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Sample records for ft waxes composition

  1. Biocidal Wax Composition and Preparation Thereof.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    WAX COMPOSITION AND PREPARATION THEREOF 2 3 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE 4 A biocidal wax composition for preventing corrosion and 5 biological fouling...13 by marine growth or corrosion . Wooden blocks and piers can be 14 destroyed in a few years if left untreated. Many of the 15 traditional treatments...capability or strength 18 through corrosion and marine growth on their surfaces. 19 One approach to reducing marine growth is coating the sur- 20 face

  2. Process for producing a petroleum wax composition

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a process for producing a wax composition. It comprises: vacuum distilling a petroleum feed to prepare a 650 distillate heavy intermediate petroleum wax, having a melting point range of from about 155{degrees}F. to about 185{degrees}F., subjecting the heavy intermediate petroleum wax to furfural/duosol solvent extraction, dissolving and crystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, dissolving and recrystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, percolating the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax in the molten state through a clay bed; and blending the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax from about 50 weight percent to about 90 weight percent with from about 10 weight percent to about 30 weight percent of a polymeric compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer, polypropylene and mixtures there of and having a molecular weight of from about 2,000 to about 100,000 and a melt index of from about 1 to about 250{degrees} at 375{degrees}F.

  3. Determination of the aromatic compounds in plant cuticular waxes using FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubis, Eligiusz N.; Dubis, Alina T.; Popławski, J.

    2001-09-01

    The infrared study of the aromatic components of hops ( Humulus lupulus) cuticular wax was performed. HATR FT-IR technique for fresh leaves and their extract analysis was applied. Phenylmethyl myristate, 2-phenylethyl myristate and docosyl benzoate were synthesized and used as reference standards. An absorption band in the range of 709-966 cm -1 indicates the presence of aromatic esters in plant cuticular waxes.

  4. Component composition of deresined brown coal wax

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Noskova

    2008-10-15

    The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of wax isolated from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit were studied using chromatography and IR and NMR spectroscopy. It was found that hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, and a representative fraction of unsaponifiable esters were the constituents of wax. High-molecular-weight fatty alcohols and acids were identified as the constituents of wax with the use of thin-layer chromatography.

  5. Epicuticular Wax Crystals of Wollemia nobilis: Morphology and Chemical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Dragota, Simona; Riederer, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The morphology of the epicuticular leaf waxes of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) was studied with special emphasis on the relationship between the microstructure of epicuticular wax crystals and their chemical composition. Wollemia nobilis is a unique coniferous tree of the family Araucariaceae and is of very high scientific value as it is the sole living representative of an ancient genus, which until 1994 was known only from fossils. Methods Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used for characterizing the morphology and the chemical structure of the epicuticular wax layer of W. nobilis needles. Key Results The main component of the leaf epicuticular wax of W. nobilis is nonacosan-10-ol. This secondary alcohol together with nonacosane diols is responsible for the tubular habit of the epicuticular wax crystals. Scanning electron micrographs revealed differences in the fine structure of adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces that could be explained by gas chromatographic studies after selective mechanical removal of the waxes. Conclusions SEM investigations established the tubular crystalline microstructure of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves. GC–MS and NMR experiments showed that nonacosan-10-ol is the major constituent of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves. PMID:17611192

  6. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1995-09-30

    The use of solid acids, especially Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}, to convert long chain alkanes and Fischer-Tropsch waxes to liquid fuels under mild reaction conditions was explored in this work. Anion and/or hydrogenation metal modified zirconium oxides were synthesized, characterized, and tested for hydrocracking and hydroisomerization. of model compounds, chiefly with n-hexadecane. The relationship between catalytic activity and acidic character of the bifunctional Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst was investigated.

  7. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids

    SciTech Connect

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1992-07-20

    We have previously reported the isomerization and hydrocracking of n-hexadecane and a n-C{sub 32} straight chain paraffin with a Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst at 170{degrees}C and 350 psig of hydrogen. This study has now been extended to the treatment of a Fisher-Tropsch wax with a carbon number range from C{sub 55}-C{sub 62}. The results reported in Table 1 show that the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst is active for the isomerization and hydrocracking of this substrate. At an 88.6 wt% conversion level, an 86.1% selectivity to isoparaffins was achieved. The products consisted mainly of C{sub 4}-C{sub 9} and C{sub 10}-C{sub 14} fractions, suitable as gasoline and diesel fuels. A feed/catalyst ratio of 6:1 was used; there was no evidence of catalytic deactivation. The melted wax is viscous and there was a decrease in conversion with time, indicating that diffusion might be a limitation for chains of very high molecular weight.

  8. Observation on the composition and biosynthesis of egg wax lipids in the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    PubMed

    Booth, T F

    1992-05-01

    The biosynthesis of wax lipids by Gené's organ, the egg waxing organ in ticks, was investigated. Gené's organ, a complex dermal gland system, applies a superficial wax layer to the eggs during oviposition which prevents desiccation and is essential for egg viability. The detailed anatomy and histology of the three gland cell types are unambiguously described. Serial sectioning of ticks showed that all three gland cell types are capable of contributing to the egg wax. The wax synthetic ability of these three gland types was characterized. The composition of wax lipids extracted from the surface egg wax, and from the three types of wax gland dissected from ovipositing ticks, was analysed using thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography. Injection of ovipositing ticks with radiolabelled acetate resulted in the incorporation of the label into wax lipids by gland cells of Gené's organ. The egg wax was a complex mixture of long-chain alkanes and fatty acid esters. The gland cells contained a greater proportion of shorter chain alkanes than were present in the egg surface wax. Some unsaturated long-chain fatty acids were present, and these were more abundant in the gland cells than in the surface wax of oviposited eggs, suggesting that oxidation occurs after oviposition. The results confirm that the tubular glands, acinar accessory glands and lobular glands of Gené's organ all contribute to the egg waxes, although the lipid components differed in relative abundance. The results are also consistent with alkane synthesis from fatty acids in Gené's organ by a chain-elongation-decarboxylation pathway.

  9. Equisetum species show uniform epicuticular wax structures but diverse composition patterns

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Thomas; Haas, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Only few data on the epicuticular waxes (EWs) of horsetails are available. This contribution therefore focuses on the wax micromorphology and chemical composition of Equisetum species of the subgenera Equisetum and Hippochaete. Methodology Distribution patterns and structural details of EW on the shoots were studied by scanning electron microscopy. After extraction with chloroform, the chemical composition of wax isolates was analysed by gas chromatography. Principal results Epicuticular wax crystals were non-oriented platelets or membraneous platelets. They were usually located on subsidiary cells of stomata and adjacent cells. Other parts of the shoots were covered mainly with a smooth wax film or small granules only. The chemical constituents found were alkanes, esters, aldehydes, primary alcohols and free fatty acids in a range of C20–C36 (in esters C36–C56). All species of the subgenus Hippochaete showed a similar pattern of fractions with high percentages of alkanes and aldehydes, whereas the subgenus Equisetum species had distinctly different wax compositions. Extracts from the internodes—surfaces without well-developed EW crystals and only few stomata—showed the lowest contents of aldehydes. Conclusions The covering with EW crystals will provide unhindered gas exchange and, combined with intracuticular wax, may prevent excess water loss during winter in the evergreen shoots of the subgenus Hippochaete. The results indicate that the Equisetum wax micromorphology and biosynthesis are comparable to EW of other pteridophyte classes and mosses. PMID:22476480

  10. What do microbes encounter at the plant surface? Chemical composition of pea leaf cuticular waxes.

    PubMed

    Gniwotta, Franka; Vogg, Gerd; Gartmann, Vanessa; Carver, Tim L W; Riederer, Markus; Jetter, Reinhard

    2005-09-01

    In the cuticular wax mixtures from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) cv Avanta, cv Lincoln, and cv Maiperle, more than 70 individual compounds were identified. The adaxial wax was characterized by very high amounts of primary alcohols (71%), while the abaxial wax consisted mainly of alkanes (73%). An aqueous adhesive of gum arabic was employed to selectively sample the epicuticular wax layer on pea leaves and hence to analyze the composition of epicuticular crystals exposed at the outermost surface of leaves. The epicuticular layer was found to contain 74% and 83% of the total wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. The platelet-shaped crystals on the adaxial leaf surface consisted of a mixture dominated by hexacosanol, accompanied by substantial amounts of octacosanol and hentriacontane. In contrast, the ribbon-shaped wax crystals on the abaxial surface consisted mainly of hentriacontane (63%), with approximately 5% each of hexacosanol and octacosanol being present. Based on this detailed chemical analysis of the wax exposed at the leaf surface, their importance for early events in the interaction with host-specific pathogenic fungi can now be evaluated. On adaxial surfaces, approximately 80% of Erysiphe pisi spores germinated and 70% differentiated appressoria. In contrast, significantly lower germination efficiencies (57%) and appressoria formation rates (49%) were found for abaxial surfaces. In conclusion, the influence of the physical structure and the chemical composition of the host surface, and especially of epicuticular leaf waxes, on the prepenetration processes of biotrophic fungi is discussed.

  11. What Do Microbes Encounter at the Plant Surface? Chemical Composition of Pea Leaf Cuticular Waxes1

    PubMed Central

    Gniwotta, Franka; Vogg, Gerd; Gartmann, Vanessa; Carver, Tim L.W.; Riederer, Markus; Jetter, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    In the cuticular wax mixtures from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) cv Avanta, cv Lincoln, and cv Maiperle, more than 70 individual compounds were identified. The adaxial wax was characterized by very high amounts of primary alcohols (71%), while the abaxial wax consisted mainly of alkanes (73%). An aqueous adhesive of gum arabic was employed to selectively sample the epicuticular wax layer on pea leaves and hence to analyze the composition of epicuticular crystals exposed at the outermost surface of leaves. The epicuticular layer was found to contain 74% and 83% of the total wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. The platelet-shaped crystals on the adaxial leaf surface consisted of a mixture dominated by hexacosanol, accompanied by substantial amounts of octacosanol and hentriacontane. In contrast, the ribbon-shaped wax crystals on the abaxial surface consisted mainly of hentriacontane (63%), with approximately 5% each of hexacosanol and octacosanol being present. Based on this detailed chemical analysis of the wax exposed at the leaf surface, their importance for early events in the interaction with host-specific pathogenic fungi can now be evaluated. On adaxial surfaces, approximately 80% of Erysiphe pisi spores germinated and 70% differentiated appressoria. In contrast, significantly lower germination efficiencies (57%) and appressoria formation rates (49%) were found for abaxial surfaces. In conclusion, the influence of the physical structure and the chemical composition of the host surface, and especially of epicuticular leaf waxes, on the prepenetration processes of biotrophic fungi is discussed. PMID:16113231

  12. Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Cao, Shifeng; Fang, Xiangjun; Chen, Hangjun; Xiao, Shangyue

    2017-03-15

    The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time. Notably, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione were only detected in highbush (V. corymbosum) and rabbiteye (V. ashei) blueberries, respectively. The results of SEM showed that a large amount of tubular wax deposited on the surface of blueberry fruits. There was no apparent difference in wax morphology among the nine cultivars.

  13. The Influence of Source Biases on Sedimentary Leaf Waxes and Their Stable Isotope Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freimuth, E. J.; Lowell, T. V.; Wiles, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf waxes and their carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic compositions are an important tool to understand past changes in paleoclimate and paleovegetation. Important recent advances in our understanding about the isotopic signal preserved in sedimentary leaf waxes have been inferred from studies made on individual modern plants. However, paleoreconstructions are based on sedimentary leaf waxes, which reflect mixing between multiple sources, such as ablated leaf waxes from nearby or from afar, wind blown leaf litter, and riverine transported leaf waxes. Each of these sources integrates leaf waxes from different species and growth forms, likely resulting in source-specific taphonomic biases on sedimentary leaf wax isotopes. To better understand source biases in sedimentary leaf waxes, we investigated n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids and their carbon and hydrogen isotopes in vegetation and lake sediments at Brown's Lake and Bog, a 'simple' forested closed-basin lake in northeastern Ohio. Interestingly, we found that tree n-alkane δD varied substantially during the growing season, broadly tracking changes in source water composition. However, δD values of n-alkanes in the tree leaf litter did not match that of the most recent sedimentary n-alkanes. Instead, surface sediment n-alkane δD more closely matched that of the woody shrubs and grasses growing right around the lake. n-Alkanoic acid data is forthcoming. We are currently exploring lake sediment n-alkane accumulation rates against midwestern flux rates of wind blown leaf waxes from afar. Our preliminary results suggest that although studies made on individual leaves are indeed important, we may need to consider additional leaf wax sources that potentially influence sedimentary archives.

  14. The Behavior of Some Waxes in Composition B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    beeswax 14 10 Bareco X-715 Lot C-652 15 K 11 Bareco X-404 Batch B-610 16 12 Bareco X-718 Lot C-649 17 13 Bareco X-719 Batch 658 18 14 Bareco X-717 Lot C-655...influenced both these parameters satis- factorily. An acceptable mixture was attributed to an effective wax coating of the surface of the RDX...temperatures prior to casting. Then, the stability of adhesion of the wax coating on RDX during and after casting op- erations must be examined closely

  15. Bioinspired Composite Coating with Extreme Underwater Superoleophobicity and Good Stability for Wax Prevention in the Petroleum Industry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weitao; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Yang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Liu, Huicong

    2015-10-13

    Wax deposition is a detrimental problem that happens during crude oil production and transportation, which greatly reduces transport efficiency and causes huge economic losses. To avoid wax deposition, a bioinspired composite coating with excellent wax prevention and anticorrosion properties is developed in this study. The prepared coating is composed of three films, including an electrodeposited Zn film for improving corrosion resistance, a phosphating film for constructing fish-scale morphology, and a silicon dioxide film modified by a simple spin-coating method for endowing the surface with superhydrophilicity. Good wax prevention performance has been investigated in a wax deposition test. The surface morphology, composition, wetting behaviors, and stability are systematically studied, and a wax prevention mechanism is proposed, which can be calculated from water film theory. This composite coating strategy which shows excellent properties in both wax prevention and stability is expected to be widely applied in the petroleum industry.

  16. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1993-03-26

    In the last quarters a new class of solid superacids, including sulfated zirconium-hafnium oxides and ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] modified by Mn and Fe, were synthesized and shown to be active for isomerization and hydrocracking of hexadecane (n-C[sub 16]H[sub 34]). The reaction was carried out in a tubing bomb under mild conditions: 2.5 MPa and 433 K. Pt/HfO[sub 2]S0[sub 4] catalyst exhibited a low activity for hydrocracking of n-C[sub 16], but the addition of ZrO[sub 2] to the sulfated hafnium improved its activity considerably. An 85 wt % conversion level was achieved when the molar ratio of ZrO[sub 2] to HfO[sub 2] reached 1:1, indicating the possibility of a synergistic effect between zirconium and hafnium. It has recently been reported that Mn,Fe/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] is about three orders of magnitude more active than ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] for isomerizing n-butane. As a result, an 0.5%Mn1.5%Fe/ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] catalyst was prepared according to a procedure given in a patent. It was found that, without Pt, the catalyst was inactive for hydrocracking of n-C[sub 16], possibly by deactivation due to coking. It is interesting that a 68 wt % conversion level was achieved after incorporation of Pt along with a product distribution that was shifted towards longer chain paraffins. ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4]has been reported to be a superacid with H[sub 0] < [minus]16 as measured by the Hammett indicator method. However, the acid strength of some ZrO[sub 2]/SO[sub 4] based catalysts, such as the mentioned catalysts, could not be measured by using Hammett indicators because the catalysts are colored gray. We successfully modified an in situ FT-IR analytical system to characterize the acidity of these catalysts. We have applied the method using pyridine as adsorbate to demonstrate their acid strength. Preliminary results indicated a level of acidity of our catalysts which is consistent with their performance in hydrocracking of n-C[sub 16].

  17. Alignment of graphene sheets in wax composites for electromagnetic interference shielding improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei-Li; Cao, Mao-Sheng; Lu, Ming-Ming; Yang, Jian; Ju, Hong-Fei; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Liu, Jia; Yuan, Jie; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2013-03-01

    Rapid advancements in carbon-based fillers have enabled a new and more promising platform in the development of electromagnetic attenuation composites. Alignment of fillers in composites with specific structures and morphologies has been widely pursued to achieve high performance based on taking advantage of unique filler characteristics. In this work, few-layer graphene (FLG), obtained from direct exfoliation of graphite, was fabricated into paraffin wax to prepare FLG/wax composites and investigate their electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance. The as-exfoliated FLG/wax samples have shown much improved EMI performance compared to the commercial graphite/wax ones. For further improvement of EMI shielding performance, split-press-merge approaches were applied to align the FLG fillers to achieve anisotropic characteristics in the plane perpendicular to the pressing direction. Much enhanced EMI shielding performance coupled with an improvement in absorption and reflection was observed in the post-alignment FLG/wax composites. An average interparticle distance model associated with improved electrically conducting interconnection and enlarged effective reflection regions with respect to enhanced reflection efficiency were discussed. The results suggest a platform and promising opportunities for preparing high-performance EMI shielding composites.

  18. Alignment of graphene sheets in wax composites for electromagnetic interference shielding improvement.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-Li; Cao, Mao-Sheng; Lu, Ming-Ming; Yang, Jian; Ju, Hong-Fei; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Liu, Jia; Yuan, Jie; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2013-03-22

    Rapid advancements in carbon-based fillers have enabled a new and more promising platform in the development of electromagnetic attenuation composites. Alignment of fillers in composites with specific structures and morphologies has been widely pursued to achieve high performance based on taking advantage of unique filler characteristics. In this work, few-layer graphene (FLG), obtained from direct exfoliation of graphite, was fabricated into paraffin wax to prepare FLG/wax composites and investigate their electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance. The as-exfoliated FLG/wax samples have shown much improved EMI performance compared to the commercial graphite/wax ones. For further improvement of EMI shielding performance, split-press-merge approaches were applied to align the FLG fillers to achieve anisotropic characteristics in the plane perpendicular to the pressing direction. Much enhanced EMI shielding performance coupled with an improvement in absorption and reflection was observed in the post-alignment FLG/wax composites. An average interparticle distance model associated with improved electrically conducting interconnection and enlarged effective reflection regions with respect to enhanced reflection efficiency were discussed. The results suggest a platform and promising opportunities for preparing high-performance EMI shielding composites.

  19. RDX/Polyethylene Wax Compositions as Pressed Explosive,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    powerful high melting explosive such as PETN or RDX with an inert material , commonly a wax , to act as both b inder and desensitiser , and to compress...comprising an exploding bridge wire to initiate a low density PETN charge which detonates a high density PETN pellet) generates a standard shock which is...in PETN and HNX, but had little influence on initiation by friction or impact [17]. 6.3 Detonation Parameters A shock wave passing through an inert

  20. Chemical composition of preen wax reflects major histocompatibility complex similarity in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Slade, J W G; Watson, M J; Kelly, T R; Gloor, G B; Bernards, M A; MacDougall-Shackleton, E A

    2016-11-16

    In jawed vertebrates, genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a key role in immunity by encoding cell-surface proteins that recognize and bind non-self antigens. High variability at MHC suggests that these loci may also function in social signalling such as mate choice and kin recognition. This requires that MHC genotype covaries with some perceptible phenotypic trait. In mammals and fish, MHC is signalled chemically through volatile and non-volatile peptide odour cues, facilitating MHC-dependent mate choice and other behaviours. In birds, despite evidence for MHC-dependent mating, candidate mechanisms for MHC signalling remain largely unexplored. However, feather preen wax has recently been implicated as a potential source of odour cues. We examined whether the chemical composition of preen wax correlates with MHC class IIβ genotypes of wild song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Pairwise chemical distance reflected amino acid distance at MHC for male-female dyads, although not for same-sex dyads. Chemical diversity did not reflect MHC diversity. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to characterize preen wax compounds, and identified four wax esters that best reflect MHC similarity. Provided songbirds can detect variation in preen wax composition, this cue may allow individuals to assess MHC compatibility of potential mates. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Amperometric determination of hydrazine at manganese hexacyanoferrate modified graphite-wax composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Jayasri, D; Narayanan, S Sriman

    2007-06-01

    Fabrication, characterization and application of a manganese hexacyanoferrate (MnHCF) modified graphite-wax composite electrode are described. The MnHCF mixed with graphite powder was dispersed into molten paraffin wax to yield a conductive composite, which was used as electrode material to construct a renewable three-dimensional MnHCF modified electrode. The characterization of the modified electrode has been studied by electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammogram of the MnHCF modified graphite-wax composite electrode prepared under optimum composition, showed a well-defined redox couple due to Fe(CN)(6)(4-)/Fe(CN)(6)(3-) system. The electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine by MnHCF modified graphite-wax composite electrode has been investigated in an attempt to develop a new sensor for its determination. It was found that the mediator catalyzed the oxidation of hydrazine. The electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine was also studied under hydrodynamic and chronoamperometric conditions. The anodic current increases linearly with increase in the concentration of hydrazine in the range of 3.33x10(-5)M to 8.18x10(-3)M. The detection limit was found to be 6.65x10(-6)M (S/N=3). The modified electrode can also be used for on-line detection of hydrazine. The proposed method has also been applied for the determination of hydrazine in photographic developer solution.

  2. Composition of epicuticular wax on Prosopis glandulosa leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeux, H.S. Jr.; Wilkinson, R.E. Univ. of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, Experiment )

    1990-06-01

    Epicuticular wax on leaves of field-grown honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) trees consisted of 35% esters, 32% alkanes, 25% free fatty alcohols, and 7% free fatty acids. Aldehydes were present in very low concentrations. The number of carbon atoms (C{sub n}) of alkanes ranged from 25 to 31, with a maximum (57%) at 29. Esters consisted of fatty acids with C{sub n} of 16, 18, and 20, with most (70%) at 18 and fatty alcohols with C{sub n} of 24-32. The C{sub n} of free fatty alcohols and free fatty acids also ranged from 24 to 32. Only primary alcohols were present. Immediately after exposure of glasshouse-grown seedlings to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 4 h, 60% of the recovered {sup 14}C was incorporated into free fatty acids; the percentage decreased progressively to 18% 8 h after exposure and remained stable thereafter. The proportion of {sup 14}C in free fatty alcohols increased from ca. 12% immediately after exposure to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to 55% at 8 h. Little {sup 14}C was associated with other wax components over the 24-h period; 3% or less was incorporated into alkanes.

  3. Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev

    2009-04-15

    Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.

  4. Composition and Physiological Function of the Wax Layers Coating Arabidopsis Leaves: β-Amyrin Negatively Affects the Intracuticular Water Barrier1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Jetter, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Plants prevent dehydration by coating their aerial, primary organs with waxes. Wax compositions frequently differ between species, organs, and developmental stages, probably to balance limiting nonstomatal water loss with various other ecophysiological roles of surface waxes. To establish structure-function relationships, we quantified the composition and transpiration barrier properties of the gl1 mutant leaf waxes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to the necessary spatial resolution. The waxes coating the upper and lower leaf surfaces had distinct compositions. Moreover, within the adaxial wax, the epicuticular layer contained more wax and a higher relative quantity of alkanes, whereas the intracuticular wax had a higher percentage of alcohols. The wax formed a barrier against nonstomatal water loss, where the outer layer contributed twice as much resistance as the inner layer. Based on this detailed description of Arabidopsis leaf waxes, structure-function relationships can now be established by manipulating one cuticle component and assessing the effect on cuticle functions. Next, we ectopically expressed the triterpenoid synthase gene AtLUP4 (for lupeol synthase4 or β-amyrin synthase) to compare water loss with and without added cuticular triterpenoids in Arabidopsis leaf waxes. β-Amyrin accumulated solely in the intracuticular wax, constituting up to 4% of this wax layer, without other concomitant changes of wax composition. This triterpenoid accumulation caused a significant reduction in the water barrier effectiveness of the intracuticular wax. PMID:22885935

  5. Electro- and photodriven phase change composites based on wax-infiltrated carbon nanotube sponges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangjie; Zou, Ruqiang; Xia, Wei; Liu, Zhenpu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jinlong; Wang, Yingxia; Lin, Jianhua; Xia, Dingguo; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-12-21

    Organic phase change materials are usually insulating in nature, and they are unlikely to directly trigger latent heat storage through an electrical way. Here we report a multifunctional phase change composite in which the energy storage can be driven by small voltages (e.g., 1.5 V) or light illumination with high electro-to-heat or photo-to-thermal storage efficiencies (40% to 60%). The composite is composed of paraffin wax infiltrated into a porous, deformable carbon nanotube sponge; the latter not only acts as a flexible encapsulation scaffold for wax but also maintains a highly conductive network during the phase change process (for both solid and liquid states). Uniform interpenetration between the nanotube network and paraffin wax with high affinity results in enhanced phase change enthalpy and thermal conductivity compared to pure paraffin wax. Our phase change composite can store energy in practical ways such as by sunlight absorption or under voltages applied by conventional lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Estimation of cellulose crystallinity of lignocelluloses using near-IR FT-Raman spectroscopy and comparison of the Raman and Segal-WAXS methods.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Umesh P; Reiner, Richard R; Ralph, Sally A

    2013-01-09

    Of the recently developed univariate and multivariate near-IR FT-Raman methods for estimating cellulose crystallinity, the former method was applied to a variety of lignocelluloses: softwoods, hardwoods, wood pulps, and agricultural residues/fibers. The effect of autofluorescence on the crystallinity estimation was minimized by solvent extraction or chemical treatment or both. Additionally, when the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the Raman crystallinity assessment were investigated, it was found that syringyl lignin containing lignocelluloses generated somewhat higher crystallinity, whereas the presence of hemicellulose reduced the crystallinity. Overall, when autofluorescence was minimized and corrections made for hemicellulose and syringyl lignin contributions, the univariate Raman method performed well and estimated cellulose crystallinity accurately. Moreover, when the Raman and Segal-WAXS methods were compared, we observed that in the absence of significant fluorescence, the Raman method was influenced mostly by hemicellulose and syringyl lignin, whereas the Segal-WAXS was affected by various types of lignin and hemicellulose. It was concluded that the near-IR FT-Raman method with corrections for influences of syringyl lignin and hemicellulose can be used to correctly estimate cellulose crystallinity.

  7. Grapefruit gland oil composition is affected by wax application, storage temperature, and storage time.

    PubMed

    Sun, D; Petracek, P D

    1999-05-01

    The effect of wax application, storage temperature (4 or 21 degrees C), and storage time (14 or 28 days after wax application) on grapefruit gland oil composition was examined by capillary gas chromatography. Wax application decreases nonanal and nootkatone levels. beta-Pinene, alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, octanol, trans-linalool oxide, and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol levels increase, but limonene levels decrease, with temperature. Levels of alpha-pinene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, alpha-terpineol, neral, dodecanal, and alpha-humulene decrease with time. Levels of alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, and trans-linalool oxide increase with time. No compound level was affected by the interactive action of temperature and wax application, suggesting that these two factors cause grapefruit oil gland collapse (postharvest pitting) through means other than changing gland oil composition. Compounds that are toxic to the Caribbean fruit fly (alpha-pinene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, and some aldehydes) decrease with time, thus suggesting grapefruit becomes increasingly susceptible to the fly during storage.

  8. Evaluating Changes in Paleo-temperature Gradients using Hydrogen Isotopic Compositions of Leaf-wax Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, S.; Huber, M.; Pagani, M.

    2014-12-01

    A long-standing problem in the paleoclimate modeling community has been the inability of the models to reproduce the shallow meridional temperature gradient (∆T) observed in proxy temperature records for the warm, greenhouse time intervals in Earth's history, such as the early Eocene. It is often stated that this mismatch indicates a missing high-latitude feedback mechanism in the climate models that would cause substantial polar amplification of warming. However, this issue is complicated by the potential biasing of proxy records due to issues related to temperature calibrations and/or diagenesis. In this study, we propose an alternative approach to estimate ∆T for these time intervals using hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf-wax biomarkers (dDleaf-wax) preserved in the sedimentary record. Today, dDleaf-wax is closely related to the hydrological cycle and source vegetation. In the mid- and high-latitudes, dDleaf-wax changes pertaining to the hydrological cycle can be interpreted using a Rayleigh distillation process, where evaporated moisture from the sub-tropics undergoes isotopic fractionation and becomes increasingly D-depleted during poleward transport. We develop a box model based on the Rayleigh distillation process that uses the global mean temperature for the time-period and geological archives of dDleaf-wax to estimate the meridional temperature gradient. We use this box model for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56Ma), a rapid-warming event in the early Eocene where global warming is accompanied by evidence for increased input of greenhouse gases. We compile existing leaf-wax dDleaf-wax records from the extra-tropics to estimate ∆T before and during the PETM. Preliminary results suggest that the temperature gradient increased during the body of the PETM, contradicting our expectations based on temperature proxies. We also use this approach to estimate ∆T during other intervals in earth's history, such as the early Eocene. Further

  9. Enhanced Thermo-Optical Switching of Paraffin-Wax Composite Spots under Laser Heating.

    PubMed

    Said, Asmaa; Salah, Abeer; Fattah, Gamal Abdel

    2017-05-12

    Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin's rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications.

  10. Enhanced Thermo-Optical Switching of Paraffin-Wax Composite Spots under Laser Heating

    PubMed Central

    Said, Asmaa; Salah, Abeer; Abdel Fattah, Gamal

    2017-01-01

    Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin’s rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications. PMID:28772884

  11. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Progress report, March 1, 1992--May 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1992-07-20

    We have previously reported the isomerization and hydrocracking of n-hexadecane and a n-C{sub 32} straight chain paraffin with a Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst at 170{degrees}C and 350 psig of hydrogen. This study has now been extended to the treatment of a Fisher-Tropsch wax with a carbon number range from C{sub 55}-C{sub 62}. The results reported in Table 1 show that the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst is active for the isomerization and hydrocracking of this substrate. At an 88.6 wt% conversion level, an 86.1% selectivity to isoparaffins was achieved. The products consisted mainly of C{sub 4}-C{sub 9} and C{sub 10}-C{sub 14} fractions, suitable as gasoline and diesel fuels. A feed/catalyst ratio of 6:1 was used; there was no evidence of catalytic deactivation. The melted wax is viscous and there was a decrease in conversion with time, indicating that diffusion might be a limitation for chains of very high molecular weight.

  12. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Composition of secondary alcohols, ketones, alkanediols, and ketols in Arabidopsis thaliana cuticular waxes

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Miao; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis wax components containing secondary functional groups were examined (i) to test the biosynthetic relationship between secondary alcohols and ketols and (ii) to determine the regiospecificity and substrate preference of the enzyme involved in ketol biosynthesis. The stem wax of Arabidopsis wild type contained homologous series of C27 to C31 secondary alcohols (2.4 μg cm−2) and C28 to C30 ketones (6.0 μg cm−2) dominated by C29 homologues. In addition, compound classes containing two secondary functional groups were identified as C29 diols (∼0.05 μg cm−2) and ketols (∼0.16 μg cm−2). All four compound classes showed characteristic isomer distributions, with functional groups located between C-14 and C-16. In the mah1 mutant stem wax, diols and ketols could not be detected, while the amounts of secondary alcohols and ketones were drastically reduced. In two MAH1-overexpressing lines, equal amounts of C29 and C31 secondary alcohols were detected. Based on the comparison of homologue and isomer compositions between the different genotypes, it can be concluded that biosynthetic pathways lead from alkanes to secondary alcohols, and via ketones or diols to ketols. It seems plausible that MAH1 is the hydroxylase enzyme involved in all these conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:19346242

  14. Altitude effect on leaf wax carbon isotopic composition in humid tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mong Sin; Feakins, Sarah J.; Martin, Roberta E.; Shenkin, Alexander; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Blonder, Benjamin; Salinas, Norma; Asner, Gregory P.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2017-06-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of plant leaf wax biomarkers is commonly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. Adding to the limited calibration information available for modern tropical forests, we analyzed plant leaf and leaf wax carbon isotopic compositions in forest canopy trees across a highly biodiverse, 3.3 km elevation gradient on the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains. We sampled the dominant tree species and assessed their relative abundance in each tree community. In total, 405 sunlit canopy leaves were sampled across 129 species and nine forest plots along the elevation profile for bulk leaf and leaf wax n-alkane (C27-C33) concentration and carbon isotopic analyses (δ13C); a subset (76 individuals, 29 species, five forest plots) were additionally analyzed for n-alkanoic acid (C22-C32) concentrations and δ13C. δ13C values display trends of +0.87 ± 0.16‰ km-1 (95% CI, r2 = 0.96, p < 0.01) for bulk leaves and +1.45 ± 0.33‰ km-1 (95% CI, r2 = 0.94, p < 0.01) for C29n-alkane, the dominant chain length. These carbon isotopic gradients are defined in multi-species sample sets and corroborated in a widespread genus and several families, suggesting the biochemical response to environment is robust to taxonomic turnover. We calculate fractionations and compare to adiabatic gradients, environmental variables, leaf wax n-alkane concentrations, and sun/shade position to assess factors influencing foliar chemical response. For the 4 km forested elevation range of the Andes, 4-6‰ higher δ13C values are expected for upland versus lowland C3 plant bulk leaves and their n-alkyl lipids, and we expect this pattern to be a systematic feature of very wet tropical montane environments. This elevation dependency of δ13C values should inform interpretations of sedimentary archives, as 13C-enriched values may derive from C4 grasses, petrogenic inputs or upland C3 plants. Finally, we outline the potential for leaf wax carbon isotopes to trace biomarker

  15. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in Arabidopsis lines with different transpiration rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Lawson, T.; Eley, Y.; McAusland, L.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen are used widely to investigate modern and ancient water cycles. The D/H composition of organic compounds derived from terrestrial plants has recently attracted significant attention as a proxy for palaeohydrology. However, the role of various plant physiological and biochemical factors in controlling the D/H signature of leaf wax lipids in extant plants remains unclear. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of plant transpiration on the D/H composition of n-alkanes in terrestrial plants. This experiment includes 4 varieties of Arabidopsis thaliana that differ with respect to stomatal density and stomatal geometry. All 4 varieties were grown indoors under identical temperature, relative humidity, light and watering regimes and then sampled for leaf wax and leaf water stable isotopic measurements. During growth, stomatal conductance to carbon dioxide and water vapour were also determined. We found that the plants varied significantly in terms of their transpiration rates. Transpiration rates were significantly higher in Arabidopsis ost1 and ost1-1 varieties (2.4 and 3.2 mmol m-2 s-1, respectively) than in Arabidopsis RbohD and Col-0 (1.5 and 1.4). However, hydrogen isotope measurements of n-alkanes extracted from leaf waxes revealed a very different pattern. Varieties ost1, ost1-1, and RbohD have very similar deltaD values of n-C29 alkane (-125, -128, and -127 per mil), whereas the deltaD value of Col-0 is more negative (-137 per mil). The initial results of this work suggest that plant transpiration is decoupled from the D/H composition of n-alkanes. In other words, physical processes that affect water vapour movement between the plant and its environment apparently cannot account for the stable hydrogen isotope composition of organic compounds that comprise leaf waxes. Additional, perhaps biochemical, processes that affect hydrogen isotope fractionation during photosynthesis might need to be invoked

  16. Patchable, flexible heat-sensing hybrid ionic gate nanochannel modified with a wax-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Choi, Wook; Roh, Sung-Cheoul; Han, Chang-Soo

    2015-07-01

    Heat-driven ionic gate nanochannels have been recently demonstrated, which exploit temperature-responsive polymer brushes based on wettability. These heat-sensing artificial nanochannels operate in a broad temperature-response boundary and fixed liquid cell environment, thereby experiencing limited system operation in the flat and solid state. Here we have developed a patchable and flexible heat-sensing artificial ionic gate nanochannel, which can operate in the range of the human body temperature. A wax-elastic copolymer, coated onto a commercial nanopore membrane by a controlled-vacuum filtration method, was used for the construction of temperature-responsive nanopores. The robust and flexible nanochannel heat sensor, which is combined with an agarose gel electrolyte, can sustain reversible thermo-responsive ionic gating based on the volumetric work of the wax-composite layers in a selective temperature range. The ionic current is also effectively distinguished in the patchable bandage-type nanochannel for human heat-sensing.Heat-driven ionic gate nanochannels have been recently demonstrated, which exploit temperature-responsive polymer brushes based on wettability. These heat-sensing artificial nanochannels operate in a broad temperature-response boundary and fixed liquid cell environment, thereby experiencing limited system operation in the flat and solid state. Here we have developed a patchable and flexible heat-sensing artificial ionic gate nanochannel, which can operate in the range of the human body temperature. A wax-elastic copolymer, coated onto a commercial nanopore membrane by a controlled-vacuum filtration method, was used for the construction of temperature-responsive nanopores. The robust and flexible nanochannel heat sensor, which is combined with an agarose gel electrolyte, can sustain reversible thermo-responsive ionic gating based on the volumetric work of the wax-composite layers in a selective temperature range. The ionic current is also

  17. Transient silencing of the KASII genes is feasible in Nicotiana benthamiana for metabolic engineering of wax ester composition

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sitbon, Folke; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-01-01

    The beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII) is an enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, catalyzing the elongation of 16:0-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 18:0-ACP in plastids. Mutations in KASII genes in higher plants can lead to lethality, which makes it difficult to utilize the gene for lipid metabolic engineering. We demonstrated previously that transient expression of plastid-directed fatty acyl reductases and wax ester synthases could result in different compositions of wax esters. We hypothesized that changing the ratio between C16 (palmitoyl-compounds) and C18 (stearoyl-compounds) in the plastidic acyl-ACP pool by inhibition of KASII expression would change the yield and composition of wax esters via substrate preference of the introduced enzymes. Here, we report that transient inhibition of KASII expression by three different RNAi constructs in leaves of N. benthamiana results in almost complete inhibition of KASII expression. The transient RNAi approach led to a shift of carbon flux from a pool of C18 fatty acids to C16, which significantly increased wax ester production in AtFAR6-containing combinations. The results demonstrate that transient inhibition of KASII in vegetative tissues of higher plants enables metabolic studies towards industrial production of lipids such as wax esters with specific quality and composition. PMID:26063537

  18. Transient silencing of the KASII genes is feasible in Nicotiana benthamiana for metabolic engineering of wax ester composition.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sitbon, Folke; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-06-11

    The beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II (KASII) is an enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, catalyzing the elongation of 16:0-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to 18:0-ACP in plastids. Mutations in KASII genes in higher plants can lead to lethality, which makes it difficult to utilize the gene for lipid metabolic engineering. We demonstrated previously that transient expression of plastid-directed fatty acyl reductases and wax ester synthases could result in different compositions of wax esters. We hypothesized that changing the ratio between C16 (palmitoyl-compounds) and C18 (stearoyl-compounds) in the plastidic acyl-ACP pool by inhibition of KASII expression would change the yield and composition of wax esters via substrate preference of the introduced enzymes. Here, we report that transient inhibition of KASII expression by three different RNAi constructs in leaves of N. benthamiana results in almost complete inhibition of KASII expression. The transient RNAi approach led to a shift of carbon flux from a pool of C18 fatty acids to C16, which significantly increased wax ester production in AtFAR6-containing combinations. The results demonstrate that transient inhibition of KASII in vegetative tissues of higher plants enables metabolic studies towards industrial production of lipids such as wax esters with specific quality and composition.

  19. Molecular and radiocarbon composition of plant wax lipids and lignin phenols in Alaskan Arctic river sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stites-Clayton, C.; Feng, X.; Montlucon, D.; Holmes, R. M.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2011-12-01

    The Yukon and Colville Rivers are two Arctic rivers that drain perennially frozen soils of Alaska and Northwest Canada. These regions of Arctic permafrost represent a large reservoir of organic carbon (OC) that has remained inactive for millennia but may experience thawing and mobilization due to climate warming. Warming-induced release of old terrestrial carbon to the atmosphere and via fluvial transport to the oceans thus constitutes a major topic of immediate concern. It is therefore important to gain insight on the distribution and residence time of terrestrial organic matter (OM) currently exported by these arctic rivers. As two important groups of terrestrial OM biomarkers, plant wax lipids and lignin phenols are widely distributed in soils and riverine sediments, whose molecular and isotopic (13C and 14C) compositions provide a great deal of information on the source and fate of terrestrial OC during land-ocean transfer. In this study we examine the molecular composition of plant wax lipids and lignin phenols in surface and suspended sediments of Colville and Yukon. Individual compounds are isolated on preparative gas and liquid chromatography for radiocarbon dating. The molecular composition and radiocarbon age of terrestrial biomarkers are compared with those in other Arctic rivers with different drainage basin characteristics and varying permafrost coverage. Such comparisons may document the release of old permafrost carbon in rivers strongly affected by warming and will provide novel insights on the fate of permafrost carbon within Arctic river drainage basins. The results have important implications to carbon cycle both at regional and global scales.

  20. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Quarterly report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1993-03-26

    In the last quarters a new class of solid superacids, including sulfated zirconium-hafnium oxides and ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} modified by Mn and Fe, were synthesized and shown to be active for isomerization and hydrocracking of hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). The reaction was carried out in a tubing bomb under mild conditions: 2.5 MPa and 433 K. Pt/HfO{sub 2}S0{sub 4} catalyst exhibited a low activity for hydrocracking of n-C{sub 16}, but the addition of ZrO{sub 2} to the sulfated hafnium improved its activity considerably. An 85 wt % conversion level was achieved when the molar ratio of ZrO{sub 2} to HfO{sub 2} reached 1:1, indicating the possibility of a synergistic effect between zirconium and hafnium. It has recently been reported that Mn,Fe/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} is about three orders of magnitude more active than ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} for isomerizing n-butane. As a result, an 0.5%Mn1.5%Fe/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst was prepared according to a procedure given in a patent. It was found that, without Pt, the catalyst was inactive for hydrocracking of n-C{sub 16}, possibly by deactivation due to coking. It is interesting that a 68 wt % conversion level was achieved after incorporation of Pt along with a product distribution that was shifted towards longer chain paraffins. ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}has been reported to be a superacid with H{sub 0} < {minus}16 as measured by the Hammett indicator method. However, the acid strength of some ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} based catalysts, such as the mentioned catalysts, could not be measured by using Hammett indicators because the catalysts are colored gray. We successfully modified an in situ FT-IR analytical system to characterize the acidity of these catalysts. We have applied the method using pyridine as adsorbate to demonstrate their acid strength. Preliminary results indicated a level of acidity of our catalysts which is consistent with their performance in hydrocracking of n-C{sub 16}.

  1. Developmental and Genotypic Variation in Leaf Wax Content and Composition, and in Expression of Wax Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    PubMed Central

    Laila, Rawnak; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Juyoung; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes act as a protective barrier against environmental stresses. In the present study, we investigated developmental and genotypic variation in wax formation of cabbage lines, with a view to understand the related morphology, genetics and biochemistry. Our studies revealed that the relative expression levels of wax biosynthetic genes in the first-formed leaf of the highest-wax line remained constantly higher but were decreased in other genotypes with leaf aging. Similarly, the expression of most of the tested genes exhibited decrease from the inner leaves to the outer leaves of 5-month-old cabbage heads in the low-wax lines in contrast to the highest-wax line. In 10-week-old plants, expression of wax biosynthetic genes followed a quadratic function and was generally increased in the early developing leaves but substantially decreased at the older leaves. The waxy compounds in all cabbage lines were predominately C29-alkane, -secondary alcohol, and -ketone. Its deposition was increased with leaf age in 5-month-old plants. The high-wax lines had dense, prominent and larger crystals on the leaf surface compared to low-wax lines under scanning electron microscopy. Principal component analysis revealed that the higher expression of LTP2 genes in the lowest-wax line and the higher expression of CER3 gene in the highest-wax line were probably associated with the comparatively lower and higher wax content in those two lines, respectively. This study furthers our understanding of the relationships between the expression of wax biosynthetic genes and the wax deposition in cabbage lines. Highlight: In cabbage, expression of wax-biosynthetic genes was generally decreased in older and senescing leaves, while wax deposition was increased with leaf aging, and C29-hydrocarbon was predominant in the wax crystals. PMID:28119701

  2. Overexpression of the Novel Arabidopsis Gene At5g02890 Alters Inflorescence Stem Wax Composition and Affects Phytohormone Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liping; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas; Gao, Jie; Hu, Kaining; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2017-01-01

    The cuticle is composed of cutin and cuticular wax. It covers the surfaces of land plants and protects them against environmental damage. At5g02890 encodes a novel protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the current study, protein sequence analysis showed that At5g02890 is highly conserved in the Brassicaceae. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing At5g02890 (OE-At5g02890 lines) and an At5g02890 orthologous gene from Brassica napus (OE-Bn1 lines) exhibited glossy stems. Chemical analysis revealed that overexpression of At5g02890 caused significant reductions in the levels of wax components longer than 28 carbons (C28) in inflorescence stems, whereas the levels of wax molecules of chain length C28 or shorter were significantly increased. Transcriptome analysis indicated that nine of 11 cuticular wax synthesis-related genes with different expression levels in OE-At5g02890 plants are involved in very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) elongation. At5g02890 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is consistent with its function in cuticular wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that the overexpression of At5g02890 alters cuticular wax composition by partially blocking VLCFA elongation of C28 and higher. In addition, detailed analysis of differentially expressed genes associated with plant hormones and endogenous phytohormone levels in wild-type and OE-At5g02890 plants indicated that abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) biosynthesis, as well as polar auxin transport, were also affected by overexpression of At5g02890. Taken together, these findings indicate that overexpression of At5g02890 affects both cuticular wax biosynthesis and phytohormone homeostasis in Arabidopsis. PMID:28184233

  3. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in glaucous and non-glaucous varieties of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Eley, Yvette; Frizell-Armitage, Amelia; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-04-01

    The use of the 2H/1H composition of terrestrial plants in climate and ecology studies depends on fundamental understanding of the processes within the plant that control fractionation of these two isotopes. Little is currently known about the extent of 2H/1H fractionation at different steps of biosynthesis, after the initial H uptake following leaf water photolysis. Knowing this effect is particularly important when seeking to interpret the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax biomarkers from plants that differ in the amount and type of individual compound classes in their leaf waxes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the quantity and distribution of n-alkyl lipids in leaf waxes and their isotopic composition. We used a genetic approach to suppress glaucousness in 2 varieties of wheat (Alchemy and Malacca), which resulted in glaucous and non-glaucous phenotypes of both varieties. Both phenotypes were then grown outdoors under identical environmental conditions in central Norfolk, UK. At the end of the growing season, the plants were sampled for soil water, leaf water, and leaf wax isotopic measurements. Comparison of the leaf wax composition of the non-glaucous and glaucous phenotypes revealed that the non-glaucous varieties were characterised by the absence of diketones and a greater concentration of n-alkanes and primary alcohols.. Our results showed very small differences between glaucous and non-glaucous varieties with regard to soil (mean values, <2 per mil) and leaf (<1 per mil) water 2H/1H. Conversely, there was 15-20 and 10-15 per mil 2H-depletion in the C29 and C31 n-alkanes, respectively, from the non-glaucous phenotype. This 2H-depletion in the non-glaucous phenotype demonstrated that the suppression of diketone production and the increase in n-alkane and primary alcohol concentrations are linked with a shift in the 2H/1H composition of n-alkanes. The initial results of this work suggest that plants using the same environmental water

  4. Wax esters of different compositions produced via engineering of leaf chloroplast metabolism in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Selcuk; Sun, Chuanxin; Leonova, Svetlana; Dutta, Paresh; Dörmann, Peter; Domergue, Frédéric; Stymne, Sten; Hofvander, Per

    2014-09-01

    In a future bio-based economy, renewable sources for lipid compounds at attractive cost are needed for applications where today petrochemical derivatives are dominating. Wax esters and fatty alcohols provide diverse industrial uses, such as in lubricant and surfactant production. In this study, chloroplast metabolism was engineered to divert intermediates from de novo fatty acid biosynthesis to wax ester synthesis. To accomplish this, chloroplast targeted fatty acyl reductases (FAR) and wax ester synthases (WS) were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Wax esters of different qualities and quantities were produced providing insights to the properties and interaction of the individual enzymes used. In particular, a phytyl ester synthase was found to be a premium candidate for medium chain wax ester synthesis. Catalytic activities of FAR and WS were also expressed as a fusion protein and determined functionally equivalent to the expression of individual enzymes for wax ester synthesis in chloroplasts. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using plant wax markers to estimate the diet composition of grazing Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Heublein, C; Südekum, K-H; Gill, F L; Dohme-Meier, F; Schori, F

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether diet selection of dairy cows under grazing conditions could be estimated using plant wax markers. Furthermore, differences between 2 cow strains and the effect of concentrate supplementation on plant species selection were investigated. The experiment was a study with a crossover design performed on an organic farm with 12 Swiss Holstein cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein cows. Both experimental periods consisted of a 21-d adaptation and a 7-d measurement period. All cows grazed full time in a rotational stocking system and received either no concentrate or 6 kg/d of a commercial cereal-grain mix. Representative herbage samples of each grazed paddock were taken and botanical composition of subsamples was manually determined. The average proportions of the plant species were 27.8% Lolium perenne, 6.1% Dactylis glomerata, 10.4% Trifolium repens, and 9.0% Taraxacum officinale. Other grass species were merged as "other grass" (38.2%) and other forb species as "other forbs" (8.5%). n-Alkanes, long-chain fatty acids, and long-chain alcohols (LCOH) were analyzed in the samples of plant species, concentrate, and feces from each cow. A linear discriminant analysis indicated that diet components were differentiated best with LCOH (96%) and worst with the combination of all marker groups together (12%). For each marker, the fecal marker recovery (FR) relative to dosed ytterbium was determined in 2 ways. Estimation of diet composition was performed with the software "EatWhat," and results were compared with botanical composition with the Aitchison distance. The results indicate that the diet composition of grazing dairy cows can be estimated using plant wax markers. Additionally, the calculation of FR led to mostly reliable results, yet this approach needs further validation. The most accurate estimation was achieved with the marker combination of n-alkanes and LCOH with a correction for FR. Less accurate estimations were achieved

  6. Alteration of Wax Ester Content and Composition in Euglena gracilis with Gene Silencing of 3-ketoacyl-CoA Thiolase Isozymes.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masami; Andoh, Hiroko; Koyama, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Yomi; Nakai, Takeo; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    Euglena gracilis produces wax ester under hypoxic and anaerobic culture conditions with a net synthesis of ATP. In wax ester fermentation, fatty acids are synthesized by reversing beta-oxidation in mitochondria. A major species of wax ester produced by E. gracilis is myristyl myristate (14:0-14:0Alc). Because of its shorter carbon chain length with saturated compounds, biodiesel produced from E. gracilis wax ester may have good cold flow properties with high oxidative stability. We reasoned that a slight metabolic modification would enable E. gracilis to produce a biofuel of ideal composition. In order to produce wax ester with shorter acyl chain length, we focused on isozymes of the enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT), a condensing enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis pathway in E. gracilis. We performed a gene silencing study of KAT isozymes in E. gracilis. Six KAT isozymes were identified in the E. gracilis EST database, and silencing any three of them (EgKAT1-3) altered the wax ester amount and composition. In particular, silencing EgKAT1 induced a significant compositional shift to shorter carbon chain lengths in wax ester. A model fuel mixture inferred from the composition of wax ester in EgKAT1-silenced cells showed a significant decrease in melting point compared to that of the control cells.

