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Sample records for ftd-3 chmp2b mutation

  1. Presymptomatic cerebral blood flow changes in CHMP2B mutation carriers of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD-3), measured with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lunau, Line; Mouridsen, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Østergaard, Leif; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Isaacs, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess functional changes measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the presymptomatic stage of frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) caused by a truncating mutation in CHMP2B. Design Case–control study. Setting A memory clinic and tertiary referrals centre for dementia and inherited neurodegenerative disorders. Participants The authors included 11 presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers and seven first-degree-related family non-carriers. Participants were MRI scanned twice with an interval of 15 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures Local functional changes in brain tissue perfusion were measured as CBF with two different MR techniques, gradient echo (GRE) and spin echo (SE), focusing on CBF in all cerebral vessels (GRE) and cerebral capillaries (SE), respectively. As planned, data analysis included co-registration of perfusion images to structural T1 images. Perfusion data were then extracted from seven regions-of-interest, normalised to white matter and statistically compared between carriers and non-carriers. Results For SE, contrasts between carriers and non-carriers showed significant differences in temporal, occipital and parietal lobes and in hippocampus. There was no evidence of changes from baseline to follow-up. For GRE, there were no significant differences between carriers and non-carriers. Conclusions Significantly decreased CBF was found in presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers in occipital-and parietal lobes. Comparing SE with GRE, data indicate that FTD-3 vascular pathology might primarily affect brain capillaries. PMID:22422914

  2. Presymptomatic cerebral blood flow changes in CHMP2B mutation carriers of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD-3), measured with MRI.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Line; Mouridsen, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Ostergaard, Leif; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Isaacs, Adrian; Johannsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To assess functional changes measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the presymptomatic stage of frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) caused by a truncating mutation in CHMP2B. Case-control study. A memory clinic and tertiary referrals centre for dementia and inherited neurodegenerative disorders. The authors included 11 presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers and seven first-degree-related family non-carriers. Participants were MRI scanned twice with an interval of 15 months. Local functional changes in brain tissue perfusion were measured as CBF with two different MR techniques, gradient echo (GRE) and spin echo (SE), focusing on CBF in all cerebral vessels (GRE) and cerebral capillaries (SE), respectively. As planned, data analysis included co-registration of perfusion images to structural T1 images. Perfusion data were then extracted from seven regions-of-interest, normalised to white matter and statistically compared between carriers and non-carriers. For SE, contrasts between carriers and non-carriers showed significant differences in temporal, occipital and parietal lobes and in hippocampus. There was no evidence of changes from baseline to follow-up. For GRE, there were no significant differences between carriers and non-carriers. Significantly decreased CBF was found in presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers in occipital-and parietal lobes. Comparing SE with GRE, data indicate that FTD-3 vascular pathology might primarily affect brain capillaries.

  3. Cognitive impairment in the preclinical stage of dementia in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers: a longitudinal prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Jette; Teasdale, Thomas W; Johannsen, Peter; Nielsen, Jorgen E; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Isaacs, Adrian; Brown, Jerry M; Gade, Anders

    2013-02-01

    A longitudinal study spanning over 8 years and including 17 asymptomatic individuals with CHMP2B mutations was conducted to assess the earliest neuropsychological changes in autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal dementia (FTD) linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3). Subjects were assessed with neuropsychological tests in 2002, 2005 and 2010. Cross-sectional analyses showed that the mutation carriers scored lower on tests of psychomotor speed, working memory, executive functions and verbal memory than a control group consisting of not-at-risk family members and spouses. Longitudinal analyses showed a gradual decline in psychomotor speed, working memory capacity and global executive measures in the group of non-demented mutation carriers that was not found in the control group. In contrast, there were no significant group differences in domain scores on memory or visuospatial functions. On an individual level the cognitive changes over time varied considerably. Subjects with CHMP2B mutation show cognitive changes dominated by executive dysfunctions, years before they fulfil diagnostic criteria of FTD. However, there is great heterogeneity in the individual cognitive trajectories.

  4. Cortical volumes and atrophy rates in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers and related non-carriers.

    PubMed

    Eskildsen, Simon F; Østergaard, Lasse R; Rodell, Anders B; Østergaard, Leif; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Isaacs, Adrian M; Johannsen, Peter

    2009-04-15

    Frontotemporal dementia constitutes the third most prevalent neurodegenerative disease with dementia. We compared cortical structural changes in nine presymptomatic CHMP2B frontotemporal dementia mutation positive individuals with seven mutation negative family members. Using serial MRI scans with a mean interval of 16 months and surface based cortical segmentation we measured cortical thickness and volume, and quantified atrophy rates. Cortical thickness and atrophy rates were averaged within major lobes and focal effects were determined by parametric statistical maps. The volumetric atrophy rates in the presymptomatic CHMP2B mutation carriers were statistically significant, though of a lower magnitude than those previously reported in patients of other types of frontotemporal dementia. Cortical thickness measurements revealed cortical thinning in mutation carriers bilaterally in the frontal and occipital lobes, and in the left temporal lobe. Results indicated that cortical thickness has a higher sensitivity for detecting small changes than whole-brain volumetric measures. Comparing mutation carriers with non-carriers revealed increased atrophy rates in mutation carriers bilaterally in the inferio-temporal cortex, the superior frontal cortex, and the insular cortex. These findings indicated impairment of regions involved in both behaviour and language. The symptoms previously reported in clinical CHMP2B frontotemporal dementia patients are associated with the anatomically affected regions here found in the presymptomatic mutation carriers.

  5. Frontotemporal Dementia Caused by CHMP2B Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, A.M; Johannsen, P; Holm, I; Nielsen, J.E; Consortium, FReJA

    2011-01-01

    CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The best studied example is frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) which occurs in a large Danish family, with a further CHMP2B mutation identified in an unrelated Belgian familial FTD patient. These mutations lead to C-terminal truncations of the CHMP2B protein and we will review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular effects of these mutant truncated proteins on vesicular fusion events within the endosome-lysosome and autophagy degradation pathways. We will also review the clinical features of FTD caused by CHMP2B truncation mutations as well as new brain imaging and neuropathological findings. Finally, we collate the current data on CHMP2B missense mutations, which have been reported in FTD and motor neuron disease. PMID:21222599

  6. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutations.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, A M; Johannsen, P; Holm, I; Nielsen, J E

    2011-05-01

    CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The best studied example is frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) which occurs in a large Danish family, with a further CHMP2B mutation identified in an unrelated Belgian familial FTD patient. These mutations lead to C-terminal truncations of the CHMP2B protein and we will review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular effects of these mutant truncated proteins on vesicular fusion events within the endosome-lysosome and autophagy degradation pathways. We will also review the clinical features of FTD caused by CHMP2B truncation mutations as well as new brain imaging and neuropathological findings. Finally, we collate the current data on CHMP2B missense mutations, which have been reported in FTD and motor neuron disease.

  7. CHMP2B mutations are not a cause of dementia in Dutch patients with familial and sporadic frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Rizzu, Patrizia; van Mil, Saskia E; Anar, Burcu; Rosso, Sonia M; Donker Kaat, Laura; Heutink, Peter; van Swieten, John C

    2006-12-05

    Mutations in the CHMP2B gene have been recently identified in a large Danish pedigree with autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). We report the frequency of CHMP2B mutations in 162 FTD patients recruited from a large population-based study of FTD carried out in The Netherlands. Our results suggest that mutations in CHMP2B are a rare cause of FTD as compared to MAPT mutations. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Disruption of endocytic trafficking in frontotemporal dementia with CHMP2B mutations

    PubMed Central

    Urwin, Hazel; Authier, Astrid; Nielsen, Jorgen E.; Metcalf, Daniel; Powell, Caroline; Froud, Kristina; Malcolm, Denise S.; Holm, Ida; Johannsen, Peter; Brown, Jeremy; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; van der Zee, Julie; Bruyland, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Collinge, John; Brandner, Sebastian; Futter, Clare; Isaacs, Adrian M.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in a large Danish pedigree, which is termed FTD linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3), and also in an unrelated familial FTD patient. CHMP2B is a component of the ESCRT-III complex, which is required for function of the multivesicular body (MVB), an endosomal structure that fuses with the lysosome to degrade endocytosed proteins. We report a novel endosomal pathology in CHMP2B mutation-positive patient brains and also identify and characterize abnormal endosomes in patient fibroblasts. Functional studies demonstrate a specific disruption of endosome–lysosome fusion but not protein sorting by the MVB. We provide evidence for a mechanism for impaired endosome–lysosome fusion whereby mutant CHMP2B constitutively binds to MVBs and prevents recruitment of proteins necessary for fusion to occur, such as Rab7. The fusion of endosomes with lysosomes is required for neuronal function and the data presented therefore suggest a pathogenic mechanism for FTD caused by CHMP2B mutations. PMID:20223751

  9. Disruption of endocytic trafficking in frontotemporal dementia with CHMP2B mutations.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Hazel; Authier, Astrid; Nielsen, Jorgen E; Metcalf, Daniel; Powell, Caroline; Froud, Kristina; Malcolm, Denise S; Holm, Ida; Johannsen, Peter; Brown, Jeremy; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; van der Zee, Julie; Bruyland, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Collinge, John; Brandner, Sebastian; Futter, Clare; Isaacs, Adrian M

    2010-06-01

    Mutations in CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in a large Danish pedigree, which is termed FTD linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3), and also in an unrelated familial FTD patient. CHMP2B is a component of the ESCRT-III complex, which is required for function of the multivesicular body (MVB), an endosomal structure that fuses with the lysosome to degrade endocytosed proteins. We report a novel endosomal pathology in CHMP2B mutation-positive patient brains and also identify and characterize abnormal endosomes in patient fibroblasts. Functional studies demonstrate a specific disruption of endosome-lysosome fusion but not protein sorting by the MVB. We provide evidence for a mechanism for impaired endosome-lysosome fusion whereby mutant CHMP2B constitutively binds to MVBs and prevents recruitment of proteins necessary for fusion to occur, such as Rab7. The fusion of endosomes with lysosomes is required for neuronal function and the data presented therefore suggest a pathogenic mechanism for FTD caused by CHMP2B mutations.

