of organic compounds derived from terrestrial plants has recently attracted significant attention as a proxy for palaeohydrology. However, the role of various plant physiological and biochemical factors in controlling the D/H signature of leaf wax lipids in extant plants remains unclear. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of plant transpiration on the D/H composition of n-alkanes in terrestrial plants. This experiment includes 4 varieties of Arabidopsis thaliana that differ with respect to stomatal density and stomatal geometry. All 4 varieties were grown indoors under identical temperature, relative humidity, light and watering regimes and then sampled for leaf wax and leaf water stable isotopic measurements. During growth, stomatal conductance to carbon dioxide and water vapour were also determined. We found that the plants varied significantly in terms of their transpiration rates. Transpiration rates were significantly higher in Arabidopsis ost1 and ost1-1 varieties (2.4 and 3.2 mmol m-2 s-1, respectively) than in Arabidopsis RbohD and Col-0 (1.5 and 1.4). However, hydrogen isotope measurements of n-alkanes extracted from leaf waxes revealed a very different pattern. Varieties ost1, ost1-1, and RbohD have very similar deltaD values of n-C29 alkane (-125, -128, and -127 per mil), whereas the deltaD value of Col-0 is more negative (-137 per mil). The initial results of this work suggest that plant transpiration is decoupled from the D/H composition of n-alkanes. In other words, physical processes that affect water vapour movement between the plant and its environment apparently cannot account for the stable hydrogen isotope composition of organic compounds that comprise leaf waxes. Additional, perhaps biochemical, processes that affect hydrogen isotope fractionation during photosynthesis might need to be invoked

  18. Patchable, flexible heat-sensing hybrid ionic gate nanochannel modified with a wax-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Choi, Wook; Roh, Sung-Cheoul; Han, Chang-Soo

    2015-07-01

    Heat-driven ionic gate nanochannels have been recently demonstrated, which exploit temperature-responsive polymer brushes based on wettability. These heat-sensing artificial nanochannels operate in a broad temperature-response boundary and fixed liquid cell environment, thereby experiencing limited system operation in the flat and solid state. Here we have developed a patchable and flexible heat-sensing artificial ionic gate nanochannel, which can operate in the range of the human body temperature. A wax-elastic copolymer, coated onto a commercial nanopore membrane by a controlled-vacuum filtration method, was used for the construction of temperature-responsive nanopores. The robust and flexible nanochannel heat sensor, which is combined with an agarose gel electrolyte, can sustain reversible thermo-responsive ionic gating based on the volumetric work of the wax-composite layers in a selective temperature range. The ionic current is also effectively distinguished in the patchable bandage-type nanochannel for human heat-sensing.Heat-driven ionic gate nanochannels have been recently demonstrated, which exploit temperature-responsive polymer brushes based on wettability. These heat-sensing artificial nanochannels operate in a broad temperature-response boundary and fixed liquid cell environment, thereby experiencing limited system operation in the flat and solid state. Here we have developed a patchable and flexible heat-sensing artificial ionic gate nanochannel, which can operate in the range of the human body temperature. A wax-elastic copolymer, coated onto a commercial nanopore membrane by a controlled-vacuum filtration method, was used for the construction of temperature-responsive nanopores. The robust and flexible nanochannel heat sensor, which is combined with an agarose gel electrolyte, can sustain reversible thermo-responsive ionic gating based on the volumetric work of the wax-composite layers in a selective temperature range. The ionic current is also

  19. Transient silencing of the KASII genes is feasible in Nicotiana benthamiana for metabolic engineering of wax ester composition

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sitbon, Folke; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-01-01

    The beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII) is an enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, catalyzing the elongation of 16:0-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 18:0-ACP in plastids. Mutations in KASII genes in higher plants can lead to lethality, which makes it difficult to utilize the gene for lipid metabolic engineering. We demonstrated previously that transient expression of plastid-directed fatty acyl reductases and wax ester synthases could result in different compositions of wax esters. We hypothesized that changing the ratio between C16 (palmitoyl-compounds) and C18 (stearoyl-compounds) in the plastidic acyl-ACP pool by inhibition of KASII expression would change the yield and composition of wax esters via substrate preference of the introduced enzymes. Here, we report that transient inhibition of KASII expression by three different RNAi constructs in leaves of N. benthamiana results in almost complete inhibition of KASII expression. The transient RNAi approach led to a shift of carbon flux from a pool of C18 fatty acids to C16, which significantly increased wax ester production in AtFAR6-containing combinations. The results demonstrate that transient inhibition of KASII in vegetative tissues of higher plants enables metabolic studies towards industrial production of lipids such as wax esters with specific quality and composition. PMID:26063537

  20. Transient silencing of the KASII genes is feasible in Nicotiana benthamiana for metabolic engineering of wax ester composition.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sitbon, Folke; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-06-11

    The beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII) is an enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, catalyzing the elongation of 16:0-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 18:0-ACP in plastids. Mutations in KASII genes in higher plants can lead to lethality, which makes it difficult to utilize the gene for lipid metabolic engineering. We demonstrated previously that transient expression of plastid-directed fatty acyl reductases and wax ester synthases could result in different compositions of wax esters. We hypothesized that changing the ratio between C16 (palmitoyl-compounds) and C18 (stearoyl-compounds) in the plastidic acyl-ACP pool by inhibition of KASII expression would change the yield and composition of wax esters via substrate preference of the introduced enzymes. Here, we report that transient inhibition of KASII expression by three different RNAi constructs in leaves of N. benthamiana results in almost complete inhibition of KASII expression. The transient RNAi approach led to a shift of carbon flux from a pool of C18 fatty acids to C16, which significantly increased wax ester production in AtFAR6-containing combinations. The results demonstrate that transient inhibition of KASII in vegetative tissues of higher plants enables metabolic studies towards industrial production of lipids such as wax esters with specific quality and composition.

  1. Developmental and Genotypic Variation in Leaf Wax Content and Composition, and in Expression of Wax Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    PubMed Central

    Laila, Rawnak; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Juyoung; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes act as a protective barrier against environmental stresses. In the present study, we investigated developmental and genotypic variation in wax formation of cabbage lines, with a view to understand the related morphology, genetics and biochemistry. Our studies revealed that the relative expression levels of wax biosynthetic genes in the first-formed leaf of the highest-wax line remained constantly higher but were decreased in other genotypes with leaf aging. Similarly, the expression of most of the tested genes exhibited decrease from the inner leaves to the outer leaves of 5-month-old cabbage heads in the low-wax lines in contrast to the highest-wax line. In 10-week-old plants, expression of wax biosynthetic genes followed a quadratic function and was generally increased in the early developing leaves but substantially decreased at the older leaves. The waxy compounds in all cabbage lines were predominately C29-alkane, -secondary alcohol, and -ketone. Its deposition was increased with leaf age in 5-month-old plants. The high-wax lines had dense, prominent and larger crystals on the leaf surface compared to low-wax lines under scanning electron microscopy. Principal component analysis revealed that the higher expression of LTP2 genes in the lowest-wax line and the higher expression of CER3 gene in the highest-wax line were probably associated with the comparatively lower and higher wax content in those two lines, respectively. This study furthers our understanding of the relationships between the expression of wax biosynthetic genes and the wax deposition in cabbage lines. Highlight: In cabbage, expression of wax-biosynthetic genes was generally decreased in older and senescing leaves, while wax deposition was increased with leaf aging, and C29-hydrocarbon was predominant in the wax crystals. PMID:28119701

  2. Overexpression of the Novel Arabidopsis Gene At5g02890 Alters Inflorescence Stem Wax Composition and Affects Phytohormone Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liping; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas; Gao, Jie; Hu, Kaining; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2017-01-01

    The cuticle is composed of cutin and cuticular wax. It covers the surfaces of land plants and protects them against environmental damage. At5g02890 encodes a novel protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the current study, protein sequence analysis showed that At5g02890 is highly conserved in the Brassicaceae. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing At5g02890 (OE-At5g02890 lines) and an At5g02890 orthologous gene from Brassica napus (OE-Bn1 lines) exhibited glossy stems. Chemical analysis revealed that overexpression of At5g02890 caused significant reductions in the levels of wax components longer than 28 carbons (C28) in inflorescence stems, whereas the levels of wax molecules of chain length C28 or shorter were significantly increased. Transcriptome analysis indicated that nine of 11 cuticular wax synthesis-related genes with different expression levels in OE-At5g02890 plants are involved in very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) elongation. At5g02890 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is consistent with its function in cuticular wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that the overexpression of At5g02890 alters cuticular wax composition by partially blocking VLCFA elongation of C28 and higher. In addition, detailed analysis of differentially expressed genes associated with plant hormones and endogenous phytohormone levels in wild-type and OE-At5g02890 plants indicated that abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) biosynthesis, as well as polar auxin transport, were also affected by overexpression of At5g02890. Taken together, these findings indicate that overexpression of At5g02890 affects both cuticular wax biosynthesis and phytohormone homeostasis in Arabidopsis. PMID:28184233

  3. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in glaucous and non-glaucous varieties of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Eley, Yvette; Frizell-Armitage, Amelia; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-04-01

    The use of the 2H/1H composition of terrestrial plants in climate and ecology studies depends on fundamental understanding of the processes within the plant that control fractionation of these two isotopes. Little is currently known about the extent of 2H/1H fractionation at different steps of biosynthesis, after the initial H uptake following leaf water photolysis. Knowing this effect is particularly important when seeking to interpret the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax biomarkers from plants that differ in the amount and type of individual compound classes in their leaf waxes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the quantity and distribution of n-alkyl lipids in leaf waxes and their isotopic composition. We used a genetic approach to suppress glaucousness in 2 varieties of wheat (Alchemy and Malacca), which resulted in glaucous and non-glaucous phenotypes of both varieties. Both phenotypes were then grown outdoors under identical environmental conditions in central Norfolk, UK. At the end of the growing season, the plants were sampled for soil water, leaf water, and leaf wax isotopic measurements. Comparison of the leaf wax composition of the non-glaucous and glaucous phenotypes revealed that the non-glaucous varieties were characterised by the absence of diketones and a greater concentration of n-alkanes and primary alcohols.. Our results showed very small differences between glaucous and non-glaucous varieties with regard to soil (mean values, <2 per mil) and leaf (<1 per mil) water 2H/1H. Conversely, there was 15-20 and 10-15 per mil 2H-depletion in the C29 and C31 n-alkanes, respectively, from the non-glaucous phenotype. This 2H-depletion in the non-glaucous phenotype demonstrated that the suppression of diketone production and the increase in n-alkane and primary alcohol concentrations are linked with a shift in the 2H/1H composition of n-alkanes. The initial results of this work suggest that plants using the same environmental water

  4. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Quarterly report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1993-03-26

    In the last quarters a new class of solid superacids, including sulfated zirconium-hafnium oxides and ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} modified by Mn and Fe, were synthesized and shown to be active for isomerization and hydrocracking of hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). The reaction was carried out in a tubing bomb under mild conditions: 2.5 MPa and 433 K. Pt/HfO{sub 2}S0{sub 4} catalyst exhibited a low activity for hydrocracking of n-C{sub 16}, but the addition of ZrO{sub 2} to the sulfated hafnium improved its activity considerably. An 85 wt % conversion level was achieved when the molar ratio of ZrO{sub 2} to HfO{sub 2} reached 1:1, indicating the possibility of a synergistic effect between zirconium and hafnium. It has recently been reported that Mn,Fe/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} is about three orders of magnitude more active than ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} for isomerizing n-butane. As a result, an 0.5%Mn1.5%Fe/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst was prepared according to a procedure given in a patent. It was found that, without Pt, the catalyst was inactive for hydrocracking of n-C{sub 16}, possibly by deactivation due to coking. It is interesting that a 68 wt % conversion level was achieved after incorporation of Pt along with a product distribution that was shifted towards longer chain paraffins. ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}has been reported to be a superacid with H{sub 0} < {minus}16 as measured by the Hammett indicator method. However, the acid strength of some ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} based catalysts, such as the mentioned catalysts, could not be measured by using Hammett indicators because the catalysts are colored gray. We successfully modified an in situ FT-IR analytical system to characterize the acidity of these catalysts. We have applied the method using pyridine as adsorbate to demonstrate their acid strength. Preliminary results indicated a level of acidity of our catalysts which is consistent with their performance in hydrocracking of n-C{sub 16}.

  5. Wax esters of different compositions produced via engineering of leaf chloroplast metabolism in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Selcuk; Sun, Chuanxin; Leonova, Svetlana; Dutta, Paresh; Dörmann, Peter; Domergue, Frédéric; Stymne, Sten; Hofvander, Per

    2014-09-01

    In a future bio-based economy, renewable sources for lipid compounds at attractive cost are needed for applications where today petrochemical derivatives are dominating. Wax esters and fatty alcohols provide diverse industrial uses, such as in lubricant and surfactant production. In this study, chloroplast metabolism was engineered to divert intermediates from de novo fatty acid biosynthesis to wax ester synthesis. To accomplish this, chloroplast targeted fatty acyl reductases (FAR) and wax ester synthases (WS) were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Wax esters of different qualities and quantities were produced providing insights to the properties and interaction of the individual enzymes used. In particular, a phytyl ester synthase was found to be a premium candidate for medium chain wax ester synthesis. Catalytic activities of FAR and WS were also expressed as a fusion protein and determined functionally equivalent to the expression of individual enzymes for wax ester synthesis in chloroplasts.

  6. Using plant wax markers to estimate the diet composition of grazing Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Heublein, C; Südekum, K-H; Gill, F L; Dohme-Meier, F; Schori, F

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether diet selection of dairy cows under grazing conditions could be estimated using plant wax markers. Furthermore, differences between 2 cow strains and the effect of concentrate supplementation on plant species selection were investigated. The experiment was a study with a crossover design performed on an organic farm with 12 Swiss Holstein cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein cows. Both experimental periods consisted of a 21-d adaptation and a 7-d measurement period. All cows grazed full time in a rotational stocking system and received either no concentrate or 6 kg/d of a commercial cereal-grain mix. Representative herbage samples of each grazed paddock were taken and botanical composition of subsamples was manually determined. The average proportions of the plant species were 27.8% Lolium perenne, 6.1% Dactylis glomerata, 10.4% Trifolium repens, and 9.0% Taraxacum officinale. Other grass species were merged as "other grass" (38.2%) and other forb species as "other forbs" (8.5%). n-Alkanes, long-chain fatty acids, and long-chain alcohols (LCOH) were analyzed in the samples of plant species, concentrate, and feces from each cow. A linear discriminant analysis indicated that diet components were differentiated best with LCOH (96%) and worst with the combination of all marker groups together (12%). For each marker, the fecal marker recovery (FR) relative to dosed ytterbium was determined in 2 ways. Estimation of diet composition was performed with the software "EatWhat," and results were compared with botanical composition with the Aitchison distance. The results indicate that the diet composition of grazing dairy cows can be estimated using plant wax markers. Additionally, the calculation of FR led to mostly reliable results, yet this approach needs further validation. The most accurate estimation was achieved with the marker combination of n-alkanes and LCOH with a correction for FR. Less accurate estimations were achieved

  7. Alteration of Wax Ester Content and Composition in Euglena gracilis with Gene Silencing of 3-ketoacyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masami; Andoh, Hiroko; Koyama, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Yomi; Nakai, Takeo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    Euglena gracilis produces wax ester under hypoxic and anaerobic culture conditions with a net synthesis of ATP. In wax ester fermentation, fatty acids are synthesized by reversing beta-oxidation in mitochondria. A major species of wax ester produced by E. gracilis is myristyl myristate (14:0-14:0Alc). Because of its shorter carbon chain length with saturated compounds, biodiesel produced from E. gracilis wax ester may have good cold flow properties with high oxidative stability. We reasoned that a slight metabolic modification would enable E. gracilis to produce a biofuel of ideal composition. In order to produce wax ester with shorter acyl chain length, we focused on isozymes of the enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT), a condensing enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway in E. gracilis. We performed a gene silencing study of KAT isozymes in E. gracilis. Six KAT isozymes were identified in the E. gracilis EST database, and silencing any three of them (EgKAT1-3) altered the wax ester amount and composition. In particular, silencing EgKAT1 induced a significant compositional shift to shorter carbon chain lengths in wax ester. A model fuel mixture inferred from the composition of wax ester in EgKAT1-silenced cells showed a significant decrease in melting point compared to that of the control cells.

  8. Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    PubMed

    Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax.

  9. Cuticular wax composition of Salix varieties in relation to biomass productivity.

    PubMed

    Teece, Mark A; Zengeya, Thomas; Volk, Timothy A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2008-01-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of six Salix clones (one Salix miyabeana, one Salix dasyclados, one Salix eriocephala, two Salix purpurea, and one interspecific hybrid of Salix eriocephala x interior) with different biomass productivities were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total wax content ranged from 6.3 to 16.8 microg cm(-2), and two distinct patterns of wax were measured. The wax from leaves of S. dasyclados 'SV1' differed from all other clones and was dominated by fatty acids (42%), high concentrations of n-alkanes (25%) and n-alcohols (28%), with low n-aldehyde content (4%). All other clones produced cuticular wax dominated by n-alcohols (32-51%), particularly 1-hexacosanol, with fatty acids (14-37%) and n-aldehydes (19-26%) present in lower abundances. Clones of Salix grown under identical environmental conditions produce noticeably different amounts of cuticular wax. In contrast to previous studies of Salix, total wax content was independent of biomass productivity, measured as basal area, suggesting that wax production is not directly linked with woody biomass production by shrub willows under these site conditions.

  10. Reconstructing hydrologic changes in Indonesia by deuterium isotope compositions of plant waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesierich, K.; Schefuss, E.; Hebbeln, D.; Mohtadi, M.; Behling, H.; Jennerjahn, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Indonesian region plays an essential role as a center of atmospheric heat and moisture source of the Earth's climate system and is known for its characteristic abundant rainfall throughout the year. Here, we examine hydrological variability during the Late Quaternary in Indonesia from a NW-SE transect from Sumatra to Flores based on compound-specific plant leaf wax isotope measurements. The five investigated coring sites are located on the continental shelf in the Indian Ocean, spanning the last 20 ka. The transect covers a pronounced gradient in climate and vegetation. Sumatra is located in an area with sufficient rainfall throughout the year, whereas in eastward direction rainfall decreases and a dry season exist. Compound specific analyses of n-alkanes of plant leaf waxes (D/H and δ13C) give insights into continental hydrologic changes and the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation. We compared data from 4 time intervals that characterize the last glacial maximum (20 ka), the Heinrich event 1 (15 ka) and the Holocene with maximum in summer insolation (8 ka) and minimum in summer insolation at 30°N (3 ka). Our results show that estimated D/H values of precipitation, i.e., by vegetation-correction of compound-specific D/H values of n-alkanes, in the Holocene (3 and 8 ka) coincide with modern averaged D/H values of rain water. In contrast, during glacial times the results deviate significantly to lighter values, which would indicate higher rainfall intensity due to the amount-effect. The largest deviations to lighter values are found in the Java region, whereas Sumatra and Flores shows only slightly changes. Previous studies and the δ13C values of the n-alkanes, however, suggest that climate in Indonesia, especially in the eastern part, was drier during the last glacial, including Heinrich 1, and C4 grasses were more abundant, respectively. This discrepancy must be explained by other effects on the isotopic composition of rainfall that occurred in the

  11. Developmental Changes in Composition and Morphology of Cuticular Waxes on Leaves and Spikes of Glossy and Glaucous Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Jiahuan; Chai, Guaiqiang; Li, Chunlian; Hu, Yingang; Chen, Xinhong; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The glossy varieties (A14 and Jing 2001) and glaucous varieties (Fanmai 5 and Shanken 99) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were selected for evaluation of developmental changes in the composition and morphology of cuticular waxes on leaves and spikes. The results provide us with two different wax development patterns between leaf and spike. The general accumulation trend of the total wax load on leaf and spike surfaces is first to increase and then decrease during the development growth period, but these changes were caused by different compound classes between leaf and spike. Developmental changes of leaf waxes were mainly the result of variations in composition of alcohols and alkanes. In addition, diketones were the third important contributor to the leaf wax changes in the glaucous varieties. Alkanes and diketones were the two major compound classes that caused the developmental changes of spike waxes. For leaf waxes, β- and OH-β-diketones were first detected in flag leaves from 200-day-old plants, and the amounts of β- and OH-β-diketones were significantly higher in glaucous varieties compared with glossy varieties. In spike waxes, β-diketone existed in all varieties, but OH-β-diketone was detectable only in the glaucous varieties. Unexpectedly, the glaucous variety Fanmai 5 yielded large amounts of OH-β-diketone. There was a significant shift in the chain length distribution of alkanes between early stage leaf and flag leaf. Unlike C28 alcohol being the dominant chain length in leaf waxes, the dominant alcohol chain length of spikes was C24 or C26 depending on varieties. Epicuticular wax crystals on wheat leaf and glume were comprised of platelets and tubules, and the crystal morphology changed constantly throughout plant growth, especially the abaxial leaf crystals. Moreover, our results suggested that platelets and tubules on glume surfaces could be formed rapidly within a few days.

  12. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  13. Comparative analysis of surface wax in mature fruits between Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) from the perspective of crystal morphology, chemical composition and key gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinqiu; Hao, Haohao; Liu, Runsheng; Ma, Qiaoli; Xu, Juan; Chen, Feng; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-06-15

    Surface wax of mature Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) was analysed by crystal morphology, chemical composition, and gene expression levels. The epicuticular and total waxes of both citrus cultivars were mostly composed of aldehydes, alkanes, fatty acids and primary alcohols. The epicuticular wax accounted for 80% of the total wax in the Newhall fruits and was higher than that in the Satsuma fruits. Scanning electron microscopy showed that larger and more wax platelets were deposited on the surface of Newhall fruits than on the Satsuma fruits. Moreover, the expression levels of genes involved in the wax formation were consistent with the biochemical and crystal morphological analyses. These diversities of fruit wax between the two cultivars may contribute to the differences of fruit postharvest storage properties, which can provide important information for the production of synthetic wax for citrus fruits.

  14. Detection of Environmental Deterioration in Fiber Reinforced Composites by FT-Raman Spectroscopy. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Spectra All Composite samples - Diffuse Reflectance, Kubelka - Munk Units All Composite samples - FT-Raman, spin to minimize thermal heating Step 6...obtained by converting the spectra to Kubelka - Munk intensity units as described in literature.20 I Figure 29 shows the DR spectra of the three composites...2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Wavenumbers Figure 30. Diffuse Reflectance Spectra Converted to Kubelka - Munk Units of Graphite/Epoxy Composites at C) Room

  15. Histone H2B monoubiquitination is involved in the regulation of cutin and wax composition in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Rozenn; Verdier, Gaëtan; Ors, Mareva; Erhardt, Mathieu; Beisson, Fred; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2014-02-01

    The plant cuticle is a chemically heterogeneous lipophilic layer composed of a cutin polymer matrix and waxes which covers the aerial parts of plants. This layer plays an essential role in the survival of plants by protecting them from desiccation and (a)biotic stresses. Knowledge on the gene networks and mechanisms regulating the synthesis of cuticle components during organ expansion or stress response remains limited however. Here, using five loss-of-function mutants for histone monoubiquitination, we report on the role of two RING E3 ligases, namely HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION 1 and 2 (HUB1 and HUB2), in the selective transcriptional activation of four cuticle biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Microscopy observations showed that in hub1-6 and hub2-2 mutants irregular epidermal cells and disorganized cuticle layers were present in rosette leaves. Water loss measurements on excised rosettes demonstrated that cuticular permeability was significantly increased in the mutants. Chemical analysis of cuticle components revealed that the wax composition was changed and that cutin 16:0 dicarboxylic acid was significantly reduced in all hub mutants. Analysis of transcript levels of selected genes indicated that LACS2, ATT1 and HOTHEAD involved in cutin biosynthesis and CER1 involved in wax biosynthesis were down-regulated in the hub mutants, while the expression of LACERATA, CER3, CER6 and CER10 remained unchanged. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further showed that hub mutants are impaired in dynamic changes of histone H2B monoubiquitination at several loci of down-regulated genes. Taken together, these data establish that the regulation of cuticle composition involves chromatin remodeling by H2B monoubiquitination.

  16. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in determination of microalgal compositions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yingying; Yao, Changhong; Xue, Song; Yang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in algal strain screening and monitoring cell composition dynamics in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis during algal cultivation. The content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of samples determined by traditional methods had validated the accuracy of FT-IR method. For algal screening, the band absorption ratios of lipid/amide I and carbo/amide I from FT-IR measurements allowed for the selection of Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis as the most potential lipid and carbohydrate producers, respectively. The cell composition dynamics of I. zhangjiangensis measured by FT-IR revealed the diversion of carbon allocation from protein to carbohydrate and neutral lipid when nitrogen-replete cells were subjected to nitrogen limitation. The carbo/amide I band absorption ratio had also been demonstrated to depict physiological status under nutrient stress in T. subcordiformis. FT-IR serves as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content in cell.

  17. Investigation into the Coating and Desensitization Effect on HNIW of Paraffin Wax/Stearic Acid Composite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Xu; Chen, Shu-Sen; Jin, Shao-Hua; Shu, Qing-Hai; Jiang, Zhen-Ming; Shang, Feng-Qin; Li, Jin-Xin

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) was bonded by fluorine rubber and then desensitized by paraffin wax (PW), stearic acid (SA), and a PW/SA composite system using an aqueous suspension method. The coating and desensitization effects of the composite systems on HNIW and the influence of the addition of SA on the mechanical properties of the coated HNIW samples were studied. In addition, the PW/SA composite solution was simulated using a molecular dynamics method, and the relationship between the desensitization effect on HNIW and the properties of the composite solution was investigated. The results showed that the PW/SA composite system, of which the desensitization effect on HNIW was between those of the two desensitizers, could effectively coat HNIW and that the composite solution had the most stable and well-distributed state when using benzene as solvent with the mass ratio of PW/SA equal to 7/3 or 3/7, thus resulting in the best desensitization effect on HNIW. Moreover, the addition of stearic acid was successful in enhancing the mechanical properties of the coated HNIW samples.

  18. Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

    2004-09-30

    FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

  19. Planning extensive esthetic restorations for anterior teeth: use of waxed-up study casts and composite resin mock-ups.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Baratto, Samantha Schaffer Pugsley; Spina, Denis Roberto Falcão; Correr, Gisele Maria; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to highlight the importance of appropriate planning protocols when direct composite resin restorations are used to solve extensive esthetic problems. A 30-year-old patient complained about her small maxillary anterior teeth and short upper lip. All teeth were healthy and light colored, and the patient exhibited good oral hygiene. The anterior teeth were relatively short, resulting in a compromised esthetic relationship between height and width. The maxillary and mandibular right central incisors were in an edge-to-edge relationship. After diagnostic casts and waxed-up study casts were obtained, occlusal adjustment and recontouring of the incisal and labial surfaces of the mandibular right central incisor were performed to increase overjet. To increase the volume of the upper lip, composite resin restorations were planned for the maxillary anterior teeth. To confirm that the contours and color of the new smile were acceptable to the patient, composite resin esthetic mock-ups were made directly in the mouth before the definitive procedure. After definitive restoration of the anterior teeth, additional occlusal adjustments were performed. At the 36-month follow-up, no fracturing or severe wear of the restorations was observed. The restored anterior guidance provided excellent function after 3 years of clinical service.

  20. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness. PMID:26889359

  1. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness.

  2. Stable hydrogen isotopic composition of n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols as a tracer for the source region of terrestrial plant waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2009-12-01

    Studies on molecular composition and compound-specific carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) of leaf wax n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols have revealed a long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial higher plant materials over the south Atlantic and western Pacific oceans. However, molecular and δ13C compositions of terrestrial plant waxes in the eastern part of the Asian continent are relatively constant reflecting C3-dominated vegetation, which makes it difficult to specify the source regions of plant materials in the atmospheric aerosols over the East Asia and northwest Pacific regions. Recent observation displays a large (>100‰) spatial variation in hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of rainwater in East Asia. Because δD values of terrestrial higher plants sensitively reflect those of precipitation waters, δD of leaf waxes are expected to provide information on their source region. In this study, we measured the δD of n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols from Tokyo to better understand the origin of leaf wax n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols. The δD values of fossil fuel n-alkanes (C21 to C24) in Tokyo aerosols range from -65 to -94‰, which are in a range of those reported in marine crude oils. In contrast, the δD of higher molecular weight (C29 and C31) n-alkanes (δDHMW) show much larger values by ~70‰ than those of fossil fuel n-alkanes. Their values were found to exhibit concomitant variations with carbon preference index (CPI), suggesting that the δDHMW reflect the δD of leaf wax n-alkanes with a variable contribution from fossil fuel n-alkanes. Nevertheless, good positive correlation (r = 0.89, p < 0.01) between the δDHMW and CPI values enable us to remove the contribution of fossil fuels using a mass balance approach by assuming that CPI of fossil fuel is 1 and CPI of plant waxes is 5-15. Calculated n-alkane δD values averaged from -170 to -185‰ for C29 and from -155 to -168‰ for C31. These values are consistent with those reported from

  3. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... wax plug. Tip your head to allow the water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or causing an infection: Never irrigate the ear if the eardrum may have a hole in it. Do not irrigate the ear with ...

  4. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lu; Ye, Philip; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  5. The stable hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary plant waxes as quantitative proxy for rainfall in the West African Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeyer, Eva M.; Forrest, Matthew; Beckmann, Britta; Sessions, Alex L.; Mulch, Andreas; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the stable hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of terrestrial leaf waxes tracks that of precipitation (δDprecip) both spatially across climate gradients and over a range of different timescales. Yet, reconstructed estimates of δDprecip and corresponding rainfall typically remain largely qualitative, due mainly to uncertainties in plant ecosystem net fractionation, relative humidity, and the stability of the amount effect through time. Here we present δD values of the C31n-alkane (δDwax) from a marine sediment core offshore the Northwest (NW) African Sahel covering the past 100 years and overlapping with the instrumental record of rainfall. We use this record to investigate whether accurate, quantitative estimates of past rainfall can be derived from our δDwax time series. We infer the composition of vegetation (C3/C4) within the continental catchment area by analysis of the stable carbon isotopic composition of the same compounds (δ13Cwax), calculated a net ecosystem fractionation factor, and corrected the δDwax time series accordingly to derive δDprecip. Using the present-day relationship between δDprecip and the amount of precipitation in the tropics, we derive quantitative estimates of past precipitation amounts. Our data show that (a) vegetation composition can be inferred from δ13Cwax, (b) the calculated net ecosystem fractionation represents a reasonable estimate, and (c) estimated total amounts of rainfall based on δDwax correspond to instrumental records of rainfall. Our study has important implications for future studies aiming to reconstruct rainfall based on δDwax; the combined data presented here demonstrate that it is feasible to infer absolute rainfall amounts from sedimentary δDwax in tandem with δ13Cwax in specific depositional settings.

  6. Aridity and vegetation composition are important determinants of leaf-wax δD values in southeastern Mexico and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Pagani, Mark; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Curtis, Jason H.

    2012-11-01

    Leaf-wax hydrogen isotope composition (δDwax) is increasingly applied as a proxy for hydroclimate variability in tropical paleoclimate archives, but the factors controlling δDwax in the tropics remain poorly understood. We measured δDwax and the stable carbon isotope composition of leaf-waxes (δ13Cwax), including both n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, from modern lake sediments and soils across a marked aridity gradient in southeastern Mexico and northern Central America to investigate the importance of aridity and vegetation composition on δDwax. In this region the estimated hydrogen isotope composition of meteoric water (δDw) varies by only 25‰, and variability in δDw does not explain the relatively large variance in δDwax (60‰). Instead, the aridity index, defined as the ratio of mean annual precipitation to mean annual potential evapotranspiration (MAP/PET), explains much of the variability in the hydrogen isotope fractionation between leaf-waxes and meteoric water (εwax/w). Aridity effects are more evident in lake sediments than in soils, possibly because integration of leaf-waxes across a broad catchment masks small-scale variability in εwax/w that is a consequence of differences in vegetation and microclimates. In angiosperm-dominated environments, plant ecology, inferred from δ13Cwax, provides a secondary control on εwax/w for n-alkanoic acids (εn-acid/w). Low δ13Cn-acid values are associated with high εn-acid/w values, most likely reflecting differences in biosynthetic hydrogen isotope fractionation between C4 grasses and C3 trees and shrubs. A similar relationship between δ13Cn-alkane and εn-alkane/w is not observed. These results indicate that changes in either aridity or vegetation can cause large variability in δDwax that is independent of the isotopic composition of precipitation, and these effects should be accounted for in paleoclimate studies.

  7. Leaf wax composition and carbon isotopes vary among major conifer groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Leslie, Andrew B.; Wing, Scott L.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf waxes (e.g. n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) and their carbon isotopes (δ13C) are commonly used to track past changes in the carbon cycle, water availability, and plant ecophysiology. Previous studies indicated that conifers have lower n-alkane concentrations than angiosperms and that 13C fractionation during n-alkane synthesis (εn-alkane) is smaller than in angiosperms. These prior studies, however, sampled a limited phylogenetic and geographic subset of conifers, leaving out many important subtropical and Southern Hemisphere groups that were once widespread and common components of fossil assemblages. To expand on previous work, we collected 43 conifer species (and Ginkgo biloba) from the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley, sampling all extant conifer families and almost two-thirds of extant genera. We find that Pinaceae, including many North American species used in previous studies, have very low or no n-alkanes. However, other conifer groups have significant concentrations of n-alkanes, especially Southern Hemisphere Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae (monkey puzzles, Norfolk Island pines, and yellowwoods), and many species of Cupressaceae (junipers and relatives). Within the Cupressaceae, we find total n-alkane concentrations are high in subfamilies Cupressoideae and Callitroideae, but significantly lower in the early diverging taxodioid lineages (including bald cypress and redwood). Individual n-alkane chain lengths have a weak phylogenetic signal, except for n-C29 alkane, but when combined using average chain length (ACL), a strong phylogenetic signal emerges. The strong phylogenetic signal in ACL, observed in the context of a common growth environment for all plants we sampled, suggests that ACL is strongly influenced by factors other than climate. An analysis of εn-alkane indicates a strong phylogenetic signal in which the smallest biosynthetic fractionation occurs in Pinaceae and the largest in Taxaceae (yews and relatives). The

  8. Transmucosal delivery of testosterone in rabbits using novel bi-layer mucoadhesive wax-film composite disks.

    PubMed

    Jay, Steven; Fountain, William; Cui, Zhengrong; Mumper, Russell J

    2002-09-01

    Testosterone exhibits very low oral bioavailability because of its low aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel bi-layer mucoadhesive wax-film composite (WFC), and to test the relative bioavailability of testosterone via the buccal route in rabbits. The release rate of testosterone from optimal WFCs (3/8-in. diameter) per unit surface area was 5.6 microg x cm(2) x mL(-1) x min(-1) and was zero-order. Bi-layer WFCs (average weight of 14 +/- 2.6 mg and thickness of 186 +/- 34 microns) containing 4 mg of testosterone were applied to the buccal pouch of anesthetized New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbits (n = 3) injected intravenously had C(max) and area under the curve values of 1200 +/- 46 ng/mL, and 48,227 +/- 12,995 ng x min/mL, respectively. Rabbits (n = 3) dosed via the buccal pouch had C(max), T(max), and area under the curve values of 127 +/- 13 ng/mL, 200 +/- 35 min, and 24,221 +/- 1543 ng x min/mL. The relative bioavailability for rabbits treated with the WFC was 50.2 +/- 3.2% with a coefficient of variation of 6.4%. It was concluded that these bi-layer mucoadhesive WFCs disks could deliver physiologically relevant amounts of insoluble drugs such as testosterone across the buccal mucosa.

  9. Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm-1 (ICOM), 1473 cm-1 (ICOD), 961 cm-1 (IHAP) and 1282 cm-1 (IUA) were used.

  10. Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, R; Raja, A; Thiruppathi, G

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm(-1) (I(COM)), 1473 cm(-1) (I(COD)), 961 cm(-1) (I(HAP)) and 1282 cm(-1) (I(UA)) were used.

  11. Wax and cutin mutants of Arabidopsis: Quantitative characterization of the cuticular transport barrier in relation to chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Christina; Schroll, Bettina; Zeisler, Viktoria; Waßmann, Friedrich; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Using (14)C-labeled epoxiconazole as a tracer, cuticular permeability of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was quantitatively measured in order to compare different wax and cutin mutants (wax2, cut1, cer5, att1, bdg, shn3 and shn1) to the corresponding wild types (Col-0 and Ws). Mutants were characterized by decreases or increases in wax and/or cutin amounts. Permeances [ms(-1)] of Arabidopsis cuticles either increased in the mutants compared to wild type or were not affected. Thus, genetic changes in wax and cutin biosynthesis in some of the investigated Arabidopsis mutants obviously impaired the coordinated cutin and wax deposition at the outer leaf epidermal cell wall. As a consequence, barrier properties of cuticles were significantly decreased. However, increasing cutin and wax amounts by genetic modifications, did not automatically lead to improved cuticular barrier properties. As an alternative approach to the radioactive transport assay, changes in chlorophyll fluorescence were monitored after foliar application of metribuzine, an herbicide inhibiting electron transport in chloroplasts. Since both, half-times of photosynthesis inhibition as well as times of complete inhibition, in fact correlated with (14)C-epoxiconazole permeances, different rates of decline of photosynthetic yield between mutants and wild type must be a function of foliar uptake of the herbicide across the cuticle. Thus, monitoring changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, instead of conducting radioactive transport assays, represents an easy-to-handle and fast alternative evaluating cuticular barrier properties of different genotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.

  12. Evaluation of a setting reaction pathway in the novel composite TiHA-CSD bone cement by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Czechowska, Joanna; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Zofia

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a setting reaction pathway in a novel, surgically handy implant material, based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) and titanium doped hydroxyapatite (TiHA). The previous studies confirmed superior biological properties of TiHA in comparison to the undoped hydroxyapatite (HA) what makes it highly attractive for future medical applications. In this study the three types of titanium modified HA powders: untreated, calcined at 800 °C, sintered at 1250 °C and CSH were used to produce bone cements. The Fourier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were applied to evaluate processes taking place during the setting of the studied materials. Our results undoubtedly confirmed that the reaction pathways and the phase compositions differed significantly for set cements and were dependent on the initial heat treatment of TiHA powder. Final materials were multiphase composites consisting of calcium sulfate dihydrate, bassanite, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and calcium titanate (perovskite). The FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements performed after the incubation of the cement samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF), indicate on high bioactive potential of the obtained bone cements.

  13. HL-20 Wax Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A numerically machined wax pattern of the NASA HL-20 orbital re-entry lifting body was cut from a CAD/CAM file. This nine-inch wax model was later used in a lost wax investment casting process to replicate the pattern in ceramic for wind-tunnel aero-heating studies

  14. Fluorescence EEM and FT-IR analyses for examination of soil organic matter compositions affected by incubation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Ah; Vo-Minh Nguyen, Hang; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of soil drying-rewetting, nitrogen deposition, and temperature rise on the changes in dissolved soil organic matter quantities and their compositions.A PARAFAC method was employed to analyze the changes in the sub-fractions of fluorescent DOM components, which revealed that the dry forest soil accumulated relatively more amino acid type DOM than humic-like substances whereas the other soil groups showed the opposite trend.Nitrogen deposition, and temperature rise did not induce significant changes in the fluorescent DOM components. FT-IR analysis results were compared with the fluorescence EEM results, which provided complementary information about the characteristic functional groups of DOM. A principal component analysis (PCA) with the PARAFAC component scores, and the intensity ratios of representative FT-IR peaks gave a comprehensive interpretation on the changes of DOM compositions in response to the variations in the incubation conditions.

  15. Distribution and stable isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes as tracers for organic matter transport along hydrological transects in the NW Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Sachse, Dirk; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-04-01

    The burial of organic matter in marine sediments represents the main long-term sink for reduced carbon in the global carbon cycle, with the fluvial system being the predominant transport mechanism. Organic matter deposited in marine and continental sediments contains valuable information on ecological and climatic conditions, and organic proxy data is thus often used in paleoclimate research. To use sedimentary records to investigate past environmental conditions in the terrestrial realm, processes dictating the transport of organic matter, including spatial and temporal resolution as well as the influence of climatic and tectonic processes, have to be understood. In this study, we test if a lipid biomarker based approach can be used to trace present-day organic matter sources in a fluvial watershed draining two intermontane basins in the southern-central Andes of NW Argentina, a tectonically active region with pronounced topographic, rainfall, and vegetation gradients. We investigated the distribution of long-chain leaf-wax n-alkanes, a terrestrial plant biomarker (and as such representative of terrestrially sourced carbon), in river sediments and coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) along two altitudinal and hydrological gradients. We used n-alkane abundances and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic values as three independent parameters for source discrimination. Additionally, we analyzed the control of environmental parameters on the isotopic signatures in leaf-wax n-alkanes. The general pattern of n-alkane distribution in river sediments and CPOM samples in our study area suggest that vascular plants are the major source of riverine organic matter. The stable carbon isotopic composition of nC29 alkanes suggests a nearly exclusive input of C3 vegetation. Although C4 plants are present in the lower catchment areas, the total percentage is too low to have a detectable influence on the carbon isotopic composition in river sediment and CPOM samples

  16. Can Stress-Induced Biochemical Differences drive Variation in the Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Leaf Wax n-Alkanes from Terrestrial Higher Plants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Y.; Pedentchouk, N.; Dawson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research has identified that interspecies variation in leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H from plants growing at the same geographical location can exceed 100‰. These differences cannot easily be explained by mechanisms that influence the isotopic composition of leaf water. Biochemical processes are therefore likely to drive some of this variability. Currently, however, little is known about the relative importance of different biochemical processes in shaping n-alkane hydrogen isotope composition. To explore this issue, we combined n-alkane δ2H analysis with measurements of: (i) the percentage content of leaf C and N; and (ii) foliar δ15N, from seven plants growing at Stiffkey salt marsh, Norfolk, UK. These species differ biochemically in respect of the protective compounds they produce under salt or water stressed conditions, with monocots generally producing more carbohydrates, and dicots producing more nitrogenous compounds. We found that monocots had higher %C, while dicots had higher %N and 15N-enriched leaf tissue. We identified a systematic relationship between the nature of the dominant protective compound produced (carbohydrate vs. nitrogenous) and n-alkane 2H/1H: species with a greater proportion of carbohydrates have more negative δ2H values. These findings might imply that shifts in the relative contribution of H to pyruvate from NADPH (2H-depleted) and recycled carbohydrates (2H-enriched) can influence n-alkane δ2H. The 2H-depletion of monocot n-alkanes relative to dicots may therefore be due to a greater proportion of NADPH-derived H incorporated into pyruvate because of their enhanced demand for carbohydrates. The production of protective compounds in plant species is a common response to a range of abiotic stresses (e.g. high UV irradiation, drought, salinity, high/low temperature). Species-specific biochemical responses to stress could therefore influence n-alkane 2H/1H across a range of habitats. This study highlights the importance of detailed

  17. Growth factor controls on the distribution and carbon isotope composition of n-alkanes in leaf wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, C.; Xie, S.; Huang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Cuticular wax plays pivotal physiological and ecological roles in the interactions between plants and the environments in which they grow. Plant-derived long-chain alkanes are more resistant to decay than other biochemical polymers. n-Alkane distributions (Carbon Preference Index (CPI) values and Average Chain Length (ACL) values) and carbon isotopic values are used widely in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. However, there is little information available on how growth stages of the plant might influence the abundance of n-alkanes in the natural environment. In this study, we analyzed n-alkane distributions and carbon isotope data from two tree species (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. and Liquidambar formosana Hance) collected monthly from 2009 to 2011 in Nanwang Shan, Wuhan, Hubei Province. CPI values for n-alkanes from C. camphora remained stable in autumn and winter but fluctuated dramatically during spring and autumn each year. Positive correlations between CPI values and the relative content of (C27+C29) were observed in both sun and shade leaves of C. camphora from April to July. In L. formosana, CPI values decreased gradually from April to December. A similar trend was observed in all three years suggesting that growth stages rather than temperature or relative humidity affected the CPI values on a seasonal timescale. In the samples of L. formosana ACL values were negatively correlated with CPI values in the growing season (from April to July) and positively correlated with CPI values in the other seasons. The δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes displayed more negative carbon isotopic values in autumn and winter compared with leaves sampled at the start of the growing season from both trees. The δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes of L. formosana decreased from April to December. These results demonstrate the importance of elucidating the growing factors that influence the distribution and δ13C values of alkanes in modern leaves prior to using CPI

  18. Application of FT-IR spectroscopy for control of the medium composition during the biodegradation of nitro aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mara; Muter, Olga; Strikauska, Silvija; Gavare, Marita; Limane, Baiba

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies showed that cabbage leaf extract (CLE) added to the growth medium can noticeably promote the degradation of nitro aromatic compounds by specific consortium of bacteria upon their growth. For further development of the approach for contaminated soil remediation it was necessary to evaluate the qualitative and/or quantitative composition of different origin CLE and their relevance on the growth of explosives-degrading bacteria. Six CLE (different by species, cultivars and harvesting time) were tested and used as additives to the growth medium. It was shown that nitro aromatic compounds can be identified in the FT-IR absorption spectra by the characteristic band at 1,527 cm(-1), and in CLE by the characteristic band at 1,602 cm(-1). The intensity of the CLE band at 1,602 cm(-1) correlated with the concentration of total nitrogen (R2=0.87) and decreased upon the growth of bacteria. The content of nitrogen in CLE differed (0.22-1.00 vol.%) and significantly influenced the content of total carbohydrates (9.50-16.00% DW) and lipids [3.90-9.90% dry weight (DW)] accumulated in bacterial cells while the content of proteins was similar in all samples. Though this study showed quantitative differences in the composition of the studied CLE and the response of bacterial cells to the composition of the growth media, and proved the potential of this additive for remediation of contaminated soil. It was shown that analysis of CLE and monitoring of the conversion of nitro aromatic compounds can be investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy as well as by conventional chemical methods.