  7. Cuticular wax composition of Salix varieties in relation to biomass productivity.

    PubMed

    Teece, Mark A; Zengeya, Thomas; Volk, Timothy A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2008-01-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of six Salix clones (one Salix miyabeana, one Salix dasyclados, one Salix eriocephala, two Salix purpurea, and one interspecific hybrid of Salix eriocephala x interior) with different biomass productivities were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total wax content ranged from 6.3 to 16.8 microg cm(-2), and two distinct patterns of wax were measured. The wax from leaves of S. dasyclados 'SV1' differed from all other clones and was dominated by fatty acids (42%), high concentrations of n-alkanes (25%) and n-alcohols (28%), with low n-aldehyde content (4%). All other clones produced cuticular wax dominated by n-alcohols (32-51%), particularly 1-hexacosanol, with fatty acids (14-37%) and n-aldehydes (19-26%) present in lower abundances. Clones of Salix grown under identical environmental conditions produce noticeably different amounts of cuticular wax. In contrast to previous studies of Salix, total wax content was independent of biomass productivity, measured as basal area, suggesting that wax production is not directly linked with woody biomass production by shrub willows under these site conditions.

  8. Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    PubMed

    Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax.

  9. The moss Funaria hygrometrica has cuticular wax similar to vascular plants, with distinct composition on leafy gametophyte, calyptra and sporophyte capsule surfaces.

    PubMed

    Busta, Lucas; Budke, Jessica M; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Aerial surfaces of land plants are covered with a waxy cuticle to protect against water loss. The amount and composition of cuticular waxes on moss surfaces had rarely been investigated. Accordingly, the degree of similarity between moss and vascular plant waxes, and between maternal and offspring moss structure waxes is unknown. To resolve these issues, this study aimed at providing a comprehensive analysis of the waxes on the leafy gametophyte, gametophyte calyptra and sporophyte capsule of the moss Funaria hygrometrica Waxes were extracted from the surfaces of leafy gametophytes, gametophyte calyptrae and sporophyte capsules, separated by gas chromatography, identified qualitatively with mass spectrometry, and quantified with flame ionization detection. Diagnostic mass spectral peaks were used to determine the isomer composition of wax esters. The surfaces of the leafy gametophyte, calyptra and sporophyte capsule of F. hygrometrica were covered with 0·94, 2·0 and 0·44 μg cm(-2) wax, respectively. While each wax mixture was composed of mainly fatty acid alkyl esters, the waxes from maternal and offspring structures had unique compositional markers. β-Hydroxy fatty acid alkyl esters were limited to the leafy gametophyte and calyptra, while alkanes, aldehydes and diol esters were restricted to the sporophyte capsule. Ubiquitous fatty acids, alcohols, fatty acid alkyl esters, aldehydes and alkanes were all found on at least one surface. This is the first study to determine wax coverage (μg cm(-2)) on a moss surface, enabling direct comparisons with vascular plants, which were shown to have an equal amount or more wax than F. hygrometrica Wax ester biosynthesis is of particular importance in this species, and the ester-forming enzyme(s) in different parts of the moss may have different substrate preferences. Furthermore, the alkane-forming wax biosynthesis pathway, found widely in vascular plants, is active in the sporophyte capsule, but not in the leafy

  10. The moss Funaria hygrometrica has cuticular wax similar to vascular plants, with distinct composition on leafy gametophyte, calyptra and sporophyte capsule surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Busta, Lucas; Budke, Jessica M.; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Aerial surfaces of land plants are covered with a waxy cuticle to protect against water loss. The amount and composition of cuticular waxes on moss surfaces had rarely been investigated. Accordingly, the degree of similarity between moss and vascular plant waxes, and between maternal and offspring moss structure waxes is unknown. To resolve these issues, this study aimed at providing a comprehensive analysis of the waxes on the leafy gametophyte, gametophyte calyptra and sporophyte capsule of the moss Funaria hygrometrica. Methods Waxes were extracted from the surfaces of leafy gametophytes, gametophyte calyptrae and sporophyte capsules, separated by gas chromatography, identified qualitatively with mass spectrometry, and quantified with flame ionization detection. Diagnostic mass spectral peaks were used to determine the isomer composition of wax esters. Key Results The surfaces of the leafy gametophyte, calyptra and sporophyte capsule of F. hygrometrica were covered with 0·94, 2·0 and 0·44 μg cm–2 wax, respectively. While each wax mixture was composed of mainly fatty acid alkyl esters, the waxes from maternal and offspring structures had unique compositional markers. β-Hydroxy fatty acid alkyl esters were limited to the leafy gametophyte and calyptra, while alkanes, aldehydes and diol esters were restricted to the sporophyte capsule. Ubiquitous fatty acids, alcohols, fatty acid alkyl esters, aldehydes and alkanes were all found on at least one surface. Conclusions This is the first study to determine wax coverage (μg cm–2) on a moss surface, enabling direct comparisons with vascular plants, which were shown to have an equal amount or more wax than F. hygrometrica. Wax ester biosynthesis is of particular importance in this species, and the ester-forming enzyme(s) in different parts of the moss may have different substrate preferences. Furthermore, the alkane-forming wax biosynthesis pathway, found widely in vascular plants, is

  11. Reconstructing hydrologic changes in Indonesia by deuterium isotope compositions of plant waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesierich, K.; Schefuss, E.; Hebbeln, D.; Mohtadi, M.; Behling, H.; Jennerjahn, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Indonesian region plays an essential role as a center of atmospheric heat and moisture source of the Earth's climate system and is known for its characteristic abundant rainfall throughout the year. Here, we examine hydrological variability during the Late Quaternary in Indonesia from a NW-SE transect from Sumatra to Flores based on compound-specific plant leaf wax isotope measurements. The five investigated coring sites are located on the continental shelf in the Indian Ocean, spanning the last 20 ka. The transect covers a pronounced gradient in climate and vegetation. Sumatra is located in an area with sufficient rainfall throughout the year, whereas in eastward direction rainfall decreases and a dry season exist. Compound specific analyses of n-alkanes of plant leaf waxes (D/H and δ13C) give insights into continental hydrologic changes and the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation. We compared data from 4 time intervals that characterize the last glacial maximum (20 ka), the Heinrich event 1 (15 ka) and the Holocene with maximum in summer insolation (8 ka) and minimum in summer insolation at 30°N (3 ka). Our results show that estimated D/H values of precipitation, i.e., by vegetation-correction of compound-specific D/H values of n-alkanes, in the Holocene (3 and 8 ka) coincide with modern averaged D/H values of rain water. In contrast, during glacial times the results deviate significantly to lighter values, which would indicate higher rainfall intensity due to the amount-effect. The largest deviations to lighter values are found in the Java region, whereas Sumatra and Flores shows only slightly changes. Previous studies and the δ13C values of the n-alkanes, however, suggest that climate in Indonesia, especially in the eastern part, was drier during the last glacial, including Heinrich 1, and C4 grasses were more abundant, respectively. This discrepancy must be explained by other effects on the isotopic composition of rainfall that occurred in the

  12. Developmental Changes in Composition and Morphology of Cuticular Waxes on Leaves and Spikes of Glossy and Glaucous Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Jiahuan; Chai, Guaiqiang; Li, Chunlian; Hu, Yingang; Chen, Xinhong; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The glossy varieties (A14 and Jing 2001) and glaucous varieties (Fanmai 5 and Shanken 99) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were selected for evaluation of developmental changes in the composition and morphology of cuticular waxes on leaves and spikes. The results provide us with two different wax development patterns between leaf and spike. The general accumulation trend of the total wax load on leaf and spike surfaces is first to increase and then decrease during the development growth period, but these changes were caused by different compound classes between leaf and spike. Developmental changes of leaf waxes were mainly the result of variations in composition of alcohols and alkanes. In addition, diketones were the third important contributor to the leaf wax changes in the glaucous varieties. Alkanes and diketones were the two major compound classes that caused the developmental changes of spike waxes. For leaf waxes, β- and OH-β-diketones were first detected in flag leaves from 200-day-old plants, and the amounts of β- and OH-β-diketones were significantly higher in glaucous varieties compared with glossy varieties. In spike waxes, β-diketone existed in all varieties, but OH-β-diketone was detectable only in the glaucous varieties. Unexpectedly, the glaucous variety Fanmai 5 yielded large amounts of OH-β-diketone. There was a significant shift in the chain length distribution of alkanes between early stage leaf and flag leaf. Unlike C28 alcohol being the dominant chain length in leaf waxes, the dominant alcohol chain length of spikes was C24 or C26 depending on varieties. Epicuticular wax crystals on wheat leaf and glume were comprised of platelets and tubules, and the crystal morphology changed constantly throughout plant growth, especially the abaxial leaf crystals. Moreover, our results suggested that platelets and tubules on glume surfaces could be formed rapidly within a few days.

  13. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  14. Comparative analysis of surface wax in mature fruits between Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) from the perspective of crystal morphology, chemical composition and key gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinqiu; Hao, Haohao; Liu, Runsheng; Ma, Qiaoli; Xu, Juan; Chen, Feng; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-06-15

    Surface wax of mature Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) was analysed by crystal morphology, chemical composition, and gene expression levels. The epicuticular and total waxes of both citrus cultivars were mostly composed of aldehydes, alkanes, fatty acids and primary alcohols. The epicuticular wax accounted for 80% of the total wax in the Newhall fruits and was higher than that in the Satsuma fruits. Scanning electron microscopy showed that larger and more wax platelets were deposited on the surface of Newhall fruits than on the Satsuma fruits. Moreover, the expression levels of genes involved in the wax formation were consistent with the biochemical and crystal morphological analyses. These diversities of fruit wax between the two cultivars may contribute to the differences of fruit postharvest storage properties, which can provide important information for the production of synthetic wax for citrus fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in determination of microalgal compositions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yingying; Yao, Changhong; Xue, Song; Yang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in algal strain screening and monitoring cell composition dynamics in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis during algal cultivation. The content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of samples determined by traditional methods had validated the accuracy of FT-IR method. For algal screening, the band absorption ratios of lipid/amide I and carbo/amide I from FT-IR measurements allowed for the selection of Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis as the most potential lipid and carbohydrate producers, respectively. The cell composition dynamics of I. zhangjiangensis measured by FT-IR revealed the diversion of carbon allocation from protein to carbohydrate and neutral lipid when nitrogen-replete cells were subjected to nitrogen limitation. The carbo/amide I band absorption ratio had also been demonstrated to depict physiological status under nutrient stress in T. subcordiformis. FT-IR serves as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content in cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Histone H2B monoubiquitination is involved in the regulation of cutin and wax composition in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Rozenn; Verdier, Gaëtan; Ors, Mareva; Erhardt, Mathieu; Beisson, Fred; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2014-02-01

    The plant cuticle is a chemically heterogeneous lipophilic layer composed of a cutin polymer matrix and waxes which covers the aerial parts of plants. This layer plays an essential role in the survival of plants by protecting them from desiccation and (a)biotic stresses. Knowledge on the gene networks and mechanisms regulating the synthesis of cuticle components during organ expansion or stress response remains limited however. Here, using five loss-of-function mutants for histone monoubiquitination, we report on the role of two RING E3 ligases, namely HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION 1 and 2 (HUB1 and HUB2), in the selective transcriptional activation of four cuticle biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Microscopy observations showed that in hub1-6 and hub2-2 mutants irregular epidermal cells and disorganized cuticle layers were present in rosette leaves. Water loss measurements on excised rosettes demonstrated that cuticular permeability was significantly increased in the mutants. Chemical analysis of cuticle components revealed that the wax composition was changed and that cutin 16:0 dicarboxylic acid was significantly reduced in all hub mutants. Analysis of transcript levels of selected genes indicated that LACS2, ATT1 and HOTHEAD involved in cutin biosynthesis and CER1 involved in wax biosynthesis were down-regulated in the hub mutants, while the expression of LACERATA, CER3, CER6 and CER10 remained unchanged. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further showed that hub mutants are impaired in dynamic changes of histone H2B monoubiquitination at several loci of down-regulated genes. Taken together, these data establish that the regulation of cuticle composition involves chromatin remodeling by H2B monoubiquitination.

  17. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

    1995-01-01

    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  18. Estimation of Cellulose Crystallinity of Lignocelluloses Using Near-IR FT-Raman Spectroscopy and Comparison of the Raman and Segal-WAXS Methods

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard R. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Of the recently developed univariate and multivariate near-IR FT-Raman methods for estimating cellulose crystallinity, the former method was applied to a variety of lignocelluloses: softwoods, hardwoods, wood pulps, and agricultural residues/fibers. The effect of autofluorescence on the crystallinity estimation was minimized by solvent extraction or chemical treatment...

  19. Molecular interactions in bacterial cellulose composites studied by 1D FT-IR and dynamic 2D FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kacuráková, Marta; Smith, Andrew C; Gidley, Michael J; Wilson, Reginald H

    2002-06-12

    Specific strain-induced orientation and interactions in three Acetobacter cellulose composites: cellulose (C), cellulose/pectin (CP) and cellulose/xyloglucan (CXG) were characterized by FT-IR and dynamic 2D FT-IR spectroscopies. On the molecular level, the reorientation of the cellulose fibrils occurred in the direction of the applied mechanical strain. The cellulose-network reorientation depends on the composition of the matrix, including the water content, which lubricates the motion of macromolecules in the network. At the submolecular level, dynamic 2D FT-IR data suggested that there was no interaction between cellulose and pectin in CP and that they responded independently to a small amplitude strain, while in CXG, cellulose and xyloglucan were uniformly strained along the sample length.

  20. Investigation into the Coating and Desensitization Effect on HNIW of Paraffin Wax/Stearic Acid Composite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Xu; Chen, Shu-Sen; Jin, Shao-Hua; Shu, Qing-Hai; Jiang, Zhen-Ming; Shang, Feng-Qin; Li, Jin-Xin

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) was bonded by fluorine rubber and then desensitized by paraffin wax (PW), stearic acid (SA), and a PW/SA composite system using an aqueous suspension method. The coating and desensitization effects of the composite systems on HNIW and the influence of the addition of SA on the mechanical properties of the coated HNIW samples were studied. In addition, the PW/SA composite solution was simulated using a molecular dynamics method, and the relationship between the desensitization effect on HNIW and the properties of the composite solution was investigated. The results showed that the PW/SA composite system, of which the desensitization effect on HNIW was between those of the two desensitizers, could effectively coat HNIW and that the composite solution had the most stable and well-distributed state when using benzene as solvent with the mass ratio of PW/SA equal to 7/3 or 3/7, thus resulting in the best desensitization effect on HNIW. Moreover, the addition of stearic acid was successful in enhancing the mechanical properties of the coated HNIW samples.

  1. Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

    2004-09-30

    FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

  2. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

  3. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness. PMID:26889359

  4. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness.

  5. Composition of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers on Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Hamet et Perr. de la Bathie) leaves.

    PubMed

    van Maarseveen, Clare; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-05-01

    Epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana were analyzed. All wax mixtures were found to contain approximately equal amounts of triterpenoids and very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives. The triterpenoid fraction consisted of glutinol (8-19% of the total wax) and friedelin (4-9%), together with smaller amounts of glutanol, glutinol acetate, epifriedelanol, germanicol and beta-amyrin. The VLCFA derivatives comprised C27-C35 alkanes (19-37% of the total wax), C32-C34 aldehydes (3-7%), C32 and C34 fatty acids (0.2-3%), C26-C36 primary alcohols (4-8%), and C42-C52 alkyl esters (2-9%). The wax layers were found to differ in triterpenoid amounts, with the intracuticular wax containing higher percentages of most triterpenoids than the epicuticular wax. Friedelin, the only triterpenoid ketone present, showed the opposite distribution with higher proportions in the epicuticular wax. VLCFA derivatives also accumulated to higher percentages in the epicuticular than in the intracuticular wax layer. Epicuticular wax crystals were observed on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  6. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lu; Ye, Philip; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  7. Planning extensive esthetic restorations for anterior teeth: use of waxed-up study casts and composite resin mock-ups.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Baratto, Samantha Schaffer Pugsley; Spina, Denis Roberto Falcão; Correr, Gisele Maria; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to highlight the importance of appropriate planning protocols when direct composite resin restorations are used to solve extensive esthetic problems. A 30-year-old patient complained about her small maxillary anterior teeth and short upper lip. All teeth were healthy and light colored, and the patient exhibited good oral hygiene. The anterior teeth were relatively short, resulting in a compromised esthetic relationship between height and width. The maxillary and mandibular right central incisors were in an edge-to-edge relationship. After diagnostic casts and waxed-up study casts were obtained, occlusal adjustment and recontouring of the incisal and labial surfaces of the mandibular right central incisor were performed to increase overjet. To increase the volume of the upper lip, composite resin restorations were planned for the maxillary anterior teeth. To confirm that the contours and color of the new smile were acceptable to the patient, composite resin esthetic mock-ups were made directly in the mouth before the definitive procedure. After definitive restoration of the anterior teeth, additional occlusal adjustments were performed. At the 36-month follow-up, no fracturing or severe wear of the restorations was observed. The restored anterior guidance provided excellent function after 3 years of clinical service.

  8. A comparison of the composition of epicuticular wax from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) flowers.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D W; Robertson, G W; Shepherd, T; Birch, A N; Gordon, S C; Woodford, J A

    2000-09-01

    Epicuticular waxes have been characterised from the flowers of raspberry and hawthorn, on both of which adult raspberry beetles (Byturus tomentosus) can feed. The flower wax from both species had similar alkane profiles and also contained long-chain alcohols, aldehydes and fatty acids. The range of the carbon numbers detected for these classes of compounds was broadly similar in both but the relative amounts of each differed between species. Raspberry flower wax also contained fatty acid methyl esters, a group of compounds that has rarely been detected in plant epicuticular waxes, however, these were not observed in hawthorn flower wax. Long-chain alcohol-fatty acid esters with carbon numbers ranging from C36 to C48 were also detected in both plant species. However, an examination of their constituent acids indicated that in hawthorn the esters based on the C16 fatty acid predominated, whilst in raspberry flower wax, esters based on the C20 fatty acid were most abundant. Both species also contained pentacyclic triterpenoids, which accounted for, on average, over 16 and 48% of the total wax extracted from raspberry and hawthorn flowers respectively. In the former, ursolic and oleanolic acids accounted for over 90% of the pentacyclic triterpenes, whilst hawthorn flower wax, in addition to containing these acids, also contained high relative concentrations of both free and esterified alpha- and beta-amyrins.

  9. Stable hydrogen isotopic composition of n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols as a tracer for the source region of terrestrial plant waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2009-12-01

    Studies on molecular composition and compound-specific carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) of leaf wax n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols have revealed a long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial higher plant materials over the south Atlantic and western Pacific oceans. However, molecular and δ13C compositions of terrestrial plant waxes in the eastern part of the Asian continent are relatively constant reflecting C3-dominated vegetation, which makes it difficult to specify the source regions of plant materials in the atmospheric aerosols over the East Asia and northwest Pacific regions. Recent observation displays a large (>100‰) spatial variation in hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of rainwater in East Asia. Because δD values of terrestrial higher plants sensitively reflect those of precipitation waters, δD of leaf waxes are expected to provide information on their source region. In this study, we measured the δD of n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols from Tokyo to better understand the origin of leaf wax n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols. The δD values of fossil fuel n-alkanes (C21 to C24) in Tokyo aerosols range from -65 to -94‰, which are in a range of those reported in marine crude oils. In contrast, the δD of higher molecular weight (C29 and C31) n-alkanes (δDHMW) show much larger values by ~70‰ than those of fossil fuel n-alkanes. Their values were found to exhibit concomitant variations with carbon preference index (CPI), suggesting that the δDHMW reflect the δD of leaf wax n-alkanes with a variable contribution from fossil fuel n-alkanes. Nevertheless, good positive correlation (r = 0.89, p < 0.01) between the δDHMW and CPI values enable us to remove the contribution of fossil fuels using a mass balance approach by assuming that CPI of fossil fuel is 1 and CPI of plant waxes is 5-15. Calculated n-alkane δD values averaged from -170 to -185‰ for C29 and from -155 to -168‰ for C31. These values are consistent with those reported from

  10. The stable hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary plant waxes as quantitative proxy for rainfall in the West African Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeyer, Eva M.; Forrest, Matthew; Beckmann, Britta; Sessions, Alex L.; Mulch, Andreas; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the stable hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of terrestrial leaf waxes tracks that of precipitation (δDprecip) both spatially across climate gradients and over a range of different timescales. Yet, reconstructed estimates of δDprecip and corresponding rainfall typically remain largely qualitative, due mainly to uncertainties in plant ecosystem net fractionation, relative humidity, and the stability of the amount effect through time. Here we present δD values of the C31n-alkane (δDwax) from a marine sediment core offshore the Northwest (NW) African Sahel covering the past 100 years and overlapping with the instrumental record of rainfall. We use this record to investigate whether accurate, quantitative estimates of past rainfall can be derived from our δDwax time series. We infer the composition of vegetation (C3/C4) within the continental catchment area by analysis of the stable carbon isotopic composition of the same compounds (δ13Cwax), calculated a net ecosystem fractionation factor, and corrected the δDwax time series accordingly to derive δDprecip. Using the present-day relationship between δDprecip and the amount of precipitation in the tropics, we derive quantitative estimates of past precipitation amounts. Our data show that (a) vegetation composition can be inferred from δ13Cwax, (b) the calculated net ecosystem fractionation represents a reasonable estimate, and (c) estimated total amounts of rainfall based on δDwax correspond to instrumental records of rainfall. Our study has important implications for future studies aiming to reconstruct rainfall based on δDwax; the combined data presented here demonstrate that it is feasible to infer absolute rainfall amounts from sedimentary δDwax in tandem with δ13Cwax in specific depositional settings.

  11. Aridity and vegetation composition are important determinants of leaf-wax δD values in southeastern Mexico and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Pagani, Mark; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Curtis, Jason H.

    2012-11-01

    Leaf-wax hydrogen isotope composition (δDwax) is increasingly applied as a proxy for hydroclimate variability in tropical paleoclimate archives, but the factors controlling δDwax in the tropics remain poorly understood. We measured δDwax and the stable carbon isotope composition of leaf-waxes (δ13Cwax), including both n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, from modern lake sediments and soils across a marked aridity gradient in southeastern Mexico and northern Central America to investigate the importance of aridity and vegetation composition on δDwax. In this region the estimated hydrogen isotope composition of meteoric water (δDw) varies by only 25‰, and variability in δDw does not explain the relatively large variance in δDwax (60‰). Instead, the aridity index, defined as the ratio of mean annual precipitation to mean annual potential evapotranspiration (MAP/PET), explains much of the variability in the hydrogen isotope fractionation between leaf-waxes and meteoric water (εwax/w). Aridity effects are more evident in lake sediments than in soils, possibly because integration of leaf-waxes across a broad catchment masks small-scale variability in εwax/w that is a consequence of differences in vegetation and microclimates. In angiosperm-dominated environments, plant ecology, inferred from δ13Cwax, provides a secondary control on εwax/w for n-alkanoic acids (εn-acid/w). Low δ13Cn-acid values are associated with high εn-acid/w values, most likely reflecting differences in biosynthetic hydrogen isotope fractionation between C4 grasses and C3 trees and shrubs. A similar relationship between δ13Cn-alkane and εn-alkane/w is not observed. These results indicate that changes in either aridity or vegetation can cause large variability in δDwax that is independent of the isotopic composition of precipitation, and these effects should be accounted for in paleoclimate studies.

  12. Leaf wax composition and carbon isotopes vary among major conifer groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Leslie, Andrew B.; Wing, Scott L.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf waxes (e.g. n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) and their carbon isotopes (δ13C) are commonly used to track past changes in the carbon cycle, water availability, and plant ecophysiology. Previous studies indicated that conifers have lower n-alkane concentrations than angiosperms and that 13C fractionation during n-alkane synthesis (εn-alkane) is smaller than in angiosperms. These prior studies, however, sampled a limited phylogenetic and geographic subset of conifers, leaving out many important subtropical and Southern Hemisphere groups that were once widespread and common components of fossil assemblages. To expand on previous work, we collected 43 conifer species (and Ginkgo biloba) from the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley, sampling all extant conifer families and almost two-thirds of extant genera. We find that Pinaceae, including many North American species used in previous studies, have very low or no n-alkanes. However, other conifer groups have significant concentrations of n-alkanes, especially Southern Hemisphere Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae (monkey puzzles, Norfolk Island pines, and yellowwoods), and many species of Cupressaceae (junipers and relatives). Within the Cupressaceae, we find total n-alkane concentrations are high in subfamilies Cupressoideae and Callitroideae, but significantly lower in the early diverging taxodioid lineages (including bald cypress and redwood). Individual n-alkane chain lengths have a weak phylogenetic signal, except for n-C29 alkane, but when combined using average chain length (ACL), a strong phylogenetic signal emerges. The strong phylogenetic signal in ACL, observed in the context of a common growth environment for all plants we sampled, suggests that ACL is strongly influenced by factors other than climate. An analysis of εn-alkane indicates a strong phylogenetic signal in which the smallest biosynthetic fractionation occurs in Pinaceae and the largest in Taxaceae (yews and relatives). The

  13. Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, R; Raja, A; Thiruppathi, G

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm(-1) (I(COM)), 1473 cm(-1) (I(COD)), 961 cm(-1) (I(HAP)) and 1282 cm(-1) (I(UA)) were used.

  14. Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2013-10-01

    In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm-1 (ICOM), 1473 cm-1 (ICOD), 961 cm-1 (IHAP) and 1282 cm-1 (IUA) were used.

  15. Transmucosal delivery of testosterone in rabbits using novel bi-layer mucoadhesive wax-film composite disks.

    PubMed

    Jay, Steven; Fountain, William; Cui, Zhengrong; Mumper, Russell J

    2002-09-01

    Testosterone exhibits very low oral bioavailability because of its low aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel bi-layer mucoadhesive wax-film composite (WFC), and to test the relative bioavailability of testosterone via the buccal route in rabbits. The release rate of testosterone from optimal WFCs (3/8-in. diameter) per unit surface area was 5.6 microg x cm(2) x mL(-1) x min(-1) and was zero-order. Bi-layer WFCs (average weight of 14 +/- 2.6 mg and thickness of 186 +/- 34 microns) containing 4 mg of testosterone were applied to the buccal pouch of anesthetized New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbits (n = 3) injected intravenously had C(max) and area under the curve values of 1200 +/- 46 ng/mL, and 48,227 +/- 12,995 ng x min/mL, respectively. Rabbits (n = 3) dosed via the buccal pouch had C(max), T(max), and area under the curve values of 127 +/- 13 ng/mL, 200 +/- 35 min, and 24,221 +/- 1543 ng x min/mL. The relative bioavailability for rabbits treated with the WFC was 50.2 +/- 3.2% with a coefficient of variation of 6.4%. It was concluded that these bi-layer mucoadhesive WFCs disks could deliver physiologically relevant amounts of insoluble drugs such as testosterone across the buccal mucosa.

  16. A comparison of the ultrastructure and composition of fruits' cuticular wax from the wild-type 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck cv. Newhall) and its glossy mutant.

    PubMed

    Liu, De-Chun; Zeng, Qiong; Ji, Qing-Xun; Liu, Chuan-Fu; Liu, Shan-Bei; Liu, Yong

    2012-12-01

    The altered ultrastructure and composition of cuticular wax from 'glossy Newhall' (MT) fruits lead to its glossy phenotype. A novel mutant derived from the wild-type (WT) 'Newhall' navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck cv. Newhall), named 'glossy Newhall' (MT), which produced much more glossy fruits that were easily distinguishable from the WT fruits was characterized in this report. The total wax loads of both WT and MT fruits varied considerably during the fruit development. The most abundant wax fraction of WT mature fruits was triterpenoids, followed by aldehydes, alkanes, fatty acids, primary alcohol and cholesterol. The total wax load in MT mature fruits was reduced by 44.2 % compared with WT. Except for the minor wax components of primary alcohol and cholesterol, the amounts of all major wax fractions in MT mature fruits were decreased in varying degrees. The major reduction occurred in aldehydes that decreased 96.4 % and alkanes that decreased 81.9 %, which was consistent with scanning electron micrographs of MT mature fruit surfaces that showed a severe loss of wax crystals. Hence, aldehydes and alkanes were suggested to be required for wax crystal formation in 'Newhall' navel orange fruits.

  17. Evaluation of a setting reaction pathway in the novel composite TiHA-CSD bone cement by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Czechowska, Joanna; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Zofia

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a setting reaction pathway in a novel, surgically handy implant material, based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) and titanium doped hydroxyapatite (TiHA). The previous studies confirmed superior biological properties of TiHA in comparison to the undoped hydroxyapatite (HA) what makes it highly attractive for future medical applications. In this study the three types of titanium modified HA powders: untreated, calcined at 800 °C, sintered at 1250 °C and CSH were used to produce bone cements. The Fourier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were applied to evaluate processes taking place during the setting of the studied materials. Our results undoubtedly confirmed that the reaction pathways and the phase compositions differed significantly for set cements and were dependent on the initial heat treatment of TiHA powder. Final materials were multiphase composites consisting of calcium sulfate dihydrate, bassanite, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and calcium titanate (perovskite). The FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements performed after the incubation of the cement samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF), indicate on high bioactive potential of the obtained bone cements.

  18. Wax and cutin mutants of Arabidopsis: Quantitative characterization of the cuticular transport barrier in relation to chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Christina; Schroll, Bettina; Zeisler, Viktoria; Waßmann, Friedrich; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Using (14)C-labeled epoxiconazole as a tracer, cuticular permeability of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was quantitatively measured in order to compare different wax and cutin mutants (wax2, cut1, cer5, att1, bdg, shn3 and shn1) to the corresponding wild types (Col-0 and Ws). Mutants were characterized by decreases or increases in wax and/or cutin amounts. Permeances [ms(-1)] of Arabidopsis cuticles either increased in the mutants compared to wild type or were not affected. Thus, genetic changes in wax and cutin biosynthesis in some of the investigated Arabidopsis mutants obviously impaired the coordinated cutin and wax deposition at the outer leaf epidermal cell wall. As a consequence, barrier properties of cuticles were significantly decreased. However, increasing cutin and wax amounts by genetic modifications, did not automatically lead to improved cuticular barrier properties. As an alternative approach to the radioactive transport assay, changes in chlorophyll fluorescence were monitored after foliar application of metribuzine, an herbicide inhibiting electron transport in chloroplasts. Since both, half-times of photosynthesis inhibition as well as times of complete inhibition, in fact correlated with (14)C-epoxiconazole permeances, different rates of decline of photosynthetic yield between mutants and wild type must be a function of foliar uptake of the herbicide across the cuticle. Thus, monitoring changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, instead of conducting radioactive transport assays, represents an easy-to-handle and fast alternative evaluating cuticular barrier properties of different genotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.

  19. Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopic study of unsaturated and saturated waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Falk, M. J. P.

    1997-12-01

    The application of Fourier-transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy to the non-destructive analysis of plant biomaterials, comprising ten different waxes, is illustrated in this work. All the wax specimens studied are multicomponent systems and comparison of the individual spectra was effected. This leads to a means of distinguishing the individual wax specimen using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The samples were not pre-treated before analysis and were used directly from their respective storage collections.

  20. Fluorescence EEM and FT-IR analyses for examination of soil organic matter compositions affected by incubation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Ah; Vo-Minh Nguyen, Hang; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of soil drying-rewetting, nitrogen deposition, and temperature rise on the changes in dissolved soil organic matter quantities and their compositions.A PARAFAC method was employed to analyze the changes in the sub-fractions of fluorescent DOM components, which revealed that the dry forest soil accumulated relatively more amino acid type DOM than humic-like substances whereas the other soil groups showed the opposite trend.Nitrogen deposition, and temperature rise did not induce significant changes in the fluorescent DOM components. FT-IR analysis results were compared with the fluorescence EEM results, which provided complementary information about the characteristic functional groups of DOM. A principal component analysis (PCA) with the PARAFAC component scores, and the intensity ratios of representative FT-IR peaks gave a comprehensive interpretation on the changes of DOM compositions in response to the variations in the incubation conditions.

  1. Identification of avian wax synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities. PMID:22305293

  2. HL-20 Wax Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A numerically machined wax pattern of the NASA HL-20 orbital re-entry lifting body was cut from a CAD/CAM file. This nine-inch wax model was later used in a lost wax investment casting process to replicate the pattern in ceramic for wind-tunnel aero-heating studies

  3. Distribution and stable isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes as tracers for organic matter transport along hydrological transects in the NW Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Sachse, Dirk; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-04-01

    The burial of organic matter in marine sediments represents the main long-term sink for reduced carbon in the global carbon cycle, with the fluvial system being the predominant transport mechanism. Organic matter deposited in marine and continental sediments contains valuable information on ecological and climatic conditions, and organic proxy data is thus often used in paleoclimate research. To use sedimentary records to investigate past environmental conditions in the terrestrial realm, processes dictating the transport of organic matter, including spatial and temporal resolution as well as the influence of climatic and tectonic processes, have to be understood. In this study, we test if a lipid biomarker based approach can be used to trace present-day organic matter sources in a fluvial watershed draining two intermontane basins in the southern-central Andes of NW Argentina, a tectonically active region with pronounced topographic, rainfall, and vegetation gradients. We investigated the distribution of long-chain leaf-wax n-alkanes, a terrestrial plant biomarker (and as such representative of terrestrially sourced carbon), in river sediments and coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) along two altitudinal and hydrological gradients. We used n-alkane abundances and their stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic values as three independent parameters for source discrimination. Additionally, we analyzed the control of environmental parameters on the isotopic signatures in leaf-wax n-alkanes. The general pattern of n-alkane distribution in river sediments and CPOM samples in our study area suggest that vascular plants are the major source of riverine organic matter. The stable carbon isotopic composition of nC29 alkanes suggests a nearly exclusive input of C3 vegetation. Although C4 plants are present in the lower catchment areas, the total percentage is too low to have a detectable influence on the carbon isotopic composition in river sediment and CPOM samples

  4. Can Stress-Induced Biochemical Differences drive Variation in the Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Leaf Wax n-Alkanes from Terrestrial Higher Plants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Y.; Pedentchouk, N.; Dawson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research has identified that interspecies variation in leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H from plants growing at the same geographical location can exceed 100‰. These differences cannot easily be explained by mechanisms that influence the isotopic composition of leaf water. Biochemical processes are therefore likely to drive some of this variability. Currently, however, little is known about the relative importance of different biochemical processes in shaping n-alkane hydrogen isotope composition. To explore this issue, we combined n-alkane δ2H analysis with measurements of: (i) the percentage content of leaf C and N; and (ii) foliar δ15N, from seven plants growing at Stiffkey salt marsh, Norfolk, UK. These species differ biochemically in respect of the protective compounds they produce under salt or water stressed conditions, with monocots generally producing more carbohydrates, and dicots producing more nitrogenous compounds. We found that monocots had higher %C, while dicots had higher %N and 15N-enriched leaf tissue. We identified a systematic relationship between the nature of the dominant protective compound produced (carbohydrate vs. nitrogenous) and n-alkane 2H/1H: species with a greater proportion of carbohydrates have more negative δ2H values. These findings might imply that shifts in the relative contribution of H to pyruvate from NADPH (2H-depleted) and recycled carbohydrates (2H-enriched) can influence n-alkane δ2H. The 2H-depletion of monocot n-alkanes relative to dicots may therefore be due to a greater proportion of NADPH-derived H incorporated into pyruvate because of their enhanced demand for carbohydrates. The production of protective compounds in plant species is a common response to a range of abiotic stresses (e.g. high UV irradiation, drought, salinity, high/low temperature). Species-specific biochemical responses to stress could therefore influence n-alkane 2H/1H across a range of habitats. This study highlights the importance of detailed

  5. Application of FT-IR spectroscopy for control of the medium composition during the biodegradation of nitro aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mara; Muter, Olga; Strikauska, Silvija; Gavare, Marita; Limane, Baiba

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies showed that cabbage leaf extract (CLE) added to the growth medium can noticeably promote the degradation of nitro aromatic compounds by specific consortium of bacteria upon their growth. For further development of the approach for contaminated soil remediation it was necessary to evaluate the qualitative and/or quantitative composition of different origin CLE and their relevance on the growth of explosives-degrading bacteria. Six CLE (different by species, cultivars and harvesting time) were tested and used as additives to the growth medium. It was shown that nitro aromatic compounds can be identified in the FT-IR absorption spectra by the characteristic band at 1,527 cm(-1), and in CLE by the characteristic band at 1,602 cm(-1). The intensity of the CLE band at 1,602 cm(-1) correlated with the concentration of total nitrogen (R2=0.87) and decreased upon the growth of bacteria. The content of nitrogen in CLE differed (0.22-1.00 vol.%) and significantly influenced the content of total carbohydrates (9.50-16.00% DW) and lipids [3.90-9.90% dry weight (DW)] accumulated in bacterial cells while the content of proteins was similar in all samples. Though this study showed quantitative differences in the composition of the studied CLE and the response of bacterial cells to the composition of the growth media, and proved the potential of this additive for remediation of contaminated soil. It was shown that analysis of CLE and monitoring of the conversion of nitro aromatic compounds can be investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy as well as by conventional chemical methods.

  6. Wax hydroisomerization process

    SciTech Connect

    Degnan, T.F. Jr.; Landis, M.E.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes a process for hydroisomerizing petroleum wax or synthetic paraffin wax, thereby reducing its pour point. It comprises: contacting the was with a hydroisomerization catalyst under sufficient hydroisomerization conditions. The catalyst comprises a layered titanate containing interspathic polymeric oxide. The catalyst further comprises a hydrogenating component selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, and Pt.

  7. Growth factor controls on the distribution and carbon isotope composition of n-alkanes in leaf wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, C.; Xie, S.; Huang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Cuticular wax plays pivotal physiological and ecological roles in the interactions between plants and the environments in which they grow. Plant-derived long-chain alkanes are more resistant to decay than other biochemical polymers. n-Alkane distributions (Carbon Preference Index (CPI) values and Average Chain Length (ACL) values) and carbon isotopic values are used widely in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. However, there is little information available on how growth stages of the plant might influence the abundance of n-alkanes in the natural environment. In this study, we analyzed n-alkane distributions and carbon isotope data from two tree species (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. and Liquidambar formosana Hance) collected monthly from 2009 to 2011 in Nanwang Shan, Wuhan, Hubei Province. CPI values for n-alkanes from C. camphora remained stable in autumn and winter but fluctuated dramatically during spring and autumn each year. Positive correlations between CPI values and the relative content of (C27+C29) were observed in both sun and shade leaves of C. camphora from April to July. In L. formosana, CPI values decreased gradually from April to December. A similar trend was observed in all three years suggesting that growth stages rather than temperature or relative humidity affected the CPI values on a seasonal timescale. In the samples of L. formosana ACL values were negatively correlated with CPI values in the growing season (from April to July) and positively correlated with CPI values in the other seasons. The δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes displayed more negative carbon isotopic values in autumn and winter compared with leaves sampled at the start of the growing season from both trees. The δ13C values of C29 and C31 n-alkanes of L. formosana decreased from April to December. These results demonstrate the importance of elucidating the growing factors that influence the distribution and δ13C values of alkanes in modern leaves prior to using CPI

  8. Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.M.K. ); Jacobson, S.R. )

    1996-01-01

    High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

  9. Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.M.K.; Jacobson, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C{sub 20} to C{sub 60} or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C{sub 25} to C{sub 35} waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

  10. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of organic matrix degradation in nanofilled resin composite.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Nahórny, Sídnei; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2013-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of light curing unit (LCU) type, mouthwashes, and soft drink on chemical degradation of a nanofilled resin composite. Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: halogen LCU, HS--saliva (control); HPT--Pepsi Twist®; HLC--Listerine®; HCP--Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, LS--saliva (control); LPT--Pepsi Twist®; LLC--Listerine®; LCP--Colgate Plax®. The degree of conversion analysis and the measure of the peak area at 2,930 cm-1 (organic matrix) of resin composite were done by Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy (baseline, after 7 and 14 days). The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's HSD post-hoc test. The DC ranged from 58.0% (Halogen) to 59.3% (LED) without significance. Differences in the peak area between LCUs were found after 7 days of storage in S and PT. A marked increase in the peak intensity of HLC and LLC groups was found. The soft-start light-activation may influence the chemical degradation of organic matrix in resin composite. Ethanol contained in Listerine® Cool Mint mouthwash had the most significant degradation effect. Raman spectroscopy is shown to be a useful tool to investigate resin composite degradation.

  11. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca(2+) ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch--part I.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina

    2015-01-25

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods allowed to identify the cross-linking process of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The cross-linking was performed by chemical methods by introducing cross-linking substances with Ca(2+) ions or glutaraldehyde and by physical way, applying the microwave radiation. It was found that Ca(2+) ions cause formation of cross-linking ionic bonds within carboxyl and carboxylate groups. Glutaraldehyde generates formation of cross-linking bonds with hemiacetal and acetal structures. Whereas in the microwave radiation field, due to dehydration, lattices are formed by anhydride bonds.

  12. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca2+ ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch - Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods allowed to identify the cross-linking process of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The cross-linking was performed by chemical methods by introducing cross-linking substances with Ca2+ ions or glutaraldehyde and by physical way, applying the microwave radiation. It was found that Ca2+ ions cause formation of cross-linking ionic bonds within carboxyl and carboxylate groups. Glutaraldehyde generates formation of cross-linking bonds with hemiacetal and acetal structures. Whereas in the microwave radiation field, due to dehydration, lattices are formed by anhydride bonds.

  13. Composition of dissolved organic nitrogen in continental precipitation investigated by ultra-high resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Katye E; Turpin, Barbara J; Seitzinger, Sybil P

    2009-09-15

    The atmospheric transport of fixed nitrogen (N) is a critical component of the global N cycle that has been heavily impacted by human activities. It has been shown that organic N is an important contributor to atmospheric N, but its sources and composition are largely unknown. Rainwater samples collected in New Jersey were analyzed by negative and positive ion ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Elemental compositions of 402 N-containing compounds were determined and five main groups of compound classes were identified: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and N detected as positive ions (CHON+), compounds containing CHON detected as negative ions (CHON-), compounds containing CHN detected as positive ions (CHN+), and CHON compounds that contain sulfur (S) detected as both positive and negative ions (CHONS+, CHONS-, respectively). The CHON+ compound class has the largest number of compounds detected (i.e., 281), with the majority, i.e., 207, containing only one N atom. The elemental ratios of these compounds and their detection in the positive ion mode suggest that they are compounds with reduced N functionality. Known contributors to secondary organic aerosol with anthropogenic sources were also identified including organonitrate compounds and nitrooxy organosulfates.