  10. Mutations in the endosomal ESCRTIII-complex subunit CHMP2B in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Skibinski, Gaia; Parkinson, Nicholas J; Brown, Jeremy M; Chakrabarti, Lisa; Lloyd, Sarah L; Hummerich, Holger; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Hodges, John R; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Thusgaard, Tove; Brandner, Sebastian; Brun, Arne; Rossor, Martin N; Gade, Anders; Johannsen, Peter; Sørensen, Sven Asger; Gydesen, Susanne; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Collinge, John

    2005-08-01

    We have previously reported a large Danish pedigree with autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). Here we identify a mutation in CHMP2B, encoding a component of the endosomal ESCRTIII complex, and show that it results in aberrant mRNA splicing in tissue samples from affected members of this family. We also describe an additional missense mutation in an unrelated individual with FTD. Aberration in the endosomal ESCRTIII complex may result in FTD and neurodegenerative disease.

  11. CHMP2B C-truncating mutations in frontotemporal lobar degeneration are associated with an aberrant endosomal phenotype in vitro.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Julie; Urwin, Hazel; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Bruyland, Marc; Vandenberghe, Rik; Dermaut, Bart; De Pooter, Tim; Peeters, Karin; Santens, Patrick; De Deyn, Peter P; Fisher, Elizabeth M; Collinge, John; Isaacs, Adrian M; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2008-01-15

    The charged multivesicular body protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) was recently associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) linked to chromosome 3 in a Danish FTLD family (FTD-3). In this family, a mutation in the acceptor splice site of exon 6 produced two aberrant transcripts predicting two C-truncated CHMP2B proteins due to a read through of intron 5 (p.Met178ValfsX2) and a cryptic splicing event within exon 6 (p.Met178LeufsX30). Extensive mutation analysis of CHMP2B in Belgian patients (N = 146) identified one nonsense mutation in exon 5 (c.493C>T) in a familial FTLD patient, predicting a C-truncated protein p.Gln165X analogous to the Danish mutant proteins. Overexpression of Belgian p.Gln165X in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells showed the formation of large, aberrant endosomal structures that were highly similar to those observed for Danish p.Met178ValfsX2. Together, these data suggest that C-truncating mutations in CHMP2B might underlie the pathogenic mechanism in FTLD by disturbing endosome function. We also describe a missense mutation in exon 5 of CHMP2B (p.Asn143Ser) in a familial patient with cortical basal degeneration. However, the pathogenic character of this mutation remains elusive.

  12. Patient iPSC-Derived Neurons for Disease Modeling of Frontotemporal Dementia with Mutation in CHMP2B.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Schmid, Benjamin; Nikolaisen, Nanett K; Rasmussen, Mikkel A; Aldana, Blanca I; Agger, Mikkel; Calloe, Kirstine; Stummann, Tina C; Larsen, Hjalte M; Nielsen, Troels T; Huang, Jinrong; Xu, Fengping; Liu, Xin; Bolund, Lars; Meyer, Morten; Bak, Lasse K; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Luo, Yonglun; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Holst, Bjørn; Clausen, Christian; Hyttel, Poul; Freude, Kristine K

    2017-03-14

    The truncated mutant form of the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) is causative for frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). CHMP2B is a constituent of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) and, when mutated, disrupts endosome-to-lysosome trafficking and substrate degradation. To understand the underlying molecular pathology, FTD3 patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were differentiated into forebrain-type cortical neurons. FTD3 neurons exhibited abnormal endosomes, as previously shown in patients. Moreover, mitochondria of FTD3 neurons displayed defective cristae formation, accompanied by deficiencies in mitochondrial respiration and increased levels of reactive oxygen. In addition, we provide evidence for perturbed iron homeostasis, presenting an in vitro patient-specific model to study the effects of iron accumulation in neurodegenerative diseases. All phenotypes observed in FTD3 neurons were rescued in CRISPR/Cas9-edited isogenic controls. These findings illustrate the relevance of our patient-specific in vitro models and open up possibilities for drug target development. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation is characterised by neuronal lysosomal storage pathology.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Emma L; Mizielinska, Sarah; Edgar, James R; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Marshall, Sarah; Norona, Frances E; Robbins, Miranda; Damirji, Hana; Holm, Ida E; Johannsen, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Asante, Emmanuel A; Collinge, John; Isaacs, Adrian M

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We report that mice which express FTD-causative mutant CHMP2B at physiological levels develop a novel lysosomal storage pathology characterised by large neuronal autofluorescent aggregates. The aggregates are an early and progressive pathology that occur at 3 months of age and increase in both size and number over time. These autofluorescent aggregates are not observed in mice expressing wild-type CHMP2B, or in non-transgenic controls, indicating that they are a specific pathology caused by mutant CHMP2B. Ultrastructural analysis and immuno- gold labelling confirmed that they are derived from the endolysosomal system. Consistent with these findings, CHMP2B mutation patient brains contain morphologically similar autofluorescent aggregates. These aggregates occur significantly more frequently in human CHMP2B mutation brain than in neurodegenerative disease or age-matched control brains. These data suggest that lysosomal storage pathology is the major neuronal pathology in FTD caused by CHMP2B mutation. Recent evidence suggests that two other genes associated with FTD, GRN and TMEM106B are important for lysosomal function. Our identification of lysosomal storage pathology in FTD caused by CHMP2B mutation now provides evidence that endolysosomal dysfunction is a major degenerative pathway in FTD.

  14. CHMP2B mutations are rare in French families with frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Mustapha; Guillot-Noel, Léna; Pasquier, Florence; Jornea, Ludmila; Deramecourt, Vincent; Dubois, Bruno; Le Ber, Isabelle; Brice, Alexis

    2010-12-01

    Two C-truncating CHMP2B (chromatin modifying protein 2B) mutations were recently found in Danish and Belgian families with autosomal dominant forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In addition, few CHMP2B missense mutations of uncertain pathogenic role were reported in several families with FTLD or FTLD associated with motoneuron disease (FTLD-MND). In order to determine the genetic contribution of CHMP2B mutations in FTLD and FTLD-MND families, we analyzed the CHMP2B gene in 198 French probands with familial FTLD and FTLD-MND. One CHMP2B missense variant was found in a proband with familial FTLD (0.8%). The pathogenic role of CHMP2B missense variants is unclear, however the pSer194Leu substitution, located in the C-terminal domain of the protein, was predicted to alter the stability of the protein by in silico analyses. We conclude that CHMP2B mutations represent a rare cause of familial FTLD and they are not implicated in familial FTLD-MND in French patients. The previously reported C-truncating CHMP2B mutations may be private to the Danish and Belgian pedigrees.

  15. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line via CRISPR-Cas9 mediated integration of a site-specific heterozygous mutation in CHMP2B.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Schmid, Benjamin; Nielsen, Troels T; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Clausen, Christian; Hyttel, Poul; Holst, Bjørn; Freude, Kristine K

    2016-06-16

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an early onset neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in several genes cause familial FTD and one of them is charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) on chromosome 3 (FTD3), a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III). We have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line of a healthy individual and inserted the CHMP2B IVS5AS G-C gene mutation into one of the alleles, resulting in aberrant splicing. This human iPSC line provides an ideal model to study CHMP2B-dependent phenotypes of FTD3. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line via CRISPR-Cas9 mediated integration of a site-specific homozygous mutation in CHMP2B.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Schmid, Benjamin; Nielsen, Troels T; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Clausen, Christian; Hyttel, Poul; Holst, Bjørn; Freude, Kristine K

    2016-06-16

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an early onset neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in several genes cause familial FTD and one of them is charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) on chromosome 3 (FTD3), a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III). We have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line of a healthy individual and inserted the CHMP2B IVS5AS G-C gene mutation into both alleles, resulting in aberrant splicing. This human iPSC line provides an ideal model to study CHMP2B-dependent phenotypes of FTD3. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ALS phenotypes with mutations in CHMP2B (charged multivesicular body protein 2B).

    PubMed

    Parkinson, N; Ince, P G; Smith, M O; Highley, R; Skibinski, G; Andersen, P M; Morrison, K E; Pall, H S; Hardiman, O; Collinge, J; Shaw, P J; Fisher, E M C

    2006-09-26

    Mutation in the CHMP2B gene has been implicated in frontotemporal dementia. The authors screened CHMP2B in patients with ALS and several cohorts of control samples. They identified mutations (Q206H; I29V) in two patients with non-SOD1 ALS. Neuropathology of the Q206H case showed lower motor neuron predominant disease with ubiquitylated inclusions in motor neurons. Antibodies to p62 (sequestosome 1) showed novel oligodendroglial inclusions in the motor cortex.

  18. CHMP2B mutations are not a common cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Ashley; Baker, Matthew; Boeve, Brad; Josephs, Keith; Knopman, David; Petersen, Ron; Parisi, Joseph; Dickison, Dennis; Adamson, Jennifer; Snowden, Julie; Neary, David; Mann, David; Hutton, Mike; Pickering-Brown, Stuart M

    2006-05-01

    It was reported in 1995 that a large Danish family with familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was linked to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 3. It has since been claimed that a mutation in the splice acceptor site of exon 6 of CHMP2B is the pathogenic variant in this family. In order to determine whether CHMP2B mutations are a common cause of disease in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) we sequenced all exons and flanking regions of CHMP2B in 141 familial FTLD probands from the USA and UK. We failed to find a single pathogenic variant in any case. Polymorphisms were detected but were present in control samples. We conclude that mutations in CHMP2B are a rare cause of familial FTLD and may be specific to the Danish pedigree.

  19. Mutations in CHMP2B are not a cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration in Finnish patients.

    PubMed

    Kaivorinne, A-L; Krüger, J; Udd, B; Majamaa, K; Remes, A M

    2010-11-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a genetically complex disorder. The majority of mutations linked to FTLD families are found in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (PGRN) genes. Mutations in the chromatin-modifying protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) have been identified in a few families. However, CHMP2B has been showed to be a rare cause of FTLD. Our aim was to determine the frequency of CHMP2B mutations in a clinical series of patients with FTLD in Northern Finland. We examined 72 (36 men) Finnish patients with FTLD. The mean age at onset was 58.9 (range 43–80). Symptoms of motor neuron disease (FTLDMND) were present in 12 patients (17%). Positive family history was detected in 28% of the patients. Mutations in MAPT and PGRN were excluded from these patients. All exons and exon–intron boundaries of the CHMP2B gene were sequenced. No pathogenic CHMP2B mutations were found. A rare polymorphism in the non-coding region of exon 1 (rs36098294) and three other previously reported polymorphisms were detected. Our results confirm that mutations in CHMP2B are not a common cause of FTLD. MAPT and PGRN mutations are also rare in Finnish population, suggesting that other, still unknown genetic factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of FTLD in Finnish population.