  19. Water vapor barrier and sorption properties of edible films from pullulan and rice wax.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible films were prepared by using various ratios of pullulan and rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 46.4% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were also studied to examine...

  20. Effect of rice wax on water vapor permeability and sorption properties of edible pullulan films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible pullulan films were prepared by substituting the pullulan with various ratios of rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 50% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of the rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were ...

  1. Test Procedures for Qualifying Waxes for Use in Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-16

    QUALIFICATION FOR USE IN COMPOSITION A-3 EXPLOSIVE A sample of the candidate wax will be forwarded to Holston Army Ammunition Plant , Kingsport ...explosive for Navy use. TV. QUALIFICATION FOR USEJ]l COMPOSITION B EXPLOSIVE A sample of the candidate wax will be forwarded to Holston Army Ammunition ... Plant , Kingsport , Tennessee , to be used in manufacturing Grade A Composition B explosive to meet the requirements of MIL-C-401. This will be used in

  2. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of organic matrix degradation in nanofilled resin composite.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Nahórny, Sídnei; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2013-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of light curing unit (LCU) type, mouthwashes, and soft drink on chemical degradation of a nanofilled resin composite. Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: halogen LCU, HS--saliva (control); HPT--Pepsi Twist®; HLC--Listerine®; HCP--Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, LS--saliva (control); LPT--Pepsi Twist®; LLC--Listerine®; LCP--Colgate Plax®. The degree of conversion analysis and the measure of the peak area at 2,930 cm-1 (organic matrix) of resin composite were done by Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy (baseline, after 7 and 14 days). The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's HSD post-hoc test. The DC ranged from 58.0% (Halogen) to 59.3% (LED) without significance. Differences in the peak area between LCUs were found after 7 days of storage in S and PT. A marked increase in the peak intensity of HLC and LLC groups was found. The soft-start light-activation may influence the chemical degradation of organic matrix in resin composite. Ethanol contained in Listerine® Cool Mint mouthwash had the most significant degradation effect. Raman spectroscopy is shown to be a useful tool to investigate resin composite degradation.

  3. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca2+ ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch - Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods allowed to identify the cross-linking process of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The cross-linking was performed by chemical methods by introducing cross-linking substances with Ca2+ ions or glutaraldehyde and by physical way, applying the microwave radiation. It was found that Ca2+ ions cause formation of cross-linking ionic bonds within carboxyl and carboxylate groups. Glutaraldehyde generates formation of cross-linking bonds with hemiacetal and acetal structures. Whereas in the microwave radiation field, due to dehydration, lattices are formed by anhydride bonds.

  4. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca(2+) ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch--part I.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina

    2015-01-25

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods allowed to identify the cross-linking process of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The cross-linking was performed by chemical methods by introducing cross-linking substances with Ca(2+) ions or glutaraldehyde and by physical way, applying the microwave radiation. It was found that Ca(2+) ions cause formation of cross-linking ionic bonds within carboxyl and carboxylate groups. Glutaraldehyde generates formation of cross-linking bonds with hemiacetal and acetal structures. Whereas in the microwave radiation field, due to dehydration, lattices are formed by anhydride bonds.

  5. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  6. Using the alkanes and long-chain alcohols of plant cuticular wax to estimate diet composition and the intakes of mixed forages in sheep consuming a known amount of alkane-labelled supplement.

    PubMed

    Dove, H; Charmley, E

    2008-10-01

    In a feeding trial with 24 sheep, we used the alkanes, long-chain alcohols (LCOH) or both of these plant wax markers, to estimate the diet composition of animals offered diets comprising alkane-labelled cottonseed meal (CSM) together with up to four forages. The diets used were: Diet 1 subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum); Diet 2 subterranean clover + phalaris (Phalaris aquatica); Diet 3 subterranean clover, phalaris + annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum); and Diet 4 subterranean clover, phalaris, annual ryegrass + wheat straw (Triticum aestivum). Estimates of diet composition were made following correction of faecal alkane or LCOH concentrations for incomplete faecal recovery, using recovery estimates derived from individual animals, mean recoveries for a given dietary treatment or grand mean recoveries. Estimated dietary proportions of CSM and known intakes of CSM were used to estimate forage intake. The LCOH concentrations of the diet components were much higher than their alkane concentrations, especially for phalaris. Multivariate analyses showed that the discriminatory information provided by the LCOH was additional to that provided by the alkanes, and that a combination of (LCOH + alkanes) discriminated better between diet components than either class of marker alone. Faecal recoveries of LCOH increased with increasing carbon-chain length; there were no differences in recovery attributable to diet. The most accurate estimates of diet composition were obtained with the combination of (LCOH + alkanes). Estimates of diet composition based on LCOH alone were not as good as alkanes alone, due to the high correlation between the LCOH profiles of phalaris and ryegrass. Total grass content of the diet was very accurately estimated using LCOH. Diet composition estimates provided estimates of whole-diet digestibility, which did not differ from the measured values. Trends in the accuracy of forage intake estimates reflected those found with diet composition and

  7. Wax separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhurst, T.E.

    1980-06-03

    Particles of solid wax are separated from a slurry comprising said wax particles and a hydrocarbon oil by filtering the slurry through a cloth filter medium. It has been found that using, as the filter medium, a needled-felt cloth fabricated from fibers fusible by means of an open flame and having a singed surface on which the wax is collected results in an unexpected reduction in filter cloth blinding thereby yielding up to 30% increased throughput through the filter cloth and greatly reducing the frequency of washing the filter cloth. The cloth is further characterized in that it has a permeability to air in excess of about 3 cubic feet per minute per square foot of cloth surface at a differential pressure of 0.5 inches of water, a root mean square surface roughness in excess of 500 rms microinches and a fouling factor in excess of about 75%. This improved process has been found to be particularly useful for separating wax particles from a dewaxed lube oil slurry.

  8. [Bee, wax and honey].

    PubMed

    de Laguérenne, Claude

    2003-01-01

    The archives of Nantes contain two manuscripts of the XVIIth century from which we found 63 formulae which enter bees, honey and wax. Our study concerns these various galeniques forms for internal use or external used in therapeutics and in beauty care.

  9. Keeping Wax Liquid For Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Russell V.

    1989-01-01

    "Hot gun" applies masking wax and similar materials in liquid state. Holding chamber and nozzle supply continuous heat to wax, and wax injects directly into hole as liquid. Nozzles of various sizes interchange so one selects nozzle having opening suited to viscosity of wax and size of hole in particular application. Gun fast, eliminates repeated application, and greatly reduces cleanup time. Available commercially for applying hot glue, used to ensure wax penetrates and fills holes, flow passages, and manifold passages so contamination sealed off during manufacturing operations.

  10. Experimental wax mixtures for dental use.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1997-07-01

    Improvements in the properties of dental waxes were sought by alterations in their composition. Twenty-six blends of paraffin wax, beeswax and inorganic filler were subjected to the following tests: plastic deformation (flow), linear thermal expansion, elastic modulus and flexural strength. Flow tests were conducted in accordance with the corresponding ISO specification. Thermal expansion coefficients were estimated using thermomechanical analysis. Mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine. Pure paraffin and beeswax were used as controls. The results were subjected to analysis using correlation and regression. Regression coefficients in the range of 0.90-0.99 were obtained in most cases, flow tests exhibiting the highest coefficients and flexural strength the lowest. The incorporated filler particles reduced the flow of the natural waxes, especially of the ester-containing beeswax, and improved the elastic modulus and strength. Good correlation was found between the ingredient proportions and measured properties, suggesting a relationship between them, although this is quite complicated in the case of tertiary wax mixtures. The experimental blends exhibited properties that are potentially useful for a range of clinical applications.

  11. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  12. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  13. Combining FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the cell wall composition changes during apples development.

    PubMed

    Szymanska-Chargot, M; Chylinska, M; Kruk, B; Zdunek, A

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this work was to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the composition of the cell wall material from apples during development by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The FT-IR region of 1500-800 cm(-1), containing characteristic bands for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose, was examined using principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering and partial least squares (PLS). The samples were differentiated by development stage and cultivar using PCA and k-means clustering. PLS calibration models for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose content from FT-IR spectra were developed and validated with the reference data. PLS models were tested using the root-mean-square errors of cross-validation for contents of galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose which was 8.30 mg/g, 4.08% and 1.74%, respectively. It was proven that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has potential for fast and reliable determination of the main constituents of fruit cell walls.

  14. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  15. Variability in the carbon isotopic composition of foliage carbon pools (soluble carbohydrates, waxes) and respiration fluxes in southeastern U.S. pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Conte, Maureen H.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Weber, J. C.; Martin, Timothy A.; Cropper, Wendell P., Jr.

    2012-06-01

    We measured the δ13C of assimilated carbon (foliage organic matter (δCOM), soluble carbohydrates (δCSC), and waxes (δCW)) and respiratory carbon (foliage (δCFR), soil (δCSR) and ecosystem 13CO2 (δCER)) for two years at adjacent ecosystems in the southeastern U.S.: a regenerated 32 m tall mature Pinus palustrisforest, and a mid-rotation 13 m tallPinus elliottii stand. Carbon pools and foliage respiration in P. palustris were isotopically enriched by 2‰ relative to P. elliottii. Despite this enrichment, mean δCER values of the two sites were nearly identical. No temporal trends were apparent in δCSC, δCFR, δCSR and δCER. In contrast, δCOM and δCW at both sites declined by approximately 2‰ over the study. This appears to reflect the adjustment in the δ13C of carbon storage reserves used for biosynthesis as the trees recovered from a severe drought prior to our study. Unexpectedly, the rate of δ13C decrease in the secondary C32-36 n-alkanoic acid wax molecular cluster was twice that observed forδCOM and the predominant C22-26 compound cluster, and provides new evidence for parallel but separate wax chain elongation systems utilizing different carbon precursor pools in these species. δCFR and δCER were consistently enriched relative to assimilated carbon but, in contrast to previous studies, showed limited variations in response to changes in vapor pressure deficit (D). This limited variability in respiratory fluxes and δCSC may be due to the shallow water table as well as the deep taproots of pines, which limit fluctuations in photosynthetic discrimination arising from changes in D.

  16. A novel dominant glossy mutation causes suppression of wax biosynthesis pathway and deficiency of cuticular wax in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of land plants are covered with cuticular waxes that limit non-stomatal water loss and gaseous exchange, and protect plants from ultraviolet radiation and pathogen attack. This is the first report on the characterization and genetic mapping of a novel dominant glossy mutant (BnaA.GL) in Brassica napus. Results Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cuticle ultrastructure of GL mutant leaf and stem were altered dramatically compared with that of wide type (WT). Scanning electron microscopy corroborated the reduction of wax on the leaf and stem surface. A cuticular wax analysis of the GL mutant leaves further confirmed the drastic decrease in the total wax content, and a wax compositional analysis revealed an increase in aldehydes but a severe decrease in alkanes, ketones and secondary alcohols. These results suggested a likely blockage of the decarbonylation step in the wax biosynthesis pathway. Genetic mapping narrowed the location of the BnaA.GL gene to the end of A9 chromosome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assay in combination with bulk segregant analysis (BSA) also located SNPs in the same region. Two SNPs, two single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one IP marker were located on the flanking region of the BnaA.GL gene at a distance of 0.6 cM. A gene homologous to ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) was located in the mapped region. A cDNA microarray chip assay revealed coordinated down regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the cuticular wax biosynthetic pathway in the glossy mutant, with BnCER1 being one of the most severely suppressed genes. Conclusions Our results indicated that surface wax biosynthesis is broadly affected in the glossy mutant due to the suppression of the BnCER1 and other wax-related genes. These findings offer novel clues for elucidating the molecular basis of the glossy phenotype. PMID:24330756

  17. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, George D.; Lewis, Linda; Yen, Laurel C.

    2014-06-24

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  18. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Yen, William; Yen, Laurel C.; Jia, George D.

    2012-12-04

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  19. The development of a method of producing etch resistant wax patterns on solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-01-01

    A potentially attractive technique for wax masking of solar cells prior to etching processes was studied. This technique made use of a reuseable wax composition which was applied to the solar cell in patterned form by means of a letterpress printing method. After standard wet etching was performed, wax removal by means of hot water was investigated. Application of the letterpress wax printing process to silicon was met with a number of difficulties. The most serious shortcoming of the process was its inability to produce consistently well-defined printed patterns on the hard silicon cell surface.

  20. Wax layers on Cosmos bipinnatus petals contribute unequally to total petal water resistance.

    PubMed

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C(22) and C(24) fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 10(4) and 1.5 × 10(4) s m(-1) for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs.

  1. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and....1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a... succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China,...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  4. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  6. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  8. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  9. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  11. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  12. Green waxes, adhesives and lubricants.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Kong, X H; Ruan, M; Ma, F M; Jiang, Y F; Liu, M Z; Chen, Y; Zuo, X H

    2010-10-28

    General characteristics of waxes, adhesives and lubricants as well as the recent fundamental investigations on their physical and mechanical behaviour are introduced. The current R&D status for new type/generation of waxes, adhesives and lubricants from natural products is reviewed, with an emphasis on their tribological applications. In particular, some crucial issues and challenges relating to technological improvement and materials development are discussed. Based on the current predicted shortage of energy resources and environmental concerns, prospective research on the development of green waxes, adhesives and lubricants is suggested.

  13. Properties of An Oral Nanoformulation of A Molecularly Dispersed Amphotericin B Comprising A Composite Matrix of Theobroma Oil and Bee’S Wax

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chloe See Wei; Billa, Nashiru; Roberts, Clive J.; Scurr, David J.

    2014-01-01

    An amphotericin B-containing (AmB) solid lipid nanoparticulate drug delivery system intended for oral administration, comprised of bee’s wax and theobroma oil as lipid components was formulated with the aim to ascertain the location of AmB within the lipid matrix: (a) a homogenous matrix; (b) a drug-enriched shell; or (c) a drug enriched core. Both the drug-loaded and drug-free nanoparticles were spherical with AmB contributing to an increase in both the z-average diameter (169 ± 1 to 222 ± 2 nm) and zeta potential (40.8 ± 0.9 to 50.3 ± 1.0 mV) of the nanoparticles. A maximum encapsulation efficiency of 21.4% ± 3.0%, corresponding to 10.7 ± 0.4 mg encapsulated AmB within the lipid matrix was observed. Surface analysis and electron microscopic imaging indicated that AmB was dispersed uniformly within the lipid matrix (option (a) above) and, therefore, this is the most suitable of the three models with regard to modeling the propensity for uptake by epithelia and release of AmB in lymph.

  14. Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

    1991-01-01

    This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. New way to characterize the percolation threshold of polyethylene and carbon nanotube polymer composites using Fourier transform (FT) rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahirwal, Deepak; Palza, Humberto; Schlatter, Guy; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2014-08-01

    In this article, a new way to characterize the percolation threshold of polymer nanocomposites made of polyethylene (PE) with single and multi walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) is presented. Small and large oscillatory shear (SAOS and LAOS) experiments were performed to characterize the degree of dispersion and percolation threshold. The analysis of the stress response in the LAOS regime as a function of the applied deformation amplitude and frequency was performed using Fourier Transform (FT)-Rheology. The zero strain intrinsic nonlinear parameter, Q0(ω), was calculated by extrapolation of I3/1(γ0, ω) and was, used to quantify the nonlinearity measured by FT-Rheology. Interestingly, a drop in Q0 as a function of the CNT weight fraction at a fixed frequency was found that was below the percolation threshold. This was followed by, a steep rise in Q0 above the percolation threshold. Therefore, the new method based on this observation that is proposed and described with this article has the potential to lead to a better understanding of structure-property relationships in polymer nanocomposites.

  16. Oligomers formed through in-cloud methylglyoxal reactions: Chemical composition, properties, and mechanisms investigated by ultra-high resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, K. E.; Seitzinger, S. P.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.; Klein, G. C.; Marshall, A. G.

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a substantial component of total atmospheric organic particulate matter, but little is known about the composition of SOA formed through cloud processing. We conducted aqueous phase photo-oxidation experiments of methylglyoxal and hydroxyl radical to simulate cloud processing. In addition to predicted organic acid monomers, oligomer formation from methylglyoxal-hydroxyl radical reactions was detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The chemical composition of the oligomers and the mechanism of their formation were investigated by ultra-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) and LCQ DUO ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). Reaction products included 415 compounds detected in the mass range 245-800 Da and the elemental composition of all 415 compounds were determined by ultra-high resolution FT-ICR MS. The ratio of total organic molecular weight per organic carbon weight (OM:OC) of the oligomers (1.0-2.5) was lower than the OM:OC of the organic acid monomers (2.3-3.8) formed, suggesting that the oligomers are less hygroscopic than the organic acid monomers formed from methylglyoxal-hydroxyl radical reaction. The OM:OC of the oligomers (average=2.0) is consistent with that of aged atmospheric aerosols and atmospheric humic-like substances (HULIS). A mechanism is proposed in which the organic acid monomers formed through hydroxyl radical reactions oligomerize through esterification. The mechanism is supported by the existence of series of oligomers identified by elemental composition from FT-ICR MS and ion fragmentation patterns from ESI-MS-MS. Each oligomer series starts with an organic acid monomer formed from hydroxyl radical oxidation, and increases in molecular weight and total oxygen content through esterification with a hydroxy acid (C 3H 6O 3) resulting in multiple additions of 72.02113 Da (C 3H 4O 2) to the parent organic acid monomer. Methylglyoxal is

  17. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components.

    PubMed

    Jetter, Reinhard; Riederer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers.

  18. Biomass Burning, Long-Range Atmospheric Transport and the Sedimentary Record of Plant Wax Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. C.; Conte, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    Sedimentary distributions of plant leaf wax molecular and isotopic composition can provide detailed information about past terrestrial ecosystem structure and its variability in response to climatic forcing. However, in many locales (e.g. marine sediments, high elevation lakes), sedimentary plant waxes are derived primarily from atmospheric deposition rather than from local fluvial input or direct runoff. Thus, an understanding of wax atmospheric transport and deposition is essential for accurate interpretation of the sedimentary signal. In this talk we synthesize results from our studies of wax aerosol composition and atmospheric transport at strategically located sites (Northern Alaska, Maine, Florida, Bermuda, Barbados, French Guiana) that sample continental air masses passing over major terrestrial ecosystems (tundra, North American boreal, temperate and southern pine forests, North African desert grasslands, Amazon rain forest). Wax aerosols in boundary layer air masses reflect a large regionally integrated source signal. Over the North Atlantic, the long-range atmospheric transport of plant waxes is essentially uncorrelated with episodes of high African dust transport. Rather, the highest plant wax aerosol concentrations are clearly associated with continental air masses that are laden with smoke from biomass burning, which enhances long-range transport both by the process of steam distillation of wax and other easily volatilized compounds off living (moisture-rich) vegetation in the advancing front of the fire and by deep atmospheric convection, which efficiently injects re- condensed particles into the lower troposphere where they can be most efficiently transported by high altitude winds. The direct linkage between enhanced long-range atmospheric transport of plant waxes and biomass burning suggests that the wax sedimentary record in localities dominated by atmospheric input strongly co-varies with climate-driven changes in fire frequency and is

  19. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  20. Distinct Phyllosphere Bacterial Communities on Arabidopsis Wax Mutant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Reisberg, Eva E.; Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Riederer, Markus; Hentschel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    The phyllosphere of plants is inhabited by diverse microorganisms, however, the factors shaping their community composition are not fully elucidated. The plant cuticle represents the initial contact surface between microorganisms and the plant. We thus aimed to investigate whether mutations in the cuticular wax biosynthesis would affect the diversity of the phyllosphere microbiota. A set of four Arabidopsis thaliana eceriferum mutants (cer1, cer6, cer9, cer16) and their respective wild type (Landsberg erecta) were subjected to an outdoor growth period and analysed towards this purpose. The chemical distinctness of the mutant wax phenotypes was confirmed by gas chromatographic measurements. Next generation amplicon pyrosequencing of the bacterial communities showed distinct community patterns. This observation was supported by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis experiments. Microbial community analyses revealed bacterial phylotypes that were ubiquitously present on all plant lines (termed “core” community) while others were positively or negatively affected by the wax mutant phenotype (termed “plant line-specific“ community). We conclude from this study that plant cuticular wax composition can affect the community composition of phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:24223831

  1. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this chapter. (d) Prior sanctions for.... It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax. Candelilla wax is prepared by immersing...

  2. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the glands produce more wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear canal and block the ear.

  3. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is... wax is prepared by immersing the plants in boiling water containing sulfuric acid and skimming off the... esters and free acids. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is... wax is prepared by immersing the plants in boiling water containing sulfuric acid and skimming off the... esters and free acids. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d...

  9. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a)...

  10. Plant leaf wax biomarkers capture gradients in hydrogen isotopes of precipitation from the Andes and Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feakins, Sarah J.; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Blonder, Benjamin; Goldsmith, Gregory R.; Ponton, Camilo; Arvin, Lindsay J.; Wu, Mong Sin; Peters, Tom; West, A. Joshua; Martin, Roberta E.; Enquist, Brian J.; Asner, Gregory P.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-06-01

    Plant leaf waxes have been found to record the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation and are thus used to reconstruct past climate. To assess how faithfully they record hydrological signals, we characterize leaf wax hydrogen isotopic compositions in forest canopy trees across a highly biodiverse, 3 km elevation range on the eastern flank of the Andes. We sampled the dominant tree species and assessed their relative abundance in the tree community. For each tree we collected xylem and leaf samples for analysis of plant water and plant leaf wax hydrogen isotopic compositions. In total, 176 individuals were sampled across 32 species and 5 forest plots that span the gradient. We find both xylem water and leaf wax δD values of individuals correlate (R2 = 0.8 and R2 = 0.3 respectively) with the isotopic composition of precipitation (with an elevation gradient of -21‰ km-1). Minimal leaf water enrichment means that leaf waxes are straightforward recorders of the isotopic composition of precipitation in wet climates. For these tropical forests we find the average fractionation between source water and leaf wax for C29n-alkanes, -129 ± 2‰ (s.e.m., n = 136), to be indistinguishable from that of temperate moist forests. For C28n-alkanoic acids the average fractionation is -121 ± 3‰ (s.e.m., n = 102). Sampling guided by community assembly within forest plots shows that integrated plant leaf wax hydrogen isotopic compositions faithfully record the gradient of isotopes in precipitation with elevation (R2 = 0.97 for n-alkanes and 0.60 for n-alkanoic acids). This calibration study supports the use of leaf waxes as recorders of the isotopic composition of precipitation in lowland tropical rainforest, tropical montane cloud forests and their sedimentary archives.

  11. Chemical Composition and Potential Environmental Impacts of Water-Soluble Polar Crude Oil Components Inferred from ESI FT-ICR MS

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yina; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.

    2015-01-01

    Polar petroleum components enter marine environments through oil spills and natural seepages each year. Lately, they are receiving increased attention due to their potential toxicity to marine organisms and persistence in the environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment and employed state-of-the-art Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to characterize the polar petroleum components within two operationally-defined seawater fractions: the water-soluble fraction (WSF), which includes only water-soluble molecules, and the water-accommodated fraction (WAF), which includes WSF and microscopic oil droplets. Our results show that compounds with higher heteroatom (N, S, O) to carbon ratios (NSO:C) than the parent oil were selectively partitioned into seawater in both fractions, reflecting the influence of polarity on aqueous solubility. WAF and WSF were compositionally distinct, with unique distributions of compounds across a range of hydrophobicity. These compositional differences will likely result in disparate impacts on environmental health and organismal toxicity, and thus highlight the need to distinguish between these often-interchangeable terminologies in toxicology studies. We use an empirical model to estimate hydrophobicity character for individual molecules within these complex mixtures and provide an estimate of the potential environmental impacts of different crude oil components. PMID:26327219

  12. Chemical Composition and Potential Environmental Impacts of Water-Soluble Polar Crude Oil Components Inferred from ESI FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yina; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B

    2015-01-01

    Polar petroleum components enter marine environments through oil spills and natural seepages each year. Lately, they are receiving increased attention due to their potential toxicity to marine organisms and persistence in the environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment and employed state-of-the-art Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to characterize the polar petroleum components within two operationally-defined seawater fractions: the water-soluble fraction (WSF), which includes only water-soluble molecules, and the water-accommodated fraction (WAF), which includes WSF and microscopic oil droplets. Our results show that compounds with higher heteroatom (N, S, O) to carbon ratios (NSO:C) than the parent oil were selectively partitioned into seawater in both fractions, reflecting the influence of polarity on aqueous solubility. WAF and WSF were compositionally distinct, with unique distributions of compounds across a range of hydrophobicity. These compositional differences will likely result in disparate impacts on environmental health and organismal toxicity, and thus highlight the need to distinguish between these often-interchangeable terminologies in toxicology studies. We use an empirical model to estimate hydrophobicity character for individual molecules within these complex mixtures and provide an estimate of the potential environmental impacts of different crude oil components.

  13. Structural features of reconstituted wheat wax films

    PubMed Central

    Pambou, Elias; Li, Zongyi; Campana, Mario; Hughes, Arwel; Clifton, Luke; Gutfreund, Philipp; Foundling, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular waxes are essential for the well-being of all plants, from controlling the transport of water and nutrients across the plant surface to protecting them against external environmental attacks. Despite their significance, our current understanding regarding the structure and function of the wax film is limited. In this work, we have formed representative reconstituted wax film models of controlled thicknesses that facilitated an ex vivo study of plant cuticular wax film properties by neutron reflection (NR). Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) waxes were extracted from two different wheat straw samples, using two distinct extraction methods. Waxes extracted from harvested field-grown wheat straw using supercritical CO2 are compared with waxes extracted from laboratory-grown wheat straw via wax dissolution by chloroform rinsing. Wax films were produced by spin-coating the two extracts onto silicon substrates. Atomic force microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that the two reconstituted wax film models are ultrathin and porous with characteristic nanoscale extrusions on the outer surface, mimicking the structure of epicuticular waxes found upon adaxial wheat leaf surfaces. On the basis of solid–liquid and solid–air NR and ellipsometric measurements, these wax films could be modelled into two representative layers, with the diffuse underlying layer fitted with thicknesses ranging from approximately 65 to 70 Å, whereas the surface extrusion region reached heights exceeding 200 Å. Moisture-controlled NR measurements indicated that water penetrated extensively into the wax films measured under saturated humidity and under water, causing them to hydrate and swell significantly. These studies have thus provided a useful structural basis that underlies the function of the epicuticular waxes in controlling the water transport of crops. PMID:27466439

  14. On-line analysis of chemical composition using an FT-Raman spectrometer in the near-ir

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Newly commercialized Fourier transform Raman spectroscopic instrumentation provides a simpler alternative for vibrational spectroscopic analysis. Instrument vendors currently design for laboratory use, but there are many potential process applications of these stable, easy to use instruments. Raman spectroscopy is highly suited to analysis of aqueous samples. Near infrared excitation minimized fluorescence interference and allows for remote operation via fiber optic probes. The Department of Energy has funded research at the Measurement and Control Center to establish the utility of this method for on-line composition analysis in distillation columns. Laboratory evaluation and instrument employs an air-cooled laser and a thermoelectrically cooled detector. The device is mounted on a three by foot cart for convenient location in control rooms. Current fiber optic extension cables allow for analysis in a cell thirty five meters from the instrument. Application of the device to acid an recovery column at Tennessee Eastman Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee will be discussed. Sensor placement is critical to optimal application of any on-line device. Potential energy savings and product throughput increase will be detailed. 2 refs.

  15. On-line analysis of chemical composition using an FT-Raman spectrometer in the near-ir

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, A.A.

    1992-08-01

    Newly commercialized Fourier transform Raman spectroscopic instrumentation provides a simpler alternative for vibrational spectroscopic analysis. Instrument vendors currently design for laboratory use, but there are many potential process applications of these stable, easy to use instruments. Raman spectroscopy is highly suited to analysis of aqueous samples. Near infrared excitation minimized fluorescence interference and allows for remote operation via fiber optic probes. The Department of Energy has funded research at the Measurement and Control Center to establish the utility of this method for on-line composition analysis in distillation columns. Laboratory evaluation and instrument employs an air-cooled laser and a thermoelectrically cooled detector. The device is mounted on a three by foot cart for convenient location in control rooms. Current fiber optic extension cables allow for analysis in a cell thirty five meters from the instrument. Application of the device to acid an recovery column at Tennessee Eastman Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee will be discussed. Sensor placement is critical to optimal application of any on-line device. Potential energy savings and product throughput increase will be detailed. 2 refs.

  16. Verifying Dissolution Of Wax From Hardware Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Benjamina G.

    1995-01-01

    Wax removed by cleaning solvent revealed by cooling solution with liquid nitrogen. Such improved procedure and test needed in case of hardware that must be protected by wax during machining or plating but required to be free of wax during subsequent use. Improved cleaning procedure and test take less than 5 minutes. Does not require special skill or equipment and performs at cleaning site. In addition, enables recovery of all cleaning solvent.

  17. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers. PMID:26644508

  18. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Antonio F M; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Salatino, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90 microg.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone) and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene) revealed low efficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro) is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga), T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado) is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  19. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    PubMed

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products.

  20. Waxes: A Forgotten Topic in Lipid Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the biological importance of the lipids categorized as waxes and describes some of the organic chemistry of these compounds. Presents a short laboratory exercise on the extraction of plant waxes and their analysis by thin layer chromatography. (Author/CCM)

  1. Turnover of Leaf Waxes in Florida Slash Pine: Results of an Isotopic Labeling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumsey, J.; Conte, M. H.; Weber, J. C.; Mortazavi, B.; Smith, M.; Chanton, J.

    2006-12-01

    Isotopic discrimination of terrestrial photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and δ13CO2 are important parameters in global carbon models that are employed to estimate global carbon sources and sinks. Yet, terrestrial isotopic discrimination can be highly variable over space and time, yielding large uncertainties of terrestrial fluxes. The isotopic composition of plant wax aerosols in continental air masses can be used as an indirect measure of the spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthetic discrimination integrated over large (subcontinental) spatial scales. However, the temporal offset between wax biosynthesis and the wax aerosol isotopic signal of photosynthetic discrimination is not well constrained. To further our understanding of this temporal lag, this study sought to determine the turnover time of conifer leaf waxes by performing an isotopic labeling experiment. Four clonal pine saplings were placed in a tent and labeled with enriched 13CO2 for one year, while another four control saplings were grown under ambient CO2. At the end of the year long enrichment, the labeled saplings were removed from the tent and placed in ambient air, such that the wax turnover rate could be determined by analyzing the resultant isotopic and molecular changes. The results of this experiment indicated that after 80 days of sequestering ambient CO2, the wax (and soluble sugar) isotopic composition of the labeled saplings varied minimally. The molecular composition of the waxes, however, did change over time. From these results we concluded that waxes are turning over, but rather than being synthesized de novo from recently fixed carbon precursors they are synthesized using carbon from stored (labeled) carbon pools. Therefore, the δ13C of conifer leaf waxes in aerosols may not reflect recent photosynthetic discrimination, but instead represents photosynthetic discrimination integrated over a longer period of time. The implications of these findings are focused on

  2. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues.

  3. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  4. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  5. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  6. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  7. Improved wax mold technique forms complex passages in solid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, R. F.; Page, A. D.; Phillips, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Low-cost fabricating technique produces minute, complex air passages in fluidic devices. Air jet interactions in these function as electronic and electromechanical control systems. Wax cores are fabricated without distortion by two-wax process using nonsoluble pattern-wax and water-soluble wax. Significant steps in fabrication process are discussed.

  8. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made...

  9. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic in...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax is permitted in subchapter B of...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178.3720... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax...

  12. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  13. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  14. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  15. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  16. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca²⁺ ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch - In moulding sands, Part II.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina; Tyliszczak, Bozena

    2015-12-05

    The hardening process of moulding sands on quartz matrices bound by polymer binders containing carboxyl and hydroxyl groups can be carried out by using physical (microwave radiation, thermal holding) and chemical (Ca(2+) cations, glutaraldehyde) cross-linking agents. The highest hardening level obtain moulding sand samples containing binders in a form of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) within the microwave radiation field, for which the bending strength is of 1.6 MPa value even after 24h from ending the agent activity. The authors focused, in this study, on finding the reason of this effect. It was shown, by means of the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods, that the chemical adsorption process activated by microwaves plays an essential role. The applied microwaves activate the polar groups present in the polymer composition structure as well as the quartz crystals surfaces (silane groups). Then the chemical adsorption occurs in the binder-matrix system within the microwave radiation field and intermolecular lattices are formed with a participation of hydrogen bridges (SiOH⋯OC, SiOH⋯OH) and COSi type bonds.

  17. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold alcohol. (b) In accordance with paragraph (b)(1)...

  18. Tectonic microplates: laying it down on wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R. R.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2008-12-01

    We present a wax analogue model of sea-floor spreading that produces rotating, growing microplates. Wax microplates are kinematically similar to sea-floor tectonic microplates in terms of spreading rate and growth rate. Furthermore, their spiral pseudofault geometry is quantitatively consistent with Schouten's oceanic microplate model. These results suggest that Schouten's edge-driven microplate model captures the kinematics of tectonic microplate evolution on Earth. We propose a theory for the formation of microplates.

  19. Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid interaction with the transgenic flax fibers: FT-IR and Raman spectra of the composite extracted from a GM flax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Żuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-07-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman studies have been performed on commercial 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, commercial poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid as well as poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB) produced by bacteria. The data were compared to those obtained for poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid extracted from natural and genetically modified flax. Genetically modified flax was generated by expression of three bacterial genes coding for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid. Thus transgenic flaxes were enhanced with different amount of the PHB. The discussion of polymer structure and vibrational properties has been done in order to get insight into differences among these materials. The interaction between the cellulose of flax fibers and embedded poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid has been also discussed. The spectroscopic data provide evidences for structural changes in cellulose and in PHB when synthesized in fibers. Based on this data it is suggesting that cellulose and PHB interact by hydrogen and ester bonds.

  20. Preparation of waxes and humic acids from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Noskova; A.V. Rokhin; A.P. Sorokin

    2007-06-15

    The comparative extraction of coal with organic solvents was performed. Humic acids were separated from solid residues. The yields, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions of the resulting products were analyzed. It was demonstrated that brown-coal wax and humic fertilizers can potentially be obtained using coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit.

  1. Stomatal Density Influences Leaf Water and Leaf Wax D/H Values in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Feakins, S. J.; Sternberg, L. O.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of plant leaf wax is a powerful tool to study the hydrology of past and present environments. The δD value of leaf waxes is known to primarily reflect the δD value of source water, modified by biological fractionations commonly summarized as the 'net or apparent' fractionation. It remains a challenge, however, to quantitatively relate the isotopic composition of the end product (wax) back to that of the precursor (water) because multiple isotope effects contributing to the net fractionation are not yet well understood. Transgenic variants have heretofore unexplored potential to isolate individual isotope effects. Here we report the first hydrogen isotopic measurements from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with calculations of leaf water enrichment, net and biosynthetic fractionation values from measured δD of plant waters and leaf wax n-alkanes. We employed transgenic Arabidopsis leaves, engineered to have different stomatal density, by differential expression of the stomatal growth hormone stomagen. Comparison of variants and wild types allow us to isolate the effects of stomatal density on leaf water and the net fractionation expressed by leaf wax biomarkers. Results show that transgenic leaves with denser pores have more enriched leaf water and leaf wax δD values than wild type and even more so than transgenic leaves with sparse stomata (difference of 10 ‰). Our findings that stomatal density controls leaf water and leaf wax δD values adds insights into the cause of variations in net fractionations between species, as well as suggesting that geological variations in stomatal density may modulate the sedimentary leaf wax δD record. In nature, stomatal density varies between species and environments, and all other factors being equal, this will contribute to variations in fractionations observed. Over geological history, lower stomatal densities occur at times of elevated pCO2; our findings predict reduced leaf

  2. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  3. Chemical profiling of the major components in natural waxes to elucidate their role in liquid oil structuring.

    PubMed

    Doan, Chi Diem; To, Chak Ming; De Vrieze, Mike; Lynen, Frederic; Danthine, Sabine; Brown, Allison; Dewettinck, Koen; Patel, Ashok R

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons - HCs, free fatty acids - FFAs, free fatty alcohols - FALs and wax esters - WEs) of natural waxes were analyzed using HPLC-ELSD and GC-MS followed by evaluation of their oil structuring properties. The gel strength, including the average storage modulus and oscillation yield stress, displayed a negative correlation with FALs and a positive correlation with HCs, FFAs and WEs. The components dictating the gel strength are HCs, FFAs and WEs in a descending order of importance. The consistency of the oleogels increased with the increasing amount of FFAs and HCs and the decreasing amount of WEs and FALs. The presence of more WEs results in a strong but brittle gel with a high initial flow yield stress. We believe these results might be useful in selecting the right waxes to combine in certain fat-based food products.

  4. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    PubMed Central

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products. PMID:22315575

  5. In-depth compositional analysis of water-soluble and -insoluble organic substances in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles using ultra-high-resolution 15T FT-ICR MS and GC×GC-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Hoon; Ryu, Jijeong; Jeon, Sodam; Seo, Jungju; Yang, Yung-Hun; Pack, Seung Pil; Choung, Sungwook; Jang, Kyoung-Soon

    2017-03-05

    Airborne particulate matter consisting of ionic species, salts, heavy metals and carbonaceous material is one of the most serious environmental pollutants owing to its impacts on the environment and human health. Although elemental and organic carbon compounds are known to be major components of aerosols, information on the elemental composition of particulate matter remains limited because of the broad range of compounds involved and the limits of analytical instruments. In this study, we investigated water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles collected during winter in Korea to better understand the elemental compositions and distributions of these compounds. To collect ultra-high-resolution mass profiles, we analyzed water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds, extracted with water and dichloromethane, respectively, using an ultra-high-resolution 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (15T FT-ICR) mass spectrometer in positive ion mode (via both electrospray ionization [ESI] and atmospheric pressure photoionization [APPI] for water-extracts and via APPI for dichloromethane-extracts). In conjunction with the FT-ICR mass spectrometry (MS) data, subsequent two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) data were used to identify potentially hazardous organic components, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This analysis provided information on the sources of ambient particles collected during winter season and partial evidence of contributions to the acidity of organic content in PM2.5 particles. The compositional and structural features of water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds from PM2.5 particles are important for understanding the potential impacts of aerosol-carried organic substances on human health and global ecosystems in future toxicological studies.

  6. Preparation of polysaccharides from wax gourd.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gangliang; Tan, Jiantao; Tan, Xianchun; Peng, Daquan

    2011-08-01

    Preparation of polysaccharides from the wax gourd was studied. The crude polysaccharides were extracted by ethanol precipitation, and deproteinized by the hydrochloric acid method. The deproteinized polysaccharides were separated by column chromatography to obtain the pure polysaccharides. The pure polysaccharides have a β-D-pyranosidic bond, and their molecular weight distribution is about 22,500. It was indicated that the final product had much more purity by IR spectrum analysis, UV absorption spectrum analysis, and phenol-sulfuric acid method, respectively. It was proved that wax gourd polysaccharides were composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose by thin layer chromatography.

  7. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  8. Morphology and networks of sunflower wax crystals in organogel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant waxes are considered as promising alternatives to unhealthy solid fats such as trans fats and saturated fats in structured food products including margarines and spreads. Sunflower wax is of a great interest due to its strong gelling ability. Morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in soyb...

  9. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  11. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  13. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or... Petroleum Wax Candles from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review). Issued: December 17, 2010....

  14. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  15. Variability of wax ester fermentation in natural and bleached Euglena gracilis Strains in response to oxygen and the elongase inhibitor flufenacet.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Vacula, Rostislav; Krajcovic, Juraj; Proksch, Peter; Martin, William

    2010-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is able to synthesize adenosine triphosphate under anaerobic conditions through a malonyl-independent fatty acid synthesis leading to wax ester fermentation. Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis uses acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA as C2- and C3-donors for de novo synthesis of even- and odd-numbered fatty acids, respectively. Euglena's wax ester fermentation has only been described in the E. gracilis strain 1224-5/25 Z. Here we investigate eight E. gracilis strains isolated in 1932-1958 from different localities in Europe and two bleached substrains of E. gracilis 1224-5/25, obtained by treatment with streptomycin and ofloxacin, and examine their anaerobic growth, wax ester fermentation, and wax ester composition. Under ambient oxygen levels, all strains accumulated wax esters in concentrations between 0.3% and 3.5% of the dry weight, but the strains revealed marked differences in wax ester accumulation with respect to anaerobic growth. Most fermenting strains tested showed increased wax ester synthesis under anaerobic conditions as well as the increased synthesis of odd-numbered fatty acids and alcohols suggesting an activation of the mitochondrial fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Addition of the elongase inhibitor flufenacet to the growth medium specifically reduced the accumulation of odd-numbered fatty acids and alcohols and tended to increase the overall yield of anaerobic wax esters.

  16. Oligomers Formed Through In-cloud Metylglyoxal Reactions: Chemical Composition, Properties, and Mechanisms Investigated by Ultra-high Resolution FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a substantial component of total atmospheric organic particulate matter, but little is known about the composition of SOA formed through cloud processing. We conducted aqueous phase photooxidation experiments of methylglyoxal and hydroxyl radica...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids §...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... practice: in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170... obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... practice: in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170... obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax....

  4. Severe complications of a "Brazilian" bikini wax.

    PubMed

    Dendle, Claire; Mulvey, Sheila; Pyrlis, Felicity; Grayson, M Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D R

    2007-08-01

    A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated.

  5. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation.

    PubMed

    Ishaka, Aminu; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Mahamud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Maznah, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56-94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV), pH (6.79-6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times.

  6. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  7. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ishaka, Aminu; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Mahamud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Maznah, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56–94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (−55.8 to −45.12 mV), pH (6.79–6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times. PMID:24872689

  8. H-Isotopic Fractionation During Biosynthesis of Leaf Waxes in C3 Plants: Trees vs. Grasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, J. L.; Hou, J.; Huang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of higher-plant leaf waxes in lake sediments have great potential to be used as a proxy for reconstructing past source water isotope composition and/or relative humidity on continents. However, hydrogen isotopic fractionation during biosynthesis of leaf waxes in various terrestrial plants remains poorly understood. A recent study of 7 terrestrial and aquatic plant types from a single site in Massachusetts shows that D/H ratios among different plant types can vary as much as 70‰, with the largest difference occurring between tree and grasses (Hou et al., in review). This variability may have been caused by different degrees of evapotranspiration among different plant types (e.g., trees vs. grasses), but could also be attributed to different biosynthetic isotopic fractionation. We designed a series of growth chamber experiments to trace the sources of hydrogen isotopic difference between trees and grasses. Five tree species [white ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), spruce (Picea sp.) and white cedar (Thuja occidentalis)] and three grass species [orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), timothy weed (Phleum pratense), Foxtail (Setaria sp.)] were grown in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. Plants were irrigated with the same source water. We tracked hydrogen isotopic variation of water from source water to stem water to leaf water, and eventually to leaf waxes. Fifty-three leaf and stem samples were harvested. Water from these samples was vacuum-extracted and analyzed for D/H ratios, and compared with D/H ratios of corresponding leaf waxes. Our results allow us to determine whether evapotranspiration rates or intrinsic isotopic fractionation during biosynthesis was the dominant factor controlling the H isotopic ratios of leaf waxes in trees and grasses. Our results are also helpful for interpreting hydrogen isotopic variations of sedimentary leaf waxes.