  14. Test Procedures for Qualifying Waxes for Use in Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-16

    QUALIFICATION FOR USE IN COMPOSITION A-3 EXPLOSIVE A sample of the candidate wax will be forwarded to Holston Army Ammunition Plant , Kingsport ...explosive for Navy use. TV. QUALIFICATION FOR USEJ]l COMPOSITION B EXPLOSIVE A sample of the candidate wax will be forwarded to Holston Army Ammunition ... Plant , Kingsport , Tennessee , to be used in manufacturing Grade A Composition B explosive to meet the requirements of MIL-C-401. This will be used in

  15. Water vapor barrier and sorption properties of edible films from pullulan and rice wax.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible films were prepared by using various ratios of pullulan and rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 46.4% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were also studied to examine...

  16. Effect of rice wax on water vapor permeability and sorption properties of edible pullulan films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible pullulan films were prepared by substituting the pullulan with various ratios of rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 50% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of the rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were ...

  17. Composition of suberin-associated waxes from the subterranean storage organs of seven plants : Parsnip, carrot, rutabaga, turnip, red beet, sweet potato and potato.

    PubMed

    Espelie, K E; Sadek, N Z; Kolattukudy, P E

    1980-10-01

    The waxes associated with the suberin in the periderm of the underground storage organs of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), rutabaga (Brassica napobrassica Mill.), turnip (Brassica rapa L.), red beet (Beta vulgaris L.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were isolated, fractionated into hydrocarbon, wax ester, free fatty alcohol and free fatty acid fractions, and analyzed by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The amount of wax extracted from the periderm of the storage organs ranged from 2 to 32 μg/cm(2). The hydrocarbons from the suberin layer have a broader chain-length distribution, a predominance of shorter carbon chains, and a higher proportion of even-numbered carbon chains than the leaf alkanes from the same plants. The major components of the free and esterified fatty alcohols and fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms, and are similar in chain-length distribution to their counterparts found covalently attached to the suberin polymers; however, these suberin components are shorter in chain length than their cuticular analogues from the leaves. Also extracted from the storage organs were polar components which included fatty alcohols and fatty acids in a conjugated form, and ω-hydroxy acids and dicarboxylic acids. Evidence is presented that removal of the wax from the periderm of whole storage organs results in a decrease in diffusion resistance to moisture.

  18. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  19. Using the alkanes and long-chain alcohols of plant cuticular wax to estimate diet composition and the intakes of mixed forages in sheep consuming a known amount of alkane-labelled supplement.

    PubMed

    Dove, H; Charmley, E

    2008-10-01

    In a feeding trial with 24 sheep, we used the alkanes, long-chain alcohols (LCOH) or both of these plant wax markers, to estimate the diet composition of animals offered diets comprising alkane-labelled cottonseed meal (CSM) together with up to four forages. The diets used were: Diet 1 subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum); Diet 2 subterranean clover + phalaris (Phalaris aquatica); Diet 3 subterranean clover, phalaris + annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum); and Diet 4 subterranean clover, phalaris, annual ryegrass + wheat straw (Triticum aestivum). Estimates of diet composition were made following correction of faecal alkane or LCOH concentrations for incomplete faecal recovery, using recovery estimates derived from individual animals, mean recoveries for a given dietary treatment or grand mean recoveries. Estimated dietary proportions of CSM and known intakes of CSM were used to estimate forage intake. The LCOH concentrations of the diet components were much higher than their alkane concentrations, especially for phalaris. Multivariate analyses showed that the discriminatory information provided by the LCOH was additional to that provided by the alkanes, and that a combination of (LCOH + alkanes) discriminated better between diet components than either class of marker alone. Faecal recoveries of LCOH increased with increasing carbon-chain length; there were no differences in recovery attributable to diet. The most accurate estimates of diet composition were obtained with the combination of (LCOH + alkanes). Estimates of diet composition based on LCOH alone were not as good as alkanes alone, due to the high correlation between the LCOH profiles of phalaris and ryegrass. Total grass content of the diet was very accurately estimated using LCOH. Diet composition estimates provided estimates of whole-diet digestibility, which did not differ from the measured values. Trends in the accuracy of forage intake estimates reflected those found with diet composition and

  20. Wax separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhurst, T.E.

    1980-06-03

    Particles of solid wax are separated from a slurry comprising said wax particles and a hydrocarbon oil by filtering the slurry through a cloth filter medium. It has been found that using, as the filter medium, a needled-felt cloth fabricated from fibers fusible by means of an open flame and having a singed surface on which the wax is collected results in an unexpected reduction in filter cloth blinding thereby yielding up to 30% increased throughput through the filter cloth and greatly reducing the frequency of washing the filter cloth. The cloth is further characterized in that it has a permeability to air in excess of about 3 cubic feet per minute per square foot of cloth surface at a differential pressure of 0.5 inches of water, a root mean square surface roughness in excess of 500 rms microinches and a fouling factor in excess of about 75%. This improved process has been found to be particularly useful for separating wax particles from a dewaxed lube oil slurry.

  1. [Bee, wax and honey].

    PubMed

    de Laguérenne, Claude

    2003-01-01

    The archives of Nantes contain two manuscripts of the XVIIth century from which we found 63 formulae which enter bees, honey and wax. Our study concerns these various galeniques forms for internal use or external used in therapeutics and in beauty care.

  2. Keeping Wax Liquid For Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Russell V.

    1989-01-01

    "Hot gun" applies masking wax and similar materials in liquid state. Holding chamber and nozzle supply continuous heat to wax, and wax injects directly into hole as liquid. Nozzles of various sizes interchange so one selects nozzle having opening suited to viscosity of wax and size of hole in particular application. Gun fast, eliminates repeated application, and greatly reduces cleanup time. Available commercially for applying hot glue, used to ensure wax penetrates and fills holes, flow passages, and manifold passages so contamination sealed off during manufacturing operations.

  3. Combining FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the cell wall composition changes during apples development.

    PubMed

    Szymanska-Chargot, M; Chylinska, M; Kruk, B; Zdunek, A

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this work was to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the composition of the cell wall material from apples during development by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The FT-IR region of 1500-800 cm(-1), containing characteristic bands for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose, was examined using principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering and partial least squares (PLS). The samples were differentiated by development stage and cultivar using PCA and k-means clustering. PLS calibration models for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose content from FT-IR spectra were developed and validated with the reference data. PLS models were tested using the root-mean-square errors of cross-validation for contents of galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose which was 8.30 mg/g, 4.08% and 1.74%, respectively. It was proven that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has potential for fast and reliable determination of the main constituents of fruit cell walls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Iven, Tim; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Hofvander, Per; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua; Feussner, Ivo

    2013-07-06

    Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples like cuticular lipid extracts to

  5. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples

  6. Experimental wax mixtures for dental use.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1997-07-01

    Improvements in the properties of dental waxes were sought by alterations in their composition. Twenty-six blends of paraffin wax, beeswax and inorganic filler were subjected to the following tests: plastic deformation (flow), linear thermal expansion, elastic modulus and flexural strength. Flow tests were conducted in accordance with the corresponding ISO specification. Thermal expansion coefficients were estimated using thermomechanical analysis. Mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine. Pure paraffin and beeswax were used as controls. The results were subjected to analysis using correlation and regression. Regression coefficients in the range of 0.90-0.99 were obtained in most cases, flow tests exhibiting the highest coefficients and flexural strength the lowest. The incorporated filler particles reduced the flow of the natural waxes, especially of the ester-containing beeswax, and improved the elastic modulus and strength. Good correlation was found between the ingredient proportions and measured properties, suggesting a relationship between them, although this is quite complicated in the case of tertiary wax mixtures. The experimental blends exhibited properties that are potentially useful for a range of clinical applications.

  7. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  8. Evaluation of FT-IR and Nile Red methods for microalgal lipid characterization and biomass composition determination.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Fang; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Huan-Lin

    2013-01-01

    To characterize lipid content of microalgal cells rapidly and accurately, the gravimetric determination, FT-IR and Nile Red (NR) staining were investigated on six typical eukaryotic and prokaryotic algae species. FT-IR and Nile Red were relative quantification methods and a standard curve was required in contrast to the gravimetric method. The FT-IR method determined the lipid, carbohydrate and protein contents simultaneously assuming that the algal cells only consisted of those three components. The Nile Red method was a relatively rapid method for neutral lipid content characterization by spectrofluorometry and could locate lipid body of the algal cell by fluorescence microscopy. According to sample sources and processing purposes, the gravimetric determination was preferable for large-scale cultivation with low-frequency monitoring, while FT-IR and Nile Red were suitable for general laboratory cultivation with medium-frequency monitoring, in particularly Nile Red was appropriate for small samples when high-frequency screening was required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variability in the carbon isotopic composition of foliage carbon pools (soluble carbohydrates, waxes) and respiration fluxes in southeastern U.S. pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Conte, Maureen H.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Weber, J. C.; Martin, Timothy A.; Cropper, Wendell P., Jr.

    2012-06-01

    We measured the δ13C of assimilated carbon (foliage organic matter (δCOM), soluble carbohydrates (δCSC), and waxes (δCW)) and respiratory carbon (foliage (δCFR), soil (δCSR) and ecosystem 13CO2 (δCER)) for two years at adjacent ecosystems in the southeastern U.S.: a regenerated 32 m tall mature Pinus palustrisforest, and a mid-rotation 13 m tallPinus elliottii stand. Carbon pools and foliage respiration in P. palustris were isotopically enriched by 2‰ relative to P. elliottii. Despite this enrichment, mean δCER values of the two sites were nearly identical. No temporal trends were apparent in δCSC, δCFR, δCSR and δCER. In contrast, δCOM and δCW at both sites declined by approximately 2‰ over the study. This appears to reflect the adjustment in the δ13C of carbon storage reserves used for biosynthesis as the trees recovered from a severe drought prior to our study. Unexpectedly, the rate of δ13C decrease in the secondary C32-36 n-alkanoic acid wax molecular cluster was twice that observed forδCOM and the predominant C22-26 compound cluster, and provides new evidence for parallel but separate wax chain elongation systems utilizing different carbon precursor pools in these species. δCFR and δCER were consistently enriched relative to assimilated carbon but, in contrast to previous studies, showed limited variations in response to changes in vapor pressure deficit (D). This limited variability in respiratory fluxes and δCSC may be due to the shallow water table as well as the deep taproots of pines, which limit fluctuations in photosynthetic discrimination arising from changes in D.

  10. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  11. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  12. A novel dominant glossy mutation causes suppression of wax biosynthesis pathway and deficiency of cuticular wax in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of land plants are covered with cuticular waxes that limit non-stomatal water loss and gaseous exchange, and protect plants from ultraviolet radiation and pathogen attack. This is the first report on the characterization and genetic mapping of a novel dominant glossy mutant (BnaA.GL) in Brassica napus. Results Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cuticle ultrastructure of GL mutant leaf and stem were altered dramatically compared with that of wide type (WT). Scanning electron microscopy corroborated the reduction of wax on the leaf and stem surface. A cuticular wax analysis of the GL mutant leaves further confirmed the drastic decrease in the total wax content, and a wax compositional analysis revealed an increase in aldehydes but a severe decrease in alkanes, ketones and secondary alcohols. These results suggested a likely blockage of the decarbonylation step in the wax biosynthesis pathway. Genetic mapping narrowed the location of the BnaA.GL gene to the end of A9 chromosome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assay in combination with bulk segregant analysis (BSA) also located SNPs in the same region. Two SNPs, two single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one IP marker were located on the flanking region of the BnaA.GL gene at a distance of 0.6 cM. A gene homologous to ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) was located in the mapped region. A cDNA microarray chip assay revealed coordinated down regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the cuticular wax biosynthetic pathway in the glossy mutant, with BnCER1 being one of the most severely suppressed genes. Conclusions Our results indicated that surface wax biosynthesis is broadly affected in the glossy mutant due to the suppression of the BnCER1 and other wax-related genes. These findings offer novel clues for elucidating the molecular basis of the glossy phenotype. PMID:24330756

  13. Ear wax management.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Skye; Yau, Stephanie; Anderson, Daniel; Bennett, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Ear syringing is a very common practice among general practitioners (GPs). It is used by many as the treatment of choice for cerumen (ear wax), and is usually effective and safe. However, complications from syringing are an increasingly common reason for presentation to ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists and medico-legal complaints against GPs. The aim of this article is to provide GPs with the knowledge to safely manage cerumen. Ear wax is an important part of a normal functioning ear. It is mostly asymptomatic and requires no treatment. Softening ear drops may be necessary to help the ear fulfil its self-cleaning function, and should be considered first-line treatment. Syringing can be safely performed if this fails by taking a thorough history and examination to exclude contraindications, gaining patient consent and ensuring the appropriate use of equipment. Referral to an ENT clinic for manual removal with microsuctioning may be necessary in the event of contraindications, complications or failure.

  14. Wax Crystallization Under Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetzer, Mackenzie; Kautsky, Sacha; Merz, Hugh; Idziak, Stefan; Sirota, Eric

    2001-03-01

    We have used x-ray diffraction to examine the nucleation and growth of wax crystals in wax-dodecane mixtures under flow. The mixtures studied possessed wax to oil mass fractions ranging from 10 to 15%, and the experimental flow channel through which the samples circulated consisted of a 1mm quartz capillary tube. During the measurements, which were performed on Beamline X10A of the National Synchrotron Light Source, flow rate and capillary temperature were controlled in an attempt to explore the systematics of wax crystallization under flow as a function of both variables. We have observed that a sample made from pure tricosane produced relatively large crystallites and thus led to rapid flow obstruction; however, a similar sample made from commercial candle wax yielded smaller crystallites.

  15. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, George D.; Lewis, Linda; Yen, Laurel C.

    2014-06-24

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  16. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Yen, William; Yen, Laurel C.; Jia, George D.

    2012-12-04

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  17. New way to characterize the percolation threshold of polyethylene and carbon nanotube polymer composites using Fourier transform (FT) rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahirwal, Deepak; Palza, Humberto; Schlatter, Guy; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2014-08-01

    In this article, a new way to characterize the percolation threshold of polymer nanocomposites made of polyethylene (PE) with single and multi walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) is presented. Small and large oscillatory shear (SAOS and LAOS) experiments were performed to characterize the degree of dispersion and percolation threshold. The analysis of the stress response in the LAOS regime as a function of the applied deformation amplitude and frequency was performed using Fourier Transform (FT)-Rheology. The zero strain intrinsic nonlinear parameter, Q0(ω), was calculated by extrapolation of I3/1(γ0, ω) and was, used to quantify the nonlinearity measured by FT-Rheology. Interestingly, a drop in Q0 as a function of the CNT weight fraction at a fixed frequency was found that was below the percolation threshold. This was followed by, a steep rise in Q0 above the percolation threshold. Therefore, the new method based on this observation that is proposed and described with this article has the potential to lead to a better understanding of structure-property relationships in polymer nanocomposites.

  18. Oligomers formed through in-cloud methylglyoxal reactions: Chemical composition, properties, and mechanisms investigated by ultra-high resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, K. E.; Seitzinger, S. P.; Carlton, A. G.; Turpin, B. J.; Klein, G. C.; Marshall, A. G.

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a substantial component of total atmospheric organic particulate matter, but little is known about the composition of SOA formed through cloud processing. We conducted aqueous phase photo-oxidation experiments of methylglyoxal and hydroxyl radical to simulate cloud processing. In addition to predicted organic acid monomers, oligomer formation from methylglyoxal-hydroxyl radical reactions was detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The chemical composition of the oligomers and the mechanism of their formation were investigated by ultra-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) and LCQ DUO ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). Reaction products included 415 compounds detected in the mass range 245-800 Da and the elemental composition of all 415 compounds were determined by ultra-high resolution FT-ICR MS. The ratio of total organic molecular weight per organic carbon weight (OM:OC) of the oligomers (1.0-2.5) was lower than the OM:OC of the organic acid monomers (2.3-3.8) formed, suggesting that the oligomers are less hygroscopic than the organic acid monomers formed from methylglyoxal-hydroxyl radical reaction. The OM:OC of the oligomers (average=2.0) is consistent with that of aged atmospheric aerosols and atmospheric humic-like substances (HULIS). A mechanism is proposed in which the organic acid monomers formed through hydroxyl radical reactions oligomerize through esterification. The mechanism is supported by the existence of series of oligomers identified by elemental composition from FT-ICR MS and ion fragmentation patterns from ESI-MS-MS. Each oligomer series starts with an organic acid monomer formed from hydroxyl radical oxidation, and increases in molecular weight and total oxygen content through esterification with a hydroxy acid (C 3H 6O 3) resulting in multiple additions of 72.02113 Da (C 3H 4O 2) to the parent organic acid monomer. Methylglyoxal is

  19. The development of a method of producing etch resistant wax patterns on solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-01-01

    A potentially attractive technique for wax masking of solar cells prior to etching processes was studied. This technique made use of a reuseable wax composition which was applied to the solar cell in patterned form by means of a letterpress printing method. After standard wet etching was performed, wax removal by means of hot water was investigated. Application of the letterpress wax printing process to silicon was met with a number of difficulties. The most serious shortcoming of the process was its inability to produce consistently well-defined printed patterns on the hard silicon cell surface.

  20. Mapping Moisture Sorption Through Carbohydrate Composite Glass with Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) Hyperspectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Christine M; Aimutis, William R; Helstad, Scott; Elmore, Douglas L; Muroski, Allen

    Inherent changes in foods during storage are often caused by water sorption or desorption that often results in product matrix instability. Water sorption behavior differs depending on the matrix through which it moves. Often, concurrent phenomenon such as crystallization modifies water's movement. We describe a novel use of hyperspectral imaging combined with Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to map where water molecules are in two dimensions while concurrently quantifying the crystallization motif as water sorbs into a carbohydrate matrix over a month's storage time. This methodology allows us to identify and quantify sucrose crystals formed within a carbohydrate matrix while also mapping water migration through this complex matrix. We compared corn syrup/sucrose blends where sucrose is supersaturated (high sucrose, HS), sucrose is below saturation (low sucrose, LS), sucrose below saturation with embedded sucrose crystals (LSS) and maltotriose is supersaturated within a corn syrup matrix (high maltotriose, LSM). This FT-NIR method was used to characterize water sorption through a carbohydrate matrix over time and measured both the propensity of the systems to form sucrose crystals and the influence sucrose crystals have on water sorption. We observed water diffusion was slower in lower sugar carbohydrate glasses, and the process of sorption was different. Amorphous systems supersaturated in sucrose allow crystallization when sufficient water is sorbed and thus, this concurrent action disrupts normal Fickian diffusion. The water front compresses to a narrow band as it sorbs through the matrix. The presence of embedded crystals in an amorphous matrix slows overall water penetration through the matrix by convoluting the path of moving water molecules. This did not appear to change the rate of diffusion. Experiments with maltotriose at supersaturation concentration showed the crystallization rate was slower than sucrose. Thus, pure maltotriose is

  1. Green waxes, adhesives and lubricants.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Kong, X H; Ruan, M; Ma, F M; Jiang, Y F; Liu, M Z; Chen, Y; Zuo, X H

    2010-10-28

    General characteristics of waxes, adhesives and lubricants as well as the recent fundamental investigations on their physical and mechanical behaviour are introduced. The current R&D status for new type/generation of waxes, adhesives and lubricants from natural products is reviewed, with an emphasis on their tribological applications. In particular, some crucial issues and challenges relating to technological improvement and materials development are discussed. Based on the current predicted shortage of energy resources and environmental concerns, prospective research on the development of green waxes, adhesives and lubricants is suggested.

  2. Comparative evaluation of rice bran wax as an ointment base with standard base.

    PubMed

    Sabale, Vidya; Sabale, P M; Lakhotiya, C L

    2009-01-01

    Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present investigation has been aimed to explore the possible utility of rice bran wax as ointment base compared to standard base. The rice bran wax obtained, purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. Ointment base acts as a carrier for medicaments. The ointment base composition determines not only the extent of penetration but also controls the transfer of medicaments from the base to the body tissues. Rice bran wax base was compared with standard base for appearance, spreadability, water number, wash ability and diffusibility. The results show that rice bran wax acts as an ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned and it could effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases.

  3. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  6. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives as provided in § 178.3870 Synthetic wax polymer as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3850 Reinforced wax. Reinforced wax may be safely used as an article or...

  10. Wax Layers on Cosmos bipinnatus Petals Contribute Unequally to Total Petal Water Resistance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C22 and C24 fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 104 and 1.5 × 104 s m−1 for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs. PMID:25413359

  11. Wax layers on Cosmos bipinnatus petals contribute unequally to total petal water resistance.

    PubMed

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C(22) and C(24) fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 10(4) and 1.5 × 10(4) s m(-1) for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs.

  12. Properties of An Oral Nanoformulation of A Molecularly Dispersed Amphotericin B Comprising A Composite Matrix of Theobroma Oil and Bee’S Wax

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chloe See Wei; Billa, Nashiru; Roberts, Clive J.; Scurr, David J.

    2014-01-01

    An amphotericin B-containing (AmB) solid lipid nanoparticulate drug delivery system intended for oral administration, comprised of bee’s wax and theobroma oil as lipid components was formulated with the aim to ascertain the location of AmB within the lipid matrix: (a) a homogenous matrix; (b) a drug-enriched shell; or (c) a drug enriched core. Both the drug-loaded and drug-free nanoparticles were spherical with AmB contributing to an increase in both the z-average diameter (169 ± 1 to 222 ± 2 nm) and zeta potential (40.8 ± 0.9 to 50.3 ± 1.0 mV) of the nanoparticles. A maximum encapsulation efficiency of 21.4% ± 3.0%, corresponding to 10.7 ± 0.4 mg encapsulated AmB within the lipid matrix was observed. Surface analysis and electron microscopic imaging indicated that AmB was dispersed uniformly within the lipid matrix (option (a) above) and, therefore, this is the most suitable of the three models with regard to modeling the propensity for uptake by epithelia and release of AmB in lymph. PMID:28344257

  13. Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

    1991-01-01

    This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Analysis of Complex Carbohydrate Composition in Plant Cell Wall Using Fourier Transformed Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    PubMed

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yuxi; McAllister, Tim A

    2017-01-01

    Fourier transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a powerful tool for compositional analysis of plant cell walls (Acebes et al., Front Plant Sci 5:303, 2014; Badhan et al., Biotechnol Biofuels 7:1-15, 2014; Badhan et al., BioMed Res Int 2015: 562952, 2015; Roach et al., Plant Physiol 156:1351-1363, 2011). The infrared spectrum generates a fingerprint of a sample with absorption peaks corresponding to the frequency of vibrations between the bonds of the atoms making up the material. Here, we describe a method focused on the use of FTIR in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the composition of the plant cell wall. This method has been successfully used to study complex enzyme saccharification processes like rumen digestion to identify recalcitrant moieties in low-quality forage which resist rumen digestion (Badhan et al., BioMed Res Int 2015: 562952, 2015), as well as to characterize cell wall mutant lines or transgenic lines expressing exogenous hydrolases (Badhan et al., Biotechnol Biofuels 7:1-15, 2014; Roach et al., Plant Physiol 156:1351-1363, 2011). The FTIR method described here facilitates high-throughput identification of the major compositional differences across a large set of samples in a low cost and nondestructive manner.

  15. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components.

    PubMed

    Jetter, Reinhard; Riederer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers.

  16. Characterization of a Cartilage-Like Engineered Biomass Using a Self-Aggregating Suspension Culture Model: Molecular Composition Using FT-IRIS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minwook; Kraft, Jeffrey J.; Volk, Andrew C.; Pugarelli, Joan; Pleshko, Nancy; Dodge, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype and robust expression and organization of macromolecular components with suitable cartilaginous properties is an ultimate goal in cartilage tissue engineering. We used a self-aggregating suspension culture (SASC) method to produce an engineered cartilage, “cartilage tissue analog” (CTA). With an objective of understanding the stability of phenotype of the CTA over long periods, we cultured chondrocytes up to 4 years and analyzed the matrix. Both early (eCTAs) (6 months) and aged (aCTAs) (4 years) showed type II collagen throughout with higher concentrations near the edge. Using Fourier transform-infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS), proteoglycan/collagen ratio of eCTA was 2.8 times greater than native cartilage at 1 week, but the ratio was balanced to native level (p = 0.017) by 36 weeks. Surprisingly, aCTAs maintained the hyaline characteristics, but there was evidence of calcification within the tissue with a distinct range of intensities. Mineral/matrix ratio of those aCTA with “intensive” calcification was significantly higher (p = 0.017) than the “partial,” but when compared to native bone the ratio of “intensive” aCTAs was 2.4 times lower. In this study we utilized the imaging approach of FT-IRIS and have shown that a biomaterial formed is compositionally closely related to natural cartilage for long periods in culture. We show that this culture platform can maintain a CTA for extended periods of time (4 years) and under those conditions signs of mineralization can be found. This method of cartilage tissue engineering is a promising method to generate cartilaginous biomaterial and may have potential to be utilized in both cartilage and boney repairs. PMID:21630329

  17. Characterization of a cartilage-like engineered biomass using a self-aggregating suspension culture model: molecular composition using FT-IRIS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minwook; Kraft, Jeffrey J; Volk, Andrew C; Pugarelli, Joan; Pleshko, Nancy; Dodge, George R

    2011-12-01

    Maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype and robust expression and organization of macromolecular components with suitable cartilaginous properties is an ultimate goal in cartilage tissue engineering. We used a self-aggregating suspension culture (SASC) method to produce an engineered cartilage, "cartilage tissue analog" (CTA). With an objective of understanding the stability of phenotype of the CTA over long periods, we cultured chondrocytes up to 4 years and analyzed the matrix. Both early (eCTAs) (6 months) and aged (aCTAs) (4 years) showed type II collagen throughout with higher concentrations near the edge. Using Fourier transform-infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS), proteoglycan/collagen ratio of eCTA was 2.8 times greater than native cartilage at 1 week, but the ratio was balanced to native level (p = 0.017) by 36 weeks. Surprisingly, aCTAs maintained the hyaline characteristics, but there was evidence of calcification within the tissue with a distinct range of intensities. Mineral/matrix ratio of those aCTA with "intensive" calcification was significantly higher (p = 0.017) than the "partial," but when compared to native bone the ratio of "intensive" aCTAs was 2.4 times lower. In this study we utilized the imaging approach of FT-IRIS and have shown that a biomaterial formed is compositionally closely related to natural cartilage for long periods in culture. We show that this culture platform can maintain a CTA for extended periods of time (4 years) and under those conditions signs of mineralization can be found. This method of cartilage tissue engineering is a promising method to generate cartilaginous biomaterial and may have potential to be utilized in both cartilage and boney repairs. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  18. Chemical Composition and Potential Environmental Impacts of Water-Soluble Polar Crude Oil Components Inferred from ESI FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yina; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B

    2015-01-01

    Polar petroleum components enter marine environments through oil spills and natural seepages each year. Lately, they are receiving increased attention due to their potential toxicity to marine organisms and persistence in the environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment and employed state-of-the-art Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to characterize the polar petroleum components within two operationally-defined seawater fractions: the water-soluble fraction (WSF), which includes only water-soluble molecules, and the water-accommodated fraction (WAF), which includes WSF and microscopic oil droplets. Our results show that compounds with higher heteroatom (N, S, O) to carbon ratios (NSO:C) than the parent oil were selectively partitioned into seawater in both fractions, reflecting the influence of polarity on aqueous solubility. WAF and WSF were compositionally distinct, with unique distributions of compounds across a range of hydrophobicity. These compositional differences will likely result in disparate impacts on environmental health and organismal toxicity, and thus highlight the need to distinguish between these often-interchangeable terminologies in toxicology studies. We use an empirical model to estimate hydrophobicity character for individual molecules within these complex mixtures and provide an estimate of the potential environmental impacts of different crude oil components.

  19. Chemical Composition and Potential Environmental Impacts of Water-Soluble Polar Crude Oil Components Inferred from ESI FT-ICR MS

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yina; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.

    2015-01-01

    Polar petroleum components enter marine environments through oil spills and natural seepages each year. Lately, they are receiving increased attention due to their potential toxicity to marine organisms and persistence in the environment. We conducted a laboratory experiment and employed state-of-the-art Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to characterize the polar petroleum components within two operationally-defined seawater fractions: the water-soluble fraction (WSF), which includes only water-soluble molecules, and the water-accommodated fraction (WAF), which includes WSF and microscopic oil droplets. Our results show that compounds with higher heteroatom (N, S, O) to carbon ratios (NSO:C) than the parent oil were selectively partitioned into seawater in both fractions, reflecting the influence of polarity on aqueous solubility. WAF and WSF were compositionally distinct, with unique distributions of compounds across a range of hydrophobicity. These compositional differences will likely result in disparate impacts on environmental health and organismal toxicity, and thus highlight the need to distinguish between these often-interchangeable terminologies in toxicology studies. We use an empirical model to estimate hydrophobicity character for individual molecules within these complex mixtures and provide an estimate of the potential environmental impacts of different crude oil components. PMID:26327219

  20. Distinct Phyllosphere Bacterial Communities on Arabidopsis Wax Mutant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Reisberg, Eva E.; Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Riederer, Markus; Hentschel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    The phyllosphere of plants is inhabited by diverse microorganisms, however, the factors shaping their community composition are not fully elucidated. The plant cuticle represents the initial contact surface between microorganisms and the plant. We thus aimed to investigate whether mutations in the cuticular wax biosynthesis would affect the diversity of the phyllosphere microbiota. A set of four Arabidopsis thaliana eceriferum mutants (cer1, cer6, cer9, cer16) and their respective wild type (Landsberg erecta) were subjected to an outdoor growth period and analysed towards this purpose. The chemical distinctness of the mutant wax phenotypes was confirmed by gas chromatographic measurements. Next generation amplicon pyrosequencing of the bacterial communities showed distinct community patterns. This observation was supported by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis experiments. Microbial community analyses revealed bacterial phylotypes that were ubiquitously present on all plant lines (termed “core” community) while others were positively or negatively affected by the wax mutant phenotype (termed “plant line-specific“ community). We conclude from this study that plant cuticular wax composition can affect the community composition of phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:24223831

  1. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  2. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this chapter. (d) Prior sanctions for.... It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax. Candelilla wax is prepared by immersing...

  3. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

  4. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  5. On-line analysis of chemical composition using an FT-Raman spectrometer in the near-ir

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, A.A.

    1992-08-01

    Newly commercialized Fourier transform Raman spectroscopic instrumentation provides a simpler alternative for vibrational spectroscopic analysis. Instrument vendors currently design for laboratory use, but there are many potential process applications of these stable, easy to use instruments. Raman spectroscopy is highly suited to analysis of aqueous samples. Near infrared excitation minimized fluorescence interference and allows for remote operation via fiber optic probes. The Department of Energy has funded research at the Measurement and Control Center to establish the utility of this method for on-line composition analysis in distillation columns. Laboratory evaluation and instrument employs an air-cooled laser and a thermoelectrically cooled detector. The device is mounted on a three by foot cart for convenient location in control rooms. Current fiber optic extension cables allow for analysis in a cell thirty five meters from the instrument. Application of the device to acid an recovery column at Tennessee Eastman Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee will be discussed. Sensor placement is critical to optimal application of any on-line device. Potential energy savings and product throughput increase will be detailed. 2 refs.

  6. On-line analysis of chemical composition using an FT-Raman spectrometer in the near-ir

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Newly commercialized Fourier transform Raman spectroscopic instrumentation provides a simpler alternative for vibrational spectroscopic analysis. Instrument vendors currently design for laboratory use, but there are many potential process applications of these stable, easy to use instruments. Raman spectroscopy is highly suited to analysis of aqueous samples. Near infrared excitation minimized fluorescence interference and allows for remote operation via fiber optic probes. The Department of Energy has funded research at the Measurement and Control Center to establish the utility of this method for on-line composition analysis in distillation columns. Laboratory evaluation and instrument employs an air-cooled laser and a thermoelectrically cooled detector. The device is mounted on a three by foot cart for convenient location in control rooms. Current fiber optic extension cables allow for analysis in a cell thirty five meters from the instrument. Application of the device to acid an recovery column at Tennessee Eastman Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee will be discussed. Sensor placement is critical to optimal application of any on-line device. Potential energy savings and product throughput increase will be detailed. 2 refs.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is... wax is prepared by immersing the plants in boiling water containing sulfuric acid and skimming off the... esters and free acids. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is... wax is prepared by immersing the plants in boiling water containing sulfuric acid and skimming off the... esters and free acids. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d...

  9. Plant leaf wax biomarkers capture gradients in hydrogen isotopes of precipitation from the Andes and Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feakins, Sarah J.; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Blonder, Benjamin; Goldsmith, Gregory R.; Ponton, Camilo; Arvin, Lindsay J.; Wu, Mong Sin; Peters, Tom; West, A. Joshua; Martin, Roberta E.; Enquist, Brian J.; Asner, Gregory P.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-06-01

    Plant leaf waxes have been found to record the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation and are thus used to reconstruct past climate. To assess how faithfully they record hydrological signals, we characterize leaf wax hydrogen isotopic compositions in forest canopy trees across a highly biodiverse, 3 km elevation range on the eastern flank of the Andes. We sampled the dominant tree species and assessed their relative abundance in the tree community. For each tree we collected xylem and leaf samples for analysis of plant water and plant leaf wax hydrogen isotopic compositions. In total, 176 individuals were sampled across 32 species and 5 forest plots that span the gradient. We find both xylem water and leaf wax δD values of individuals correlate (R2 = 0.8 and R2 = 0.3 respectively) with the isotopic composition of precipitation (with an elevation gradient of -21‰ km-1). Minimal leaf water enrichment means that leaf waxes are straightforward recorders of the isotopic composition of precipitation in wet climates. For these tropical forests we find the average fractionation between source water and leaf wax for C29n-alkanes, -129 ± 2‰ (s.e.m., n = 136), to be indistinguishable from that of temperate moist forests. For C28n-alkanoic acids the average fractionation is -121 ± 3‰ (s.e.m., n = 102). Sampling guided by community assembly within forest plots shows that integrated plant leaf wax hydrogen isotopic compositions faithfully record the gradient of isotopes in precipitation with elevation (R2 = 0.97 for n-alkanes and 0.60 for n-alkanoic acids). This calibration study supports the use of leaf waxes as recorders of the isotopic composition of precipitation in lowland tropical rainforest, tropical montane cloud forests and their sedimentary archives.

  10. Structural features of reconstituted wheat wax films

    PubMed Central

    Pambou, Elias; Li, Zongyi; Campana, Mario; Hughes, Arwel; Clifton, Luke; Gutfreund, Philipp; Foundling, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular waxes are essential for the well-being of all plants, from controlling the transport of water and nutrients across the plant surface to protecting them against external environmental attacks. Despite their significance, our current understanding regarding the structure and function of the wax film is limited. In this work, we have formed representative reconstituted wax film models of controlled thicknesses that facilitated an ex vivo study of plant cuticular wax film properties by neutron reflection (NR). Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) waxes were extracted from two different wheat straw samples, using two distinct extraction methods. Waxes extracted from harvested field-grown wheat straw using supercritical CO2 are compared with waxes extracted from laboratory-grown wheat straw via wax dissolution by chloroform rinsing. Wax films were produced by spin-coating the two extracts onto silicon substrates. Atomic force microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that the two reconstituted wax film models are ultrathin and porous with characteristic nanoscale extrusions on the outer surface, mimicking the structure of epicuticular waxes found upon adaxial wheat leaf surfaces. On the basis of solid–liquid and solid–air NR and ellipsometric measurements, these wax films could be modelled into two representative layers, with the diffuse underlying layer fitted with thicknesses ranging from approximately 65 to 70 Å, whereas the surface extrusion region reached heights exceeding 200 Å. Moisture-controlled NR measurements indicated that water penetrated extensively into the wax films measured under saturated humidity and under water, causing them to hydrate and swell significantly. These studies have thus provided a useful structural basis that underlies the function of the epicuticular waxes in controlling the water transport of crops. PMID:27466439

  11. Novel bone wax based on poly(ethylene glycol)-calcium phosphate cement mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Theresa; Schamel, Martha; Kübler, Alexander C; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    formulation was found to be malleable and cohesive underwater. While immersion in an aqueous environment, CPC precursors formed highly porous, nanocrystalline HA via dissolution/precipitation reaction as water penetrated the novel wax formulation and PEG molecules simultaneously dissolved. The bone wax further withstood blood pressure conditions. After hardening, mechanical performance was comparable to that of cancellous bone and we also successfully provided the bone wax with antibacterial properties. In our opinion, the described bone wax formulation outmatches conventional bone waxes, as it circumvents the detriments being associated with the term "bone wax". Our wax has a novel composition and would broaden the application of CPC and besides, the general interest in bone waxes will increase, as they were long considered as a "first-line treatment" to avoid. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Analyses of Cuticular Waxes on Various Organs of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanjun; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-05-17

    Complex mixtures of cuticular waxes coat plant surfaces to seal them against environmental stresses, with compositions greatly varying between species and possibly organs. This paper reports comprehensive analyses of the waxes on both above- and below-ground organs of potato, where total wax coverages varied between petals (2.6 μg/cm(2)), leaves, stems, and tubers (1.8-1.9 μg/cm(2)), and rhizomes (1.1 μg/cm(2)). The wax mixtures on above-ground organs were dominated by alkanes, occurring in homologous series of isomeric C25-C35 n-alkanes, C25-C35 2-methylalkanes, and C26-C34 3-methylalkanes. In contrast, below-ground organs had waxes rich in monoacylglycerols (C22-C28 acyls) and C18-C30 alkyl ferulates, together with fatty acids (rhizomes) or primary alcohols (tubers). The organ-specific wax coverages, compound class distribution, and chain length profiles suggest highly regulated activities of wax biosynthesis enzymes, likely related to organ-specific ecophysiological functions.

  13. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  14. Verifying Dissolution Of Wax From Hardware Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Benjamina G.

    1995-01-01

    Wax removed by cleaning solvent revealed by cooling solution with liquid nitrogen. Such improved procedure and test needed in case of hardware that must be protected by wax during machining or plating but required to be free of wax during subsequent use. Improved cleaning procedure and test take less than 5 minutes. Does not require special skill or equipment and performs at cleaning site. In addition, enables recovery of all cleaning solvent.

  15. Verifying Dissolution Of Wax From Hardware Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Benjamina G.

    1995-01-01

    Wax removed by cleaning solvent revealed by cooling solution with liquid nitrogen. Such improved procedure and test needed in case of hardware that must be protected by wax during machining or plating but required to be free of wax during subsequent use. Improved cleaning procedure and test take less than 5 minutes. Does not require special skill or equipment and performs at cleaning site. In addition, enables recovery of all cleaning solvent.

  16. Occurrence and patterns of waxes in Neisseriaceae.

    PubMed

    Bryn, K; Jantzen, E; Bovre, K

    1977-09-01

    Forty-five strains classified in the family Neisseriaceae were analysed for wax esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The amounts and types of waxes varied between the taxa. Waxes were not detected in 16 strains of 'true neisseriae' (genus Neisseria) or in two strains of Kingella, but they were found in all 'false neisseriae', in all species of Moraxella except Moraxella phenylpyrouvica, in five out of 10 strains of Acintobacter, and in all strains of a group of psychrophilic, oxidase-positive organisms. The chain lengths of the wax esters ranged from C24 to C42, with C36 predominating. In all taxa, esters with even numbers of carbon atoms constituted 70 to 100% of the total. Saturated, mono-unsaturated and diunsaturated waxes were found. Acinetobacter strains were characterized by large amounts (30 to 98%) of di-unsaturated wax esters; such waxes did not exceed 8% in the 'false neisseriae' or Moraxella spp. Waxes of strains belonging to the psychrophilic, oxidase-positive group generally resembled those found in Moraxella. Wax esters with odd numbers of carbon atoms were abundant in M. lacunata (29%), M. atlantae (15%) and in the psychorophilic group (19 to 28%); long-chain esters (C40 or above) were characteristic of M. atlantae (30%) and one strain of M. osloensis (26%).

  17. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers. PMID:26644508

  18. Switch to diester preen waxes may reduce avian nest predation by mammalian predators using olfactory cues.

    PubMed

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Piersma, Theunis; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

    2005-11-01

    It has long been recognised that nest depredation by olfactory-searching mammals greatly influences the reproductive success of ground-nesting birds. Yet adaptations of birds to diminish smell during nesting have rarely been investigated. Recently, a remarkable shift in the composition of uropygial gland secretions (preen waxes) was discovered in many ground-nesting shorebirds and ducks that begin incubation, during which the usual mixtures of monoester preen waxes are replaced by mixtures of less volatile diester waxes. In this study we show experimentally that an olfactory-searching dog had greater difficulty detecting mixtures of the less volatile diesters than mixtures of monoesters. This is consistent with the hypothesis that diester preen waxes reduce birds' smell and thereby reduce predation risk.

  19. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Antonio F M; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Salatino, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90 microg.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone) and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene) revealed low efficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro) is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga), T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado) is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  20. Waxes: A Forgotten Topic in Lipid Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the biological importance of the lipids categorized as waxes and describes some of the organic chemistry of these compounds. Presents a short laboratory exercise on the extraction of plant waxes and their analysis by thin layer chromatography. (Author/CCM)

  1. Waxes: A Forgotten Topic in Lipid Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the biological importance of the lipids categorized as waxes and describes some of the organic chemistry of these compounds. Presents a short laboratory exercise on the extraction of plant waxes and their analysis by thin layer chromatography. (Author/CCM)

  2. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    PubMed

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products.

  3. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca²⁺ ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch - In moulding sands, Part II.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina; Tyliszczak, Bozena

    2015-12-05

    The hardening process of moulding sands on quartz matrices bound by polymer binders containing carboxyl and hydroxyl groups can be carried out by using physical (microwave radiation, thermal holding) and chemical (Ca(2+) cations, glutaraldehyde) cross-linking agents. The highest hardening level obtain moulding sand samples containing binders in a form of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) within the microwave radiation field, for which the bending strength is of 1.6 MPa value even after 24h from ending the agent activity. The authors focused, in this study, on finding the reason of this effect. It was shown, by means of the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods, that the chemical adsorption process activated by microwaves plays an essential role. The applied microwaves activate the polar groups present in the polymer composition structure as well as the quartz crystals surfaces (silane groups). Then the chemical adsorption occurs in the binder-matrix system within the microwave radiation field and intermolecular lattices are formed with a participation of hydrogen bridges (SiOH⋯OC, SiOH⋯OH) and COSi type bonds.

  4. Wax tectonics: from deep rifts to ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblath, Noah; Daniels, Karen; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2002-03-01

    We report experiments using paraffin wax to model oceanic ridge dynamics. In our experiment, two freezing wax plates float on melted wax and are pulled apart with constant velocity, forming a spreading rift. Using synthetic Shellwax Callista we observe behavior very similar to that of the Earth: microplates, transform faults, and ridge topography. For different spreading velocities the wax forms deep rifts (low speeds, < 25 μm/s), flat topography (intermediate speeds, (25 - 35 μm/s), and shallow ridges (high speeds, > 35 μm/s). We report quantitative observations on this transition and investigate dynamic similarity and scaling between the wax and the Earth. This work is supported by the Cornell Presidential Research Scholars Program and the National Science Foundation under grant DMR-0072077.

  5. Leaf wax n-alkane δD values reflect the evaporative deuterium enrichment of leaf water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, A.; Arndt, S. K.; Cernusak, L. A.; Hoffmann, B.; Schefuss, E.; West, J. B.; Sachse, D.

    2011-12-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes are long-chained lipids that are vital components of plant cuticles. What makes leaf wax n-alkanes unique is that their stable hydrogen isotope composition (δD) contains ecohydrological information that can persist over millions of years. With these exceptional properties, leaf wax n-alkanes and their δD values are now being celebrated as the much-needed ecohydrological proxy that could provide new ecohydrological information across spatial and temporal scales that range from leaves to biomes and from weeks to millions of years. Critical mechanisms that determine the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes are, however, not understood. The exact type of hydrological information that is recorded in the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes remains therefore unclear and prevents the robust application of this promising new proxy. In particular the influence of leaf water evaporative deuterium enrichment on the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes has not been resolved. Here we present a study where we test if and to what degree leaf water evaporative enrichment influences the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes. Based on modeling exercises, experimental data and observational investigations we show that deuterium enriched leaf water has a critically important influence on the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes. This finding has important implications for the interpretation of leaf wax n-alkane δD values as it indicates that leaf wax n-alkanes δD values do not simply reflect the δD values of precipitation as has previously assumed. Instead our data show that the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes reflect deuterium enriched leaf water and reflect therefore a plant-shaped signal such as evapotranspiration.

  6. Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid interaction with the transgenic flax fibers: FT-IR and Raman spectra of the composite extracted from a GM flax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Żuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-07-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman studies have been performed on commercial 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, commercial poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid as well as poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB) produced by bacteria. The data were compared to those obtained for poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid extracted from natural and genetically modified flax. Genetically modified flax was generated by expression of three bacterial genes coding for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid. Thus transgenic flaxes were enhanced with different amount of the PHB. The discussion of polymer structure and vibrational properties has been done in order to get insight into differences among these materials. The interaction between the cellulose of flax fibers and embedded poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid has been also discussed. The spectroscopic data provide evidences for structural changes in cellulose and in PHB when synthesized in fibers. Based on this data it is suggesting that cellulose and PHB interact by hydrogen and ester bonds.

  7. Turnover of Leaf Waxes in Florida Slash Pine: Results of an Isotopic Labeling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumsey, J.; Conte, M. H.; Weber, J. C.; Mortazavi, B.; Smith, M.; Chanton, J.