  20. TMEM106B, a frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) modifier, associates with FTD-3-linked CHMP2B, a complex of ESCRT-III.

    PubMed

    Jun, Mi-Hee; Han, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Yu-Kyung; Jang, Deok-Jin; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Lee, Jin-A

    2015-12-10

    Transmembrane protein 106B (TMEM106B) has been identified as a risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration, which is the second most common form of progressive dementia in people under 65 years of age. Mutations in charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B), which is involved in endosomal protein trafficking, have been found in chromosome 3-linked frontotemporal dementia. Despite the number of studies on both CHMP2B and TMEM106B in the endolysosomal pathway, little is known about the relationship between CHMP2B and TMEM106B in the endosomal/autophagy pathway. This study found that endogenous TMEM106B was partially sequestered in CHMP2B-positive structures, suggesting its possible involvement in endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-associated pathways. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms of TMEM106B (T185, S185, or S134N) in the ESCRT-associated pathways were characterized. The T185 and S185 variants were more localized to Rab5-/Rab7-positive endosomes compared with S134N, while all of the variants were more localized to Rab7-positive endosomes compared to Rab5-positive endosomes. T185 was more associated with CHMP2B compared to S185. Autophagic flux was slightly reduced in the T185-expressing cells compared to the control or S185-expressing cells. Moreover, T185 slightly enhanced the accumulation of EGFR, impairments in autophagic flux, and neurotoxicity that were caused by CHMP2B(Intron5) compared to S185-expressing cells. These findings suggest that the T185 variant functions as a risk factor in neurodegeneration with endolysosomal defects. This study provides a better understanding of pathogenic functions of TMEM106B, which is a risk factor for the progression of neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with endosomal defects in the aged brain.

  1. Presymptomatic generalized brain atrophy in frontotemporal dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Jonathan D; Ahsan, R Laila; Isaacs, Adrian M; Nielsen, Jorgen E; Ostergaard, Leif; Scahill, Rachael; Warren, Jason D; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C; Johannsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    CHMP2B mutations are a rare cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The clinical syndrome is dominated by personality change and behavioural symptoms, but language, memory, calculation and praxis impairments are also seen early in the course of the disease. There are no detailed studies of brain imaging in CHMP2B mutation-associated FTD. This study aimed to investigate whether there were early or presymptomatic changes in this group of patients. Subjects comprised 16 members of a Danish family with CHMP2B mutation-associated FTD. Nine subjects were presymptomatic mutation carriers with a control group of 7 mutation-negative family members. Volumetric MRI brain scans were performed on all subjects at two time points, and rates of volume change were compared between the two groups. We demonstrate that generalized atrophy occurs presymptomatically in CHMP2B gene mutation carriers. This finding suggests that mutations in CHMP2B have widespread effects throughout the brain, leading to a neuro-anatomical signature distinct from other diseases in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Mutations in CHMP2B in lower motor neuron predominant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Cox, Laura E; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Goodall, Emily F; Heath, Paul R; Higginbottom, Adrian; Mortiboys, Heather; Hollinger, Hannah C; Hartley, Judith A; Brockington, Alice; Burness, Christine E; Morrison, Karen E; Wharton, Stephen B; Grierson, Andrew J; Ince, Paul G; Kirby, Janine; Shaw, Pamela J

    2010-03-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a common late-onset neurodegenerative disease, is associated with fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) in 3-10% of patients. A mutation in CHMP2B was recently identified in a Danish pedigree with autosomal dominant FTD. Subsequently, two unrelated patients with familial ALS, one of whom also showed features of FTD, were shown to carry missense mutations in CHMP2B. The initial aim of this study was to determine whether mutations in CHMP2B contribute more broadly to ALS pathogenesis. Sequencing of CHMP2B in 433 ALS cases from the North of England identified 4 cases carrying 3 missense mutations, including one novel mutation, p.Thr104Asn, none of which were present in 500 neurologically normal controls. Analysis of clinical and neuropathological data of these 4 cases showed a phenotype consistent with the lower motor neuron predominant (progressive muscular atrophy (PMA)) variant of ALS. Only one had a recognised family history of ALS and none had clinically apparent dementia. Microarray analysis of motor neurons from CHMP2B cases, compared to controls, showed a distinct gene expression signature with significant differential expression predicting disassembly of cell structure; increased calcium concentration in the ER lumen; decrease in the availability of ATP; down-regulation of the classical and p38 MAPK signalling pathways, reduction in autophagy initiation and a global repression of translation. Transfection of mutant CHMP2B into HEK-293 and COS-7 cells resulted in the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles, aberrant lysosomal localisation demonstrated by CD63 staining and impairment of autophagy indicated by increased levels of LC3-II protein. These changes were absent in control cells transfected with wild-type CHMP2B. We conclude that in a population drawn from North of England pathogenic CHMP2B mutations are found in approximately 1% of cases of ALS and 10% of those with lower motor neuron predominant ALS. We provide a body of

  3. Mutations in CHMP2B in Lower Motor Neuron Predominant Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura E.; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Goodall, Emily F.; Heath, Paul R.; Higginbottom, Adrian; Mortiboys, Heather; Hollinger, Hannah C.; Hartley, Judith A.; Brockington, Alice; Burness, Christine E.; Morrison, Karen E.; Wharton, Stephen B.; Grierson, Andrew J.; Ince, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a common late-onset neurodegenerative disease, is associated with fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) in 3–10% of patients. A mutation in CHMP2B was recently identified in a Danish pedigree with autosomal dominant FTD. Subsequently, two unrelated patients with familial ALS, one of whom also showed features of FTD, were shown to carry missense mutations in CHMP2B. The initial aim of this study was to determine whether mutations in CHMP2B contribute more broadly to ALS pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequencing of CHMP2B in 433 ALS cases from the North of England identified 4 cases carrying 3 missense mutations, including one novel mutation, p.Thr104Asn, none of which were present in 500 neurologically normal controls. Analysis of clinical and neuropathological data of these 4 cases showed a phenotype consistent with the lower motor neuron predominant (progressive muscular atrophy (PMA)) variant of ALS. Only one had a recognised family history of ALS and none had clinically apparent dementia. Microarray analysis of motor neurons from CHMP2B cases, compared to controls, showed a distinct gene expression signature with significant differential expression predicting disassembly of cell structure; increased calcium concentration in the ER lumen; decrease in the availability of ATP; down-regulation of the classical and p38 MAPK signalling pathways, reduction in autophagy initiation and a global repression of translation. Transfection of mutant CHMP2B into HEK-293 and COS-7 cells resulted in the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles, aberrant lysosomal localisation demonstrated by CD63 staining and impairment of autophagy indicated by increased levels of LC3-II protein. These changes were absent in control cells transfected with wild-type CHMP2B. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that in a population drawn from North of England pathogenic CHMP2B mutations are found in approximately 1% of cases of ALS and 10% of

  4. Early microgliosis precedes neuronal loss and behavioural impairment in mice with a frontotemporal dementia-causing CHMP2B mutation

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Emma L.; Mancuso, Renzo; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Mizielinska, Sarah; Holmes, Holly; Powell, Nicholas; Norona, Frances; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Milioto, Carmelo; Wilson, Katherine M.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Ourselin, Sebastian; Nielsen, Jörgen E.; Johannsen, Peter; Holm, Ida; Collinge, John; Oliver, Peter L.; Gomez-Nicola, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-causing mutations in the CHMP2B gene lead to the generation of mutant C-terminally truncated CHMP2B. We report that transgenic mice expressing endogenous levels of mutant CHMP2B developed late-onset brain volume loss associated with frank neuronal loss and FTD-like changes in social behaviour. These data are the first to show neurodegeneration in mice expressing mutant CHMP2B and indicate that our mouse model is able to recapitulate neurodegenerative changes observed in FTD. Neuroinflammation has been increasingly implicated in neurodegeneration, including FTD. Therefore, we investigated neuroinflammation in our CHMP2B mutant mice. We observed very early microglial proliferation that develops into a clear pro-inflammatory phenotype at late stages. Importantly, we also observed a similar inflammatory profile in CHMP2B patient frontal cortex. Aberrant microglial function has also been implicated in FTD caused by GRN, MAPT and C9orf72 mutations. The presence of early microglial changes in our CHMP2B mutant mice indicates neuroinflammation may be a contributing factor to the neurodegeneration observed in FTD. PMID:28093491

  5. Early microgliosis precedes neuronal loss and behavioural impairment in mice with a frontotemporal dementia-causing CHMP2B mutation.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Emma L; Mancuso, Renzo; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Mizielinska, Sarah; Holmes, Holly; Powell, Nicholas; Norona, Frances; Overgaard Larsen, Jytte; Milioto, Carmelo; Wilson, Katherine M; Lythgoe, Mark F; Ourselin, Sebastian; Nielsen, Jörgen E; Johannsen, Peter; Holm, Ida; Collinge, John; Frej, A; Oliver, Peter L; Gomez-Nicola, Diego; Isaacs, Adrian M

    2017-01-16

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-causing mutations in the CHMP2B gene lead to the generation of mutant C-terminally truncated CHMP2B. We report that transgenic mice expressing endogenous levels of mutant CHMP2B developed late-onset brain volume loss associated with frank neuronal loss and FTD-like changes in social behaviour. These data are the first to show neurodegeneration in mice expressing mutant CHMP2B and indicate that our mouse model is able to recapitulate neurodegenerative changes observed in FTD. Neuroinflammation has been increasingly implicated in neurodegeneration, including FTD. Therefore, we investigated neuroinflammation in our CHMP2B mutant mice. We observed very early microglial proliferation that develops into a clear pro-inflammatory phenotype at late stages. Importantly, we also observed a similar inflammatory profile in CHMP2B patient frontal cortex. Aberrant microglial function has also been implicated in FTD caused by GRN, MAPT and C9orf72 mutations. The presence of early microglial changes in our CHMP2B mutant mice indicates neuroinflammation may be a contributing factor to the neurodegeneration observed in FTD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. The functional analysis of the CHMP2B missense mutation associated with neurodegenerative diseases in the endo-lysosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Jin-A