  9. From buds to litter: seasonal changes in leaf wax concentrations and carbon isotopes and implications for the geologic past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Y. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of leaf waxes, such as n-alkanes, have extensively been used in paleoenvironmental studies for reconstruction of the past vegetation, climate and carbon cycling. There is however little information available on the seasonal variation of leaf wax concentration and δ13C in modern plants and when the δ13C signal is set. This lack of information confounds interpretations of leaf wax δ13C in sedimentary archives. To address this gap, this study investigates temporal changes in n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid δ13C values in several species (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Ulmus Americana, Sassafras albidum, and Juniperus virginiana) within a single temperate deciduous forest stand in southern Ohio. We sampled atmospheric air, buds, leaves, leaf litter, and surface soil weekly during leaf flush and biweekly thereafter. In A. rubrum, A. saccharum, and U. Americana, buds had one or two dominant n-alkanes, such as C29 and C31. After leaf flush, the concentrations of shorter n-alkanes (C23~C27) significantly increased relative to the longer chain-lengths. We are currently analyzing remaining samples from the growing season and are analyzing bulk leaf and leaf wax (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) δ13C values. This information will be important for identifying environmental and physiological controls on leaf wax δ13C and will improve interpretations of leaf wax δ13C preserved in the geologic record.

  10. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates.

  11. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  12. Instant freezing of impacting wax drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Virot, Emmanuel; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2015-11-01

    We present the impact of hot liquid drops of wax on surfaces whose temperature is below the solidifying temperature of the drops. During the fall the drops remain mostly liquid, but upon impact, their temperature quickly decreases resulting in the solidification of the drop. Depending on the impact energy, drops size and the temperature difference between the drop and the surface this results in plethora of solid shapes: simple lenses, triangular drops, spherical caps and popped popcorn shapes.

  13. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  14. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    PubMed

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  15. Self-association of plant wax components: a thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Casado, C G; Heredia, A

    2001-01-01

    Excess specific heat, C(p)()(E), of binary mixtures of selected components of plant cuticular waxes has been determined. This thermodynamic parameter gives an explanation of the special molecular arrangement in crystalline and amorphous zones of plant waxes. C(p)()(E) values indicate that hydrogen bonding between chains results in the formation of amorphous zones. Conclusions on the self-asembly process of plant waxes have been also made.

  16. Compositae Plants Differed in Leaf Cuticular Waxes between High and Low Altitudes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Na; Gao, Jianhua; He, Yuji; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-06-01

    We sampled eight Compositae species at high altitude (3482 m) and seven species at low altitude (220 m), analyzed the chemical compositions and contents of leaf cuticular wax, and calculated the values of average chain length (ACL), carbon preference index (CPI), dispersion (d), dispersion/weighted mean chain length (d/N), and C31 /(C31  + C29 ) (Norm31). The amounts of total wax and compositions were significantly higher at high altitude than at low altitude, except for primary alcohol, secondary alcohol, and ketone. The main n-alkanes in most samples were C31 , C29 , and C33 . Low altitude had more C31 and C33 , whereas more C29 occurred at high altitude. The ACL, CPI, d, d/N, and Norma 31 were higher at low altitude than at high altitude. The fatty acid and primary alcohol at low altitude contained more C26 homologous than at high altitude. More short-chain primary alcohols were observed at high altitude. At low altitude, the primary alcohol gave on average the largest amount, while it was n-alkane at high altitude. These results indicated that the variations of leaf cuticular waxes benefited Compositae plants to adapt to various environmental stresses and enlarge their distribution.

  17. Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Activation and Handling Through Wax Enclosure Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer L. S.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which converts syn-gas, a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions. Cobalt based catalysts are used in F-T synthesis and are the focus of this paper. One key concern with handling cobalt based catalysts is that the active form of catalyst is in a reduced state, metallic cobalt, which oxidizes readily in air. In laboratory experiments, the precursor cobalt oxide catalyst is activated in a fixed bed at 350 ?C then transferred into a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with inert gas. NASA has developed a process which involves the enclosure of active cobalt catalyst in a wax mold to prevent oxidation during storage and handling. This improved method allows for precise catalyst loading and delivery into a CSTR. Preliminary results indicate similar activity levels in the F-T reaction in comparison to the direct injection method. The work in this paper was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  18. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, Jr., W. Rodman; Garwood, William E.; Kuo, James C.; Leib, Tiberiu M.; Nace, Donald M.; Tabak, Samuel A.

    1987-01-01

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

  19. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

    1987-08-04

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

  20. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  1. Physical characterization of wax/oil crystalline networks.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvana; Tan, Chin Yiap; Jana, Sarbojeet

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical properties of different types of wax/oil systems. Olive (OO), corn (CO), soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), safflower (SAFO), and canola (CAO) oils were mixed with sunflower oil wax (SFOW), paraffin wax (PW), and beeswax (BW) at different concentrations (1% to 10%). Results from this study show that the physical properties of wax/oil systems is affected not only by the concentration and type of wax used, but also by the type of oil used. In general, wax/oil systems formulated with SFOW generated crystalline networks with high enthalpies (1 to 22 J/g) and high G' values (2 to 6 × 10(6) Pa) compared with the values obtained for BW and PW. SFOW crystalline networks were characterized by needle-like crystals independently of the wax concentrations and type of oil used. BW crystalline networks, however, were characterized by different crystal morphologies (needle-like or spherulites) depending on the wax concentration and type of oil used. PW samples were characterized by a crystalline network formed by needle- and platelet-like crystals. Enthalpy values of BW and PW samples were similar (0.3 to 20 J/g), but BW samples resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) G' values in the 5% and 10% samples with values of 3.9 × 10(6) and 6.1 × 10(5) Pa for 10% BW and PW, respectively.

  2. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  3. Self-Replenishable Anti-Waxing Organogel Materials.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Wang, Jianjun; Jiang, Lei

    2015-07-27

    Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self-replenishable organogel material which shows ultra-low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low-molar-mass oil from its crude-oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems.

  4. Self‐Replenishable Anti‐Waxing Organogel Materials†

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self‐replenishable organogel material which shows ultra‐low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low‐molar‐mass oil from its crude‐oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems. PMID:26083324

  5. [Nondestructive discrimination of waxed apples based on hyperspectral imaging technology].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The potential of hyperspectral imaging technology was evaluated for discriminating three types of waxed apples. Three types of apples smeared with fruit wax, with industrial wax, and not waxed respectively were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range of 308-1 024 nm. ENVI software processing platform was used for extracting hyperspectral image object of diffuse reflection spectral response characteristics. Eighty four of 126 apple samples were selected randomly as calibration set and the rest were prediction set. After different preprocess, the related mathematical models were established by using the partial least squares (PLS), the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and BP neural network methods and so on. The results showed that the model of MSC-SPA-LSSVM was the best to discriminate three kinds of waxed apples with 100%, 100% and 92.86% correct prediction respectively.

  6. Noninvasive in situ identification and band assignments of some pharmaceutical excipients inside USP vials with FT-near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hassan Refat H.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Scowen, Ian J.

    2009-05-01

    For the manufacture of dosage forms all ingredients must be reliably identified. In this paper, the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy to identify potassium sorbate, sodium starch glycollate, calcium ascorbate, calcium carbonate, candelilla wax, maltosextrin, monohydrated and anhydrous lactose inside USP vials was investigated. Differentiation between the anhydrous and monohydrated forms of lactose was found to be possible by studying the regions of the near-infrared spectrum corresponding to the combination and first overtone stretching frequencies of water. The results show unequivocally the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy for rapid, in situ and non-destructive identification of pharmaceutical excipients.

  7. Multiple plant-wax compounds record differential sources and ecosystem structure in large river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, Jordon D.; Schefuß, Enno; Dinga, Bienvenu Jean; Pryer, Helena; Galy, Valier V.

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations, distributions, and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of plant waxes carried by fluvial suspended sediments contain valuable information about terrestrial ecosystem characteristics. To properly interpret past changes recorded in sedimentary archives it is crucial to understand the sources and variability of exported plant waxes in modern systems on seasonal to inter-annual timescales. To determine such variability, we present concentrations and δ13C compositions of three compound classes (n-alkanes, n-alcohols, n-alkanoic acids) in a 34-month time series of suspended sediments from the outflow of the Congo River. We show that exported plant-dominated n-alkanes (C25-C35) represent a mixture of C3 and C4 end members, each with distinct molecular distributions, as evidenced by an 8.1 ± 0.7‰ (±1σ standard deviation) spread in δ13C values across chain-lengths, and weak correlations between individual homologue concentrations (r = 0.52-0.94). In contrast, plant-dominated n-alcohols (C26-C36) and n-alkanoic acids (C26-C36) exhibit stronger positive correlations (r = 0.70-0.99) between homologue concentrations and depleted δ13C values (individual homologues average ⩽-31.3‰ and -30.8‰, respectively), with lower δ13C variability across chain-lengths (2.6 ± 0.6‰ and 2.0 ± 1.1‰, respectively). All individual plant-wax lipids show little temporal δ13C variability throughout the time-series (1σ ⩽ 0.9‰), indicating that their stable carbon isotopes are not a sensitive tracer for temporal changes in plant-wax source in the Congo basin on seasonal to inter-annual timescales. Carbon-normalized concentrations and relative abundances of n-alcohols (19-58% of total plant-wax lipids) and n-alkanoic acids (26-76%) respond rapidly to seasonal changes in runoff, indicating that they are mostly derived from a recently entrained local source. In contrast, a lack of correlation with discharge and low, stable relative abundances (5-16%) indicate that

  8. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    PubMed

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C31 or C33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions.

  9. WAXS studies of the structural diversity of hemoglobin in solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, L.; Bardhan, J.; Gore, D.; Lal, J.; Mandava, S.; Park, S.; Rodi, D. J.; Ho, N. T.; Ho, C.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    Specific ligation states of hemoglobin are, when crystallized, capable of taking on multiple quaternary structures. The relationship between these structures, captured in crystal lattices, and hemoglobin structure in solution remains uncertain. Wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) is a sensitive probe of protein structure in solution that can distinguish among similar structures and has the potential to contribute to these issues. We used WAXS to assess the relationships among the structures of human and bovine hemoglobins in different liganded forms in solution. WAXS data readily distinguished among the various forms of hemoglobins. WAXS patterns confirm some of the relationships among hemoglobin structures that have been defined through crystallography and NMR and extend others. For instance, methemoglobin A in solution is, as expected, nearly indistinguishable from HbCO A. Interestingly, for bovine hemoglobin, the differences between deoxy-Hb, methemoglobin and HbCO are smaller than the corresponding differences in human hemoglobin. WAXS data were also used to assess the spatial extent of structural fluctuations of various hemoglobins in solution. Dynamics has been implicated in allosteric control of hemoglobin, and increased dynamics has been associated with lowered oxygen affinity. Consistent with that notion, WAXS patterns indicate that deoxy-Hb A exhibits substantially larger structural fluctuations than HbCO A. Comparisons between the observed WAXS patterns and those predicted on the basis of atomic coordinate sets suggest that the structures of Hb in different liganded forms exhibit clear differences from known crystal structure.

  10. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  11. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  12. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  13. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  14. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  15. Trans-fat free margarine from organogel formed by a plant wax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research presents a practical method to replace a hardstock containing trans-fat and saturated fat with a small amount of a plant wax in margarine and spreads. Plant waxes were investigated for their ability to make an organogel of many different vegetable oils. Sunflower wax and rice bran wax ...

  16. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  17. Leaf water deuterium enrichment shapes leaf wax n-alkane δD values of angiosperm plants I: Experimental evidence and mechanistic insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, Ansgar; Schefuß, Enno; Sachse, Dirk

    2013-06-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes of terrestrial plants are long-chain hydrocarbons that can persist in sedimentary records over geologic timescales. Since meteoric water is the primary source of hydrogen used in leaf wax synthesis, the hydrogen isotope composition (δD value) of these biomarkers contains information on hydrological processes. Consequently, leaf wax n-alkane δD values have been advocated as powerful tools for paleohydrological research. The exact kind of hydrological information that is recorded in leaf wax n-alkanes remains, however, unclear because critical processes that determine their δD values have not yet been resolved. In particular the effects of evaporative deuterium (D)-enrichment of leaf water on the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes have not yet been directly assessed and quantified. Here we present the results of a study where we experimentally tested if and by what magnitude evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water affects the δD of leaf wax n-alkanes in angiosperm C3 and C4 plants. Our study revealed that n-alkane δD values of all plants that we investigated were affected by evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water. For dicotyledonous plants we found that the full extent of leaf water evaporative D-enrichment is recorded in leaf wax n-alkane δD values. For monocotyledonous plants we found that between 18% and 68% of the D-enrichment in leaf water was recorded in the δD values of their n-alkanes. We hypothesize that the different magnitudes by which evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water affects the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants is the result of differences in leaf growth and development between these plant groups. Our finding that the evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water affects the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants - albeit at different magnitudes - has important implications for the interpretation of leaf wax n-alkane δD values from

  18. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    PubMed

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.

  19. Diesel fuel containing wax oxidates to reduce particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, H.G.; Sweeney, W.M.

    1980-09-16

    Addition of 0.1 to 1.5 percent by weight of wax oxidates to a diesel fuel is found to reduce the amount of soot and invisible particles produced when the fuel is used in a diesel engine. The wax oxidates act synergistically with fuel-soluble organometallic compounds such as alkyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl complex salts in reducing particulates. The wax oxidates used have a ratio of neutralization number to saponification number below about 0.40 and a saybolt universal viscosity at 210* F. Higher than 1600.

  20. FT-Raman spectral analysis of human urinary stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2012-12-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy is the most useful tool for the purpose of bio-medical diagnostics. In the present study, FT-Raman spectral method is used to investigate the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Urinary calculi multi-components such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid are studied. FT-Raman spectrum has been recorded in the range of 3500-400 cm-1. Chemical compounds are identified by Raman spectroscopic technique. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1463 cm-1, calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) 1478 cm-1, hydroxyl apatite 959 cm-1, struvite 575 cm-1, uric acid 1283 cm-1 and oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) 2129 cm-1 are calculated using particular peaks of FT-Raman spectrum. The quantitative estimation of human urinary stones suitable for the single calibration curve was performed.

  1. Effect of the epicuticular waxes of fruits and vegetables on the photodegradation of rotenone.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Cabizza, Maddalena; Cabras, Marco; Melis, Marinella; Tuberoso, Carlo; Cabras, Paolo

    2004-06-02

    The effect of epicuticular waxes extracted from fruits (apple, nectarine, pear, and plum) and vegetables (tomato and eggplant) on the photodegradation of rotenone was studied. The waxes affected the decay rate and the degradation pathway of this botanical insecticide. Tomato, nectarine, and plum waxes decreased the photodegradation rate compared to controls, whereas apple and pear waxes increased it. Rotenone irradiated under sunlight without waxes gave seven photoproducts; in contrast, in the presence of waxes it changed its behavior, leading to different pathways according to the wax employed. The main photoproduct formed was 12abeta-rotenolone.

  2. Cucumis sativus L. WAX2 Plays a Pivotal Role in Wax Biosynthesis, Influencing Pollen Fertility and Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Liu, Xingwang; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-07-01

    Cuticular waxes play an important part in protecting plant aerial organs from biotic and abiotic stresses. In previous studies, the biosynthetic pathway of cuticular waxes and relative functional genes has been researched and understood; however, little is known in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, we cloned and characterized an AtWAX2 homolog, CsWAX2, in cucumber and found that it is highly expressed in the epidermis, where waxes are synthesized, while subcellular localization showed that CsWAX2 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The transcriptional expression of CsWAX2 was found to be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and ABA, while the ectopic expression of CsWAX2 in an Arabidopsis wax2 mutant could partially complement the glossy stem phenotype. Abnormal expression of CsWAX2 in transgenic cucumbers specifically affected both very long chain (VLC) alkanes and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transgenic cucumber plants of CsWAX2 showed significant changes in pollen viability and fruit resistance to water loss and pathogens compared with the wild type. Collectively, these results indicated that CsWAX2 plays a pivotal role in wax biosynthesis, influencing pollen fertility and the plant's response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  3. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  4. Analysis of paraffin wax oxidates by differential infrared spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, M.

    1985-05-01

    The oxidation products of paraffin waxes are estimated by isolation followed by instrumental techniques which are laborious and time-consuming. Differential infrared spectrometry has been applied to analyze the usual paraffin wax oxidates. The saponification and the solubility problems encountered in these samples were overcome by the addition of crown ethers. The technique is quicker, less time-consuming, and less expensive and only a small sample size is required. 10 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. Differences in substrate specificities of five bacterial wax ester synthases.

    PubMed

    Barney, Brett M; Wahlen, Bradley D; Garner, EmmaLee; Wei, Jiashi; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2012-08-01

    Wax esters are produced in certain bacteria as a potential carbon and energy storage compound. The final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a range of fatty alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. We report here the isolation and substrate range characterization for five WS/DGAT enzymes from four different bacteria: Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, Acinetobacter baylyi, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5. The results from kinetic studies of isolated enzymes reveal a differential activity based on the order of substrate addition and reveal subtle differences between the substrate selectivity of the different enzymes. These in vitro results are compared to the wax ester and triacylglyceride product profiles obtained from each organism grown under neutral lipid accumulating conditions, providing potential insights into the role that the WS/DGAT enzyme plays in determining the final wax ester products that are produced under conditions of nutrient stress in each of these bacteria. Further, the analysis revealed that one enzyme in particular from M. aquaeolei VT8 showed the greatest potential for future study based on rapid purification and significantly higher activity than was found for the other isolated WS/DGAT enzymes. The results provide a framework to test prospective differences between these enzymes for potential biotechnological applications such as high-value petrochemicals and biofuel production.

  6. Studies on the structure of the plant wax nonacosan-10-ol, the main component of epicuticular wax conifers.

    PubMed

    Matas, Antonio J; Sanz, María José; Heredia, Antonio

    2003-11-01

    The main component presents in the epicuticular waxes of needles of Pinus halepensis and the most of conifers, the secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol, has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results obtained from these physical techniques permitted to establish a definitive structural model of the molecular arrangement of this wax, basically in good agreement with the model formulated by other authors from theoretical formulations. Biological implications of the proposed structure have been also formulated.

  7. Operating experience firing waxed corrugated cardboard waste

    SciTech Connect

    McBurney, B.

    1995-09-01

    Georgia-Pacific operates a corrugated packaging facility in Doraville, Georgia which a suburb of Atlanta. The plant processes bulk brown paper into corrugated sheets for corrugated packaging. The plant`s process and building heat requires approximately 15,000 PPH steam at 150 psig which was supplied by a natural gas fired package boiler. The mill disposed of the cardboard trimmings and waste in a nearby landfill at a disposal cost of several thousand dollars per month. In 1992, the mill recognized that the landfill would close in several years which would result in a significant increase in monthly cardboard waste disposal costs. Therefore, the mill sought an alternate yet economical solution for waste disposal. After evaluating several different alternatives including recycling, the mill installed a boiler system designed to fire the waxed corrugated cardboard waste (WCW) as both a solution for disposal of this waste and as an alternate source of boiler fuel. This paper reviews plant design, operating performance and maintenance history.

  8. Leaf Wax δ13C Varies with Elevation in the Peruvian Andes and Western Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. S.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; Peters, T.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Bentley, L. P.; Salinas, N.; Shenkin, A.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Plant leaf wax carbon isotopic composition (δ13Cwax) reflects the net isotopic effects associated with diffusion into the leaf, fixation of carbon by Rubisco and biosynthesis of individual leaf wax biochemicals. As declining pCO2 with elevation affects the first two fractionations, we expect to find an isotopic gradient in δ13Cwax, if the fractionation of leaf wax biosynthesis is constant. To test this, we report δ13Cwax values from 500 samples of leaves collected by tree-climbers from the upper canopy from 9 forest-inventory plots spanning a 3.5km elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and western Amazonia during the CHAMBASA field campaign. These samples provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between δ13Cwax and pCO2 in diverse species across this remote tropical montane forest and lowland rainforest. The very wet climate throughout (2-5 m rainfall per year) minimizes fractionation effects due to stomatal restrictions (i.e. water use efficiency) that may be an important factor elsewhere. Preliminary results show δ13Cwax values on average increase with elevation by ~1.5‰/km, a trend consistent with bulk plant δ13C in previous studies. The mean epsilon between bulk and C29 n-alkane is -7.3±2.2‰. Inter-sample differences are large on the order of 10‰. Shaded leaves and understory leaves are found to be depleted relative to sunlit leaves, presumably due to a lower photosynthetic rate and use of respired CO2 in the understory. C29 n-alkanes are on average ~2.5‰ more depleted than C30 n-alkanoic acids, indicating fractionation during selective decarboxylation. We further compare results from plants with soil and river sediments to provide insights into how leaf wax signals are archived in soils and exported from the landscape. We find a ~1.4‰/km gradient in forest soils similar to plants. We observe a ~2‰ offset between C29 n-alkane in plant leaves and in soils across the elevation profile, which is likely a signal of degradation

  9. Removal of Wax and Stickies from OCC by Flotation

    SciTech Connect

    M. R. Doshi; J. Dyer

    2000-01-31

    Laboratory research indicates that wax is amenable to removal by froth flotation provided it is free or detached from the fiber. The only effective means, at this time, of maximizing detachment of wax is through the use of low consistency pulping at temperatures above the melting point of wax. Wax removal from WCC through washing, flotation, or a combination of both was approximately 90% in these laboratory studies, indicating that not all of the wax is detached from fibers. These results were summarized in Annual Report 1, December 1, 1997 to November 30, 1998. Pilot trials were conducted in which the authors simulated a conventional OCC repulping process with and without flotation. Additional aggressive washing and water clarification were also examined during the study. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots and extractable material from the furnish. Based on this study, the authors predict that a compact flotation system with 2 lb surfactant/ton of fiber would improve the OCC pulp quality with regard to wax spots by 60% and would not negatively affect strength properties. Flotation losses would be in the 2-5% range. Two mill trials were conducted during the last quarter of the project. One trial was carried out at Green Bay Packaging, Green Bay, WI, and a second trial was conducted at Menasha Corporation, Otsego, MI. A 250-liter Voith Sulzer Ecocell was used to evaluate the removal of wax and stickies from the OCC processing systems at these two mills. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots from the furnish. The data indicate that flotation was more effective in removing wax and stickies than reverse cleaners. The mill trials have demonstrated that flotation can be substituted for or replace existing reverse cleaning systems and, in some cases, can replace dispersion systems. In this manner, the use of flotation can

  10. Leaf water deuterium enrichment shapes leaf wax n-alkane δD values of angiosperm plants II: Observational evidence and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, Ansgar; Hoffmann, Bernd; Schefuß, Enno; Arndt, Stefan K.; Cernusak, Lucas A.; West, Jason B.; Sachse, Dirk

    2013-06-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes are long-chain hydrocarbons that can persist in sedimentary records over geological timescales. Since their hydrogen isotopic composition (expressed as a δD value) can be correlated to the δD values of precipitation, leaf wax n-alkane δD values have been advocated as new and powerful proxies for paleohydrological research. The exact type of hydrological information that is recorded in the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes remains, however, unclear. In a companion paper we provide experimental evidence showing that the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes of angiosperm plants grown under controlled environmental conditions not only reflect δD values of precipitation - as has often been assumed - but that evaporative deuterium (D)-enrichment of leaf water has an additional critical effect on their δD values. Here we present a detailed observational study that illustrates that evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water also affects the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes in plants from natural ecosystems along a 1500 km climate gradient in Northern Australia. Based on global simulations of leaf water D-enrichment we show that the effects of evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water on leaf wax n-alkane δD values is relevant in all biomes but that it is particularly important in arid environments. Given the combined influence of precipitation δD values and leaf water D-enrichment we argue that leaf wax n-alkane δD values contain an integrated signal that can provide general hydrological information, e.g. on the aridity of a catchment area. We also suggest that more specific hydrological information and even plant physiological information can be obtained from leaf wax n-alkanes if additional indicators are available to constrain the plant- and precipitation-derived influences on their δD values. As such, our findings have important implications for the interpretation of leaf wax n-alkane δD values from paleohydrological records. In addition, our

  11. Late Quaternary environmental change in the interior South American tropics: new insight from leaf wax stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornace, Kyrstin L.; Whitney, Bronwen S.; Galy, Valier; Hughen, Konrad A.; Mayle, Francis E.

    2016-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis of leaf waxes in a sediment core from Laguna La Gaiba, a shallow lake located at the Bolivian margin of the Pantanal wetlands, provides new perspective on vegetation and climate change in the lowland interior tropics of South America over the past 40,000 years. The carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of long-chain n-alkanes reveal large shifts between C3- and C4-dominated vegetation communities since the last glacial period, consistent with landscape reconstructions generated with pollen data from the same sediment core. Leaf wax δ13C values during the last glacial period reflect an open landscape composed of C4 grasses and C3 herbs from 41-20 ka. A peak in C4 abundance during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼21 ka) suggests drier or more seasonal conditions relative to the earlier glacial period, while the development of a C3-dominated forest community after 20 ka points to increased humidity during the last deglaciation. Within the Holocene, large changes in the abundance of C4 vegetation indicate a transition from drier or more seasonal conditions during the early/mid-Holocene to wetter conditions in the late Holocene coincident with increasing austral summer insolation. Strong negative correlations between leaf wax δ13C and δD values over the entire record indicate that the majority of variability in leaf wax δD at this site can be explained by variability in the magnitude of biosynthetic fractionation by different vegetation types rather than changes in meteoric water δD signatures. However, positive δD deviations from the observed δ13C- δD trends are consistent with more enriched source water and drier or more seasonal conditions during the early/mid-Holocene and LGM. Overall, our record adds to evidence of varying influence of glacial boundary conditions and orbital forcing on South American Summer Monsoon precipitation in different regions of the South American tropics. Moreover, the relationships between leaf wax stable

  12. A Novel Pathway for Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis Is Responsible for the Accumulation of Massive Quantities of Glycerolipids in the Surface Wax of Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) Fruit[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ohlrogge, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) fruits synthesize an extremely thick and unusual layer of crystalline surface wax that accumulates to 32% of fruit dry weight, the highest reported surface lipid accumulation in plants. The composition is also striking, consisting of completely saturated triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and monoacylglycerol with palmitate and myristate acyl chains. To gain insight into the unique properties of Bayberry wax synthesis, we examined the chemical and morphological development of the wax layer, monitored wax biosynthesis through [14C]-radiolabeling, and sequenced the transcriptome. Radiolabeling identified sn-2 monoacylglycerol as an initial glycerolipid intermediate. The kinetics of [14C]-DAG and [14C]-TAG accumulation and the regiospecificity of their [14C]-acyl chains indicated distinct pools of acyl donors and that final TAG assembly occurs outside of cells. The most highly expressed lipid-related genes were associated with production of cutin, whereas transcripts for conventional TAG synthesis were >50-fold less abundant. The biochemical and expression data together indicate that Bayberry surface glycerolipids are synthesized by a pathway for TAG synthesis that is related to cutin biosynthesis. The combination of a unique surface wax and massive accumulation may aid understanding of how plants produce and secrete non-membrane glycerolipids and also how to engineer alternative pathways for lipid production in non-seeds. PMID:26744217

  13. Loss of abaxial leaf epicuticular wax in Medicago truncatula irg1/palm1 mutants results in reduced spore differentiation of anthracnose and nonhost rust pathogens.

    PubMed

    Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Doraiswamy, Vanthana; Bedair, Mohamed; Mittal, Shipra; Chen, Jianghua; Nakashima, Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Tadege, Million; Ratet, Pascal; Chen, Rujin; Schultheiss, Holger; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2012-01-01

    To identify genes that confer nonhost resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogens, we did a forward-genetics screen using Medicago truncatula Tnt1 retrotransposon insertion lines. From this screen, we identified an inhibitor of rust germ tube differentation1 (irg1) mutant that failed to promote preinfection structure differentiation of two rust pathogens, Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Puccinia emaculata, and one anthracnose pathogen, Colletotrichum trifolii, on the abaxial leaf surface. Cytological and chemical analyses revealed that the inhibition of rust preinfection structures in irg1 mutants is due to complete loss of the abaxial epicuticular wax crystals and reduced surface hydrophobicity. The composition of waxes on abaxial leaf surface of irg1 mutants had >90% reduction of C30 primary alcohols and a preferential increase of C29 and C31 alkanes compared with the wild type. IRG1 encodes a Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor, PALM1, which also controls dissected leaf morphology in M. truncatula. Transcriptome analysis of irg1/palm1 mutants revealed downregulation of eceriferum4, an enzyme implicated in primary alcohol biosynthesis, and MYB96, a major transcription factor that regulates wax biosynthesis. Our results demonstrate that PALM1 plays a role in regulating epicuticular wax metabolism and transport and that epicuticular wax influences spore differentiation of host and nonhost fungal pathogens.

  14. In vivo chemical and structural analysis of plant cuticular waxes using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, George R; Mansfield, Jessica C; Parker, David; Lind, Rob; Perfect, Sarah; Seymour, Mark; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Love, John; Moger, Julian

    2015-05-01

    The cuticle is a ubiquitous, predominantly waxy layer on the aerial parts of higher plants that fulfils a number of essential physiological roles, including regulating evapotranspiration, light reflection, and heat tolerance, control of development, and providing an essential barrier between the organism and environmental agents such as chemicals or some pathogens. The structure and composition of the cuticle are closely associated but are typically investigated separately using a combination of structural imaging and biochemical analysis of extracted waxes. Recently, techniques that combine stain-free imaging and biochemical analysis, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy microscopy, have been used to investigate the cuticle, but the detection sensitivity is severely limited by the background signals from plant pigments. We present a new method for label-free, in vivo structural and biochemical analysis of plant cuticles based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. As a proof of principle, we used SRS microscopy to analyze the cuticles from a variety of plants at different times in development. We demonstrate that the SRS virtually eliminates the background interference compared with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy imaging and results in label-free, chemically specific confocal images of cuticle architecture with simultaneous characterization of cuticle composition. This innovative use of the SRS spectroscopy may find applications in agrochemical research and development or in studies of wax deposition during leaf development and, as such, represents an important step in the study of higher plant cuticles.

  15. The proteomics of formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, David Cilia; Murray, Graeme I

    2013-04-01

    Proteomics, which is the global analysis of protein expression in cells and tissues, has emerged over the last ten to fifteen years as a key set of technologies to improve our understanding of disease processes and to identify new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive disease biomarkers. Whilst most proteomic studies have been conducted on fresh frozen tissue, the continuous improvements in technical procedures for protein extraction and separation, coupled with increasingly powerful bioinformatics, have provided the opportunity for proteomic analysis to be conducted on formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue. This potential advance should allow proteomic analysis to be performed on the extensive archives of clinically annotated formalin fixed wax embedded tissue blocks stored in pathology departments worldwide. In this review the main techniques and their limitations involved in proteomic analysis of formalin fixed wax embedded tissue will be outlined and examples of their successful application will be indicated.

  16. The molecular signatures of Taxodiaceae / Cupressaceae / Taxaceae (TCT) leaf waxes in modern and ancient samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, M.; Zinniker, D.; Green Nylen, N.; Moldowan, J. M.; Denisevich, P.

    2005-12-01

    optimized for the synthesis of C34 and C36 fatty acids. The bimodal distribution of n-alkanes (abundant C25 and C27 and abundant C33 and C35) in some Cupressus species indicates that the expression of this VLCFA elongase may be spatially or temporally limited in some taxa. Examples of fossil TCT leaf waxes have been observed in Pleistocene coastal sediments from California and Washington and in Jurassic coals from the Turpan basin in western China. These wax contributions can be identified by their unique n-alkane and diterpenoid signatures and their relationship with macrofossil and/or microfossil remains tied to members of the TCT complex. The carbon isotopic composition of Pleistocene waxes is consistent with a rainforest or marsh adapted TCT taxon (possibly Thuja plicata), while the isotopic composition of the Jurassic waxes is indicative of a highly water stressed taxon. Unique enzymes for very long chain n-alkane biosynthesis in the core group of TCT taxa listed above may have arisen during the early Mesozoic in a desert or salt marsh adapted species in response to extreme temperatures or water stress.

  17. Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf δ13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific δ13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ɛ29 and ɛ33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and δ13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

  18. Late Quaternary climate and environmental changes in a permafrost section near Igarka, Northern Siberia based on leaf wax analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Imke; Schweri, Lea; Zech, Jana; Tananaev, Nikita; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf wax biomarkers, such as long chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, and their carbon isotopic composition are a promising tool for reconstructing past climate and environmental changes and gain more and more attention in paleoresearch. Here we present the results of leaf wax analyses from a permafrost outcrop at the left banks of the Yenisei River near the city of Igarka, Northern Russia. Fluvio-glacial sediments are exposed in the lower part of the outcrop and probably date back to ~60 ka. The upper part consist of aeolian sediments deposited since, overprinted by various pedogenetic processes. First results indicate a continuous contribution of deciduous trees to the vegetation during the last glacial. Compound specific deuterium and radiocarbon analyses are in progress in order to investigate changes in paleoclimate and to establish a robust chronology.

  19. Distribution and variability of n-alkanes in epicuticular waxes of sedum species from the central Balkan Peninsula: chemotaxonomic importance.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, the n-alkane distribution and variability of the epicuticular waxes within 22 Sedum taxa was reported with focus on the chemotaxonomy of native Sedum representatives from the central Balkan Peninsula, compared to their relations with four other species of the Crassulaceae family. By GC/MS and GC-FID identification and quantification, it was established that n-alkanes C27 , C29 , C31 , C33 , and C35 were the dominant constituents of the examined epicuticular wax samples. Applying multivariate statistical analyses including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA), the relation according to the n-alkane composition between the examined samples was established. It was shown that the n-alkane variability of the central Balkan Sedum species was considerable and that n-alkanes might not be very reliable taxonomic markers for these species.

  20. Leaf physiological processes strongly affect δH2 values of leaf wax n-alkanes in C3 and C4 grasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamarra, Bruno; Sachse, Dirk; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2013-04-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes are naturally synthesized saturated hydrocarbons. They are synthesized as part of plant leaf cuticle as a mechanism to prevent water losses. Two of the most important features of n-alkanes are their enormous environmental persistence and terrestrial ubiquity making them a solid and reliable long-term and large-scale biomarker. Their hydrogen isotopic composition (δH2) of leaf wax n-alkanes has been traditionally related to precipitation. Leaf wax n-alkanes and their δH2 values have thus been celebrated as biomarkers to reconstruct hydrological changes. δH2 values of leaf wax n-alkanes are yet to be fully comprehended. They are basically determined by three mechanisms: (1) The δH2 value of the plant source water (2) leaf water evaporative enrichment in H2 and (3) biosynthetic fractionation and depletion in H2during their biosynthesis from leaf water. Out of these three, the exact degree by which the evaporative H2-enrichment of leaf water influences the δH2 values of leaf wax n-alkanes is still unknown. We conducted an experiment where we tested and quantified the effects of leaf water evaporative H2-enrichment on the leaf wax n-alkane δH2 values of different grass species. We grew 12 C3 and C4 grass species under controlled environmental conditions in growth chambers. The plants were exposed to 3 different levels of air relative humidity (45, 65 and 85%). These treatments were to generate different degrees of leaf water H2-enrichment in the plants. The goal of our experiment was to determine by what degree the different levels of leaf water H2-enrichment influence the δH2 values of the different C3 and C4 grass species. Additional measurements of gas exchange, evapotranspiration and leaf length and area accompanied the isotopic analysis in order to explain species variability. Our experiments showed that leaf water evaporative H2-enrichment has a critical impact on leaf wax n-alkane δH2 values of all studied plants. The magnitude was

  1. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes.

  2. Surfactants and Desensitizing Wax Substitutes for TNT-Based Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Phthalimides with long-chain alkyl groups have been found to be very wax-like. They are made from phthalic anhydride and an alkyl amine. Pure N-octadecyl...Phthalate Half-Esters Phthalic anhydride (5.07 g) and 14.9 grams of Unilin 350 alcohol were charged to a container and heated with stirring for 2 hours at...With The Enthalpy Of ....... 40 Wax Desensitizers 7. DSC Of Ganex WP-660/TNT Mixture ........................ 50 8. DSC Of Solsperse 5000/TNT Mixture

  3. Clinically based diagnostic wax-up for optimal esthetics: the diagnostic mock-up.

    PubMed

    Simon, Harel; Magne, Pascal

    2008-05-01

    A diagnostic wax-up can enhance the predictability of treatment by modeling the desired result in wax prior to treatment. It is critical to correlate the wax-up to the patient to avoid a result that appears optimal on the casts but does not correspond to the patient's smile. This article reviews the applications and techniques for clinically based diagnostic wax-up, and focuses on the diagnostic mock-up philosophy as a means to obtain predictable esthetics and function.

  4. A modified technique for fabricating a mirror image wax pattern for an auricular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Gajdhar, Shaiq; Gajdhar, Sajda Khan; Salakalakonda, Srikanth Reddy; Vasthare, Abubakkar

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a technique for fabricating a wax pattern for an auricular prosthesis by tracing the shape of a sliced cast of the contralateral ear at an interval of 1-mm and transferring the shape of each 1-mm slice to a similar dimension modeling wax sheet. In this way, slices of modeling wax are obtained, which can be reversed and placed over the previous slice to produce a mirror image wax pattern of the contralateral ear.

  5. Impact of sweet sorghum cuticular waxes (SSCW) on acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum ABE1201.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Chang, Zhen; Wang, Chengyu; Ren, Wenqiang; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-12-01

    The effect of cuticular waxes of sweet sorghum stem on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process was investigated. About 22.9% of butanol and 25.4% of ABE were decreased with fermentation period extended when SSCW was added. The inhibition of SSCW militate against both acidogenesis and solventogenesis phase, which were inconsistent with the inhibition of lignocellulose hydrolysate. Further studies on the composition of SSCW were performed. Regulations of inhibition with different carbon chain length of main compositions of SSCW on ABE fermentation were also investigated.

  6. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  7. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  8. Variation for epicuticular waxes on onion foliage and impacts on numbers of onion thrips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion for amounts of epicuticular waxes on foliage, and plants with lower amounts of these waxes suffer less damage from the insect pest Thrips tabaci (thrips). Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of epicuticular waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessi...

  9. Influence of Conventional and Digital Wax-ups on Axial Tooth Contour.

    PubMed

    Abduo, Jaafar; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of conventional and digital diagnostic wax-up on the axial tooth contour. Dental models of 15 patients were collected. Each model received conventional wax-up and digital wax-up. The conventional wax-up was based on tooth modification with dental wax on actual models. The digital wax-up involved fitting an average tooth form on virtual pretreatment models. Each wax-up model was digitally superimposed on the corresponding pretreatment model. For each modified tooth, analysis planes were extracted at three locations: mesial line angle, midtooth, and distal line angle. The impact of the following variables was evaluated: interarch location (maxilla vs mandible), intra-arch location (anterior vs posterior), tooth category (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars), and tooth location (midtooth vs line angle). The axial contour of the modified teeth increased after each wax-up, and this increase was directly proportional to the distance from the gingival margin. There is a clear tendency for the digital wax-up to cause a greater contour increase than the conventional wax-up. The anterior teeth were associated with a greater tooth contour increase than posterior teeth and the contour of the molars was the least affected. Although the conventional wax-up contour alteration was significantly less than for the digital wax-up, the actual difference was minimal.

  10. Dogfish egg case structural studies by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Georgaka, Martha E; Chryssikos, Georgios D; Gionis, Vassilis; Megalofonou, Persefoni; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2007-06-01

    The dogfish egg case is a composite structure that combines mechanical tensile strength, toughness and elasticity with high permeability to small molecules and ions. Presumably, it provides both a protective and a filtering role for the egg/embryo contained within it. In this work, we performed structural studies of the Galeus melastomus egg case at two different stages of the hardening process, utilizing ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Based on these data we deduce that: (a) The G. melastomus egg case, in close analogy to that of the related species Scyliorhinus cunicula, is a complex, composite structure which consists mainly of an analogue of collagen IV. This network forming protein appears to have common secondary structural characteristics in the entire egg case. (b) The outermost layer of the non-sclerotized egg case is especially rich in tyrosine, while the innermost layer is rich in polysaccharides, presumably glycosaminoglycans, and lipids. These differences are diminished upon hardening. (c) Disulfide bonds do not appear to play a significant role in cross-linking. However, cross-links involving tyrosine residues appear to sclerotize the egg case. It is proposed that the intensity of the Raman band at ca. 1615 cm(-1), which is due to ring stretching vibrations of Tyr, might be a useful indicator of the sclerotization status of a certain proteinaceous tissue, when tyrosines are involved in sclerotization mechanisms.

  11. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class I... system regulation in part 820 of this chapter, with the exception of § 820.180, with respect to...

  12. Interior. Apparatus on table by door used for metalplating wax ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Apparatus on table by door used for metal-plating wax discs in order to make a steel master for use in mass production of phonograph records. Process used primarily from 1915 to 1928. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  13. Uncovered secret of a Vasseur-Tramond wax model.

    PubMed

    Pastor, J F; Gutiérrez, B; Montes, J M; Ballestriero, R

    2016-01-01

    The technique of anatomical wax modelling reached its heyday in Italy during the 18th century, through a fruitful collaboration between sculptors and anatomists. It soon spread to other countries, and prestigious schools were created in England, France, Spain and Austria. Paris subsequently replaced Italy as the major centre of manufacture, and anatomical waxes were created there from the mid-19th century in workshops such as that of Vasseur-Tramond. This workshop began to sell waxes to European Faculties of Medicine and Schools of Surgery around 1880. Little is known of the technique employed in the creation of such artefacts as this was deemed a professional secret. To gain some insight into the methods of construction, we have studied a Vasseur-Tramond wax model in the Valladolid University Anatomy Museum, Spain, by means of multi-slice computerised tomography and X-ray analysis by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the hair. These results have revealed some of the methods used to make these anatomical models and the materials employed.

  14. Variation for epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and thrips-vectored Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV) routinely cause significant losses to the bulb and seed crops of onion. Both pests have become more problematic as global temperatures rise. Natural variation exists in onion for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on...

  15. Integrating Science in Your Classroom: Wax On, Wane Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2006-01-01

    The changing figures of the waxing and waning moon are among the most conspicuous of celestial phenomena and were some of the first to be understood. This paper describes a classroom activity designed to teach children about the phases of the moon.

  16. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. Leaf waxes, compound-specific D/H and 14C analyses in the Loess Paleosol Sequence Möhlin, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wüthrich, Lorenz; Bliedtner, Marcel; Kathrin Schäfer, Imke; Zech, Jana; Gaar, Dorian; Preusser, Frank; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf waxes, such as long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, and their D/H isotopic composition, are increasingly used for paleoenvironmental and -climate reconstructions. Recent technological innovations now also allow to perform radiocarbon analyses on leaf waxes. For this study, we analyzed leaf waxes and their δD and 14C composition in the 7 m Loess Paleosol Sequence Möhlin, Switzerland. The chain length patterns in the upper part of the profile indicate n-alkane contribution from deciduous trees, while the underlying loess is dominated by inputs from grasses and herbs. Our δD record does not show depleted, glacial values compared to the Holocene, as we had expected in analogy to the Greenland ice core records. Values are most enriched at 1 m depth, i.e. well below the topsoil. Further research is needed to disentangle source effects and evapotranspirative enrichment, before the δD record can be interpreted robustly. Our radiocarbon ages for the leaf waxes are in very good agreement with independent age control based on luminescence ages, corroborating that massive loess accumulation occurred already at 35 ka. Only the uppermost 3 m were deposited during the last glacial maximum.