    2006-12-01

    Isotopic discrimination of terrestrial photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and δ13CO2 are important parameters in global carbon models that are employed to estimate global carbon sources and sinks. Yet, terrestrial isotopic discrimination can be highly variable over space and time, yielding large uncertainties of terrestrial fluxes. The isotopic composition of plant wax aerosols in continental air masses can be used as an indirect measure of the spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthetic discrimination integrated over large (subcontinental) spatial scales. However, the temporal offset between wax biosynthesis and the wax aerosol isotopic signal of photosynthetic discrimination is not well constrained. To further our understanding of this temporal lag, this study sought to determine the turnover time of conifer leaf waxes by performing an isotopic labeling experiment. Four clonal pine saplings were placed in a tent and labeled with enriched 13CO2 for one year, while another four control saplings were grown under ambient CO2. At the end of the year long enrichment, the labeled saplings were removed from the tent and placed in ambient air, such that the wax turnover rate could be determined by analyzing the resultant isotopic and molecular changes. The results of this experiment indicated that after 80 days of sequestering ambient CO2, the wax (and soluble sugar) isotopic composition of the labeled saplings varied minimally. The molecular composition of the waxes, however, did change over time. From these results we concluded that waxes are turning over, but rather than being synthesized de novo from recently fixed carbon precursors they are synthesized using carbon from stored (labeled) carbon pools. Therefore, the δ13C of conifer leaf waxes in aerosols may not reflect recent photosynthetic discrimination, but instead represents photosynthetic discrimination integrated over a longer period of time. The implications of these findings are focused on

  8. Wax constituents on the inflorescence stems of double eceriferum mutants in Arabidopsis reveal complex gene interactions.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, S Mark; Rashotte, Aaron M; Rahman, Musrur; Feldmann, Kenneth A; Jenks, Matthew A

    2005-04-01

    To shed new light on gene involvement in plant cuticular-wax production, 11 eceriferum (cer) mutants of Arabidopsis having dramatic alterations in wax composition of inflorescence stems were used to create 14 double cer mutants each with two homozygous recessive cer loci. A comprehensive analysis of stem waxes on these double mutants revealed unexpected CER gene interactions and new ideas about individual CER gene functions. Five of the 14 double cer mutants produced significantly more total wax than one of their respective cer parents, indicating from a genetic standpoint a partial bypassing (or complementation) of one cer mutation by the other. Eight of the 14 double cer mutants had alkane amounts lower than both respective cer parents, suggesting that most of these CER gene products play a major additive role in alkane synthesis. Other results suggested that some CER genes function in more than one step of the wax pathway, including those associated with sequential steps in acyl-CoA elongation. Surprisingly, complete epistasis was not observed for any of the cer gene combinations tested. Significant overlap or redundancy of genetic operations thus appears to be a central feature of wax metabolism. Future studies of CER gene product function, as well as the utilization of CER genes for crop improvement, must now account for the complex gene interactions described here.

  9. Study on the surface of resins that burn without residues in the lost-wax procedure.

    PubMed

    Krane, M; Patyk, A; Kobes, L W

    1998-04-01

    When compared with waxes and prefabricated components made of dental alloys, processing resins is difficult and often results in a less accurate fit. The exact linear dimension is hard to realize, as the materials required for a dental casting are adjusted to dental waxes, and usually there are no special processing instructions for these resins. The surface structure of 16 residue-free burning resins was determined to find which could enlarge the range of application for waxes in the dental casting technique. A total of 480 specimens (30 castings for each of 16 resins) were marked with an individually cut pyramid, which left an impression in the resin. This was distinctly visible in the metal after casting in "the lost form." The surfaces of these 480 specimens were measured in three dimensions with a positioning aid "before casting in resin" and "after casting in metal" by the Perthometer micrometer. All specimens were treated identically by the lost-wax process by using the rotation symmetry of the muffle. The differences in the surface data before casting in resin and after casting in metal characterize the quality of the particular resin. Surface roughness differed between the 16 resins in the range of micrometer. With the dental casting technique, it is recommended that some resins replace waxes or wax-resin compositions.

  10. Bubble size and gas-liquid interfacial area measurements using molten paraffin waxes in bubble columns

    SciTech Connect

    Bukur, D.B.; Patel, S.A.; Daly, J.G.; Raphael, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in 0.05 m ID and 0.23 m ID by 3 m tall bubble columns with different types of molten waxes as the liquid medium and nitrogen as the gas, under processing conditions typical or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over iron catalysts (i.e. gas velocities up to 0.15 m s, and temperatures between 200 and 270/sup 0/C) to estimate gas liquid interfacial area from measured values of average gas hold-up and Sauter mean bubble diameter. The gas hold-up was estimated from visual observations of the expanded and static liquid heights, and the Sauter was estimated from bubble size measurements obtained by photography and dynamic gas disengagement. The paraffin wax (FT-300) used in the authors' studies is non-coalescing and has a tendency to foam. The amount of foam is greater for runs conducted in the order of increasing gas velocities, than in runs with decreasing velocities. Thus, two values of hold-up are possible and the start-up procedure determines which one will be attained. At higher gas velocities (> 0.05 m/s) the foam disappears and a transition to the slug flow, churn-turbulent regime takes place. Reactor waxes are coalescing in nature and do not produce foam. Despite similar hold-ups for the different waxes at higher gas velocities, the Sauters are significantly different and this is reflected in the specific gas-liquid interfacial areas, with larger values obtained with the paraffin wax compared to values with reactor waxes.

  11. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues.

  12. [Pulmonary damage caused by ski waxing].

    PubMed

    Strøm, E; Alexandersen, O

    1990-11-20

    It is well known that inhalation of pyrolysis products of perfluorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. Teflon) may result in polymer-fume fever and even pulmonary oedema. A new type of ski wax has recently been introduced, a powder consisting of low-molecular perfluorinated hydrocarbons. We report a case history of a man who developed an attack of polymer-fume fever and pulmonary oedema after smoking cigarettes contaminated with this ski wax. Inhalation of vapour from ski waxes melted at low temperatures may also be harmful to the lungs.

  13. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the following...

  14. Improved wax mold technique forms complex passages in solid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, R. F.; Page, A. D.; Phillips, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Low-cost fabricating technique produces minute, complex air passages in fluidic devices. Air jet interactions in these function as electronic and electromechanical control systems. Wax cores are fabricated without distortion by two-wax process using nonsoluble pattern-wax and water-soluble wax. Significant steps in fabrication process are discussed.

  15. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made...

  16. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic in...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax is permitted in subchapter B of...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178.3720... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax...

  19. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  20. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  1. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  2. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  3. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the following...

  4. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the following...

  5. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the following...

  6. Tectonic microplates: laying it down on wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R. R.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2008-12-01

    We present a wax analogue model of sea-floor spreading that produces rotating, growing microplates. Wax microplates are kinematically similar to sea-floor tectonic microplates in terms of spreading rate and growth rate. Furthermore, their spiral pseudofault geometry is quantitatively consistent with Schouten's oceanic microplate model. These results suggest that Schouten's edge-driven microplate model captures the kinematics of tectonic microplate evolution on Earth. We propose a theory for the formation of microplates.

  7. Solidification of N-Octadecane paraffin wax

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, R.; Irby, R.; Keshock, E.; Solomon, A.D.

    1982-05-01

    Four freezing experiments with N-Octadecane paraffin wax are described. Their results are analyzed using a variety of mathematical techniques for conduction phase-change problems. From such mathematical analyses it is concluded, among other things, that the effective thermal conductivity of the solid wax in our case is about 3.5 times the literature value; this value was verified by independent experimental measurements.

  8. Molten Wax As A Dust Control Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E.

    2008-07-01

    Molten wax shows considerable promise as a fixative and dust control agent in demolition of radioactively contaminated facilities. Sticky molten wax, modified with special surfactants and wetting agents, is capable of not only coating materials but also penetrating into friable or dusty materials and making them incapable of becoming airborne during demolition. Wax also shows significant promise for stabilization of waste residuals that may be contained in buildings undergoing demolition. Some of the building materials that have been tested to date include concrete, wood, sheet-rock, fiber insulation, lime, rock, and paper. Protective clothing, clay, sand, sulfur, and bentonite clay have been tested as surrogates for certain waste materials that may be encountered during building demolition. The paper describes several potential applications of molten wax for dust control in demolition of radioactive contaminated facilities. As a case-study, this paper describes a research test performed for a pipeline closure project being completed by the Idaho Cleanup Project at the Idaho National Laboratory. The project plans to excavate and remove a section of buried Duriron drain piping containing highly radioactive and friable and 'flighty' waste residuals. A full-scale pipeline mockup containing simulated waste was buried in sand to simulate the direct-buried subsurface condition of the subject piping. The pipeline was pre-heated by drawing hot air through the line with a HEPA vacuum blower unit. Molten wax was pumped into the line and allowed to cool. The line was then broken apart in various places to evaluate the permeation performance of the wax. The wax fully permeated all the surrogate materials rendering them non-friable with a consistency similar to modeling clay. Based on the performance during the mockup, it is anticipated that the wax will be highly effective in controlling the spread of radiological contamination during pipe demolition activities. A larger test

  9. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiuqing; Yi, Xin; Xiao, Kang; Li, Shunbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2010-10-07

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  10. Oxidized wax as compatibilizer in linear low-density polyethylene-clay nanocomposites: x-ray diffraction and dynamic mechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Geethamma, V G; Luyt, Adriaan S

    2008-04-01

    Oxidized paraffin wax was used as a compatibilizer in composites of linear low-density polyethylene and layered nano silicate clays. X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out to investigate the crystalline morphology of five types of clays, oxidized wax, and their composites with LLDPE. The composites exhibited different X-ray diffraction and dynamic mechanical behaviour in the presence of different clays. Generally, the composites retained the partially crystalline behaviour of LLDPE, and no exfoliation was observed. Increased amount of wax did not change the morphology in most cases. The incorporation of clay resulted in an observable increase in the storage modulus of LLDPE. These values also increased with the addition of oxidized wax for most of the composites. The loss modulus increased with the amount of clay, irrespective of its nature. In most cases these values also increased with the incorporation of wax. The composites with 10% clay and 10% oxidized wax showed the highest storage and loss moduli, irrespective of the nature of the clay. The tan delta values did not change considerably with the addition of clay or wax.

  11. In-depth compositional analysis of water-soluble and -insoluble organic substances in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles using ultra-high-resolution 15T FT-ICR MS and GC×GC-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Hoon; Ryu, Jijeong; Jeon, Sodam; Seo, Jungju; Yang, Yung-Hun; Pack, Seung Pil; Choung, Sungwook; Jang, Kyoung-Soon

    2017-03-05

    Airborne particulate matter consisting of ionic species, salts, heavy metals and carbonaceous material is one of the most serious environmental pollutants owing to its impacts on the environment and human health. Although elemental and organic carbon compounds are known to be major components of aerosols, information on the elemental composition of particulate matter remains limited because of the broad range of compounds involved and the limits of analytical instruments. In this study, we investigated water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds in fine (PM2.5) airborne particles collected during winter in Korea to better understand the elemental compositions and distributions of these compounds. To collect ultra-high-resolution mass profiles, we analyzed water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds, extracted with water and dichloromethane, respectively, using an ultra-high-resolution 15 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (15T FT-ICR) mass spectrometer in positive ion mode (via both electrospray ionization [ESI] and atmospheric pressure photoionization [APPI] for water-extracts and via APPI for dichloromethane-extracts). In conjunction with the FT-ICR mass spectrometry (MS) data, subsequent two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) data were used to identify potentially hazardous organic components, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This analysis provided information on the sources of ambient particles collected during winter season and partial evidence of contributions to the acidity of organic content in PM2.5 particles. The compositional and structural features of water-soluble and -insoluble organic compounds from PM2.5 particles are important for understanding the potential impacts of aerosol-carried organic substances on human health and global ecosystems in future toxicological studies.

  12. Acute effects of ski waxing on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M D; Clifford, P S; Varkey, B

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether pulmonary function is acutely affected by moderate exposure to ski waxing. Ten healthy nonsmoking young adult volunteers were exposed to 45 min of ski waxing in a small unventilated room. The exposure occurred in pairs with one individual performing the waxing while the other overlooked the waxing process. During the period of waxing, two pairs of cross-country skis were waxed with a paraffin wax and then scraped and brushed, and two pairs of cross-country skis were waxed with a fluorinated wax and then brushed. Spirometry and single-breath carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity (DLCO) were measured immediately before and after exposure to ski waxing, and again 5-6 h after waxing. A subset of five subjects repeated the measurements on a separate day without receiving exposure to ski waxing. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. Exposure to ski waxing induced no significant changes in spirometry and DLCO measurements. We conclude that moderate exposure to ski waxing has no significant acute effect on lung function.

  13. Preparation of waxes and humic acids from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Noskova; A.V. Rokhin; A.P. Sorokin

    2007-06-15

    The comparative extraction of coal with organic solvents was performed. Humic acids were separated from solid residues. The yields, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions of the resulting products were analyzed. It was demonstrated that brown-coal wax and humic fertilizers can potentially be obtained using coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit.

  14. Stomatal Density Influences Leaf Water and Leaf Wax D/H Values in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Feakins, S. J.; Sternberg, L. O.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of plant leaf wax is a powerful tool to study the hydrology of past and present environments. The δD value of leaf waxes is known to primarily reflect the δD value of source water, modified by biological fractionations commonly summarized as the 'net or apparent' fractionation. It remains a challenge, however, to quantitatively relate the isotopic composition of the end product (wax) back to that of the precursor (water) because multiple isotope effects contributing to the net fractionation are not yet well understood. Transgenic variants have heretofore unexplored potential to isolate individual isotope effects. Here we report the first hydrogen isotopic measurements from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with calculations of leaf water enrichment, net and biosynthetic fractionation values from measured δD of plant waters and leaf wax n-alkanes. We employed transgenic Arabidopsis leaves, engineered to have different stomatal density, by differential expression of the stomatal growth hormone stomagen. Comparison of variants and wild types allow us to isolate the effects of stomatal density on leaf water and the net fractionation expressed by leaf wax biomarkers. Results show that transgenic leaves with denser pores have more enriched leaf water and leaf wax δD values than wild type and even more so than transgenic leaves with sparse stomata (difference of 10 ‰). Our findings that stomatal density controls leaf water and leaf wax δD values adds insights into the cause of variations in net fractionations between species, as well as suggesting that geological variations in stomatal density may modulate the sedimentary leaf wax δD record. In nature, stomatal density varies between species and environments, and all other factors being equal, this will contribute to variations in fractionations observed. Over geological history, lower stomatal densities occur at times of elevated pCO2; our findings predict reduced leaf

  15. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of rice bran wax as ointment base.

    PubMed

    Bhalekar, M; Manish, Lavhale; Krishna, Sini

    2004-07-01

    Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the present study indicate, rice bran wax can be used as a good component in ointment base, comparable with white wax.

  17. Oligomers Formed Through In-cloud Metylglyoxal Reactions: Chemical Composition, Properties, and Mechanisms Investigated by Ultra-high Resolution FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a substantial component of total atmospheric organic particulate matter, but little is known about the composition of SOA formed through cloud processing. We conducted aqueous phase photooxidation experiments of methylglyoxal and hydroxyl radica...

  18. Oligomers Formed Through In-cloud Metylglyoxal Reactions: Chemical Composition, Properties, and Mechanisms Investigated by Ultra-high Resolution FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a substantial component of total atmospheric organic particulate matter, but little is known about the composition of SOA formed through cloud processing. We conducted aqueous phase photooxidation experiments of methylglyoxal and hydroxyl radica...

  19. Chemical profiling of the major components in natural waxes to elucidate their role in liquid oil structuring.

    PubMed

    Doan, Chi Diem; To, Chak Ming; De Vrieze, Mike; Lynen, Frederic; Danthine, Sabine; Brown, Allison; Dewettinck, Koen; Patel, Ashok R

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons - HCs, free fatty acids - FFAs, free fatty alcohols - FALs and wax esters - WEs) of natural waxes were analyzed using HPLC-ELSD and GC-MS followed by evaluation of their oil structuring properties. The gel strength, including the average storage modulus and oscillation yield stress, displayed a negative correlation with FALs and a positive correlation with HCs, FFAs and WEs. The components dictating the gel strength are HCs, FFAs and WEs in a descending order of importance. The consistency of the oleogels increased with the increasing amount of FFAs and HCs and the decreasing amount of WEs and FALs. The presence of more WEs results in a strong but brittle gel with a high initial flow yield stress. We believe these results might be useful in selecting the right waxes to combine in certain fat-based food products.

  20. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.

    2002-04-08

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed.

  1. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    PubMed Central

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products. PMID:22315575

  2. The Thermodielectric Effect in Paraffin Wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, Martin; Novotny, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with results of the thermodielectric effect measurement. A paraffin wax as a dielectric material was investigated via differential scanning calorimetry and potentiometry during a phase transition. Possible description of the thermodielectric effect based on fundamental laws of thermodynamics is shown; to be more specific, the link between the potential difference and the latent heat is presented. The thermodynamic model of thermodielectric effect based on electrochemical equilibrium and charge generation at the solid/liquid interface is introduced. Results of the thermodielectric effect measurement are used for the calculation of a molecular mass of the paraffin wax. The relation for a surface area (interface) between liquid and solid phase of the paraffin wax during solidification is derived from the presented theoretical description of the thermodielectric effect.

  3. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is

  4. Preparation of polysaccharides from wax gourd.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gangliang; Tan, Jiantao; Tan, Xianchun; Peng, Daquan

    2011-08-01

    Preparation of polysaccharides from the wax gourd was studied. The crude polysaccharides were extracted by ethanol precipitation, and deproteinized by the hydrochloric acid method. The deproteinized polysaccharides were separated by column chromatography to obtain the pure polysaccharides. The pure polysaccharides have a β-D-pyranosidic bond, and their molecular weight distribution is about 22,500. It was indicated that the final product had much more purity by IR spectrum analysis, UV absorption spectrum analysis, and phenol-sulfuric acid method, respectively. It was proved that wax gourd polysaccharides were composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose by thin layer chromatography.

  5. CUT1, an Arabidopsis gene required for cuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility, encodes a very-long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Millar, A A; Clemens, S; Zachgo, S; Giblin, E M; Taylor, D C; Kunst, L

    1999-01-01

    Land plants secrete a layer of wax onto their aerial surfaces that is essential for survival in a terrestrial environment. This wax is composed of long-chain, aliphatic hydrocarbons derived from very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Using the Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag database, we have identified a gene, designated CUT1, that encodes a VLCFA condensing enzyme required for cuticular wax production. Sense suppression of CUT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants results in waxless (eceriferum) stems and siliques as well as conditional male sterility. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that this was a severe waxless phenotype, because stems of CUT1-suppressed plants were completely devoid of wax crystals. Furthermore, chemical analyses of waxless plants demonstrated that the stem wax load was reduced to 6 to 7% of wild-type levels. This value is lower than that reported for any of the known eceriferum mutants. The severe waxless phenotype resulted from the downregulation of both the decarbonylation and acyl reduction wax biosynthetic pathways. This result indicates that CUT1 is involved in the production of VLCFA precursors used for the synthesis of all stem wax components in Arabidopsis. In CUT1-suppressed plants, the C24 chain-length wax components predominate, suggesting that CUT1 is required for elongation of C24 VLCFAs. The unique wax composition of CUT1-suppressed plants together with the fact that the location of CUT1 on the genetic map did not coincide with any of the known ECERIFERUM loci suggest that we have identified a novel gene involved in wax biosynthesis. CUT1 is currently the only known gene with a clearly established function in wax production. PMID:10330468

  6. The Preparation and Properties of RDX-Composition A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-12-29

    accordingly RDX particles adhere to wax globules and re- tain them in the slurry. The RDX is neither capable of acting as an efficient powder- emulsifier for...prepared by the addition of extra wax and aluminum, plus lecithin , to a rollod Composition A. "ith a total of 12fr wax, such a mixture can be poured, but

  7. Statistical analysis of the photodegradation of imazethapyr on the surface of extracted soybean (Glycine max) and corn (Zea mays) epicuticular waxes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Scott C; Christiansen, Amy; Peterson, Alexa; Beukelman, Logan; Nienow, Amanda M

    2016-10-12

    The photodegradation rate of the herbicide imazethapyr on epicuticular waxes of soybean and corn plants was investigated. Plant age, relative humidity, temperature, and number of light banks were varied during plant growth, analyzed statistically, and examined to determine if these factors had an effect on the photodegradation of imazethapyr. Through ultraviolet/visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy, epicuticular wax characteristics of soybean and corn plants were explored, were used to confirm observations determined statistically, and explain correlations between the rate constants and the composition of the epicuticular waxes. Plant age, the interaction between plant age and light, and the quadratic dependence on temperature were all determined to have a significant impact on the photodegradation rate of imazethapyr on the epicuticular waxes of soybean plants. As for the photodegradation rate on the epicuticular waxes of corn plants, the number of light banks used during growing and temperature were significant factors.

  8. Measurement of pressure effect on wax content in partially frozen paraffinic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daridon, J. L.; Dauphin, C.

    1999-12-01

    An experimental liquid-solid separation apparatus was developed to determine, over a wide range of pressures, the wax content and the composition of the different phases in partially frozen paraffinic systems. The apparatus was then used to measure the quantity and composition of the waxy deposits formed as a function of pressure in a synthetic system made up of a single solvent (n-decane) and a regular distribution of paraffins between n-C18 and n-C30.

  9. 7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section 3201.79... Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition. Products composed of a solid mass and... biobased candles and wax melts. ...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section 3201.79... Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition. Products composed of a solid mass and... biobased candles and wax melts. ...

  11. Morphology and networks of sunflower wax crystals in organogel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant waxes are considered as promising alternatives to unhealthy solid fats such as trans fats and saturated fats in structured food products including margarines and spreads. Sunflower wax is of a great interest due to its strong gelling ability. Morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in soyb...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  15. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene... practice. (c) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene... practice. (c) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene... practice. (c) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do...

  19. Severe complications of a "Brazilian" bikini wax.

    PubMed

    Dendle, Claire; Mulvey, Sheila; Pyrlis, Felicity; Grayson, M Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D R

    2007-08-01

    A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... practice: in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170... obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... practice: in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170... obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax....

  2. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3850...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  6. Variability of wax ester fermentation in natural and bleached Euglena gracilis Strains in response to oxygen and the elongase inhibitor flufenacet.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Vacula, Rostislav; Krajcovic, Juraj; Proksch, Peter; Martin, William

    2010-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is able to synthesize adenosine triphosphate under anaerobic conditions through a malonyl-independent fatty acid synthesis leading to wax ester fermentation. Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis uses acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA as C2- and C3-donors for de novo synthesis of even- and odd-numbered fatty acids, respectively. Euglena's wax ester fermentation has only been described in the E. gracilis strain 1224-5/25 Z. Here we investigate eight E. gracilis strains isolated in 1932-1958 from different localities in Europe and two bleached substrains of E. gracilis 1224-5/25, obtained by treatment with streptomycin and ofloxacin, and examine their anaerobic growth, wax ester fermentation, and wax ester composition. Under ambient oxygen levels, all strains accumulated wax esters in concentrations between 0.3% and 3.5% of the dry weight, but the strains revealed marked differences in wax ester accumulation with respect to anaerobic growth. Most fermenting strains tested showed increased wax ester synthesis under anaerobic conditions as well as the increased synthesis of odd-numbered fatty acids and alcohols suggesting an activation of the mitochondrial fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Addition of the elongase inhibitor flufenacet to the growth medium specifically reduced the accumulation of odd-numbered fatty acids and alcohols and tended to increase the overall yield of anaerobic wax esters.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of the Chinese white wax scale Ericerus pela with focus on genes involved in wax biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pu; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Gong, Zhong-Jun; Xu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lin, Xin-Da; Li, Yan-Fei

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese white wax scale, Ericerus pela Chavannes is economically significant for its role in wax production. This insect has been bred in China for over a thousand years. The wax secreted by the male scale insect during the second-instar larval stage has been widespread used in wax candle production, wax printing, engraving, Chinese medicine, and more recently in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for white wax biosynthesis. The characterization of its larval transcriptome may promote better understanding of wax biosynthesis. In this study, characterization of the transcriptome of E. pela during peak wax secretion was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Illumina sequencing produced 41,839 unigenes. These unigenes were annotated by blastx alignment against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR), Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG databases. A total of 104 unigenes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified, and 15 of them were selected for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. We evaluated the variations in gene expression across different development stages, including egg, first/second instar larvae, male pupae, and male and female adults. Then we identified five genes involved in white wax biosynthesis. These genes were expressed most strongly during the second-instar larval stage of male E. pela. The transcriptome analysis of E. pela during peak wax secretion provided an overview of gene expression information at the transcriptional level and a resource for gene mining. Five genes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified.

  8. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation.

    PubMed

    Ishaka, Aminu; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Mahamud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Maznah, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56-94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV), pH (6.79-6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times.

  10. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  11. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ishaka, Aminu; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Mahamud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Maznah, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56–94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (−55.8 to −45.12 mV), pH (6.79–6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times. PMID:24872689

  12. H-Isotopic Fractionation During Biosynthesis of Leaf Waxes in C3 Plants: Trees vs. Grasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, J. L.; Hou, J.; Huang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of higher-plant leaf waxes in lake sediments have great potential to be used as a proxy for reconstructing past source water isotope composition and/or relative humidity on continents. However, hydrogen isotopic fractionation during biosynthesis of leaf waxes in various terrestrial plants remains poorly understood. A recent study of 7 terrestrial and aquatic plant types from a single site in Massachusetts shows that D/H ratios among different plant types can vary as much as 70‰, with the largest difference occurring between tree and grasses (Hou et al., in review). This variability may have been caused by different degrees of evapotranspiration among different plant types (e.g., trees vs. grasses), but could also be attributed to different biosynthetic isotopic fractionation. We designed a series of growth chamber experiments to trace the sources of hydrogen isotopic difference between trees and grasses. Five tree species [white ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), spruce (Picea sp.) and white cedar (Thuja occidentalis)] and three grass species [orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), timothy weed (Phleum pratense), Foxtail (Setaria sp.)] were grown in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. Plants were irrigated with the same source water. We tracked hydrogen isotopic variation of water from source water to stem water to leaf water, and eventually to leaf waxes. Fifty-three leaf and stem samples were harvested. Water from these samples was vacuum-extracted and analyzed for D/H ratios, and compared with D/H ratios of corresponding leaf waxes. Our results allow us to determine whether evapotranspiration rates or intrinsic isotopic fractionation during biosynthesis was the dominant factor controlling the H isotopic ratios of leaf waxes in trees and grasses. Our results are also helpful for interpreting hydrogen isotopic variations of sedimentary leaf waxes.

  13. From buds to litter: seasonal changes in leaf wax concentrations and carbon isotopes and implications for the geologic past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Y. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of leaf waxes, such as n-alkanes, have extensively been used in paleoenvironmental studies for reconstruction of the past vegetation, climate and carbon cycling. There is however little information available on the seasonal variation of leaf wax concentration and δ13C in modern plants and when the δ13C signal is set. This lack of information confounds interpretations of leaf wax δ13C in sedimentary archives. To address this gap, this study investigates temporal changes in n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid δ13C values in several species (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Ulmus Americana, Sassafras albidum, and Juniperus virginiana) within a single temperate deciduous forest stand in southern Ohio. We sampled atmospheric air, buds, leaves, leaf litter, and surface soil weekly during leaf flush and biweekly thereafter. In A. rubrum, A. saccharum, and U. Americana, buds had one or two dominant n-alkanes, such as C29 and C31. After leaf flush, the concentrations of shorter n-alkanes (C23~C27) significantly increased relative to the longer chain-lengths. We are currently analyzing remaining samples from the growing season and are analyzing bulk leaf and leaf wax (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) δ13C values. This information will be important for identifying environmental and physiological controls on leaf wax δ13C and will improve interpretations of leaf wax δ13C preserved in the geologic record.

  14. Development of the cuticular wax during growth of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Hamet et Perr. de la Bathie) leaves.

    PubMed

    Van Maarseveen, Clare; Han, Hong; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to monitor cuticular wax accumulation during leaf development of Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Leaves expanded linearly until they were 40-60 d old. Wax coverages of leaves on the third node increased steadily during initial leaf development, from 6.5 microg x cm(-2) on day 22 to 15.3 microg x cm(-2) on day 53, and then levelled off. Triterpenoids dominated the wax mixture throughout leaf development, but decreased from 74 to 40-45% in mature leaves, while very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives increased from 19 to 39-44%. The major VLCFA derivatives were alkanes, accompanied by fatty acids, primary alcohols, aldehydes and alkyl esters. In all compound classes, either C(34) or C(33) homologs predominated during leaf development. Eight different triterpenoids were identified, with glutinol constituting 70% of the fraction, and friedelin (20%) and germanicol (10%) as further major components of the young leaf wax. The glutinol percentage decreased, while the relative amounts of epifriedelanol and glutanol increased during development. Various leaf pairs upwards from the third node showed similar growth patterns and developmental time courses of cuticular wax amounts and composition. Based on these surface chemical analyses, the relative activities of biosynthetic pathways leading to various wax components can be assessed.

  15. PRESENCE OF WAX ESTERS AND SQUALENE IN HUMAN SALIVA

    PubMed Central

    Brasser, Andrew J; Barwacz, Christopher A; Dawson, Deborah V; Brogden, Kim A; Drake, David R; Wertz, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and relative composition of neutral lipids in human saliva. Design Whole unstimulated saliva was collected from 12 subjects ranging from 21 to 29 years old. Samples were lyophilized, and lipids were extracted using chloroform-methanol. Lipids were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. Results Human saliva contains cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, wax esters, cholesterol esters and squalene. The mean total neutral lipid content was 12.1 +/− 6.3 µg/ml. Conclusions This lipids in human saliva closely resemble the lipids found on the skin surface. These salivary lipids are most likely produced by the sebaceous follicles in the oral mucosa and sebaceous glands associated with major salivary glands. PMID:21247555

  16. Pulmonary injury after ski wax inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Bracco, D; Favre, J B

    1998-11-01

    A wide variety of irritants can lead to respiratory failure after inhalation injuries. We present a case of adult respiratory distress syndrome after exposure to a fluorocarbon resin (PFF 1020) used as ski wax. The patient sustained a mild but prolonged exposure to this substance, which subsequently led to symptoms of severe respiratory failure over the next 24 hours. Except for hypocalcemia, there were no systemic manifestations and recovery was uneventful. Ski wax is considered to be nontoxic and there are no reported side effects of these products. Injury was related to the heated fluorocarbon particles. This case report of a severe lung inhalation injury points out the increasing risk of environmental hazards associated with the use of synthetic substances.

  17. Cuticular wax biosynthesis as a way of inducing drought resistance.

    PubMed

    Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-07-01

    Plants have evolved diverse adaptive strategies to cope with drought or water deficit conditions, such as stomatal closure, maintenance of root growth and water uptake, and biosynthesis of osmoprotectants. Accumulation of cuticular waxes also contributes to drought resistance. However, it is still unclear how cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated in response to drought and how it is associated with plant responses to drought at the molecular level. The abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible MYB96 transcription factor plays a role in drought resistance. Notably, it also regulates cuticular wax biosynthesis by binding directly to the promoters of genes encoding fatty acid elongating enzymes, such as KCS, KCR and ECR that constitute a rate-limiting step in cuticular wax biosynthesis. In the myb96-1D mutant that constitutively express the MYB96 gene, many of genes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis are upregulated and accordingly, cuticular wax accumulation is greatly elevated. In contrast, cuticular wax accumulation is reduced in the myb96-1 mutant, linking drought with cuticular wax biosynthesis. It is evident that the MYB96 transcription factor incorporates drought stress signals into a gene regulatory network that modulates cuticular wax biosynthesis under drought stress conditions, providing a first molecular mechanism by which cuticular wax biosynthesis contributes to drought resistance and protection from pathogenic and mechanical damages as well.

  18. Instant freezing of impacting wax drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Virot, Emmanuel; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2015-11-01

    We present the impact of hot liquid drops of wax on surfaces whose temperature is below the solidifying temperature of the drops. During the fall the drops remain mostly liquid, but upon impact, their temperature quickly decreases resulting in the solidification of the drop. Depending on the impact energy, drops size and the temperature difference between the drop and the surface this results in plethora of solid shapes: simple lenses, triangular drops, spherical caps and popped popcorn shapes.

  19. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  20. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  1. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    PubMed

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  2. Self-association of plant wax components: a thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Casado, C G; Heredia, A

    2001-01-01

    Excess specific heat, C(p)()(E), of binary mixtures of selected components of plant cuticular waxes has been determined. This thermodynamic parameter gives an explanation of the special molecular arrangement in crystalline and amorphous zones of plant waxes. C(p)()(E) values indicate that hydrogen bonding between chains results in the formation of amorphous zones. Conclusions on the self-asembly process of plant waxes have been also made.

  3. Putative megaenzyme DWA1 plays essential roles in drought resistance by regulating stress-induced wax deposition in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Lizhong

    2013-10-29

    Drought stress is a major limiting factor for crop production. Cuticular wax plays an important role in preventing water loss from drought stress. However, the genetic control of cuticular wax deposition under drought stress conditions has not been characterized. Here, we identified a rice gene Drought-Induced Wax Accumulation 1 (DWA1) encoding a very large protein (2,391 aa in length) containing multiple enzymatic structures, including an oxidoreductase-like domain; a prokaryotic nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like module, including an AMP-binding domain; and an allene oxide synthase-like domain. This previously unreported putative megaenzyme is conserved in vascular plants. A dwa1 KO mutant was highly sensitive to drought stress relative to the WT. DWA1 was preferentially expressed in vascular tissues and epidermal layers and strongly induced by drought stress. The dwa1 mutant was impaired in cuticular wax accumulation under drought stress, which significantly altered the cuticular wax composition of the plant, resulting in increased drought sensitivity. The mutant had reduced levels of very-long-chain fatty acids, and plants overexpressing DWA1 showed elevated levels of very-long-chain fatty acids relative to the WT. The expression of many wax-related genes was significantly suppressed in dwa1 under drought conditions. The AMP-binding domain exhibited in vitro enzymatic activity in activating long-chain fatty acids to form acyl-CoA. Our results suggest that DWA1 controls drought resistance by regulating drought-induced cuticular wax deposition in rice. This finding may have significant implications for improving the drought resistance of crop varieties.

  4. Antioxidant properties of wax from Yugoslavian oakmoss (Evernia prunastri).

    PubMed

    Racine, P; Hartmann, V E; D'Audiffret, Y T

    1980-12-01

    Synopsis Wax from Yugoslavian oakmoss resulting from the industrial benzene extraction of the vegetable matter was extracted by solvents of different polarities. The wax and the extracts were tested for antioxidant activities using (+) limonene as peroxidizable test substrate and were found to have such activity. The extracts are more active than the wax itself. Although not directly usable because of still too low activity, the wax and the extracts contain a small amount of substance with antioxidant activity comparable to that of the usual synthetic antioxidants.

  5. Coking of distallate feed with added paraffin wax

    SciTech Connect

    Mimun, K.; Zaitseva, N.P.; Smidovich, E.V.

    1987-09-01

    The effects of adding paraffin wax to fluid and delayed coking distillates on the yield, microstructure, and physicochemical properties of the cokes were investigated. It was established that by adding optimal amounts of wax to a distillate feed with a high stability factor, the coke yield can be increased by 2.5 to 5.8 percent by weight. The wax should be injected into the feedstock between the furnace and chamber in delayed coking units. The addition of wax to the feed in order to increase the stability factor could be used as a method for reducing tube coking in cracking furnaces.

  6. Petroleomics by EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS.

    PubMed

    Corilo, Yuri E; Vaz, Boniek G; Simas, Rosineide C; Nascimento, Heliara D Lopes; Klitzke, Clécio F; Pereira, Rosana C L; Bastos, Wagner L; Santos Neto, Eugênio V; Rodgers, Ryan P; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2010-05-15

    An ambient ionization/desorption technique, namely, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI), has been applied to crude oil samples. From a single droplet of the sample placed on an inert surface, EASI(+/-) is shown to promote efficient desorption and ionization of a myriad of polar components via the action of its cloud of very minute supersonic bipolar charged droplets. The gaseous [M + H](+) and [M - H](-) ions concurrently formed by EASI(+/-) were analyzed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), and a total of approximately 6000 acidic and basic components have been attributed. EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS of crude oils is show to be almost as fast as ESI(+)/ESI(-) FT-ICR MS, providing similar compositional information of polar components and spectral quality comparable to that of a commercial nonochip-based robotic ESI device. EASI(+/-) requires no sample workup thus eliminating risks of contamination during sample manipulation and memory effects because of carry over in pumping ESI lines. More importantly, EASI(+/-) is a voltage-free ionization technique therefore eliminating risks of redox processes or duality of ionization mechanisms that can be observed in voltage-assisted processes. Data visualization via typical petroleomic plots confirms the similarity of the compositional information provided by EASI(+/-) compared to ESI(+)/ESI(-). The ambient EASI(+/-) FT-ICR MS method requires no voltage switching in changing the ion polarity mode, offering a workup, heating and voltage-free protocol for petroleomic studies performed at open atmosphere directly on the undisturbed crude oil sample.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of the Chinese White Wax Scale Ericerus pela with Focus on Genes Involved in Wax Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhong-Jun; Xu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lin, Xin-Da; Li, Yan-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Background The Chinese white wax scale, Ericerus pela Chavannes is economically significant for its role in wax production. This insect has been bred in China for over a thousand years. The wax secreted by the male scale insect during the second-instar larval stage has been widespread used in wax candle production, wax printing, engraving, Chinese medicine, and more recently in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for white wax biosynthesis. The characterization of its larval transcriptome may promote better understanding of wax biosynthesis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, characterization of the transcriptome of E. pela during peak wax secretion was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Illumina sequencing produced 41,839 unigenes. These unigenes were annotated by blastx alignment against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR), Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG databases. A total of 104 unigenes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified, and 15 of them were selected for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. We evaluated the variations in gene expression across different development stages, including egg, first/second instar larvae, male pupae, and male and female adults. Then we identified five genes involved in white wax biosynthesis. These genes were expressed most strongly during the second-instar larval stage of male E. pela. Conclusion/Significance The transcriptome analysis of E. pela during peak wax secretion provided an overview of gene expression information at the transcriptional level and a resource for gene mining. Five genes related to white wax biosynthesis were identified. PMID:22536429

  8. Wax Removal and Diamondback Moth Performance in Collards Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Silva, G A; Pereira, R M; Rodrigues-Silva, N; Souza, T C; Ferreira, D O; Queiroz, E A; Silva, G A R; Picanço, M C

    2017-05-06

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is an herbivorous specialist on Brassicaceae species. Brassicas spp. plants developed a range of defenses (chemical, physical, and morphological) to prevent herbivores attack. In this study, we reported the antixenotic and antibiotic effects of outermost layer of two species of epicuticular wax of Brassicaceae, Brassica oleracea L. var. "Santo Antônio," and Hybrid Kope F1 100MX, on larvae and adult of P. xylostella. In the choice experiment, P. xylostella adults showed an oviposition preference for collard cultivars Santo Antônio (control) and Hybrid Kope F1 100MX with wax removal. In the no-choice experiment, oviposition was 6.4 times higher in the Hybrid Kope F1 100MX with wax removal than without wax removal. There were significant differences among larvae feeding on leaf disks of Hybrid Kope F1 100MX in the treatments with (65.3 mg) and without wax removal (23.5 mg). The net reproduction rate (R 0 ), and intrinsic (rm) and finite rates of increase (λ) of P. xylostella in the cv. Santo Antônio were bigger in the treatment without wax removal (R 0  = 50.4, rm = 0.23 and λ = 1.26) than treatment with wax removal (R 0  = 28.5, rm = 0.20 and λ = 1.22). However, only the R 0 value was affected by mechanical wax removal in the Hybrid Kope F1 100MX (with wax removal R 0  = 43.3 and without wax removal R 0  = 30.8). In conclusion, the results indicate that collard's wax is important to accessibility and development of P. xylostella, and its removal changes the resistance of collard's varieties to P. xylostella.

  9. Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Activation and Handling Through Wax Enclosure Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer L. S.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which converts syn-gas, a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions. Cobalt based catalysts are used in F-T synthesis and are the focus of this paper. One key concern with handling cobalt based catalysts is that the active form of catalyst is in a reduced state, metallic cobalt, which oxidizes readily in air. In laboratory experiments, the precursor cobalt oxide catalyst is activated in a fixed bed at 350 ?C then transferred into a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with inert gas. NASA has developed a process which involves the enclosure of active cobalt catalyst in a wax mold to prevent oxidation during storage and handling. This improved method allows for precise catalyst loading and delivery into a CSTR. Preliminary results indicate similar activity levels in the F-T reaction in comparison to the direct injection method. The work in this paper was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  10. Noninvasive in situ identification and band assignments of some pharmaceutical excipients inside USP vials with FT-near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hassan Refat H; Edwards, Howell G M; Scowen, Ian J

    2009-05-01

    For the manufacture of dosage forms all ingredients must be reliably identified. In this paper, the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy to identify potassium sorbate, sodium starch glycollate, calcium ascorbate, calcium carbonate, candelilla wax, maltosextrin, monohydrated and anhydrous lactose inside USP vials was investigated. Differentiation between the anhydrous and monohydrated forms of lactose was found to be possible by studying the regions of the near-infrared spectrum corresponding to the combination and first overtone stretching frequencies of water. The results show unequivocally the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy for rapid, in situ and non-destructive identification of pharmaceutical excipients.

  11. Noninvasive in situ identification and band assignments of some pharmaceutical excipients inside USP vials with FT-near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hassan Refat H.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Scowen, Ian J.

    2009-05-01

    For the manufacture of dosage forms all ingredients must be reliably identified. In this paper, the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy to identify potassium sorbate, sodium starch glycollate, calcium ascorbate, calcium carbonate, candelilla wax, maltosextrin, monohydrated and anhydrous lactose inside USP vials was investigated. Differentiation between the anhydrous and monohydrated forms of lactose was found to be possible by studying the regions of the near-infrared spectrum corresponding to the combination and first overtone stretching frequencies of water. The results show unequivocally the potential of FT-NIR spectroscopy for rapid, in situ and non-destructive identification of pharmaceutical excipients.

  12. Compositae Plants Differed in Leaf Cuticular Waxes between High and Low Altitudes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Na; Gao, Jianhua; He, Yuji; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-06-01

    We sampled eight Compositae species at high altitude (3482 m) and seven species at low altitude (220 m), analyzed the chemical compositions and contents of leaf cuticular wax, and calculated the values of average chain length (ACL), carbon preference index (CPI), dispersion (d), dispersion/weighted mean chain length (d/N), and C31 /(C31  + C29 ) (Norm31). The amounts of total wax and compositions were significantly higher at high altitude than at low altitude, except for primary alcohol, secondary alcohol, and ketone. The main n-alkanes in most samples were C31 , C29 , and C33 . Low altitude had more C31 and C33 , whereas more C29 occurred at high altitude. The ACL, CPI, d, d/N, and Norma 31 were higher at low altitude than at high altitude. The fatty acid and primary alcohol at low altitude contained more C26 homologous than at high altitude. More short-chain primary alcohols were observed at high altitude. At low altitude, the primary alcohol gave on average the largest amount, while it was n-alkane at high altitude. These results indicated that the variations of leaf cuticular waxes benefited Compositae plants to adapt to various environmental stresses and enlarge their distribution.

  13. Cloning and Characterization of the WAX2 Gene of Arabidopsis Involved in Cuticle Membrane and Wax Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinbo; Goodwin, S. Mark; Boroff, Virginia L.; Liu, Xionglun; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2003-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis ecotype C24 was used to identify a novel mutant, designated wax2, that had alterations in both cuticle membrane and cuticular waxes. Arabidopsis mutants with altered cuticle membrane have not been reported previously. Compared with the wild type, the cuticle membrane of wax2 stems weighed 20.2% less, and when viewed using electron microscopy, it was 36.4% thicker, less opaque, and structurally disorganized. The total wax amount on wax2 leaves and stems was reduced by >78% and showed proportional deficiencies in the aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones, with increased acids, primary alcohols, and esters. Besides altered cuticle membranes, wax2 displayed postgenital fusion between aerial organs (especially in flower buds), reduced fertility under low humidity, increased epidermal permeability, and a reduction in stomatal index on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Thus, wax2 reveals a potential role for the cuticle as a suppressor of postgenital fusion and epidermal diffusion and as a mediator of both fertility and the development of epidermal architecture (via effects on stomatal index). The cloned WAX2 gene (verified by three independent allelic insertion mutants with identical phenotypes) codes for a predicted 632–amino acid integral membrane protein with a molecular mass of 72.3 kD and a theoretical pI of 8.78. WAX2 has six transmembrane domains, a His-rich diiron binding region at the N-terminal region, and a large soluble C-terminal domain. The N-terminal portion of WAX2 is homologous with members of the sterol desaturase family, whereas the C terminus of WAX2 is most similar to members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. WAX2 has 32% identity to CER1, a protein required for wax production but not for cuticle membrane production. Based on these analyses, we predict that WAX2 has a metabolic function associated with both cuticle membrane and wax synthesis. These studies provide new insight

  14. Coating green slash asphalt and wax prevent drying

    Treesearch

    Harry E. Schimke; Ronald H. Dougherty

    1967-01-01

    Dry logging slash has been successfully kept dry for later burning by spraying it with asphalt and wax emulsions. The same treatments were tried on green slash. Tests made by applying SS-1 grade asphalt emulsion and a lumber wax on green slash showed that these protective coatings prevented the slash from drying satisfactorily.

  15. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  16. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

    1987-08-04

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

  17. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  18. Simulation of four pure conduction paraffin-wax freezing experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, R.; Solomon, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Four freezing experiments with N-Octadecane paraffin wax are described. Their results are analyzed using a variety of mathematical techniques for conduction phase-change problems. It is concluded, among other things, that the effective thermal conductivity of the solid wax in this case is about 3.5 times the literature value.

  19. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Petroleum Wax Candles from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review). Issued: December 17, 2010. By... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United States International Trade Commission (Commission)...

  20. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China... candles from China (64 FR 51514). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... review determination, the Commission defined the Domestic Like Product as petroleum wax candles. In...

  1. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of an expedited...

  2. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, Jr., W. Rodman; Garwood, William E.; Kuo, James C.; Leib, Tiberiu M.; Nace, Donald M.; Tabak, Samuel A.

    1987-01-01

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

  3. FT-Raman spectral analysis of human urinary stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraju, R.; Raja, A.; Thiruppathi, G.

    2012-12-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy is the most useful tool for the purpose of bio-medical diagnostics. In the present study, FT-Raman spectral method is used to investigate the chemical composition of urinary calculi. Urinary calculi multi-components such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyl apatite, struvite and uric acid are studied. FT-Raman spectrum has been recorded in the range of 3500-400 cm-1. Chemical compounds are identified by Raman spectroscopic technique. The quantitative estimations of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 1463 cm-1, calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) 1478 cm-1, hydroxyl apatite 959 cm-1, struvite 575 cm-1, uric acid 1283 cm-1 and oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) 2129 cm-1 are calculated using particular peaks of FT-Raman spectrum. The quantitative estimation of human urinary stones suitable for the single calibration curve was performed.

  4. Toward in Vivo Chemical Imaging of Epicuticular Waxes1[C

    PubMed Central

    Weissflog, Ina; Vogler, Nadine; Akimov, Denis; Dellith, Andrea; Schachtschabel, Doreen; Svatos, Ales; Boland, Wilhelm; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Epicuticular waxes, which are found on the outer surface of plant cuticles, are difficult to study in vivo. To monitor the growth, development, and structural alterations of epicuticular wax layers, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) might be used. CARS, as a Raman-based technique, not only provides structural insight but also chemical information by imaging the spatial distribution of Raman-active vibrations. Here, we present a comparative study using CARS and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the structure of epicuticular waxes. The ability of CARS to provide detailed structural information on the biologically important wax layer was detailed on the examples of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus), hoya (Hoya carnosa), and ceriman/Swiss cheese plant (Monstera sp. aff. deliciosa). We anticipate that the work presented will open a doorway for online monitoring of formation and alterations of epicuticular wax layers. PMID:20709828

  5. Self-Replenishable Anti-Waxing Organogel Materials.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Wang, Jianjun; Jiang, Lei

    2015-07-27

    Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self-replenishable organogel material which shows ultra-low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low-molar-mass oil from its crude-oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems.