    2012-05-11

    Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) regulate a key sorting step of protein trafficking between endosomal compartments in lysosomal degradation. Interestingly, mutations in charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B), which is a core subunit of ESCRT-III, have been identified in some neurodegenerative diseases. However, the cellular pathogenesis resulting from CHMP2B missense mutations is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about their functional analysis in post-mitotic neurons. In order to examine their cellular pathogenesis, we analyzed their effects in the endo-lysosomal pathway in post-mitotic neurons. Interestingly, of the missense mutant proteins, CHMP2B(T104N) mostly accumulated in the Rab5- and Rab7-positive endosomes and caused delayed degradation of EGFR as compared to CHMP2B(WT). Furthermore, CHMP2B(T104N) showed less association with Vps4 ATPase and was avidly associated with Snf7-2, a core component of ESCRT-III, suggesting that it may cause defects in the process of dissociation from ESCRT. Of the missense variants, CHMP2B(T104N) caused prominent accumulation of autophagosomes. However, neuronal cell survival was not dramatically affected by expression of CHMP2B(T104N). These findings suggested that, from among the various missense mutants, CHMP2B(T104N) was associated with relatively mild cellular pathogenesis in post-mitotic neurons. This study provided a better understanding of the cellular pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases associated with various missense mutations of CHMP2B as well as endocytic defects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of CHMP2B(Intron5) in autophagy and frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Krasniak, Christopher S; Ahmad, S Tariq

    2016-10-15

    Charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) - a component of the endosomal complex required for transport-III (ESCRT-III) - is responsible for the vital membrane deformation functions in autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking. A dominant mutation in CHMP2B (CHMP2B(Intron5)) is associated with a subset of heritable frontotemporal dementia - frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3). ESCRT-III recruits Vps4, an AAA-ATPase that abscises the membrane during various cellular processes including autophagy and intraluminal vesicle formation. CHMP2B(Intron5) results in a C-terminus truncation removing an important Vps4 binding site as well as eliminating the normal autoinhibitory resting state of CHMP2B. CHMP2B is expressed in most cell types but seems to be especially vital for proper neuronal function. CHMP2B(Intron5)-mediated phenotypes include misregulation of transmembrane receptors, accumulation of multilamellar structures, abnormal lysosomal morphology, down regulation of a brain-specific micro RNA (miRNA-124), abnormal dendritic spine morphology, decrease in dendritic arborization, and cell death. Currently, transgenic-fly,-mouse, and -human cell lines are being used to better understand the diverse phenotypes and develop therapeutic approaches for the CHMP2B(Intron5)-induced FTD-3. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic screen identifies serpin5 as a regulator of the toll pathway and CHMP2B toxicity associated with frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S Tariq; Sweeney, Sean T; Lee, Jin-A; Sweeney, Neal T; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2009-07-21

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most common form of dementia before 60 years of age. Rare pathogenic mutations in CHMP2B, which encodes a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-III), are associated with FTD linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). Animal models of FTD3 have not yet been reported, and what signaling pathways are misregulated by mutant CHMP2B in vivo is unknown. Here we report the establishment of a Drosophila model of FTD3 and show the genetic interactions between mutant CHMP2B and other components of ESCRT. Through an unbiased genome-wide screen, we identified 29 modifier loci and found that serpin5 (Spn5), a largely uncharacterized serine protease inhibitor, suppresses the melanization phenotype induced by mutant CHMP2B in the fly eye. We also found that Spn5 is a negative regulator of the Toll pathway and functions extracellularly, likely by blocking the proteolytic activation of Spaetzle, the Toll receptor ligand. Moreover, Spn5 inhibited activation of the Toll pathway by mutant CHMP2B. Our findings identify Spn5 as a regulator of the Toll pathway and CHMP2B toxicity and show that the Toll pathway is a major signaling pathway misregulated by mutant CHMP2B in vivo. This fly model will be useful to further dissect genetic pathways that are potentially relevant to the pathogenesis and treatment of FTD.

  9. Genetic screen identifies serpin5 as a regulator of the toll pathway and CHMP2B toxicity associated with frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, S. Tariq; Sweeney, Sean T.; Lee, Jin-A; Sweeney, Neal T.; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2009-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most common form of dementia before 60 years of age. Rare pathogenic mutations in CHMP2B, which encodes a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-III), are associated with FTD linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). Animal models of FTD3 have not yet been reported, and what signaling pathways are misregulated by mutant CHMP2B in vivo is unknown. Here we report the establishment of a Drosophila model of FTD3 and show the genetic interactions between mutant CHMP2B and other components of ESCRT. Through an unbiased genome-wide screen, we identified 29 modifier loci and found that serpin5 (Spn5), a largely uncharacterized serine protease inhibitor, suppresses the melanization phenotype induced by mutant CHMP2B in the fly eye. We also found that Spn5 is a negative regulator of the Toll pathway and functions extracellularly, likely by blocking the proteolytic activation of Spaetzle, the Toll receptor ligand. Moreover, Spn5 inhibited activation of the Toll pathway by mutant CHMP2B. Our findings identify Spn5 as a regulator of the Toll pathway and CHMP2B toxicity and show that the Toll pathway is a major signaling pathway misregulated by mutant CHMP2B in vivo. This fly model will be useful to further dissect genetic pathways that are potentially relevant to the pathogenesis and treatment of FTD. PMID:19581577

  10. Expression of mutant CHMP2B, an ESCRT-III component involved in frontotemporal dementia, causes eye deformities due to Notch misregulation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cheruiyot, Abigael; Lee, Jin-A; Gao, Fen-Biao; Ahmad, S Tariq

    2014-02-01

    Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) mediate sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies en route to lysosomes for degradation. A mutation in CHMP2B (CHMP2B(Intron5), an ESCRT-III component) that is associated with a hereditary form of frontotemporal dementia (FTD3) disrupts the endosomal-lysosomal pathway and causes accumulation of autophagosomes and multilamellar structures. We previously demonstrated that expression of CHMP2B(Intron5) in the Drosophila eye using GMR-Gal4 causes misregulation of the Toll receptor pathway. Here, we show that ectopic expression of CHMP2B(Intron5) using eyeless-Gal4 (ey>CHMP2B(Intron5)), a driver with different spatiotemporal expression attributes than GMR-Gal4 in the Drosophila eye, causes eye deformities when compared to expression of wild-type CHMP2B (CHMP2B(WT)) and the Drosophila homologue of CHMP2B (CG4618). In addition, ey>CHMP2B(Intron5) flies showed defects in photoreceptor cell patterning and phototactic behavior. Furthermore, ey>CHMP2B(Intron5) flies showed accumulation of Notch in enlarged endosomes and up-regulation of Notch activity. Partial loss of Notch activity in ey>CHMP2B(Intron5) flies significantly rescued eye deformities, photoreceptor patterning defect, and phototactic behavior defect, indicating that these defects are primarily due to Notch misregulation. These results demonstrate that CHMP2B(Intron5) preferentially affects different receptor signaling pathways in a cellular and developmental context-dependent manner.

  11. Progressive neuronal inclusion formation and axonal degeneration in CHMP2B mutant transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ghazi-Noori, Shabnam; Froud, Kristina E; Mizielinska, Sarah; Powell, Caroline; Smidak, Michelle; Fernandez de Marco, Mar; O'Malley, Catherine; Farmer, Michael; Parkinson, Nick; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Asante, Emmanuel A; Brandner, Sebastian; Collinge, John; Isaacs, Adrian M

    2012-03-01

    Mutations in the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) gene cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The mutations lead to C-terminal truncation of the CHMP2B protein. We generated Chmp2b knockout mice and transgenic mice expressing either wild-type or C-terminally truncated mutant CHMP2B. The transgenic CHMP2B mutant mice have decreased survival and show progressive neurodegenerative changes including gliosis and increasing accumulation of p62- and ubiquitin-positive inclusions. The inclusions are negative for the TAR DNA binding protein 43 and fused in sarcoma proteins, mimicking the inclusions observed in patients with CHMP2B mutation. Mice transgenic for mutant CHMP2B also develop an early and progressive axonopathy characterized by numerous amyloid precursor protein-positive axonal swellings, implicating altered axonal function in disease pathogenesis. These findings were not observed in Chmp2b knockout mice or in transgenic mice expressing wild-type CHMP2B, indicating that CHMP2B mutations induce degenerative changes through a gain of function mechanism. These data describe the first mouse model of dementia caused by CHMP2B mutation and provide new insights into the mechanisms of CHMP2B-induced neurodegeneration.

  12. Genetic variability in CHMP2B and frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Parastoo; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Yuan, Wuxing; Grafman, Jordan; Tierney, Michael; Huey, Edward; Bell, Jason; Morris, Chris M; Kalaria, Rajesh N; van Rensburg, Susan J; Niehaus, Dana; Potocnik, Felix; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Salehi-Rad, Shabnam; Sato, Christine; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Hardy, John

    2006-01-01

    A nonsense/protein chain-terminating mutation in the CHMP2B gene has recently been reported as a cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in the single large family known to show linkage to chromosome 3. Screening for mutations in this gene in a large series of FTD families and individual patients led to the identification of a protein-truncating mutation in 2 unaffected members of an Afrikaner family with FTD, but not in their affected relatives. The putative pathogenicity of CHMP2B mutations for dementia is discussed.

  13. The role of CHMP2B in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Hazel; Ghazi-Noori, Shabnam; Collinge, John; Isaacs, Adrian

    2009-02-01

    Mutations in the CHMP2B (charged multivesicular body protein 2B) gene that lead to C-terminal truncations of the protein can cause frontotemporal dementia. CHMP2B is a member of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), which is required for formation of the multivesicular body, a late endosomal structure that fuses with the lysosome to degrade endocytosed proteins. Overexpression of mutant C-terminally truncated CHMP2B proteins produces an enlarged endosomal phenotype in PC12 and human neuroblastoma cells, which is likely to be due to a dominant-negative effect on endosomal function. Disruption of normal endosomal trafficking is likely to affect the transport of neuronal growth factors and autophagic clearance of proteins, both of which could contribute to neurodegeneration in frontotemporal dementia.