  20. Epicuticular Wax in Developing Olives (Olea europaea) Is Highly Dependent upon Cultivar and Fruit Ripeness.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Barrios, Gonçal; Mateu, Jordi; Ninot, Antonia; Romero, Agustí

    2016-08-03

    The epicuticular wax (EW) layer is located on the surface of most plant organs. It provides the cuticle with most of its properties and is the primary barrier against biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the importance of Olea europaea cultivation, few studies have characterized the EW covering leaves and olives, which could be involved in resistance to both infection and environmental conditions. In the present study, wide-ranging screening was carried out using direct-injection electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to analyze EW in developing olives of nine varieties. The proportions of EW fractions [wax esters (WEs), diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols (TAGs), triterpenic acids, and aldehydes] strongly depended upon the olive cultivar and, in only a few cases, were influenced by the sampling date. The specific compositions of the major fractions, WEs and TAGs, were strictly related to the cultivar, while the degree of unsaturation and chain length of the WEs evolved throughout the 4 weeks prior to the olive turning color.

  1. SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan

  2. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  3. A 3,000 year plant leaf wax D/H record of paleohydrology from Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheetham, M. I.; Feakins, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    We report a high resolution record of hydrological variability based on plant leaf wax D/H measurements in a sediment core from Zaca Lake, Southern California spanning 3,000 years. Compound specific analysis of the n-alkanoic acid fraction yields a powerful suite of relative abundance and isotope data. Comparison to modern vegetation and sediments offers insights into the source of sedimentary waxes and their D/H signatures. We identify three potential sources of waxes at Zaca: 1) mid to long chains from emergent aquatic plants (C28 max), 2) mid chains from Pinus coulteri (C20-C24 only) and 3) mid to long chains from Quercus agrifolia (C28 and C30 max). We establish that long chains are dominated by Quercus and other terrestrial vegetation, whereas mid chains could have mixed sources. At Zaca, 80% shared variance between mid chain and long chain records suggests both derive from terrestrial plants influenced by a common driver, presumably the isotopic composition of precipitation or relative humidity influences on leaf water enrichment. Dendrogram analysis of molecular abundance variations allows us to flag where vegetation change cannot be ruled out. We therefore infer that regional atmospheric circulation changes drove the sustained negative isotope excursion of > 20% from about 2,700 to 2,000 years BP and superimposed higher frequency 20% variability throughout the record, including a number of large, rapid excursion (>20%, <20 years). The results of ongoing analyses will be presented at the meeting.

  4. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Quarterly report, June 1, 1993--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1993-12-01

    During the last quarter isomerization and hydrocracking of n-hexadecane were carried out in a continuous flow fixed bed reactor described in a previous report. Test runs showed that the temperature and pressure in this reactor can be controlled to within {+-} 1 C and {+-} 2 psig, respectively. The reaction conditions were 160 C and 350 psig constant hydrogen pressure. Interestingly, product distribution from isomerization and hydrocracking of n-hexadecane conducted in this reactor is similar to that obtained from the microreactor experiments. The long-term stability of the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst was studied using this fixed bed reactor with n-hexadecane as a feedstock. Evidence was obtained that, in the presence of H{sub 2}, the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst maintains its activity for as long as 96 hours with no evidence of deactivation. The effect of addition of transition metals on the activity of ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} was compared. Pt and Pd greatly enhanced the hydrotreating activity of ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}. The activities of Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}, Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/MoO{sub 4} and Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/WO{sub 4} catalysts were also compared; it was found that the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst gave highest activity in isomerization and hydrocracking of long-chain paraffins. The authors also found that, even at high severity conditions, i.e., 300 C/600 psig and 250 C/1,200 psig, the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst is active.

  5. Wax and suberin development of native and wound periderm of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its relation to peridermal transpiration.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus; Hartmann, Klaus

    2005-02-01

    Native and wound periderm was isolated enzymatically from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers at different time intervals between 0 days up to 4 weeks after harvesting. Wound periderm formation was induced by carefully removing native periderm from freshly harvested tubers before storage. The chemical composition of lipids (waxes) obtained by chloroform extraction, as well as the monomeric composition of native and wound suberin polymer after transesterification by boron trifluoride/methanol, was analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Both types of periderm contained up to 20% extractable lipids. Besides linear long-chain aliphatic wax compounds, alkyl ferulates were detected as significant constituents. In wound periderm they amounted to more than 60% of the total extracts. Within 1 month of storage, suberin amounts in the polymer increased 2-fold in native periderm (180 microg cm(-2)), whereas in wound periderm about 75.0 microg cm(-2) suberin polymer was newly synthesized. Native potato tuber periderm developed a very efficient transport barrier for water with permeances decreasing from 6.4 x 10(-10) m s(-1) to 5.5 x 10(-11) m s(-1) within 1 month of storage. However, the water permeability of wound periderm was on average 100 times higher with permeances decreasing from 4.7 x 10(-8) m s(-1) after 3 days to only 5.4 x 10(-9) m s(-1) after 1 month of storage, although suberin and wax amounts in wound periderm amounted to about 60% of native periderm. From this result it must be concluded that the occurrence of suberin with wax depositions in cell walls does not necessarily allow us to conclude that these cell walls must be nearly perfect barriers to water transport. In addition to the occurrence of the lipophilic biopolymer suberin and associated waxes, the still unknown molecular arrangement and precisely localized deposition of suberin within the cell wall must contribute to the efficiency of suberin as a barrier to water

  6. Cascade synthesis of a gold nanoparticle–network polymer composite

    DOE PAGES

    Grubjesic, Simonida; Ringstrand, Bryan Scott; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; ...

    2015-11-02

    In this paper, the multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical initiated polymerization and crosslinking of the acrylate endderivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 to yield a network polymer. Optical spectroscopy and TEM monitored the reduction of [AuCl4]-, formation of large aggregated Au NPs andmore » oxidative etching into a final state of dispersed, spherical Au NPs. ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirms acrylate crosslinking to yield the polymer network. X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) monitored the evolution of the multilamellar structured mesophase and revealed the presence of semi-crystalline PEO confined within the water layers. The hydrogel could be reversibly swollen without loss of the well-entrained Au NPs with full recovery of composite structure. Finally, optical spectroscopy shows a notable red shift (Δλ~ 45 nm) in the surface plasmon resonance between swollen and contracted states, demonstrating solvent-mediated modulation of the internal NP packing arrangement.« less

  7. Cascade synthesis of a gold nanoparticle-network polymer composite

    DOE PAGES

    Grubjesic, Simonida; Ringstrand, Bryan Scott; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; ...

    2015-11-02

    In this paper, the multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical initiated polymerization and crosslinking of the acrylate endderivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 to yield a network polymer. Optical spectroscopy and TEM monitored the reduction of [AuCl4]-, formation of large aggregated Au NPs andmore » oxidative etching into a final state of dispersed, spherical Au NPs. ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirms acrylate crosslinking to yield the polymer network. X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) monitored the evolution of the multilamellar structured mesophase and revealed the presence of semi-crystalline PEO confined within the water layers. The hydrogel could be reversibly swollen without loss of the well-entrained Au NPs with full recovery of composite structure. Finally, optical spectroscopy shows a notable red shift (Δλ~ 45 nm) in the surface plasmon resonance between swollen and contracted states, demonstrating solvent-mediated modulation of the internal NP packing arrangement.« less

  8. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Elena V; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2017-04-03

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion.

  9. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Elena V.; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2017-01-01

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion. PMID:28367985

  10. Heat transfer enhancement in a paraffin wax thermal storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Eftekhar, J.; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Lou, Y.S.

    1984-08-01

    Heat transfer enhancement in a thermal storage system consisting of vertically arranged fins between a heated and cooled horizontal finned-tube arrangement is reported. The high thermal expansion coefficient and low viscosity of paraffin wax, at temperatures above 50/sup 0/C, are utilized to induce natural convection in the liquid phase even at small thicknesses. The experimental data on the rate of production of liquid as a function of time and temperature of the hot surface is presented. The photographs of the melted zone indicate a naturally buoyant flow induced in the neighborhood of the vertical fins causes a rapid melting of the solid wax and a downdraft along the cooler solid phase surface. The heat transfer coefficient at the interface is calculated from experimentally determined instantaneous locations of the moving boundary.

  11. The Effect of Water or Wax-based Binders on the Chemical and Morphological Characteristics of the Margin Ceramic-Framework Interface.

    PubMed

    Güler, Umut; de Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Canay, Senay; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of binder choice in mixing ceramic powder on the chemical and morphological features between the margin ceramic-framework interfaces. Titanium and zirconia frameworks (15 x 5 x 0.5 mm3) were veneered with margin ceramics prepared with two different binders, namely a) water/conventional or b) wax-based. For each zirconia framework material, four different margin ceramics were used: a- Creation Zi (Creation Willi Geller International); b- GC Initial Zr (GC America); Triceram (Dentaurum); and d- IPS emax (voclar Vivadent). For the titanium framework, three different margin ceramics were used: a- Creation Ti (Creation Willi Geller International); b- Triceram (Dentaurum); and c- VITA Titaniumkeramik (Vita Zahnfabrik). The chemical composition of the framework-margin ceramic interface was analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and porosity level was quantified within the margin ceramic using an image program (ImageJ) from four random areas (100 x 100 pixels) on each SEM image. EDS analysis showed the presence of Carbon at the margin ceramic-framework interface in the groups where wax-based binder technique was used with the concentration being the highest for the IPS emax ZirCAD group. While IPS system (IPS ZirCAD and IPS Emax) presented higher porosity concentration using wax binder, in the other groups wax-based binder reduced the porosity of margin ceramic, except for Titanium - Triceram combination.

  12. Silencing of StKCS6 in potato periderm leads to reduced chain lengths of suberin and wax compounds and increased peridermal transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Olga; Soler, Marçal; Hohn, Carolin; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Prat, Salomé; Molinas, Marisa; Figueras, Mercè

    2009-01-01

    Very long chain aliphatic compounds occur in the suberin polymer and associated wax. Up to now only few genes involved in suberin biosynthesis have been identified. This is a report on the isolation of a potato (Solanum tuberosum) 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) gene and the study of its molecular and physiological relevance by means of a reverse genetic approach. This gene, called StKCS6, was stably silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) in potato. Analysis of the chemical composition of silenced potato tuber periderms indicated that StKCS6 down-regulation has a significant and fairly specific effect on the chain length distribution of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and derivatives, occurring in the suberin polymer and peridermal wax. All compounds with chain lengths of C28 and higher were significantly reduced in silenced periderms, whereas compounds with chain lengths of C26 and lower accumulated. Thus, StKCS6 is preferentially involved in the formation of suberin and wax lipidic monomers with chain lengths of C28 and higher. As a result, peridermal transpiration of the silenced lines was about 1.5-times higher than that of the wild type. Our results convincingly show that StKCS6 is involved in both suberin and wax biosynthesis and that a reduction of the monomeric carbon chain lengths leads to increased rates of peridermal transpiration. PMID:19112170

  13. Seasonal variation of leaf wax n-alkane production and δ(2)H values from the evergreen oak tree, Quercus agrifolia.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Dirk; Dawson, Todd E; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the timing of leaf wax synthesis in higher plants, we analysed the variability in leaf wax n-alkane concentration, composition (expressed as average chain length (ACL)), and δ(2)Hwax values as well as plant source water δ(2)H values (xylem and leaf water) in the evergreen tree Quercus agrifolia over a period of 9 months, beginning with leaf flush. We identified three distinct periods of leaf development with the first month following leaf flush being characterized by de novo synthesis and possibly removal of n-alkanes. During the following 3 months, n-alkane concentrations increased sevenfold and δ(2)Hwax and ACL values increased, suggesting this period was the major leaf wax n-alkane formation period. During the remaining 4 months of the experiment, stable values suggest cessation of leaf wax n-alkane formation. We find that n-alkane synthesis in Q. agrifolia takes place over 4 months, substantially longer than that observed for deciduous trees.

  14. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Babaahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (G″/G' (ω) ≤ 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G'LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG'=G″) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes.

  15. Visualization of micromorphology of leaf epicuticular waxes of the rubber tree Ficus elastica by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo

    2008-10-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of leaf epicuticular waxes were investigated in Ficus elastica by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Glossy leaves of the rubber tree were collected and subjected to different regimes of specimen preparation for surface observations. F. elastica leaves were hypostomatic and stomata were surrounded with a cuticular thickening that formed a rim. The most prominent epicuticular wax structures of F. elastica leaves included granules and platelets. Without fixation and metal coating, epicuticular wax structures could be discerned on the leaf surface by low-vacuum (ca. 7 Pa) scanning electron microscopy. In terms of delineation and retention of the structures, the combination of vapor fixation by glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide with subsequent gold coating provided the most satisfactory results, as evidenced by high resolution and sharp protrusions of epicuticular waxes. However, erosion of epicuticular wax edges was noted in the immersion fixed leaves, showing less elongated platelets, less distinct wax edges, and granule cracking. These results suggest that the vapor fixation procedure for demonstrating three-dimensional epicuticular wax structures would facilitate characterization of diverse types of waxes. Instances were noted where epicuticular waxes grew over neighboring epidermal ridges and occluded stomata. In cross sections, epicuticular waxes were observed above the cuticle proper and ranged approximately from 100 nm to 500 nm in thickness. The native leaf epicuticular waxes had many layers of different electron density that were oriented parallel to each other and parallel or perpendicular to the cuticle surface, implying strata of crystal growth. Such retention of native epicuticular wax structures could be achieved through the use of acrylic resin treated with less harsh dehydrants and mild heat polymerization, alleviating wax extraction during specimen preparations.

  16. Anna Morandi's wax self-portrait with brain.

    PubMed

    Messbarger, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    In her self-portrait in wax, eighteenth-century Bolognese anatomist and anatomical modeler Anna Morandi Manzolini (1714-1774) represented herself in sumptuous aristocratic dress while dissecting a human brain. This essay explores the scientific and symbolic meaning of the vivid self-portrayal in terms of Anna Morandi's lifework at the intersection of art and anatomical science and within the remarkable cultural context of Enlightenment Bologna that fostered her rise to international acclaim.

  17. Leaf epicuticular waxes as proxies for paleoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Imke; Zech, Jana; Lanny, Verena; Eglinton, Timothy; Zech, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Long-chain n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids are essential constituents of leaf waxes and can be used for the reconstruction of the paleovegetation and paleoclimate (e.g. Zech et al. 2013a). However, more research is needed to assess the full potential of these leaf wax biomarkers. Here we present results from a study on a transect from Southern Germany to Sweden. Our resuts show that litter and soils under deciduous trees have a dominance of the C27 n-alkane and the C28 n-carboxylic acid. Conifers are characterized by the dominance of the C29 n-alkane and the C22 and C24 n-carboxylic acids. C31 and C33 n-alkanes and C32 and C34 n-carboxylic acids can be attributed to grasses and herbs. Degradation of both compound classes in paleosols and sediments should be taken into consideration (e.g. Zech et al. 2013b), but the impact of degradation is not yet fully understood. We are now running compound-specific stable isotope analyses on all transect samples to evaluate the potential of the deuterium/hydrogen ratios in leaf waxes as proxy for the hydrological conditions. In addition, we aim at presenting first results of leaf wax biomarker analyses for a last-glacial loess-paleosol sequence from Spain. References Zech M., Krause T., Meszner M. & Faust D. 2013b: Incorrect when uncorrected: Reconstructing vegetation history using n-alkane biomarkers in loess-paleosol sequences: A case study from the Saxonian loess region, Germany. Quaternary International, 296, 108-116. Zech, R., Zech, M., Marković, S., Hambach, U. & Huang Y. 2013a: Humid glacials, arid interglacials? Critical thoughts on pedogenesis and paleoclimate based on multi-proxy analyses of the loess-paleosol sequence Crvenka, Northern Serbia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 387, 165-175.

  18. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjana, A. R. Mahesh, S. S. Divakara, S. Somashekar, R.

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  19. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P.; Kim, Hyejin; No, Kyoungok; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steven; Drnevich, Jenny; Wickett, Norman; Vandervelde, Lindsay; Ellis, Jeffrey D.; Rice, Brandon; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Brunner, Amy M.; Page, Grier P.; Carlson, John E.; DePamphilis, Claude; Luthe, Dawn S.; Yuceer, Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

  20. Leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Imke K.; Lanny, Verena; Franke, Jörg; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Zech, Michael; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Zech, Roland

    2016-10-01

    Lipid biomarkers are increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental and climate conditions. Leaf-wax-derived long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids may have great potential for reconstructing past changes in vegetation, but the factors that affect the leaf wax distribution in fresh plant material, as well as in soils and sediments, are not yet fully understood and need further research. We systematically investigated the influence of vegetation and soil depth on leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect. The deciduous forest sites are often dominated by the n-C27 alkane and n-C28 alkanoic acid. Conifers produce few n-alkanes but show high abundances of the C24 n-alkanoic acid. Grasslands are characterized by relatively high amounts of C31 and C33 n-alkanes and C32 and C34 n-alkanoic acids. Chain length ratios thus may allow for distinguishing between different vegetation types, but caution must be exercised given the large species-specific variability in chain length patterns. An updated endmember model with the new n-alkane ratio (n-C31 + n-C33) / (n-C27 + n-C31 + n-C33) is provided to illustrate, and tentatively account for, degradation effects on n-alkanes.

  1. Identification of the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase WSD1 required for stem wax ester biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-09-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C(16) and C(18)) or very-long-chain (C(20) and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment.

  2. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

  3. Effect of selected physical properties of waxes on investments and casting shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Yamagishi, T; Oshida, Y; Munoz, C A

    1996-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between flow characteristics, bending strength, and softening temperature of paraffin and dental inlay waxes to casting shrinkage when patterns were invested with a phosphate-bonded investment. This study found that the casting shrinkage decreased as the flow of the wax pattern increased. If a low flow wax is used or if there is a need for a thick pattern, the size of the casting ring should be increased. When wax patterns are formed for cast restorations, it is important to select the type of wax with the most desirable properties for the margin and the occlusal portions. Moreover, to accurately fabricate castings, it is necessary to understand the physical properties of the chosen waxes.

  4. Antifeedant Activity of Citrus Waste Wax and Its Fractions Against the Dry Wood Termite, Cryptotermes brevis

    PubMed Central

    Sbeghen-Loss, Ana Carolina; Mato, Mauricio; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Frizzo, Caren; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    The wood protective action of citrus wax, a waste from the citrus industry that is a mixture of citrus fruit epicuticular waxes and essential oils, was evaluated against the termite Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). The antifeedant index (AI) of the total wax and fractions was calculated. The total citrus wax exhibited an AI50 value of 24.69 mg/cm3, the wax after hydrodistillation showed the strongest antifeedant property (AI50 11.68 mg/cm3). Fractionation of the wax and gas chromatography—mass spectrometric analysis allowed the identification of coumarins and furancoumarins as the active compounds. These results suggest the potential use of these industrial residues as a natural approach to termite control. PMID:22243487

  5. FT-IR spectroscopy of lipoproteins—A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Balarin, Maja; Kosović, Marin; Gamulin, Ozren; Brnjas-Kraljević, Jasminka

    2009-08-01

    FT-IR spectra, in the frequency region 4000-600 cm -1, of four major lipoprotein classes: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and two subclasses of high density lipoproteins (HDL 2 and HDL 3) were analyzed to obtain their detailed spectral characterization. Information about the protein domain of particle was obtained from the analysis of amide I band. The procedure of decomposition and curve fitting of this band confirms the data already known about the secondary structure of two different apolipoproteins: apo A-I in HDL 2 and HDL 3 and apo B-100 in LDL and VLDL. For information about the lipid composition and packing of the particular lipoprotein the well expressed lipid bands in the spectra were analyzed. Characterization of spectral details in the FT-IR spectrum of natural lipoprotein is necessary to study the influence of external compounds on its structure.

  6. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  7. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  8. Intracuticular wax fixes and restricts strain in leaf and fruit cuticles.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Bishnu Prasad; Grimm, Eckhard; Finger, Sebastian; Blume, Alfred; Knoche, Moritz

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the effects of cuticular wax on the release of strain and on the tensile properties of enzymatically isolated cuticular membranes (CMs) taken from leaves of agave (Agave americana), bush lily (Clivia miniata), holly (Ilex aquifolium), and ivy (Hedera helix) and from fruit of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Biaxial strain release was quantified as the decrease in CM disc area following wax extraction. Stiffness, maximum strain and maximum force were determined in uniaxial tensile tests using strips of CM and dewaxed CMs (DCMs). Biaxial strain release, stiffness, and maximum strain, but not maximum force, were linearly related to the amount of wax extracted. Apple CM has the most wax and here the effect of wax extraction was substantially accounted for by the embedded cuticular wax. Heating apple CM to 80°C melted some wax constituents and produced an effect similar to, but smaller than, that resulting from wax extraction. Our results indicate that wax 'fixes' strain, effectively converting reversible elastic into irreversible plastic strain. A consequence of 'fixation' is increased cuticular stiffness.

  9. Shape-tunable wax microparticle synthesis via microfluidics and droplet impact

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doojin; Beesabathuni, Shilpa N.; Shen, Amy Q.

    2015-01-01

    Spherical and non-spherical wax microparticles are generated by employing a facile two-step droplet microfluidic process which consists of the formation of molten wax microdroplets in a flow-focusing microchannel and their subsequent off-chip crystallization and deformation via microdroplet impingement on an immiscible liquid interface. Key parameters on the formation of molten wax microdroplets in a microfluidic channel are the viscosity of the molten wax and the interfacial tension between the dispersed and continuous fluids. A cursory phase diagram of wax morphology transition is depicted depending on the Capillary number and the Stefan number during the impact process. A combination of numerical simulation and analytical modeling is carried out to understand the physics underlying the deformation and crystallization process of the molten wax. The deformation of wax microdroplets is dominated by the viscous and thermal effects rather than the gravitational and buoyancy effects. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the wax illustrates the time dependent thermal effects on the droplet deformation and crystallization. The work presented here will benefit those interested in the design and production criteria of soft non-spherical particles (i.e., alginate gels, wax, and polymer particles) with the aid of time and temperature mediated solidification and off-chip crosslinking. PMID:26697124

  10. Critical Involvement of Environmental Carbon Dioxide Fixation to Drive Wax Ester Fermentation in Euglena

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Masami; Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation profiles of wax esters in Euglena gracilis Z were studied under several environmental conditions. The highest amount of total wax esters accumulated under hypoxia in the dark, and C28 (myristyl-myristate, C14:0-C14:0) was prevalent among all conditions investigated. The wax ester production was almost completely suppressed under anoxia in the light, and supplying exogenous inorganic carbon sources restored wax ester fermentation, indicating the need for external carbon sources for the wax ester fermentation. 13C-labeling experiments revealed specific isotopic enrichment in the odd-numbered fatty acids derived from wax esters, indicating that the exogenously-supplied CO2 was incorporated into wax esters via the propionyl-CoA pathway through the reverse tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The addition of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) inhibitor, significantly affected the incorporation of 13C into citrate and malate as the biosynthetic intermediates of the odd-numbered fatty acids, suggesting the involvement of PEPCK reaction to drive wax ester fermentation. Additionally, the 13C-enrichment pattern of succinate suggested that the CO2 assimilation might proceed through alternative pathways in addition to the PEPCK reaction. The current results indicate that the mechanisms of anoxic CO2 assimilation are an important target to reinforce wax ester fermentation in Euglena. PMID:27669566

  11. Cascade synthesis of a gold nanoparticle-network polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubjesic, Simonida; Ringstrand, Bryan S.; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Brombosz, Scott M.; Seifert, Sönke; Firestone, Millicent A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical initiated polymerization and crosslinking of the acrylate end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 to yield a network polymer. Optical spectroscopy and TEM monitored the reduction of [AuCl4]-, formation of large aggregated Au NPs and oxidative etching into a final state of dispersed, spherical Au NPs. ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirms acrylate crosslinking to yield the polymer network. X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) monitored the evolution of the multi-lamellar structured mesophase and revealed the presence of semi-crystalline PEO confined within the water layers. The hydrogel could be reversibly swollen without loss of the well-entrained Au NPs with full recovery of composite structure. Optical spectroscopy shows a notable red shift (Δλ ~ 45 nm) in the surface plasmon resonance between swollen and contracted states, demonstrating solvent-mediated modulation of the internal NP packing arrangement.The multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical

  12. Attrition Resistant Iron-Based Catalysts For F-T SBCRs

    SciTech Connect

    Adeyinka A. Adeyiga

    2006-01-31

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+ H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. The use of iron-(FE) based catalysts is attractive not only due to their low cost and ready availability, but also due to their high water-gas shift activity which makes it possible to use these catalysts with low H{sub 2}/CO ratios. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment; makes the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult, if not impossible; and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. Under a previous Department of Energy (DOE)/University Research Grant (UCR) grant, Hampton University reported, for the first time, the development of demonstrably attrition-resistant Fe F-T synthesis catalysts having good activity, selectivity, and attrition resistance. These catalysts were prepared by spray drying Fe catalysts with potassium (K), copper (Cu), and silica (SiO{sub 2}) as promoters. SiO{sub 2} was also used as a binder for spray drying. These catalysts were tested for activity and selectivity in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. Fundamental understanding of attrition is being addressed by incorporating suitable binders into the catalyst recipe. This has resulted in the preparation of a spray dried HPR-43 catalyst having average particle size (aps) of 70 {micro}m with high attrition resistance. This HPR-43 attrition resistant, active and selective catalyst gave 95% CO conversion through 125 hours of testing in a fixed-bed at 270 C, 1.48 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO=0.67 and 2.0 NL/g-cat/h with C{sub 5+} selectivity of >78% and methane selectivity of less than 5% at an

  13. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  14. In Vivo Chemical and Structural Analysis of Plant Cuticular Waxes Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Jessica C.; Perfect, Sarah; Seymour, Mark; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Love, John; Moger, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The cuticle is a ubiquitous, predominantly waxy layer on the aerial parts of higher plants that fulfils a number of essential physiological roles, including regulating evapotranspiration, light reflection, and heat tolerance, control of development, and providing an essential barrier between the organism and environmental agents such as chemicals or some pathogens. The structure and composition of the cuticle are closely associated but are typically investigated separately using a combination of structural imaging and biochemical analysis of extracted waxes. Recently, techniques that combine stain-free imaging and biochemical analysis, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy microscopy, have been used to investigate the cuticle, but the detection sensitivity is severely limited by the background signals from plant pigments. We present a new method for label-free, in vivo structural and biochemical analysis of plant cuticles based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. As a proof of principle, we used SRS microscopy to analyze the cuticles from a variety of plants at different times in development. We demonstrate that the SRS virtually eliminates the background interference compared with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy imaging and results in label-free, chemically specific confocal images of cuticle architecture with simultaneous characterization of cuticle composition. This innovative use of the SRS spectroscopy may find applications in agrochemical research and development or in studies of wax deposition during leaf development and, as such, represents an important step in the study of higher plant cuticles. PMID:25783412

  15. Comparison of various extraction methods for policosanol from rice bran wax and establishment of chromatographic fingerprint of policosanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Fei; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Mao, Li; Zhou, Jing-Ping; Gong, Hui-Juan; Qian, Bao-Yong; Fang, Yan; Li, Jie

    2007-07-11

    A capillary gas chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for the separation and determination of policosanol components extracted from rice bran wax. A Varian CP-sil 8 CB column was employed, and an oven temperature was programmed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the composition of policosanol. Quantitative analysis was carried out by means of hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID) with dinonyl phthalate (DNP) as internal standard. The results indicated that the extract obtained by dry saponification has the highest contents of octacosanol and triacontanol among extracts by all used extraction methods including dry saponification, saponification in alcohol, saponification in water (neutralized and non-neutralized), and transesterification. Meanwhile, the GC-MS fingerprint of policosanol extracted by dry saponification has been established. Euclidean distance similarity calculation showed remarkable consistency of compositions and contents among 12 batches of policosanol from a rice bran wax variety. This protocol provided a rapid and feasible method for quality control of policosanol products.

  16. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    PubMed

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line.

  17. Laser-assisted fabrication of batteries on wax paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, G.; Tan, T.; Ziaie, B.

    2013-11-01

    The functionality of paper-based diagnostic devices can be significantly enhanced by their integration with an on-board energy source. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of paper-based electrochemical cells on wax paper using CO2 laser surface treatment and micromachining. A four cell zinc-copper battery shows a steady open-circuit voltage of ˜3 V and can provide 0.25 mA for at least 30 min when connected to a 10 kΩ load. Higher voltages and current values can be obtained by adjusting the number and size of electrochemical cells in the battery without changing the fabrication process.

  18. Offshore asphaltene and wax deposition: Problems/solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J. |

    1996-05-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Such problems seriously threaten economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore facilities are especially susceptible to such deposition for a number of reasons. This article presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the problems, the field has been produced for more than 14 years with minimum environmental impact. Principal conclusions developed are discussed in this paper.

  19. [Episodic paroxysmal hemicrania with seasonal waxing and waning pattern].

    PubMed

    Selekler, Hamit Macit; Temel, Ozden; Kutlu, Ayşe

    2010-01-01

    The chronic form of paroxysmal hemicrania was defined first. Although the episodic form was thought to be inevitably chronic, in time, episodic forms that never reach the chronic phase were identified. The supposed incidence of paroxysmal hemicrania is 1/50.000, and the ratio of the episodic to chronic form is 1:4. A seasonal type of episodic form, which is limited to three cases in the literature, has also been reported. In this article, a case who remained episodic for 40 years with seasonal waxing and waning attack variations is reported.

  20. Analysis of dammar resin with MALDI-FT-ICR-MS and APCI-FT-ICR-MS.

    PubMed

    Vahur, Signe; Teearu, Anu; Haljasorg, Tõiv; Burk, Piia; Leito, Ivo; Kaljurand, Ivari

    2012-03-01

    Comprehensive analysis of high-resolution mass spectra of aged natural dammar resin obtained with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is presented. Dammar resin is one of the most important components of painting varnishes. Dammar resin is a terpenoid resin (dominated by triterpenoids) with intrinsically very complex composition. This complexity further increases with aging. Ten different solvents and two-component solvent mixtures were tested for sample preparation. The most suitable solvent mixtures for the MALDI-FT-ICR-MS analysis were dichloromethane-acetone and dichloromethane-ethanol. The obtained MALDI-FTMS mass spectrum contains nine clusters of peaks in the m/z range of 420-2200, and the obtained APCI-FTMS mass spectrum contains three clusters of peaks in the m/z range of 380-910. The peaks in the clusters correspond to the oxygenated derivatives of terpenoids differing by the number of C(15)H(24) units. The clusters, in turn, are composed of subclusters differing by the number of oxygen atoms in the molecules. Thorough analysis and identification of the components (or groups of components) by their accurate m/z ratios was carried out, and molecular formulas (elemental compositions) of all major peaks in the MALDI-FTMS and APCI-FTMS spectra were identified (and groups of possible isomeric compounds were proposed). In the MALDI-FTMS and APCI-FTMS mass spectrum, besides the oxidized C(30), triterpenoids also peaks corresponding to C(29) and C(31) derivatives of triterpenoids (demethylated and methylated, correspondingly) were detected. MALDI and APCI are complementary ionization sources for the analysis of natural dammar resin. In the MALDI source, preferably polar (extensively oxidized) components of the resin are ionized (mostly as Na(+) adducts), whereas in the APCI source, preferably nonpolar (hydrocarbon and

  1. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-25

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400°C and 500°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm(-1) can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm(-1) are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide.

  2. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: Structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-01

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400 °C and 500 °C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm-1 can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm-1 are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide.

  3. Transient acceleration in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jing-Zhao; Yang, Rong-Jia; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2016-02-01

    Recently an f(T) gravity based on the modification of teleparallel gravity was proposed to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. We use observational data from type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cosmic microwave background to constrain this f(T) theory and reconstruct the effective equation of state and the deceleration parameter. We obtain the best-fit values of parameters and find an interesting result that the constrained f(T) theory allows for the accelerated Hubble expansion to be a transient effect.

  4. WAXS fat subtraction model to estimate differential linear scattering coefficients of fatless breast tissue: Phantom materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Robert Y.; Laamanen, Curtis McDonald, Nancy; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to subtract fat tissue contributions to wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) signals of breast biopsies in order to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficients μ{sub s} of fatless tissue. Cancerous and fibroglandular tissue can then be compared independent of fat content. In this work phantom materials with known compositions were used to test the efficacy of the WAXS subtraction model. Methods: Each sample 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick was interrogated by a 50 kV 2.7 mm diameter beam for 3 min. A 25 mm{sup 2} by 1 mm thick CdTe detector allowed measurements of a portion of the θ = 6° scattered field. A scatter technique provided means to estimate the incident spectrum N{sub 0}(E) needed in the calculations of μ{sub s}[x(E, θ)] where x is the momentum transfer argument. Values of μ{sup ¯}{sub s} for composite phantoms consisting of three plastic layers were estimated and compared to the values obtained via the sum μ{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup ∑}(x)=ν{sub 1}μ{sub s1}(x)+ν{sub 2}μ{sub s2}(x)+ν{sub 3}μ{sub s3}(x), where ν{sub i} is the fractional volume of the ith plastic component. Water, polystyrene, and a volume mixture of 0.6 water + 0.4 polystyrene labelled as fibphan were chosen to mimic cancer, fat, and fibroglandular tissue, respectively. A WAXS subtraction model was used to remove the polystyrene signal from tissue composite phantoms so that the μ{sub s} of water and fibphan could be estimated. Although the composite samples were layered, simulations were performed to test the models under nonlayered conditions. Results: The well known μ{sub s} signal of water was reproduced effectively between 0.5 < x < 1.6 nm{sup −1}. The μ{sup ¯}{sub s} obtained for the heterogeneous samples agreed with μ{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup ∑}. Polystyrene signals were subtracted successfully from composite phantoms. The simulations validated the usefulness of the WAXS models for nonlayered biopsies. Conclusions: The methodology to

  5. Correlation between the FT-IR characteristics and metoprolol tartrate release of methylcellulose-based patches.

    PubMed

    Papp, József; Horgos, József; Szente, Virág; Zelkó, Romána

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how the drug release and FT-IR characteristics of metolose patches were influenced by the changes of Metolose SM 4000 (methylcellulose) and Metolose 90SH 100.000SR (hypromellose) proportions. FT-IR spectroscopy measurements were performed in parallel with the metoprolol tartrate release study to track the effect of the composition on the drug release. The metoprolol tartrate release profile of the patches was evaluated by Weibull distribution. Linear relationship was found with good correlation between the logarithm of time interval necessary to release 63.2% of metoprolol tartrate (tau(d) values) and the peak area measured within the characteristic FT-IR wavenumbers of patches. The application of FT-IR measurements can be recommended as a rapid, non-destructive screening method during the in-process control of patches.

  6. Phenotypic Expression in Wheat Revealed Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L.; Wetzel, D

    2009-01-01

    Wheat selected for cultivation through the centuries has a glume that is 'soft' instead of 'tough' as naturally occurring. In production, this is desirable because it enables mechanical threshing with efficient separation of kernel from the head of each stalk without damaging the kernel. FT-IR microspectroscopy provides chemically based, objective assessment of genetic expression by measuring the extent of genetic expression. In the Microbeam Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, Manhattan, KS, an imaging FT-IR microspectrometer with a detector array focused on the image plane was used to obtain spectral data from dissected glume specimens of nine tough and eleven soft wheat cultivars in a rectangular mapping pattern. With cellulose as the substrate, the extent of lignification is measurable from the ratio of the lignin (1508 cm{sup -1}) baseline adjusted band area to the representative cellulosic (1370 cm{sup -1}) band area. A distinction between soft and tough glumes is obtained in numerical terms. Using a band ratio minimizes variation due to thickness differences. While analyzing mapped sections of glume, care is taken to avoid tabulation of spectral data from vascular bundles. Inclusion of these data would to avoid tabulation of spectral data from vascular bundles. Inclusion of these data would bias the analysis toward the composition of highly lignified vascular bundles. Spatially resolved focal plane array FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals the extent of glume lignification that is coincident with the toughness trait. This enables breeders to rank the degree of lignin expression and discriminate between soft and tough breeding results.

  7. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Robert Y.; McDonald, Nancy Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10{sup −5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the

  8. Dental wax impressions of plant tissues for viewing with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    PubMed

    Beermann, Anke; Hülskamp, Martin

    2010-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a valuable method for examining surface structures. Taking wax impressions of plant structures, such as leaves, is a nondestructive procedure that makes it possible to view changes in surface structures over time, such as during development. This protocol describes a method for making dental wax impressions of plant tissues.

  9. Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1977-01-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the β oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images PMID:16660087

  10. Gelling ability and crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant waxes can effectively form organogels with vegetable oils and these organogels have drawn considerable interests as alternatives to solid fats containing trans fats and saturated fats in margarines and spreads. Among them sunflower wax showed the most pronounced gelling ability. In an attempt ...

  11. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Thomas M.; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of €10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM. PMID:26263976

  12. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  13. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3 and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of...

  14. Characterisation of wax works of art by gas chromatographic procedures.

    PubMed

    Regert, M; Langlois, J; Colinart, S

    2005-10-14

    To identify the various natural and synthetic substances used by sculptors at the end of the 19th century, several contemporary reference samples were investigated by high temperature gas chromatography (HT GC) and HT GC-MS. Using specific chromatographic conditions and minimising sample preparation, we could separate, detect and identify a wide range of biomolecular markers covering a great variety of molecular weights and volatilities, with a minimum amount of sample, in a single run. Beeswax, spermaceti, carnauba, candellila and Japan waxes as well as pine resin derivatives, animal fats, paraffin, ozokerite and stearin, used as additives in wax works of art, were chemically investigated. In the case of low volatile compounds, transbutylation was performed. The structure of long-chain esters of spermaceti was elucidated for the first time by HT GC-MS analysis. Such a method was then carried out on 10 samples collected on a statuette of Junon by Antoine-Louis Barye (Louvre Museum, Paris, France) and on a sculpture by Aimé-Jules Dalou (Musée de la Révolution Française, Vizille, France). The analytical results obtained provide new data on the complex recipes elaborated by sculptors at the end of the 19th century.

  15. Investigating molecular interactions and surface morphology of wax-doped asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farideh; Mousavi, Masoumeh; Hung, Albert; Fini, Ellie H

    2016-04-07

    The nature and origin of bee-like microstructures (bees) in asphalt binders and their impact on asphalt oxidation have been the subject of extensive discussions in recent years. While several studies refer to the bees as solely surface features, some others consider them to be bulk microcrystalline components that are formed due to co-precipitation of wax and asphaltene molecules. In this study, we use a rigorous theoretical and experimental approach to investigate the interplay of asphalt components (mainly asphaltene and wax) and their impact on bee formation. In the theoretical section, quantum-mechanical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) are used to evaluate the strength of interactions between asphaltene unit sheets in the presence and absence of a wax component, as well as the mutual interactions between asphaltene molecules (monomers and dimers) and paraffin wax. The results of this section reveal that paraffin waxes not only do not reinforce the interaction between the asphaltene unit sheets, they destabilize asphaltene assembly and dimerization. AIM (Atom in Molecules) analysis shows the destabilizing effect of wax on asphaltene assembly as a reduction in the number of cage and bond critical points between asphaltenes. This destabilization effect among interacting systems (asphaltene-asphaltene and wax-asphaltene) does not support the hypothesis that interaction between paraffin waxes and non-wax components, such as asphaltene, is responsible for their co-precipitation and bee formation. To further examine the effect of wax component on asphalt microstructure experimentally, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the surface morphology of an asphalt sample doped with 1% to 25% paraffin wax. In agreement with the conclusions drawn from the DFT approach, our experiments indicate that paraffin wax tends to crystallize separately and form lamellar paraffin wax crystal inclusions with 10 nm thickness. Moreover, the addition of 3% wax

  16. System and method for the mitigation of paraffin wax deposition from crude oil by using ultrasonic waves

    DOEpatents

    Towler, Brian F.

    2007-09-04

    A method for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls. The method comprises positioning at least one ultrasonic frequency generating device adjacent the production tubing walls and producing at least one ultrasonic frequency thereby disintegrating the wax and inhibiting the wax from attaching to the production tubing walls. A system for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls is also provided.

  17. Problems during orthognathic surgery resulting from errors in diagnostic wax bite.

    PubMed

    Agbaje, Jimoh Olubanwo; Sun, Yi; Lambrichts, Ivo; Politis, Constantinus

    2013-05-01

    There are many problems associated with model surgery and splint fabrication, and they can directly affect the results of surgery. An erroneous diagnostic wax bite can lead to improper positioning of the upper jaw during bimaxillary surgery. In addition, postoperative malocclusions that are out of orthodontic range often are initiated perioperatively by insufficient surgical control over interdigitation, overjet, overbite, and control of the midlines. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether wax bites can be used effectively in patients undergoing bimaxillary operations. In 5 (10%) of 50 patients, the wax bite did not fit properly. Based on these preliminary results, we believe it would be prudent to build safety measures into the treatment of patients who require bimaxillary surgery. If the wax bite does not fit properly at the beginning of surgery, navigation tools could be used to overcome inaccuracies resulting from the wax bite.

  18. Biodegradation of paraffin wax by crude Aspergillus enzyme preparations for potential use in removing paraffin deposits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Paraffin deposition problems have plagued the oil industry. Whist mechanical and chemical methods are problematic, microbiological method of paraffin removal is considered an alternative. However, studies have mainly investigated the use of bacteria, with little attention to the potential of fungi. The performance of six Aspergillus isolates to degrade paraffin wax was evaluated under laboratory conditions using solid enzyme preparations. The results showed that all the six enzyme preparations efficiently improved the solubility of paraffin wax in n-hexane and degraded n-alkanes in paraffin wax. The degradation process was accompanied by dynamic production of gases (CO2 and H2 ) and organic acids (oxalate and propionate). The shape of wax crystals markedly changed after enzymatic degradation, with a rough surface and a loose structure. This study indicates that extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus spp. can efficiently degrade paraffin wax. These enzyme preparations have the potential for use in oil wells with paraffin deposition problems.

  19. Rapid analysis of 13C in plant-wax n-alkanes for reconstruction of terrestrial vegetation signals from aquatic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffee, Kelsey E.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean; Wagner, Thomas; Hayes, John M.

    2004-10-01

    Long-chain, odd-carbon-numbered C25 to C35n-alkanes are characteristic components of epicuticular waxes produced by terrestrial higher plants. They are delivered to aquatic systems via eolian and fluvial transport and are preserved in underlying sediments. The isotopic compositions of these products can serve as records of past vegetation. We have developed a rapid method for stable carbon isotopic analyses of total plant-wax n-alkanes using a novel, moving-wire system coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (MW-irMS). The n-alkane fractions are prepared from sediment samples by (1) saponification and extraction with organic solvents, (2) chromatographic separation using silica gel, (3) isolation of straight-chain carbon skeletons using a zeolite molecular sieve, and (4) oxidation and removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons with RuO4. Short-chain n-alkanes of nonvascular plant origin (wax n-alkanes. The amplitude of the variations was smaller, indicating contributions from non-plant-wax hydrocarbons, but the measurements revealed variations in carbon isotopic composition that are consistent with vegetation zones on the adjacent continent.

  20. Rapid analysis of 13C in plant-wax n-alkanes for reconstruction of terrestrial vegetation signals from aquatic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffee, Kelsey E.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean; Wagner, Thomas; Hayes, John M.

    2004-10-01

    Long-chain, odd-carbon-numbered C25 to C35 n-alkanes are characteristic components of epicuticular waxes produced by terrestrial higher plants. They are delivered to aquatic systems via eolian and fluvial transport and are preserved in underlying sediments. The isotopic compositions of these products can serve as records of past vegetation. We have developed a rapid method for stable carbon isotopic analyses of total plant-wax n-alkanes using a novel, moving-wire system coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (MW-irMS). The n-alkane fractions are prepared from sediment samples by (1) saponification and extraction with organic solvents, (2) chromatographic separation using silica gel, (3) isolation of straight-chain carbon skeletons using a zeolite molecular sieve, and (4) oxidation and removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons with RuO4. Short-chain n-alkanes of nonvascular plant origin (wax n-alkanes. The amplitude of the variations was smaller, indicating contributions from non-plant-wax hydrocarbons, but the measurements revealed variations in carbon isotopic composition that are consistent with vegetation zones on the adjacent continent.