  6. Self‐Replenishable Anti‐Waxing Organogel Materials†

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self‐replenishable organogel material which shows ultra‐low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low‐molar‐mass oil from its crude‐oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems. PMID:26083324

  7. Advantages of catalytically de-waxed lubricant base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonmaker, J.P.; Stiponavic, A.J.

    1996-10-01

    The production of base oils used in the formulation of lubricants involves the vacuum distillation of crude oil followed by a series of processing steps that improve physical and chemical properties including viscosity index and oxidative stability. An important stage in this process is the removal of linear parafins (wax) from the base oil which can crystalize causing poor flow properties at low temperatures. {open_quotes}De-waxing{close_quotes} may be accomplished using a solvent precipitation batch process (solvent de-waxing: SDW) or through a more modern continuous catalytic process (catalytic de-waxing: CDW) which offers many advantages. In general, catalytically de-waxed base oils exhibit improved low temperature fluidity which provides enhanced performance for transmission fluids and other lubricants required to operate efficiently at temperature reaching -40{degrees}C. A discussion of the molecular mechanisms involved in CDW and results of viscometric testing at low temperatures will be presented.

  8. Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Caifu; Liu, Qian; Mei, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2009-08-01

    Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration. Considering the viscosity of the oil phase and the interfacial tension, we conclude that the wax is liquid-like during the high temperature emulsification process, but during cooling wax crystals appear around the oil/water interface and stabilize the droplets. The oil/water ratio has minimal effect on the emulsions between ratios of 3:7 and 7:3. The Laponite is believed to stabilize the emulsions by increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase and also by adsorbing at the oil/water interface, thus providing a physical barrier to coalescence.

  9. [Nondestructive discrimination of waxed apples based on hyperspectral imaging technology].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The potential of hyperspectral imaging technology was evaluated for discriminating three types of waxed apples. Three types of apples smeared with fruit wax, with industrial wax, and not waxed respectively were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range of 308-1 024 nm. ENVI software processing platform was used for extracting hyperspectral image object of diffuse reflection spectral response characteristics. Eighty four of 126 apple samples were selected randomly as calibration set and the rest were prediction set. After different preprocess, the related mathematical models were established by using the partial least squares (PLS), the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and BP neural network methods and so on. The results showed that the model of MSC-SPA-LSSVM was the best to discriminate three kinds of waxed apples with 100%, 100% and 92.86% correct prediction respectively.

  10. Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax δD in modern lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polissar, Pratigya J.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed the deuterium composition of individual plant-waxes in lake sediments from 28 watersheds that span a range of precipitation D/H, vegetation types and climates. The apparent isotopic fractionation ( ɛa) between plant-wax n-alkanes and precipitation differs with watershed ecosystem type and structure, and decreases with increasing regional aridity as measured by enrichment of 2H and 18O associated with evaporation of lake waters. The most negative ɛa values represent signatures least affected by aridity; these values were -125 ± 5‰ for tropical evergreen and dry forests, -130‰ for a temperate broadleaf forest, -120 ± 9‰ for the high-altitude tropical páramo (herbs, shrubs and grasses), and -98 ± 6‰ for North American montane gymnosperm forests. Minimum ɛa values reflect ecosystem-dependent differences in leaf water enrichment and soil evaporation. Slopes of lipid/lake water isotopic enrichments differ slightly with ecosystem structure (i.e. open shrublands versus forests) and overall are quite small (slopes = 0-2), indicating low sensitivity of lipid δD variations to aridity compared with coexisting lake waters. This finding provides an approach for reconstructing ancient precipitation signatures based on plant-wax δD measurements and independent proxies for lake water changes with regional aridity. To illustrate this approach, we employ paired plant-wax δD and carbonate-δ 18O measurements on lake sediments to estimate the isotopic composition of Miocene precipitation on the Tibetan plateau.

  11. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  12. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick C. Joyce; Mark C. Thies

    1999-03-31

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, is to be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Aspen Plus{trademark} was used to perform process simulation studies on the proposed extraction process, with Redlich-Kwong-Soave (RKS) being used for the thermodynamic property model. In summary, we have made comprehensive VLE measurements for short alkane + long alkane systems over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, dramatically increasing the amount of high-quality data available for these simple, yet highly relevant systems. In addition, our work has demonstrated that, surprisingly, no current thermodynamic model can adequately predict VLE behavior for these systems. Thus, process simulations (such as those for our proposed SCF extraction process) that incorporate these systems can currently only give results that are qualitative at best. Although significant progress has been made in the past decade, more experimental and theoretical work remain to be done before the phase equilibria of asymmetric alkane mixtures can be predicted with confidence.

  13. Multiple plant-wax compounds record differential sources and ecosystem structure in large river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, Jordon D.; Schefuß, Enno; Dinga, Bienvenu Jean; Pryer, Helena; Galy, Valier V.

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations, distributions, and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of plant waxes carried by fluvial suspended sediments contain valuable information about terrestrial ecosystem characteristics. To properly interpret past changes recorded in sedimentary archives it is crucial to understand the sources and variability of exported plant waxes in modern systems on seasonal to inter-annual timescales. To determine such variability, we present concentrations and δ13C compositions of three compound classes (n-alkanes, n-alcohols, n-alkanoic acids) in a 34-month time series of suspended sediments from the outflow of the Congo River. We show that exported plant-dominated n-alkanes (C25-C35) represent a mixture of C3 and C4 end members, each with distinct molecular distributions, as evidenced by an 8.1 ± 0.7‰ (±1σ standard deviation) spread in δ13C values across chain-lengths, and weak correlations between individual homologue concentrations (r = 0.52-0.94). In contrast, plant-dominated n-alcohols (C26-C36) and n-alkanoic acids (C26-C36) exhibit stronger positive correlations (r = 0.70-0.99) between homologue concentrations and depleted δ13C values (individual homologues average ⩽-31.3‰ and -30.8‰, respectively), with lower δ13C variability across chain-lengths (2.6 ± 0.6‰ and 2.0 ± 1.1‰, respectively). All individual plant-wax lipids show little temporal δ13C variability throughout the time-series (1σ ⩽ 0.9‰), indicating that their stable carbon isotopes are not a sensitive tracer for temporal changes in plant-wax source in the Congo basin on seasonal to inter-annual timescales. Carbon-normalized concentrations and relative abundances of n-alcohols (19-58% of total plant-wax lipids) and n-alkanoic acids (26-76%) respond rapidly to seasonal changes in runoff, indicating that they are mostly derived from a recently entrained local source. In contrast, a lack of correlation with discharge and low, stable relative abundances (5-16%) indicate that

  14. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    PubMed

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C31 or C33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. WAXS studies of the structural diversity of hemoglobin in solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, L.; Bardhan, J.; Gore, D.; Lal, J.; Mandava, S.; Park, S.; Rodi, D. J.; Ho, N. T.; Ho, C.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    Specific ligation states of hemoglobin are, when crystallized, capable of taking on multiple quaternary structures. The relationship between these structures, captured in crystal lattices, and hemoglobin structure in solution remains uncertain. Wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) is a sensitive probe of protein structure in solution that can distinguish among similar structures and has the potential to contribute to these issues. We used WAXS to assess the relationships among the structures of human and bovine hemoglobins in different liganded forms in solution. WAXS data readily distinguished among the various forms of hemoglobins. WAXS patterns confirm some of the relationships among hemoglobin structures that have been defined through crystallography and NMR and extend others. For instance, methemoglobin A in solution is, as expected, nearly indistinguishable from HbCO A. Interestingly, for bovine hemoglobin, the differences between deoxy-Hb, methemoglobin and HbCO are smaller than the corresponding differences in human hemoglobin. WAXS data were also used to assess the spatial extent of structural fluctuations of various hemoglobins in solution. Dynamics has been implicated in allosteric control of hemoglobin, and increased dynamics has been associated with lowered oxygen affinity. Consistent with that notion, WAXS patterns indicate that deoxy-Hb A exhibits substantially larger structural fluctuations than HbCO A. Comparisons between the observed WAXS patterns and those predicted on the basis of atomic coordinate sets suggest that the structures of Hb in different liganded forms exhibit clear differences from known crystal structure.

  16. Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sejal; Nelson, Dennis R.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2001-01-01

    Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, Tm, of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26–48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38–73°C. The main factor affecting Tm was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected Tm. Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased Tm by ∼30°C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several °C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60°C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced Tm of the total surface lipids to environmental values. PMID:15455064

  17. Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties.

    PubMed

    Patel, S; Nelson, D R; Gibbs, A G

    2001-01-01

    Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, T(m), of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26-48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38-73 degrees C. The main factor affecting T(m) was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected T(m). Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased T(m) by approximately 30 degrees C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several degrees C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60 degrees C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced T(m) of the total surface lipids to environmental values.

  18. Expression of Arabidopsis SHN1 in Indian Mulberry (Morus indica L.) Increases Leaf Surface Wax Content and Reduces Post-harvest Water Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sajeevan, R. S.; Nataraja, Karaba N.; Shivashankara, K. S.; Pallavi, N.; Gurumurthy, D. S.; Shivanna, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus species) leaf is the sole food for monophagous silkworms, Bombyx mori L. Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and high temperature, significantly decrease mulberry productivity and post-harvest water loss from leaves influence silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Leaf surface properties regulate direct water loss through the cuticular layer. Leaf surface waxes, contribute for cuticular resistance and protect mesophyll cells from desiccation. In this study we attempted to overexpress AtSHN1, a transcription factor associated with epicuticular wax biosynthesis to increase leaf surface wax load in mulberry. Agrobacterium mediated in vitro transformation was carried out using hypocotyl and cotyledonary explants of Indian mulberry (cv. M5). Mulberry transgenic plants expressing AtSHN1 displayed dark green shiny appearance with increased leaf surface wax content. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed change in pattern of surface wax deposition and significant change in wax composition in AtSHN1 overexpressors. Increased wax content altered leaf surface properties as there was significant difference in water droplet contact angle and diameter between transgenic and wild type plants. The transgenic plants showed significant improvement in leaf moisture retention capacity even 5 h after harvest and there was slow degradation of total buffer soluble protein in detached leaves compared to wild type. Silkworm bioassay did not indicate any undesirable effects on larval growth and cocoon yield. This study demonstrated that expression of AtSHN1, can increase surface wax load and reduce the post-harvest water loss in mulberry. PMID:28421085

  19. Expression of Arabidopsis SHN1 in Indian Mulberry (Morus indica L.) Increases Leaf Surface Wax Content and Reduces Post-harvest Water Loss.

    PubMed

    Sajeevan, R S; Nataraja, Karaba N; Shivashankara, K S; Pallavi, N; Gurumurthy, D S; Shivanna, M B

    2017-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus species) leaf is the sole food for monophagous silkworms, Bombyx mori L. Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and high temperature, significantly decrease mulberry productivity and post-harvest water loss from leaves influence silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Leaf surface properties regulate direct water loss through the cuticular layer. Leaf surface waxes, contribute for cuticular resistance and protect mesophyll cells from desiccation. In this study we attempted to overexpress AtSHN1, a transcription factor associated with epicuticular wax biosynthesis to increase leaf surface wax load in mulberry. Agrobacterium mediated in vitro transformation was carried out using hypocotyl and cotyledonary explants of Indian mulberry (cv. M5). Mulberry transgenic plants expressing AtSHN1 displayed dark green shiny appearance with increased leaf surface wax content. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed change in pattern of surface wax deposition and significant change in wax composition in AtSHN1 overexpressors. Increased wax content altered leaf surface properties as there was significant difference in water droplet contact angle and diameter between transgenic and wild type plants. The transgenic plants showed significant improvement in leaf moisture retention capacity even 5 h after harvest and there was slow degradation of total buffer soluble protein in detached leaves compared to wild type. Silkworm bioassay did not indicate any undesirable effects on larval growth and cocoon yield. This study demonstrated that expression of AtSHN1, can increase surface wax load and reduce the post-harvest water loss in mulberry.

  20. Effects of temperature on water-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by wax microparticles.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Rocher, Anaïs

    2009-07-01

    The possibility of stabilising oil-water mixtures using wax particles alone is reported. As judged from contact angle measurements, wax particles are hydrophobic and act as effective emulsifiers of water-in-squalane emulsions. Specific differences exist depending on the chemical composition of the particles. The effect of temperature on emulsion stability has been explored in detail. If particles are pre-adsorbed to water drop interfaces by emulsification at room temperature, subsequent increase of temperature leads to a progressive increase in sedimentation and coalescence as particles melt and desorb from interfaces. The temperature range over which this occurs is similar to that of the melting range of the particles alone. If however the particles are melted prior to emulsification, surface-active long chain ester or acid molecules adsorb to freshly created interfaces giving rise to excellent stability to coalescence at high temperatures. Rapid cooling of these latter emulsions enhances their long-term stability as solidification of the molten wax leads to a thickening of the continuous oil phase.

  1. Illustrations of the anatomical wax model collection in the "La Specola" Zoology Museum, Florence.

    PubMed

    Lotti, S; Altobelli, A; Bambi, S; Poggesi, M

    2006-01-01

    Anatomical illustration has evolved through the centuries, first having artistic and educational purposes and later more strictly medical objectives. Between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries, the analytical model (representation of individual parts, organs and systems) gave way to the composite model (description of the human body as a whole). Between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there was a reversal of tendency: initially the anatomist requested the help of artists, but later the artist asked anatomists to check the accuracy of his work. In this way, anatomical illustration reached a high level of precision. This period also saw the creation of the "La Specola" Zoology Museum's collection of anatomical wax models. Initiated in the eighteenth century, it also included a series of contemporary colour illustrations executed by various artists. Most of the illustrations concern human anatomy, while a small number deal with comparative anatomy. These illustrations, each accompanied by one or more explanatory sheets, were produced to help explain the corresponding wax models. The anatomical wax model collection has been well preserved through the centuries, maintaining its ancient splendour, and it is the object of continuing research and restoration interventions.

  2. Diesel fuel containing wax oxidates to reduce particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, H.G.; Sweeney, W.M.

    1980-09-16

    Addition of 0.1 to 1.5 percent by weight of wax oxidates to a diesel fuel is found to reduce the amount of soot and invisible particles produced when the fuel is used in a diesel engine. The wax oxidates act synergistically with fuel-soluble organometallic compounds such as alkyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl complex salts in reducing particulates. The wax oxidates used have a ratio of neutralization number to saponification number below about 0.40 and a saybolt universal viscosity at 210* F. Higher than 1600.

  3. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    PubMed

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.

  4. Methyl isobutyl ketone as a solvent for wax deoiling

    SciTech Connect

    Larikov, V.I.; Pereverzev, A.N.; Roshchin, Y.N.; Sokolova, S.P.

    1983-09-01

    The solvency of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for use in deoiling and cold-fractionation of solid paraffin waxes is investigated by a visual polytherm method in the temperature interval 0-36 C. The capability of MIBK for precipitating solid hydrocarbons from solution was found to be greater than acetone/toluene or MEK/toluene, with only MEK better in this respect than MIBK. The quantity of wax remaining in the filtrate is examined. The critical solution temperatures are investigated and it is shown that MIBK surpasses MEK. The results obtained indicate that MIBK is extremely promising for use in processes of deoiling and cold fractionation of waxes.

  5. Oil-structuring characterization of natural waxes in canola oil oleogels: Rheological, thermal, and oxidative properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) were utilized as canola oil structurants to produce oleogels and their physicochemical properties were evaluated from rheological, thermal, and oxidative points of view. The oleogels with candelilla wax exhibited the highest hardness, followe...

  6. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  7. Trans-fat free margarine from organogel formed by a plant wax

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research presents a practical method to replace a hardstock containing trans-fat and saturated fat with a small amount of a plant wax in margarine and spreads. Plant waxes were investigated for their ability to make an organogel of many different vegetable oils. Sunflower wax and rice bran wax ...

  8. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  9. Leaf water deuterium enrichment shapes leaf wax n-alkane δD values of angiosperm plants I: Experimental evidence and mechanistic insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, Ansgar; Schefuß, Enno; Sachse, Dirk

    2013-06-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes of terrestrial plants are long-chain hydrocarbons that can persist in sedimentary records over geologic timescales. Since meteoric water is the primary source of hydrogen used in leaf wax synthesis, the hydrogen isotope composition (δD value) of these biomarkers contains information on hydrological processes. Consequently, leaf wax n-alkane δD values have been advocated as powerful tools for paleohydrological research. The exact kind of hydrological information that is recorded in leaf wax n-alkanes remains, however, unclear because critical processes that determine their δD values have not yet been resolved. In particular the effects of evaporative deuterium (D)-enrichment of leaf water on the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes have not yet been directly assessed and quantified. Here we present the results of a study where we experimentally tested if and by what magnitude evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water affects the δD of leaf wax n-alkanes in angiosperm C3 and C4 plants. Our study revealed that n-alkane δD values of all plants that we investigated were affected by evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water. For dicotyledonous plants we found that the full extent of leaf water evaporative D-enrichment is recorded in leaf wax n-alkane δD values. For monocotyledonous plants we found that between 18% and 68% of the D-enrichment in leaf water was recorded in the δD values of their n-alkanes. We hypothesize that the different magnitudes by which evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water affects the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants is the result of differences in leaf growth and development between these plant groups. Our finding that the evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water affects the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants - albeit at different magnitudes - has important implications for the interpretation of leaf wax n-alkane δD values from

  10. Cucumis sativus L. WAX2 Plays a Pivotal Role in Wax Biosynthesis, Influencing Pollen Fertility and Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Liu, Xingwang; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-07-01

    Cuticular waxes play an important part in protecting plant aerial organs from biotic and abiotic stresses. In previous studies, the biosynthetic pathway of cuticular waxes and relative functional genes has been researched and understood; however, little is known in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, we cloned and characterized an AtWAX2 homolog, CsWAX2, in cucumber and found that it is highly expressed in the epidermis, where waxes are synthesized, while subcellular localization showed that CsWAX2 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The transcriptional expression of CsWAX2 was found to be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and ABA, while the ectopic expression of CsWAX2 in an Arabidopsis wax2 mutant could partially complement the glossy stem phenotype. Abnormal expression of CsWAX2 in transgenic cucumbers specifically affected both very long chain (VLC) alkanes and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transgenic cucumber plants of CsWAX2 showed significant changes in pollen viability and fruit resistance to water loss and pathogens compared with the wild type. Collectively, these results indicated that CsWAX2 plays a pivotal role in wax biosynthesis, influencing pollen fertility and the plant's response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  11. Analysis of paraffin wax oxidates by differential infrared spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, M.

    1985-05-01

    The oxidation products of paraffin waxes are estimated by isolation followed by instrumental techniques which are laborious and time-consuming. Differential infrared spectrometry has been applied to analyze the usual paraffin wax oxidates. The saponification and the solubility problems encountered in these samples were overcome by the addition of crown ethers. The technique is quicker, less time-consuming, and less expensive and only a small sample size is required. 10 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  12. Physical characterization of wax/oil crystalline networks.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvana; Tan, Chin Yiap; Jana, Sarbojeet

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical properties of different types of wax/oil systems. Olive (OO), corn (CO), soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), safflower (SAFO), and canola (CAO) oils were mixed with sunflower oil wax (SFOW), paraffin wax (PW), and beeswax (BW) at different concentrations (1% to 10%). Results from this study show that the physical properties of wax/oil systems is affected not only by the concentration and type of wax used, but also by the type of oil used. In general, wax/oil systems formulated with SFOW generated crystalline networks with high enthalpies (1 to 22 J/g) and high G' values (2 to 6 × 10(6) Pa) compared with the values obtained for BW and PW. SFOW crystalline networks were characterized by needle-like crystals independently of the wax concentrations and type of oil used. BW crystalline networks, however, were characterized by different crystal morphologies (needle-like or spherulites) depending on the wax concentration and type of oil used. PW samples were characterized by a crystalline network formed by needle- and platelet-like crystals. Enthalpy values of BW and PW samples were similar (0.3 to 20 J/g), but BW samples resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) G' values in the 5% and 10% samples with values of 3.9 × 10(6) and 6.1 × 10(5) Pa for 10% BW and PW, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Collaborative Research and Development Contract. Delivery Order 0052: Microvascular Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    from PTFE or FEP, which shrink at 343° C or 190° C, respectively. The tube shrink temperature is chosen so that the tubes shrink after the resin has...all tubes can be reached at the exterior of the cured composite for extraction. This may have some use with VARTM techniques. High Temperature Wax ...High temperature wax was used to mold microvascular passages spannimg diameters from 100µm to 1+cm. The COTS Machinable Wax was purchased from

  14. Operating experience firing waxed corrugated cardboard waste

    SciTech Connect

    McBurney, B.

    1995-09-01

    Georgia-Pacific operates a corrugated packaging facility in Doraville, Georgia which a suburb of Atlanta. The plant processes bulk brown paper into corrugated sheets for corrugated packaging. The plant`s process and building heat requires approximately 15,000 PPH steam at 150 psig which was supplied by a natural gas fired package boiler. The mill disposed of the cardboard trimmings and waste in a nearby landfill at a disposal cost of several thousand dollars per month. In 1992, the mill recognized that the landfill would close in several years which would result in a significant increase in monthly cardboard waste disposal costs. Therefore, the mill sought an alternate yet economical solution for waste disposal. After evaluating several different alternatives including recycling, the mill installed a boiler system designed to fire the waxed corrugated cardboard waste (WCW) as both a solution for disposal of this waste and as an alternate source of boiler fuel. This paper reviews plant design, operating performance and maintenance history.

  15. Studies on the structure of the plant wax nonacosan-10-ol, the main component of epicuticular wax conifers.

    PubMed

    Matas, Antonio J; Sanz, María José; Heredia, Antonio

    2003-11-01

    The main component presents in the epicuticular waxes of needles of Pinus halepensis and the most of conifers, the secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol, has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results obtained from these physical techniques permitted to establish a definitive structural model of the molecular arrangement of this wax, basically in good agreement with the model formulated by other authors from theoretical formulations. Biological implications of the proposed structure have been also formulated.

  16. Removal of Wax and Stickies from OCC by Flotation

    SciTech Connect

    M. R. Doshi; J. Dyer

    2000-01-31

    Laboratory research indicates that wax is amenable to removal by froth flotation provided it is free or detached from the fiber. The only effective means, at this time, of maximizing detachment of wax is through the use of low consistency pulping at temperatures above the melting point of wax. Wax removal from WCC through washing, flotation, or a combination of both was approximately 90% in these laboratory studies, indicating that not all of the wax is detached from fibers. These results were summarized in Annual Report 1, December 1, 1997 to November 30, 1998. Pilot trials were conducted in which the authors simulated a conventional OCC repulping process with and without flotation. Additional aggressive washing and water clarification were also examined during the study. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots and extractable material from the furnish. Based on this study, the authors predict that a compact flotation system with 2 lb surfactant/ton of fiber would improve the OCC pulp quality with regard to wax spots by 60% and would not negatively affect strength properties. Flotation losses would be in the 2-5% range. Two mill trials were conducted during the last quarter of the project. One trial was carried out at Green Bay Packaging, Green Bay, WI, and a second trial was conducted at Menasha Corporation, Otsego, MI. A 250-liter Voith Sulzer Ecocell was used to evaluate the removal of wax and stickies from the OCC processing systems at these two mills. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots from the furnish. The data indicate that flotation was more effective in removing wax and stickies than reverse cleaners. The mill trials have demonstrated that flotation can be substituted for or replace existing reverse cleaning systems and, in some cases, can replace dispersion systems. In this manner, the use of flotation can

  17. Leaf Wax δ13C Varies with Elevation in the Peruvian Andes and Western Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. S.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; Peters, T.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Bentley, L. P.; Salinas, N.; Shenkin, A.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Plant leaf wax carbon isotopic composition (δ13Cwax) reflects the net isotopic effects associated with diffusion into the leaf, fixation of carbon by Rubisco and biosynthesis of individual leaf wax biochemicals. As declining pCO2 with elevation affects the first two fractionations, we expect to find an isotopic gradient in δ13Cwax, if the fractionation of leaf wax biosynthesis is constant. To test this, we report δ13Cwax values from 500 samples of leaves collected by tree-climbers from the upper canopy from 9 forest-inventory plots spanning a 3.5km elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and western Amazonia during the CHAMBASA field campaign. These samples provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between δ13Cwax and pCO2 in diverse species across this remote tropical montane forest and lowland rainforest. The very wet climate throughout (2-5 m rainfall per year) minimizes fractionation effects due to stomatal restrictions (i.e. water use efficiency) that may be an important factor elsewhere. Preliminary results show δ13Cwax values on average increase with elevation by ~1.5‰/km, a trend consistent with bulk plant δ13C in previous studies. The mean epsilon between bulk and C29 n-alkane is -7.3±2.2‰. Inter-sample differences are large on the order of 10‰. Shaded leaves and understory leaves are found to be depleted relative to sunlit leaves, presumably due to a lower photosynthetic rate and use of respired CO2 in the understory. C29 n-alkanes are on average ~2.5‰ more depleted than C30 n-alkanoic acids, indicating fractionation during selective decarboxylation. We further compare results from plants with soil and river sediments to provide insights into how leaf wax signals are archived in soils and exported from the landscape. We find a ~1.4‰/km gradient in forest soils similar to plants. We observe a ~2‰ offset between C29 n-alkane in plant leaves and in soils across the elevation profile, which is likely a signal of degradation

  18. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C.

    PubMed

    Alegría, Natalia; Legarda, Fernando; Herranz, Margarita; Idoeta, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the silicaceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This

  19. Leaf water deuterium enrichment shapes leaf wax n-alkane δD values of angiosperm plants II: Observational evidence and global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, Ansgar; Hoffmann, Bernd; Schefuß, Enno; Arndt, Stefan K.; Cernusak, Lucas A.; West, Jason B.; Sachse, Dirk

    2013-06-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes are long-chain hydrocarbons that can persist in sedimentary records over geological timescales. Since their hydrogen isotopic composition (expressed as a δD value) can be correlated to the δD values of precipitation, leaf wax n-alkane δD values have been advocated as new and powerful proxies for paleohydrological research. The exact type of hydrological information that is recorded in the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes remains, however, unclear. In a companion paper we provide experimental evidence showing that the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes of angiosperm plants grown under controlled environmental conditions not only reflect δD values of precipitation - as has often been assumed - but that evaporative deuterium (D)-enrichment of leaf water has an additional critical effect on their δD values. Here we present a detailed observational study that illustrates that evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water also affects the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes in plants from natural ecosystems along a 1500 km climate gradient in Northern Australia. Based on global simulations of leaf water D-enrichment we show that the effects of evaporative D-enrichment of leaf water on leaf wax n-alkane δD values is relevant in all biomes but that it is particularly important in arid environments. Given the combined influence of precipitation δD values and leaf water D-enrichment we argue that leaf wax n-alkane δD values contain an integrated signal that can provide general hydrological information, e.g. on the aridity of a catchment area. We also suggest that more specific hydrological information and even plant physiological information can be obtained from leaf wax n-alkanes if additional indicators are available to constrain the plant- and precipitation-derived influences on their δD values. As such, our findings have important implications for the interpretation of leaf wax n-alkane δD values from paleohydrological records. In addition, our

  20. Heritability of the structures and 13C fractionation in tomato leaf wax alkanes: a genetic model system to inform paleoenvironmental reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Amanda L. D.; Chitwood, Daniel H.; Bradley, Alexander S.

    2017-06-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes are broadly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental information. However, the utility of n-alkanes as a paleoenvironmental proxy may be modulated by the extent to which biological as well as environmental factors influence the structural and isotopic variability of leaf waxes. In paleoclimate applications, there is usually an implicit assumption that most variation of leaf wax traits through a time series can be attributed to environmental change and that biological sources of variability within plant communities are small. For example, changes in hydrology affect the δ2H of waxes via rainwater and the δ13C of leaf waxes by changing plant communities. We measured the degree of genetic control over δ13C variation in leaf waxes within closely related species with an experimental greenhouse growth study. We measured the proportion of variability in structural and isotopic leaf wax traits that is attributable to genetic variation using a set of 76 introgression lines (ILs) between two interfertile Solanum (tomato) species: S. lycopersicum cv M82 (hereafter cv M82) and S. pennellii. Leaves of S. pennellii, a wild desert tomato relative, produced significantly more iso-alkanes than cv M82, a domesticated tomato cultivar adapted to water-replete conditions. We report a methylation index to summarize the ratio of branched (iso- and anteiso-) to total alkanes. Between S. pennellii and cv M82, the iso-alkanes were found to be enriched in 13C by 1.2-1.4‰ over n-alkanes. The broad-sense heritability values (H2) of leaf wax traits describe the degree to which genetic variation contributes to variation of these traits. Variation of individual carbon isotopic compositions of alkanes were of low heritability (H2 = 0.13-0.19), suggesting that most variation in δ13C of leaf waxes in this study can be attributed to environmental variance. This supports the interpretation that variation in the δ13C of wax compounds recorded in sediments reflects

  1. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in the Carbon Isotopic Signal of Leaf Wax Aerosols in Continental Air Masses: Linkages with Ecosystem Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J.; Conte, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in the concentration and isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide can be used to estimate the relative magnitudes of the terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks. An important model parameter is the terrestrial photosynthetic carbon isotopic fractionation of CO2 (Δ), yet estimating Δ over the large spatial scales required by models remains problematic. Epiculticular leaf waxes appear to closely reflect the plant's carbon isotopic discrimination; therefore, the ablated wax aerosols present in well-mixed continental air masses may be used as a proxy to estimate the magnitude of Δ integrated over large (subcontinental) spatial scales. Over the last several years, we have been conducting time-series studies of wax aerosol molecular and isotopic composition at strategically located sites (Maine, northern Alaska, Florida, Bermuda, Barbados) which receive continental air masses passing over major terrestrial biomes (northern temperate/ecotonal boreal forests, tundra, southern US pine/hardwood forests, North American and north African). In this presentation, we describe and contrast patterns of wax aerosol-derived estimates of Δ at these sites. In North American air masses, estimates of Δ range from 14.5-20.5 using the concentration-weighted average δ13C of wax n-acids and from 13.5-19.5 for the wax n-alcohols. Seasonal trends observed in the Florida (southern US) and Bermuda samples (mixed North American air masses) indicate maximum discrimination in early spring and minimum discrimination during the summer dry season. In northern US and high latitude air masses, seasonal trends are less pronounced but in general temporally offset with highest discrimination occurring during late summer. At Barbados, which is dominated by north African air masses passing over regions largely comprised of arid C4 grasslands, estimated Δ for the wax n-acids is significantly lower (14.0-15.5 per mil), consistent with a higher predominance of C4

  2. Late Quaternary environmental change in the interior South American tropics: new insight from leaf wax stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornace, Kyrstin L.; Whitney, Bronwen S.; Galy, Valier; Hughen, Konrad A.; Mayle, Francis E.

    2016-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis of leaf waxes in a sediment core from Laguna La Gaiba, a shallow lake located at the Bolivian margin of the Pantanal wetlands, provides new perspective on vegetation and climate change in the lowland interior tropics of South America over the past 40,000 years. The carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of long-chain n-alkanes reveal large shifts between C3- and C4-dominated vegetation communities since the last glacial period, consistent with landscape reconstructions generated with pollen data from the same sediment core. Leaf wax δ13C values during the last glacial period reflect an open landscape composed of C4 grasses and C3 herbs from 41-20 ka. A peak in C4 abundance during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼21 ka) suggests drier or more seasonal conditions relative to the earlier glacial period, while the development of a C3-dominated forest community after 20 ka points to increased humidity during the last deglaciation. Within the Holocene, large changes in the abundance of C4 vegetation indicate a transition from drier or more seasonal conditions during the early/mid-Holocene to wetter conditions in the late Holocene coincident with increasing austral summer insolation. Strong negative correlations between leaf wax δ13C and δD values over the entire record indicate that the majority of variability in leaf wax δD at this site can be explained by variability in the magnitude of biosynthetic fractionation by different vegetation types rather than changes in meteoric water δD signatures. However, positive δD deviations from the observed δ13C- δD trends are consistent with more enriched source water and drier or more seasonal conditions during the early/mid-Holocene and LGM. Overall, our record adds to evidence of varying influence of glacial boundary conditions and orbital forcing on South American Summer Monsoon precipitation in different regions of the South American tropics. Moreover, the relationships between leaf wax stable

  3. Rapid prototyping of paper-based microfluidics with wax for low-cost, portable bioassay.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Shi, Weiwei; Jiang, Lei; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2009-05-01

    Here we present a simple and low-cost production method to generate paper-based microfluidic devices with wax for portable bioassay. The wax patterning method we introduced here included three different ways: (i) painting with a wax pen, (ii) printing with an inkjet printer followed by painting with a wax pen, (iii) printing by a wax printer directly. The whole process was easy to operate and could be finished within 5-10 min without the use of a clean room, UV lamp, organic solvent, etc. Horse radish peroxidase, BSA and glucose assays were conducted to verify the performance of wax-patterned paper.

  4. How does forest productivity influence river export of plant wax?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feakins, S. J.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Malhi, Y.; Girardin, C.; Asner, G. P.; Ponton, C.; Wu, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    How much carbon, fixed in tropical forest photosynthesis, is exported by rivers? From the large biomass held in tropical forests only a small component enters rivers for export. The exported fraction of tropical forest production represents the component removed from the rapid photosynthesis-respiration cycle, with potential for long-term sequestration in downstream sediments. Along the journey downstream, the transported organic matter may be lost to respiration, or stored in deposits before remobilization and later export. Discriminating between carbon sources in rivers presents a challenge to answering the question posed. But, plant waxes are specific tracers of plant biosynthesis that we use to identify sourcing and transport by the river, and that represent a resilient component with sequestration potential. Thus, we quantify the fraction of fresh forest production that goes into plant wax in a series of 9 forest plots in the Madre de Dios River catchment, Peru and set this in the context of catchment scale NPP estimates. Downstream sampling in two seasons captures the suspended particulate load of plant waxes in transit. Paired analyses of carbon and hydrogen isotopes allow for source apportionment by elevation allowing insight into catchment integration processes. Downstream concentrations of plant wax n-alkanes in river are related to discharge to yield estimates of the instantaneous catchment export flux in two contrasting seasons. Ultimately we seek to constrain the flux of plant wax exported by the river, and to estimate what fraction of forest NPP makes that journey from land to sea.

  5. Calculations aid breaking of wax-plugged lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrist, R.T. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    Manipulation of pressure/volume data helps locate a wax plug in a pipeline, and it may then be possible to clear the line by interception of the plug with a hot tap. Or, in an extreme case, information obtained from the pressure/volume data will allow better assessment of where to replace the pipe. The possibility of a pipeline becoming plugged by paraffin buildup is greatest in winter when cooler temperatures may cause wax to precipitate and plate out on the pipe walls or completely gel in the line. The risk of plugging is also greatest during pigging. This is because passage of the pig may cause a large mass of wax to accumulate by scraping a thin layer of wax from a long length of pipe. This type of plug does not enlarge once the pipeline is stopped up. It has been successfully cleared by tapping the pipeline at a point within the wax blockage and then pumping the plug out in sections.

  6. Perinaphthenone phototransformation in a model of leaf epicuticular waxes.

    PubMed

    Trivella, Aurélien S; Monadjemi, Shirin; Worrall, David R; Kirkpatrick, Iain; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Richard, Claire

    2014-01-05

    Perinaphthenone (1H-phenalen-1-one, PN) is a reference photosensitizer producing singlet oxygen with a quantum yield close to one in a large variety of solvents. It is also the basic structure of a class of phototoxic phytoalexins. In this work, the PN photoreactivity was studied for the first time in a paraffinic wax, used as model of leaf epicuticular waxes. The PN photodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The triplet excited state, singlet oxygen and the hydroxyperinaphthenyl radical were detected by diffuse reflectance laser flash photolysis, near infrared phosphorescence and by EPR spectroscopy, respectively. The PN phototransformation was found to be fivefold faster in the wax than in n-heptane under steady-state irradiation. The hydroxyperinaphthenyl radical formation was observed in aerated irradiated paraffin wax while in n-heptane solution the radical was observed only in the absence of oxygen. These results show that under continuous irradiation, PN is much more easily phototransformed in a solid environment than in solution. Several photoproducts were identified, in particular phenalanone, PN dimers, and oxidized PN-alkanes adducts. Finally, when pyrethrum extract is added into the wax along with PN, the hydroxyperinaphthenyl radical concentration was increased by a factor of 2.4. Such photochemical reactions may occur when systemic pesticides enter the plant cuticle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dogfish egg case structural studies by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Georgaka, Martha E; Chryssikos, Georgios D; Gionis, Vassilis; Megalofonou, Persefoni; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2007-06-01

    The dogfish egg case is a composite structure that combines mechanical tensile strength, toughness and elasticity with high permeability to small molecules and ions. Presumably, it provides both a protective and a filtering role for the egg/embryo contained within it. In this work, we performed structural studies of the Galeus melastomus egg case at two different stages of the hardening process, utilizing ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Based on these data we deduce that: (a) The G. melastomus egg case, in close analogy to that of the related species Scyliorhinus cunicula, is a complex, composite structure which consists mainly of an analogue of collagen IV. This network forming protein appears to have common secondary structural characteristics in the entire egg case. (b) The outermost layer of the non-sclerotized egg case is especially rich in tyrosine, while the innermost layer is rich in polysaccharides, presumably glycosaminoglycans, and lipids. These differences are diminished upon hardening. (c) Disulfide bonds do not appear to play a significant role in cross-linking. However, cross-links involving tyrosine residues appear to sclerotize the egg case. It is proposed that the intensity of the Raman band at ca. 1615 cm(-1), which is due to ring stretching vibrations of Tyr, might be a useful indicator of the sclerotization status of a certain proteinaceous tissue, when tyrosines are involved in sclerotization mechanisms.

  8. Loss of abaxial leaf epicuticular wax in Medicago truncatula irg1/palm1 mutants results in reduced spore differentiation of anthracnose and nonhost rust pathogens.

    PubMed

    Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Doraiswamy, Vanthana; Bedair, Mohamed; Mittal, Shipra; Chen, Jianghua; Nakashima, Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Tadege, Million; Ratet, Pascal; Chen, Rujin; Schultheiss, Holger; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2012-01-01

    To identify genes that confer nonhost resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogens, we did a forward-genetics screen using Medicago truncatula Tnt1 retrotransposon insertion lines. From this screen, we identified an inhibitor of rust germ tube differentation1 (irg1) mutant that failed to promote preinfection structure differentiation of two rust pathogens, Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Puccinia emaculata, and one anthracnose pathogen, Colletotrichum trifolii, on the abaxial leaf surface. Cytological and chemical analyses revealed that the inhibition of rust preinfection structures in irg1 mutants is due to complete loss of the abaxial epicuticular wax crystals and reduced surface hydrophobicity. The composition of waxes on abaxial leaf surface of irg1 mutants had >90% reduction of C30 primary alcohols and a preferential increase of C29 and C31 alkanes compared with the wild type. IRG1 encodes a Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor, PALM1, which also controls dissected leaf morphology in M. truncatula. Transcriptome analysis of irg1/palm1 mutants revealed downregulation of eceriferum4, an enzyme implicated in primary alcohol biosynthesis, and MYB96, a major transcription factor that regulates wax biosynthesis. Our results demonstrate that PALM1 plays a role in regulating epicuticular wax metabolism and transport and that epicuticular wax influences spore differentiation of host and nonhost fungal pathogens.

  9. A Novel Pathway for Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis Is Responsible for the Accumulation of Massive Quantities of Glycerolipids in the Surface Wax of Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) Fruit[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ohlrogge, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) fruits synthesize an extremely thick and unusual layer of crystalline surface wax that accumulates to 32% of fruit dry weight, the highest reported surface lipid accumulation in plants. The composition is also striking, consisting of completely saturated triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and monoacylglycerol with palmitate and myristate acyl chains. To gain insight into the unique properties of Bayberry wax synthesis, we examined the chemical and morphological development of the wax layer, monitored wax biosynthesis through [14C]-radiolabeling, and sequenced the transcriptome. Radiolabeling identified sn-2 monoacylglycerol as an initial glycerolipid intermediate. The kinetics of [14C]-DAG and [14C]-TAG accumulation and the regiospecificity of their [14C]-acyl chains indicated distinct pools of acyl donors and that final TAG assembly occurs outside of cells. The most highly expressed lipid-related genes were associated with production of cutin, whereas transcripts for conventional TAG synthesis were >50-fold less abundant. The biochemical and expression data together indicate that Bayberry surface glycerolipids are synthesized by a pathway for TAG synthesis that is related to cutin biosynthesis. The combination of a unique surface wax and massive accumulation may aid understanding of how plants produce and secrete non-membrane glycerolipids and also how to engineer alternative pathways for lipid production in non-seeds. PMID:26744217

  10. Loss of Abaxial Leaf Epicuticular Wax in Medicago truncatula irg1/palm1 Mutants Results in Reduced Spore Differentiation of Anthracnose and Nonhost Rust Pathogens[W

    PubMed Central

    Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Doraiswamy, Vanthana; Bedair, Mohamed; Mittal, Shipra; Chen, Jianghua; Nakashima, Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Tadege, Million; Ratet, Pascal; Chen, Rujin; Schultheiss, Holger; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2012-01-01

    To identify genes that confer nonhost resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogens, we did a forward-genetics screen using Medicago truncatula Tnt1 retrotransposon insertion lines. From this screen, we identified an inhibitor of rust germ tube differentation1 (irg1) mutant that failed to promote preinfection structure differentiation of two rust pathogens, Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Puccinia emaculata, and one anthracnose pathogen, Colletotrichum trifolii, on the abaxial leaf surface. Cytological and chemical analyses revealed that the inhibition of rust preinfection structures in irg1 mutants is due to complete loss of the abaxial epicuticular wax crystals and reduced surface hydrophobicity. The composition of waxes on abaxial leaf surface of irg1 mutants had >90% reduction of C30 primary alcohols and a preferential increase of C29 and C31 alkanes compared with the wild type. IRG1 encodes a Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor, PALM1, which also controls dissected leaf morphology in M. truncatula. Transcriptome analysis of irg1/palm1 mutants revealed downregulation of eceriferum4, an enzyme implicated in primary alcohol biosynthesis, and MYB96, a major transcription factor that regulates wax biosynthesis. Our results demonstrate that PALM1 plays a role in regulating epicuticular wax metabolism and transport and that epicuticular wax influences spore differentiation of host and nonhost fungal pathogens. PMID:22294617

  11. In vivo chemical and structural analysis of plant cuticular waxes using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, George R; Mansfield, Jessica C; Parker, David; Lind, Rob; Perfect, Sarah; Seymour, Mark; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Love, John; Moger, Julian

    2015-05-01

    The cuticle is a ubiquitous, predominantly waxy layer on the aerial parts of higher plants that fulfils a number of essential physiological roles, including regulating evapotranspiration, light reflection, and heat tolerance, control of development, and providing an essential barrier between the organism and environmental agents such as chemicals or some pathogens. The structure and composition of the cuticle are closely associated but are typically investigated separately using a combination of structural imaging and biochemical analysis of extracted waxes. Recently, techniques that combine stain-free imaging and biochemical analysis, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy microscopy, have been used to investigate the cuticle, but the detection sensitivity is severely limited by the background signals from plant pigments. We present a new method for label-free, in vivo structural and biochemical analysis of plant cuticles based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. As a proof of principle, we used SRS microscopy to analyze the cuticles from a variety of plants at different times in development. We demonstrate that the SRS virtually eliminates the background interference compared with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy imaging and results in label-free, chemically specific confocal images of cuticle architecture with simultaneous characterization of cuticle composition. This innovative use of the SRS spectroscopy may find applications in agrochemical research and development or in studies of wax deposition during leaf development and, as such, represents an important step in the study of higher plant cuticles.

  12. SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the software development practice areas and processes which contribute to the ability of SWiFT software developers to provide quality software. These processes are designed to satisfy the requirements set forth by the Sandia Software Quality Assurance Program (SSQAP). APPROVALS SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan (SAND2016-0765) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Controls Engineer Jonathan Berg (6121) Date CHANGE HISTORY Issue Date Originator(s) Description A 2016/01/27 Jon Berg (06121) Initial release of the SWiFT Software Quality Assurance Plan

  13. Fungal contamination of paraffin wax blocks in a pathology archive.

    PubMed

    Müller, K; Ellenberger, C; Aupperle, H; Schmäschke, R; Scheller, R; Wittenbrink, M M; Schoon, H-A

    2011-01-01

    While searching for paraffin wax blocks for research purposes in our archive we detected numerous larval and some dead adult moths. Some wax blocks were riddled with a white-brown crumbling substance. The entire archive was checked and profoundly-infested blocks were separated from unaffected blocks. Mycological and parasitological investigations were performed. Fungi were identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction, which revealed high sequence homology to six different fungal species. The moths were determined to be Nemapogon personellus. A total of 8,484 wax blocks had to be removed from the archive and destroyed. Pathologists should be alerted to the importance of checking the humidity of the air where archival material is stored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf δ13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific δ13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ɛ29 and ɛ33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and δ13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

  15. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in leaf waxes in the Alaskan Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, William C.; Russell, James M.; Giblin, Anne E.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Klein, Eric S.; Huang, Yongsong

    2017-09-01

    Leaf wax hydrogen isotopes (δDwax) are increasingly utilized in terrestrial paleoclimate research. Applications of this proxy must be grounded by studies of the modern controls on δDwax, including the ecophysiological controls on isotope fractionation at both the plant and landscape scales. Several calibration studies suggest a considerably smaller apparent fractionation between source water and waxes (εapp) at high latitudes relative to temperate or tropical locations, with major implications for paleoclimatic interpretations of sedimentary δDwax. Here we investigate apparent fractionation in the Arctic by tracing the isotopic composition of leaf waxes from production in modern plants to deposition in lake sediments using isotopic observations of precipitation, soil and plant waters, living leaf waxes, and waxes in sediment traps in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska. We also analyze a lake surface sediment transect to compare present-day vegetation assemblages to εapp at the watershed scale. Source water and εapp were determined for live specimens of Eriophorum vaginatum (cottongrass) and Betula nana (dwarf birch), two dominant tundra plants in the Brooks Range foothills. The δD of these plants' xylem water closely tracks that of surface soil water, and reflects a summer-biased precipitation source. Leaf water is enriched by 23 ± 15‰ relative to xylem water for E. vaginatum and by 41 ± 19‰ for B. nana. Evapotranspiration modeling indicates that this leaf water enrichment is consistent with the evaporative enrichment expected under the climate conditions of northern Alaska, and that 24-h photosynthesis does not cause excessive leaf water isotope enrichment. The εapp determined for our study species average -89 ± 14‰ and -106 ± 16‰ for B. nana n-alkanes and n-acids, respectively, and -182 ± 10‰ and -154 ± 26‰ for E. vaginatum n-alkanes and n-acids, which are similar to the εapp of related species in temperate and tropical

  16. The molecular signatures of Taxodiaceae / Cupressaceae / Taxaceae (TCT) leaf waxes in modern and ancient samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, M.; Zinniker, D.; Green Nylen, N.; Moldowan, J. M.; Denisevich, P.