  14. Reversal of pathology in CHMP2B-mediated frontotemporal dementia patient cells using RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Mizielinska, Sarah; Hasholt, Lis; Isaacs, Adrian M; Nielsen, Jørgen E

    2012-08-01

    Frontotemporal dementia is the second most common form of young-onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and several genetic forms of frontotemporal dementia are known. A rare genetic variant is caused by a point mutation in the CHMP2B gene. CHMP2B is a component of the ESCRT-III complex, which is involved in endosomal trafficking of proteins targeted for degradation in lysosomes. Mutations in CHMP2B result in abnormal endosomal structures in patient fibroblasts and patient brains, probably through a gain-of-function mechanism, suggesting that the endosomal pathway plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present study, we used lentiviral vectors to efficiently knockdown CHMP2B by delivering microRNA embedded small hairpin RNAs. We show that CHMP2B can be efficiently knocked down in patient fibroblasts using an RNA interference approach and that the knockdown causes reversal of the abnormal endosomal phenotype observed in patient fibroblasts. This is the first description of a treatment that reverses the cellular pathology caused by mutant CHMP2B and suggests that RNA interference might be a feasible therapeutic strategy. Furthermore, it provides the first proof of a direct link between the disease-causing mutation and the cellular phenotype in cells originating from CHMP2B mutation patients. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. CHMP2B mutants linked to frontotemporal dementia impair maturation of dendritic spines.

    PubMed

    Belly, Agnès; Bodon, Gilles; Blot, Béatrice; Bouron, Alexandre; Sadoul, Rémy; Goldberg, Yves

    2010-09-01

    The highly conserved ESCRT-III complex is responsible for deformation and cleavage of membranes during endosomal trafficking and other cellular activities. In humans, dominant mutations in the ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The decade-long process leading to this cortical degeneration is not well understood. One possibility is that, akin to other neurodegenerative diseases, the pathogenic protein affects the integrity of dendritic spines and synapses before any neuronal death. Using confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction, we examined whether expressing the FTD-linked mutants CHMP2B(intron5) and CHMP2B(Delta10) in cultured hippocampal neurons modified the number or structure of spines. Both mutants induced a significant decrease in the proportion of large spines with mushroom morphology, without overt degeneration. Furthermore, CHMP2B(Delta10) induced a drop in frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, suggesting that the more potent synapses were lost. These effects seemed unrelated to changes in autophagy. Depletion of endogenous CHMP2B by RNAi resulted in morphological changes similar to those induced by mutant CHMP2B, consistent with dominant-negative activity of pathogenic mutants. Thus, CHMP2B is required for spine growth. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a mutant ESCRT-III subunit linked to a human neurodegenerative disease can disrupt the normal pattern of spine development.

  16. Immunopositivity for ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2B in granulovacuolar degeneration of neurons in the Alzheimer's disease hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hiji, Masanori; Kurashige, Takashi; Izumi, Yuishin; Yamawaki, Takemori; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2010-06-21

    Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III subunit charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) is involved in the degradation of proteins in the endocytic and autophagic pathways. Mutations in the CHMP2B gene are reportedly associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) characterised by accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in affected neurons, suggesting a relationship between protein accumulation and efficient autophagic degradation. This study investigated CHMP2B immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), revealing intense labeling of intraneuronal dot-like structures by antibody to CHMP2B. Since the morphological characteristics of these granular structures were compatible with those of granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD), a hallmark of AD pathology, immunohistochemical study using anti-CHMP2B antibody was performed using AD and control brain sections to investigate whether this antibody can be used as a GVD label. The number and percentage of hippocampal neurons with CHMP2B-positive granules were higher in AD cases and CHMP2B-positive granules corresponded to GVD. Anti-CHMP2B antibody detected a single 28-kDa band on Western blotting using control and AD specimens. This antibody clearly and intensely detected GVD over the hippocampus and entorhinal and transentorhinal cortices. These findings suggest that researchers will be able to use CHMP2B as a molecular label for studying GVD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of mutant CHMP2B, an ESCRT-III component involved in frontotemporal dementia, causes eye deformities due to Notch misregulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cheruiyot, Abigael; Lee, Jin-A; Gao, Fen-Biao; Ahmad, S. Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) mediate sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies en route to lysosomes for degradation. A mutation in CHMP2B (CHMP2BIntron5, an ESCRT-III component) that is associated with a hereditary form of frontotemporal dementia (FTD3) disrupts the endosomal-lysosomal pathway and causes accumulation of autophagosomes and multilamellar structures. We previously demonstrated that expression of CHMP2BIntron5 in the Drosophila eye using GMR-Gal4 causes misregulation of the Toll receptor pathway. Here, we show that ectopic expression of CHMP2BIntron5 using eyeless-Gal4 (ey>CHMP2BIntron5), a driver with different spatiotemporal expression attributes than GMR-Gal4 in the Drosophila eye, causes eye deformities when compared to expression of wild-type CHMP2B (CHMP2BWT) and the Drosophila homologue of CHMP2B (CG4618). In addition, ey>CHMP2BIntron5 flies showed defects in photoreceptor cell patterning and phototactic behavior. Furthermore, ey>CHMP2BIntron5 flies showed accumulation of Notch in enlarged endosomes and up-regulation of Notch activity. Partial loss of Notch activity in ey>CHMP2BIntron5 flies significantly rescued eye deformities, photoreceptor patterning defect, and phototactic behavior defect, indicating that these defects are primarily due to Notch misregulation. These results demonstrate that CHMP2BIntron5 preferentially affects different receptor signaling pathways in a cellular and developmental context-dependent manner.—Cheruiyot, A., Lee, J-A., Gao, F-B., Ahmad, S. T. Expression of mutant CHMP2B, an ESCRT-III component involved in frontotemporal dementia, causes eye deformities due to Notch misregulation in Drosophila. PMID:24158394

  18. Population-Specific Regulation of Chmp2b by Lbx1 during Onset of Synaptogenesis in Lateral Association Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Nonogaki, Mariko; Madhira, Ravi; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Hermanson, Ola; Kioussi, Chrissa; Gross, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Chmp2b is closely related to Vps2, a key component of the yeast protein complex that creates the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. Dominant negative mutations in Chmp2b cause autophagosome accumulation and neurodegenerative disease. Loss of Chmp2b causes failure of dendritic spine maturation in cultured neurons. The homeobox gene Lbx1 plays an essential role in specifying postmitotic dorsal interneuron populations during late pattern formation in the neural tube. We have discovered that Chmp2b is one of the most highly regulated cell-autonomous targets of Lbx1 in the embryonic mouse neural tube. Chmp2b was expressed and depended on Lbx1 in only two of the five nascent, Lbx1-expressing, postmitotic, dorsal interneuron populations. It was also expressed in neural tube cell populations that lacked Lbx1 protein. The observed population-specific expression of Chmp2b indicated that only certain population-specific combinations of sequence specific transcription factors allow Chmp2b expression. The cell populations that expressed Chmp2b corresponded, in time and location, to neurons that make the first synapses of the spinal cord. Chmp2b protein was transported into neurites within the motor- and association-neuropils, where the first synapses are known to form between E11.5 and E12.5 in mouse neural tubes. Selective, developmentally-specified gene expression of Chmp2b may therefore be used to endow particular neuronal populations with the ability to mature dendritic spines. Such a mechanism could explain how mammalian embryos reproducibly establish the disynaptic cutaneous reflex only between particular cell populations. PMID:23284619

  19. Population-specific regulation of Chmp2b by Lbx1 during onset of synaptogenesis in lateral association interneurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Nonogaki, Mariko; Madhira, Ravi; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Hermanson, Ola; Kioussi, Chrissa; Gross, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    Chmp2b is closely related to Vps2, a key component of the yeast protein complex that creates the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. Dominant negative mutations in Chmp2b cause autophagosome accumulation and neurodegenerative disease. Loss of Chmp2b causes failure of dendritic spine maturation in cultured neurons. The homeobox gene Lbx1 plays an essential role in specifying postmitotic dorsal interneuron populations during late pattern formation in the neural tube. We have discovered that Chmp2b is one of the most highly regulated cell-autonomous targets of Lbx1 in the embryonic mouse neural tube. Chmp2b was expressed and depended on Lbx1 in only two of the five nascent, Lbx1-expressing, postmitotic, dorsal interneuron populations. It was also expressed in neural tube cell populations that lacked Lbx1 protein. The observed population-specific expression of Chmp2b indicated that only certain population-specific combinations of sequence specific transcription factors allow Chmp2b expression. The cell populations that expressed Chmp2b corresponded, in time and location, to neurons that make the first synapses of the spinal cord. Chmp2b protein was transported into neurites within the motor- and association-neuropils, where the first synapses are known to form between E11.5 and E12.5 in mouse neural tubes. Selective, developmentally-specified gene expression of Chmp2b may therefore be used to endow particular neuronal populations with the ability to mature dendritic spines. Such a mechanism could explain how mammalian embryos reproducibly establish the disynaptic cutaneous reflex only between particular cell populations.

  20. Regulation of postsynaptic function by the dementia-related ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2B.

    PubMed

    Chassefeyre, Romain; Martínez-Hernández, José; Bertaso, Federica; Bouquier, Nathalie; Blot, Béatrice; Laporte, Marine; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Couté, Yohann; Devoy, Anny; Isaacs, Adrian M; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Sadoul, Rémy; Fagni, Laurent; Goldberg, Yves

    2015-02-18

    The charged multivesicular body proteins (Chmp1-7) are an evolutionarily conserved family of cytosolic proteins that transiently assembles into helical polymers that change the curvature of cellular membrane domains. Mutations in human CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia, suggesting that this protein may normally control some neuron-specific process. Here, we examined the function, localization, and interactions of neuronal Chmp2b. The protein was highly expressed in mouse brain and could be readily detected in neuronal dendrites and spines. Depletion of endogenous Chmp2b reduced dendritic branching of cultured hippocampal neurons, decreased excitatory synapse density in vitro and in vivo, and abolished activity-induced spine enlargement and synaptic potentiation. To understand the synaptic effects of Chmp2b, we determined its ultrastructural distribution by quantitative immuno-electron microscopy and its biochemical interactions by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. In the hippocampus in situ, a subset of neuronal Chmp2b was shown to concentrate beneath the perisynaptic membrane of dendritic spines. In synaptoneurosome lysates, Chmp2b was stably bound to a large complex containing other members of the Chmp family, as well as postsynaptic scaffolds. The supramolecular Chmp assembly detected here corresponds to a stable form of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III (ESCRT-III), a ubiquitous cytoplasmic protein complex known to play a central role in remodeling of lipid membranes. We conclude that Chmp2b-containing ESCRT-III complexes are also present at dendritic spines, where they regulate synaptic plasticity. We propose that synaptic ESCRT-III filaments may function as a novel element of the submembrane cytoskeleton of spines.