  1. Geographically Related Variation in Epicuticular Wax Traits of Pinus nigra Populations from Southern Carpathians and Central Balkans - Taxonomic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Zorica S; Zlatković, Bojan K; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of epicuticular waxes of nine populations from three Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subspecies (namely subsp. nigra, subsp. banatica (Borbás) Novák, and subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) from Southern Carpathians and central Balkan Peninsula were analyzed using GC/MS and GC/FID chromatography, and multivariate statistical techniques with respect to biogeography and taxonomy. In the needle waxes, four primary alcohols and 14 n-alkanes ranging from C21 to C33 were identified, and the most abundant compounds were the four odd-numbered n-alkanes C27 , C25 , C23 , and C29. Multivariate statistical analyses (CDA and CA) have shown existence of three P. nigra groups and suggested clinal differentiation as a mechanism of genetic variation across a geographic area: the first group consisted of the southernmost populations of subsp. pallasiana from Macedonia, the second consisted of the northernmost subsp. banatica populations from Romania, while all populations in Serbia described as three different subspecies (nigra, banatica, and pallasiana) formed the third group together with subsp. nigra population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to simple linear regression, geographic latitude and four bioclimatic parameters were moderately correlated with the contents of epicuticular wax compounds that are important in population discrimination, while stepwise multiple regression showed that latitude participated in most of the regression models for predicting the composition of the epicuticular waxes. These results agree with CDA and CA analysis, and confirmed the possibility of recognition of fine geographic differentiation of the analyzed P. nigra populations.

  2. Direct chemical profiling of olive (Olea europaea) fruit epicuticular waxes by direct electrospray-ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Romero, Agustí; Caixach, Josep

    2015-03-01

    In the present paper, an electrospray ionization (ESI)-Orbitrap method is proposed for the direct chemical profiling of epicuticular wax (EW) from Olea europaea fruit. It constitutes a rapid and efficient tool suitable for a wide-ranging screening of a large number of samples. In a few minutes, the method provides a comprehensive characterization of total EW extracts, based on the molecular formula of their components. Accurate mass measurements are obtained by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, and compositional restrictions are set on the basis of the information available from previous studies of olive EW. By alternating positive and negative ESI modes within the same analysis, complementary results are obtained and a wide range of chemical species is covered. This provides a detailed compositional overview that otherwise would only be available by applying multiple analytical techniques.

  3. Understanding wax screen-printing: a novel patterning process for microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Chunsun; Liu, Feifei

    2015-09-03

    In this work, we first introduce the fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) using a wax screen-printing approach that is suitable for simple, inexpensive, rapid, low-energy-consumption and high-throughput preparation of cloth-based analytical devices. We have carried out a detailed study on the wax screen-printing of μCADs and have obtained some interesting results. Firstly, an analytical model is established for the spreading of molten wax in cloth. Secondly, a new wax screen-printing process has been proposed for fabricating μCADs, where the melting of wax into the cloth is much faster (∼5 s) and the heating temperature is much lower (75 °C). Thirdly, the experimental results show that the patterning effects of the proposed wax screen-printing method depend to a certain extent on types of screens, wax melting temperatures and melting time. Under optimized conditions, the minimum printing width of hydrophobic wax barrier and hydrophilic channel is 100 μm and 1.9 mm, respectively. Importantly, the developed analytical model is also well validated by these experiments. Fourthly, the μCADs fabricated by the presented wax screen-printing method are used to perform a proof-of-concept assay of glucose or protein in artificial urine with rapid high-throughput detection taking place on a 48-chamber cloth-based device and being performed by a visual readout. Overall, the developed cloth-based wax screen-printing and arrayed μCADs should provide a new research direction in the development of advanced sensor arrays for detection of a series of analytes relevant to many diverse applications.

  4. Changes in leaf cuticular waxes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plants exposed to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan Su; Park, Si Hyung; Jenks, Matthew A

    2007-09-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops, having seeds and oil that are highly valued as a traditional health food. The objective of this study was to evaluate leaf cuticular wax constituents across a diverse selection of sesame cultivars, and the responses of these waxes to drought-induced wilting. Water-deficit was imposed on 18 sesame cultivars by withholding irrigation for 15d during the post-flowering stage, and the effect on seed yield and leaf waxes compared with a well-watered control. Leaf cuticular waxes were dominated by alkanes (59% of total wax), with aldehydes being the next-most abundant class. Compared to well-irrigated plants, drought treatment caused an increase in wax amount on most cultivars, with only three cultivars having a notable reduction. When expressed as an average across all cultivars, drought treatment caused a 30% increase in total wax amount, with a 34% increase in total alkanes, a 13% increase in aldehydes, and a 28% increase in the total of unknowns. In all cultivars, the major alkane constituents were the C27, C29, C31, C33, and C35 homologs, whereas the major aldehydes were the C30, C32, and C34 homologs, and drought exposure had only minor effects on the chain length distribution within these and other wax classes. Drought treatments caused a large decrease in seed yield per plant, but did not affect the mean weight of individual seeds, showing that sesame responds to post-flowering drought by reducing seed numbers, but not seed size. Seed yield was inversely correlated with the total wax amount (-0.466*), indicating that drought induction of leaf wax deposition does not contribute directly to seed set. Further studies are needed to elucidate the ecological role for induction of the alkane metabolic pathway by drought in regulating sesame plant survival and seed development in water-limiting environments.

  5. Quantitative Evaluation of Tissue Surface Adaption of CAD-Designed and 3D Printed Wax Pattern of Maxillary Complete Denture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hu; Wang, Han; Lv, Peijun; Wang, Yong; Sun, Yuchun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To quantitatively evaluate the tissue surface adaption of a maxillary complete denture wax pattern produced by CAD and 3DP. Methods. A standard edentulous maxilla plaster cast model was used, for which a wax pattern of complete denture was designed using CAD software developed in our previous study and printed using a 3D wax printer, while another wax pattern was manufactured by the traditional manual method. The cast model and the two wax patterns were scanned in the 3D scanner as “DataModel,” “DataWaxRP,” and “DataWaxManual.” After setting each wax pattern on the plaster cast, the whole model was scanned for registration. After registration, the deviations of tissue surface between “DataModel” and “DataWaxRP” and between “DataModel” and “DataWaxManual” were measured. The data was analyzed by paired t-test. Results. For both wax patterns produced by the CAD&RP method and the manual method, scanning data of tissue surface and cast surface showed a good fit in the majority. No statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between the CAD&RP method and the manual method. Conclusions. Wax pattern of maxillary complete denture produced by the CAD&3DP method is comparable with traditional manual method in the adaption to the edentulous cast model. PMID:26583108

  6. 76 FR 46277 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Request for Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... request for comments on the scope of antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's... determinations involving the Order. \\1\\ See Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of...

  7. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... of initiation of the sunset review of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from...

  8. Biodegradable composite scaffolds of bioactive glass/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for hemostatic and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Hong; Pan, Jianfeng; Yan, Zuoqin; Yao, Zhenjun; Fan, Wenshuai; Guo, Changan

    2015-02-01

    Hemostasis in orthopedic osteotomy or bone cutting requires different methods and materials. The bleeding of bone marrow can be mostly stopped by bone wax. However, the wax cannot be absorbed, which leads to artificial prosthesis loosening, foreign matter reaction, and infection. Here, a bioactive glass/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose (BG/CS/CMC) composite scaffold was designed to replace traditional wax. WST-1 assay indicated the BG/CS/CMC composite resulted in excellent biocompatibility with no cytotoxicity. In vivo osteogenesis assessment revealed that the BG/CS/CMC composite played a dominant role in bone regeneration and hemostasis. The BG/CS/CMC composite had the same hemostasis effect as bone wax; in addition its biodegradation also led to the functional reconstruction of bone defects. Thus, BG/CS/CMC scaffolds can serve as a potential material for bone repair and hemostasis in critical-sized bone defects.

  9. Waxing and Waning of Forests: Late Quaternary Biogeography of Lake Malawi, Southeast Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivory, S.; Lézine, A. M.; Vincens, A.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    African ecosystems are at great risk due to climate and land-use change. Despite the status of several of these regions as biodiversity hotspots, long-standing ideas about African ecology and biogeography have been unable to be tested until now due to lack of sufficiently long records. Here, we present the first long, continuous terrestrial record of vegetation from Lake Malawi, East Africa which goes back to the early Late Quaternary, permitting us to investigate changes in physiognomy and forest composition over many transitions. In this record, we observe eight phases of forest expansion and collapse. Although diversity is much greater during forest phases, composition varies little from phase to phase. Very high abundances of afromontane taxa suggest frequent widespread colonization of the lowlands by modern high elevation trees. Although there are clear successional stages within each forest such that turnover is great within a single phase, among forest samples between phases, there is little dissimilarity. Each forest phase is interrupted by rapid decline of arboreal taxa and expansion of semi-arid grasslands or woodlands whose composition varies greatly from phase to phase. The variable composition of the more open phases, all occurring during arid periods, is likely dynamically linked to thresholds in regional hydrology associated with lake level and moisture recycling within the watershed. This vegetation is unlike any found at Malawi today, with assemblages suggesting strong Somali-Masai affinities. Furthermore, nearly all semi-arid assemblages contain small abundances of forest taxa typically growing in areas with wetter edaphic conditions, suggesting that moist lowland gallery forests were present but restricted to waterways during exceptionally arid times. The waxing and waning of forests throughout this interval has important implications for early human biogeography across Africa as well as disturbance regimes that are crucial for the maintenance of

  10. Structural analysis of wheat wax (Triticum aestivum, c.v. 'Naturastar' L.): from the molecular level to three dimensional crystals.

    PubMed

    Koch, K; Barthlott, W; Koch, S; Hommes, A; Wandelt, K; Mamdouh, W; De-Feyter, S; Broekmann, P

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the self assembly process of plant epicuticular waxes, and the molecular arrangement within the crystals, re-crystallisation of wax platelets was studied on biological and non-biological surfaces. Wax platelets were extracted from the leaf blades of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., c.v. 'Naturastar', Poaceae). Waxes were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Octacosan-1-ol was found to be the most abundant chemical component of the wax mixture (66 m%) and also the determining compound for the shape of the wax platelets. The electron diffraction pattern showed that both the wax mixture and pure octacosan-1-ol are crystalline. The re-crystallisation of the natural wax mixture and the pure octacosan-1-ol were studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Crystallisation of wheat waxes and pure octacosano-1-ol on the non polar highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) led to the formation of platelet structures similar to those found on the plant surface. In contrast, irregular wax morphologies and flat lying plates were formed on glass, silicon, salt crystals (NaCl) and mica surfaces. Movement of wheat wax through isolated Convallaria majalis cuticles led to typical wax platelets of wheat, arranged in the complex patterns typical for C. majalis. STM of pure octacosan-1-ol monolayers on HOPG showed that the arrangement of the molecules strictly followed the hexagonal structure of the substrate crystal. Re-crystallisation of wheat waxes on non-polar crystalline HOPG substrate showed that technical surfaces could be used to generate microstructured, biomimetic surfaces. AFM and SEM studies proved that a template effect of the substrate determined the orientation of the re-grown crystals. These effects of the structure and polarity of the substrate on the morphology of the epicuticular waxes are relevant for

  11. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  12. Design note of an air-cooled 2 ft x 2 ft x 10. 5 ft long muon spoiler

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.; Pathiyil, J.

    1988-01-06

    This note describes the construction of a muon spoiler (magnetized steel assembly) with a cross section of 2 ft by 2 ft and a length of 10.5 ft. Two such spoilers are operated in series at an average field of about 15 kGauss, from one 100 ADC, 40 V power supply. The purpose of the spoilers is to prevent muons from easily escaping beyond the muon laboratory experimental area by bending them down so that they have to pass through more earth. The spoilers reduce the muon dose rate beyond the experimental area by about a factor of 15 to 20. These types of spoilers are not precision devices. They were inexpensive to build from scrap materials using rough flame cutting methods. It took about 14 days to fabricate them.

  13. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed Central

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-01-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  14. Altering small and medium alcohol selectivity in the wax ester synthase.

    PubMed

    Barney, Brett M; Ohlert, Janet M; Timler, Jacobe G; Lijewski, Amelia M

    2015-11-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT or wax ester synthase) catalyzes the terminal reaction in the bacterial wax ester biosynthetic pathway, utilizing a range of alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. The wild-type wax ester synthase Maqu_0168 from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 exhibits a preference for longer fatty alcohols, while applications with smaller alcohols would yield products with desired biotechnological properties. Small and medium chain length alcohol substrates are much poorer substrates for the native enzyme, which may hinder broad application of the wax ester synthase in many proposed biosynthetic schemes. Developing approaches to improve enzyme activity toward specific smaller alcohol substrates first requires a clear understanding of which amino acids of the primary sequences of these enzymes contribute to substrate specificity in the native enzyme. In this report, we surveyed a range of potential residues and identified the leucine at position 356 and methionine at position 405 in Maqu_0168 as residues that affected selectivity toward small, branched, and aromatic alcohols when substituted with different amino acids. This analysis provides evidence of residues that line the binding site for wax ester synthase, which will aid rational approaches to improve this enzyme with specific substrates.

  15. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  16. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel.

  17. Thermal behavior of gamma-irradiated low-density polyethylene/paraffin wax blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Saleh M.; Elnahas, H. H.; El-Zahed, H.; Abdeldaym, A.

    2016-05-01

    The thermal properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/paraffin wax blends were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and melt flow index (MFI). Blends of LDPE/wax in ratios of 100/0, 98/2, 96/4, 94/6, 92/8, 90/10 and 85/15 (w/w) were prepared by melt-mixing at the temperature of 150°C. It was found that increasing the wax content more than 15% leads to phase separation. DSC results showed that for all blends both the melting temperature (Tm) and the melting enthalpy (ΔHm) decrease linearly with an increase in wax content. TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of all blends decreases linearly with increasing wax content. No clear correlation was observed between the melting point and thermal stability. Horowitz and Metzger method was used to determine the thermal activation energy (Ea). MFI increased exponentially by increasing the wax content. The effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal behavior of the blends was also investigated at different gamma irradiation doses. Significant correlations were found between the thermal parameters (Tm, ΔHm, T5%, Ea and MFI) and the amount of wax content and gamma irradiation.

  18. [For an interdisciplinary museology. The particular case of anatomical waxes].

    PubMed

    Pirson, Chloé

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the anatomical models in three dimensions are often showed in Museums devoted to the History of Medicine. Due to their historical importance and the major role they played as scientific education tool, they are essentials to understand the heritage of the anatomical knowledge. Historically, within all materials used to cast the body, wax has been the most frequently used, so that the ceroplastical collection has become a part of the medical education before leading to a general public pedagogy. This paper has a double purpose. In one hand, it aims to survey the formal evolution and the uses of this production, from his creation on, in the other, to study this cultural heritage within the museology issue.

  19. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    DOEpatents

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  20. Eruptive syringoma developed over a waxing skin area.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Ruiz, María C; Enguita, Ana B; Navas, Rafael; Polo, Isabel; Rodríguez Peralto, José L

    2008-08-01

    Syringomas are benign, eccrine, sweat gland tumors that clinically appear as small skin-colored or yellow papules. Eruptive syringomas are rare variants that typically develop on the body's cutaneous anterior surface. Syringomas on the genital area have rarely been reported, although several authors maintain that syringoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pubic pruritic papular dermatitis. We present a case of a 31-year-old man with multiple, eruptive, asymptomatic papules involving the pubic area developed after waxing of the zone. Histological examination revealed disseminated syringomata. We postulate that the lesions were induced by depilation with a subsequently reactive inflammatory process resulting in a hyperplastic reaction of the eccrine ducts. This case supports the previous hypothesis suggesting that some of the so-called "eruptive syringomas" may start as a primary inflammatory eccrine reaction.

  1. Transport barriers made of cutin, suberin and associated waxes.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lukas

    2010-10-01

    Cutinized leaf epidermal cells and suberized root cell walls form important lipophilic interfaces between the plant and its environment, significantly contributing to the regulation of water uptake and the transport of solutes in and out of the plant. A wealth of new molecular information on the genes and enzymes contributing to cutin, suberin and wax biosynthesis have become available within the past few years, which is examined in the context of the functional properties of these barriers in terms of transport and permeability. Recent progress made in measuring transport properties of cutinized and suberized barriers in plants is reviewed, and promising approaches obtained with Arabidopsis and potato that might link the molecular information with transport properties are suggested.

  2. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1–35 wt% starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and predi...

  3. Characterization and chromosomal organization of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Biao; Liu, Wenrui; Peng, Qingwu; He, Xiaoming; Xie, Dasen

    2014-11-01

    Wax gourd (2n=2x=24) is an important vegetable species in Cucurbitaceae. Because it can be stored for a very long period of time, it plays an important role in ensuring the annual supply and regulating off-season supply of the vegetables. However, the availability of genetic information about wax gourd is limited. This study aimed to identify the useful genetic information for wax gourd. The conserved domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia retrotransposons were isolated from the genome of wax gourd using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. A total of twenty eight RT sequences were obtained, which showed high heterogeneity with the similarity ranging from 47.5% to 94.3%. Sixteen (57.1%) of them were found to be defective, being disrupted by stop codons and/or frameshift mutations. These 28 sequences were divided into five subfamilies. The comparative phylogenetic analysis with other Cucurbitaceae species from GenBank database showed that most retrotransposons derived from the same genus tended to cluster together, although there were a few exceptions. These results indicate that both vertical transmission and horizontal transmission are the sources of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with Ty1-copia retrotransposon sequences as probes revealed that this kind of retrotransposons had a dispersed genomic organization, physically distributed among all the chromosomes of wax gourd, with clusters in the heterochromatin regions. This is the first report of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd, which would be helpful for our understanding about the organization and evolutions of wax gourd genome and also provide valuable information for our utilization of wax gourd retrotransposons.

  4. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  5. High-yield preparation of wax esters via lipase-catalyzed esterification using fatty acids and alcohols from crambe and camelina oils.

    PubMed

    Steinke, G; Weitkamp, P; Klein, E; Mukherjee, K D

    2001-02-01

    Fatty acids obtained from seed oils of crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and camelina (Camelina sativa) via alkaline saponification or steam splitting were esterified using lipases as biocatalysts with oleyl alcohol and the alcohols derived from crambe and camelina oils via hydrogenolysis of their methyl esters. Long-chain wax esters were thus obtained in high yields when Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica) and papaya (Carica papaya) latex lipase were used as biocatalysts and vacuum was applied to remove the water formed. The highest conversions to wax esters were obtained with Novozym 435 (> or =95%) after 4-6 h of reaction, whereas with papaya latex lipase such a high degree of conversion was attained after 24 h. Products obtained from stoichiometric amounts of substrates were almost exclusively (>95%) composed of wax esters having compositions approaching that of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil, especially when crambe fatty acids in combination with camelina alcohols or camelina fatty acids in combination with crambe alcohols were used as substrates.

  6. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research.

  7. Gamma irradiation testing of montan wax barrier materials for in-situ waste containment

    SciTech Connect

    Soo, P.; Heiser, J.

    1996-02-01

    A scoping study was carried out to quantify the potential use of a montan wax as a barrier material for subsurface use. If it possesses resistance to chemical and structural change, it could be used in a barrier to minimize the migration of contaminants from their storage or disposal locations. Properties that were evaluated included hardness, melting point, molecular weight, and biodegradation as a function of gamma radiation dose. The main emphasis was to quantify the wax`s long-term ability to withstand radiation-induced mechanical, chemical, and microbial degradation.

  8. Macrofossil and Leaf Wax Biomarkers Reveal Vegetational and Climate History of Tamarack Pond, Black Rock Forest, Southeastern New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, M.; Peteet, D. M.; Nichols, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Tamarack Pond (41.39500°N 74.02505°W) is located at an elevation of 1305 ft, within the variable topography (Fig. 3) of Black Rock Forest, a 3830-acre oak (Quercus) dominated forest located in the Hudson Highlands Physiographic Province in southeastern New York State. A 7.2 m core retrieved in 4 m of water with a modified Livingstone piston corer was subsampled at 2 and 4-cm intervals from the base of the core through the early Holocene. The basal date of 16, 200 cal. yr BP on Dryas integrifolia leaves in inorganic clays demonstrates the pond formation in a landscape of sparse tundra with Salix, Daphnia, and craneflies. Subsequent inorganic layers record Dryas, Salix, Alnus, Polytrichum juniperum, Sphagnum, and bryozoan statoblasts. A dramatic shift to 25% organic matter in the pond records Picea needles and the first record of charcoal. Continued increases in LOI in the pond are correlative with the presence of Abies balsamea and Betula papyrifera appears as the boreal forest develops and tundra disappears. A return to colder conditions is suggested with a slight decline in LOI as Betula glandulosa and Larix laricina are present along with the boreal mixture, and a large increase in Daphnia ephippia. A return to warmer conditions ensues with the decline of the boreal conifers and the presence of Tsuga canadensis. Leaf wax data will be presented along with the macrofossil results.

  9. Soil water stress affects both cuticular wax content and cuticle-related gene expression in young saplings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cuticle is a hydrophobic barrier located at the aerial surface of all terrestrial plants. Recent studies performed on model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have suggested that the cuticle may be involved in drought stress adaptation, preventing non-stomatal water loss. Although forest trees will face more intense drought stresses (in duration and intensity) with global warming, very few studies on the role of the cuticle in drought stress adaptation in these long-lived organisms have been so far reported. Results This aspect was investigated in a conifer, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), in a factorial design with two genetic units (two half-sib families with different growth rates) and two treatments (irrigated vs non-irrigated), in field conditions. Saplings were grown in an open-sided greenhouse and half were irrigated three times per week for two growing seasons. Needles were sampled three times per year for cuticular wax (composition and content) and transcriptome (of 11 genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis) analysis. Non-irrigated saplings (i) had a higher cuticular wax content than irrigated saplings and (ii) overexpressed most of the genes studied. Both these trends were more marked in the faster growing family. Conclusions The higher cuticular wax content observed in the non-irrigated treatment associated with strong modifications in products from the decarbonylation pathway suggest that cuticular wax may be involved in drought stress adaptation in maritime pine. This study provides also a set of promising candidate genes for future forward genetic studies in conifers. PMID:23815794

  10. Identification of an Arabidopsis Fatty Alcohol:Caffeoyl-Coenzyme A Acyltransferase Required for the Synthesis of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates in Root Waxes1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kosma, Dylan K.; Molina, Isabel; Ohlrogge, John B.; Pollard, Mike

    2012-01-01

    While suberin is an insoluble heteropolymer, a number of soluble lipids can be extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots. These extracts include esters of saturated long-chain primary alcohols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Such fatty alcohols and hydroxycinnamic acids are also present in suberin. We demonstrate that alkyl coumarates and caffeates, which are the major components of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root waxes, are present primarily in taproots. Previously we identified ALIPHATIC SUBERIN FERULOYL TRANSFERASE (At5g41040), a HXXXD-type acyltransferase (BAHD family), responsible for incorporation of ferulate into aliphatic suberin of Arabidopsis. However, aliphatic suberin feruloyl transferase mutants were unaffected in alkyl hydroxycinnamate ester root wax composition. Here we identify a closely related gene, At5g63560, responsible for the synthesis of a subset of alkyl hydroxycinnamate esters, the alkyl caffeates. Transgenic plants harboring PAt5g63560::YFP fusions showed transcriptional activity in suberized tissues. Knockout mutants of At5g63560 were severely reduced in their alkyl caffeate but not alkyl coumarate content. Recombinant At5g63560p had greater acyltransferase activity when presented with caffeoyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) substrate, thus we have named this acyltransferase FATTY ALCOHOL:CAFFEOYL-CoA CAFFEOYL TRANSFERASE. Stress experiments revealed elevated alkyl coumarate content in root waxes of NaCl-treated wild-type and fatty alcohol:caffeoyl-CoA caffeoyl transferase plants. We further demonstrate that FATTY ACYL-CoA REDUCTASEs (FARs) FAR5 (At3g44550), FAR4 (At3g44540), and FAR1 (At5g22500) are required for the synthesis of C18, C20, and C22 alkyl hydroxycinnamates, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that multiple acyltransferases are utilized for the synthesis of alkyl hydroxycinnamate esters of Arabidopsis root waxes and that FAR1/4/5 provide the fatty alcohols required for alkyl hydroxycinnamate synthesis. PMID:22797656

  11. Leaf waxes and compound-specific δD analyses in a Holocene fluvial sediment-paleosol sequence from the upper Alazani River, SE-Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliedtner, Marcel; von Suchodoletz, Hans; Schäfer, Imke; Zech, Jana; Zielhofer, Christoph; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf waxes of terrestrial plants are relatively resistant against degradation and serve as valuable biomarkers preserved in various sedimentary archives. Compound-specific D/H analyses on leaf waxes are increasingly used to reconstruct past climate and environmental conditions. Here, we present a n-alkane and compound-specific δD record from a Holocene fluvial sediment-paleosol sequence along the upper Alazani River in eastern Georgia. Generally, such records from fluvial sedimentary archives must be divided into a catchment signal recorded in the fluvial sediment layers and a local in-situ signal recorded in the intercalated paleosols. The n-alkane homologue pattern shows a clear catchment versus in-situ signal. The paleosols are dominated by n-alkanes derived from the local vegetation, mainly grasses throughout the Holocene. The fluvial sediment layers contain leaf waxes derived from the forested catchment, although with relatively high contributions from grasses between 8 and 5 ka, possibly indicating more arid conditions. Because of the well-known altitude-effect on the isotopic composition of precipitation, we had expected more depleted δD values for the fluvial sediment layers, i.e. the catchment-derived samples, and more enriched δD values for the paleosols, i.e. the low altitude, in-situ signal. This is, however, not the case, and we speculate that the altitude effect might be offset by evapo-transpirative enrichment of tree leaf water and leaf waxes. The catchment and in-situ δD records both show a minor trend to more enriched values during the Holocene, while the recent topsoil is most depleted. Interpretation of these isotope records is not straight-forward and requires disentangling the effects of changing vegetation, source signal and local climate.

  12. Characteristics of wax occlusion in the surgical repair of superior canal dehiscence in human temporal bone specimens

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yew Song; Kozin, Elliott D.; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Superior canal dehiscence (SCD) repair using surgical bone wax may result in variable outcomes if large wax volumes are applied. Background SCD is a disorder characterized by a pathologic defect in the bony labyrinth of the superior semicircular canal (SSC), resulting in vestibular and/or auditory symptoms. Repair of SCD using bone wax can provide symptomatic relief, but surgical outcomes are variable. These observations may be associated with the inconsistency in the position and extension of intralabyrinthine bone wax during surgical repair. Methods A pathological model of SCD was created using cadaveric human temporal bones and a microdrill. Defects in the arcuate eminence 0.5–3.5 mm in length were repaired using surgical occlusion with bone wax. The volume of wax used in the repair was quantified. The position of bone wax was evaluated by direct visualization and imaging (computed tomography [CT]). To visualize wax on CT, specimens were repaired using radiopaque wax. Results Exceedingly small volumes of bone wax (3.0–5.0 mm2) reliably occluded the canal lumen. Multiple wax applications resulted in extension into the common crus and ampulla. The length of this extension was related to the number of applications. Conclusions Repair of SCD with bone wax occludes the bony defect completely in most cases. Wax can extend along the lumen of the superior canal beyond the limits of the dehiscence to reach the sensory neuroepithelium of the vestibular end organs. Limiting the number of wax applications is essential to avoid inadvertent injury to the delicate neurosensory systems. PMID:26649609

  13. FT-IR analysis of phosphorylated protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshihashi, Sachiko S.; Chihara, Kunihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-09-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are the most remarkable posttranslational modifications, are considered to be important chemical reactions that control the activation of proteins. We examine the phosphorylation analysis method by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group that observed at about 1070cm-1 (9.4μm) with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR). This study indicates that it is possible to identify a phosphorylation by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group observed at about 1070 cm-1 with FT-IR method. As long as target peptides have the same amino acid sequence, it is possible to identify the phosphorylated sites (threonine, serine and tyrosine).

  14. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paepe, A. T. G.; Dyke, J. M.; Hendra, P. J.; Langkilde, F. W.

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  15. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, A T; Dyke, J M; Hendra, P J; Langkilde, F W

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  16. Structural characterization of wax esters by electron ionization mass spectrometry[S

    PubMed Central

    Urbanová, Klára; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Valterová, Irena; Háková, Martina; Cvacˇka, Josef

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of the electron ionization mass spectra of straight-chain and methyl-branched saturated and unsaturated wax esters (WEs) is discussed in this study based on the spectra of 154 standards. The most important fragments indicative of the structure of the acid and alcohol chains are identified and summarized for WEs with various number of double bonds in the chains. Briefly, most WEs provide acylium ions allowing structural characterization of the acid part, whereas the alcohol part gives corresponding alkyl radical cations. The elemental composition of selected important fragments is established from a high-resolution accurate mass analysis. The ion abundances are discussed with respect to the length and unsaturation of the aliphatic chains. The interpretation of the spectra of branched or unsaturated WEs requires the recognition of small but important peaks that are difficult to discern among the other fragments. We demonstrate that such fragments are easily detected in differential mass spectra. This approach requires spectra of WE standards (e.g., straight-chain analogs in the case of branched WEs) recorded under the same experimental conditions. The WEs mass spectral database provided in the supplemental data can be used as a reference for the analysis of the GC/EI-MS data. PMID:22058425

  17. MALDI MS sample preparation by using paraffin wax film: systematic study and application for peptide analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junhua; Chen, Ruibing; Ma, Mingming; Li, Lingjun

    2008-01-15

    Recently developed sample preparation techniques employing hydrophobic sample support have improved the detection sensitivity and mass spectral quality of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). These methods concentrate the samples on target by minimizing the sample area via the solvent repellent effect of the target surface. In the current study, we employed the use of paraffin wax film (Parafilm M) for improved MALDI MS analysis of low-abundance peptide mixtures, including neuronal tissue releasate and protein tryptic digests. This thin film was found to strongly repel polar solvents including water, methanol, and acetonitrile, which enabled the application of a wide range of sample preparation protocols that involved the use of various organic solvents. A "nanoliter-volume deposition" technique employing a capillary column has been used to produce tiny ( approximately 400 microm) matrix spots of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid on the film. By systematically optimizing the sample volume, solvent composition, and film treatment, the Parafilm M substrate in combination with the nanoliter-volume matrix deposition method allowed dilute sample to be concentrated on the film for MALDI MS analysis. Peptide mixtures with nanomolar concentrations have been detected by MALDI time-of-flight and MALDI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers. Overall, the use of Parafilm M enabled improved sensitivity and spectral quality for the analysis of complex peptide mixtures.

  18. Does transpiration matter to the hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf wax n-alkanes? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, F. A.; Helliker, B. R.; Freeman, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Transpiration and evaporation from soils both affect he hydrogen isotope composition of leaf water, but the extent to which they effect the hydrogen isotope ratio of leaf wax lipids is still under debate. To address this question, we analyzed hydrogen isotope ratios of high-molecular weight n-alkanes (δDl) and oxygen isotope ratios of α-cellulose (δ18OC) for C3 and C4 grasses grown in the field and in controlled-environment growth chambers. The relatively firm understanding of 18O-enrichment in leaf water and α-cellulose was used to elucidate fractionation patterns of δDl signatures. In the different relative humidity environments of the growth chambers, we observed clear and predictable effects of leaf-water enrichment on δ18OC values. Using a Craig-Gordon model, we demonstrate that leaf water in the growth chamber grasses should have experienced significant D-enriched due to transpiration. Nonetheless, we found no effect of transpirational D-enrichment on the δDl values. In field samples, we saw clear evidence of enrichment (correlating with relative humidity of the field sites) in both δ18OC and δDl. These seemingly contrasting results can be explained if leaf waxes are synthesized in an environment that is isotopically similar to water entering plant roots due to either temporal or spatial isolation from evaporatively enriched leaf waters. For grasses in the controlled environment, there was no enrichment of source water, whereas enrichment of grass source water via evaporation from soils and/or stems was likely for grass samples grown in the field. Based on these results, evaporation from soils and/or stems appears to affect δDl, but transpiration from leaves does not. Further evidence for this conclusion is found in modeling expected net evapotranspirational enrichment. A Craig-Gordon model applied to each of the field sites yields leaf water oxygen isotope ratios that can be used to accurately predict the observed δ18OC values. In contrast, the

  19. [Inflammatory granuloma of iliac bone harvest site: a rare complication of Horsley bone wax].

    PubMed

    Faghahati, S; Gleizal, A; Beziat, J-L

    2013-08-01

    Bone wax or Horsley wax, which is used very frequently in bone surgery, is a non-absorbable mixture of beeswax (70%) and Vaseline. It permits the haemostasis of bone gaps by mechanical obstruction of bone pores containing blood capillaries. Complications due to this product are rare but sometimes quoted in literature. We report the case of a 17-year-old patient who, 10 months after surgery and after an asymptomatic period, presented an inflammatory granuloma at the scar of iliac bone harvest, which had been used as a maxillary graft. This complication necessitated a first exploratory and cleansing surgery, as well as a second surgery, which clarified the origin of the inflammation and made it possible to eliminate the wax remains. We think that bone wax should be used sparingly and with caution, firmly applied to the bleeding site without leaving any free particles.

  20. Development of Screenable Wax Coatings and Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to design new formulations and production processes for water-based adhesives and wax coatings that can be easily screened from recycling operations.

  1. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fu, Xiaohong; Liu, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers-the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane-and four sub-layers of the procuticle-the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  2. An improved index for the waxed stage of an implant-retained framework.

    PubMed

    Adrian, E D; Krantz, W A; Ivanhoe, J R; Edge, M J

    1991-11-01

    A method for making an improved index for the waxed stage of Branemark implant-retained frameworks is described. The index improves visibility of the tooth and abutment cylinder relationship permitting the optimization of framework dimensions and contour.

  3. Phenolic compounds and the colour of oranges subjected to a combination treatment of waxing and irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

    2000-03-01

    The effects of waxing, irradiation dose and storage on phenolics and colour of irradiated oranges were investigated. Mature oranges ( Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0, 1 or 2 kGy radiation and stored up to 9 weeks at 20°C and 40-50% r.h. Colour of the oranges, total phenols and flavones in the peel were measured. Phenolic compounds increased with irradiation dose and storage time. Hue angle, value and chroma of the orange colour were more affected by waxing and storage time than the irradiation treatment. Changes in the phenolic compounds were linked with changes in the redness and saturation of the orange colour. Irradiation stimulated synthesis of flavones; waxing controlled changes induced by irradiation.

  4. Preliminary study on analysis and removal of wax from a Carrara marble statue.

    PubMed

    Barreca, Salvatore; Bruno, Maurizio; Oddo, Lorena; Orecchio, Santino

    2015-11-27

    This preliminary study has mainly focused on the wax identification by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and removal. Wax is used for many purposes in the field of art as protective coatings on wooden, stone or metal objects. From the comparison of the spectra H NMR and in particular with the correspondence of the resonance peaks of the samples taken from the statue and beeswax and paraffin, we can conclude that the wax applied on the statue surface is beeswax. From our data, it can be concluded that, to remove the beeswax, from any stone support, the more effective solvent is the mixture of cyclohexane/ethyl acetate. The removal percentages ranged from 19 to 99%. Lower percentages of removal have been observed in the case of yellow marble, probably because of its high porosity. We can affirm that, this solvent mixture can be employed in real art objects using cotton swabs to remove protective wax.

  5. Effects of mesquite gum-candelilla wax based edible coatings on the quality of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, S. A.; Bosquez-Molina, E.; Stolik, S.; Sánchez, F.

    2005-06-01

    The ability of composite edible coatings to preserve the quality of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) at 20ºC was studied for a period of 15 days. The edible coatings were formulated with candelilla wax blended with white mineral oil as the lipid phase and mesquite gum as the structural material. The use of edible coatings prolonged the shelf life of treated fruits by retarding ethylene emission and enhancing texture as compared to control samples. At the sixth day, the ethylene produced by the control samples was fivefold higher than the ethylene produced by the coated samples. In addition, the physiological weight loss of coated fruits was nearly 30% lower than the control samples.

  6. FT 3 Flight Test Cards for Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.

  7. Physico-chemical properties and efficacy of silk fibroin fabric coated with different waxes as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Kanokpanont, Sorada; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has been widely used as a wound dressing material due to its suitable physical and biological characteristics. In this study, a non-adhesive wound dressing which applies to cover the wound surface as an absorbent pad that would absorb wound fluid while accelerate wound healing was developed. The modification of SF fabrics by wax coating was purposed to prepare the non-adhesive wound dressing that is required in order to minimize pain and risk of repeated injury. SF woven fabrics were coated with different types of waxes including shellac wax, beeswax, or carnauba wax. Physical and mechanical properties of the wax-coated SF fabrics were characterized. It was clearly observed that all waxes could be successfully coated on the SF fabrics, possibly due to the hydrophobic interactions between hydrophobic domains of SF and waxes. The wax coating improved tensile modulus and percentage of elongation of the SF fabrics due to the denser structure and the thicker fibers coated. The in vitro degradation study demonstrated that all wax-coated SF fabrics remained up to 90% of their original weights after 7 weeks of incubation in lysozyme solution under physiological conditions. The wax coating did not affect the degradation behavior of the SF fabrics. A peel test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was carried out in the partial- and full-thickness wounds of porcine skin in comparison to that of the commercial wound dressing. Any wax-coated SF fabrics were less adhesive than the control, as confirmed by less number of cells attached and less adhesive force. This might be that the wax-coated SF fabrics showed the hydrophobic property, allowing the loosely adherence to the hydrophilic wound surface. In addition, the in vivo biocompatibility test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with subcutaneous model. The irritation scores indicated that the carnauba wax-coated SF fabric was not irritant while the shellac wax or beeswax-coated SF

  8. Rewiring the wax ester production pathway of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1.

    PubMed

    Santala, Suvi; Efimova, Elena; Koskinen, Perttu; Karp, Matti Tapani; Santala, Ville

    2014-03-21

    Wax esters are industrially relevant high-value molecules. For sustainable production of wax esters, bacterial cell factories are suggested to replace the chemical processes exploiting expensive starting materials. However, it is well recognized that new sophisticated solutions employing synthetic biology toolbox are required to improve and tune the cellular production platform to meet the product requirements. For example, saturated wax esters with alkanol chain lengths C12 or C14 that are convenient for industrial uses are rare among bacteria. Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, a natural producer of wax esters, is a convenient model organism for studying the potentiality and modifiability of wax esters in a natural host by means of synthetic biology. In order to establish a controllable production platform exploiting well-characterized biocomponents, and to modify the wax ester synthesis pathway of A. baylyi ADP1 in terms product quality, a fatty acid reductase complex LuxCDE with an inducible arabinose promoter was employed to replace the natural fatty acyl-CoA reductase acr1 in ADP1. The engineered strain was able to produce wax esters by the introduced synthetic pathway. Moreover, the fatty alkanol chain length profile of wax esters was found to shift toward shorter and more saturated carbon chains, C16:0 accounting for most of the alkanols. The study demonstrates the potentiality of recircuiting a biosynthesis pathway in a natural producer, enabling a regulated production of a customized bioproduct. Furthermore, the LuxCDE complex can be potentially used as a well-characterized biopart in a variety of synthetic biology applications involving the production of long-chain hydrocarbons.

  9. How to ... take a wax bite for a Twin Block appliance.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anwar Ali; Sandler, Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    The Twin Block appliance is the most commonly used functional appliance in the UK. It is very important to take a satisfactory wax bite, as it not only helps the technician to make an accurate appliance but it is essential for the successful use of this appliance. In this article, we suggest the appropriate clinical technique for taking an effective wax bite for the Twin Block appliance.

  10. Egg wax from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Karine R; Macedo, Alexandre J; Nicastro, Gianlucca G; Baldini, Regina L; Termignoni, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is constantly challenged during its life cycle by microorganisms present in their hosts or in the environment. Tick eggs may be especially vulnerable to environmental conditions because they are exposed to a rich and diverse microflora in the soil. Despite being oviposited in such hostile sites, tick eggs remain viable, suggesting that the egg surface has defense mechanisms against opportunistic and/or pathogenic organisms. R. microplus engorged females deposit a superficial wax layer onto their eggs during oviposition. This egg wax is essential for preventing desiccation as well as acting as a barrier against attack by microorganisms. In this study, we report the detection of anti-biofilm activity of R. microplus egg wax against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. Genes involved in the functions of production and maintenance of the biofilm extracellular matrix, pelA and cdrA, respectively, were markedly downregulated by a tick egg-wax extract. Moreover, this extract strongly inhibited fliC gene expression. Instead of a compact extracellular matrix, P. aeruginosa PA14 treated with egg-wax extract produces a fragile one. Also, the colony morphology of cells treated with egg-wax extract appears much paler and brownish, instead of the bright purple characteristic of normal colonies. Swarming motility was also inhibited by treatment with the egg-wax extract. The inhibition of P. aeruginosa biofilm does not seem to depend on inhibition of the quorum sensing system since mRNA levels of the 3 regulators of this system were not inhibited by egg-wax extract.

  11. Fidelity of leaf-wax n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid D/H ratios in space and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polissar, P. J.; Preefer, M. B.; Liu, C.

    2014-12-01

    There is great potential for reconstructing past changes in the hydrologic cycle using the hydrogen isotopic composition of plant-wax biomarkers. However, empirical relationships relating plant-wax hydrogen isotope compositions (δDwax) to source water are almost exclusively based upon modern plants, soils and sediments and a single compound class such as n-alkanes or n-alkanoic acids. Relatively little is known about the relationship between these compound classes and differences in how they record the hydrogen isotopic composition of source water. Here we present new hydrogen isotopic measurements from a suite of modern and late Quaternary lake sediment samples to test the fidelity of δDwaxto source water δD in space and time. We find that within compound class the shared variance between C29 and C31 n-alkane and C28 and C30 n-alkanoic acid δD values is 87% and 86%. Between compound classes there is 53% shared variance between C29 n-alkane and C28 n-acid δD values. The apparent isotopic fractionation between source water and n-alkane δD values is consistent with prior studies from these regions that show the influence of vegetation type and climate. However, the n-alkanoic acid apparent fractionation values cannot be explained by these factors alone. Rather, the data require that for a large proportion of the samples there is a substantial contribution of long-chain n-acids from vegetation that uses lake water as the hydrogen source for lipid synthesis. This is consistent with overlapping n-acid compound distributions in lake sediment, soils, and aquatic and terrestrial plants from many of these regions. Our results emphasize the utility of plant-wax δD for reconstructing water δD values and highlight the potential importance of non-terrestrial sources of long-chain n-acids in lake systems.

  12. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-08-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR') were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS(3) (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: (1) [RCOOH2](+) for saturated wax esters, (2) [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and (3) [RCOOH2](+) and [RCO](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R'](+) and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2](+) ions for all types of wax esters and [R'-2H](+) ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions.

  13. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR′) were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS3 (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: 1) [RCOOH2]+ for saturated wax esters, 2) [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and 3) [RCOOH2]+ and [RCO]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R′]+ and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2]+ ions for all types of wax esters and [R′ – 2H]+ ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions. PMID:26178197

  14. Effect of monosodium methanarsonate application on cuticle wax content of cocklebur and cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Keese, Renee J; Camper, N Dwight

    2006-01-01

    Leaf cuticle waxes were extracted from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants at 0, 3, 5, and 7 days after treatment (DAT) following 1x and 2x MSMA applications. Wax constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and compared to alkane and alcohol standards of carbon lengths varying from C21 to C30. Differences in waxes were calculated and reported as change per ng mm2-1. Tricosane (C23) was found to increase following MSMA applications. All other alkanes decreased by 7 DAT, with some showing a linear effect over time in the R-cocklebur. Alcohol constituents were also observed to decrease by 7 DAT. Total arsenic in the extracted wax fraction was determined, with greatest quantities detected in the R-cocklebur. Wax changes are not believed to play a role in cotton tolerance, since changes in cuticle concentrations were minimal. Cocklebur resistance to MSMA is not due to cuticle constituents; the wax changes are a secondary effect in response to herbicide application.