    2005-12-01

    optimized for the synthesis of C34 and C36 fatty acids. The bimodal distribution of n-alkanes (abundant C25 and C27 and abundant C33 and C35) in some Cupressus species indicates that the expression of this VLCFA elongase may be spatially or temporally limited in some taxa. Examples of fossil TCT leaf waxes have been observed in Pleistocene coastal sediments from California and Washington and in Jurassic coals from the Turpan basin in western China. These wax contributions can be identified by their unique n-alkane and diterpenoid signatures and their relationship with macrofossil and/or microfossil remains tied to members of the TCT complex. The carbon isotopic composition of Pleistocene waxes is consistent with a rainforest or marsh adapted TCT taxon (possibly Thuja plicata), while the isotopic composition of the Jurassic waxes is indicative of a highly water stressed taxon. Unique enzymes for very long chain n-alkane biosynthesis in the core group of TCT taxa listed above may have arisen during the early Mesozoic in a desert or salt marsh adapted species in response to extreme temperatures or water stress.

  17. Potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture during tableting.

    PubMed

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S; Adogah, J T

    2009-01-01

    Carnuba wax (as binder) forms hard tablets even at low compression load attributable to its high plasticity. The aim of the present study is to investigate its potential in ameliorating brittle fracture (i.e., lamination and capping) a problem often encountered during tableting. Granules of paracetamol (test drug) were made by triturating the drug powder with the melted wax or starch mucilage (20%w/v). Resulting granules were separated into different size fractions which were separately compressed into tablets with and without a centre hole (as in- built defect) using different compression loads. The tablets were evaluated for tensile strength and the data used to calculate the brittle fracture index (BFI), using the expression: BFI = 0.5(T/T(0)-1) where T0 and T are the tensile strength of tablets with and without a centre hole respectively. The BFI values were significantly lower (p<0.05) in tablets made with carnuba wax compared with tablets made with maize starch as binders. Increase in particle size of the granules or lowering of the compression load further ameliorated the brittle fracture tendency of the tablets. Using granules with the larger particle size (850microm) and applying the lowest unit of load (6 arbitrary unit on the load scale of the tableting machine) the BFI values were 0.03 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.11 (maize starch tablets). When the conditions were reversed (i.e., a highest load, 8 units and the smallest particle size, 212microm) the BFI values now became 0.17 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.26 (maize starch tablets). The indication is that the use of large granules and low compression loads to form tablets can further enhance the potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture tendency of tablets during their manufacture.

  18. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes.

  19. Surfactants and Desensitizing Wax Substitutes for TNT-Based Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Phthalimides with long-chain alkyl groups have been found to be very wax-like. They are made from phthalic anhydride and an alkyl amine. Pure N-octadecyl...Phthalate Half-Esters Phthalic anhydride (5.07 g) and 14.9 grams of Unilin 350 alcohol were charged to a container and heated with stirring for 2 hours at...With The Enthalpy Of ....... 40 Wax Desensitizers 7. DSC Of Ganex WP-660/TNT Mixture ........................ 50 8. DSC Of Solsperse 5000/TNT Mixture

  20. Distribution and variability of n-alkanes in epicuticular waxes of sedum species from the central Balkan Peninsula: chemotaxonomic importance.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, the n-alkane distribution and variability of the epicuticular waxes within 22 Sedum taxa was reported with focus on the chemotaxonomy of native Sedum representatives from the central Balkan Peninsula, compared to their relations with four other species of the Crassulaceae family. By GC/MS and GC-FID identification and quantification, it was established that n-alkanes C27 , C29 , C31 , C33 , and C35 were the dominant constituents of the examined epicuticular wax samples. Applying multivariate statistical analyses including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA), the relation according to the n-alkane composition between the examined samples was established. It was shown that the n-alkane variability of the central Balkan Sedum species was considerable and that n-alkanes might not be very reliable taxonomic markers for these species.

  1. Late Quaternary climate and environmental changes in a permafrost section near Igarka, Northern Siberia based on leaf wax analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Imke; Schweri, Lea; Zech, Jana; Tananaev, Nikita; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf wax biomarkers, such as long chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, and their carbon isotopic composition are a promising tool for reconstructing past climate and environmental changes and gain more and more attention in paleoresearch. Here we present the results of leaf wax analyses from a permafrost outcrop at the left banks of the Yenisei River near the city of Igarka, Northern Russia. Fluvio-glacial sediments are exposed in the lower part of the outcrop and probably date back to ~60 ka. The upper part consist of aeolian sediments deposited since, overprinted by various pedogenetic processes. First results indicate a continuous contribution of deciduous trees to the vegetation during the last glacial. Compound specific deuterium and radiocarbon analyses are in progress in order to investigate changes in paleoclimate and to establish a robust chronology.

  2. Leaf physiological processes strongly affect δH2 values of leaf wax n-alkanes in C3 and C4 grasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamarra, Bruno; Sachse, Dirk; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2013-04-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes are naturally synthesized saturated hydrocarbons. They are synthesized as part of plant leaf cuticle as a mechanism to prevent water losses. Two of the most important features of n-alkanes are their enormous environmental persistence and terrestrial ubiquity making them a solid and reliable long-term and large-scale biomarker. Their hydrogen isotopic composition (δH2) of leaf wax n-alkanes has been traditionally related to precipitation. Leaf wax n-alkanes and their δH2 values have thus been celebrated as biomarkers to reconstruct hydrological changes. δH2 values of leaf wax n-alkanes are yet to be fully comprehended. They are basically determined by three mechanisms: (1) The δH2 value of the plant source water (2) leaf water evaporative enrichment in H2 and (3) biosynthetic fractionation and depletion in H2during their biosynthesis from leaf water. Out of these three, the exact degree by which the evaporative H2-enrichment of leaf water influences the δH2 values of leaf wax n-alkanes is still unknown. We conducted an experiment where we tested and quantified the effects of leaf water evaporative H2-enrichment on the leaf wax n-alkane δH2 values of different grass species. We grew 12 C3 and C4 grass species under controlled environmental conditions in growth chambers. The plants were exposed to 3 different levels of air relative humidity (45, 65 and 85%). These treatments were to generate different degrees of leaf water H2-enrichment in the plants. The goal of our experiment was to determine by what degree the different levels of leaf water H2-enrichment influence the δH2 values of the different C3 and C4 grass species. Additional measurements of gas exchange, evapotranspiration and leaf length and area accompanied the isotopic analysis in order to explain species variability. Our experiments showed that leaf water evaporative H2-enrichment has a critical impact on leaf wax n-alkane δH2 values of all studied plants. The magnitude was

  3. Clinically based diagnostic wax-up for optimal esthetics: the diagnostic mock-up.

    PubMed

    Simon, Harel; Magne, Pascal

    2008-05-01

    A diagnostic wax-up can enhance the predictability of treatment by modeling the desired result in wax prior to treatment. It is critical to correlate the wax-up to the patient to avoid a result that appears optimal on the casts but does not correspond to the patient's smile. This article reviews the applications and techniques for clinically based diagnostic wax-up, and focuses on the diagnostic mock-up philosophy as a means to obtain predictable esthetics and function.

  4. Structural-mechanical model of wax crystal networks—a mesoscale cellular solid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2014-04-01

    Mineral waxes are widely used materials in industrial applications; however, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties is poorly understood. In this work, mineral wax-oil networks were characterized as closed-cell cellular solids, and differences in their mechanical response predicted from structural data. The systems studied included straight-chain paraffin wax (SW)-oil mixtures and polyethylene wax (PW)-oil mixtures. Analysis of cryogenic-SEM images of wax-oil networks allowed for the determination of the length (l) and thickness (t) of the wax cell walls as a function of wax mass fraction (Φ). A linear relationship between t/l and Φ (t/l ˜ Φ 0.89) suggested that wax-oil networks were cellular solids of the closed-cell type. However, the scaling behavior of the elastic modulus with the volume fraction of solids did not agree with theoretical predictions, yielding the same scaling exponent, μ = 0.84, for both waxes. This scaling exponent obtained from mechanical measurements could be predicted from the scaling behavior of the effective wax cell size as a function of wax mass fraction in oil obtained by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy studies allowed us to propose that wax-oil networks are structured as an ensemble of close-packed spherical cells filled with oil, and that it is the links between cells that yield under simple uniaxial compression. Thus, the Young’s moduli for the links between cells in SW and PW wax systems could be estimated as E L (SW) = 2.76 × 109 Pa and E L (PW) = 1.64 × 109 Pa, respectively. The structural parameter responsible for the observed differences in the mechanical strength between the two wax-oil systems is the size of the cells. Polyethylene wax has much smaller cell sizes than the straight chain wax and thus displays a higher Young’s modulus and yield stress.

  5. A modified technique for fabricating a mirror image wax pattern for an auricular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Gajdhar, Shaiq; Gajdhar, Sajda Khan; Salakalakonda, Srikanth Reddy; Vasthare, Abubakkar

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a technique for fabricating a wax pattern for an auricular prosthesis by tracing the shape of a sliced cast of the contralateral ear at an interval of 1-mm and transferring the shape of each 1-mm slice to a similar dimension modeling wax sheet. In this way, slices of modeling wax are obtained, which can be reversed and placed over the previous slice to produce a mirror image wax pattern of the contralateral ear.

  6. Preparation of a novel infrared low-emissive coating from the Cu powder modified by the polyethylene wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guangwen; Yu, Demei

    2012-01-01

    Cu powder was coated with polyethylene wax via the flux-capping method in hope to avoid the oxidation of it, so the increment of the infrared emissivity of the coating can be greatly reduced. The prepared product was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The infrared emissivity of the prepared material was measured by Infrared Emissometer. The influence parameters that will affect the emissivity of the coating were systematically investigated, such as the content of coated Cu powder, coating fineness, coating thickness and aging process. The results indicated that the infrared emissivity value of the coating was reduced after Cu powder was coated with polyethylene wax. The polyethylene wax/Cu composites presented a homogenous sheet structure when the content of Cu powder increased to 30 wt.%, and it has a lower emissivity. The infrared emissivity of the coating increases rapidly as thickness increases and becomes steady above thickness of 70 μm. The composite coating exhibits lower emissivity value and excellent physical properties at coated Cu content of 20 wt.%. The emissivity of the coating that was prepared from the modification of the Cu powder was decreased with the decrement of the grinding fineness and increased with the aging time. The emissivity of the coating that was prepared from the modification of the Cu powder is always lower than that of the coating that only composed of the Cu powder with the increment of the aging time. Therefore, it can be concluded that the anti-oxidation of Cu powder is greatly improved after it was modified by polyethylene wax, which results in a novel coating with long-run low emissivity.

  7. Impact of sweet sorghum cuticular waxes (SSCW) on acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum ABE1201.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Chang, Zhen; Wang, Chengyu; Ren, Wenqiang; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-12-01

    The effect of cuticular waxes of sweet sorghum stem on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process was investigated. About 22.9% of butanol and 25.4% of ABE were decreased with fermentation period extended when SSCW was added. The inhibition of SSCW militate against both acidogenesis and solventogenesis phase, which were inconsistent with the inhibition of lignocellulose hydrolysate. Further studies on the composition of SSCW were performed. Regulations of inhibition with different carbon chain length of main compositions of SSCW on ABE fermentation were also investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  9. Variation for epicuticular waxes on onion foliage and impacts on numbers of onion thrips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural variation exists in onion for amounts of epicuticular waxes on foliage, and plants with lower amounts of these waxes suffer less damage from the insect pest Thrips tabaci (thrips). Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of epicuticular waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessi...

  10. Influence of Conventional and Digital Wax-ups on Axial Tooth Contour.

    PubMed

    Abduo, Jaafar; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of conventional and digital diagnostic wax-up on the axial tooth contour. Dental models of 15 patients were collected. Each model received conventional wax-up and digital wax-up. The conventional wax-up was based on tooth modification with dental wax on actual models. The digital wax-up involved fitting an average tooth form on virtual pretreatment models. Each wax-up model was digitally superimposed on the corresponding pretreatment model. For each modified tooth, analysis planes were extracted at three locations: mesial line angle, midtooth, and distal line angle. The impact of the following variables was evaluated: interarch location (maxilla vs mandible), intra-arch location (anterior vs posterior), tooth category (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars), and tooth location (midtooth vs line angle). The axial contour of the modified teeth increased after each wax-up, and this increase was directly proportional to the distance from the gingival margin. There is a clear tendency for the digital wax-up to cause a greater contour increase than the conventional wax-up. The anterior teeth were associated with a greater tooth contour increase than posterior teeth and the contour of the molars was the least affected. Although the conventional wax-up contour alteration was significantly less than for the digital wax-up, the actual difference was minimal.

  11. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  12. Integrating Science in Your Classroom: Wax On, Wane Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2006-01-01

    The changing figures of the waxing and waning moon are among the most conspicuous of celestial phenomena and were some of the first to be understood. This paper describes a classroom activity designed to teach children about the phases of the moon.

  13. Interior. Apparatus on table by door used for metalplating wax ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Apparatus on table by door used for metal-plating wax discs in order to make a steel master for use in mass production of phonograph records. Process used primarily from 1915 to 1928. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  14. Variation for epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and thrips-vectored Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV) routinely cause significant losses to the bulb and seed crops of onion. Both pests have become more problematic as global temperatures rise. Natural variation exists in onion for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class I...

  16. Uncovered secret of a Vasseur-Tramond wax model.

    PubMed

    Pastor, J F; Gutiérrez, B; Montes, J M; Ballestriero, R

    2016-01-01

    The technique of anatomical wax modelling reached its heyday in Italy during the 18th century, through a fruitful collaboration between sculptors and anatomists. It soon spread to other countries, and prestigious schools were created in England, France, Spain and Austria. Paris subsequently replaced Italy as the major centre of manufacture, and anatomical waxes were created there from the mid-19th century in workshops such as that of Vasseur-Tramond. This workshop began to sell waxes to European Faculties of Medicine and Schools of Surgery around 1880. Little is known of the technique employed in the creation of such artefacts as this was deemed a professional secret. To gain some insight into the methods of construction, we have studied a Vasseur-Tramond wax model in the Valladolid University Anatomy Museum, Spain, by means of multi-slice computerised tomography and X-ray analysis by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the hair. These results have revealed some of the methods used to make these anatomical models and the materials employed.

  17. Analysis strategies for calculating intake for cattle with plant waxes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Within grazing systems determining differences in efficiencies is difficult due to the complexity of measuring forage intakes. Plant waxes, particularly n-alkanes, have shown potential for estimating intakes. However, extracting and analyzing these compounds is costly. Minimizing the number of sampl...

  18. Integrating Science in Your Classroom: Wax On, Wane Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2006-01-01

    The changing figures of the waxing and waning moon are among the most conspicuous of celestial phenomena and were some of the first to be understood. This paper describes a classroom activity designed to teach children about the phases of the moon.

  19. Isolation and analysis of wax esters from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Lien-Huong; Do, Quy-Diem; Kasim, Novy Srihartati; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2011-10-01

    Neutral lipid from activated sludge (AS) as a potential source for biodiesel production has recently received considerable attentions. The utilization of useful compounds in AS may help reducing the cost of biodiesel production from AS. One of these compounds is the valuable wax esters (WEs) found in AS from a food processing company in Taiwan. About 4.13% (based on dry sludge weight) bleached wax was obtained after pretreatment and bleaching of crude sludge wax obtained from the dewaxing of crude sludge oil. The major WEs detected in the bleached wax were C46-C60 with small amounts of C37-C43 and C62 WEs. The fatty acids (FAs) and fatty alcohols (FALs) profiles of WEs were also investigated. Activated sludge WEs are mainly mixture of C14-C28 FAs and C24-C37 FALs, in which the predominant FAs are C16 and C18 while the predominant FALs are C32 and C34. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    PubMed

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  5. Environmental controls on the 2H/1H values of terrestrial leaf waxes in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Ampel, Linda; Sauer, Peter E.; Fornace, Kyrstin

    2013-10-01

    The hydrogen isotope composition of plant waxes preserved in lacustrine sediments is a potentially valuable tool for reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes in the Arctic. However, in contrast to the mid- and low-latitudes, significantly less effort has been directed towards understanding the factors controlling D/H fractionation in high latitude plant waxes and the impact of these processes on the interpretation of sedimentary leaf wax δD records. To better understand these processes, we examined the D/H ratios of long chain fatty acids in lake surface sediments spanning a temperature and precipitation gradient on Baffin Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. D/H ratios of plant waxes increase with increasing temperature and aridity, with values ranging from -240‰ to -160‰ over the study area. Apparent fractionation factors between n-alkanoic acids in Arctic lake sediments and precipitation(εFA-ppt) are less negative than those of mid-latitude lakes and modern plants by 25‰ to 65‰, consistent with n-alkane data from modern Arctic plants (Yang et al., 2011). Furthermore, εFA-ppt values from Arctic lakes become systematically more positive with increasing evaporation, in contrast to mid-latitude sites, which show little to no change in fractionation with aridity. These data are consistent with enhanced water loss and isotope fractionation at higher latitude in the Arctic summer, when continuous sunlight supports increased daily photosynthesis. The dominant control on δDFA variations on Baffin Island is temperature. However, changing εFA-ppt result in steeper δDFA-temperature relationships than observed for modern precipitation. The application of this δDFA-based paleotemperature calibration to existing δDFA records from Baffin Island produces much more realistic changes in late Holocene temperature and highlights the importance of these effects in influencing the interpretation of Arctic δDFA records. A better understanding of the controls on

  6. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Quarterly report, June 1, 1993--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1993-12-01

    During the last quarter isomerization and hydrocracking of n-hexadecane were carried out in a continuous flow fixed bed reactor described in a previous report. Test runs showed that the temperature and pressure in this reactor can be controlled to within {+-} 1 C and {+-} 2 psig, respectively. The reaction conditions were 160 C and 350 psig constant hydrogen pressure. Interestingly, product distribution from isomerization and hydrocracking of n-hexadecane conducted in this reactor is similar to that obtained from the microreactor experiments. The long-term stability of the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst was studied using this fixed bed reactor with n-hexadecane as a feedstock. Evidence was obtained that, in the presence of H{sub 2}, the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst maintains its activity for as long as 96 hours with no evidence of deactivation. The effect of addition of transition metals on the activity of ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} was compared. Pt and Pd greatly enhanced the hydrotreating activity of ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}. The activities of Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}, Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/MoO{sub 4} and Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/WO{sub 4} catalysts were also compared; it was found that the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst gave highest activity in isomerization and hydrocracking of long-chain paraffins. The authors also found that, even at high severity conditions, i.e., 300 C/600 psig and 250 C/1,200 psig, the Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst is active.

  7. Epicuticular Wax in Developing Olives (Olea europaea) Is Highly Dependent upon Cultivar and Fruit Ripeness.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Barrios, Gonçal; Mateu, Jordi; Ninot, Antonia; Romero, Agustí

    2016-08-03

    The epicuticular wax (EW) layer is located on the surface of most plant organs. It provides the cuticle with most of its properties and is the primary barrier against biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the importance of Olea europaea cultivation, few studies have characterized the EW covering leaves and olives, which could be involved in resistance to both infection and environmental conditions. In the present study, wide-ranging screening was carried out using direct-injection electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to analyze EW in developing olives of nine varieties. The proportions of EW fractions [wax esters (WEs), diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols (TAGs), triterpenic acids, and aldehydes] strongly depended upon the olive cultivar and, in only a few cases, were influenced by the sampling date. The specific compositions of the major fractions, WEs and TAGs, were strictly related to the cultivar, while the degree of unsaturation and chain length of the WEs evolved throughout the 4 weeks prior to the olive turning color.

  8. Leaf waxes, compound-specific D/H and 14C analyses in the Loess Paleosol Sequence Möhlin, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wüthrich, Lorenz; Bliedtner, Marcel; Kathrin Schäfer, Imke; Zech, Jana; Gaar, Dorian; Preusser, Frank; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf waxes, such as long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, and their D/H isotopic composition, are increasingly used for paleoenvironmental and -climate reconstructions. Recent technological innovations now also allow to perform radiocarbon analyses on leaf waxes. For this study, we analyzed leaf waxes and their δD and 14C composition in the 7 m Loess Paleosol Sequence Möhlin, Switzerland. The chain length patterns in the upper part of the profile indicate n-alkane contribution from deciduous trees, while the underlying loess is dominated by inputs from grasses and herbs. Our δD record does not show depleted, glacial values compared to the Holocene, as we had expected in analogy to the Greenland ice core records. Values are most enriched at 1 m depth, i.e. well below the topsoil. Further research is needed to disentangle source effects and evapotranspirative enrichment, before the δD record can be interpreted robustly. Our radiocarbon ages for the leaf waxes are in very good agreement with independent age control based on luminescence ages, corroborating that massive loess accumulation occurred already at 35 ka. Only the uppermost 3 m were deposited during the last glacial maximum.

  9. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Joshua P.; Kim, Hyejin; No, Kyoungok; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steven; Drnevich, Jenny; Wickett, Norman; Vandervelde, Lindsay; Ellis, Jeffrey D.; Rice, Brandon; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Brunner, Amy M.; Page, Grier P.; Carlson, John E.; DePamphilis, Claude; Luthe, Dawn S.; Yuceer, Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

  10. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  11. Adhesion enhancement of cribellate capture threads by epicuticular waxes of the insect prey sheds new light on spider web evolution.

    PubMed

    Bott, Raya A; Baumgartner, Werner; Bräunig, Peter; Menzel, Florian; Joel, Anna-Christin

    2017-05-31

    To survive, web-building spiders rely on their capture threads to restrain prey. Many species use special adhesives for this task, and again the majority of those species cover their threads with viscoelastic glue droplets. Cribellate spiders, by contrast, use a wool of nanofibres as adhesive. Previous studies hypothesized that prey is restrained by van der Waals' forces and entrapment in the nanofibres. A large discrepancy when comparing the adhesive force on artificial surfaces versus prey implied that the real mechanism was still elusive. We observed that insect prey's epicuticular waxes infiltrate the wool of nanofibres, probably induced by capillary forces. The fibre-reinforced composite thus formed led to an adhesion between prey and thread eight times stronger than that between thread and wax-free surfaces. Thus, cribellate spiders employ the originally protective coating of their insect prey as a fatal component of their adhesive and the insect promotes its own capture. We suggest an evolutionary arms race with prey changing the properties of their cuticular waxes to escape the cribellate capture threads that eventually favoured spider threads with viscous glue. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Cascade synthesis of a gold nanoparticle–network polymer composite

    DOE PAGES

    Grubjesic, Simonida; Ringstrand, Bryan Scott; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; ...

    2015-11-02

    In this paper, the multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical initiated polymerization and crosslinking of the acrylate endderivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 to yield a network polymer. Optical spectroscopy and TEM monitored the reduction of [AuCl4]-, formation of large aggregated Au NPs andmore » oxidative etching into a final state of dispersed, spherical Au NPs. ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirms acrylate crosslinking to yield the polymer network. X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) monitored the evolution of the multilamellar structured mesophase and revealed the presence of semi-crystalline PEO confined within the water layers. The hydrogel could be reversibly swollen without loss of the well-entrained Au NPs with full recovery of composite structure. Finally, optical spectroscopy shows a notable red shift (Δλ~ 45 nm) in the surface plasmon resonance between swollen and contracted states, demonstrating solvent-mediated modulation of the internal NP packing arrangement.« less

  13. Cascade synthesis of a gold nanoparticle-network polymer composite

    DOE PAGES

    Grubjesic, Simonida; Ringstrand, Bryan Scott; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; ...

    2015-11-02

    In this paper, the multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical initiated polymerization and crosslinking of the acrylate endderivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 to yield a network polymer. Optical spectroscopy and TEM monitored the reduction of [AuCl4]-, formation of large aggregated Au NPs andmore » oxidative etching into a final state of dispersed, spherical Au NPs. ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirms acrylate crosslinking to yield the polymer network. X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) monitored the evolution of the multilamellar structured mesophase and revealed the presence of semi-crystalline PEO confined within the water layers. The hydrogel could be reversibly swollen without loss of the well-entrained Au NPs with full recovery of composite structure. Finally, optical spectroscopy shows a notable red shift (Δλ~ 45 nm) in the surface plasmon resonance between swollen and contracted states, demonstrating solvent-mediated modulation of the internal NP packing arrangement.« less

  14. FT-IR spectroscopy of lipoproteins—A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Balarin, Maja; Kosović, Marin; Gamulin, Ozren; Brnjas-Kraljević, Jasminka

    2009-08-01

    FT-IR spectra, in the frequency region 4000-600 cm -1, of four major lipoprotein classes: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and two subclasses of high density lipoproteins (HDL 2 and HDL 3) were analyzed to obtain their detailed spectral characterization. Information about the protein domain of particle was obtained from the analysis of amide I band. The procedure of decomposition and curve fitting of this band confirms the data already known about the secondary structure of two different apolipoproteins: apo A-I in HDL 2 and HDL 3 and apo B-100 in LDL and VLDL. For information about the lipid composition and packing of the particular lipoprotein the well expressed lipid bands in the spectra were analyzed. Characterization of spectral details in the FT-IR spectrum of natural lipoprotein is necessary to study the influence of external compounds on its structure.

  15. Wax and suberin development of native and wound periderm of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its relation to peridermal transpiration.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus; Hartmann, Klaus

    2005-02-01

    Native and wound periderm was isolated enzymatically from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers at different time intervals between 0 days up to 4 weeks after harvesting. Wound periderm formation was induced by carefully removing native periderm from freshly harvested tubers before storage. The chemical composition of lipids (waxes) obtained by chloroform extraction, as well as the monomeric composition of native and wound suberin polymer after transesterification by boron trifluoride/methanol, was analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Both types of periderm contained up to 20% extractable lipids. Besides linear long-chain aliphatic wax compounds, alkyl ferulates were detected as significant constituents. In wound periderm they amounted to more than 60% of the total extracts. Within 1 month of storage, suberin amounts in the polymer increased 2-fold in native periderm (180 microg cm(-2)), whereas in wound periderm about 75.0 microg cm(-2) suberin polymer was newly synthesized. Native potato tuber periderm developed a very efficient transport barrier for water with permeances decreasing from 6.4 x 10(-10) m s(-1) to 5.5 x 10(-11) m s(-1) within 1 month of storage. However, the water permeability of wound periderm was on average 100 times higher with permeances decreasing from 4.7 x 10(-8) m s(-1) after 3 days to only 5.4 x 10(-9) m s(-1) after 1 month of storage, although suberin and wax amounts in wound periderm amounted to about 60% of native periderm. From this result it must be concluded that the occurrence of suberin with wax depositions in cell walls does not necessarily allow us to conclude that these cell walls must be nearly perfect barriers to water transport. In addition to the occurrence of the lipophilic biopolymer suberin and associated waxes, the still unknown molecular arrangement and precisely localized deposition of suberin within the cell wall must contribute to the efficiency of suberin as a barrier to water

  16. Wax Ester Analysis of Bats Suffering from White Nose Syndrome in Europe.

    PubMed

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Viden, Ivan; Nováková, Alena; Bandouchová, Hana; Sigler, Karel

    2015-07-01

    The composition of wax esters (WE) in the fur of adult greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis), either healthy or suffering from white nose syndrome (WNS) caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, was investigated by high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis in the positive ion mode. Profiling of lipid classes showed that WE are the most abundant lipid class, followed by cholesterol esters, and other lipid classes, e.g., triacylglycerols and phospholipids. WE abundance in non-polar lipids was gender-related, being higher in males than in females; in individuals suffering from WNS, both male and female, it was higher than in healthy counterparts. WE were dominated by species containing 18:1 fatty acids. Fatty alcohols were fully saturated, dominated by species containing 24, 25, or 26 carbon atoms. Two WE species, 18:1/18:0 and 18:1/20:0, were more abundant in healthy bats than in infected ones.

  17. Solids concentration measurements in molten wax by an ultrasonic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Blackwell, A.G.; Schehl, R.R.; Zarochak, M.F.

    1994-12-31

    The application of the three-phase slurry reactor system to coal liquefaction processing and chemical industries has recently received considerable attention. To design and efficiently operate a three-phase slurry reactor, the degree of dispersion of the solid (catalyst) in the reactor should be understood. The solids distribution within the reactor greatly affects its performance. An ultrasonic technique is under development for measuring solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 189 C. The data show that the velocity and attenuation of the sound are well-defined functions of the solid and gas concentrations in the molten wax.

  18. Heat transfer enhancement in a paraffin wax thermal storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Eftekhar, J.; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Lou, Y.S.

    1984-08-01

    Heat transfer enhancement in a thermal storage system consisting of vertically arranged fins between a heated and cooled horizontal finned-tube arrangement is reported. The high thermal expansion coefficient and low viscosity of paraffin wax, at temperatures above 50/sup 0/C, are utilized to induce natural convection in the liquid phase even at small thicknesses. The experimental data on the rate of production of liquid as a function of time and temperature of the hot surface is presented. The photographs of the melted zone indicate a naturally buoyant flow induced in the neighborhood of the vertical fins causes a rapid melting of the solid wax and a downdraft along the cooler solid phase surface. The heat transfer coefficient at the interface is calculated from experimentally determined instantaneous locations of the moving boundary.

  19. In situ nitrogen generation removes wax from flowlines

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, C.N.

    1996-07-01

    Formation of paraffin (wax) in cold deepwater flowlines is a major problem for offshore operators of such facilities. Petrobras faces this problem continuously in its deepwater operations in the Campos basin, offshore Brazil. Since 1990, through its Petrobras Research Center (CENPES), the company has developed, extensively field tested, and recently commercialized, a novel technique for chemically removing such wax depositions. The process involves mixing and introducing to the line, two inorganic salts and organic solvents. The ensuing chemical reaction--which both generates nitrogen and heats the inside of the blocked flowline--allows the solvent to dissolve and dislodge the buildup, which is then flushed from the line. The process is called the Nitrogen Generation System (SGN). Petrobras/CENPES has recently formed a joint venture with the Brazilian service company Maritima Navegacao e Engenharia Ltda. to offer SGN services worldwide.

  20. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorb, Elena V.; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2017-04-01

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion.

  1. Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Elena V.; Purtov, Julia; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The wax coverage of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers consists of two clearly distinguishable layers, designated the upper and lower wax layers. Since these layers were reported to reduce insect attachment, they were considered to have anti-adhesive properties. However, no reliable adhesion tests have been performed with these wax layers. In this study, pull-off force measurements were carried out on both wax layers of the N. alata pitcher and on two reference polymer surfaces using deformable polydimethylsiloxane half-spheres as probes. To explain the results obtained, roughness measurements were performed on test surfaces. Micro-morphology of both surface samples and probes tested was examined before and after experiments. Pull-off forces measured on the upper wax layer were the lowest among surfaces tested. Here, contamination of probes by wax crystals detached from the pitcher surface was found. This suggests that low insect attachment on the upper wax layer is caused primarily by the breaking off of wax crystals from the upper wax layer, which acts as a separation layer between the insect pad and the pitcher surface. High adhesion forces obtained on the lower wax layer are explained by the high deformability of probes and the particular roughness of the substrate. PMID:24889352

  2. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Elena V.; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2017-01-01

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion. PMID:28367985

  3. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Elena V; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2017-04-03

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion.

  4. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjana, A. R. Mahesh, S. S. Divakara, S. Somashekar, R.

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  5. Determination of serotonin released from coffee wax by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kele, M; Ohmacht, R

    1996-04-12

    A simple hydrolysis and extraction method was developed for the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) from a coffee wax sample obtained from decaffeination of coffee beans. The recoverable amount of serotonin was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with gradient elution and UV detection, using the standard addition method. Different type of basic deactivated chromatographic columns were used for the separation.

  6. Leaf epicuticular waxes as proxies for paleoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Imke; Zech, Jana; Lanny, Verena; Eglinton, Timothy; Zech, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Long-chain n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids are essential constituents of leaf waxes and can be used for the reconstruction of the paleovegetation and paleoclimate (e.g. Zech et al. 2013a). However, more research is needed to assess the full potential of these leaf wax biomarkers. Here we present results from a study on a transect from Southern Germany to Sweden. Our resuts show that litter and soils under deciduous trees have a dominance of the C27 n-alkane and the C28 n-carboxylic acid. Conifers are characterized by the dominance of the C29 n-alkane and the C22 and C24 n-carboxylic acids. C31 and C33 n-alkanes and C32 and C34 n-carboxylic acids can be attributed to grasses and herbs. Degradation of both compound classes in paleosols and sediments should be taken into consideration (e.g. Zech et al. 2013b), but the impact of degradation is not yet fully understood. We are now running compound-specific stable isotope analyses on all transect samples to evaluate the potential of the deuterium/hydrogen ratios in leaf waxes as proxy for the hydrological conditions. In addition, we aim at presenting first results of leaf wax biomarker analyses for a last-glacial loess-paleosol sequence from Spain. References Zech M., Krause T., Meszner M. & Faust D. 2013b: Incorrect when uncorrected: Reconstructing vegetation history using n-alkane biomarkers in loess-paleosol sequences: A case study from the Saxonian loess region, Germany. Quaternary International, 296, 108-116. Zech, R., Zech, M., Marković, S., Hambach, U. & Huang Y. 2013a: Humid glacials, arid interglacials? Critical thoughts on pedogenesis and paleoclimate based on multi-proxy analyses of the loess-paleosol sequence Crvenka, Northern Serbia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 387, 165-175.

  7. Visualization of micromorphology of leaf epicuticular waxes of the rubber tree Ficus elastica by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo

    2008-10-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of leaf epicuticular waxes were investigated in Ficus elastica by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Glossy leaves of the rubber tree were collected and subjected to different regimes of specimen preparation for surface observations. F. elastica leaves were hypostomatic and stomata were surrounded with a cuticular thickening that formed a rim. The most prominent epicuticular wax structures of F. elastica leaves included granules and platelets. Without fixation and metal coating, epicuticular wax structures could be discerned on the leaf surface by low-vacuum (ca. 7 Pa) scanning electron microscopy. In terms of delineation and retention of the structures, the combination of vapor fixation by glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide with subsequent gold coating provided the most satisfactory results, as evidenced by high resolution and sharp protrusions of epicuticular waxes. However, erosion of epicuticular wax edges was noted in the immersion fixed leaves, showing less elongated platelets, less distinct wax edges, and granule cracking. These results suggest that the vapor fixation procedure for demonstrating three-dimensional epicuticular wax structures would facilitate characterization of diverse types of waxes. Instances were noted where epicuticular waxes grew over neighboring epidermal ridges and occluded stomata. In cross sections, epicuticular waxes were observed above the cuticle proper and ranged approximately from 100 nm to 500 nm in thickness. The native leaf epicuticular waxes had many layers of different electron density that were oriented parallel to each other and parallel or perpendicular to the cuticle surface, implying strata of crystal growth. Such retention of native epicuticular wax structures could be achieved through the use of acrylic resin treated with less harsh dehydrants and mild heat polymerization, alleviating wax extraction during specimen preparations.

  8. Insect attachment on crystalline bioinspired wax surfaces formed by alkanes of varying chain lengths

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Sandro; Jacky, Nadine; Maier, Louis-Philippe; Dening, Kirstin; Pechook, Sasha; Pokroy, Boaz; Gorb, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Summary The impeding effect of plant surfaces covered with three-dimensional wax on attachment and locomotion of insects has been shown previously in numerous experimental studies. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different parameters of crystalline wax coverage on insect attachment. We performed traction experiments with the beetle Coccinella septempunctata and pull-off force measurements with artificial adhesive systems (tacky polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres) on bioinspired wax surfaces formed by four alkanes of varying chain lengths (C36H74, C40H82, C44H90, and C50H102). All these highly hydrophobic coatings were composed of crystals having similar morphologies but differing in size and distribution/density, and exhibited different surface roughness. The crystal size (length and thickness) decreased with an increase of the chain length of the alkanes that formed these surfaces, whereas the density of the wax coverage, as well as the surface roughness, showed an opposite relationship. Traction tests demonstrated a significant, up to 30 fold, reduction of insect attachment forces on the wax surfaces when compared with the reference glass sample. Attachment of the beetles to the wax substrates probably relied solely on the performance of adhesive pads. We found no influence of the wax coatings on the subsequent attachment ability of beetles. The obtained data are explained by the reduction of the real contact between the setal tips of the insect adhesive pads and the wax surfaces due to the micro- and nanoscopic roughness introduced by wax crystals. Experiments with polydimethylsiloxane semi-spheres showed much higher forces on wax samples when compared to insect attachment forces measured on these surfaces. We explain these results by the differences in material properties between polydimethylsiloxane probes and tenent setae of C. septempunctata beetles. Among wax surfaces, force experiments showed stronger insect attachment and higher pull

  9. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Babaahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (G″/G' (ω) ≤ 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G'LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG'=G″) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes.

  10. Soil water stress affects both cuticular wax content and cuticle-related gene expression in young saplings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait).

    PubMed

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Domergue, Frédéric; Lalanne, Céline; Ramos Campos, Patricio; Grosbois, Antoine; Bert, Didier; Meredieu, Céline; Danjon, Frédéric; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2013-07-01

    The cuticle is a hydrophobic barrier located at the aerial surface of all terrestrial plants. Recent studies performed on model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have suggested that the cuticle may be involved in drought stress adaptation, preventing non-stomatal water loss. Although forest trees will face more intense drought stresses (in duration and intensity) with global warming, very few studies on the role of the cuticle in drought stress adaptation in these long-lived organisms have been so far reported. This aspect was investigated in a conifer, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), in a factorial design with two genetic units (two half-sib families with different growth rates) and two treatments (irrigated vs non-irrigated), in field conditions. Saplings were grown in an open-sided greenhouse and half were irrigated three times per week for two growing seasons. Needles were sampled three times per year for cuticular wax (composition and content) and transcriptome (of 11 genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis) analysis. Non-irrigated saplings (i) had a higher cuticular wax content than irrigated saplings and (ii) overexpressed most of the genes studied. Both these trends were more marked in the faster growing family. The higher cuticular wax content observed in the non-irrigated treatment associated with strong modifications in products from the decarbonylation pathway suggest that cuticular wax may be involved in drought stress adaptation in maritime pine. This study provides also a set of promising candidate genes for future forward genetic studies in conifers.

  11. Silencing of StKCS6 in potato periderm leads to reduced chain lengths of suberin and wax compounds and increased peridermal transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Olga; Soler, Marçal; Hohn, Carolin; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Prat, Salomé; Molinas, Marisa; Figueras, Mercè

    2009-01-01

    Very long chain aliphatic compounds occur in the suberin polymer and associated wax. Up to now only few genes involved in suberin biosynthesis have been identified. This is a report on the isolation of a potato (Solanum tuberosum) 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) gene and the study of its molecular and physiological relevance by means of a reverse genetic approach. This gene, called StKCS6, was stably silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) in potato. Analysis of the chemical composition of silenced potato tuber periderms indicated that StKCS6 down-regulation has a significant and fairly specific effect on the chain length distribution of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and derivatives, occurring in the suberin polymer and peridermal wax. All compounds with chain lengths of C28 and higher were significantly reduced in silenced periderms, whereas compounds with chain lengths of C26 and lower accumulated. Thus, StKCS6 is preferentially involved in the formation of suberin and wax lipidic monomers with chain lengths of C28 and higher. As a result, peridermal transpiration of the silenced lines was about 1.5-times higher than that of the wild type. Our results convincingly show that StKCS6 is involved in both suberin and wax biosynthesis and that a reduction of the monomeric carbon chain lengths leads to increased rates of peridermal transpiration. PMID:19112170

  12. Seasonal variation of leaf wax n-alkane production and δ(2)H values from the evergreen oak tree, Quercus agrifolia.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Dirk; Dawson, Todd E; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the timing of leaf wax synthesis in higher plants, we analysed the variability in leaf wax n-alkane concentration, composition (expressed as average chain length (ACL)), and δ(2)Hwax values as well as plant source water δ(2)H values (xylem and leaf water) in the evergreen tree Quercus agrifolia over a period of 9 months, beginning with leaf flush. We identified three distinct periods of leaf development with the first month following leaf flush being characterized by de novo synthesis and possibly removal of n-alkanes. During the following 3 months, n-alkane concentrations increased sevenfold and δ(2)Hwax and ACL values increased, suggesting this period was the major leaf wax n-alkane formation period. During the remaining 4 months of the experiment, stable values suggest cessation of leaf wax n-alkane formation. We find that n-alkane synthesis in Q. agrifolia takes place over 4 months, substantially longer than that observed for deciduous trees.

  13. The Effect of Water or Wax-based Binders on the Chemical and Morphological Characteristics of the Margin Ceramic-Framework Interface.

    PubMed

    Güler, Umut; de Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Canay, Senay; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of binder choice in mixing ceramic powder on the chemical and morphological features between the margin ceramic-framework interfaces. Titanium and zirconia frameworks (15 x 5 x 0.5 mm3) were veneered with margin ceramics prepared with two different binders, namely a) water/conventional or b) wax-based. For each zirconia framework material, four different margin ceramics were used: a- Creation Zi (Creation Willi Geller International); b- GC Initial Zr (GC America); Triceram (Dentaurum); and d- IPS emax (voclar Vivadent). For the titanium framework, three different margin ceramics were used: a- Creation Ti (Creation Willi Geller International); b- Triceram (Dentaurum); and c- VITA Titaniumkeramik (Vita Zahnfabrik). The chemical composition of the framework-margin ceramic interface was analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and porosity level was quantified within the margin ceramic using an image program (ImageJ) from four random areas (100 x 100 pixels) on each SEM image. EDS analysis showed the presence of Carbon at the margin ceramic-framework interface in the groups where wax-based binder technique was used with the concentration being the highest for the IPS emax ZirCAD group. While IPS system (IPS ZirCAD and IPS Emax) presented higher porosity concentration using wax binder, in the other groups wax-based binder reduced the porosity of margin ceramic, except for Titanium - Triceram combination.

  14. Nitric oxide-dependent hypotensive effects of wax gourd juice.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Miki; Shigekuni, Yukiko; Obi, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Mitsuya; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Hideo; Etoh, Takeomi; Iwai, Sumio

    2011-11-18

    The wax gourd (Benincasa hispida (Thunb) Cong.) is a long-season vegetable that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat high blood pressure. However, precise details of its effect and the mechanism of action involved are still lacking. Ten-fold-condensed wax gourd juice was used for the experiments. We measured (1) blood pressure of anesthetized normal Wistar rats in vivo, (2) isolated rat aortic contraction and relaxation, and (3) nitric oxide production from cultured porcine endothelial cells. The rats mentioned had not been treated with the investigational medicine. Intravenous injection of the juice produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure. Treatment with the juice induced concentration-dependent relaxation of isolated rat aortic rings that had been precontracted with noradrenaline. The relaxation induced by the juice was strongly inhibited by treatment with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) or endothelial denudation. Treatment with the juice produced NO from cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells. This NO production was significantly inhibited by l-NAME. The present findings suggest that wax gourd juice exerts a hypotensive effect via endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The main endothelium-derived relaxing factor involved might be NO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiological properties of a wax-gypsum compensator material

    SciTech Connect

    Plessis, F.C.P. du; Willemse, C.A.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper the radiological properties of a compensator material consisting of wax and gypsum is presented. Effective attenuation coefficients (EACs) have been determined from transmission measurements with an ion chamber in a Perspex phantom. Measurements were made at 80 and 100 cm source-to-skin distance (SSD) for beam energies of 6, 8, and 15 MV, for field sizes ranging from narrow beam geometries up to 40x40 cm{sup 2}, and at measurement depths of maximum dose build-up, 5 and 10 cm. A parametrization equation could be constructed to predict the EAC values within 4% uncertainty as a function of field size and depth of measurement. The EAC dependence on off-axis position was also quantified at each beam energy and SSD. It was found that the compensator material reduced the required thickness for compensation by 26% at 8 MV when compared to pure paraffin wax for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field. Relative surface ionization (RSI) measurements have been made to quantify the effect of scattered electrons from the wax-gypsum compensator. Results indicated that for 80 cm SSD the RSI would exceed 50% for fields larger than 15x15 cm{sup 2}. At 100 cm SSD the RSI values were below 50% for all field sizes used.

  16. Fischer-Tropsch wax characterization and upgrading: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, P.P.; Sturtevant, G.C.; Gregor, J.H.; Humbach, M.J.; Padrta, F.G.; Steigleder, K.Z.

    1988-06-06

    The characterization and upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch wax was studied. The focus of the program was to maximize the yield of marketable transportation fuels from the Fischer-Tropsch process. The wax was characterized using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), gas chromatography (GC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and various other physical analyses. Hydrocracking studies conducted in a pilot plant indicate that Fischer-Tropsch wax is an excellent feedstock. A high yield of excellent quality diesel fuel was produced with satisfactory catalyst performance at relatively mild operating conditions. Correlations for predicting key diesel fuel properties were developed and checked against actual laboratory blend data. The blending study was incorporated into an economic evaluation. Finally, it is possible to take advantage of the high quality of the Fischer-Tropsch derived distillate by blending a lower value light cycle oil (produced from a refinery FCC unit) representing a high aromatic and low cetane number. The blended stream meets diesel pool specifications (up to 60 wt % LCO addition). The value added to this blending stream further enhances the upgrading complex return. 22 refs., 39 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. The proteomics of formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, David Cilia; Murray, Graeme I

    2013-04-01

    Proteomics, which is the global analysis of protein expression in cells and tissues, has emerged over the last ten to fifteen years as a key set of technologies to improve our understanding of disease processes and to identify new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive disease biomarkers. Whilst most proteomic studies have been conducted on fresh frozen tissue, the continuous improvements in technical procedures for protein extraction and separation, coupled with increasingly powerful bioinformatics, have provided the opportunity for proteomic analysis to be conducted on formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue. This potential advance should allow proteomic analysis to be performed on the extensive archives of clinically annotated formalin fixed wax embedded tissue blocks stored in pathology departments worldwide. In this review the main techniques and their limitations involved in proteomic analysis of formalin fixed wax embedded tissue will be outlined and examples of their successful application will be indicated. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasound assisted manufacturing of paraffin wax nanoemulsions: process optimization.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, A J; Holkar, C R; Karekar, S E; Pinjari, D V; Pandit, A B

    2015-03-01

    This work reports on the process optimization of ultrasound-assisted, paraffin wax in water nanoemulsions, stabilized by modified sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This work focuses on the optimization of major emulsification process variables including sonication time, applied power and surfactant concentration. The effects of these variables were investigated on the basis of mean droplet diameter and stability of the prepared emulsion. It was found that the stable emulsion with droplet diameters about 160.9 nm could be formed with the surfactant concentration of 10 mg/ml and treated at 40% of applied power (power density: 0.61 W/ml) for 15 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology of the emulsion droplets. The droplets were solid at room temperature, showing bright spots under polarized light and a spherical shape under SEM. The electrophoretic properties of emulsion droplets showed a negative zeta potential due to the adsorption of head sulfate groups of the SDS surfactant. For the sake of comparison, paraffin wax emulsion was prepared via emulsion inversion point method and was checked its intrinsic stability. Visually, it was found that the emulsion get separated/creamed within 30 min. while the emulsion prepared via ultrasonically is stable for more than 3 months. From this study, it was found that the ultrasound-assisted emulsification process could be successfully used for the preparation of stable paraffin wax nanoemulsions.