  1. Regulation of Postsynaptic Function by the Dementia-Related ESCRT-III Subunit CHMP2B

    PubMed Central

    Chassefeyre, Romain; Martínez-Hernández, José; Bertaso, Federica; Bouquier, Nathalie; Blot, Béatrice; Laporte, Marine; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Couté, Yohann; Devoy, Anny; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Fagni, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The charged multivesicular body proteins (Chmp1–7) are an evolutionarily conserved family of cytosolic proteins that transiently assembles into helical polymers that change the curvature of cellular membrane domains. Mutations in human CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia, suggesting that this protein may normally control some neuron-specific process. Here, we examined the function, localization, and interactions of neuronal Chmp2b. The protein was highly expressed in mouse brain and could be readily detected in neuronal dendrites and spines. Depletion of endogenous Chmp2b reduced dendritic branching of cultured hippocampal neurons, decreased excitatory synapse density in vitro and in vivo, and abolished activity-induced spine enlargement and synaptic potentiation. To understand the synaptic effects of Chmp2b, we determined its ultrastructural distribution by quantitative immuno-electron microscopy and its biochemical interactions by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. In the hippocampus in situ, a subset of neuronal Chmp2b was shown to concentrate beneath the perisynaptic membrane of dendritic spines. In synaptoneurosome lysates, Chmp2b was stably bound to a large complex containing other members of the Chmp family, as well as postsynaptic scaffolds. The supramolecular Chmp assembly detected here corresponds to a stable form of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III (ESCRT-III), a ubiquitous cytoplasmic protein complex known to play a central role in remodeling of lipid membranes. We conclude that Chmp2b-containing ESCRT-III complexes are also present at dendritic spines, where they regulate synaptic plasticity. We propose that synaptic ESCRT-III filaments may function as a novel element of the submembrane cytoskeleton of spines. PMID:25698751

  2. CHMP2B mutants linked to frontotemporal dementia impair maturation of dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Belly, Agnès; Bodon, Gilles; Blot, Béatrice; Bouron, Alexandre; Sadoul, Rémy; Goldberg, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Summary The highly conserved ESCRT-III complex is responsible for deformation and cleavage of membranes during endosomal trafficking and other cellular activities. In humans, dominant mutations in the ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2B cause fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). The decade-long process leading to this cortical degeneration is not well understood. One possibility is that, akin to other neurodegenerative diseases, the pathogenic protein affects the integrity of dendritic spines and synapses before any neuronal death. Using confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction, we examined whether expressing the FTD-linked mutants CHMP2Bintron5 and CHMP2BΔ10 in cultured hippocampal neurones modified the number or structure of spines. Both mutants induced a significant decrease in the proportion of large spines with mushroom morphology, without overt degeneration. Furthermore, CHMP2BΔ10 induced a drop in frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents, suggesting that the more potent synapses were lost. These effects seemed unrelated to changes in autophagy. Depletion of endogenous CHMP2B by RNAi resulted in morphological changes similar to those induced by mutant CHMP2B, consistent with dominant negative activity of pathogenic mutants. Thus, CHMP2B is required for spine growth. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a mutant ESCRT-III subunit linked to a human neurodegenerative disease can disrupt the normal pattern of spine development. PMID:20699355

  3. Endosomal sorting related protein CHMP2B is localized in Lewy bodies and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in α-synucleinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tanikawa, Satoshi; Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2012-10-03

    Charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) is a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III, which is involved in the degradation of proteins in the endocytic and autophagic pathways. Mutations in the CHMP2B gene cause frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis characterized by accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates. Recent studies have shown that autophagosomal proteins are present in α-synuclein aggregates in neurons and glial cells in Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We therefore immunohistochemically examined the brains of various neurodegenerative diseases using CHMP2B-specific antibody. CHMP2B immunoreactivity was present in intracytoplasmic and axonal Lewy bodies in PD and DLB as well as in neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in MSA. No CHMP2B immunoreactivity was found in a variety of other neuronal and glial inclusions in TDP-43 proteinopathy and tauopathy. These findings suggest that endosomal and autophagic pathway is associated with degradation or formation of α-synuclein aggregates in α-synucleinopathy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Localization of CHMP2B-immunoreactivity in the brainstem of Lewy body disease.

    PubMed

    Kurashige, Takashi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Yuu; Hiji, Masanori; Izumi, Yuishin; Yamawaki, Takemori; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2013-06-01

    Alpha-synuclein (αS) is one of the major constituents of Lewy bodies (LBs). Several lines of evidence suggest that the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) is involved in the removal of αS. We have previously reported that granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) in neurons involved a subunit of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT). In this study, we examined the association between alpha-synucleinopathy and autophagy through immunohistochemical analysis of charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B), a component of the ESCRT-pathway. We examined the brainstems of 17 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) immunohistochemically using antibodies against phosphorylated αS (pαS), phosphorylated tau and CHMP2B. LBs and a proportion of glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) were immunopositive for pαS and CHMP2B. Neurons containing CHMP2B-immunoreactive granules were detected in PD and ILBD, but not in MSA and AD brains. CHMP2B immunoreactivity was increased in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNX) in PD and ILBD brains, relative to that in MSA and AD. These findings indicate that the ESCRT-pathway is implicated in the formation of αS inclusions, especially in PD and ILBD. © 2012 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  5. Frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3)--current concepts and the detection of a previously unknown branch of the Danish FTD-3 family.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, S G; Braedgaard, H; Svenstrup, K; Isaacs, A M; Nielsen, J E

    2008-07-01

    Among patients with onset of dementia below the age of 65 years, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most prevalent cause, secondary only to Alzheimer's disease. Recent advances in understanding the heterogeneous genetic background for different clinical and neuropathological entities of FTD have involved identification of several new causative genes. We report the finding of a truncating mutation in the CHMP2B gene (c.532-1G>C) in a patient with early onset dementia. The patient was previously not known to be related to the single Danish pedigree known to have this specific mutation. Subsequently he has turned out to represent a new branch of the family with several affected individuals. Our findings highlight the need for awareness of the CHMP2B mutation and associated clinical phenotype for neurological assessment in Denmark. Further, we discuss recent advances and current concepts in the understanding of CHMP2B-related dementia.

  6. Sequence analysis of all identified open reading frames on the frontal temporal dementia haplotype on chromosome 3 fails to identify unique coding variants except in CHMP2B.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Parastoo; Bell, Jason; Duckworth, Jaime; Hutton, Mike; Mann, David; Brown, Stuart Pickering; Hardy, John

    2006-12-20

    A segregating splice site mutation in the CHMP2B gene has been shown in the single Danish family which has been reported to show linkage between dementia and chromosome 3 markers. Despite extensive analysis, no other segregating mutations have been found in other kindreds, although some point variants have been found both in sporadic cases and in controls. We recently found a premature stop codon in a person without dementia and this led us to investigate whether the splice site mutation in the Danish kindred did not explain the disease, but rather was hitchhiking on the segregating disease haplotype. We determined to test this possibility by sequencing every other gene on the haplotype in a case from the kindred. We did not find any other unique variants. The implications of these findings for the likely mode of pathogenesis of frontal temporal dementia are discussed.

  7. Syntaxin 13, a genetic modifier of mutant CHMP2B in frontotemporal dementia, is required for autophagosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yubing; Zhang, Zhijun; Sun, Danqiong; Sweeney, Sean T; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2013-10-24

    Phagophore maturation is a key step in the macroautophagy pathway, which is critical in many important physiological and pathological processes. Here we identified Drosophila N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein 2 (dNSF2) and soluble NSF attachment protein (Snap) as strong genetic modifiers of mutant CHMP2B, an ESCRT-III component that causes frontotemporal dementia and autophagosome accumulation. Among several SNAP receptor (SNARE) genes, Drosophila syntaxin 13 (syx13) exhibited a strong genetic interaction with mutant CHMP2B. Knockdown of syntaxin 13 (STX13) or its binding partner Vti1a in mammalian cells caused LC3-positive puncta to accumulate and blocks autophagic flux. STX13 was present on LC3-positive phagophores induced by rapamycin and was highly enriched on multilamellar structures induced by dysfunctional ESCRT-III. Loss of STX13 also caused the accumulation of Atg5-positive puncta and the formation of multilamellar structures. These results suggest that STX13 is a genetic modifier of ESCRT-III dysfunction and participates in the maturation of phagophores into closed autophagosomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Syntaxin 13, a genetic modifier of mutant CHMP2B in frontotemporal dementia, is required for autophagosome maturation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Danqiong; Sweeney, Sean T.; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Phagophore maturation is a key step in the macroautophagy pathway, which is critical in many important physiological and pathological processes. Here we identified Drosophila N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein 2 (dNSF2) and soluble NSF attachment protein (Snap) as strong genetic modifiers of toxicity caused by mutant CHMP2B, an ESCRT-III component that causes frontotemporal dementia and autophagosome accumulation. Among several SNARE genes, Drosophila syntaxin 13 (syx13) exhibited a strong genetic interaction with mutant CHMP2B. Knockdown of syntaxin 13 (STX13) or its binding partner Vti1a in mammalian cells caused LC3-positive puncta to accumulate and blocks autophagic flux. STX13 was present on LC3-positive phagophores induced by rapamycin and was highly enriched on multilamellar structures induced by dysfunctional ESCRT-III. Loss of STX13 also caused the accumulation of Atg5-positive puncta and the formation of multilamellar structures. These results suggest STX13 is a genetic modifier of ESCRT-III dysfunction and participates in the maturation of phagophores into closed autophagosomes. PMID:24095276

  9. Homozygous microdeletion of the POU1F1, CHMP2B, and VGLL3 genes in chromosome 3--a novel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Frumkin-Ben David, Rachel; Bar, Meytal; Potievsky, Olga; Phillip, Moshe; Lazar, Liora