  15. Getting in shape: molten wax drop deformation and solidification at an immiscible liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa N; Lindberg, Seth E; Caggioni, Marco; Wesner, Chris; Shen, Amy Q

    2015-05-01

    The controlled production of non-spherical shaped particles is important for many applications such as food processing, consumer goods, adsorbents, drug delivery, and optical sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation and simultaneous solidification of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface of higher density. By varying initial temperature and viscoelasticity of the molten drop, drop size, impact velocity, viscosity and temperature of the bath fluid, and the interfacial tension between the molten wax and bath fluid, spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath and were arrested into non-spherical solidified particles in the form of ellipsoid, mushroom, disc, and flake-like shapes. We constructed cursory phase diagrams for the various particle shapes generated over a range of Weber, Capillary, Reynolds, and Stefan numbers, governed by the interfacial, inertial, viscous, and thermal effects. We solved a simplified heat transfer problem to estimate the time required to initiate the solidification at the interface of a spherical molten wax droplet and cooling aqueous bath after impact. By correlating this time with the molten wax drop deformation history captured from high speed imaging experiments, we elucidate the delicate balance of interfacial, inertial, viscous, and thermal forces that determine the final morphology of wax particles.

  16. Wax encapsulation of water-soluble compounds for application in foods.

    PubMed

    Mellema, M; Van Benthum, W A J; Boer, B; Von Harras, J; Visser, A

    2006-11-01

    Water-soluble ingredients have been successfully encapsulated in wax using two preparation techniques. The first technique ('solid preparation') leads to relatively large wax particles. The second technique ('liquid preparation') leads to relatively small wax particles immersed in vegetable oil. On the first technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (dissolved at low concentration in water) has been achieved making use of beeswax and PGPR. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 2 mm, is about 30% after 16 weeks storage in water at room temperature. To form such capsules a minimum wax mass of 40% relative to the total mass is needed. High amounts of salt or acids at the inside water phase causes more leaking, probably because of the osmotic pressure difference. Osmotic matching of inner and outer phase can lead to a dramatic reduction in leakage. Fat capsules are less suitable to incorporate water soluble colourants. The reason for this could be a difference in crystal structure (fat is less ductile and more brittle). On the second technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (encapsulated in solid wax particles) has been achieved making use of carnauba wax. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 250 mm, is about 40% after 1 weeks storage in water at room temperature.

  17. Hydrogen apparent fractionation between source water and epicuticular waxes of Pinus sylvestris in North East Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberry, S. L.; Grace, J.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic composition of plant biomass provides crucial information about plant ecophysiology and local hydrology. Little is known about the apparent fractionation between hydrogen in source water and epicuticular leaf waxes of coniferous tree species that dominate the boreal forest ecosystem exposed to prolonged periods of sunlight during the growing season. In this study, single rope canopy access techniques were used to harvest needle and twig material from the upper, middle and lower crown of north and south facing branches of Pinus sylvestris within the subarctic forest of North East Finland. Samples were collected towards the beginning of the growing season in July and repeated in late September 2010. Leaf and twig waters were extracted cryogenically and analysed for D-enrichment. Individual n-alkanes are currently being quantified and analyzed for 13C/12C and D/H compositions. The molecular and isotopic data are supplemented by long-term in-situ cuvette photosynthetic assimilation measurements as well as relative humidity (RH), air temperature, precipitation and wind speed data collected by Helsinki University (SMEAR I). In addition RH, air temperature, wind speed and incoming solar radiation measurements were made at each individual sample point at the time of harvesting to quantify meteorological and microclimatological variation within individual trees. The outcome of this investigation will provide important insights into plant biochemistry and physiology of a crucial climate sensitive higher plant species subjected to continuous low light throughout the season. Furthermore, this work will expand our understanding of modern and palaeo-hydrology not only in northern Finland but also in other boreal forests around the world.

  18. Cascade synthesis of a gold nanoparticle–network polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Grubjesic, Simonida; Ringstrand, Bryan Scott; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Brombosz, Scott M.; Seifert, Sönke; Firestone, Millicent Anne

    2015-11-02

    In this paper, the multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical initiated polymerization and crosslinking of the acrylate endderivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 to yield a network polymer. Optical spectroscopy and TEM monitored the reduction of [AuCl4]-, formation of large aggregated Au NPs and oxidative etching into a final state of dispersed, spherical Au NPs. ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirms acrylate crosslinking to yield the polymer network. X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) monitored the evolution of the multilamellar structured mesophase and revealed the presence of semi-crystalline PEO confined within the water layers. The hydrogel could be reversibly swollen without loss of the well-entrained Au NPs with full recovery of composite structure. Finally, optical spectroscopy shows a notable red shift (Δλ~ 45 nm) in the surface plasmon resonance between swollen and contracted states, demonstrating solvent-mediated modulation of the internal NP packing arrangement.

  19. Cascade synthesis of a gold nanoparticle-network polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Grubjesic, Simonida; Ringstrand, Bryan Scott; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Brombosz, Scott M.; Seifert, Sonke; Firestone, Millicent Anne

    2015-11-02

    In this paper, the multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical initiated polymerization and crosslinking of the acrylate endderivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 to yield a network polymer. Optical spectroscopy and TEM monitored the reduction of [AuCl4]-, formation of large aggregated Au NPs and oxidative etching into a final state of dispersed, spherical Au NPs. ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirms acrylate crosslinking to yield the polymer network. X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) monitored the evolution of the multilamellar structured mesophase and revealed the presence of semi-crystalline PEO confined within the water layers. The hydrogel could be reversibly swollen without loss of the well-entrained Au NPs with full recovery of composite structure. Finally, optical spectroscopy shows a notable red shift (Δλ~ 45 nm) in the surface plasmon resonance between swollen and contracted states, demonstrating solvent-mediated modulation of the internal NP packing arrangement.

  20. Hydrophobic trichome layers and epicuticular wax powders in Bromeliaceae.

    PubMed

    Pierce, S; Maxwell, K; Griffiths, H; Winter, K

    2001-08-01

    The distinctive foliar trichome of Bromeliaceae has promoted the evolution of an epiphytic habit in certain taxa by allowing the shoot to assume a significant role in the uptake of water and mineral nutrients. Despite the profound ecophysiological and taxonomic importance of this epidermal structure, the functions of nonabsorbent trichomes in remaining Bromeliaceae are not fully understood. The hypothesis that light reflection from these trichome layers provides photoprotection was not supported by spectroradiometry and fluorimetry in the present study; the mean reflectance of visible light from trichome layers did not exceed 6.4% on the adaxial surfaces of species representing a range of ecophysiological types nor was significant photoprotection provided by their presence. Several reports suggesting water repellency in some terrestrial Bromeliaceae were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a new technique-fluorographic dimensional imaging (FDI)-were used to assess the interaction between aqueous droplets and the leaf surfaces of 86 species from 25 genera. In the majority of cases a dense layer of overlapping, stellate or peltate trichomes held water off the leaf epidermis proper. In the case of hydrophobic tank-forming tillandsioideae, a powdery epicuticular wax layer provided water repellency. The irregular architecture of these indumenta resulted in relatively little contact with water droplets. Most mesic terrestrial Pitcairnioideae examined either possessed glabrous leaf blades or hydrophobic layers of confluent trichomes on the abaxial surface. Thus, the present study indicates that an important ancestral function of the foliar trichome in Bromeliaceae was water repellency. The ecophysiological consequences of hydrophobia are discussed.

  1. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  2. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kim, Moon S; Mo, Changyeun; Bae, Hanhong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-09-24

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and β coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.

  3. Thermally conductive, dielectric PCM-boron nitride nanosheet composites for efficient electronic system thermal management.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Lihui; Luo, Wei; Wan, Jiayu; Dai, Jiaqi; Han, Xiaogang; Fu, Kun; Henderson, Doug; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-11-24

    Phase change materials (PCMs) possessing ideal properties, such as superior mass specific heat of fusion, low cost, light weight, excellent thermal stability as well as isothermal phase change behavior, have drawn considerable attention for thermal management systems. Currently, the low thermal conductivity of PCMs (usually less than 1 W mK(-1)) greatly limits their heat dissipation performance in thermal management applications. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a two-dimensional material known for its excellent thermally conductive and electrically insulating properties, which make it a promising candidate to be used in electronic systems for thermal management. In this work, a composite, consisting of h-BN nanosheets (BNNSs) and commercialized paraffin wax was developed, which inherits high thermally conductive and electrically insulating properties from BNNSs and substantial heat of fusion from paraffin wax. With the help of BNNSs, the thermal conductivity of wax-BNNS composites reaches 3.47 W mK(-1), which exhibits a 12-time enhancement compared to that of pristine wax (0.29 W mK(-1)). Moreover, an 11.3-13.3 MV m(-1) breakdown voltage of wax-BNNS composites was achieved, which shows further improved electrical insulating properties. Simultaneously enhanced thermally conductive and electrically insulating properties of wax-BNNS composites demonstrate their promising application for thermal management in electronic systems.

  4. 1. Zinc Plant, looking north, down Government Gulch. 610 ft. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Zinc Plant, looking north, down Government Gulch. 610 ft. tall stack replaced original 200 ft. radial brick stack formerly at rear of Cottrell treater. - Sullivan Electrolytic Zinc Plant, Government Gulch, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  5. BLACKSMITH SHOP ROOF STRUCTURE AT JUNCTION BETWEEN 60 FT. AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLACKSMITH SHOP ROOF STRUCTURE AT JUNCTION BETWEEN 60 FT. AND 90 FT. SPAN ROOF TRUSSES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Blacksmith Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging of human tissue sections towards improving pathology.

    PubMed

    Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K; Nguyen, Peter L; Davidson, Bennett; Akkina, Sanjeev; Guzman, Grace; Setty, Suman; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Walsh, Michael J

    2015-01-21

    High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging approach to obtain detailed images that have associated biochemical information. FT-IR imaging of tissue is based on the principle that different regions of the mid-infrared are absorbed by different chemical bonds (e.g., C=O, C-H, N-H) within cells or tissue that can then be related to the presence and composition of biomolecules (e.g., lipids, DNA, glycogen, protein, collagen). In an FT-IR image, every pixel within the image comprises an entire Infrared (IR) spectrum that can give information on the biochemical status of the cells that can then be exploited for cell-type or disease-type classification. In this paper, we show: how to obtain IR images from human tissues using an FT-IR system, how to modify existing instrumentation to allow for high-definition imaging capabilities, and how to visualize FT-IR images. We then present some applications of FT-IR for pathology using the liver and kidney as examples. FT-IR imaging holds exciting applications in providing a novel route to obtain biochemical information from cells and tissue in an entirely label-free non-perturbing route towards giving new insight into biomolecular changes as part of disease processes. Additionally, this biochemical information can potentially allow for objective and automated analysis of certain aspects of disease diagnosis.

  7. Determination of pediatric reference levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH measured with ECLusys kits.

    PubMed

    Iwaku, Kenji; Noh, Jaeduk Yoshimura; Minagawa, Akinobu; Kosuga, Yuka; Suzuki, Miho; Sekiya, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Masako; Ohye, Hidemi; Kunii, Yo; Yoshihara, Ai; Watanabe, Natsuko; Mukasa, Koji; Ito, Koichi; Ito, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Reference ranges for serum thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in children were set using the assay kits currently used in clinical settings. A total of 342 children (111 males and 231 females) who were negative for antithyroid antibodies (TgAb, TPOAb) and were found to have no abnormalities on ultrasonographic examination of the thyroid gland were divided into 6 age groups: 4-6 years (45 children), 7-8 years (40), 9-10 years (53), 11-12 years (65), 13-14 years (83), and 15 years (56) for the study. FT3, FT4 and TSH levels were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) (ECLusys FT3, FT4 and TSH).The reference range for FT3 (pg/mL) was 2.91-4.70 for the age group of 4-6 years, 3.10-5.10 for the age group of 7-8 years, 3.10-4.87 for the age group of 9-10 years, 2.78-4.90 for the age group of 11-12 years, 2.77-4.59 for the age group of 13-14 years, and 2.50-4.64 for the age group of 15 years . The reference range for FT4 (ng/dL) was 1.12-1.67, 1.07-1.61, 0.96-1.60, 1.02-1.52, 0.96-1.52, 0.95-1.53. The reference range for TSH (μU/mL) was 0.62-4.90, 0.53-5.16, 0.67-4.52, 0.62-3.36, 0.54-2.78, 0.32-3.00. Serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in children differ from those in adults. It is, therefore, of importance to perform evaluation of thyroid function in children using reference values appropriate for the chronological ages, because misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism or inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH) and oversight of mild subclinical hypothyroidism could occur if the diagnosis is made using reference values for adults.

  8. A novel bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase mediates wax ester and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2003-03-07

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters are neutral lipids with considerable importance for dietetic, technical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1 accumulates wax esters and TAGs as intracellular storage lipids. We describe here the identification of a bifunctional enzyme from this bacterium exhibiting acyl-CoA:fatty alcohol acyltransferase (wax ester synthase, WS) as well as acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity. Experiments with a knock-out mutant demonstrated the key role of the bifunctional WS/DGAT for biosynthesis of both storage lipids in A. calcoaceticus. This novel type of long-chain acyl-CoA acyltransferase is not related to known acyltransferases including the WS from jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), the DGAT1 or DGAT2 families present in yeast, plants, and animals, and the phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase catalyzing TAG formation in yeast and plants. A large number of WS/DGAT-related proteins were identified in Mycobacterium and Arabidopsis thaliana indicating an important function of these proteins. WS and DGAT activity was demonstrated for the translational product of one WS/DGAT homologous gene from M. smegmatis mc(2)155. The potential of WS/DGAT to establish novel processes for biotechnological production of jojoba-like wax esters was demonstrated by heterologous expression in recombinant Pseudomonas citronellolis. The potential of WS/DGAT as a selective therapeutic target of mycobacterial infections is discussed.

  9. Production and characterization of vaginal suppositories with propolis wax as active agent to prevent and treat Fluor albus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farida, Siti; Azizah, Nurul; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Based on the content contained in propolis wax especially antimicrobial function, it can be analyzed that propolis wax had superiority for Fluor albus. This research was conducted on two formulation of vaginal suppositories with base, supplementary and active agent as a fixed variable: 2% propolis wax (% w/w). Evaluation of this research were weight variation, melting time, consistency, irritation effect test and physical and chemical stability test (organoleptic, pH and polyphenol content).

  10. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    PubMed

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  11. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in female Fischer 344 rats; accumulation of wax components; implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Blas-Y-Estrada, Florence; Nygaard, Unni C; Alexander, Jan; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to three MOSH mixtures: oils largely below and above C25 (S-C25 and L-C25) and a 1:1 mixture of L-C25 with a wax; doses of 400, 1000 and 4000mg/kg feed were administered during 120days. MOSH were determined by on-line HPLC-GC-FID in liver, spleen, adipose tissue and the carcass. The composition of the hydrocarbons accumulated in the tissues was further analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC). MOSH in the mass range of C26-30 were more strongly accumulated than those between C20-25, which does not support the present classification of MOSH differentiating at n-C25 for risk assessment. Compared to the total of the MOSH, n-alkanes and n-alkyl monocyclic naphthenes were generally enriched in adipose tissue. In liver and spleen, n-alkanes up to C25 were eliminated, but strongly accumulated at around C30. Based on this profile, poor solubility and the melting points, it is hypothesized that crystallization protects these wax components against metabolism and elimination. In the liver, relative retention of n-alkanes decreased again beyond C30, accentuated at high exposure, suggesting reduced absorption. Compared to the animal data, accumulation of n-alkanes from food sources, such as apples, into human tissues seems low, perhaps because of low absorption due to their presence in crystalline form. A series of dominant isoalkanes, accumulated in all tissues analyzed, was characterized, though without proposing a structure. Implications on present regulation of white mineral oil products are discussed.

  12. Digital image processing versus visual assessment of chewed two-colour wax in mixing ability tests.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, A; Speksnijder, C M; de Liz Pocztaruk, R; Abbink, J H

    2012-01-01

    Two-colour chewing gum and wax have been widely used as test foods to evaluate the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. The mixing of the colours has been assessed by computer analysis or by visual inspection. Reports contradict each other about whether computer analysis and visual assessment could equally well discriminate between the masticatory performances of groups of participants with different dental status. This study compares the results of computer analysis of digital images of chewed two-colour wax with the results of visual assessment of these images. Sixty healthy subjects participated and chewed on red-blue wax for 5, 10, 15 and 20 chewing strokes. The subjects were divided into three groups of 20, matched for age and gender, according to their dental status: natural dentition, full dentures and maxillary denture plus implant-supported mandibular overdenture. Mixing of the chewed wax was determined by computer analysis of images of the wax and by visual assessment of the images by five examiners. Both the computer method and the observers were able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the dentate subjects from the two denture wearer groups. Computer analysis could also discriminate the mixing abilities of the two denture groups. However, observers were not able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the two denture groups after 5, 10 and 15 chewing strokes. Only after 20 chewing strokes, they could detect a significant difference in mixing ability.

  13. Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Wax-coated Sands for Sport Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardet, J. P.; Benazza, C.; Bruchon, J. F.; Mishra, M.

    2009-06-01

    Natural soils such as sandy loams are being replaced by synthetic soils for various types of sport and recreational surfaces, including horseracing tracks. These synthetic soils are made of a mixture of sand, microcrystalline wax, synthetic fibers and rubber chips which optimize the mechanical and hydraulic properties of natural soils so that they drain faster after rainstorms and decrease risks of sport injuries while retaining appropriate sport performances. Silica sand, which makes up the largest fraction of synthetic soils, is hydrophyllic by nature, i.e., tends to retain water on sand grain surfaces. After rainstorms, hydrophilic surfaces retain a large amount of water, are difficult to compact, and yield uncontrollable mechanical and hydraulic properties when too moist. The addition of wax contributes to improving both mechanical and hydraulic properties of sands. Wax coats the sand grains with a thin layer, and enhances adherence between sand particles. It repels water from sand grains and influences both compaction and hydraulic properties. This study reports experimental results that help to understand the properties of wax-coated sands used in synthetic surfaces, especially the degradation of synthetic surfaces that have insufficient wax-coatings.

  14. Quantitative, nondestructive assessment of beech scale (Hemiptera: Cryptococcidae) density using digital image analysis of wax masses.

    PubMed

    Teale, Stephen A; Letkowski, Steven; Matusick, George; Stehman, Stephen V; Castello, John D

    2009-08-01

    Beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, is a non-native invasive insect associated with beech bark disease. A quantitative method of measuring viable scale density at the levels of the individual tree and localized bark patches was developed. Bark patches (10 cm(2)) were removed at 0, 1, and 2 m above the ground and at the four cardinal directions from 13 trees in northern New York and 12 trees in northern Michigan. Digital photographs of each patch were made, and the wax mass area was measured from two random 1-cm(2) subsamples on each bark patch using image analysis software. Viable scale insects were counted after removing the wax under a dissecting microscope. Separate regression analyses at the whole tree level for the New York and Michigan sites each showed a strong positive relationship of wax mass area with the number of underlying viable scale insects. The relationships for the New York and Michigan data were not significantly different from each other, and when pooling data from the two sites, there was still a significant positive relationship between wax mass area and the number of scale insects. The relationships between viable scale insects and wax mass area were different at the 0-, 1-, and 2-m sampling heights but do not seem to affect the relationship. This method does not disrupt the insect or its interactions with the host tree.

  15. Recommendations for dealing with asphaltene or wax problems in offshore production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J.

    1996-09-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Asphaltene and wax problems are seriously threatening the economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore production facilities are especially susceptible to asphaltene or wax deposition for a number of reasons. One indispensable requirement for dealing with these problems, that offshore production facilities usually lack, is extra storage capacity for temporarily storing asphaltene or wax cuttings and washings away from inflicted equipment. The cuttings and washings, even if temporary storage were available, need to be dealt with nearly on a daily basis. Providing equipment to process the slop offshore is expensive and messy (environmentally). Hence, the cuttings and washings, in many cases, must be carried away to onshore slop processing facilities. The above discussion assumes, of course, that the operator has already found the best technology (e.g., tools, chemicals, etc.) for removing the deposits from the offshore equipment, which in itself is another challenge that precedes the disposal problem. All of the above considerations underscore the fact that the best way of dealing with the asphaltene and wax problems is to prevent them, where possible. This paper presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the asphaltene problems encountered, the field has been successfully produced for over 14 years with minimum environmental impact.

  16. Mechanism of drug release from an acrylic polymer-wax matrix tablet.

    PubMed

    Huang, H P; Mehta, S C; Radebaugh, G W; Fawzi, M B

    1994-06-01

    An acrylic polymer-wax matrix system was evaluated for oral sustained-release tablets of diphenhydramine HCl. A desirable release profile of diphenhydramine was achieved by incorporating Eudragit L in a carnauba wax matrix. In this polymer-wax system, carnauba wax maintained the integrity of the matrix, whereas Eudragit L slowly eroded in the matrix as the drug was released. Thus, the area-to-volume ratio of the tablet remained constant over the duration of the drug release. In vitro drug release studies were conducted at physiological pHs that exist in the gastrointestinal tract. Drug release rates decreased as the polymer:drug ratio increased from 1:2 to 2:1. The drug release rate was faster in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer than in 0.1 N HCl solution. The drug release from these polymer-wax matrices is described by a combination diffusion/erosion mechanism. Based on the typical pH encountered in intestinal fluids, complete dissolution of the drug and polymer at pH 7.5 in 8-10 h would ensure good bioavailability of the drug following oral administration.

  17. Role of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joensuu, Johanna; Altimir, Nuria; Hakola, Hannele; Rostás, Michael; Raivonen, Maarit; Vestenius, Mika; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Riederer, Markus; Bäck, Jaana

    2016-06-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) produced by plants have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. The different physicochemical properties of BVOCs affect their transport within and out of the plant as well as their reactions along the way. Some of these compounds may accumulate in or on the waxy surface layer of conifer needles and participate in chemical reactions on or near the foliage surface. The aim of this work was to determine whether terpenes, a key category of BVOCs produced by trees, can be found on the epicuticles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and, if so, how they compare with the terpenes found in shoot emissions of the same tree. We measured shoot-level emissions of pine seedlings at a remote outdoor location in central Finland and subsequently analysed the needle surface waxes for the same compounds. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but the proportion of sesquiterpenes was higher in the wax extracts. There were also differences in the terpene spectra of the emissions and the wax extracts. The results, therefore, support the existence of BVOC associated to the epicuticular waxes. We briefly discuss the different pathways for terpenes to reach the needle surfaces and the implications for air chemistry.

  18. Effect of epicuticular wax on UV scattering of sorghum leaves and canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawhey, Cheryl I.; Grant, Richard H.

    2003-11-01

    Sorghum bicolor is grown in equatorial regions that have naturally high ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposures. To determine whether the increased wax production on the sorghum leaves and sheaths protects the plant by increased scattered radiation from the plant surface, the effects of wax amount on UVB reflectances were examined in greenhouse and field experiments involving three isolines of sorghum -- wild-type and two wax mutants. Reflectance of the wild-type sheath was found to be a result of the wax present while that on the mutant sheaths was not dependent on wax amount. Overhead UVB exposure corresponded with reduced sheath and increased leaf UVB reflectance for wild-type but negligible changes in both sheath and leaf reflectance for the two mutants. Although the sheath reflectances of wild-type were twice that of the two mutants, the negligible difference in leaf reflectance between isolines resulted in negligible differences in the canopy bi-directional reflectance, even at high view angles. The UVA canopy reflectance factors of the three sorghum isolines were measured at 0.03 at viewing angles near nadir on clear sky days. Predicted reflectance factors were calculated using the SAIL model then compared with the measured reflectance factors to evaluate the effect of sky diffuse fraction on the measured differences.

  19. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

    2004-03-31

    In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of production since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase FTS. The separation problem is further compounded by catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. Existing pilot-scale equipment was modified to include a filtration test apparatus. After undergoing an extensive plant shakedown period, filtration tests with cross-flow filter modules using simulant FTS wax slurry were conducted. The focus of these early tests was to find adequate mixtures of polyethylene wax to simulate FTS wax. Catalyst particle size analysis techniques were also developed. Initial analyses of the slurry and filter permeate particles will be used by the research team to design improved filter media and cleaning strategies.

  20. Three-dimensional silicone microfluidic interconnection scheme using sacrificial wax filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmatilleke, Saman; Henderson, H. Thurman; Bhansali, Shekhar; Ahn, Chong H.

    2000-08-01

    A very simple room-temperature procedure is presented herein for formation of true three-dimensionality of microplumbing in plastic (silicone elastomer in this case), by molding the plastic to simply encapsulate a pre-formed network of sacrificial wax threads or other connected wax configurations which are ultimately to become micro channels and cavities in the plastic motherboard. When these wax sacrificial areas are etched away with acetone, precise cavities, channels, and capillaries results with direct arbitrary three- dimensionality for the first time. This method leads also to a simple and effective external interconnect scheme where ordinary fused silica tubes may be press-fitted into the surface opening to withstand high pressure. This method may be extended for connection of multiple levels of silicone motherboards together using small sections of fused silica tubing, with no loss of stacking volume because of the lack of any connector lips or bosses. An array of micro channels having circular cross sections with diameters of 100, 150 and 200 microns were molded on silicone elastomer using wax thread. The wax thread was dissolved in acetone after the silicon elastometer became components (motherboards) while being able to control the channel lengths within the stacks as desired. Mixing chambers were also molded in a single silicone elastomer layer, because true three-dimensionality is trivially possible without the complexity of multi stacked lithography.

  1. Major constituents of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the Caatinga and Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A F; Salatino, A

    2000-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes of leaves of four species (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) from the Caatinga, (a semi-arid ecosystem of Northeast Brazil) and four species (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) from the Cerrado, (a savanna ecosystem covering one third of the Brazilian territory), were analyzed. Six species contained a high content (above 60 microg x cm(-2)) of wax, four of them from the Caatinga. Triterpenoids and n-alkanes were the most frequent and abundant constituents found in the species from both habitats. The distribution of n-alkanes predominated by homologues with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms, displayed no consistent differences between species from the two habitats. Lupeol, beta-amyrin, epifriedelinol and ursolic acid were the triterpenoids found. Triterpenoids clearly predominate over alkanes in the waxes from the Cerrado species. The waxes of two evergreen species from the Caatinga yielded n-alkanes as predominant constituents. A comparison of foliar epicuticular waxes of native plants from ecosystems with different hydric constraints is discussed.

  2. Major evolutionary trends in hydrogen isotope fractionation of vascular plant leaf waxes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Edwards, Erika J; Zeng, Yongbo; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (δD) have been widely used for paleoclimate reconstructions. However, underlying controls for the observed large variations in leaf wax δD values in different terrestrial vascular plants are still poorly understood, hampering quantitative paleoclimate interpretation. Here we report plant leaf wax and source water δD values from 102 plant species grown in a common environment (New York Botanic Garden), chosen to represent all the major lineages of terrestrial vascular plants and multiple origins of common plant growth forms. We found that leaf wax hydrogen isotope fractionation relative to plant source water is best explained by membership in particular lineages, rather than by growth forms as previously suggested. Monocots, and in particular one clade of grasses, display consistently greater hydrogen isotopic fractionation than all other vascular plants, whereas lycopods, representing the earlier-diverging vascular plant lineage, display the smallest fractionation. Data from greenhouse experiments and field samples suggest that the changing leaf wax hydrogen isotopic fractionation in different terrestrial vascular plants may be related to different strategies in allocating photosynthetic substrates for metabolic and biosynthetic functions, and potential leaf water isotopic differences.

  3. Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; Edwards, Erika J.; Zeng, Yongbo; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (δD) have been widely used for paleoclimate reconstructions. However, underlying controls for the observed large variations in leaf wax δD values in different terrestrial vascular plants are still poorly understood, hampering quantitative paleoclimate interpretation. Here we report plant leaf wax and source water δD values from 102 plant species grown in a common environment (New York Botanic Garden), chosen to represent all the major lineages of terrestrial vascular plants and multiple origins of common plant growth forms. We found that leaf wax hydrogen isotope fractionation relative to plant source water is best explained by membership in particular lineages, rather than by growth forms as previously suggested. Monocots, and in particular one clade of grasses, display consistently greater hydrogen isotopic fractionation than all other vascular plants, whereas lycopods, representing the earlier-diverging vascular plant lineage, display the smallest fractionation. Data from greenhouse experiments and field samples suggest that the changing leaf wax hydrogen isotopic fractionation in different terrestrial vascular plants may be related to different strategies in allocating photosynthetic substrates for metabolic and biosynthetic functions, and potential leaf water isotopic differences. PMID:25402476

  4. Cuticular permeance in relation to wax and cutin development along the growing barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaf.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jarvis, Mike; Fricke, Wieland

    2007-05-01

    The developing leaf three of barley provides an excellent model system for the direct determination of relationships between amounts of waxes and cutin and cuticular permeance. Permeance of the cuticle was assessed via the time-course of uptake of either toluidine blue or (14)C-labelled benzoic acid ([(14)C] BA) along the length of the developing leaf. Toluidine blue uptake only occurred within the region 0-25 mm from the point of leaf insertion (POLI). Resistance--the inverse of permeance--to uptake of [(14)C] BA was determined for four leaf regions and was lowest in the region 10-20 mm above POLI. At 20-30 and 50-60 mm above POLI, it increased by factors of 6 and a further 32, respectively. Above the point of emergence of leaf three from the sheath of leaf two, which was 76-80 mm above POLI, resistance was as high as at 50-60 mm above POLI. GC-FID/MS analyses of wax and cutin showed that: (1) the initial seven fold increase in cuticular resistance coincided with increase in cutin coverage and appearance of waxes; (2) the second, larger and final increase in cuticle resistance was accompanied by an increase in wax coverage, whereas cutin coverage remained unchanged; (3) cutin deposition in barley leaf epidermis occurred in parallel with cell elongation, whereas deposition of significant amounts of wax commenced as cells ceased to elongate.

  5. Composite materials with improved phyllosilicate dispersion

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-09-14

    The present invention provides phyllosilicates edge modified with anionic surfactants, composite materials made from the edge modified phyllosilicates, and methods for making the same. In various embodiments the phyllosilicates are also surface-modified with hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) modifying agents, polymeric hydrotropes, and antioxidants. The invention also provides blends of edge modified phyllosilicates and semicrystalline waxes. The composite materials are made by dispersing the edge modified phyllosilicates with polymers, particularly polyolefins and elastomers.

  6. Investigation of the stability of paraffin-exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet composites for latent heat thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Mallow, Anne; Graham, Samuel; Kalaitzidou, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    Organic materials, such as paraffin wax, are sought as stable and environmentally friendly phase change materials (PCM) for thermal energy storage, but they suffer from low thermal conductivity which limits the rate at which thermal energy flows into and out of the material. A common method to improve the PCM thermal behavior is through loading with high thermal conductivity particulate fillers. However, the stability of these composites in the molten state is a concern as settling of the fillers will change the effective thermal conductivity. In this work, we investigate the stability of wax loaded with exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets either of 1 m (xGnP-1) or 15 m (xGnP-15) diameter. The effect of dispersants, oxidation of the wax, viscosity of the wax, mixing time, and hydrocarbon chain length on stability is reported. It was found that the addition of octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) is an effective dispersant for xGnP in paraffin and microcrystalline wax. In addition, mixing time, viscosity, and oxidation of the wax influence stability in the molten state. Overall, it was found that a mixing time of 24 hours for xGnP-15 along with ODPA mixed in a high viscosity, oxidized microcrystalline wax results in composite PCM systems with the greatest stability determined at 80 C in the molten state.

  7. FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectroscopy in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, D.

    1998-06-01

    FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial, plant animal or human cells, tissues, and body fluids are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions, and differentiate between various disease states. The spectral information potentially useful for biomedical characterizations may be distributed over the entire infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. over the near-, mid-, and far-infrared. It is therefore a key problem how the characteristic vibrational spectroscopic information can be systematically extracted from the infrared spectra of complex biological samples. In this report these questions are addressed by applying factor and cluster analysis treating the classification problem of microbial infrared spectra as a model task. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the FT-IR spectrometer. FT-IR spectra of single microcolonies of less than 40 μm in diameter can be obtained from colony replica applying a stamping technique that transfers the different, spatially separated microcolonies from the culture plate to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x,y-stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro-organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. Since high quality, essentially fluorescence free Raman spectra may now be obtained in relatively short time intervals on previously intractable biological specimens, FT-IR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used in tandem to characterize biological samples. This approach seems to open up new horizons for biomedical characterizations of complex biological systems.

  8. Pattern waxes and inaccuracies in fixed and removable partial denture castings.

    PubMed

    Diwan, R; Talic, Y; Omar, N; Sadig, W

    1997-05-01

    It is the desire of every dentist and dental technician to produce a restoration that will fit the patient with a minimum of adjustments and certainly one that does not require remaking. Yet many abuse the materials with which they work, either through improper manipulation, lack of familiarity with their properties, or by attempting to reduce laboratory time by taking short cuts. Wax is one of the materials that requires more knowledge and skill to manipulate accurately because it has a considerably higher coefficient of thermal expansion (and contraction) than any other dental material. It often contributes considerably to the inaccuracies of cast dental restorations. This article provides a review of dental waxes used to make prosthodontic castings and points out some of the properties of waxes that must be controlled to make accurate restorations.

  9. 'Wax bloom' on beeswax cultural heritage objects: Exploring the causes of the phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bartl, B; Kobera, L; Drábková, K; Ďurovič, M; Brus, J

    2015-07-01

    The term 'wax bloom' is used to describe a thin whitish crystalline layer that develops on the surface of beeswax objects under specific conditions. This phenomenon is undesirable, especially in the cases of objects with aesthetic or informational value, such as wax sculptures or historical seals. A combination of solid-state NMR and FTIR measurements allowed to obtain fairly detailed insight into the problem and to suggest a probable mechanism of its development. Secondary crystallization of unsaturated hydrocarbons from beeswax was determined as a primary cause. After the macroscopic solidification of beeswax from the melt, these molecules remain for months in a highly mobile, liquid-like state. This facilitates their diffusion to the surface, where they eventually crystallize, forming the 'wax bloom' effect. Although these results are of particular interest with respect to the conservation of beeswax artifacts, they are relevant to this material in general and help with understanding its unique properties.

  10. Structure of Anion-Conducting Polymers from Waxs and MD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisken, Barbara; Tahmasebi, Sepehr; Schibli, Eric; Holdcroft, Steven

    The structure of novel polymers for anion exchange membranes (AEMs) is investigated using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a united-atom force field model based on the DREIDING force field. The polymers being studied are poly(benzimidazole) (PBI) derivatives including poly(dimethylbenzimidazole) (PDMBI), mesitylene poly(benzimidazole) (mes-PBI), and mesitylene poly(dimethylbenzimidazole) (mes-PDMBI). WAXS reveals an amorphous structure with two main length scales. By comparing simulation results to WAXS data, we attribute features observed in the scattering data to side-to-side spacing between polymer chains and to the parallel-ring stacking of the benzimidazole rings. Overall, we are able to validate the interpretation of scattering data by combining MD simulations and scattering experiments.

  11. GAMMA IRRADIATION TESTING OF MONTAN WAX FOR USE IN WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    SOO,P.; HEISER,J.; HART,A.

    1996-09-08

    A field demonstration was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to quantify the potential use of montan wax as a subsurface barrier material for nuclear waste management applications. As part of that demonstration, a study was completed to address some of the characteristics of the wax. Of particular interest is its resistance to chemical and structural changes that would influence its integrity as a barrier to minimize the migration of contaminants from their storage or disposal locations. Properties that were evaluated included hardness, melting point, molecular weight, and biodegradation as a function of gamma radiation dose. Based on the data obtained to date the wax is extremely resistant to radiation-induced change. Coupled with low permeability, the material shows promise as a subsurface barrier material.

  12. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    SciTech Connect

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  13. Precision FT-IR laboratory measurements of atmospheric molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Crawford, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Spectroscopic information is crucial a priori input to interpret atmospheric spectroscopic observations through radiative transfer modeling. The spectroscopic observations lead us to determine the physical and chemical conditions (e.g., atmospheric pressure, temperatures, composition, abundances …). In order to avoid false interpretations of the observed spectra, the molecular spectroscopic information (either line parameters or cross sections) must be sufficiently accurate and complete. To achieve this goal, we employ a broad-band Fourier transform spectrometer, Bruker IFS-125HR equipped with multiple detectors (He-cooled bolometers, N2-cooled MCT and InSb, warm InGaAs, Boron-doped silicates, photodiode) and beamsplitters (Mylars, KBr, CaF2, Quartz) sufficient to cover entire infrared spectra region from 20 to 15000 cm-1. We vacuum-couple up to 15 different absorption cells to the FT-IR, including five coolable cells with optical path lengths ranging from 0.02 m to 52 m; three of them are capable of reaching temperatures down to 50 K. We also have one heatable cell reaching 400 K. Finally, an extra vacuum chamber newly implemented to the Bruker 125HR enables both emission and absorption spectroscopy utilizing the emission port of the FT-IR. Recently, several studies of atmospheric molecules have been completed using the FT-IR at JPL in support of the Earth, terrestrial and planetary atmospheric remote sensing. These include analyses of C3H8 (propane) and 16O12C17O mid- and near-infrared regions, 13C12CH6 and 12C2H6 at longer wavelengths. In addition, we are studying the O2(A) line mixing and collision-induced absorption in the O2 A-band at 0.76 μm, as well as temperature-dependent cross sections of C6H6 (benzene) and C3H6 (propene) in the mid-infrared region. We will present an overview of results and work in progress. [Research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, and

  14. Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant–water environment at leaf flush

    PubMed Central

    Tipple, Brett J.; Berke, Melissa A.; Doman, Christine E.; Khachaturyan, Susanna; Ehleringer, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2H/1H ratios are widely used as a proxy in climate reconstruction. Although the broad nature of the relationship between n-alkanes δ2H values and climate is appreciated, the quantitative details of the proxy remain elusive. To examine these details under natural environmental conditions, we studied a riparian broadleaf angiosperm species, Populus angustifolia, growing on water with a constant δ2H value and monitored the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes and of stem, leaf, stream, and atmospheric waters throughout the entire growing season. Here we found the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes recorded only a 2-wk period during leaf flush and did not vary for the 19 weeks thereafter when leaves remained active. We found δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes of P. angustifolia record conditions earlier in the season rather than fully integrating the entire growing season. Using these data, we modeled precipitation δ2H values during the time of wax synthesis. We observed that the isotope ratios of this precipitation generally were 2H-enriched compared with mean annual precipitation. This model provides a mechanistic basis of the often-observed 2H-enrichment from the expected fractionation values in studies of broadleaf angiosperm leaf-wax δ2H. In addition, these findings may have implications for the spatial and temporal uses of n-alkane δ2H values in paleoapplications; when both plant community and growth form are known, this study allows the isolation of the precipitation dynamics of individual periods of the growing season. PMID:23359675

  15. Leaf waxes in riparian trees: hydrogen isotopes, concentrations, and chain-length patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Ehleringer, J.; Doman, C.; Khachaturyan, S.

    2011-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope ratios of epicuticular leaf wax n-alkanes record aspects of a plant's ecophysiological conditions. However, it remains unclear as to whether n-alkane hydrogen isotope values (δ2H) directly reflect environmental water (source water or tissue water) or environmental water in combination with a biochemical fractionation. Furthermore, it is uncertain if leaf n-alkane δ2H values reflect a single time interval during leaf expansion or if n-alkane δ2H values record the combination of inputs throughout the entire lifespan of a leaf. These different possibilities will influence how leaf wax biomarkers are interpreted in both ecological and environmental reconstruction contexts. To address these issues, we sampled leaves/buds, stems, and water sources of five common western U.S. riparian species under natural field conditions throughout the growing season. Riparian species were selected because the input water source is most likely to be nearly constant through the growing season. We found that species in this study demonstrated marked and systematic variations in n-alkane concentration, average chain length, and δ2H values. Intraspecific patterns were consistent: average chain lengths and δ2H values increased from bud opening through full leaf expansion with little variation during the remainder of the sampling interval, while leaf-wax concentration as a fraction of total biomass increased throughout the growing season. These data imply that leaf-wax δ2H values reflect multiple periods of wax growth and that the leaf wax is continually produced throughout a leaf's lifespan.

  16. Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant-water environment at leaf flush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, Brett J.; Berke, Melissa A.; Doman, Christine E.; Khachaturyan, Susanna; Ehleringer, James R.

    2013-02-01

    Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2H/1H ratios are widely used as a proxy in climate reconstruction. Although the broad nature of the relationship between n-alkanes δ2H values and climate is appreciated, the quantitative details of the proxy remain elusive. To examine these details under natural environmental conditions, we studied a riparian broadleaf angiosperm species, Populus angustifolia, growing on water with a constant δ2H value and monitored the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes and of stem, leaf, stream, and atmospheric waters throughout the entire growing season. Here we found the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes recorded only a 2-wk period during leaf flush and did not vary for the 19 weeks thereafter when leaves remained active. We found δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes of P. angustifolia record conditions earlier in the season rather than fully integrating the entire growing season. Using these data, we modeled precipitation δ2H values during the time of wax synthesis. We observed that the isotope ratios of this precipitation generally were 2H-enriched compared with mean annual precipitation. This model provides a mechanistic basis of the often-observed 2H-enrichment from the expected fractionation values in studies of broadleaf angiosperm leaf-wax δ2H. In addition, these findings may have implications for the spatial and temporal uses of n-alkane δ2H values in paleoapplications; when both plant community and growth form are known, this study allows the isolation of the precipitation dynamics of individual periods of the growing season.

  17. Understanding 2H/1H systematics of leaf wax n-alkanes in coastal plants at Stiffkey saltmarsh, Norfolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Yvette; Dawson, Lorna; Black, Stuart; Andrews, Julian; Pedentchouk, Nikolai

    2014-03-01

    Interpretation of sedimentary n-alkyl lipid δ2H data is complicated by a limited understanding of factors controlling interspecies variation in biomarker 2H/1H composition. To distinguish between the effects of interrelated environmental, physical and biochemical controls on the hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkyl lipids, we conducted linked δ2H analyses of soil water, xylem water, leaf water and n-alkanes from a range of C3 and C4 plants growing at a UK saltmarsh (i) across multiple sampling sites, (ii) throughout the 2012 growing season, and (iii) at different times of the day. Soil waters varied isotopically by up to 35‰ depending on marsh sub-environment, and exhibited site-specific seasonal shifts in δ2H up to a maximum of 31‰. Maximum interspecies variation in xylem water was 38‰, while leaf waters differed seasonally by a maximum of 29‰. Leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H, however, consistently varied by over 100‰ throughout the 2012 growing season, resulting in an interspecies range in the ɛwax/leaf water values of -79‰ to -227‰. From the discrepancy in the magnitude of these isotopic differences, we conclude that mechanisms driving variation in the 2H/1H composition of leaf water, including (i) spatial changes in soil water 2H/1H, (ii) temporal changes in soil water 2H/1H, (iii) differences in xylem water 2H/1H, and (iv) differences in leaf water evaporative 2H-enrichment due to varied plant life forms, cannot explain the range of n-alkane δ2H values we observed. Results from this study suggests that accurate reconstructions of palaeoclimate regimes from sedimentary n-alkane δ2H require further research to constrain those biological mechanisms influencing species-specific differences in 2H/1H fractionation during lipid biosynthesis, in particular where plants have developed biochemical adaptations to water-stressed conditions. Understanding how these mechanisms interact with environmental conditions will be crucial to ensure accurate

  18. Surface characterization of Kevlar fibers by FT-IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chatzi, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Kevlar-49 aramid fiber offers considerable potential for utilization in high-performance composite materials. However, it has poor adhesion to the polymer matrix resin. In order to improve the adhesion the surface of the fiber was characterized by using two nondestructive Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques. It was shown that the polymer chains in the skin are oriented parallel to the surface, while in the core they are almost radially oriented. This orientation as well as the fact that the functional groups are intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded might limit their availability for reacting with the polymer matrix. The author also characterized the water absorbed in both the skin and the core of the fiber and found the existence of three types of water: (a) weakly hydrogen-bonded between one NH and one carbonyl group, (b) between two carbonyl groups and (c) liquid-like water clustered in microvoids and other sites inside the fibers. It was also found that 30% of the NH groups of the Kevlar-49 fiber are accessible for deuterium exchange. These groups on one hand are available for reactions that would improve the adhesion, but on the other hand can hydrogen-bond with water, which would be detrimental for the mechanical properties of the composite.

  19. Sensory quality and physiological responses in two mandarin varieties differing in ethanol accumulation after waxing and storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Gold Nugget’ (GN) and ‘Pixie’ (P) mandarins had been previously found by us to greatly differ in the amount of ethanol accumulated in the fruit after waxing and storage. Since ethanol is linked to off-flavor in waxed citrus it was of interest to investigate the potential physiological mechanisms t...