  19. Leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Imke K.; Lanny, Verena; Franke, Jörg; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Zech, Michael; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Zech, Roland

    2016-10-01

    Lipid biomarkers are increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental and climate conditions. Leaf-wax-derived long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids may have great potential for reconstructing past changes in vegetation, but the factors that affect the leaf wax distribution in fresh plant material, as well as in soils and sediments, are not yet fully understood and need further research. We systematically investigated the influence of vegetation and soil depth on leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect. The deciduous forest sites are often dominated by the n-C27 alkane and n-C28 alkanoic acid. Conifers produce few n-alkanes but show high abundances of the C24 n-alkanoic acid. Grasslands are characterized by relatively high amounts of C31 and C33 n-alkanes and C32 and C34 n-alkanoic acids. Chain length ratios thus may allow for distinguishing between different vegetation types, but caution must be exercised given the large species-specific variability in chain length patterns. An updated endmember model with the new n-alkane ratio (n-C31 + n-C33) / (n-C27 + n-C31 + n-C33) is provided to illustrate, and tentatively account for, degradation effects on n-alkanes.

  20. Attrition Resistant Iron-Based Catalysts For F-T SBCRs

    SciTech Connect

    Adeyinka A. Adeyiga

    2006-01-31

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+ H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. The use of iron-(FE) based catalysts is attractive not only due to their low cost and ready availability, but also due to their high water-gas shift activity which makes it possible to use these catalysts with low H{sub 2}/CO ratios. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment; makes the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult, if not impossible; and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. Under a previous Department of Energy (DOE)/University Research Grant (UCR) grant, Hampton University reported, for the first time, the development of demonstrably attrition-resistant Fe F-T synthesis catalysts having good activity, selectivity, and attrition resistance. These catalysts were prepared by spray drying Fe catalysts with potassium (K), copper (Cu), and silica (SiO{sub 2}) as promoters. SiO{sub 2} was also used as a binder for spray drying. These catalysts were tested for activity and selectivity in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. Fundamental understanding of attrition is being addressed by incorporating suitable binders into the catalyst recipe. This has resulted in the preparation of a spray dried HPR-43 catalyst having average particle size (aps) of 70 {micro}m with high attrition resistance. This HPR-43 attrition resistant, active and selective catalyst gave 95% CO conversion through 125 hours of testing in a fixed-bed at 270 C, 1.48 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO=0.67 and 2.0 NL/g-cat/h with C{sub 5+} selectivity of >78% and methane selectivity of less than 5% at an

  1. [Revisiting the chemical diversity in prostatic calculi: a SEM and FT-IR investigation].

    PubMed

    Dessombz, A; Méria, P; Bazin, D; Foy, E; Rouzière, S; Weil, R; Daudon, M

    2011-12-01

    Revisiting the chemical diversity of the crystalline phases of prostatic calculi by means of SEM and FT-IR analysis. A set of 32 prostatic calculi has been studied by FT-IR and SEM. FT-IR analysis has determined the chemical composition of each prostatic calculus and the SEM observation has described the morphology of the calculi surfaces and layers. Infrared analysis revealed that 90.7% of the stones were mainly composed of calcium phosphates. However, several mineral phases previously not reported in prostatic calculi were observed, as brushite or octocalcium phosphate pentahydrate. Prostatic calculi exhibited a diversity of crystalline composition and morphology. As previously reported for urinary calculi, relationships between composition and morphology of prostatic stones and étiopathogenic conditions could be of interest in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase WSD1 required for stem wax ester biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-09-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C(16) and C(18)) or very-long-chain (C(20) and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment.

  3. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

  4. Analysis of dammar resin with MALDI-FT-ICR-MS and APCI-FT-ICR-MS.

    PubMed

    Vahur, Signe; Teearu, Anu; Haljasorg, Tõiv; Burk, Piia; Leito, Ivo; Kaljurand, Ivari

    2012-03-01

    Comprehensive analysis of high-resolution mass spectra of aged natural dammar resin obtained with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is presented. Dammar resin is one of the most important components of painting varnishes. Dammar resin is a terpenoid resin (dominated by triterpenoids) with intrinsically very complex composition. This complexity further increases with aging. Ten different solvents and two-component solvent mixtures were tested for sample preparation. The most suitable solvent mixtures for the MALDI-FT-ICR-MS analysis were dichloromethane-acetone and dichloromethane-ethanol. The obtained MALDI-FTMS mass spectrum contains nine clusters of peaks in the m/z range of 420-2200, and the obtained APCI-FTMS mass spectrum contains three clusters of peaks in the m/z range of 380-910. The peaks in the clusters correspond to the oxygenated derivatives of terpenoids differing by the number of C(15)H(24) units. The clusters, in turn, are composed of subclusters differing by the number of oxygen atoms in the molecules. Thorough analysis and identification of the components (or groups of components) by their accurate m/z ratios was carried out, and molecular formulas (elemental compositions) of all major peaks in the MALDI-FTMS and APCI-FTMS spectra were identified (and groups of possible isomeric compounds were proposed). In the MALDI-FTMS and APCI-FTMS mass spectrum, besides the oxidized C(30), triterpenoids also peaks corresponding to C(29) and C(31) derivatives of triterpenoids (demethylated and methylated, correspondingly) were detected. MALDI and APCI are complementary ionization sources for the analysis of natural dammar resin. In the MALDI source, preferably polar (extensively oxidized) components of the resin are ionized (mostly as Na(+) adducts), whereas in the APCI source, preferably nonpolar (hydrocarbon and

  5. Transient acceleration in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jing-Zhao; Yang, Rong-Jia; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2016-02-01

    Recently an f(T) gravity based on the modification of teleparallel gravity was proposed to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. We use observational data from type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cosmic microwave background to constrain this f(T) theory and reconstruct the effective equation of state and the deceleration parameter. We obtain the best-fit values of parameters and find an interesting result that the constrained f(T) theory allows for the accelerated Hubble expansion to be a transient effect.

  6. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-25

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400°C and 500°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm(-1) can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm(-1) are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide.

  7. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: Structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-01

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400 °C and 500 °C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm-1 can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm-1 are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide.

  8. Phenotypic Expression in Wheat Revealed Using FT-IR Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L.; Wetzel, D

    2009-01-01

    Wheat selected for cultivation through the centuries has a glume that is 'soft' instead of 'tough' as naturally occurring. In production, this is desirable because it enables mechanical threshing with efficient separation of kernel from the head of each stalk without damaging the kernel. FT-IR microspectroscopy provides chemically based, objective assessment of genetic expression by measuring the extent of genetic expression. In the Microbeam Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, Manhattan, KS, an imaging FT-IR microspectrometer with a detector array focused on the image plane was used to obtain spectral data from dissected glume specimens of nine tough and eleven soft wheat cultivars in a rectangular mapping pattern. With cellulose as the substrate, the extent of lignification is measurable from the ratio of the lignin (1508 cm{sup -1}) baseline adjusted band area to the representative cellulosic (1370 cm{sup -1}) band area. A distinction between soft and tough glumes is obtained in numerical terms. Using a band ratio minimizes variation due to thickness differences. While analyzing mapped sections of glume, care is taken to avoid tabulation of spectral data from vascular bundles. Inclusion of these data would to avoid tabulation of spectral data from vascular bundles. Inclusion of these data would bias the analysis toward the composition of highly lignified vascular bundles. Spatially resolved focal plane array FT-IR microspectroscopy reveals the extent of glume lignification that is coincident with the toughness trait. This enables breeders to rank the degree of lignin expression and discriminate between soft and tough breeding results.

  9. Effect of selected physical properties of waxes on investments and casting shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Yamagishi, T; Oshida, Y; Munoz, C A

    1996-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between flow characteristics, bending strength, and softening temperature of paraffin and dental inlay waxes to casting shrinkage when patterns were invested with a phosphate-bonded investment. This study found that the casting shrinkage decreased as the flow of the wax pattern increased. If a low flow wax is used or if there is a need for a thick pattern, the size of the casting ring should be increased. When wax patterns are formed for cast restorations, it is important to select the type of wax with the most desirable properties for the margin and the occlusal portions. Moreover, to accurately fabricate castings, it is necessary to understand the physical properties of the chosen waxes.

  10. Antifeedant Activity of Citrus Waste Wax and Its Fractions Against the Dry Wood Termite, Cryptotermes brevis

    PubMed Central

    Sbeghen-Loss, Ana Carolina; Mato, Mauricio; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Frizzo, Caren; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    The wood protective action of citrus wax, a waste from the citrus industry that is a mixture of citrus fruit epicuticular waxes and essential oils, was evaluated against the termite Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). The antifeedant index (AI) of the total wax and fractions was calculated. The total citrus wax exhibited an AI50 value of 24.69 mg/cm3, the wax after hydrodistillation showed the strongest antifeedant property (AI50 11.68 mg/cm3). Fractionation of the wax and gas chromatography—mass spectrometric analysis allowed the identification of coumarins and furancoumarins as the active compounds. These results suggest the potential use of these industrial residues as a natural approach to termite control. PMID:22243487

  11. Correlation between the FT-IR characteristics and metoprolol tartrate release of methylcellulose-based patches.

    PubMed

    Papp, József; Horgos, József; Szente, Virág; Zelkó, Romána

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how the drug release and FT-IR characteristics of metolose patches were influenced by the changes of Metolose SM 4000 (methylcellulose) and Metolose 90SH 100.000SR (hypromellose) proportions. FT-IR spectroscopy measurements were performed in parallel with the metoprolol tartrate release study to track the effect of the composition on the drug release. The metoprolol tartrate release profile of the patches was evaluated by Weibull distribution. Linear relationship was found with good correlation between the logarithm of time interval necessary to release 63.2% of metoprolol tartrate (tau(d) values) and the peak area measured within the characteristic FT-IR wavenumbers of patches. The application of FT-IR measurements can be recommended as a rapid, non-destructive screening method during the in-process control of patches.

  12. Dallas and Ft. Worth, Texas, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-85-032 (28 April-6 May 1991) --- A large portion of the Dallas - Fort Worth metropolitan area is seen in this 70mm frame, photographed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Discovery. Hold photograph with the Dallas - Ft. Worth Airport directly above the center point of the picture so that north will be at the top. Compared with Apollo 6 pictures made 23 years earlier (April 1968), this photo indicates notable growth in the municipalities between Dallas and Ft. Worth as well as great outer growth of the two cities. (Most of the western portions of Ft. Worth did not make it into this frame). Easily recognizable bodies of water are Grapevine Lake and North Lake (both near the huge airport), Mountain Creek Lake (southwest of Dallas), Lake Arlington (southeast of Ft. Worth) and the Trinity River which flows southward to the Gulf of Mexico.

  13. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  14. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  15. Cascade synthesis of a gold nanoparticle-network polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubjesic, Simonida; Ringstrand, Bryan S.; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Brombosz, Scott M.; Seifert, Sönke; Firestone, Millicent A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical initiated polymerization and crosslinking of the acrylate end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 to yield a network polymer. Optical spectroscopy and TEM monitored the reduction of [AuCl4]-, formation of large aggregated Au NPs and oxidative etching into a final state of dispersed, spherical Au NPs. ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis confirms acrylate crosslinking to yield the polymer network. X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) monitored the evolution of the multi-lamellar structured mesophase and revealed the presence of semi-crystalline PEO confined within the water layers. The hydrogel could be reversibly swollen without loss of the well-entrained Au NPs with full recovery of composite structure. Optical spectroscopy shows a notable red shift (Δλ ~ 45 nm) in the surface plasmon resonance between swollen and contracted states, demonstrating solvent-mediated modulation of the internal NP packing arrangement.The multi-step, cascade synthesis of a self-supporting, hierarchically-structured gold nanoparticle hydrogel composite is described. The composite is spontaneously prepared from a non-covalent, lamellar lyotropic mesophase composed of amphiphiles that support the reactive constituents, a mixture of hydroxyl- and acrylate-end-derivatized PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 and [AuCl4]-. The reaction sequence begins with the auto-reduction of aqueous [AuCl4]- by PEO117-PPO47-PEO117 which leads to both the production of Au NPs and the free radical

  16. Critical Involvement of Environmental Carbon Dioxide Fixation to Drive Wax Ester Fermentation in Euglena

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Masami; Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation profiles of wax esters in Euglena gracilis Z were studied under several environmental conditions. The highest amount of total wax esters accumulated under hypoxia in the dark, and C28 (myristyl-myristate, C14:0-C14:0) was prevalent among all conditions investigated. The wax ester production was almost completely suppressed under anoxia in the light, and supplying exogenous inorganic carbon sources restored wax ester fermentation, indicating the need for external carbon sources for the wax ester fermentation. 13C-labeling experiments revealed specific isotopic enrichment in the odd-numbered fatty acids derived from wax esters, indicating that the exogenously-supplied CO2 was incorporated into wax esters via the propionyl-CoA pathway through the reverse tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The addition of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) inhibitor, significantly affected the incorporation of 13C into citrate and malate as the biosynthetic intermediates of the odd-numbered fatty acids, suggesting the involvement of PEPCK reaction to drive wax ester fermentation. Additionally, the 13C-enrichment pattern of succinate suggested that the CO2 assimilation might proceed through alternative pathways in addition to the PEPCK reaction. The current results indicate that the mechanisms of anoxic CO2 assimilation are an important target to reinforce wax ester fermentation in Euglena. PMID:27669566

  17. Chemical Signals from Avocado Surface Wax Trigger Germination and Appressorium Formation in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Podila, G. K.; Rogers, L. M.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1993-09-01

    The surface wax of the host, avocado (Persea americana) fruit, induced germination and appressorium formation in the spores of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Waxes from nonhost plants did not induce appressorium formation in this fungus, and avocado wax did not induce appressorium formation in most Colletotrichum species that infect other hosts. Bioassays of the thin-layer chromatographic fractions of the avocado wax showed that the fatty alcohol fraction was the main appressorium-inducing component. Testing of authentic n-C8 to n-C32 fatty alcohols revealed that C24 and longer-chain alcohols induced appressorium formation. Gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of free fatty alcohols revealed that avocado wax contains a high content of very long chains. Waxes from nonhost plants containing an even higher content of the very long-chain alcohols did not induce appressorium formation. Waxes from nonhost plants strongly inhibited appressorium induction by avocado wax. Thus, a favorable balance between appressorium-inducing very long-chain fatty alcohols and the absence of inhibitors allows the fungus to use the host surface wax to trigger germination and differentiation of infection structures in the pathogen.

  18. Chemical Signals from Avocado Surface Wax Trigger Germination and Appressorium Formation in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed Central

    Podila, G. K.; Rogers, L. M.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1993-01-01

    The surface wax of the host, avocado (Persea americana) fruit, induced germination and appressorium formation in the spores of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Waxes from nonhost plants did not induce appressorium formation in this fungus, and avocado wax did not induce appressorium formation in most Colletotrichum species that infect other hosts. Bioassays of the thin-layer chromatographic fractions of the avocado wax showed that the fatty alcohol fraction was the main appressorium-inducing component. Testing of authentic n-C8 to n-C32 fatty alcohols revealed that C24 and longer-chain alcohols induced appressorium formation. Gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of free fatty alcohols revealed that avocado wax contains a high content of very long chains. Waxes from nonhost plants containing an even higher content of the very long-chain alcohols did not induce appressorium formation. Waxes from nonhost plants strongly inhibited appressorium induction by avocado wax. Thus, a favorable balance between appressorium-inducing very long-chain fatty alcohols and the absence of inhibitors allows the fungus to use the host surface wax to trigger germination and differentiation of infection structures in the pathogen. PMID:12231933

  19. Shape-tunable wax microparticle synthesis via microfluidics and droplet impact

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doojin; Beesabathuni, Shilpa N.; Shen, Amy Q.

    2015-01-01

    Spherical and non-spherical wax microparticles are generated by employing a facile two-step droplet microfluidic process which consists of the formation of molten wax microdroplets in a flow-focusing microchannel and their subsequent off-chip crystallization and deformation via microdroplet impingement on an immiscible liquid interface. Key parameters on the formation of molten wax microdroplets in a microfluidic channel are the viscosity of the molten wax and the interfacial tension between the dispersed and continuous fluids. A cursory phase diagram of wax morphology transition is depicted depending on the Capillary number and the Stefan number during the impact process. A combination of numerical simulation and analytical modeling is carried out to understand the physics underlying the deformation and crystallization process of the molten wax. The deformation of wax microdroplets is dominated by the viscous and thermal effects rather than the gravitational and buoyancy effects. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the wax illustrates the time dependent thermal effects on the droplet deformation and crystallization. The work presented here will benefit those interested in the design and production criteria of soft non-spherical particles (i.e., alginate gels, wax, and polymer particles) with the aid of time and temperature mediated solidification and off-chip crosslinking. PMID:26697124

  20. THE RÔLE OF THE "WAX" OF THE TUBERCLE BACILLUS IN ESTABLISHING DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, Sidney; Arnaud, Louis E.; Dukes, C. Dean; Huang, Jwo S.

    1949-01-01

    Guinea pigs sensitized with egg albumin along with the purified wax fraction of the human tubercle bacillus respond with delayed hypersensitive reactivity to the protein antigen. Previous publications have reported a similar activity of the wax with respect to tuberculoprotein and picryl chloride. The effect is not referable to an ordinary adjuvant activity of the bacillary wax, since antibody titers are not increased in animals which receive it, and since a known adjuvant, water-in-oil emulsion, has no effect with respect to the induction of delayed hypersensitivity. This report further extends the rôle of the tubercle bacillary wax in the induction of delayed hypersensitive states. PMID:18152339

  1. Lost-Wax Casting in Ancient China: New Discussion on Old Debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weirong; Huang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The possible use of lost-wax casting in China has long been a matter of controversy. Based on the study of pertinent ancient texts concerning the technical origins of lost-wax casting in China, direct examination of questioned ancient Chinese bronzes as well as definite lost-wax castings from both overseas and China, and modern production of objects using piece-mold casting, the authors point out their own conceptual ideas about ancient lost-wax casting as follows. First, the lost-wax casting technique does not have its earliest origins in ancient China but rather from the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, where it was predominantly used to cast small human and animal figures (statuettes). Next, some essential characteristics of the lost-wax casting technique can be identified from the point of view of a distortable soft starting model. The locally deformed shape of lost-wax castings is found to be variable. Finally, it is improper to consider the ease of extraction from the mold as the criterion for distinguishing lost-wax casting from piece-mold casting. It is therefore incorrect to conclude that the three-dimensional openwork decorations present on Chinese bronzes from the Spring and Autumn Period, and the Warring States Period, are fabricated using lost-wax castings.

  2. Intracuticular wax fixes and restricts strain in leaf and fruit cuticles.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Bishnu Prasad; Grimm, Eckhard; Finger, Sebastian; Blume, Alfred; Knoche, Moritz

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the effects of cuticular wax on the release of strain and on the tensile properties of enzymatically isolated cuticular membranes (CMs) taken from leaves of agave (Agave americana), bush lily (Clivia miniata), holly (Ilex aquifolium), and ivy (Hedera helix) and from fruit of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Biaxial strain release was quantified as the decrease in CM disc area following wax extraction. Stiffness, maximum strain and maximum force were determined in uniaxial tensile tests using strips of CM and dewaxed CMs (DCMs). Biaxial strain release, stiffness, and maximum strain, but not maximum force, were linearly related to the amount of wax extracted. Apple CM has the most wax and here the effect of wax extraction was substantially accounted for by the embedded cuticular wax. Heating apple CM to 80°C melted some wax constituents and produced an effect similar to, but smaller than, that resulting from wax extraction. Our results indicate that wax 'fixes' strain, effectively converting reversible elastic into irreversible plastic strain. A consequence of 'fixation' is increased cuticular stiffness.

  3. Shape-tunable wax microparticle synthesis via microfluidics and droplet impact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doojin; Beesabathuni, Shilpa N; Shen, Amy Q

    2015-11-01

    Spherical and non-spherical wax microparticles are generated by employing a facile two-step droplet microfluidic process which consists of the formation of molten wax microdroplets in a flow-focusing microchannel and their subsequent off-chip crystallization and deformation via microdroplet impingement on an immiscible liquid interface. Key parameters on the formation of molten wax microdroplets in a microfluidic channel are the viscosity of the molten wax and the interfacial tension between the dispersed and continuous fluids. A cursory phase diagram of wax morphology transition is depicted depending on the Capillary number and the Stefan number during the impact process. A combination of numerical simulation and analytical modeling is carried out to understand the physics underlying the deformation and crystallization process of the molten wax. The deformation of wax microdroplets is dominated by the viscous and thermal effects rather than the gravitational and buoyancy effects. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the wax illustrates the time dependent thermal effects on the droplet deformation and crystallization. The work presented here will benefit those interested in the design and production criteria of soft non-spherical particles (i.e., alginate gels, wax, and polymer particles) with the aid of time and temperature mediated solidification and off-chip crosslinking.

  4. Hydrocarbon and multibranched ester waxes from the uropygial gland secretion of grebes (Podicipediformes).

    PubMed

    Jacob, J

    1978-02-01

    The uropygial gland secretion of some grebes (Podicipediformes) had been shown to contain saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and monoester waxes. While ester waxes are common constituents of preen gland secretions, nonisoprenoid hydrocarbons have not been detected hitherto. The wax constituents are very complex, belonging to several multibranched homologous series, including unusual acids with ethyl branches. The waxes were identified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and equivalent chain length comparisons. A method for the prediction of equivalent chain length values of unknown methyl esters is offered. The results are discussed from a chemotaxonomic viewpoint.

  5. Critical Involvement of Environmental Carbon Dioxide Fixation to Drive Wax Ester Fermentation in Euglena.

    PubMed

    Padermshoke, Adchara; Ogawa, Takumi; Nishio, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Masami; Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori; Ohta, Daisaku

    Accumulation profiles of wax esters in Euglena gracilis Z were studied under several environmental conditions. The highest amount of total wax esters accumulated under hypoxia in the dark, and C28 (myristyl-myristate, C14:0-C14:0) was prevalent among all conditions investigated. The wax ester production was almost completely suppressed under anoxia in the light, and supplying exogenous inorganic carbon sources restored wax ester fermentation, indicating the need for external carbon sources for the wax ester fermentation. 13C-labeling experiments revealed specific isotopic enrichment in the odd-numbered fatty acids derived from wax esters, indicating that the exogenously-supplied CO2 was incorporated into wax esters via the propionyl-CoA pathway through the reverse tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The addition of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) inhibitor, significantly affected the incorporation of 13C into citrate and malate as the biosynthetic intermediates of the odd-numbered fatty acids, suggesting the involvement of PEPCK reaction to drive wax ester fermentation. Additionally, the 13C-enrichment pattern of succinate suggested that the CO2 assimilation might proceed through alternative pathways in addition to the PEPCK reaction. The current results indicate that the mechanisms of anoxic CO2 assimilation are an important target to reinforce wax ester fermentation in Euglena.

  6. Leaf wax records of late Holocene hydrologic changes on Abaco Island, Northern Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Feakins, S. J.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Louchouarn, P.; Fall, P. L.; Albury, N. A.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Previous pollen-based evidence from Abaco Island (Little Bahama Bank, Northern Bahamas) indicates that the terrestrial forest changed in dominance over the last 1500 years from palms to pines, and that this change is potentially driven by climate and/or anthropogenic factors. Geochemical markers (δ13Corg, δ15Norg,, C/N, and lignin phenols) measured from bulk sedimentary matter that has accumulated in Blackwood Sinkhole on Abaco Island also support the pollen-based evidence that vegetation has not been constant throughout the late Holocene (last 3000 years). More specifically, these geochemical markers document three intervals where sedimentary deposition was dominated by a different source of organic matter. These changes are likely driven by the combination of the ecological response to shoreline migration from Holocene sea-level rise, and a southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) at 1000 Cal yrs BP. However, the specific impact of a southward ITCZ displacement at 1000 Cal yrs BP on Abaco rainfall variability remains uncertain (e.g., quantity, seasonality). This research will explore hydrologic variability associated with regional vegetation changes by measuring precipitation isotopic composition based upon plant leaf wax n-alkanoic acid and n-alkane biomarkers. We find C29 and C31 n-alkanes and C24, C26, C28, and C30 n-alkanoic acids record the same hydrogen isotopic values within uncertainties indicating a uniform terrestrial vegetation source. We find a negative shift (-50‰) towards present in our initial analyses; the results of ongoing work will be presented at the meeting. This multi-proxy approach will allow us to resolve the nature of the leaf wax biomarker hydrogen isotope evidence for past precipitation, including testing for the impacts of vegetation on the hydrological proxy, and testing predictions of a shift in precipitation on Abaco Island over the late Holocene coincident with a southward displacement of the ITCZ.

  7. Preparation of margarines from organogels of sunflower wax and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Bakota, Erica L; Liu, Sean X

    2014-10-01

    It was previously reported that sunflower wax (SW) had high potential as an organogelator for soybean oil-based margarine and spread products. In this study, 12 other vegetable oils were evaluated in a margarine formulation to test feasibility of utilization of SW as an alternative to solid fats in margarine and spread products containing these oils. The minimum quantity of SW required to form a gel with these oils ranged from 0.3% to 1.0% (wt.). Organogels were prepared from the vegetable oils with 3%, 5% and 7% SW and were tested for firmness as well as melting behaviors using differential scanning calorimetry. These organogels were also incorporated into a margarine formulation. All of the vegetable oil organogels produced relatively firm margarines. The margarines prepared from organogels containing 3% (wt.) SW had greater firmness than commercial spreads, whereas margarines made from 7% SW were softer than commercial stick margarines. However, dropping points of the margarine samples were higher than those of commercial spread and margarine products. Margarine firmness was modestly inversely correlated with the amount of polar compounds in the oils and did not correlate with fatty acid compositions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a number of healthy vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids to make healthy margarine and spread products by utilizing SW as an organogelator. This study showed that sunflower wax could be used as an alternative to traditional solid fats for the development of new margarine and spread products from a variety of healthy vegetable oils. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Comparative study for separation of atmospheric humic-like substance (HULIS) by ENVI-18, HLB, XAD-8 and DEAE sorbents: elemental composition, FT-IR, 1H NMR and off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH).

    PubMed

    Fan, Xingjun; Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an

    2013-11-01

    Humic-like substances (HULIS) are significant constituents of aerosols, and the isolation and characterization of HULIS by solid-phase extraction methods are dependent on the sorbents used. In this study, we used the following five methods: ENVI-18, HLB-M, HLB-N, XAD-8 and DEAE, to isolate atmospheric HULIS at an urban site. Then we conducted a comparative investigation of the HULIS chemical characteristics by means of elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. The results indicate that HULIS isolated using different methods show many similarities in chemical composition and structure. Some differences were however also observed between the five isolated HULIS: HULISHLB-M contains a relatively high content of OCH group, compared to HULISENVI-18 and HULISXAD-8; HULISXAD-8 contains a relatively high content of hydrophobic and aromatic components, compared to HULISENVI-18 and HULISHLB-M; HULISDEAE contains the highest content of aromatic functional groups, as inferred by (1)H NMR spectra, but a great amount of salts generally present in the HULISDEAE and thereby limited the choices for characterizing the materials (i.e., elemental analysis and TMAH thermochemolysis); HULISHLB-N has relatively high levels of H and N, a high N/C atomic ratio, and includes N-containing functional groups, which suggests that it has been altered by 2% ammonia introduced in the eluents. In summary, we found that ENVI-18, HLB-M, and XAD-8 are preferable methods for isolation and characterization of HULIS in atmospheric aerosols. These results also suggest that caution is required when applying DEAE and HLB-N isolating methods for characterizing atmospheric HULIS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  10. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives.

  11. In Vivo Chemical and Structural Analysis of Plant Cuticular Waxes Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Jessica C.; Perfect, Sarah; Seymour, Mark; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Love, John; Moger, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The cuticle is a ubiquitous, predominantly waxy layer on the aerial parts of higher plants that fulfils a number of essential physiological roles, including regulating evapotranspiration, light reflection, and heat tolerance, control of development, and providing an essential barrier between the organism and environmental agents such as chemicals or some pathogens. The structure and composition of the cuticle are closely associated but are typically investigated separately using a combination of structural imaging and biochemical analysis of extracted waxes. Recently, techniques that combine stain-free imaging and biochemical analysis, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy microscopy, have been used to investigate the cuticle, but the detection sensitivity is severely limited by the background signals from plant pigments. We present a new method for label-free, in vivo structural and biochemical analysis of plant cuticles based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. As a proof of principle, we used SRS microscopy to analyze the cuticles from a variety of plants at different times in development. We demonstrate that the SRS virtually eliminates the background interference compared with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy imaging and results in label-free, chemically specific confocal images of cuticle architecture with simultaneous characterization of cuticle composition. This innovative use of the SRS spectroscopy may find applications in agrochemical research and development or in studies of wax deposition during leaf development and, as such, represents an important step in the study of higher plant cuticles. PMID:25783412

  12. Comparison of various extraction methods for policosanol from rice bran wax and establishment of chromatographic fingerprint of policosanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Fei; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Mao, Li; Zhou, Jing-Ping; Gong, Hui-Juan; Qian, Bao-Yong; Fang, Yan; Li, Jie

    2007-07-11

    A capillary gas chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for the separation and determination of policosanol components extracted from rice bran wax. A Varian CP-sil 8 CB column was employed, and an oven temperature was programmed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the composition of policosanol. Quantitative analysis was carried out by means of hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID) with dinonyl phthalate (DNP) as internal standard. The results indicated that the extract obtained by dry saponification has the highest contents of octacosanol and triacontanol among extracts by all used extraction methods including dry saponification, saponification in alcohol, saponification in water (neutralized and non-neutralized), and transesterification. Meanwhile, the GC-MS fingerprint of policosanol extracted by dry saponification has been established. Euclidean distance similarity calculation showed remarkable consistency of compositions and contents among 12 batches of policosanol from a rice bran wax variety. This protocol provided a rapid and feasible method for quality control of policosanol products.

  13. Offshore asphaltene and wax deposition: Problems/solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J. |

    1996-05-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Such problems seriously threaten economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore facilities are especially susceptible to such deposition for a number of reasons. This article presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the problems, the field has been produced for more than 14 years with minimum environmental impact. Principal conclusions developed are discussed in this paper.

  14. Anna Morandi's wax self-portrait with brain.

    PubMed

    Messbarger, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    In her self-portrait in wax, eighteenth-century Bolognese anatomist and anatomical modeler Anna Morandi Manzolini (1714-1774) represented herself in sumptuous aristocratic dress while dissecting a human brain. This essay explores the scientific and symbolic meaning of the vivid self-portrayal in terms of Anna Morandi's lifework at the intersection of art and anatomical science and within the remarkable cultural context of Enlightenment Bologna that fostered her rise to international acclaim. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. DDT Behavior of Waxed Mixtures of RDX, HMX, and Tetryl

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-18

    NSWC/WOL TR 77-96 O DDT BEHAVIOR OF WAXED MIXTURES OF " RDX, HMX, AND TETRYL BY DONNA PRICE and RICHARD R. BERNECKER RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY...50.95 mm OD) with heavy end closures was used. A B/ KNO3 ignitor (1) was used to ignite one end of the 295.4 mm explosive column. Charge loading, tube...data reduction are also as in reference 1 with the modification for strain gages given in reference 2. I. R. R. Bernecker and D. Price , "Transition

  16. [Episodic paroxysmal hemicrania with seasonal waxing and waning pattern].

    PubMed

    Selekler, Hamit Macit; Temel, Ozden; Kutlu, Ayşe

    2010-01-01

    The chronic form of paroxysmal hemicrania was defined first. Although the episodic form was thought to be inevitably chronic, in time, episodic forms that never reach the chronic phase were identified. The supposed incidence of paroxysmal hemicrania is 1/50.000, and the ratio of the episodic to chronic form is 1:4. A seasonal type of episodic form, which is limited to three cases in the literature, has also been reported. In this article, a case who remained episodic for 40 years with seasonal waxing and waning attack variations is reported.

  17. Laser-assisted fabrication of batteries on wax paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, G.; Tan, T.; Ziaie, B.

    2013-11-01

    The functionality of paper-based diagnostic devices can be significantly enhanced by their integration with an on-board energy source. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of paper-based electrochemical cells on wax paper using CO2 laser surface treatment and micromachining. A four cell zinc-copper battery shows a steady open-circuit voltage of ˜3 V and can provide 0.25 mA for at least 30 min when connected to a 10 kΩ load. Higher voltages and current values can be obtained by adjusting the number and size of electrochemical cells in the battery without changing the fabrication process.

  18. Three Dimensional Morphodynamic and Vegetation Modeling of Wax Lake Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, A. K.; Meselhe, E. A.; Sadid, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is located at the downstream end of the Wax Lake outlet, approximately 13 miles upstream from Morgan City, Louisiana. In 1942 the United States Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) dredged Wax Lake Outlet channel from lower Atchafalaya River to reduce flood stages at Morgan City. The channel diverts 50% of Atchafalaya River water and sediment to WLD. Since 1942, the WLD has been building seaward due to the deposition of sediment at the channel mouth. Growth of this delta supports the concept of land building via river diversions. A process based morphodynamic model (Delft3D) with the ability to predict evolution of river-dominated deltas is used in this study to further our understanding of land-building and delta growth processes. Initial model bathymetry is prepared based on USACE hydrographic survey of 1998 along with LIDAR survey data for over bank areas. Two continuous gauges at Wax Lake outlet near Calumet and Atchafalaya Bay near Eugene Island are used to assign upstream inflow and outflow boundary conditions, respectively. The model is calibrated and validated for Hydrodynamics and Sediment transport through two sets of field observations for flooded and average conditions. Vertical velocity and suspended sediment profiles made in the channels of the WLD in 2000 and 2001 are used for the model calibration and validation. More comprehensive field observations are being gathered as part of an ongoing study funded by the National Science Foundation (FESD-Delta Dynamics Collaboratory). Data include mutli-beam bathymetric data, velocities, sediment, and nutrient concentrations in the channels as well as on top of the islands. The Delft3D morphodynamic model for WLD provides quantitative information regarding water and sediment distribution among the inter-connected channel bifurcations, the exchange of sediment and nutrients between the channels and islands. The model is being used to investigate the rate of land building and delta growth from

  19. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    PubMed

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Economics of comb wax salvage by the red dwarf honeybee, Apis florea.

    PubMed

    Pirk, Christian W W; Crous, Kendall L; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Radloff, Sarah E; Hepburn, Randall

    2011-04-01

    Colonies of Apis florea, which only abscond a short distance, usually return to salvage old nest wax; but, those colonies, and all other honeybee species which go considerably further, do not. Wax salvage would clearly be counter-productive unless the energy input/energy yield threshold was a profitable one. There are two possible trade-offs in this scenario, the trade-off between the energy expended to recover the wax (recovering hypothesis) as against that of replacing the wax by new secretion (replacing hypothesis). In order to compare the two hypotheses, the fuel costs involved in salvaging wax on one return trip, the average flower handling time, flight time and relative values for substituting the salvaged wax with nectar were calculated. Moreover, the energy value of the wax was determined. Net energy gains for salvaged wax were calculated. The energy value of the salvaged wax was 42.7 J/mg, thus too high to be the limiting factor since salvaging costs are only 642.76 mJ/mg (recovering hypothesis). The recovery costs (642.76 mJ/mg) only fall below the replacement costs for absconding distance below 115 m thus supporting the replacing hypothesis. This energetic trade-off between replacing and recycling plus the small absconding range of A. florea might explain why A. florea is probably the only honeybee species known to salvage wax and it parsimoniously explains the underlying reasons why A. florea only salvages wax from the old nest if the new nesting site is less than 100-200 m away-energetically, it pays off to recycle.

  1. Paraffin wax emulsion for increased rainfastness of insecticidal bait to control Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Wise, John C; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus

    2009-06-01

    In regions with a humid summer climate, the use of water-soluble bait to control apple maggot is often limited by rainfall. We studied increasing the rainfastness of GF-120 fruit fly bait by adding paraffin wax emulsion. First, we verified that adding 10% wax to a mixture containing 16.7% GF-120 did not reduce the mortality of female apple maggot compared with GF-120 without wax. In addition, we determined that fly mortality caused by GF-120 plus wax subjected to simulated rain was similar to that caused by GF-120 without wax not subjected to rain. Other assays showed that higher fly mortality resulted from increasing the proportion of wax from 10 to 15%, and lower mortality resulted from decreasing GF-120 from 16.7 to 10 or 5%. The availability of spinosad on or near droplets of a mixture consisting of 5, 10, or 15% GF-120 and 15% wax was determined before and after the droplets were subjected to three 15-min periods of simulated rain. We found an initial steep decline in dislodgeable spinosad and smaller decreases after subsequent periods of rain. In a small-plot field trial, fruit infestation by apple maggot in plots treated with a mixture consisting of 16.7% GF-120 and 19.2% wax was less than in plots treated with 16.7% GF-120 without wax but not less than in control plots. Overall, we found that adding paraffin wax emulsion to GF-120 increased rainfastness in laboratory bioassays, and specifically that it retained the active ingredient spinosad. However, our field data suggest that optimal rainfastness requires the development of mixtures with > 19.2% wax, which may preclude application using standard spray equipment.

  2. The benefits of Fischer-Tropsch waxes in synthetic petroleum jelly.

    PubMed

    Bekker, M; Louw, N R; Jansen Van Rensburg, V J; Potgieter, J

    2013-02-01

    This article is an introduction and general discussion regarding the use of Fisher-Tropsch wax in petroleum jelly applications. Traditionally, petroleum jelly is prepared from a blend of microwax, paraffin wax and mineral oil that are all derived from crude oil. Sasol Wax has successfully prepared a petroleum jelly based on predominantly to fully synthetic Fisher-Tropsch wax. Sasol Wax was awarded a patent P53898ZP00-29 November 11 for a predominantly to fully synthetic petroleum jelly based on Fisher-Tropsch wax blends. The benefits of Fisher-Tropsch wax discussed in this article include the absence of aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic compounds in Fisher-Tropsch wax as well as the sustainable production that is possible with Fisher-Tropsch wax, as opposed to paraffin wax that may be affected by the closure of group I Base Oil plants. This article will be the first in a series of articles from the same authors, and follow-up articles will include solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallization studies to determine the influence of predominantly synthetic waxes on petroleum jelly network structures compared with more traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies, final product performance and stability of synthetic petroleum jelly used in, for example, personal care lotions or creams. The influence of oxygenated compounds and product safety and rheological properties (including primary skin feel upon application and secondary skin feel after application) of synthetic petroleum jellies compared with traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies are discussed. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Design note of an air-cooled 2 ft x 2 ft x 10. 5 ft long muon spoiler

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.; Pathiyil, J.

    1988-01-06

    This note describes the construction of a muon spoiler (magnetized steel assembly) with a cross section of 2 ft by 2 ft and a length of 10.5 ft. Two such spoilers are operated in series at an average field of about 15 kGauss, from one 100 ADC, 40 V power supply. The purpose of the spoilers is to prevent muons from easily escaping beyond the muon laboratory experimental area by bending them down so that they have to pass through more earth. The spoilers reduce the muon dose rate beyond the experimental area by about a factor of 15 to 20. These types of spoilers are not precision devices. They were inexpensive to build from scrap materials using rough flame cutting methods. It took about 14 days to fabricate them.

  5. WAXS fat subtraction model to estimate differential linear scattering coefficients of fatless breast tissue: Phantom materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Robert Y.; Laamanen, Curtis McDonald, Nancy; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to subtract fat tissue contributions to wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) signals of breast biopsies in order to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficients μ{sub s} of fatless tissue. Cancerous and fibroglandular tissue can then be compared independent of fat content. In this work phantom materials with known compositions were used to test the efficacy of the WAXS subtraction model. Methods: Each sample 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick was interrogated by a 50 kV 2.7 mm diameter beam for 3 min. A 25 mm{sup 2} by 1 mm thick CdTe detector allowed measurements of a portion of the θ = 6° scattered field. A scatter technique provided means to estimate the incident spectrum N{sub 0}(E) needed in the calculations of μ{sub s}[x(E, θ)] where x is the momentum transfer argument. Values of μ{sup ¯}{sub s} for composite phantoms consisting of three plastic layers were estimated and compared to the values obtained via the sum μ{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup ∑}(x)=ν{sub 1}μ{sub s1}(x)+ν{sub 2}μ{sub s2}(x)+ν{sub 3}μ{sub s3}(x), where ν{sub i} is the fractional volume of the ith plastic component. Water, polystyrene, and a volume mixture of 0.6 water + 0.4 polystyrene labelled as fibphan were chosen to mimic cancer, fat, and fibroglandular tissue, respectively. A WAXS subtraction model was used to remove the polystyrene signal from tissue composite phantoms so that the μ{sub s} of water and fibphan could be estimated. Although the composite samples were layered, simulations were performed to test the models under nonlayered conditions. Results: The well known μ{sub s} signal of water was reproduced effectively between 0.5 < x < 1.6 nm{sup −1}. The μ{sup ¯}{sub s} obtained for the heterogeneous samples agreed with μ{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup ∑}. Polystyrene signals were subtracted successfully from composite phantoms. The simulations validated the usefulness of the WAXS models for nonlayered biopsies. Conclusions: The methodology to

  6. Phase behavior, structure and rheology of candelilla wax/fully hydrogenated soybean oil mixtures with and without vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Gómez, N O; Acevedo, N C; Toro-Vázquez, J F; Ornelas-Paz, J J; Dibildox-Alvarado, E; Pérez-Martínez, J D

    2016-11-01

    Vegetable oil organogelation is one of the most promising strategies to eliminate trans fatty acids in plastic fats. Organogels prepared with edible wax are stable at refrigerator and room temperature. Some functional properties (i.e., texture) of wax organogels can be improved by adding saturated triacylglycerols. Mixtures of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FH) and candelilla wax (CW) were studied with and without the addition of high oleic safflower oil (HOSFO). Crystallization and melting behavior, X-ray diffraction, and crystalline microstructure of the mixtures were analyzed. The elastic modulus (G'), and the structural recovery after shear of the organogels were also assessed. Mixtures without HOSFO formed solid dispersions of CW and FH crystals, where up to ~10% CW crystals were incorporated into the FH crystal lattice. The vegetable oil solutions of FH/CW mixtures crystallized from the melt, developed mixed crystal networks composed of FH crystals in the β polymorph and CW in an orthorhombic subcell packing. As the systems crystallized in the most stable polymorph, only minor microstructural changes were shown along 28days of storage at 25°C. CW and FH crystals showed a synergistic effect on the elasticity of organogels. This was attributed to the large number FH crystals nucleated on the surface of CW crystals. The structural recovery after shear was superior for mixed organogels composed of CW platelets and grainy FH crystals compared to that of CW organogels. A recovery of up to 65.7% the G' of gels formed under static conditions was observed upon shearing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1–35 wt% starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and predi...

  8. Developments in FT-ICR MS instrumentation, ionization techniques, and data interpretation methods for petroleomics.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yunju; Ahmed, Arif; Islam, Annana; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Because of the increasing importance of heavy and unconventional crude oil as an energy source, there is a growing need for petroleomics: the pursuit of more complete and detailed knowledge of the chemical compositions of crude oil. Crude oil has an extremely complex nature; hence, techniques with ultra-high resolving capabilities, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), are necessary. FT-ICR MS has been successfully applied to the study of heavy and unconventional crude oils such as bitumen and shale oil. However, the analysis of crude oil with FT-ICR MS is not trivial, and it has pushed analysis to the limits of instrumental and methodological capabilities. For example, high-resolution mass spectra of crude oils may contain over 100,000 peaks that require interpretation. To visualize large data sets more effectively, data processing methods such as Kendrick mass defect analysis and statistical analyses have been developed. The successful application of FT-ICR MS to the study of crude oil has been critically dependent on key developments in FT-ICR MS instrumentation and data processing methods. This review offers an introduction to the basic principles, FT-ICR MS instrumentation development, ionization techniques, and data interpretation methods for petroleomics and is intended for readers having no prior experience in this field of study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Wax transfer printing to enable robust barrier definition in devices based on non-standard porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, Anthony; Downs, Corey; Fu, Elain

    2017-05-01

    Wax printing has become a common method of fabricating channels in cellulose-based microfluidic devices. However, a limitation of wax printing is that it is restricted to relatively thin, smooth substrates that are compatible with processing by a commercial wax printer. In the current report, we describe a simple patterning method that extends the utility of wax printers for creating hydrophobic barriers on non-standard porous substrates via a process called wax transfer printing. We demonstrate the use of multiple wax transfer cycles to create well-defined, robust, and reproducible barriers in a thick cellulose substrate that is not compatible with feeding through a wax printer. We characterize the method for (i) wax spreading within the substrate as a function of heating time, (ii) the ability to create functional barriers in a substrate, and (iii) reproducibility in line width.

  10. Dental wax impressions of plant tissues for viewing with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    PubMed

    Beermann, Anke; Hülskamp, Martin

    2010-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a valuable method for examining surface structures. Taking wax impressions of plant structures, such as leaves, is a nondestructive procedure that makes it possible to view changes in surface structures over time, such as during development. This protocol describes a method for making dental wax impressions of plant tissues.

  11. Gelling ability and crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant waxes can effectively form organogels with vegetable oils and these organogels have drawn considerable interests as alternatives to solid fats containing trans fats and saturated fats in margarines and spreads. Among them sunflower wax showed the most pronounced gelling ability. In an attempt ...

  12. Morphology and accumulation of epicuticular wax on needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii)

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; William C. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have documented differences in epicuticular wax among several tree species but little attention has been paid to changes in accumulation of foliar wax that can occur during the year. We sampled current-year needles from the terminal shoots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in late June/early...

  13. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Thomas M.; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of €10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM. PMID:26263976

  14. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  15. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3 and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of...

  16. Simple Synthesis Hydrogenated Castor Oil Fatty Amide Wax and Its Coating Characterization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuzhu; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-07-01

    A simple method for incorporating amine groups in hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) to produce wax for beeswax or carnauba wax substitution in packaging and coating was developed. From the conversion rate of the products, HCO was reacted with ethanolamine at 150°C for 5 h, and the molar ratio of HCO and ethanolamine was 1:4. The hardness of the final product was seven times higher than that of beeswax, the cohesiveness of the final product was 1.3 times higher than that of beeswax and approximately one half of that of carnauba wax, and the melting point of the final product is 98°C. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy showed that the amide groups were incorporated to form the amide products. In coating application, the results showed that the force of the final product coating cardboard was higher than that of beeswax and paraffin wax and less than that of carnauba wax. After 24 h soaking, the compression forces were decreased. HCO fatty acid wax can be an alternative wax for carnauba wax and beeswax in coating applications.