    2011-09-01

    Microdeletion syndromes include numerous syndromic phenotypes associated with intellectual disability and dysmorphic features. We report on a patient with a novel microdeletion of chromosomal region 3p11.2-p12.1 containing POU1F1, chromatin-modifying protein 2B (CHMP2B), and vestigial-like 3 (VGLL3) genes. Our patient was diagnosed as having a neonatal multiple pituitary hormone [growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin] deficiency. In addition to the typical findings associated with these hormonal deficiencies, she exhibited clinical features resembling those of Laron syndrome (frontal bossing, saddle nose, small chin, blue sclera, and acromicria), with moderate intellectual disability. She also displayed an unusual growth pattern characterized by unresponsiveness to high doses of GH replacement therapy during infancy and early childhood and an accelerated growth rate beginning at the age of 4.5 years. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels were consistently extremely low or undetectable. Extensive medical and genetic analysis ruled out primary and secondary GH insensitivity. The distinct phenotype and the peculiar growth pattern observed in this affected patient, not reported to have been observed in other cases with POU1F1 gene inactivity, suggest that the other two deleted genes play a possible role in the development of this syndrome. This hypothesis may be supported by the fact that both the CHMP2B and VGLL3 genes are expressed in the liver and the growth plate, the two main target organs of the GH/IGF-1 axis. The homozygous deletion of the CHMP2B gene, previously associated with frontotemporal dementia, may contribute to the intellectual disability observed in this patient. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Charged Multivesicular Body Protein 2B (CHMP2B) of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport-III (ESCRT-III) Polymerizes into Helical Structures Deforming the Plasma Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Bodon, Gilles; Chassefeyre, Romain; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Martinelli, Nicolas; Effantin, Grégory; Hulsik, David Lutje; Belly, Agnès; Goldberg, Yves; Chatellard-Causse, Christine; Blot, Béatrice; Schoehn, Guy; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Sadoul, Rémy

    2011-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT-0-III) allow membrane budding and fission away from the cytosol. This machinery is used during multivesicular endosome biogenesis, cytokinesis, and budding of some enveloped viruses. Membrane fission is catalyzed by ESCRT-III complexes made of polymers of charged multivesicular body proteins (CHMPs) and by the AAA-type ATPase VPS4. How and which of the ESCRT-III subunits sustain membrane fission from the cytoplasmic surface remain uncertain. In vitro, CHMP2 and CHMP3 recombinant proteins polymerize into tubular helical structures, which were hypothesized to drive vesicle fission. However, this model awaits the demonstration that such structures exist and can deform membranes in cellulo. Here, we show that depletion of VPS4 induces specific accumulation of endogenous CHMP2B at the plasma membrane. Unlike other CHMPs, overexpressed full-length CHMP2B polymerizes into long, rigid tubes that protrude out of the cell. CHMP4s relocalize at the base of the tubes, the formation of which depends on VPS4. Cryo-EM of the CHMP2B membrane tubes demonstrates that CHMP2B polymerizes into a tightly packed helical lattice, in close association with the inner leaflet of the membrane tube. This association is tight enough to deform the lipid bilayer in cases where the tubular CHMP2B helix varies in diameter or is closed by domes. Thus, our observation that CHMP2B polymerization scaffolds membranes in vivo represents a first step toward demonstrating its structural role during outward membrane deformation. PMID:21926173

  11. Charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III (ESCRT-III) polymerizes into helical structures deforming the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Bodon, Gilles; Chassefeyre, Romain; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Martinelli, Nicolas; Effantin, Grégory; Hulsik, David Lutje; Belly, Agnès; Goldberg, Yves; Chatellard-Causse, Christine; Blot, Béatrice; Schoehn, Guy; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Sadoul, Rémy

    2011-11-18

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT-0-III) allow membrane budding and fission away from the cytosol. This machinery is used during multivesicular endosome biogenesis, cytokinesis, and budding of some enveloped viruses. Membrane fission is catalyzed by ESCRT-III complexes made of polymers of charged multivesicular body proteins (CHMPs) and by the AAA-type ATPase VPS4. How and which of the ESCRT-III subunits sustain membrane fission from the cytoplasmic surface remain uncertain. In vitro, CHMP2 and CHMP3 recombinant proteins polymerize into tubular helical structures, which were hypothesized to drive vesicle fission. However, this model awaits the demonstration that such structures exist and can deform membranes in cellulo. Here, we show that depletion of VPS4 induces specific accumulation of endogenous CHMP2B at the plasma membrane. Unlike other CHMPs, overexpressed full-length CHMP2B polymerizes into long, rigid tubes that protrude out of the cell. CHMP4s relocalize at the base of the tubes, the formation of which depends on VPS4. Cryo-EM of the CHMP2B membrane tubes demonstrates that CHMP2B polymerizes into a tightly packed helical lattice, in close association with the inner leaflet of the membrane tube. This association is tight enough to deform the lipid bilayer in cases where the tubular CHMP2B helix varies in diameter or is closed by domes. Thus, our observation that CHMP2B polymerization scaffolds membranes in vivo represents a first step toward demonstrating its structural role during outward membrane deformation.

  12. Immunohistochemical analysis of expressions of RB1, CDK4, HSP90, cPLA2G4A, and CHMP2B is helpful in distinction between myxofibrosarcoma and myxoid liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Goodman, Mark A; McGough, Richard L; Weiss, Kurt R; Rao, Uma N M

    2014-10-01

    The role and diagnostic efficacy of gene and protein products RB1, CDK4, CHMP2B, HSP90, and cPLA2G4A, all previously shown to be involved in tumor genesis and cell proliferation, were examined by immunohistochemical techniques in 32 cases of myxofibrosarcomas and 29 myxoid liposarcomas (all diagnosis had been confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization). HSP90 demonstrated strong nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity in all myxoid liposarcoma cases, while only 4 myxofibrosarcomas showed scattered HSP90 positivity. All but 4 cases of myxofibrosarcoma displayed strong positivity for cPLA2G4A, while only 2 myxoid liposarcoma cases were cPLA2G4A positive and both were CHMP2B negative. Overexpression of both cPLA2G4A and CHMP2B also suggested higher tumor grade. In conclusion, HSP90 and cPLA2G4A immunohistochemical stains are useful markers to distinguish myxofibrosarcoma from myxoid liposarcoma. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Tau protein in frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3).

    PubMed

    Yancopoulou, Despina; Crowther, R Anthony; Chakrabarti, Lisa; Gydesen, Susanne; Brown, Jeremy M; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2003-08-01

    Recent work on frontotemporal dementia (FTD) has revealed the existence of at least 3 genetically distinct groups of inherited FTD: FTDP-17, FTD and motor neuron disease linked to chromosome 9, and FTD linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3). Tau, on chromosome 17, is the only gene where mutations have been identified and its involvement in FTD has been firmly established. The genes on chromosome 9 and chromosome 3 associated with familial forms of FTD remain to be identified. Abnormal aggregates of tau protein characterize the brain lesions of FTDP-17 patients and ubiquitin inclusions have been found in FTD with motor neuron disease linked to chromosome 9. In this study the frontal cortices of 3 FTD-3 patients from a unique Danish family were examined for characteristic neuropathological features. In these brains tau inclusions were present in neurons and some glial cells in the absence of beta-amyloid deposits. The presence of filamentous tau protein in the frontal cortex of these patients suggests a possible link between tau and the genetic defect present on chromosome 3 and associated with FTD-3, although the limited amount of tau deposits observed makes it difficult to define this as a tauopathy.

  14. Novel missense mutation in Charged Multivesicular body Protein 2B in a patient with Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Huey, Edward D.; Grafman, Jordan; Hardy, John; Momeni, Parastoo

    2010-01-01

    Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is the second major cause of dementia in persons under the age of 65 after Alzheimer’s disease (AD). FTD is clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous and has been associated with mutations in different genes located on chromosomes 17, 9 and 3. In our study we report a novel heterozygous g.26218G>A variant in exon 6 of Charged Multivesicular body Protein 2B (CHMP2B), predicted to cause the amino acid change p.Ser187Asn, in one patient diagnosed with FTD. We were not able to determine the mode of inheritance of the mutation since we did not have access to the genetically informative family members of the proband; those who were screened did not carry the variant. We didn’t find this variant in 273 Caucasian controls while we did find it in 6 of 94 African American controls. Most of the mutations in CHMP2B which are considered pathogenic lead to partial deletion of the C-terminus region of CHMP2B protein. Based on previous reports and on our current data, missense mutations seem unlikely to be pathogenic. The pathogenicity of CHMP2B mutations requires further investigation. PMID:20592581

  15. Novel missense mutation in charged multivesicular body protein 2B in a patient with frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Huey, Edward D; Grafman, Jordan; Hardy, John; Momeni, Parastoo

    2010-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second major cause of dementia in persons below the age of 65 years after Alzheimer disease. FTD is clinically, pathologically, and genetically heterogeneous and has been associated with mutations in different genes located on chromosomes 17, 9, and 3. In our study we report a novel heterozygous g.26218G>A variant in exon 6 of charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B), predicted to cause the amino acid change p.Ser187Asn, in one patient diagnosed with FTD. We were not able to determine the mode of inheritance of the mutation as we did not have access to the genetically informative family members of the proband; those who were screened did not carry the variant. We did not find this variant in 273 White controls although we did find it in 6 of 94 African-American controls. Most of the mutations in CHMP2B which are considered pathogenic lead to partial deletion of the C-terminus region of CHMP2B protein. Based on previous reports and on our current data, missense mutations in this gene seem unlikely to be pathogenic. The pathogenicity of CHMP2B mutations requires further investigation.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: CHMP2B-related frontotemporal dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... DEMENTIA, CHROMOSOME 3-LINKED Sources for This Page Brown J, Ashworth A, Gydesen S, Sorensen A, Rossor M, ... Sep;4(9):1625-8. Citation on PubMed Brown J, Gydesen S, Johannsen P, Gade A, Skibinski G, ...