  20. Testing of LiAlH4 as a Potential Additive to Paraffin Wax Hybrid Rocket Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-30

    Paraffin Wax Hybrid Rocket Fuel Sb . GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER John D. DeSain, Thomas J. Curtiss, Ronald...Petroleum Waxes," ASTM Designation: D 1321-04. 47. "Standard Test Method for Softening Point of Bitumen (Ring-and-Ball Apparatus)," ASTM Designation

  1. Changes of the wax contents in mixtures of olive oils as determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Hodaifa, Gassan; MartínezNieto, Leopoldo; Lozano, Juan L; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2012-01-01

    Mixing of refined olive-pomace oil with virgin olive oil is a fraud that has been tried often. Normally, the tests that detected the fraud were determinations of wax esters, erythrodiol+uvaol, and stigmastadienes contents. The most common is the determination of wax esters content (extra virgin olive oil is very poor in wax esters, usually less than 100 mg/kg). In this work, the variations of individual wax esters (C40, C42, C44, and C46), with different degrees of unsaturation content, and total wax esters were studied when extra virgin olive oil and refined pomace-olive oil were mixed. The following mixtures were prepared: extra virgin olive oil plus 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 25, 35, 45, 50, and 80% of refined olive-pomace oil. In all cases, individual and total wax ester content variation was linear with increasing percentage of refined olive-pomace oil in the mixture. The variation of the total wax esters content can be adjusted according to the equation: Total wax esters, mg/kg = 14.3 x (% refined olive-pomace oil) + 83.9.

  2. Inheritance of ear wax types, ear lobe attachment and tongue rolling ability.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Gonzalez, L; Lisker, R

    1982-01-01

    The mode of inheritance of ear wax type, ear lobe attachment and tongue rolling ability were studied in 77 families with a total of 293 children. The results clearly showed that the dry ear wax type and the attached ear lobe type represent the homozygous state for two pairs of autosomal recessive genes. The evidence for the same being true regarding the lack of ability to roll the tongue was less conclusive in our material, but this could be due to difficulties in communication between the examined individuals and the examiners.

  3. Modeling of the fast organic emissions from a wood-finishing product—Floor wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, John C. S.; Guo, Zhishi

    Environmental chamber and full-scale residential house tests were conducted to evaluate the fast organic emissions from a wood-finishing product—floor wax. For the environmental chamber tests, a very small amount of (<5 gm -2) of the wax was applied to an aluminum plate. It was found that the chamber exit organic concentrations can be estimated by a model with an initial condition of instant organic emissions. The model was applied to the house data to interpret the octane and nonane emissions. Significant sink effects were found in the house that prolonged the elevated octane and nonane concentrations for more than 2 days.

  4. Some thermophysical properties of paraffin wax as a thermal storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Haji-Sheikh, A.; Eftekhar, J.; Lou, D.Y.S.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to determine the suitability of paraffin wax SUNTECH P116 as a phase change material for storage of thermal energy. Certain temperature dependent thermophysical properties in the neighborhood of the melting point useful for this study, but not adequately available in the literature, are measured. They include thermal conductivity, density, thermal expansion coefficient, and viscosity. It is observed that the thermal conductivity of paraffin wax, in solid phase, is not a monotonic function of temperature as reported in the literature. Other thermophysical properties of the liquid phase measured vary monotonically with temperature.

  5. Cuticular Wax Accumulation Is Associated with Drought Tolerance in Wheat Near-Isogenic Lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Xu, Wen; Yu, Xiaocong; Shen, Hao; Li, Haosheng; Cheng, Dungong; Liu, Aifeng; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Cheng; Zhao, Shijie; Song, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that wheat grain yield is seriously affected by drought stress, and leaf cuticular wax is reportedly associated with drought tolerance. However, most studies have focused on cuticular wax biosynthesis and model species. The effects of cuticular wax on wheat drought tolerance have rarely been studied. The aims of the current study were to study the effects of leaf cuticular wax on wheat grain yield under drought stress using the above-mentioned wheat NILs and to discuss the possible physiological mechanism of cuticular wax on high grain yield under drought stress. Compared to water-irrigated (WI) conditions, the cuticular wax content (CWC) in glaucous and non-glaucous NILs under drought-stress (DS) conditions both increased; mean increase values were 151.1 and 114.4%, respectively, which was corroborated by scanning electronic microscopy images of large wax particles loaded on the surfaces of flag leaves. The average yield of glaucous NILs was higher than that of non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions in 2014 and 2015; mean values were 7368.37 kg·ha−1 and 7103.51 kg·ha−1. This suggested that glaucous NILs were more drought-tolerant than non-glaucous NILs (P = 0.05), which was supported by the findings of drought tolerance indices TOL and SSI in both years, the relatively high water potential and relative water content, and the low ELWL. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate (Pn) of glaucous and non-glaucous wheat NILs under DS conditions decreased by 7.5 and 9.8%, respectively; however, glaucous NILs still had higher mean values of Pn than those of non-glaucous NILs, which perhaps resulted in the higher yield of glaucous NILs. This could be explained by the fact that glaucous NILs had a smaller Fv/Fm reduction, a smaller PI reduction and a greater ABS/RC increase than non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions. This is the first report to show that wheat cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance. Moreover, the leaf

  6. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  7. FT-IR and FT-Raman study of hydrothermally degraded groundwood containing paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proniewicz, Leonard M.; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Barański, Andrzej; Dutka, Dorota

    2002-09-01

    Accelerated aging test of paper is used to understand mechanisms of acidic hydrolysis and oxidative degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In recent years FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy have been used together with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance as well as chemometrics methods to characterize degradation products of paper. In this work we present FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of hydrothermally treated sample of acid paper (Paper 3—bleached sulfite softwood pulp) in extreme humid conditions (100% humidity and 100 °C). Degradation reaction is monitored mainly based on CO stretching vibrations formed during the process of carbonyl compounds, however, some changes in CC stretching vibrations are also noticed. We showed that in these conditions paper undergoes oxidation process in which at least three new carbonyl species that can be characterized by their CO stretches are formed. Additionally, during this process, one can observe disappearance of the CC stretching that can be associated with changes that involve, for example, coniferyl alcohol. We also show that water molecules play very important role in this process. Thus, we report here, changes caused by hydrothermal treatment of groundwood containing paper mainly associated with the appearance of new carbonyl species, besides others, as well as rearrangement of existing hydrogen bond network.

  8. Theoretical (DFT) and experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR) investigations on 7-Acetoxy-4-(bromomethyl)coumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogdu, Y.; Saglam, S.; Dereli, Ö.

    2015-09-01

    An analysis of the results of the structural and spectroscopic studies of 7-Acetoxy-4-(bromomethyl) coumarin (7A4BMC) molecule were performed by FT-IR, FT-Raman, FT-NMR and quantum chemical calculations. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 7A4BMC were recorded in the 400-4000 and 50-3500 cm-1 region, respectively. The molecular conformations of 7A4BMC were computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Molecular structure and spectral calculations were calculated by means of B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p), cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The whole vibrational characteristics of the 7A4BMC molecule are given.

  9. FT-IR Analysis of Urinary Stones: A Helpful Tool for Clinician Comparison with the Chemical Spot Test

    PubMed Central

    Primiano, Aniello; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Cocci, Andrea; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Zuppi, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Background. Kidney stones are a common illness with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The determination of crystalline and molecular composition and the quantification of all stone components are important to establish the etiology of stones disease but it is often laborious to obtain using the chemical method. The aim of this paper is to compare chemical spot test with FT-IR spectroscopy, for a possible introduction in our laboratory. Methods. We analyzed 48 calculi using Urinary Calculi Analysis kit in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The same samples were analyzed by FT-IR using the Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR Spectrometer. All FT-IR spectra of kidney stones were then computer matched against a library of spectra to generate a report on the various components. Results. On the basis of FT-IR analysis, the 48 calculi were divided into three groups: pure stone, mixed stone, and pure stone with substances in trace. Results of each group were compared with those obtained with chemical spot test. A general disagreement between methods was observed. Conclusions. According to our data, the introduction of the FT-IR technique in clinical chemistry laboratory may be more responsive to clinician expectations. PMID:24868112

  10. Quantitative FT-IRRS analysis of the effects of solution chemistry on aqueous glass corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, Greg Jay

    2000-10-01

    A statistical analysis of Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FT-IRRS) spectra was performed in order to identify spectral features unaffected significantly by day-to-day variation and surface roughness. It was determined that the Si-O-Si stretching vibration peak was unaffected significantly by day-to-day variation and surface roughness. The Si-O-Si peak was used in subsequent analyses to characterize the surfaces of glass exposed to solutions of varying electrolyte composition. A wave scattering equation derived for rough surfaces which exhibit a Gaussian distribution of surface height irregularities was applied to the spectra of glass samples of varying surface roughnesses. A good fit was observed between calculated and measured spectra, which yielded much insight into the FT-IRRS spectral dependence on surface roughness. This technique may be applied in order to transform the spectra of rough samples into theoretically smooth samples. The consequence of this is that spectral changes may be attributed directly to structural and compositional changes, and not to surface roughness. Soda-lime-silicate glass samples were prepared, polished smooth, and immersed in various electrolyte solutions. These solutions were of varying concentration, consisted of varying electrolyte cation species, and consisted of varying electrolyte anion species. FT-IRRS analysis revealed no significant anion or cation effect of the aqueous corrosion of soda-lime-silica glass. FT-IRRS did reveal a significant concentration effect on corrosion rates. The Si-O-Si peak shift indicated a reduction of proton exchange with glass alkali. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses supported the observations of FT-IRRS. Based upon these analyses, it was believed that electrolyte cation exchange was occurring with the sodium in the glass, thereby reducing the amount of proton exchange taking place. In this short term leach test

  11. Effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene and wax emulsions on proximate analysis and some antioxidants of soursop (Annona muricata L.).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; García-Galindo, Hugo S; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25 °C (control), and at 16 °C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20 °C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16 °C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity.

  12. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis for studying Clostridium cell response to conversion of enzymatically hydrolyzed hay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Nescerecka, Alina; Tihomirova, Kristina; Mezule, Linda; Juhna, Talis

    2013-07-01

    Grass hay is one of assailable cellulose containing non-food agricultural wastes that can be used as a carbohydrate source by microorganisms producing biofuels. In this study three Clostridium strains Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium tetanomorphum, capable of producing acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) were adapted to convert enzymatically hydrolyzed hay used as a growth media additive. The results of growth curves, substrate degradation kinetics and FT-IR analyses of bacterial biomass macromolecular composition showed diverse strain-specific cell response to the growth medium composition.

  13. Plant-wax D/H ratios in the southern European Alps record multiple aspects of climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Stefanie B.; Sessions, Alex L.

    2016-09-01

    We present a Younger Dryas-Holocene record of the hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary plant waxes (δDwax) from the southern European Alps (Lake Ghirla, N-Italy) to investigate its sensitivity to climatic forcing variations in this mid-latitude region (45°N). A modern altitudinal transect of δD values of river water and leaf waxes in the Lake Ghirla catchment is used to test present-day climate sensitivity of δDwax. While we find that altitudinal effects on δDwax are minor at our study site, temperature, precipitation amount, and evapotranspiration all appear to influence δDwax to varying extents. In the lake-sediment record, δDwax values vary between -134 and -180‰ over the past 13 kyr. The long-term Holocene pattern of δDwax parallels the trend of decreasing temperature and is thus likely forced by the decline of northern hemisphere summer insolation. Shorter-term fluctuations, in contrast, may reflect both temperature and moisture-source changes. During the cool Younger Dryas and Little Ice Age (LIA) periods we observe unexpectedly high δDwax values relative to those before and after. We suggest that a change towards a more D-enriched moisture source is required during these intervals. In fact, a shift from northern N-Atlantic to southern N-Atlantic/western Mediterranean Sea sources would be consistent with a southward migration of the Westerlies with climate cooling. Prominent δDwax fluctuations in the early and middle Holocene are negative and potentially associated with temperature declines. In the late Holocene (<4 kyr BP), excursions are partly positive (as for the LIA) suggesting a stronger influence of moisture-source changes on δDwax variation. In addition to isotopic fractionations of the hydrological cycle, changes in vegetation composition, in the length of the growing season, and in snowfall amount provide additional potential sources of variability, although we cannot yet quantitatively assess these in the paleo-record. We

  14. Biochemical analysis of leaf waxes and thrips resistance in onion selections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips (Thrips tabaci) is a serious insect pest of onion and is a vector for Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV). Lower amounts of epicuticular waxes on onion leaves have been associated with fewer thrips, less feeding damage, and lower incidence of IYSV. In this study, 10 onion selections that showed les...

  15. Effect of processing parameters on surface finish for fused deposition machinable wax patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, F. E., III

    1995-01-01

    This report presents a study on the effect of material processing parameters used in layer-by-layer material construction on the surface finish of a model to be used as an investment casting pattern. The data presented relate specifically to fused deposition modeling using a machinable wax.

  16. A Social Studies Wax Museum: Meeting Famous Americans without Leaving School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan; Watson, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Children find learning about history meaningful when teachers find ways to interest them in the subject. A social studies wax museum is one way to bring state or national historical characters to life. It opens up a new world for children and makes history more than a chapter in a textbook. In this article, the authors present the rationale for a…

  17. Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted that evaluated efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) adults in Guatemala. Bait stations were exposed to outdoor conditions to determine effect of weathering on longevity as indicated by bait station age. Results of laboratory tests found that ba...

  18. Physical characteristics of tetrahydroxy and acylated derivatives of jojoba liquid wax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols, mainly (C38:2-C46:2). The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and therefore is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the Jojoba (Simmondsia...

  19. Making Work: Demonstrating Thermodynamic Concepts with Solar-Powered Wax and Rubber Heat Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Construction details are provided for simple heat engines that use candle wax and elastomers as working substances. The engines are constructed using common household materials and can be easily constructed in a school classroom or at home. They work reliably and are useful tools for demonstrating the conversion of heat to mechanical work. They…

  20. Properties of margarine and spread from wax-vegetable oil organogel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food products such as margarine and spread need solid fats for a desired texture and typically these solid fats contain high contents of saturated fats and trans-fats. In this research organogels formed by plant wax and soybean oil were utilized to produce trans-fat free margarine and spread. Base...

  1. Genetic variation for epicuticular waxes in onion: a thrips-avoidance mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips are one of the main insect pests of onion, causing damage to leaves and stored bulbs as well as transmitting serious diseases such as Iris Yellow Spot Virus and bacterial bulb rots. Reduced quantity and possibly altered chemistry of epicuticular waxes contribute to thrips tolerance in onion. ...

  2. Demonstrating Electrophoretic Separation in a Straight Paper Channel Delimited by a Hydrophobic Wax Barrier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Chunxiu; Lin, Wanqi; Cai, Longfei

    2016-01-01

    A demonstration is described of electrophoretic separation of carmine and sunset yellow with a paper-based device. The channel in the paper device was fabricated by hand with a wax pen. Electrophoretic separation of carmine and sunset yellow was achieved within a few minutes by applying potential on the channel using a simple and inexpensive power…

  3. Mutagenic activity of sweepings and pigments from a household-wax factory assayed with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Varella, S D; Pozetti, G L; Vilegas, W; Varanda, E A

    2004-12-01

    The mutagenic activity of garbage originating from a household wax industry was determined by the Salmonella/microsome assay, using the bacterial strains TA100, TA98 and YG1024. The garbage was obtained by sweeping the floor of the factory at the end of the work shift. Organic compounds were extracted by ultrasound for 30 min in dichloromethane or 70% ethanol. After evaporation of solvent, these extracts (HFS: household-wax factory sweepings) were dissolved in DMSO, and were tested for the mutagenic activity at varying concentrations (HFS-ET: 0.08-0.68 mg/plate, HFS-DCM: 0.60-7.31 mg/plate). The colouring agents (pigments) used in the production of the wax were also dissolved in DMSO and tested with the assay. The concentrations tested for each pigment were: Amaranth: 0.46-3.65 mg/plate, Auramine: 0.15-1.2 mg/plate and Rhodamine B: 0.22-1.82 mg/plate. Both ET and DCM organic extracts had mutagenic activity, especially in the YG1024 strain. The pigments behaved in a similar way, demonstrating that YG1024 was the most sensitive strain for the detection of mutagenicity, and that metabolization increased the activity. Human exposure (occupational and non-occupational) to industrial residues generated during the household-wax manufacturing and packaging process should be monitored, since this type of garbage is normally deposited in the environment without any control.

  4. Preparation of margarines from organogels of sunflower wax and vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was previously reported that sunflower wax (SW) had high potential as an organogelator for soybean oil-based margarine and spread products. In this study twelve other vegetable oils were evaluated in a margarine formulation to test feasibility of utilization of SW as an alternative to solid fats ...

  5. A theoretical approach to evaluate the release rate of acetaminophen from erosive wax matrix dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Agata, Yasuyoshi; Iwao, Yasunori; Shiino, Kai; Miyagishima, Atsuo; Itai, Shigeru

    2011-07-29

    To predict drug dissolution and understand the mechanisms of drug release from wax matrix dosage forms containing glyceryl monostearate (GM; a wax base), aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE; a pH-dependent functional polymer), and acetaminophen (APAP; a model drug), we tried to derive a novel mathematical model with respect to erosion and diffusion theory. Our model exhibited good agreement with the whole set of experimentally obtained values pertaining to APAP release at pH 4.0 and pH 6.5. In addition, this model revealed that the eroding speed of wax matrices was strongly influenced by the loading content of AMCE, but not that of APAP, and that the diffusion coefficient increased as APAP loading decreased and AMCE loading increased, thus directly defining the physicochemical properties of erosion and diffusion. Therefore, this model might prove a useful equation for the precise prediction of dissolution and for understanding the mechanisms of drug release from wax matrix dosage forms.

  6. Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Carter, Ernest E.; Son, Jaime Santos; Bai, Taixu; Khoda Verdian, Mohamad Fereydoon

    2010-04-27

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. A material including wax may be introduced into one or more wellbores. The material introduced into two or more wells may mix in the formation and congeal to form a barrier to fluid flow.

  7. Light bending in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of f(T) gravity, we focus on a weak-field and spherically symmetric solution for the Lagrangian f(T) = T + αT2, where α is a small constant which parametrizes the departure from general relativity (GR). In particular, we study the propagation of light and obtain the correction to the general relativistic bending angle. Moreover, we discuss the impact of this correction on some gravitational lensing observables, and evaluate the possibility of constraining the theory parameter α by means of observations. In particular, on taking into account the astrometric accuracy in the Solar System, we obtain that |α|≤ 1.85 × 105m2; this bound is looser than those deriving from the analysis of Solar System dynamics, e.g. |α|≤ 5 × 10-1m2 [L. Iorio, N. Radicella and M. L. Ruggiero, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1508 (2015) 021, arXiv:1505.06996 [gr-qc].], |α|≤ 1.8 × 104m2 [L. Iorio and E. N. Saridakis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427 (2012) 1555, arXiv:1203.5781 [gr-qc].] or |α|≤ 1.2 × 102m2 [Y. Xie and X. M. Deng, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 (2013) 3584, arXiv:1312.4103 [gr-qc].]. However, we suggest that, since the effect only depends on the impact parameter, better constraints could be obtained by studying light bending from planetary objects.

  8. Sources and abundances of leaf waxes in aerosols in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Knohl, Alexander; Sachse, Dirk; Schefuß, Enno; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric transport is an understudied mechanism for leaf wax hydrogen isotope applications that contributes to mobilizing and depositing these compounds on the surface of the Earth. While previous efforts have identified the importance of atmospheric leaf wax deposition in remote marine locations, the processes are not well constrained on land in temperate latitudes where lakes are common and sedimentary leaf wax hydrogen isotope values are an attractive tool for understanding past precipitation changes. This work presents results from a field study that was conducted in 2010 and 2011 at Hainich National Park, Germany in order to evaluate the quantity and sources of leaf waxes in the atmosphere. Aerosols were sampled at approximately weekly intervals inside the forest canopy, and n-alkane distributions and hydrogen isotope values were compared with those from major tree species surrounding the sampling site. Despite sampling in what was expected to be a major production center, the distribution and hydrogen isotope values of atmospheric n-alkanes bore little resemblance to those of the local vegetation. Comparison with local meteorological data and to 10-day and 36-h back air mass trajectories indicated shifting effects of winds and temperature, and that mesoscale transport processes were more important than long-range mechanisms. Back trajectories also highlighted source effects, with easterly winds coinciding with relatively lower leaf wax hydrogen isotope values from more continental regions. These results suggest that leaf wax aerosols average over spatial scales that exceed typical surface catchment areas for small lake systems, even in forested areas, yet that the area over which these compounds are derived is still relatively regional. Depositional fluxes were also estimated in order to assess the potential importance of atmospheric transport to sedimentary archives. Although difficult to constrain, these estimates suggest that atmospheric deposition may

  9. Identification, synthesis, and behavioral activity of 5,11-dimethylpentacosane, a novel sex pheromone component of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.).

    PubMed

    Svensson, Glenn P; Gündüz, Eylem Akman; Sjöberg, Natalia; Hedenström, Erik; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Wang, Hong-Lei; Löfstedt, Christer; Anderbrant, Olle

    2014-04-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a serious and widespread pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera L. In contrast to most moths, for which long-range mate finding is mediated by female-produced sex pheromones, G. mellonella males attract conspecific females over long distances by emitting large amounts of a characteristic scent in combination with bursts of ultrasonic calls. The male scent for this species was previously identified as a blend of nonanal and undecanal. When these compounds were bioassayed, characteristic short-range sexual behavior, including wing fanning, was triggered in conspecific females, but the aldehyde blend failed to elicit attraction over longer distances. We identified, via analysis and synthesis, a third male-specific compound, 5,11-dimethylpentacosane. We show that it acts as a behavioral synergist to the aldehydes. In wind tunnel experiments, very few female moths responded to the aldehyde blend or to 5,11-dimethylpentacosane tested separately, but consistently showed orientation and source contact when a combination of all three compounds was applied. The level of attraction to the three-component mixture was still lower than that to male extract, indicating that the composition of compounds in the synthetic blend is suboptimal, or that additional pheromone components of G. mellonella are yet to be identified. The identification of 5,11-dimethylpentacosane is an important step for the development of an efficient long-range attractant that will be integrated with other environmentally safe strategies to reduce damage to beehives caused by wax moths.

  10. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer

  11. Does plant colour matter? Wax accumulation as an indicator of decline in Juniperus thurifera.

    PubMed

    Esteban, R; Fernández-Marín, B; Olano, J M; Becerril, J M; García-Plazaola, J I

    2014-03-01

    The photosynthesis in evergreen trees living in Mediterranean ecosystems is subjected to multiple climatic stresses due to water shortage and high temperatures during the summer and to low temperatures during the winter. Mediterranean perennials deploy different photoprotective mechanisms to prevent damage to the photosynthetic system. Wax accumulation in leaves is a primary response which by enhancing light scattering in the leaf surface reduces incident radiation in the mesophyll. The existence of high variability in wax accumulation levels between coexisting individuals of a species has a visual effect on colour that provides distinguishable green and glaucous phenotypes. We explored this variability in a Mediterranean evergreen tree Juniperus thurifera (L.) to evaluate the impact of epicuticular wax on optical and ecophysiological properties and on the abundance of photoprotective pigments throughout an annual cycle. Because of light attenuation by waxes, we expected that glaucous phenotypes would lower the need for photoprotective pigments. We evaluated the effect of phenotype and season on reflectance, defoliation levels, photochemical efficiency and photoprotective pigment contents in 20 green and 20 glaucous junipers. Contrary to our expectations, the results showed that glaucous trees suffered from a diminution in photochemical efficiency, but there was no reduction in photoprotective pigments. Differences between glaucous and green phenotypes were greater in winter, which is the most stressful season for this species. Glaucous individuals also showed the highest levels of leaf defoliation. The lower photochemical efficiency of glaucous trees, together with higher defoliation rates and equal or greater number of physiological photoprotective mechanisms, suggests that in spite of wax accumulation, glaucous trees suffer from more severe stress than green ones. This result suggests that changes in colouration in Mediterranean evergreens may be a decline

  12. Flexible microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices using a low-cost wax patterning technique.

    PubMed

    Nilghaz, Azadeh; Wicaksono, Dedy H B; Gustiono, Dwi; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq

    2012-01-07

    This paper describes the fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) using a simple wax patterning method on cotton cloth for performing colorimetric bioassays. Commercial cotton cloth fabric is proposed as a new inexpensive, lightweight, and flexible platform for fabricating two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic systems. We demonstrated that the wicking property of the cotton microfluidic channel can be improved by scouring in soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)) solution which will remove the natural surface wax and expose the underlying texture of the cellulose fiber. After this treatment, we fabricated narrow hydrophilic channels with hydrophobic barriers made from patterned wax to define the 2D microfluidic devices. The designed pattern is carved on wax-impregnated paper, and subsequently transferred to attached cotton cloth by heat treatment. To further obtain 3D microfluidic devices having multiple layers of pattern, a single layer of wax patterned cloth can be folded along a predefined folding line and subsequently pressed using mechanical force. All the fabrication steps are simple and low cost since no special equipment is required. Diagnostic application of cloth-based devices is shown by the development of simple devices that wick and distribute microvolumes of simulated body fluids along the hydrophilic channels into reaction zones to react with analytical reagents. Colorimetric detection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in artificial urine is carried out by direct visual observation of bromophenol blue (BPB) colour change in the reaction zones. Finally, we show the flexibility of the novel microfluidic platform by conducting a similar reaction in a bent pinned μCAD.

  13. A systematic technique for carving amalgam and composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Kilistoff, A

    2011-01-01

    Both amalgam and composite restorations can quickly and accurately be carved using a systematic technique. By following the outlined steps, anatomically accurate restorations can be easily achieved. Inlay wax is used as a training medium to negate the setting constraints and as a high fidelity simulation.

  14. Combined hydrogen and carbon isotopes of plant waxes as an indicator of drought impacts on ancient Maya agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax δD, δ13C, and Δ14C analyses in two lake sediment cores from southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change. Plant-wax specific Δ14C ages indicate a large input of pre-aged plant waxes into lake sediment. Comparison of plant-wax δD records with other regional hydroclimate proxy records suggest that plant-wax ages are evenly distributed around plant-wax radiocarbon ages, and that applying an age model based on plant-wax radiocarbon ages is appropriate for these lake sediments. We evaluate how differences in plant-wax age distributions influence stable isotope records to assess the age uncertainty associated with records of climate and vegetation change derived from plant-wax stable isotopes. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax δ13C is largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δ13C would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analysis of plant-wax δD and δ13C from both lakes indicates increasingly divergent trends following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend to correspond with low plant-wax δ13C values and vice versa. This pattern is consistent with

  15. Identification of In-Chain-Functionalized Compounds and Methyl-Branched Alkanes in Cuticular Waxes of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem

    PubMed Central

    Racovita, Radu C.; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    In this work, cuticular waxes from flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem were investigated in search for novel wax compounds. Seven wax compound classes were detected that had previously not been reported, and their structures were elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of various derivatives. Six of the classes were identified as series of homologs differing by two methylene units, while the seventh was a homologous series with homologs with single methylene unit differences. In the waxes of flag leaf blades, secondary alcohols (predominantly C27 and C33), primary/secondary diols (predominantly C28) and esters of primary/secondary diols (predominantly C50, combining C28 diol with C22 acid) were found, all sharing similar secondary hydroxyl group positions at and around C-12 or ω-12. 7- and 8-hydroxy-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35), 7- and 8-oxo-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35), and 4-alkylbutan-4-olides (predominantly C28) were found both in flag leaf and peduncle wax mixtures. Finally, a series of even- and odd-numbered alkane homologs was identified in both leaf and peduncle waxes, with an internal methyl branch preferentially on C-11 and C-13 of homologs with even total carbon number and on C-12 of odd-numbered homologs. Biosynthetic pathways are suggested for all compounds, based on common structural features and matching chain length profiles with other wheat wax compound classes. PMID:27820857

  16. Understanding nucleic acid structural changes by comparing wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments to molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Pabit, Suzette A.; Katz, Andrea M.; Tolokh, Igor S.; Drozdetski, Aleksander; Baker, Nathan; Onufriev, Alexey V.; Pollack, Lois

    2016-05-24

    Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) is emerging as a powerful tool for increasing the resolution of solution structure measurements of biomolecules. Compared to its better known complement, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), WAXS targets higher scattering angles and can enhance structural studies of molecules by accessing finer details of solution structures. Although the extension from SAXS to WAXS is easy to implement experimentally, the computational tools required to fully harness the power of WAXS are still under development. Currently, WAXS is employed to study structural changes and ligand binding in proteins; however the methods are not as fully developed for nucleic acids. Here, we show how WAXS can qualitatively char- acterize nucleic acid structures as well as the small but significant structural changes driven by the addition of multivalent ions. We show the potential of WAXS to test all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and to provide insight in understanding how the trivalent ion cobalt(III) hexammine (CoHex) affects the structure of RNA and DNA helices. We find that MD simulations capture the RNA structural change that occurs due to addition of CoHex.

  17. Effect of spatial distribution of wax and PEG-isocyanate on the morphology and hydrophobicity of starch films.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Delina; Adhikari, Raju; Tobin, Mark J; McKnight, Stafford; Wakeling, Lara; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-10-13

    This study proposes a novel method for improving surface hydrophobicity of glycerol plasticized high amylose (HAG) films. We used polyethylene glycol isocyanate (PEG-iso) crosslinker to link HAG and three natural waxes (beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax) to produce HAG+wax+PEG-iso films. The spatial distributions of wax and PEG-iso across the thickness of these films were determined using Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the films were determined using contact angle (CA) and scanning electron microscopic measurements, respectively. The distribution patterns of wax and the PEG-iso across the thickness of the film, and the nature of crystalline patterns formed on the surface of these films were found to be the key factors affecting surface hydrophobicity. The highest hydrophobicity (CA >90°) was created when the PEG-iso was primarily distributed in the interior of the films and a hierarchical circular pinnacle structure of solidified wax was formed on the surface.

  18. Understanding nucleic acid structural changes by comparing wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments to molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabit, Suzette A.; Katz, Andrea M.; Tolokh, Igor S.; Drozdetski, Aleksander; Baker, Nathan; Onufriev, Alexey V.; Pollack, Lois

    2016-05-01

    Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) is emerging as a powerful tool for increasing the resolution of solution structure measurements of biomolecules. Compared to its better known complement, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), WAXS targets higher scattering angles and can enhance structural studies of molecules by accessing finer details of solution structures. Although the extension from SAXS to WAXS is easy to implement experimentally, the computational tools required to fully harness the power of WAXS are still under development. Currently, WAXS is employed to study structural changes and ligand binding in proteins; however, the methods are not as fully developed for nucleic acids. Here, we show how WAXS can qualitatively characterize nucleic acid structures as well as the small but significant structural changes driven by the addition of multivalent ions. We show the potential of WAXS to test all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and to provide insight into understanding how the trivalent ion cobalt(III) hexammine (CoHex) affects the structure of RNA and DNA helices. We find that MD simulations capture the RNA structural change that occurs due to addition of CoHex.

  19. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and NMR) and computational studies on 3-methoxyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaranjini, T.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Karabacak, M.; Asiri, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the molecular structure, vibrational, UV and NMR spectra of 3-methoxyaniline (abbreviated as 3MOA, C7H9NO) were studied. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded. The ground-state molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies were calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP methods and 6-311++G(d, p) as a basis set. The fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of 3MOA with calculated results by HF and DFT methods indicates that B3LYP is superior to HF method for molecular vibrational problems. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values is very small. The theoretically predicted FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed. A study on the Mulliken atomic charges, the electronic properties were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach, Frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed and compared with methoxybenzene and aniline. The electric dipole moment (μ) and the first hyperpolarizability (β) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results also show that the 3MOA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results.

  20. Hydrological cycle during the early Eocene: What can we learn from leaf waxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.; Huber, M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding how rapid warming modified global precipitation patterns during periods of global warming is essential to forecasting the impact of future climate change. The early Eocene (~55-52 Ma) represents a period of peak warmth for the past 65 million years with global temperatures ~10 degrees C warmer than present. This period is also known for at least three, greenhouse gas-induced episodes of rapid global warming (hyperthermals: PETM; ~55 Ma, ETM-2; ~53.7 Ma and ETM-3; 52.8 Ma), often considered extreme analogues to modern climate change. Hyperthermals are also characterized by negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE), which reflect the input of isotopically light carbon responsible for observed temperature increases. A novel proxy used for hydrological reconstructions uses the hydrogen isotopic composition of compound-specific biomarkers preserved in the sedimentary record. For terrestrial leaf-wax lipids (e.g., n-alkanes), the hydrogen isotopic composition primarily reflects the isotopic composition of meteoric waters, which is dependent on distance of vapor transport, number of rainout events, precipitation amount, and evapotranspiration. Isotopic compositions of PETM n-alkanes (δDalkanes) recovered from the Arctic Ocean show a substantial deuterium (D)-enrichment at the onset of the CIE which was argued to potentially reflect reduced rainout in the mid-latitudes, resulting in increased precipitation in the Arctic (Pagani et al., 2006). D-depleted values of n-alkanes during peak warmth of the PETM suggest either modification of local precipitation or a global change in the fraction of rainout. In this study, we evaluate the veracity of previous conclusions by compiling existing δDalkanes records (including from Mar-2X, Venezuela; Tawanui, New Zealand; Wilkes Land, Antarctica; and the Lomonsov Ridge, Arctic) with new records from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and marginal marine sections (including Cicogna, Italy; Giraffe Core, Canadian High Arctic

  1. Comparable hydrogen isotopic fractionation of plant leaf wax n-alkanoic acids in arid and humid subtropical ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Zheng, Mei; Fraser, Matthew; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-02-01

    Leaf wax hydrogen isotope proxies have been widely used to reconstruct past hydrological changes. However, published reconstructions have given little consideration for the potentially variable hydrogen isotopic fractionation relative to precipitation (ɛwax-p) under different climate and environmental settings. Chief among various potential factors controlling fractionation is relative humidity, which is known to strongly affect oxygen isotopic ratios of plant cellulose, but its effect on hydrogen isotopic fractionation of leaf waxes is still ambiguous. Analyses of lake surface sediments and individual modern plants have provided valuable information on the variability of ɛwax-p, but both approaches have significant limitations. Here, we present an alternative method to obtain the integrated, time-resolved ecosystem-level ɛwax-p values, by analyzing modern aerosol samples collected weekly from arid (Arizona lowlands) and humid subtropical (Atlanta, Georgia) environments during the main growth season. Because aerosol samples mainly reflect regional leaf wax resources, the extreme contrast in the hydroclimate and associated vegetation assemblages between our study sites allows us to rigorously assess the impact of relative humidity and associated vegetation assemblages on leaf wax hydrogen isotopic fractionation. We show there is only minor difference (mostly <10‰) in the mean ɛwax-p values in the two end-member environments. One possible explanation is that the positive isotopic effects of low relative humidity are offset by progressive replacement of trees with grasses that have a more negative apparent fractionation. Our results represent an important step toward quantitative interpretation of leaf wax hydrogen isotopic records.

  2. Investigating lava-substrate interactions through flow experiments with syrup, wax, and molten basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, M. E.; Lev, E.

    2015-12-01

    Among the many factors influencing the complex process of lava flow emplacement, the interaction with the substrate onto which flow is emplaced plays a central role. Lava flows are rarely emplaced onto smooth or regular surfaces. For example, at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, lava flows regularly flow over solid rock, vegetation, basaltic or silica sand, and man-made materials, including asphalt and concrete. In situ studies of lava-substrate interactions are inherently difficult, and often dangerous, to carry-out, requiring the design of controllable laboratory experiments. We investigate the effects of substrate grain size, cohesion, and roughness on flow mobility and morphology through a series of flow experiments using analog materials and molten basalt. We have developed a series of experiments that allow for adjustable substrate parameters and analyze their effects on lava flow emplacement. The first set of experiments are performed at the Fluids Mechanics Laboratory at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and focus on two analog materials: polyethylene glycol (PEG), a commercially available wax, and corn syrup. The fluids were each extruded onto a series of scaled substrate beds to replicate the emplacement of lava in a natural environment. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that irregular topography, particularly topography with a height amplitude similar to that of the flow itself, can affect flow morphology, width, and velocity by acting as local barriers or culverts to the fluid. This is expected from observations of fluid flow in natural environments. A follow-up set of experiments will be conducted in Fall 2015 at the Syracuse University (SU) Lava Project Lab. In this set, we will pour molten basalt directly onto a series of substrates representing natural environments found on the Earth and other rocky bodies in the Solar System. These experiments will allow for analysis of the effects of basaltic composition and high temperatures on lava-substrate heat

  3. Characterization of human ovarian teratoma hair by using AFM, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Jinwoo; Jung, Min-Hyung; Choi, Young Joon; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2011-12-01

    The structural, physical, and chemical properties of hair taken from an ovarian teratoma (teratoma hair) was first examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The similarities and differences between the teratoma hair and scalp hair were also investigated. Teratoma hair showed a similar morphology and chemical composition to scalp hair. Teratoma hair was covered with a cuticle in the same manner as scalp hair and showed the same amide bonding modes as scalp hair according to FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. On the other hand, teratoma hair showed different physical properties and cysteic acid bands from scalp hair: the surface was rougher and the adhesive force was lower than the scalp hair. The cystine oxides modes did not change with the position unlike scalp hair. These differences can be understood by environmental effects not by the intrinsic properties of the teratoma hair.

  4. Characterization of the crystalline structure of cellulose using static and dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Akerholm, Margaretha; Hinterstoisser, Barbara; Salmén, Lennart

    2004-02-25

    The cellulose structure is a factor of major importance for the strength properties of wood pulp fibers. The ability to characterize small differences in the crystalline structures of cellulose from fibers of different origins is thus highly important. In this work, dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy has been further explored as a method sensitive to cellulose structure variations. Using a model system of two different celluloses, the relation between spectral information and the relative cellulose Ialpha content was investigated. This relation was then used to determine the relative cellulose Ialpha content in different pulps. The estimated cellulose I allomorph compositions were found to be reasonable for both unbleached and bleached chemical pulps. In addition, it was found that the dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy technique had the potential to indicate possible correlation field splitting peaks of cellulose Ibeta.

  5. Breast cancer diagnosis using FT-RAMAN spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Criollo, Carlos J. T.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.

    2005-04-01

    In this study FT-RAMAN spectra of breast tissue from 35 patients were obtained and separated into nine groups for histopathologic analysis, which are as follows: normal breast tissue, fibrocystic condition, in situ ductal carcinoma, in situ ductal carcinoma with necrosis, infiltrate ductal carcinoma, infiltrate inflammatory ductal carcinoma, infiltrate medullar ductal carcinoma, infiltrate colloid ductal carcinoma, and infiltrate lobular carcinoma. Using spectrum averages taken from each group a qualitative analysis was performed to compare these molecular compositions to those known to be present in abnormal concentrations in pathological situations, e.g. the development of desmoplastic lesions with a stroma of dense collagen in tumoral breast tissues which substitute adipose stroma of non-diseased breast tissue. The band identified as amino acids, offered basis for observation in the existence of alterations in the proteins, thus proving Raman Spectroscopic capacity in identification of primary structures of proteins; secondary protein structure was also identified through the peptic links, Amide I and Amide III, which have also been identified by various authors. Alterations were also identified in the peaks and bandwidths of nucleic acids demonstrating the utilization of Raman Spectroscopy in the analysis of the cells nucleus manifestations. All studies involving Raman Spectroscopy and breast cancer have shown excellent result reliability and therefore a basis for the technical theory.

  6. Topical hemostatic agents to reduce bleeding from cancellous bone surfaces: a comparison of Gelfoam paste and bone wax.

    PubMed

    Zirna, H; Keating, S E; DeVincentis, A F

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the history of topical bone hemostatic agents, listing advantages and disadvantages of the more commonly used agents. Gelfoam paste and bone wax were chosen to study the effects that bone hemostatic agents have on the occurrence and severity of postoperative edema and pain. The authors discovered 80% of the patients utilizing bone wax, and 91% of the patients receiving Gelfoam paste, had markedly decreased amounts of immediate postoperative edema. Furthermore, 90% of the patients treated with bone wax, and 75% of the patients treated with Gelfoam paste, reported less postoperative pain than anticipated with the surgical procedure performed.

  7. Definition of Good Tetrads for f(T) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamanini, N.; Böhmer, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of choosing suitable tetrads for the study of exact solutions in f(T) gravity is discussed. For any given metric, we define the concept of good tetrads as the tetrads satisfying the field equations without constrainig the function f(T). Employing local Lorentz transformations, good tetrads in the context of spherical symmetry are found for Schwarzschild-de Sitter solutions.

  8. A 928 sq m (10000 sq ft) solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    As the power requirements for space vehicles increases, the area of solar arrays that convert solar energy to usable electrical power increases. The requirements for a 928 sq m (10,000 sq ft) array, its design, and a full-scale demonstration of one quadrant (232 sq m (2500 sq ft)) deployed in a one-g field are described.

  9. FT-Raman Spectroscopy: A Catalyst for the Raman Explosion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy, which is used to detect and analyze the scattered radiation, are discussed. FT-Raman has served to revitalize a field that was lagging and the presence of Raman instrumentation as a routine analytical tool is established for the foreseeable future.

  10. Misleading FT4 measurement: Assay-dependent antibody interference

    PubMed Central

    Revet, Ingrid; Boesten, Lianne SM; Linthorst, Jan; Yildiz, Elif; Janssen, Johannes W; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Albersen, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Commonly used free thyroxine (FT4) immunoassays can be falsely elevated due to interference causing misinterpreted thyroid function. We present two cases with high FT4 concentrations due to antibody interference. This study’s aim was to investigate the source of the FT4 immunoassay interference and possibility of its removal by two different techniques in order to correct the discrepancy between obtained FT4 values and the patient’s clinical status. Materials and methods Two patients presented at their general practitioners’ with elevated FT4 concentrations in combination with a normal and increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Clinical symptoms differed between patients but did not correspond with the hyperthyroid status suggested by the laboratory results. FT4 concentrations from both patients were measured on four common commercial immunoassays and the dialysis method before and after treatment with heterophilic blocking tubes and protein A/G. Results Removal of interfering antibodies using protein A/G resulted in normal FT4 concentrations. Conclusion This report illustrates falsely elevated FT4 concentrations due to assay interference on the Immulite immunoassay analyser caused by heterophilic antibodies, which were eliminated by protein A/G treatment. We point out the importance of a close collaboration between doctors and the laboratory to avoid unnecessary clinical intervention.

  11. FT and florigen long-distance flowering control in plants.

    PubMed

    Putterill, Joanna; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2016-10-01

    The great hunt for florigen, the universal, long distance flowering regulator proposed by Chailakhan in the 1930s, resulted in the discovery a decade ago that FT-like proteins fulfilled the predictions for florigen. They are small (∼175 amino acids), globular, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) proteins, phloem-expressed, graft-transmissible and able to move to the shoot apex to act as potent stimulators of flowering in many plants. Genes that regulate Arabidopsis FT protein movement and some features of Arabidopsis FT protein that make it an effective florigen have recently been identified. Although floral promotion via graft transmission of FT has not been demonstrated in trees, FT-like genes have been successfully applied to reducing the long juvenile (pre-flowering) phase of many trees enabling fast track breeding.