  17. Impact of changing wax type during storage on mandarin flavor and quality attributes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) packers sometimes apply a storage wax (SW) designed to limit water loss during the initial part of storage and then replace it with a higher shine pack wax (PW) prior to shipment of the fruit. Mandarins are prone to the development of off-flavors as a result of lo...

  18. Skimmiwallinin, an additional skimmiwallinol derivative from the cuticular wax of Cocos nucifera.

    PubMed

    Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Fernández-Concha, Germán Carnevali; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M

    2009-01-01

    AgNO3-impregnated prep-TLC purification of the wax extract of Cocos nucifera allowed the isolation and identification of skimmiwallinin as an additional skimmiwallinol derivative from the cuticular wax of coconut palms. Identification was based on the comparison of its spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature.

  19. The effect of varieties on cotton wax as it relates to cotton quality parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton wax is one of the non-cellulosic components found on the surfaces of cotton. It is important in dyeing and processing quality. This investigation was carried out to study the yield of wax on the surface of cottons by performing two methods: Soxhlet extractions and accelerated solvent extracti...

  20. Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1977-01-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the β oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images PMID:16660087

  1. pH-sensitive wax emulsion copolymerization with acrylamide hydrogel using gamma irradiation for dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady; Elhady, Mohamed., A.

    2017-05-01

    Emulsion polymerization is an efficient method for the production of new wax-hydrogel matrices of cetyl alcohol: stearic acid wax and acrylamide hydrogel using triethylamine (TEA) as an emulsifier. A cross-linking reaction occurred when a mixture of wax-hydrogel solution was irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 20 kGy. The gelation percentage of the matrices (CtOH-StA/PAAm) was 86%, which indicates that a sufficiently high conversion occurred in these new wax-hydrogel matrices. The ability of PAAm and CtOH-StA/PAAm as an adsorbent for dye removal was investigated. The removal of three reactive dyes, namely Remazol Red (RR), Amido Black (AB), and Toluidine Blue (TB), from aqueous solutions depends on the pH of the dye solution. Removal efficiency was investigated by UV spectrophotometry, and the results showed the affinity of the wax hydrogel to adsorb TB was 98% after 320 min. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectra confirmed the cross-linking process involved between the chains of wax and hydrogel; furthermore, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the wax and hydrogel were completely miscible to form a single matrix. Swelling measurements showed the high affinity of adsorbed dyes from aqueous solutions at different pH values to the wax-hydrogel network; the highest swelling values of 13.05 and 8.24 (g/g) were observed at pH 10 and 6, respectively

  2. Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes[S

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Mareike; Iven, Tim; Ahmann, Katharina; Hornung, Ellen; Stymne, Sten; Feussner, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil. Currently there is no biological source available for long chain length monounsaturated wax esters that are most suited for industrial applications. This study aimed to identify enzymatic requirements enabling their production in oilseed plants. Wax esters are generated by the action of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), generating fatty alcohols and wax synthases (WS) that esterify fatty alcohols and acyl-CoAs to wax esters. Based on their substrate preference, a FAR and a WS from Mus musculus were selected for this study (MmFAR1 and MmWS). MmWS resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas MmFAR1 associates with peroxisomes. The elimination of a targeting signal and the fusion to an oil body protein yielded variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS that were cotargeted and enabled wax ester production when coexpressed in yeast or Arabidopsis. In the fae1 fad2 double mutant, rich in oleate, the cotargeted variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS enabled formation of wax esters containing >65% oleyl-oleate. The data suggest that cotargeting of unusual biosynthetic enzymes can result in functional interplay of heterologous partners in transgenic plants. PMID:22878160

  3. The acyl desaturase CER17 is involved in producing wax unsaturated primary alcohols and cutin monomers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report here n-6 mono-unsaturated primary alcohols (the C26:1, C28:1, and C30:1 homologues) in the cuticular waxes of Arabidopsis inflorescence stem, a class of wax compound not previously reported in Arabidopsis. Further, we used mutation and transgenic complementation analyses to demonstrate tha...

  4. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Attard, Thomas M; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J

    2015-07-31

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be € 88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of € 10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM.

  5. The MYB96 Transcription Factor Regulates Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis under Drought Conditions in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Pil Joon; Lee, Saet Buyl; Suh, Mi Chung; Park, Mi-Jeong; Go, Young Sam; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress activates several defense responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, maintenance of root water uptake, and synthesis of osmoprotectants. Accumulating evidence suggests that deposition of cuticular waxes is also associated with plant responses to cellular dehydration. Yet, how cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated in response to drought is unknown. We have recently reported that an Arabidopsis thaliana abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, MYB96, promotes drought resistance. Here, we show that transcriptional activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by MYB96 contributes to drought resistance. Microarray assays showed that a group of wax biosynthetic genes is upregulated in the activation-tagged myb96-1D mutant but downregulated in the MYB96-deficient myb96-1 mutant. Cuticular wax accumulation was altered accordingly in the mutants. In addition, activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by drought and ABA requires MYB96. By contrast, biosynthesis of cutin monomers was only marginally affected in the mutants. Notably, the MYB96 protein acts as a transcriptional activator of genes encoding very-long-chain fatty acid–condensing enzymes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis by directly binding to conserved sequence motifs present in the gene promoters. These results demonstrate that ABA-mediated MYB96 activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis serves as a drought resistance mechanism. PMID:21398568

  6. Airway burns and atelectasis in an adolescent following aspiration of molten wax.

    PubMed

    Einav, S; Braverman, I; Yatsiv, I; Avital, A; Rothschild, M

    2000-07-01

    Scald injuries caused by hot liquids are not a frequently reported cause of pediatric respiratory and alimentary tract burns. Aspiration of molten wax with subsequent pharyngeal or laryngeal burns has not been described at all, to the best of our knowledge. A case of an adolescent who presented with airway burns and atelectasis subsequent to aspiration of molten wax is herein described and discussed.

  7. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Robert Y.; McDonald, Nancy Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10{sup −5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the

  8. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: animal tissue evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Robert Y; McDonald, Nancy; Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν¯fat) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν¯fat in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μs of the remaining fatless tissue. The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, νfat for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν¯fat were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10(-5) sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μs was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μs of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μs of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. For chicken and beef composites, ν¯fat=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μs for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μs of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the differences did not vary from zero in a statistically significant way thereby validating the methods. The methodology to

  9. Characterisation of wax works of art by gas chromatographic procedures.

    PubMed

    Regert, M; Langlois, J; Colinart, S

    2005-10-14

    To identify the various natural and synthetic substances used by sculptors at the end of the 19th century, several contemporary reference samples were investigated by high temperature gas chromatography (HT GC) and HT GC-MS. Using specific chromatographic conditions and minimising sample preparation, we could separate, detect and identify a wide range of biomolecular markers covering a great variety of molecular weights and volatilities, with a minimum amount of sample, in a single run. Beeswax, spermaceti, carnauba, candellila and Japan waxes as well as pine resin derivatives, animal fats, paraffin, ozokerite and stearin, used as additives in wax works of art, were chemically investigated. In the case of low volatile compounds, transbutylation was performed. The structure of long-chain esters of spermaceti was elucidated for the first time by HT GC-MS analysis. Such a method was then carried out on 10 samples collected on a statuette of Junon by Antoine-Louis Barye (Louvre Museum, Paris, France) and on a sculpture by Aimé-Jules Dalou (Musée de la Révolution Française, Vizille, France). The analytical results obtained provide new data on the complex recipes elaborated by sculptors at the end of the 19th century.

  10. Occupational exposure to airborne perfluorinated compounds during professional ski waxing.

    PubMed

    Freberg, Baard Ingegerdsson; Haug, Line Småstuen; Olsen, Raymond; Daae, Hanne Line; Hersson, Merete; Thomsen, Cathrine; Thorud, Syvert; Becher, Georg; Molander, Paal; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2010-10-01

    The concentration levels of 11 perfluorinated carboxylic (PFCA) and eight sulfonic (PFSA) acids were determined in the serum of 13 professional ski waxers. The same components were also determined in workroom aerosols and in fluoro containing solid ski waxes and ski wax powders. The highest median concentration (50 ng/mL) was detected for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which is around 25 times higher than the background level. For the first time perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA) has been found in human serum. Positive statistically significant associations between years exposed as ski waxer and seven different PFCAs were observed. The serum concentrations of the PFCAs with carbon chain lengths from C(8) to C(11) were reduced by around five to 20% on average during the eight month exposure free interval, whereas the reduction was substantially larger when the carbon chain lengths were smaller than C(8) or larger than C(11). This study links for the first time PFCAs in the ski waxers serum to exposure from the work room aerosols. Not only professional ski waxers but also the significant larger group of amateur skiers and waxers are potentially exposed to these compounds.

  11. Investigating molecular interactions and surface morphology of wax-doped asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farideh; Mousavi, Masoumeh; Hung, Albert; Fini, Ellie H

    2016-04-07

    The nature and origin of bee-like microstructures (bees) in asphalt binders and their impact on asphalt oxidation have been the subject of extensive discussions in recent years. While several studies refer to the bees as solely surface features, some others consider them to be bulk microcrystalline components that are formed due to co-precipitation of wax and asphaltene molecules. In this study, we use a rigorous theoretical and experimental approach to investigate the interplay of asphalt components (mainly asphaltene and wax) and their impact on bee formation. In the theoretical section, quantum-mechanical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) are used to evaluate the strength of interactions between asphaltene unit sheets in the presence and absence of a wax component, as well as the mutual interactions between asphaltene molecules (monomers and dimers) and paraffin wax. The results of this section reveal that paraffin waxes not only do not reinforce the interaction between the asphaltene unit sheets, they destabilize asphaltene assembly and dimerization. AIM (Atom in Molecules) analysis shows the destabilizing effect of wax on asphaltene assembly as a reduction in the number of cage and bond critical points between asphaltenes. This destabilization effect among interacting systems (asphaltene-asphaltene and wax-asphaltene) does not support the hypothesis that interaction between paraffin waxes and non-wax components, such as asphaltene, is responsible for their co-precipitation and bee formation. To further examine the effect of wax component on asphalt microstructure experimentally, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the surface morphology of an asphalt sample doped with 1% to 25% paraffin wax. In agreement with the conclusions drawn from the DFT approach, our experiments indicate that paraffin wax tends to crystallize separately and form lamellar paraffin wax crystal inclusions with 10 nm thickness. Moreover, the addition of 3% wax

  12. Ear drops for the removal of ear wax.

    PubMed

    Burton, M J; Dorée, C J

    2003-01-01

    Problems attributed to the accumulation of wax (cerumen) are one of the most common reasons for people to present to their general practitioners with ear trouble (Sharp 1990). Treatment for this condition often involves use of a wax softening agent (cerumenolytic) in order to disperse the cerumen and reduce the need for syringing, or to facilitate syringing should it prove necessary, but there is no consensus on the effectiveness of the wide variety of cerumenolytics in use. To assess the effectiveness of ear drops (cerumenolytics) for the removal of symptomatic ear wax. We searched the Cochrane ENT Group Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 1, 2003), and MEDLINE and EMBASE up to March 2003. Reference lists of all trials were also manually searched. We identified all randomised controlled trials (with or without blinding) in which a cerumenolytic was evaluated in comparison with either no treatment, a placebo, or other cerumenolytics in participants with hard or impacted ear wax, and in which the proportion of participants with sufficient clearance of the external canal to make further mechanical clearance unnecessary (primary outcome measure) was stated or calculable. The full text articles of all the retrieved trials of possible relevance were reviewed by the two reviewers and the inclusion criteria applied independently. Any differences in opinion about which studies to include in the review were resolved by discussion. Trials were graded for methodological quality using the Cochrane approach. Data extraction was performed in a standardised manner by one reviewer and rechecked by the other reviewer, and where necessary investigators were contacted to obtain missing information. Meta-analysis was neither possible nor considered appropriate because of the heterogeneity of the treatments, treatment amounts and durations, trial procedures, and scoring systems. A narrative overview of the results is therefore presented. Eight

  13. System and method for the mitigation of paraffin wax deposition from crude oil by using ultrasonic waves

    DOEpatents

    Towler, Brian F.

    2007-09-04

    A method for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls. The method comprises positioning at least one ultrasonic frequency generating device adjacent the production tubing walls and producing at least one ultrasonic frequency thereby disintegrating the wax and inhibiting the wax from attaching to the production tubing walls. A system for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls is also provided.

  14. Problems during orthognathic surgery resulting from errors in diagnostic wax bite.

    PubMed

    Agbaje, Jimoh Olubanwo; Sun, Yi; Lambrichts, Ivo; Politis, Constantinus

    2013-05-01

    There are many problems associated with model surgery and splint fabrication, and they can directly affect the results of surgery. An erroneous diagnostic wax bite can lead to improper positioning of the upper jaw during bimaxillary surgery. In addition, postoperative malocclusions that are out of orthodontic range often are initiated perioperatively by insufficient surgical control over interdigitation, overjet, overbite, and control of the midlines. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether wax bites can be used effectively in patients undergoing bimaxillary operations. In 5 (10%) of 50 patients, the wax bite did not fit properly. Based on these preliminary results, we believe it would be prudent to build safety measures into the treatment of patients who require bimaxillary surgery. If the wax bite does not fit properly at the beginning of surgery, navigation tools could be used to overcome inaccuracies resulting from the wax bite.

  15. Biodegradation of paraffin wax by crude Aspergillus enzyme preparations for potential use in removing paraffin deposits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Paraffin deposition problems have plagued the oil industry. Whist mechanical and chemical methods are problematic, microbiological method of paraffin removal is considered an alternative. However, studies have mainly investigated the use of bacteria, with little attention to the potential of fungi. The performance of six Aspergillus isolates to degrade paraffin wax was evaluated under laboratory conditions using solid enzyme preparations. The results showed that all the six enzyme preparations efficiently improved the solubility of paraffin wax in n-hexane and degraded n-alkanes in paraffin wax. The degradation process was accompanied by dynamic production of gases (CO2 and H2 ) and organic acids (oxalate and propionate). The shape of wax crystals markedly changed after enzymatic degradation, with a rough surface and a loose structure. This study indicates that extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus spp. can efficiently degrade paraffin wax. These enzyme preparations have the potential for use in oil wells with paraffin deposition problems.

  16. Feasibility study for wax deposition imaging in oil pipelines by PGNAA technique.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Can; Jia, Wenbao; Hei, Daqian; Wei, Zhiyong; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-10-01

    Wax deposition in pipelines is a crucial problem in the oil industry. A method based on the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis technique was applied to reconstruct the image of wax deposition in oil pipelines. The 2.223MeV hydrogen capture gamma rays were used to reconstruct the wax deposition image. To validate the method, both MCNP simulation and experiments were performed for wax deposited with a maximum thickness of 20cm. The performance of the method was simulated using the MCNP code. The experiment was conducted with a (252)Cf neutron source and a LaBr3: Ce detector. A good correspondence between the simulations and the experiments was observed. The results obtained indicate that the present approach is efficient for wax deposition imaging in oil pipelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of Proteins with Wide-angle X-ray Solution Scattering (WAXS)

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Lee

    2011-01-01

    X-ray solution scattering in both the small-angle (SAXS) and wide-angle (WAXS) regimes is making an increasing impact on our understanding of biomolecular complexes. The accurate calculation of WAXS patterns from atomic coordinates has positioned the approach for rapid growth and integration with existing Structural Genomics efforts. WAXS data are sensitive to small structural changes in proteins; useful for calculation of the pair-distribution function at relatively high resolution; provides a means to characterize the breadth of the structural ensemble in solution; and can be used to identify proteins with similar folds. WAXS data are often used to test structural models, identify structural similarities and characterize structural changes. WAXS is highly complementary to crystallography and NMR. It holds great potential for the testing of structural models of proteins; identification of proteins that may exhibit novel folds; characterization of unfolded or natively disordered proteins; and detection of structural changes associated with protein function. PMID:20049539

  18. FT-IR analysis of phosphorylated protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshihashi, Sachiko S.; Chihara, Kunihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-09-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are the most remarkable posttranslational modifications, are considered to be important chemical reactions that control the activation of proteins. We examine the phosphorylation analysis method by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group that observed at about 1070cm-1 (9.4μm) with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR). This study indicates that it is possible to identify a phosphorylation by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group observed at about 1070 cm-1 with FT-IR method. As long as target peptides have the same amino acid sequence, it is possible to identify the phosphorylated sites (threonine, serine and tyrosine).

  19. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paepe, A. T. G.; Dyke, J. M.; Hendra, P. J.; Langkilde, F. W.

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  20. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, A T; Dyke, J M; Hendra, P J; Langkilde, F W

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  1. Geographically Related Variation in Epicuticular Wax Traits of Pinus nigra Populations from Southern Carpathians and Central Balkans - Taxonomic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Zorica S; Zlatković, Bojan K; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of epicuticular waxes of nine populations from three Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subspecies (namely subsp. nigra, subsp. banatica (Borbás) Novák, and subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) from Southern Carpathians and central Balkan Peninsula were analyzed using GC/MS and GC/FID chromatography, and multivariate statistical techniques with respect to biogeography and taxonomy. In the needle waxes, four primary alcohols and 14 n-alkanes ranging from C21 to C33 were identified, and the most abundant compounds were the four odd-numbered n-alkanes C27 , C25 , C23 , and C29. Multivariate statistical analyses (CDA and CA) have shown existence of three P. nigra groups and suggested clinal differentiation as a mechanism of genetic variation across a geographic area: the first group consisted of the southernmost populations of subsp. pallasiana from Macedonia, the second consisted of the northernmost subsp. banatica populations from Romania, while all populations in Serbia described as three different subspecies (nigra, banatica, and pallasiana) formed the third group together with subsp. nigra population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to simple linear regression, geographic latitude and four bioclimatic parameters were moderately correlated with the contents of epicuticular wax compounds that are important in population discrimination, while stepwise multiple regression showed that latitude participated in most of the regression models for predicting the composition of the epicuticular waxes. These results agree with CDA and CA analysis, and confirmed the possibility of recognition of fine geographic differentiation of the analyzed P. nigra populations. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  2. Rapid analysis of 13C in plant-wax n-alkanes for reconstruction of terrestrial vegetation signals from aquatic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffee, Kelsey E.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean; Wagner, Thomas; Hayes, John M.

    2004-10-01

    Long-chain, odd-carbon-numbered C25 to C35n-alkanes are characteristic components of epicuticular waxes produced by terrestrial higher plants. They are delivered to aquatic systems via eolian and fluvial transport and are preserved in underlying sediments. The isotopic compositions of these products can serve as records of past vegetation. We have developed a rapid method for stable carbon isotopic analyses of total plant-wax n-alkanes using a novel, moving-wire system coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (MW-irMS). The n-alkane fractions are prepared from sediment samples by (1) saponification and extraction with organic solvents, (2) chromatographic separation using silica gel, (3) isolation of straight-chain carbon skeletons using a zeolite molecular sieve, and (4) oxidation and removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons with RuO4. Short-chain n-alkanes of nonvascular plant origin (wax n-alkanes. The amplitude of the variations was smaller, indicating contributions from non-plant-wax hydrocarbons, but the measurements revealed variations in carbon isotopic composition that are consistent with vegetation zones on the adjacent continent.

  3. Rapid analysis of 13C in plant-wax n-alkanes for reconstruction of terrestrial vegetation signals from aquatic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffee, Kelsey E.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean; Wagner, Thomas; Hayes, John M.

    2004-10-01

    Long-chain, odd-carbon-numbered C25 to C35 n-alkanes are characteristic components of epicuticular waxes produced by terrestrial higher plants. They are delivered to aquatic systems via eolian and fluvial transport and are preserved in underlying sediments. The isotopic compositions of these products can serve as records of past vegetation. We have developed a rapid method for stable carbon isotopic analyses of total plant-wax n-alkanes using a novel, moving-wire system coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (MW-irMS). The n-alkane fractions are prepared from sediment samples by (1) saponification and extraction with organic solvents, (2) chromatographic separation using silica gel, (3) isolation of straight-chain carbon skeletons using a zeolite molecular sieve, and (4) oxidation and removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons with RuO4. Short-chain n-alkanes of nonvascular plant origin (wax n-alkanes. The amplitude of the variations was smaller, indicating contributions from non-plant-wax hydrocarbons, but the measurements revealed variations in carbon isotopic composition that are consistent with vegetation zones on the adjacent continent.

  4. Direct chemical profiling of olive (Olea europaea) fruit epicuticular waxes by direct electrospray-ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Romero, Agustí; Caixach, Josep

    2015-03-01

    In the present paper, an electrospray ionization (ESI)-Orbitrap method is proposed for the direct chemical profiling of epicuticular wax (EW) from Olea europaea fruit. It constitutes a rapid and efficient tool suitable for a wide-ranging screening of a large number of samples. In a few minutes, the method provides a comprehensive characterization of total EW extracts, based on the molecular formula of their components. Accurate mass measurements are obtained by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, and compositional restrictions are set on the basis of the information available from previous studies of olive EW. By alternating positive and negative ESI modes within the same analysis, complementary results are obtained and a wide range of chemical species is covered. This provides a detailed compositional overview that otherwise would only be available by applying multiple analytical techniques.

  5. Changes in leaf cuticular waxes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plants exposed to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan Su; Park, Si Hyung; Jenks, Matthew A

    2007-09-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops, having seeds and oil that are highly valued as a traditional health food. The objective of this study was to evaluate leaf cuticular wax constituents across a diverse selection of sesame cultivars, and the responses of these waxes to drought-induced wilting. Water-deficit was imposed on 18 sesame cultivars by withholding irrigation for 15d during the post-flowering stage, and the effect on seed yield and leaf waxes compared with a well-watered control. Leaf cuticular waxes were dominated by alkanes (59% of total wax), with aldehydes being the next-most abundant class. Compared to well-irrigated plants, drought treatment caused an increase in wax amount on most cultivars, with only three cultivars having a notable reduction. When expressed as an average across all cultivars, drought treatment caused a 30% increase in total wax amount, with a 34% increase in total alkanes, a 13% increase in aldehydes, and a 28% increase in the total of unknowns. In all cultivars, the major alkane constituents were the C27, C29, C31, C33, and C35 homologs, whereas the major aldehydes were the C30, C32, and C34 homologs, and drought exposure had only minor effects on the chain length distribution within these and other wax classes. Drought treatments caused a large decrease in seed yield per plant, but did not affect the mean weight of individual seeds, showing that sesame responds to post-flowering drought by reducing seed numbers, but not seed size. Seed yield was inversely correlated with the total wax amount (-0.466*), indicating that drought induction of leaf wax deposition does not contribute directly to seed set. Further studies are needed to elucidate the ecological role for induction of the alkane metabolic pathway by drought in regulating sesame plant survival and seed development in water-limiting environments.

  6. Understanding wax screen-printing: a novel patterning process for microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Chunsun; Liu, Feifei

    2015-09-03

    In this work, we first introduce the fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) using a wax screen-printing approach that is suitable for simple, inexpensive, rapid, low-energy-consumption and high-throughput preparation of cloth-based analytical devices. We have carried out a detailed study on the wax screen-printing of μCADs and have obtained some interesting results. Firstly, an analytical model is established for the spreading of molten wax in cloth. Secondly, a new wax screen-printing process has been proposed for fabricating μCADs, where the melting of wax into the cloth is much faster (∼5 s) and the heating temperature is much lower (75 °C). Thirdly, the experimental results show that the patterning effects of the proposed wax screen-printing method depend to a certain extent on types of screens, wax melting temperatures and melting time. Under optimized conditions, the minimum printing width of hydrophobic wax barrier and hydrophilic channel is 100 μm and 1.9 mm, respectively. Importantly, the developed analytical model is also well validated by these experiments. Fourthly, the μCADs fabricated by the presented wax screen-printing method are used to perform a proof-of-concept assay of glucose or protein in artificial urine with rapid high-throughput detection taking place on a 48-chamber cloth-based device and being performed by a visual readout. Overall, the developed cloth-based wax screen-printing and arrayed μCADs should provide a new research direction in the development of advanced sensor arrays for detection of a series of analytes relevant to many diverse applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diester waxes containing 2-hydroxy fatty acids from the uropygial gland secretion of the white stork (Ciconia ciconia).

    PubMed

    Jacob, J

    1976-11-01

    The uropygial gland of the white stork secrets mono- and diester waxes as well as triglycerides, all of which contain unbranched medium chain fatty acids. n-Decanol and n-dodecanol have been the only alcohols detected in both types of waxes. The diester waxes contain 2-hydroxy fatty acids.

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of Tissue Surface Adaption of CAD-Designed and 3D Printed Wax Pattern of Maxillary Complete Denture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hu; Wang, Han; Lv, Peijun; Wang, Yong; Sun, Yuchun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To quantitatively evaluate the tissue surface adaption of a maxillary complete denture wax pattern produced by CAD and 3DP. Methods. A standard edentulous maxilla plaster cast model was used, for which a wax pattern of complete denture was designed using CAD software developed in our previous study and printed using a 3D wax printer, while another wax pattern was manufactured by the traditional manual method. The cast model and the two wax patterns were scanned in the 3D scanner as “DataModel,” “DataWaxRP,” and “DataWaxManual.” After setting each wax pattern on the plaster cast, the whole model was scanned for registration. After registration, the deviations of tissue surface between “DataModel” and “DataWaxRP” and between “DataModel” and “DataWaxManual” were measured. The data was analyzed by paired t-test. Results. For both wax patterns produced by the CAD&RP method and the manual method, scanning data of tissue surface and cast surface showed a good fit in the majority. No statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between the CAD&RP method and the manual method. Conclusions. Wax pattern of maxillary complete denture produced by the CAD&3DP method is comparable with traditional manual method in the adaption to the edentulous cast model. PMID:26583108

  9. 76 FR 46277 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Request for Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... request for comments on the scope of antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's... determinations involving the Order. \\1\\ See Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of...

  10. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... of initiation of the sunset review of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic of China...

  11. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  12. Biodegradable composite scaffolds of bioactive glass/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for hemostatic and bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Hong; Pan, Jianfeng; Yan, Zuoqin; Yao, Zhenjun; Fan, Wenshuai; Guo, Changan

    2015-02-01

    Hemostasis in orthopedic osteotomy or bone cutting requires different methods and materials. The bleeding of bone marrow can be mostly stopped by bone wax. However, the wax cannot be absorbed, which leads to artificial prosthesis loosening, foreign matter reaction, and infection. Here, a bioactive glass/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose (BG/CS/CMC) composite scaffold was designed to replace traditional wax. WST-1 assay indicated the BG/CS/CMC composite resulted in excellent biocompatibility with no cytotoxicity. In vivo osteogenesis assessment revealed that the BG/CS/CMC composite played a dominant role in bone regeneration and hemostasis. The BG/CS/CMC composite had the same hemostasis effect as bone wax; in addition its biodegradation also led to the functional reconstruction of bone defects. Thus, BG/CS/CMC scaffolds can serve as a potential material for bone repair and hemostasis in critical-sized bone defects.

  13. Waxing and Waning of Forests: Late Quaternary Biogeography of Lake Malawi, Southeast Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivory, S.; Lézine, A. M.; Vincens, A.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    African ecosystems are at great risk due to climate and land-use change. Despite the status of several of these regions as biodiversity hotspots, long-standing ideas about African ecology and biogeography have been unable to be tested until now due to lack of sufficiently long records. Here, we present the first long, continuous terrestrial record of vegetation from Lake Malawi, East Africa which goes back to the early Late Quaternary, permitting us to investigate changes in physiognomy and forest composition over many transitions. In this record, we observe eight phases of forest expansion and collapse. Although diversity is much greater during forest phases, composition varies little from phase to phase. Very high abundances of afromontane taxa suggest frequent widespread colonization of the lowlands by modern high elevation trees. Although there are clear successional stages within each forest such that turnover is great within a single phase, among forest samples between phases, there is little dissimilarity. Each forest phase is interrupted by rapid decline of arboreal taxa and expansion of semi-arid grasslands or woodlands whose composition varies greatly from phase to phase. The variable composition of the more open phases, all occurring during arid periods, is likely dynamically linked to thresholds in regional hydrology associated with lake level and moisture recycling within the watershed. This vegetation is unlike any found at Malawi today, with assemblages suggesting strong Somali-Masai affinities. Furthermore, nearly all semi-arid assemblages contain small abundances of forest taxa typically growing in areas with wetter edaphic conditions, suggesting that moist lowland gallery forests were present but restricted to waterways during exceptionally arid times. The waxing and waning of forests throughout this interval has important implications for early human biogeography across Africa as well as disturbance regimes that are crucial for the maintenance of

  14. FT 3 Flight Test Cards for Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.

  15. Structural analysis of wheat wax (Triticum aestivum, c.v. 'Naturastar' L.): from the molecular level to three dimensional crystals.

    PubMed

    Koch, K; Barthlott, W; Koch, S; Hommes, A; Wandelt, K; Mamdouh, W; De-Feyter, S; Broekmann, P

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the self assembly process of plant epicuticular waxes, and the molecular arrangement within the crystals, re-crystallisation of wax platelets was studied on biological and non-biological surfaces. Wax platelets were extracted from the leaf blades of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., c.v. 'Naturastar', Poaceae). Waxes were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Octacosan-1-ol was found to be the most abundant chemical component of the wax mixture (66 m%) and also the determining compound for the shape of the wax platelets. The electron diffraction pattern showed that both the wax mixture and pure octacosan-1-ol are crystalline. The re-crystallisation of the natural wax mixture and the pure octacosan-1-ol were studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Crystallisation of wheat waxes and pure octacosano-1-ol on the non polar highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) led to the formation of platelet structures similar to those found on the plant surface. In contrast, irregular wax morphologies and flat lying plates were formed on glass, silicon, salt crystals (NaCl) and mica surfaces. Movement of wheat wax through isolated Convallaria majalis cuticles led to typical wax platelets of wheat, arranged in the complex patterns typical for C. majalis. STM of pure octacosan-1-ol monolayers on HOPG showed that the arrangement of the molecules strictly followed the hexagonal structure of the substrate crystal. Re-crystallisation of wheat waxes on non-polar crystalline HOPG substrate showed that technical surfaces could be used to generate microstructured, biomimetic surfaces. AFM and SEM studies proved that a template effect of the substrate determined the orientation of the re-grown crystals. These effects of the structure and polarity of the substrate on the morphology of the epicuticular waxes are relevant for

  16. Preparation and characterization of PEG-PPG-PEG copolymer/pregelatinized starch blends for use as resorbable bone hemostatic wax.

    PubMed

    Suwanprateeb, J; Suvannapruk, W; Thammarakcharoen, F; Chokevivat, W; Rukskul, P

    2013-12-01

    In this study, polymer blends between PEG-PPG-PEG copolymer mixtures and pregelatinized starch at various compositions ranging from 0 to 3 % by weight were prepared and evaluated for potential use as novel resorbable bone hemostatic wax. It was found that the prepared samples had sufficient smearability for use as a bone wax. An addition of pregelatinized starch increased the hardness, smoothness and consistency of the texture while decreasing the adherence to glove. Thermal analysis indicated that the heat of fusion slightly decreased with increasing pregelatinized starch content. Compressive stiffness tended to decrease with increasing starch content for concentrations lower than 20 %, but re-increased at higher starch levels. In contrast, adherence deformation increased initially, but then decreased with increasing starch content. This behavior was related to the dependence of softening or reinforcing effect on the level of starch concentration in the samples. Adherence load and energy decreased with the addition of pregelatinized starch implying the decrease in adhesiveness of the samples. Furthermore, increasing the pregelatized starch amount also increased the liquid sealing duration of the samples at both 23 and 37 °C. Cytotoxicity tests against osteoblasts using a MTT assay revealed that the all the prepared samples and their raw materials did not show any cytotoxic potential. Formulations containing pregelatinized starch content between 20 and 30 % were found to show optimized performance.

  17. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  18. Synchrotron radiation microdiffraction of ballistic molten wax microdrops

    SciTech Connect

    Graceffa, R.; Burghammer, M.; Davies, R. J.; Riekel, C.

    2008-08-15

    Using stroboscopic techniques, diffraction patterns of ballistic paraffin wax microdrops have been observed. The microdrops, generated by a high-temperature ink-jet system, travel through the 1 {mu}m synchrotron radiation beam with a speed of about 1.4 m/s. Diffraction patterns were recorded in flight by a charge couple device with a microchannel plate image intensifier stage, which was activated with the microdrop generation frequency of 1000 Hz during 2 {mu}s. The data show liquid microdrops with a constant temperature up to 8 mm from the ink-jet system capillary exit. The general technique could be adapted for studying fast structural processes, such as protein conformational changes in aqueous microdrops.

  19. Eruptive syringoma developed over a waxing skin area.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Ruiz, María C; Enguita, Ana B; Navas, Rafael; Polo, Isabel; Rodríguez Peralto, José L

    2008-08-01

    Syringomas are benign, eccrine, sweat gland tumors that clinically appear as small skin-colored or yellow papules. Eruptive syringomas are rare variants that typically develop on the body's cutaneous anterior surface. Syringomas on the genital area have rarely been reported, although several authors maintain that syringoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pubic pruritic papular dermatitis. We present a case of a 31-year-old man with multiple, eruptive, asymptomatic papules involving the pubic area developed after waxing of the zone. Histological examination revealed disseminated syringomata. We postulate that the lesions were induced by depilation with a subsequently reactive inflammatory process resulting in a hyperplastic reaction of the eccrine ducts. This case supports the previous hypothesis suggesting that some of the so-called "eruptive syringomas" may start as a primary inflammatory eccrine reaction.

  20. [For an interdisciplinary museology. The particular case of anatomical waxes].

    PubMed

    Pirson, Chloé

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the anatomical models in three dimensions are often showed in Museums devoted to the History of Medicine. Due to their historical importance and the major role they played as scientific education tool, they are essentials to understand the heritage of the anatomical knowledge. Historically, within all materials used to cast the body, wax has been the most frequently used, so that the ceroplastical collection has become a part of the medical education before leading to a general public pedagogy. This paper has a double purpose. In one hand, it aims to survey the formal evolution and the uses of this production, from his creation on, in the other, to study this cultural heritage within the museology issue.

  1. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  2. Transport barriers made of cutin, suberin and associated waxes.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lukas

    2010-10-01

    Cutinized leaf epidermal cells and suberized root cell walls form important lipophilic interfaces between the plant and its environment, significantly contributing to the regulation of water uptake and the transport of solutes in and out of the plant. A wealth of new molecular information on the genes and enzymes contributing to cutin, suberin and wax biosynthesis have become available within the past few years, which is examined in the context of the functional properties of these barriers in terms of transport and permeability. Recent progress made in measuring transport properties of cutinized and suberized barriers in plants is reviewed, and promising approaches obtained with Arabidopsis and potato that might link the molecular information with transport properties are suggested.

  3. Testing of LiAlH4 as a Potential Additive to Paraffin Wax Hybrid Rocket Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-30

    paraffin wax was mixed with 7-24% LiAIH4 (lithium aluminum hydrate) by weight. The wax was then molded into candles . The candles where lit in air, and the...submerging in liquid water. The paraffin wax /LiAIH 4 candles stored for over a month under atmospheric conditions were lit and burned similarly to freshly...made candles . The addition of LiAIH4 to paraffin wax could significantly increase the burn rate of the paraffin wax used in a hybrid motor. 15. SUBJECT

  4. Removal of wax and stickies from OCC by flotation. Progress report No. 2, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, M.R.; Dyer, J.; Heise, O.

    1998-08-01

    During the second quarter of the study the authors examined the conditions necessary for repulping a mixture of wax-coated boards that would be conducive to the flotation of detached wax. Also important for the economic viability of a waxed-board repulping process is adequate defibering of the recovered paper. Several methods for the dewaxing of pulped waxed-boards were investigated. The authors have continued to survey the literature to determine what other efforts are being made to ameliorate the impact of waxed boards during the recycling of OCC.

  5. Wax inhibitor based on ethylene vinyl acetate with methyl methacrylate and diethanolamine for crude oil pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Abang, S.; Bono, A.; Krishnaiah, D.; Karali, R.; Safuan, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    Wax precipitation and deposition is one of the most significant flow assurance challenges in the production system of the crude oil. Wax inhibitors are developed as a preventive strategy to avoid an absolute wax deposition. Wax inhibitors are polymers which can be known as pour point depressants as they impede the wax crystals formation, growth, and deposition. In this study three formulations of wax inhibitors were prepared, ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl acetate co-methyl methacrylate (EVA co-MMA) and ethylene vinyl acetate co-diethanolamine (EVA co-DEA) and the comparison of their efficiencies in terms of cloud point¸ pour point, performance inhibition efficiency (%PIE) and viscosity were evaluated. The cloud point and pour point for both EVA and EVA co-MMA were similar, 15°C and 10-5°C, respectively. Whereas, the cloud point and pour point for EVA co-DEA were better, 10°C and 10-5°C respectively. In conclusion, EVA co-DEA had shown the best % PIE (28.42%) which indicates highest percentage reduction of wax deposit as compared to the other two inhibitors.

  6. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel.

  7. Fabrication of biofunctionalized microfluidic structures by low-temperature wax bonding.

    PubMed

    Díaz-González, María; Baldi, Antoni

    2012-09-18

    In this work, a new fabrication technology for microfluidics based on the use of wax is described. Microfluidic structures are assembled using wax as both a thermoplastic adhesive layer between two glass substrates and a spacer layer defining the microchannels. Wax patterns with dimensions down to 25 μm are easily produced on glass substrates using specially developed decal-transfer microlithography. A complete microfluidic system is created by bonding the wax patterned layer with an additional glass substrate. On the basis of the special melting behavior of waxes, an effective glass-wax bonding is achieved at 40 °C by applying a soft pressure and without the requirement of any glass pretreatment. Wax bonding provides an effective sealing of the fluidic networks even on nonflat glass substrates (i.e., containing metal electrodes). The mild conditions required for the bonding process enables the fabrication of lab-on-a-chip devices incorporating biomolecules, as is demonstrated with the implementation of a simple heterogeneous immunoassay in a microfluidic device with amperometric detection.

  8. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed Central

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-01-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  9. Structural profiling of wax biopolymer from Pinus roxburghii Sarg. needles using spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pallavi; Sharma, Pradeep; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-11-01

    Pinus roxburghii Sarg. is the most abundant species in Himalayan region. The needles of the species largely contribute to the forest biomass and remain the major cause of forest fires leading to climate change, biodiversity loss, etc. Intriguingly, the layer of needles contains wax, a biomacromolecule with potential chemical functionalities for value addition. In the present study, a distinctive approach towards complete structural analysis of the isolated wax in its native state has been done using (1)H, (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, TOCSY along with GC-MS of the methyl esters of constituent fatty acids. The wax was isolated in a quantitative yield of 1.64% and analyses suggest that it is a polymer of linearly attached fatty acid esters which on hydrolysis yielded three types of ω-hydroxy fatty acids viz. 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid, 14-hydroxytetradecanoic acid and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid in a ratio of 1:1:2 respectively. Complete assignments for a carbonyl group, α-, β- and other methylenes present in wax were achieved; corroborating the presence of polyester. In particular, identification of wax structure was accomplished through NMR; thereby providing a lead towards future structural analysis of waxes in their native form. The study would also be helpful to generate commercially important compounds derived from pine needle wax. This will offer an opportunity for utilisation of pine needle biomass: a root cause of Himalayan forest fires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Altering small and medium alcohol selectivity in the wax ester synthase.

    PubMed

    Barney, Brett M; Ohlert, Janet M; Timler, Jacobe G; Lijewski, Amelia M

    2015-11-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT or wax ester synthase) catalyzes the terminal reaction in the bacterial wax ester biosynthetic pathway, utilizing a range of alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. The wild-type wax ester synthase Maqu_0168 from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 exhibits a preference for longer fatty alcohols, while applications with smaller alcohols would yield products with desired biotechnological properties. Small and medium chain length alcohol substrates are much poorer substrates for the native enzyme, which may hinder broad application of the wax ester synthase in many proposed biosynthetic schemes. Developing approaches to improve enzyme activity toward specific smaller alcohol substrates first requires a clear understanding of which amino acids of the primary sequences of these enzymes contribute to substrate specificity in the native enzyme. In this report, we surveyed a range of potential residues and identified the leucine at position 356 and methionine at position 405 in Maqu_0168 as residues that affected selectivity toward small, branched, and aromatic alcohols when substituted with different amino acids. This analysis provides evidence of residues that line the binding site for wax ester synthase, which will aid rational approaches to improve this enzyme with specific substrates.

  11. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  12. Thermal behavior of gamma-irradiated low-density polyethylene/paraffin wax blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Saleh M.; Elnahas, H. H.; El-Zahed, H.; Abdeldaym, A.

    2016-05-01

    The thermal properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/paraffin wax blends were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and melt flow index (MFI). Blends of LDPE/wax in ratios of 100/0, 98/2, 96/4, 94/6, 92/8, 90/10 and 85/15 (w/w) were prepared by melt-mixing at the temperature of 150°C. It was found that increasing the wax content more than 15% leads to phase separation. DSC results showed that for all blends both the melting temperature (Tm) and the melting enthalpy (ΔHm) decrease linearly with an increase in wax content. TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of all blends decreases linearly with increasing wax content. No clear correlation was observed between the melting point and thermal stability. Horowitz and Metzger method was used to determine the thermal activation energy (Ea). MFI increased exponentially by increasing the wax content. The effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal behavior of the blends was also investigated at different gamma irradiation doses. Significant correlations were found between the thermal parameters (Tm, ΔHm, T5%, Ea and MFI) and the amount of wax content and gamma irradiation.

  13. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  14. Characterization and chromosomal organization of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Biao; Liu, Wenrui; Peng, Qingwu; He, Xiaoming; Xie, Dasen

    2014-11-01

    Wax gourd (2n=2x=24) is an important vegetable species in Cucurbitaceae. Because it can be stored for a very long period of time, it plays an important role in ensuring the annual supply and regulating off-season supply of the vegetables. However, the availability of genetic information about wax gourd is limited. This study aimed to identify the useful genetic information for wax gourd. The conserved domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia retrotransposons were isolated from the genome of wax gourd using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. A total of twenty eight RT sequences were obtained, which showed high heterogeneity with the similarity ranging from 47.5% to 94.3%. Sixteen (57.1%) of them were found to be defective, being disrupted by stop codons and/or frameshift mutations. These 28 sequences were divided into five subfamilies. The comparative phylogenetic analysis with other Cucurbitaceae species from GenBank database showed that most retrotransposons derived from the same genus tended to cluster together, although there were a few exceptions. These results indicate that both vertical transmission and horizontal transmission are the sources of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with Ty1-copia retrotransposon sequences as probes revealed that this kind of retrotransposons had a dispersed genomic organization, physically distributed among all the chromosomes of wax gourd, with clusters in the heterochromatin regions. This is the first report of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd, which would be helpful for our understanding about the organization and evolutions of wax gourd genome and also provide valuable information for our utilization of wax gourd retrotransposons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Macrofossil and Leaf Wax Biomarkers Reveal Vegetational and Climate History of Tamarack Pond, Black Rock Forest, Southeastern New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, M.; Peteet, D. M.; Nichols, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Tamarack Pond (41.39500°N 74.02505°W) is located at an elevation of 1305 ft, within the variable topography (Fig. 3) of Black Rock Forest, a 3830-acre oak (Quercus) dominated forest located in the Hudson Highlands Physiographic Province in southeastern New York State. A 7.2 m core retrieved in 4 m of water with a modified Livingstone piston corer was subsampled at 2 and 4-cm intervals from the base of the core through the early Holocene. The basal date of 16, 200 cal. yr BP on Dryas integrifolia leaves in inorganic clays demonstrates the pond formation in a landscape of sparse tundra with Salix, Daphnia, and craneflies. Subsequent inorganic layers record Dryas, Salix, Alnus, Polytrichum juniperum, Sphagnum, and bryozoan statoblasts. A dramatic shift to 25% organic matter in the pond records Picea needles and the first record of charcoal. Continued increases in LOI in the pond are correlative with the presence of Abies balsamea and Betula papyrifera appears as the boreal forest develops and tundra disappears. A return to colder conditions is suggested with a slight decline in LOI as Betula glandulosa and Larix laricina are present along with the boreal mixture, and a large increase in Daphnia ephippia. A return to warmer conditions ensues with the decline of the boreal conifers and the presence of Tsuga canadensis. Leaf wax data will be presented along with the macrofossil results.

  16. Antimicrobial activity in the egg wax of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) is associated with free fatty acids C16:1 and C18:2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijun; Thomson, Euan L S; Liu, Jingze; Dennis, Jonathan J; Jacobs, René L; Kaufman, W Reuben

    2012-12-01

    Untreated eggs of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) exhibited antimicrobial activity (AMA) against Gram-negative but not Gram-positive bacteria; eggs denuded of wax by solvent extraction showed no AMA. The unfractionated egg wax extract, however, showed AMA against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria, as also shown by Arrieta et al. (Exp Appl Acarol 39: 297-313, 2006). In this study we partitioned the egg wax into various fractions, using a variety of techniques, analyzed their compositions, and tested them for AMA. The crude aqueous extract exhibited AMA. However, although more than 30 metabolites were identified in this extract by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, none of them seemed likely to be responsible for the observed AMA. In the crude organic extract, cholesterol esters were the most abundant lipids, but were devoid of AMA. Fatty acids (FAs), with chain lengths between C13 and C26 were the next most abundant lipids. After lipid fractionation and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, free FAs, especially C16:1 and C18:2, accounted for most of the AMA in the organic extract. The material responsible for AMA in the crude aqueous extract remains unidentified. No AMA was detected in the intracellular contents of untreated eggs.

  17. High-yield preparation of wax esters via lipase-catalyzed esterification using fatty acids and alcohols from crambe and camelina oils.

    PubMed

    Steinke, G; Weitkamp, P; Klein, E; Mukherjee, K D

    2001-02-01

    Fatty acids obtained from seed oils of crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and camelina (Camelina sativa) via alkaline saponification or steam splitting were esterified using lipases as biocatalysts with oleyl alcohol and the alcohols derived from crambe and camelina oils via hydrogenolysis of their methyl esters. Long-chain wax esters were thus obtained in high yields when Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica) and papaya (Carica papaya) latex lipase were used as biocatalysts and vacuum was applied to remove the water formed. The highest conversions to wax esters were obtained with Novozym 435 (> or =95%) after 4-6 h of reaction, whereas with papaya latex lipase such a high degree of conversion was attained after 24 h. Products obtained from stoichiometric amounts of substrates were almost exclusively (>95%) composed of wax esters having compositions approaching that of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil, especially when crambe fatty acids in combination with camelina alcohols or camelina fatty acids in combination with crambe alcohols were used as substrates.

  18. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research.

  19. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  20. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kim, Moon S; Mo, Changyeun; Bae, Hanhong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-09-24

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and β coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.