  12. Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Schmidt, Walter; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Chan, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powder. Sample mixtures of turmeric powder and metanil yellow were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.01% (w/w). FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were acquired for these mixture samples as well as for pure samples of turmeric powder and metanil yellow. Spectral analysis showed that the FT-IR method in this study could detect the metanil yellow at the 5% concentration, while the FT-Raman method appeared to be more sensitive and could detect the metanil yellow at the 1% concentration. Relationships between metanil yellow spectral peak intensities and metanil yellow concentration were established using representative peaks at FT-Raman 1406 cm−1 and FT-IR 1140 cm−1 with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. PMID:28231130

  13. Monoacylglycerols Are Components of Root Waxes and Can Be Produced in the Aerial Cuticle by Ectopic Expression of a Suberin-Associated Acyltransferase1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Ohlrogge, John; Pollard, Mike

    2007-01-01

    The interface between plants and the environment is provided for aerial organs by epicuticular waxes that have been extensively studied. By contrast, little is known about the nature, biosynthesis, and role of waxes at the root-rhizosphere interface. Waxes isolated by rapid immersion of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots in organic solvents were rich in saturated C18-C22 alkyl esters of p-hydroxycinnamic acids, but also contained significant amounts of both α- and β-isomers of monoacylglycerols with C22 and C24 saturated acyl groups and the corresponding free fatty acids. Production of these compounds in root waxes was positively correlated to the expression of sn-glycerol-3-P acyltransferase5 (GPAT5), a gene encoding an acyltransferase previously shown to be involved in aliphatic suberin synthesis. This suggests a direct metabolic relationship between suberin and some root waxes. Furthermore, when ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, GPAT5 produced very-long-chain saturated monoacylglycerols and free fatty acids as novel components of cuticular waxes. The crystal morphology of stem waxes was altered and the load of total stem wax compounds was doubled, although the major components typical of the waxes found on wild-type plants decreased. These results strongly suggest that GPAT5 functions in vivo as an acyltransferase to a glycerol-containing acceptor and has access to the same pool of acyl intermediates and/or may be targeted to the same membrane domain as that of wax synthesis in aerial organs. PMID:17496107

  14. Good night, squashbite: a 'how to' paper on better wax occlusal records.

    PubMed

    Shargill, Inderjit; Ashley, Martin

    2006-12-01

    During the technical stages of dental treatment, a dental technician may only be able to unite a set of dental casts in a 'best-guess' relationship, unless they are either able to examine the patient themselves, or are given further information about the occlusal position chosen during the clinical procedure. The most common method for this is to use some form of occlusal record, which can be created from a variety of techniques and materials, such as either one of the dental waxes or one of the more recently introduced syringable materials. This paper describes a better technique for using dental wax to make occlusal records. The 'squashbite' technique has no place in clinical dentistry for those attempting to obtain accurate results.

  15. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst by Supercritical Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

    1997-01-31

    The proposed process of using supercritical fluid extraction in conjunction with the Fischer-Tropsch slurry bubble column reactor has been examined using the ASPEN Plus simulator by the research group at North Carolina State University. Qualitative results have been obtained for varying the following process parameters: solvent-to-wax ratio, solvent type (pentane or hexane), extraction temperature and pressure, and recovery unit temperature and pressure. The region of retrograde behavior was determined for pentane and hexane. Initial results show hexane to be the superior solvent; compared to pentane, hexane requires lower quantities of solvent makeup (the amount of solvent which needs to be added to account for solvent that cannot be recycled), and also results in a lower average molecular weight of slurry in the reactor. Studies indicate that increasing the extraction temperature, extraction pressure, recovery temperature, or solvent to wax ratio decreases the amount solvent makeup required. Decreasing the recovery pressure was found to decrease the makeup flowrate.

  16. FTIR spectroscopy of synthesized racemic nonacosan-10-ol: a model compound for plant epicuticular waxes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As there are no published graphically presented, detailed IR spectra of nonacosan-10-ol (occurring naturally and widely in plant epicuticular waxes of nanotube form), near IR FTIR spectroscopy (fundamentals, overtones and combinations) has been performed on laboratory synthesized racemic nonacosan-10-ol, as a crystalline solid on Mylar and polypropylene substrates. Room temperature, in vacuo data are presented graphically, in full, and show evidence of extensive hydrogen bonding, an orthorhombic perpendicular subcell, a methylene wagging progression, diagnostic of all-trans conformational order, and Fermi resonance. Moderate or stronger anharmonicity is confirmed. Detailed discussion, quantitative in parts, is given of the observed spectral features, especially as to how they inform crystal structure and molecular conformation, and assignments given for some of the features. The results will serve as a reference for future IR studies of the natural epicuticular wax nanotube form of (S)-nonacosan-10-ol. PMID:21886346

  17. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment.

  18. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment. PMID:27386559

  19. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Amitava Sarkar; James K. Neathery; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-12-31

    A fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of operation since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products in one approach may be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase iron-based FTS and is a key factor for optimizing operating costs. The separation problem is further compounded by attrition of iron catalyst particles and the formation of ultra-fine particles.

  20. Medical traditions and chronic disease in Ethiopia: a story of wax and gold?

    PubMed

    Levene, Dan; Phillips, David Iw; Alemu, Shitaye

    2016-07-01

    Effective medical care for non-communicable diseases (NCD) remains lamentably poor in Ethiopia and many low-income countries. Consequently, where modern medicine does not reach or is rejected, traditional treatments prevail. These are fragmented and esoteric by nature, and their understanding of illness is so fundamentally different that confusion proliferates when attempts are made to introduce modern medical care. Ethiopia is host to a variety of longstanding medical belief systems that coexist and function together, where modern medicine is often viewed as just another choice. This multiplicity of approaches to illness is accompanied by the Ethiopian custom of weaving layers of meaning, often contradictory, into speech and conversation - sometimes referred to as 'wax and gold', the 'wax' being the literal and the 'gold' the deeper, even hidden, meaning or significance. We argue that engagement with traditional belief systems and understanding these subtleties of meaning could assist in more effective NCD care.

  1. Attachment forces of ants measured with a centrifuge: better 'wax-runners' have a poorer attachment to a smooth surface.

    PubMed

    Federle, W; Rohrseitz, K; Hölldobler, B

    2000-02-01

    The symbiotic ant partners of glaucous Macaranga ant-plants show an exceptional capacity to run on the slippery epicuticular wax crystals covering the plant stem without any difficulty. We test the hypothesis that these specialised 'wax-runners' have a general, superior attachment capacity. We compared attachment on a smooth surface for 11 ant species with different wax-running capacities. The maximum force that could be withstood before an ant became detached was quantified using a centrifuge recorded by a high-speed video camera. This technique has the advantage of causing minimum disruption and allows measurements in very small animals. When strong centrifugal forces were applied, the ants showed a conspicuous 'freezing reflex' advantageous to attachment. Attachment forces differed strongly among the ant species investigated. This variation could not be explained by different surface area/weight ratios of smaller and larger ants. Within species, however, detachment force per body weight (F/W) scaled with the predicted value of W(-)(0.33), where W is body weight in newtons. Surprisingly, our results not only disprove the hypothesis that 'wax-runners' generally attach better but also provide evidence for the reverse effect. Superior 'wax-runners' (genera Technomyrmex and Crematogaster) did not cling better to smooth Perspex, but performed significantly worse than closely related congeners that are unable to climb up waxy stems. This suggests an inverse relationship between adaptations to run on wax and to attach to a smooth surface.

  2. Growth and wax ester production of an Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 mutant deficient in exopolysaccharide capsule synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kannisto, Matti; Efimova, Elena; Karp, Matti; Santala, Ville

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 naturally produces wax esters that could be used as a raw material in industrial applications. We attempted to improve wax ester yield of A. baylyi ADP1 by removing rmlA, a gene involved in exopolysaccharide production. Growth rate, biomass formation and wax ester yield on 4-hydroxybenzoate were not affected, but the rmlA (-) strain grew slower on acetate, while reaching similar biomass and wax ester yield. The rmlA (-) cells had malformed shape and large size and grew poorly on glucose without expression of the gene for pyruvate kinase (pykF) from Escherichia coli. The pykF-expressing rmlA (-) strain had similar growth rate, lowered biomass formation and improved wax ester production on glucose as compared to the wild-type strain expressing pykF. Cultivation of the pykF-expressing rmlA (-) strain on an elevated glucose concentration in a medium supplemented with amino acids resulted in doubled molar wax ester yield and acetate production.

  3. Removal of wax and stickies from OCC by flotation. Progress report No. 3, July 1--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, M.R.; Dyer, J.; Heise, O.; Cao, B.

    1998-11-01

    In this quarter we completed low consistency laboratory pulping trials. Pulping results were analyzed in terms of defibering index or yield and the concentration of free wax. The objective of these trials is to identify pulping conditions that will give higher yield and higher concentration of free wax. The yields from low consistency pulping trials ranged from 90 to 99% based on 6-cut laboratory screen rejects. In general, high temperatures (140-150{degree}F) and high pH (9.5-10) conditions resulted in higher yield and the generation of free wax. Factors such as rotor speed and the gap (between the rotor and grate) were not significant in affecting defibering. Generally, the turbidities of filtrates from wax-contaminated pulps increased with increase in temperature and/or pH. The filtrate turbidity indicated the relative concentration of finely dispersed wax that could be removed from pulp dewatered on a 30 {micro}m filter paper. Preliminary experiments were conducted to study flotation conditions necessary for effective removal of wax from pulp. Factors which are important for effective flotation include flotation time, volume of air, surfactant concentration and type, and low temperature. Future plans include additional flotation trials to better optimize conditions. Other contaminant types include pressure sensitive adhesives and hot melts will also be examined. This will be followed by pilot plant and mill trials.

  4. Removal of wax and stickies from OCC by flotation. Progress report No. 3, July 1--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Dosh, M.R.; Dyer, J.; Heise, O.; Cao, B.

    1998-11-01

    In this quarter we completed low consistency laboratory pulping trials. Pulping results were analyzed in terms of defibering index or yield and the concentration of free wax. The objective of these trials is to identify pulping conditions that will give higher yield and higher concentration of free wax. The yields from low consistency pulping trials ranged from 90 to 99% based on 6-cut laboratory screen rejects. In general, high temperatures (140-150{degrees}F) and high pH (9.5-10) conditions resulted in higher yield and the generation of free wax. Factors such as rotor speed and the gap (between the rotor and grate) were not significant in affecting defibering. Generally, the turbidities of filtrates from wax-contaminated pulps increased with increase in temperature and/or pH. The filtrate turbidity indicated the relative concentration of finely dispersed wax that could be removed from pulp dewatered on a 30 {micro}m filter paper. Preliminary experiments were conducted to study flotation conditions necessary for effective removal of wax from pulp. Factors which are important for effective flotation include flotation time, volume of air, surfactant concentration and type, and low temperature. Future plans include additional flotation trials to better optimize conditions. Other contaminant types include pressure sensitive adhesives and hot melts will also be examined. This will be followed by pilot plant and mill trials.

  5. Effects of Aridity and Vegetation on Plant-wax δD in Modern Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polissar, P. J.; Freeman, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Plant waxes are preserved over geologic timescales, and are found in diverse ancient sediments and soils. Observations that these molecules have hydrogen isotopic signatures that can be systematically related to that of modern precipitation have fueled aspirations to reconstruct ancient precipitation δD values. However, molecular isotopic signatures also reflect climate and plant physiological factors, and until better understood, these limit our ability to quantitatively interpret sedimentary lipid records. To advance our understanding of the influence of both ecosystem flora and climate (especially aridity) at the field scale, we analyzed the deuterium content of plant-waxes from sediments in 28 modern lakes located in watersheds which receive precipitation with a wide range of δD values, and are characterized by distinct vegetation types and regional climates. We found that the apparent isotopic fractionation (ɛa) between plant-wax n-alkanes and precipitation differs with watershed ecosystem type and structure, and decreases with increasing regional aridity as measured by enrichment of 2H and 18O associated with evaporation of lake waters. The most negative ɛa values represent signatures least affected by aridity; these values were: -125 ± 5 ‰ for tropical evergreen and dry forests, -130 ‰ for a temperate broadleaf forest, -120 ± 9 ‰ for the high-altitude tropical páramo (herbs, shrubs and grasses), and -98 ± 6 ‰ for North American montane gymnosperm forests. Minimum ɛa values reflect ecosystem-dependent differences in leaf water enrichment and soil evaporation. Slopes of lipid/lakewater isotopic enrichments differ slightly with ecosystem structure (i.e. open shrublands vs. forests) and overall are quite small (slopes = 0 to 2), indicating low sensitivity of lipid δD variations to aridity compared with coexisting lake waters. This finding provides an approach for reconstructing ancient precipitation signatures based on plant-wax

  6. The importance of being Florentine: a journey around the world for wax anatomical Venuses.

    PubMed

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This article reconstructs the 19th century history of events regarding a few female wax anatomical models made in Florence. More or less faithful copies of those housed in Florence's Museum of Physics and Natural History, these models were destined for display in temporary exhibitions. In their travels through Europe and the United States, they transformed the expression "Florentine Venus" into a sort of brand name used to label and offer respectability to pieces of widely varying quality.

  7. Effect of butoconazole nitrate cream and wax insert on the barrier property of contraceptive devices.

    PubMed

    Wong, A B

    1988-04-01

    A new method was developed to assess the quality of the barrier property of several types of commonly used contraceptive devices (diaphragm, cervical cap, and condom). Our data showed that butoconazole nitrate cream and wax inserts did not affect the barrier property of the contraceptive devices when the products were placed in contact with the devices for up to 72 hours at 37 degrees C.

  8. RDX-Polyethylene Wax Formulations as Potential Replacements for Tetryl in Fuze Leads, Boosters and Magazines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    DIPAM or HNS . In the light of the information presented in the previous paragraph, we undertook a programme to prepare and assess candidate...procedure devised by Cachia and Whitbread 1141. The system consists of a donor of a PETN filled exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator, an acceptor of...results are consistent with published data on impact and friction sensitivity of HMX and PETN coated with less than 5% wax 1161, and also support

  9. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

    2004-09-30

    In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was continued to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. The shakedown phase of the pilot-scale filtration platform was completed at the end of the last reporting period. A study of various molecular weight waxes was initiated to determine the effect of wax physical properties on the permeation rate without catalyst present. As expected, the permeation flux was inversely proportional to the nominal average molecular weight of the polyethylene wax. Even without catalyst particles present in the filtrate, the filtration membranes experience fouling during an induction period on the order of days on-line. Another long-term filtration test was initiated using a batch of iron catalyst that was previously activated with CO to form iron carbide in a separate continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The permeation flux stabilized more rapidly than that experienced with unactivated catalyst tests.

  10. Safety and efficacy of bone wax in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Krasny, Marta; Krasny, Kornel; Fiedor, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular conditions, apart from neoplastic diseases, remain the major cause of death in developed countries; therefore, the number of patients receiving oral anticoagulants is constantly increasing. Anticoagulant therapy considerably reduced mortality in patients with history of myocardial infarction among others. Although many interventions may be performed without withdrawal of the anticoagulant and tooth extraction was qualified as a procedure of low hemorrhage risk, a majority of dentists refer the patient to a cardiologist several days before the elective tooth extraction to withdraw anticoagulants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bone wax used to stop bleeding after dental procedures in a group of patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy and find an answer to a question, whether it is justified to temporarily withdraw anticoagulants for this type of procedures. The study involved 176 patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy undergoing tooth extraction (154 subjects) or surgical extraction of a retained tooth (48 subjects). After the procedure, in each case the alveolus was filled with bone wax to stop bleeding. In all patients involved in the study bleeding from the alveolus was successfully stopped during the procedure. None of the subjects reported increased bleeding from the operational site after coming back home. Bone wax is a good, efficient, and safe material to block bleeding from the alveolus following tooth extractions, also in patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy. The study demonstrated that withdrawal or adjustment of anticoagulant therapy is not necessary before an elective tooth extraction.

  11. Extraction and characterization of wax from sugarcane bagasse and the enzymatic hydrolysis of dewaxed sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Qi, Gaoxiang; Peng, Fen; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Chao; Li, Hailong; Chen, Xuefang; Chen, Xinde

    2017-03-16

    Extraction of high-value products from agricultural wastes is an important component for sustainable bioeconomy development. In this study, wax extraction from sugarcane bagasse was performed and the beneficial effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. About 1.2% (w/w) of crude sugarcane wax was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse using the mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol (mass ratio of 1:1) as the extraction agent. Results of Fourier-transform infrared characterization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry qualitative analysis showed that the crude sugarcane wax consisted of fatty fractions (fatty acids, fatty aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and esters) and small amount of lignin derivatives. In addition, the effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was also investigated. The digestibilities of cellulose and xylan in dewaxed sugarcane bagasse were 18.7 and 10.3%, respectively, compared with those of 13.1 and 8.9% obtained from native sugarcane bagasse. The dewaxed sugarcane bagasse became more accessible to enzyme due to the disruption of the outermost layer of the waxy materials.

  12. Slippery surfaces of pitcher plants: Nepenthes wax crystals minimize insect attachment via microscopic surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Scholz, I; Bückins, M; Dolge, L; Erlinghagen, T; Weth, A; Hischen, F; Mayer, J; Hoffmann, S; Riederer, M; Riedel, M; Baumgartner, W

    2010-04-01

    Pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes efficiently trap and retain insect prey in highly specialized leaves. Besides a slippery peristome which inhibits adhesion of insects they employ epicuticular wax crystals on the inner walls of the conductive zone of the pitchers to hamper insect attachment by adhesive devices. It has been proposed that the detachment of individual crystals and the resulting contamination of adhesive organs is responsible for capturing insects. However, our results provide evidence in favour of a different mechanism, mainly based on the stability and the roughness of the waxy surface. First, we were unable to detect a large quantity of crystal fragments on the pads of insects detached from mature pitcher surfaces of Nepenthes alata. Second, investigation of the pitcher surface by focused ion beam treatment showed that the wax crystals form a compact 3D structure. Third, atomic force microscopy of the platelet-shaped crystals revealed that the crystals are mechanically stable, rendering crystal detachment by insect pads unlikely. Fourth, the surface profile parameters of the wax layer showed striking similarities to those of polishing paper with low grain size. By measuring friction forces of insects on this artificial surface we demonstrate that microscopic roughness alone is sufficient to minimize insect attachment. A theoretical model shows that surface roughness within a certain length scale will prevent adhesion by being too rough for adhesive pads but not rough enough for claws.

  13. Implementation of in situ SAXS/WAXS characterization into silicon/glass microreactors.

    PubMed

    Beuvier, Thomas; Panduro, Elvia Anabela Chavez; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Marre, Samuel; Lecoutre, Carole; Garrabos, Yves; Aymonier, Cyril; Calvignac, Brice; Gibaud, Alain

    2015-05-07

    A successful implementation of in situ X-ray scattering analysis of synthetized particle materials in silicon/glass microreactors is reported. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as a model material was precipitated inside the microchannels through the counter-injection of two aqueous solutions, containing carbonate ions and calcium ions, respectively. The synthesized calcite particles were analyzed in situ in aqueous media by combining Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) techniques at the ESRF ID02 beam line. At high wavevector transfer, WAXS patterns clearly exhibit different scattering features: broad scattering signals originating from the solvent and the glass lid of the chip, and narrow diffraction peaks coming from CaCO3 particles precipitated rapidly inside the microchannel. At low wavevector transfer, SAXS reveals the rhombohedral morphology of the calcite particles together with their micrometer size without any strong background, neither from the chip nor from the water. This study demonstrates that silicon/glass chips are potentially powerful tools for in situ SAXS/WAXS analysis and are promising for studying the structure and morphology of materials in non-conventional conditions like geological materials under high pressure and high temperature.

  14. SAXS/WAXS studies of shear-induced crystallization of poly(1-butene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweon, Mu Sung; Luo, Binbin; Burghardt, Wesley

    Flow-induced crystallization of poly(1-butene) was studied in shear flow. Flow was produced using a Linkam shear cell that has been modified to allow x-ray access for in situ studies of polymer structure using synchrotron x-ray scattering techniques. After loading in the shear cell, samples were first heated well into the melt, and then cooled to a crystallization temperature selected such that negligible quiescent crystallization would occur on reasonable time scales. A short burst of shear flow was then applied at various rates, after which simultaneous wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS, respectively) data were collected to study the impact of both deformation rate and total applied strain on accelerated crystallization kinetics as well as the morphology of the resulting crystallites (e.g. degree of crystallite orientation). SAXS and WAXS data generally showed qualitative agreement in measures of the extent of crystallization and the degree of crystallite orientation. Average crystallite orientation was found to decrease over the course of crystallization. The crystalline volume fraction in the sample was calculated from the (i) SAXS invariant and (ii) integrated WAXS intensity profile to quantify the extent to which the sample crystallized at various flow c

  15. An oral controlled release system for ambroxol hydrochloride containing a wax and a water insoluble polymer.

    PubMed

    Chi, Na; Guo, Ju Hong; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xing

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to develop and optimize oral sustained-release formulations for Ambroxol hydrochloride matrix pellets using a combination of wax and water-insoluble polymer, glyceryl behenate (Compritol 888 ATO) and Ethylcellulose (EC(7 FP)). It involved three factors: the content of Compritol 888 ATO (X(1)), EC(7 FP) (X(2)), and the matrix formation methods (X(3)), as independent variables. The drug release percentages at 1, 2 and 4 h were the target responses and were restricted to 15-45% (Y(1)), 45-80% (Y(2)) and 80-100% (Y(3)), respectively. The final blend formulation prepared by extrusion spheronization, was achieved with 27.00% (w/w) Ambroxol hydrochloride, 48.70% (w/w) Compritol 888 ATO, and 24.30% (w/w) EC(7 Fp) with 40 degrees C for 12 h. Comparing the single matrix materials consisting of just the wax or water-insoluble in the complex matrix system containing wax and water-insoluble polymer, the release of the drug can be far more retarded, when the formulations have undergone the process of heat treatment. Furthermore, the combination of the two polymers, with flexible matrix formation methods, will offer a very promising way of producing matrix pellets instead of coated controlled-release pellets to meet various demands of drug release.

  16. New MALDI matrices based on lithium salts for the analysis of hydrocarbons and wax esters.

    PubMed

    Horká, Petra; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hanus, Robert; Pecková, Karolina; Cvačka, Josef

    2014-07-01

    Lithium salts of organic aromatic acids (lithium benzoate, lithium salicylate, lithium vanillate, lithium 2,5-dimethoxybenzoate, lithium 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalate, lithium α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and lithium sinapate) were synthesized and tested as potential matrices for the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry analysis of hydrocarbons and wax esters. The analytes were desorbed using nitrogen laser (337.1 nm) and ionized via the attachment of a lithium cation, yielding [M + Li](+) adducts. The sample preparation and the experimental conditions were optimized for each matrix using stearyl behenate and n-triacontane standards. The performance of the new matrices in terms of signal intensity and reproducibility, the mass range occupied by matrix ions and the laser power threshold were studied and compared with a previously recommended lithium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate matrix (LiDHB) (Cvačka and Svatoš, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2003, 17, 2203). Several of the new matrices performed better than LiDHB. Lithium vanillate offered a 2-3 times and 7-9 times higher signal for wax esters and hydrocarbons, respectively. Also, the signal reproducibility improved substantially, making this matrix a suitable candidate for imaging applications. In addition, the diffuse reflectance spectra and solubility of the synthesized compounds were investigated and discussed with respect to the compound's ability to serve as MALDI matrices. The applicability of selected matrices was tested on natural samples of wax esters and hydrocarbons.

  17. Allelopathic Monoterpenes Interfere with Arabidopsis thaliana Cuticular Waxes and Enhance Transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Kussmann, Petra; Knop, Mona; Kriegs, Bettina; Gresens, Frank; Eichert, Thomas; Ulbrich, Andreas; Marx, Friedhelm; Fabricius, Heinz; Goldbach, Heiner; Noga, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to the allelopathic monoterpenes camphor (100 mg/10 L) and menthol (50 mg/10 L) for 24 h enhanced transpiration of Arabidopsis thaliana fully developed rosette leaves similar to de-waxing. As ascertained by ESEM analyses the leaf surfaces were spotted with platelet like structures which seem to be partly mixed with the lipophilic epicuticular layers. The structures are supposed to contain the condensed monoterpenes, which could be identified by GC. Long term exposure (more than 48 h) to 100 mg/50 mg killed the plants by desiccation, a 24 h exposure caused necrotic spots that became visible one to two days after the treatment. Examinations of the stomatal apertures indicated that monoterpenes induced stomatal opening followed by extreme swelling and a final break down of the protoplasts. Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to volatiles of Mentha piperita, Lavandula latifolia and Artemisia camphorata resulted in a dramatic increase of the stomata aperture but swelling of the protoplasts was less exhibited. In contrast to de-waxing, expression of the fatty acid condensing enzyme encoding CER6 gene and de novo synthesis of CER6 protein was not induced after 24 h of exposure to the monoterpenes. The aim of the study was to demonstrate that the lipophilic layers of the leaf surface and the stomata are primary targets of monoterpene allelopathic attack. Enhanced transpiration results from a combination of affected lipophilic wax layers and a disturbed stomata function. PMID:19516993

  18. Photodegradation of organic pollutants on the spruce needle wax surface under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Dolinová, Jindriska; Klánová, Jana; Klán, Petr; Holoubek, Ivan

    2004-12-01

    The photochemistry of selected organic compounds, including common pollutants, on the paraffin (as a model matrix) and spruce wax surfaces was studied under laboratory conditions. Two model transformations were evaluated: (1) intramolecular rearrangements of valerophenone and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, and (2) hydrogen abstraction between an excited benzophenone and the hydrocarbon paraffin/wax chains. The steric or polar influence of the solid matrix on conformational and translational motion, its optical properties, hydrogen abstraction probabilities, and consequences of the guest-molecule segregation are discussed in this work. Furthermore, the photochemical reactivity of some common anthropogenic pollutants, such as chlorinated biphenyls (4-chlorobiphenyl, 2,4-dichlorobiphenyl, and 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl), 4-chlorophenol, and DDT, was evaluated. The surface of spruce wax is presented as probable reaction medium for photochemical transformations. Although the matrix presents certain restrictions for bimolecular reactions, common photodegradations should be generally feasible in nature. In addition, paraffin was found to be a suitable model matrix for the studies of possible photochemical transformations that can occur on natural plant surfaces.

  19. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan A,

    2011-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that replacing a wax PCM heat sink with a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by eliminating the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively.

  20. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Adam Crawford; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-09-30

    In the previous reporting period, modifications were completed for integrating a continuous wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor. During the current reporting period, a shakedown of the system was completed. Several problems were encountered with the progressive cavity pump used to circulate the wax/catalyst slurry though the cross-flow filter element and reactor. During the activation of the catalyst with elevated temperature (> 270 C) the elastomer pump stator released sulfur thereby totally deactivating the iron-based catalyst. Difficulties in maintaining an acceptable leak rate from the pump seal and stator housing were also encountered. Consequently, the system leak rate exceeded the expected production rate of wax; therefore, no online filtration could be accomplished. Work continued regarding the characterization of ultra-fine catalyst structures. The effect of carbidation on the morphology of iron hydroxide oxide particles was the focus of the study during this reporting period. Oxidation of Fe (II) sulfate results in predominantly {gamma}-FeOOH particles which have a rod-shaped (nano-needles) crystalline structure. Carbidation of the prepared {gamma}-FeOOH with CO at atmospheric pressure produced iron carbides with spherical layered structure. HRTEM and EDS analysis revealed that carbidation of {gamma}-FeOOH particles changes the initial nano-needles morphology and generates ultrafine carbide particles with irregular spherical shape.

  1. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks.

  2. Double-Layered Matrix of Shellac Wax-Lutrol in Controlled Dual Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Choncheewa, Chai-Ek

    2016-12-01

    Double-layered matrix tablets prepared from shellac wax-lutrol were fabricated using a molding technique, and the release of hydrochlorothiazide and propranolol HCl from the inner tablet or outer layer was studied. The simultaneous determination of dual drug release was measured with first derivative UV spectrophotometry. The tablet containing shellac wax as the outer tablet and lutrol as the inner tablet showed more appropriate drug release and the size of the inner layer influenced the rate of drug release. In addition, the aqueous solubility of the drug and the components of the inner tablet or outer layer affected the drug release behavior. Most of the double-layered tablets exhibited the drug-release pattern which fitted well with zero-order kinetic due to the restriction of the release surface. Biphasic drug release pattern was found in the tablet of which the outer layer rapidly eroded. The drug dissolution data from drug-loaded-outer layer could predict the dissolution time for the outer layer of drug-loaded inner part of double-layered matrix tablet. Incorporation of lutrol increased the drug release from shellac wax matrix, and the zero-order release was attained by fabricating it into a double-layered tablet.

  3. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham.

    PubMed

    Díaz Napal, Georgina; Carpinella, María C; Palacios, Sara M

    2016-08-11

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae) led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae) and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera). The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1). The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50) of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm², respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm², respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm² or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50) of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm² for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  4. 1064 nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Umesh P

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression can be achieved, the utility of the Raman investigations has increased significantly. Moreover, the development of several new capabilities such as estimation of cellulose-crystallinity, ability to analyze changes in cellulose conformation at the local and molecular level, and examination of water-cellulose interactions have made this technique essential for research in the field of plant science. The FT-Raman method has also been applied to research studies in the arenas of biofuels and nanocelluloses. Moreover, the ability to investigate plant lignins has been further refined with the availability of near-IR Raman. In this paper, we present 1064-nm FT-Raman spectroscopy methodology to investigate various compositional and structural properties of plant material. It is hoped that the described studies will motivate the research community in the plant biomass field to adapt this technique to investigate their specific research needs.

  5. 1064 nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Umesh P.

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression can be achieved, the utility of the Raman investigations has increased significantly. Moreover, the development of several new capabilities such as estimation of cellulose-crystallinity, ability to analyze changes in cellulose conformation at the local and molecular level, and examination of water-cellulose interactions have made this technique essential for research in the field of plant science. The FT-Raman method has also been applied to research studies in the arenas of biofuels and nanocelluloses. Moreover, the ability to investigate plant lignins has been further refined with the availability of near-IR Raman. In this paper, we present 1064-nm FT-Raman spectroscopy methodology to investigate various compositional and structural properties of plant material. It is hoped that the described studies will motivate the research community in the plant biomass field to adapt this technique to investigate their specific research needs. PMID:25295049

  6. FT-IR spectral studies on certain human urinary stones in the patients of rural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Thiruppathi, G.; Raja, A.

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been carried out to analyze the organic and inorganic constituent of human urinary stones. Patient's hailing from Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India was selected for the study. The FT-IR results indicate that stones have different composition, i.e., namely calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, carbonate apatite and magnesium ammonium phosphate and uric acid. From the spectral and powder X-ray diffraction pattern, the chemical constituents of urinary stones were identified. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1620 cm-1, calcium phosphate (apatite) 1037 cm-1, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) 1010 cm-1, calcium carbonate 1460 cm-1 and uric acid 1441 cm-1 were calculated using particular peaks of FT-IR studies. The study reveals that calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate type urinary stones were predominant whereas magnesium ammonium phosphate are in moderate level, and calcium carbonate and uric acid are in low. Calcium phosphate is found in all the stones and calcium oxalate monohydrate is found to be higher. Quantitative analyses of urinary stones show that calcium oxalate monohydrate (40%), apatite (30%), magnesium ammonium phosphate (23%) and uric acid (7%) are present in all the urinary stone samples.

  7. Determination of the degree of cure of dental resins using Raman and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shin, W S; Li, X F; Schwartz, B; Wunder, S L; Baran, G R

    1993-09-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy has traditionally been used to determine the degree of conversion of dental resins. FT-Raman scattering provided an alternate method of obtaining degrees of conversion for these systems and was particularly useful for measuring spectra of materials without any sample preparation. Raman and FT-Raman spectroscopy gave identical results, but the latter technique was preferred for the highly fluorescent samples often encountered in commercial composites. Linear calibration curves were obtained for the aromatic mixtures Bis-GMA/TEGDMA and Bisphenol-A/TEGDMA using C = C/phi, and for the wholly aliphatic mixture EGDMA/EGDA using C = C/C = O, over a wide range of mole ratios. If both the mole and intensity ratios [C = C/phi or C = C/C = O] were known for an uncured dental resin, then the degrees of conversion could be obtained for the cured materials using Raman spectroscopy. However, if the mole ratios for the uncured resin were unknown, then the degree of conversion depended on the calibration curve, since the Raman scattering cross section of the vibrational modes depended on the molecules to which they were attached.

  8. FT-Raman, FT-IR spectroscopic and DFT studies of hexaphenoxycyclotriphosphazene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandyukov, A. E.; Padie, C.; Majoral, J. P.; Caminade, A. M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman measurements of zero Gc0‧ -H and first Gc1‧ -H generations of phosphorus dendrimer built from cyclotriphosphazene core with phenoxy and deuterophenoxy terminal groups have been performed. In order to evaluate how much the frequencies, shift when changing the electronics of the system the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of phosphorus‒containing dendron with five terminal oxybenzaldehyde and one ester function Gci‧ have been also studied. Structural optimization and normal mode analysis were obtained for Gc0‧ -H and Gc0‧ -D by the density functional theory (DFT). It is discovered that dendrimer molecule exists in a stable conformation with six phenoxy terminal groups spaced above and below the flat cyclotriphosphazene core. Optimized geometric bond length and angles obtained by DFT show good agreement with a previously-published X-ray study. The phenoxy terminal groups are characterized by the well-defined line at 993 cm-1 in the experimental Raman spectrum of Gc0‧ -H and by line at 960 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of Gc0‧ -D. Relying on DFT calculations a complete vibrational assignment is proposed for the studied dendrimers. The frequencies and relative intensity of the bands at 1589, 1487 cm-1 in the IR spectra show marked difference in dependence of the substituents on the aromatic ring.

  9. Prediction of mixed hardwood lignin and carbohydrate content using ATR-FTIR and FT-NIR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Via, Brian K; Fasina, Oladiran; Han, Guangting

    2015-05-05

    This study used Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) to build hardwood prediction models. Wet chemistry analysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to obtain the chemical composition of these samples. Spectra loadings were studied to identify key wavenumber in the prediction of chemical composition. NIR-PLS and FTIR-PLS performed the best for extractives, lignin and xylose, whose residual predictive deviation (RPD) values were all over 3 and indicates the potential for either instrument to provide superior prediction models with NIR performing slightly better. During testing, it was found that more accurate determination of holocellulose content was possible when HPLC was used. Independent chemometric models, for FT-NIR and ATR-FTIR, identified similar functional groups responsible for the prediction of chemical composition and suggested that coupling the two techniques could strengthen interpretation and prediction.

  10. Characterization of laser-treated Opuntia using FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejías Díaz, K. D.; Flores Reyes, T.; Ponce Cabrera, L.; Domínguez Sánchez, M.; Arronte García, M.; de Posada Piñán, E.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the characterization of Opuntia samples whose thorns were removed by laser pulses. The characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In this study we performed a comparative analysis of samples before and after treatment by using a Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm with an energy variable of up to 0.9 J. It was determined that no significant morphological or compositional changes had taken place in the cactus epidermis due to the laser treatment.

  11. Using FT-IR Spectroscopy to Elucidate the Structures of Ablative Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The composition and structure of an ablative polymer has a multifaceted influence on its thermal, mechanical and ablative properties. Understanding the molecular level information is critical to the optimization of material performance because it helps to establish correlations with the macroscopic properties of the material, the so-called structure-property relationship. Moreover, accurate information of molecular structures is also essential to predict the thermal decomposition pathways as well as to identify decomposition species that are fundamentally important to modeling work. In this presentation, I will describe the use of infrared transmission spectroscopy (FT-IR) as a convenient tool to aid the discovery and development of thermal protection system materials.

  12. Sandia SWiFT Site Safe Work Planning Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility provides research site with multiple wind turbines at a scale useful for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. Safety of workers and the public is the top and overriding priority at SWiFT. Central to safe operations are formal planning processes . This manual provides an overview of test planning and work planning processes and requirements in adherence with the Sandia corporate Engineered Safety Work Planning and Control process. It is required reading for all SWiFT site staff, Sandia workers, and collaborators who oversee, conduct, or participate in test activities or who are involved in modifying Sandia SWiFT site assets.

  13. Large-scale structure in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Li Baojiu; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Barrow, John D.

    2011-05-15

    In this work we study the cosmology of the general f(T) gravity theory. We express the modified Einstein equations using covariant quantities, and derive the gauge-invariant perturbation equations in covariant form. We consider a specific choice of f(T), designed to explain the observed late-time accelerating cosmic expansion without including an exotic dark energy component. Our numerical solution shows that the extra degree of freedom of such f(T) gravity models generally decays as one goes to smaller scales, and consequently its effects on scales such as galaxies and galaxies clusters are small. But on large scales, this degree of freedom can produce large deviations from the standard {Lambda}CDM scenario, leading to severe constraints on the f(T) gravity models as an explanation to the cosmic acceleration.

  14. Incised bifurcations and uneven radial distribution of channel incision in the Wax Lake Delta, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. B.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Wax Lake Delta, southern Louisiana, has been found to possess distributary channels whose beds range from non-depositional to strongly erosional, cut into pre-delta muds. This discovery was unexpected given that the overall depositional setting has created greater than 100 square km of subareal land in less than 40 years. Furthermore, while map views of the system reveal an approximately radial symmetric depositional pattern and delta shape, the pattern of channel incision is unevenly distributed across the distributary network. The apex of Wax Lake delta is defined by an adverse ramp with a bed slope of 0.006 that connects the deep feeder channel (18m) to the shallower, first set of bifurcations. We find two distinct zones of channel bottom character within the distributary network. The first zone consists of substantially incised channels stemming from the bifurcation directly downstream of the Wax Lake Outlet and ramp described above. The maximum depth of incision into pre-delta mud decreases from roughly 3m to 1.5m nearer the delta front. This incision can make up greater than 1/3 of the total flow depth in these channels. The second zone is characterized by non-depositional channel bottoms that are located off to either side of the swath of incisional channels. These channels sit on top of the pre-delta substrate, showing no significant erosion or deposition. The occurrence of bed erosion and non-deposition throughout the observed channel network raises the previously unasked questions of whether these regimes extend to the very front of the delta located 10km from the delta apex, and whether incision plays an important role in the original development of bifurcations on this delta. The development of channel bifurcations under conditions with significant bed incision has yet to be discussed in the river bifurcation literature, and may play an important role in the observed constancy of channel network patterns. Using USACE bathymetry surveys as well as

  15. The FT/TFL1 gene family in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Carmona, María José; Calonje, Myriam; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel

    2007-03-01

    The FT/TFL1 gene family encodes proteins with similarity to phosphatidylethanolamine binding proteins which function as flowering promoters and repressors. We show here that the FT/TFL1 gene family in Vitis vinifera is composed of at least five genes. Sequence comparisons with homologous genes identified in other dicot species group them in three major clades, the FT, MFT and TFL1 subfamilies, the latter including three of the Vitis sequences. Gene expression patterns are in agreement with a role of VvFT and VvMFT as flowering promoters; while VvTFL1A, VvTFL1B and VvTFL1C could be associated with vegetative development and maintenance of meristem indetermination. Overexpression of VvFT in transgenic Arabidopsis plants generates early flowering phenotypes similar to those produced by FT supporting a role for this gene in flowering promotion. Overexpression of VvTFL1A does not affect flowering time but the determination of flower meristems, strongly altering inflorescence structure, which is consistent with the biological roles assigned to similar genes in other species.

  16. Some critical aspects of FT-IR, TGA, powder XRD, EDAX and SEM studies of calcium oxalate urinary calculi.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vimal S; Vasant, Sonal R; Bhatt, J G; Joshi, Mihir J

    2014-06-01

    Urinary calculi constitute one of the oldest afflictions of humans as well as animals, which are occurring globally. The calculi vary in shape, size and composition, which influence their clinical course. They are usually of the mixed-type with varying percentages of the ingredients. In medical management of urinary calculi, either the nature of calculi is to be known or the exact composition of calculi is required. In the present study, two selected calculi were recovered after surgery from two different patients for detailed examination and investigated by using Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) techniques. The study demonstrated that the nature of urinary calculi and presence of major phase in mixed calculi could be identified by FT-IR, TGA and powder XRD, however, the exact content of various elements could be found by EDAX only.

  17. Letter : NIR FT-Raman microspectroscopy of fluid inclusions: Comparisons with VIS Raman and FT-IR microspectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pironon, J.; Sawatzki, J.; Dubessy, J.

    1991-12-01

    The first Raman spectra of hydrocarbon inclusions using Fourier transform (FT) Raman microspectroscopy were obtained with a 1064 nm laser excitation in the near-infrared range (NIR FT-Raman). Some inclusions reveal the typical CH vibrational bands of organic compounds, but most of the inclusions that are fluorescent during visible Raman microspectroscopy (514 nm excitation) are still fluorescent in the NIR range. These Raman spectra are presented and compared to the conventional visible (VIS) Raman and FT-IR spectra. For spectra obtained on the same nonfluorescent inclusion, the signal/background ratio is lower in NIR FT-Raman than in VIS Raman. This ratio should be improved by application of more sensitive detectors. The increase of the power density (laser power/impact laser area) could be a future improvement in the limit of thermal background excitation and pyrolysis of the oils trapped in inclusions.

  18. Lipid Characterization of White, Dark, and Milk Chocolates by FT-Raman Spectroscopy and Capillary Zone Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Leandra Natália; de Jesus Coelho Castro, Renata; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies about different types of chocolate and their chemical characterization by Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid profile of different types of Brazilian chocolate through characterization by FT-Raman spectroscopy and identification and quantification of major fatty acids (FAs) by CZE to confirm FT-Raman spectrometry results. It was found that the main spectroscopic profile difference of the chocolate samples analyzed was related to the presence of saturated or unsaturated FAs. Well defined bands at approximately 1660, 1267, and 1274 cm(-1) corresponding to vibrational modes of unsaturated FAs (UnFAs) were found only in the spectra of samples with cocoa butter in their composition according to label specifications, mainly in dark chocolate samples. The FA identification and quantification by CZE found the presence of stearic (18:0) and palmitic (16:0) acids as the major saturated FAs in all chocolate samples. Dark chocolate samples showed the highest levels of oleic (cis-9 18:1) and linoleic (cis, cis -9,12 18:2) UnFAs monitored and the lowest levels of 14:0 in their chemical composition. Samples coded as 02 (with not only cocoa butter in their composition according to label) had the highest levels of 14:0 (FA not present in cocoa butter composition) corresponding to label information and inferring the presence of other fat sources, called cocoa butter substitutes, mainly for milk and white chocolate samples. This study suggests FT-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can be used to chemically characterize the chocolate lipid fraction, and CZE is a tool able to confirm Raman spectroscopy results and identify and quantify the major FAs in chocolate samples.

  19. Determination of alkaloids in capsules, milk and ethanolic extracts of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) by ATR-FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hartwig; Baranska, Malgorzata; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Schütze, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Fourier transform (FT) infrared spectroscopy using a diamond composite ATR crystal and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy techniques were applied for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the most important alkaloids in poppy capsules. Most of the characteristic Raman signals of the alkaloids can be identified in poppy milk isolated from unripe capsules. But also poppy extracts present specific bands relating clearly to the alkaloid fraction. Raman spectra obtained by excitation with a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm show no disturbing fluorescence effects; therefore the plant tissue can be recorded without any special preparation. The used diamond ATR technique allows to measure very small sample amounts (5-10 microL or 2-5 mg) without the necessity to perform time-consuming pre-treatments. When applying cluster analysis a reliable discrimination of "low-alkaloid" and "high-alkaloid" poppy single-plants can be easily achieved. The examples presented in this study provide clear evidence of the benefits of Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy in efficient quality control, forensic analysis and high-throughput evaluation of poppy breeding material.

  20. Hair growth promoting effect of white wax and policosanol from white wax on the mouse model of testosterone-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-di; Feng, Ying; Ma, Li-Yi; Li, Xian; Ding, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-02-26

    White wax (WW) has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China. However there has been no reporter WW and its extract responsible for hair growth-promoting effect on androgenetic alopecia. In this paper, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of WW and policosanol of white wax (WWP) on model animal of androgenetic alopecia and the potential target cell of WW and WWP. WW (1, 10 and 20%) and WWP (0.5, 1 and 2%) were applied topically to the backs of mice. Finasteride (2%) was applied topically as a positive control. MTS assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation in culture human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). The inhibition of WW and WWP for 5α- reductase were tested in Vitro. Results showed more lost hairs were clearly seen in mice treated with TP only and TP plus vehicle. Mice which received TP plus WW and WWP showed less hair loss. WW and WWP showed an outstanding hair growth-promoting activity as reflected by the follicular length, follicular density, A/T ratio, and hair bulb diameter. The optimal treatment effect was observed at 10% WW and 1% WWP, which were better than 2% finasteride treatment. MTS assay results suggested that WW and WWP remarkably increased the proliferation of HFDPCs. Inhibitor assay of 5α- reductase showed that WW and WWP inhibited significantly the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotesterone, and the IC50 values of WW and WWP were higher than that of finasteride. In Conclusion, WW and WWP could act against testosterone-induced alopecia in mice, and they promoted hair growth by inhibiting 5α-reductase activity and HFDPCs proliferation. DPCs is the target cell of WW and WWP.