  17. A transgenic mouse expressing CHMP2Bintron5 mutant in neurons develops histological and behavioural features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Vernay, Aurélia; Therreau, Ludivine; Blot, Béatrice; Risson, Valérie; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Waegaert, Robin; Lequeu, Thiebault; Sellal, François; Schaeffer, Laurent; Sadoul, Rémy; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; René, Frédérique

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) are associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and with a mixed ALS-FTD syndrome. To model this syndrome, we generated a transgenic mouse line expressing the human CHMP2B(intron5) mutant in a neuron-specific manner. These mice developed a dose-dependent disease phenotype. A longitudinal study revealed progressive gait abnormalities, reduced muscle strength and decreased motor coordination. CHMP2B(intron5) mice died due to generalized paralysis. When paralyzed, signs of denervation were present as attested by altered electromyographic profiles, by decreased number of fully innervated neuromuscular junctions, by reduction in size of motor endplates and by a decrease of sciatic nerve axons area. However, spinal motor neurons cell bodies were preserved until death. In addition to the motor dysfunctions, CHMP2B(intron5) mice progressively developed FTD-relevant behavioural modifications such as disinhibition, stereotypies, decrease in social interactions, compulsivity and change in dietary preferences. Furthermore, neurons in the affected spinal cord and brain regions showed accumulation of p62-positive cytoplasmic inclusions associated or not with ubiquitin and CHMP2B(intron5) As observed in FTD3 patients, these inclusions were negative for TDP-43 and FUS. Moreover, astrogliosis and microgliosis developed with age. Altogether, these data indicate that the neuronal expression of human CHMP2B(intron5) in areas involved in motor and cognitive functions induces progressive motor alterations associated with dementia symptoms and with histopathological hallmarks reminiscent of both ALS and FTD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. FUS, TARDBP, and SOD1 mutations in a Taiwanese cohort with familial ALS.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Paio; Soong, Bing-Wen; Lin, Kon-Ping; Tu, Pang-Hsien; Lin, Jer-Li; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2011-03-01

    The cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) has been attributed to mutations in several genes. The authors analyzed these genes, including SOD1, FUS, VAPB, ANG, TDP-43, FIG4, and CHMP2B, in a cohort of 15 index patients of Han Chinese descent with adult-onset FALS. Seven different mutations in eight patients, including three in SOD1 (G85R, T137R, and G138E), two in exon 15 of FUS (H517D and R521H), and two in exon 6 of TARDBP (M337V and N378D) were identified. Among them, T137R SOD1, G138E SOD1, H517D FUS, and N378D TARDBP were novel. No mutation was found in VAPB, ANG, FIG4, or CHMP2B genes. Mutations in SOD1, FUS, and TARDBP account for 20%, 13.3%, and 20% of FALS, respectively. This study defined the distribution and frequency of mutations of FALS in a Taiwanese Han Chinese population, which not only broadens the spectrum of the mutations causing FALS, but also further highlights the importance of FUS and TARDBP in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Frontotemporal dementia-related gene mutations in clinical dementia patients from a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhihong; Liu, Shuai; Xiang, Lei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Mengyuan; Liu, Shuling; Han, Tong; Zhou, Yuying; Wang, Jinhuan; Cai, Li; Gao, Shuo; Ji, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are two common forms of primary neurodegenerative dementia that show overlapping clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to perform genetic analyses on GRN, VCP, CHMP2B, FUS, TARDBP, C9orf72 and MAPT genes in Chinese AD and FTD patients. We performed gene sequencing of the GRN, VCP, CHMP2B, FUS, TARDBP, MAPT and C9orf72 genes in 61 clinical AD and 38 FTD Chinese patients. We identified a known mutation of MAPT (p.Pro301Leu, c.902C>T) in four patients from an autosomal dominant FTD family with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) phenotypes, and a novel mutation in MAPT (p.Leu48Val, c.142 G>C) in a sporadic progressive supranuclear palsy patient. Two novel variations in VCP (p.Thr127Ala, c. 379A>G; p.Asn401Ser, c.1202A>G) were present in both a sporadic FTD and an AD case, and a novel deletion in GRN (560del p.Leufs) was found in a sporadic primary progressive aphasia patient. Mutations of VCP, GRN and MAPT genes are present in Chinese FTD cases. In the case of the MAPT mutation, the family presented with both bvFTD and PNFA phenotypes, while the VCP mutation was also related to an early-onset AD phenotype.

  20. ESCRT-III dysfunction causes autophagosome accumulation and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Beigneux, Anne; Ahmad, S Tariq; Young, Stephen G; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2007-09-18

    Defects in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway have been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. A key step in the endocytic regulation of transmembrane proteins occurs in a subset of late-endosomal compartments known as multivesicular bodies (MVBs), whose formation is controlled by endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). The roles of ESCRT in dendritic maintenance and neurodegeneration remain unknown. Here, we show that mSnf7-2, a key component of ESCRT-III, is highly expressed in most mammalian neurons. Loss of mSnf7-2 in mature cortical neurons caused retraction of dendrites and neuronal cell loss. mSnf7-2 binds to CHMP2B, another ESCRT-III subunit, in which a rare dominant mutation is associated with frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). Ectopic expression of the mutant protein CHMP2B(Intron5) also caused dendritic retraction prior to neurodegeneration. CHMP2B(Intron5) was associated more avidly than CHMP2B(WT) with mSnf7-2, resulting in sequestration of mSnf7-2 in ubiquitin-positive late-endosomal vesicles in cortical neurons. Moreover, loss of mSnf7-2 or CHMP2B(Intron5) expression caused the accumulation of autophagosomes in cortical neurons and flies. These findings indicate that ESCRT-III dysfunction is associated with the autophagy pathway, suggesting a novel neurodegeneration mechanism that may have important implications for understanding FTD and other age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. A novel GRN mutation (GRN c.708+6_+9delTGAG) in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions: clinicopathologic report of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Bit-Ivan, Esther N; Suh, Eunran; Shim, Hyung-Sub; Weintraub, Sandra; Hyman, Bradley T; Arnold, Steven E; McCarty-Wood, Elisabeth; Van Deerlin, Viviana M; Schneider, Julie A; Trojanowski, John Q; Frosch, Matthew P; Baker, Matt C; Rademakers, Rosa; Mesulam, Marsel; Bigio, Eileen H

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, the underlying pathology most often linked to the clinical diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia, is rapidly increasing. Mutations in 7 known genes (MAPT, GRN, C9orf72, VCP, CHMP2B, and, rarely, TARDBP and FUS) are associated with frontotemporal dementia, and the pathologic classification of frontotemporal lobar degeneration has recently been modified to reflect these discoveries. Mutations in one of these genes (GRN), which encodes progranulin, have been implicated in up to a quarter of cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43)-positive inclusions; currently, there are more than 60 known pathogenic mutations of the gene. We present the clinical, pathologic, and genetic findings on 6 cases from 4 families, 5 of which were shown to have a novel GRN c.708+6_+9delTGAG mutation.

  2. ESCRT, autophagy, and frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2008-12-31

    Many age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the accumulation of abnormally folded proteins within neurons. One of the major proteolytic pathways in the cell is the autophagy pathway, which targets cytoplasmic contents and organelles to the lysosomes for bulk degradation under various physiological and stressful conditions. Although the importance of autophagy in cellular physiology is well appreciated, its precise roles in neurodegeneration remain largely unclear. Recent studies indicate that components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) are important in the autophagy pathway. Reduced activity of some ESCRT subunits leads to the accumulation of autophagosomes and failure to clear intracellular protein aggregates. Interestingly, rare mutations in CHMP2B, an ESCRT-III subunit, are associated with frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). Mutant CHMP2B proteins seem to disrupt the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes in cell culture models. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of FTD3 and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

  3. No association of chromatin-modifying protein 2B with sporadic frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Axel; Friedrich, Patricia; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Ibach, Bernd; Eisele, Tamara; Laws, Simon M; Förstl, Hans; Kurz, Alexander; Riemenschneider, Matthias

    2007-11-01

    Mutations of the chromatin modifying protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) were identified, in a Danish pedigree, to cause familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). To explore the possible genetic contribution of common CHMP2B variants in sporadic FTD, we analyzed 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the entire genomic region of CHMP2B. After adjustment for multiple testing single marker and haplotype analysis revealed no significant association with sporadic FTD. Thus, we conclude that CHMP2B can be excluded as a susceptibility gene conferring risk to sporadic forms of FTD.

  4. Identify mutation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases using HaloPlex target enrichment system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Hong-Fu; Tan, Guo-He; Tao, Qing-Qing; Ni, Wang; Cheng, Xue-Wen; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-12-01

    To date, at least 18 causative genes have been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Because of the clinical and genetic heterogeneity, molecular diagnosis for ALS faces great challenges. HaloPlex target enrichment system is a new targeted sequencing approach, which can detect already known mutations or candidate genes. We performed this approach to screen 18 causative genes of ALS, including SOD1, SETX, FUS, ANG, TARDBP, ALS2, FIG4, VAPB, OPTN, DAO, VCP, UBQLN2, SPG11, SIGMAR1, DCTN1, SQSTM1, PFN1, and CHMP2B in 8 ALS probands. Using this approach, we got an average of 9.5 synonymous or missense mutations per sample. After validation by Sanger sequencing, we identified 3 documented SOD1 mutations (p.F21C, p.G148D, and p.C147R) and 1 novel DCTN1 p.G59R mutation in 4 probands. The novel DCTN1 mutation appeared to segregate with the disease in the pedigree and was absent in 200 control subjects. The high throughput and efficiency of this approach indicated that it could be applied to diagnose ALS and other inherited diseases with multiple causative genes in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A reassessment of the neuropathology of frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida Elisabeth; Englund, Elisabet; Mackenzie, Ian R A; Johannsen, Peter; Isaacs, Adrian M

    2007-10-01

    A large Danish family has previously been reported in which autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is genetically linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3). A mutation was recently identified in the CHMP2B gene that is probably responsible for causing disease in this family. Because of its neuropathologic findings, FTD-3 was originally categorized as a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, termed "dementia lacking distinctive histopathology." We now report a reevaluation of the neuropathologic changes in this family. Postmortem material from 4 affected family members was available for examination. Gross examination revealed generalized cortical atrophy that was most severe in frontal and temporal cortices. Microscopy showed loss of cortical neurons, microvacuolation of layer II, mild gliosis, and demyelination of the deep white matter. Results of immunohistochemical staining for alpha-synuclein, prion protein, neurofilament, and tau protein were unremarkable. Variable numbers of small, round, ubiquitin-positive cytoplasmic inclusions were present in the dentate granule layer of the hippocampus in all 4 cases. Rare ubiquitin-positive inclusions were also found in frontal and temporal cortical neurons. These inclusions were also positive for p62 but not for TDP-43. The finding of ubiquitin- and p62-positive, TDP-43-negative cytoplasmic inclusions in the hippocampus and neocortex suggests reclassification of the neuropathology of FTD-3 as a unique subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions that are TDP-43-negative.

  6. Mutation Frequency of the Major Frontotemporal Dementia Genes, MAPT, GRN and C9ORF72 in a Turkish Cohort of Dementia Patients.

    PubMed

    Guven, Gamze; Lohmann, Ebba; Bras, Jose; Gibbs, J Raphael; Gurvit, Hakan; Bilgic, Basar; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Rizzu, Patrizia; Heutink, Peter; Emre, Murat; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan; Just, Walter; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew; Guerreiro, Rita

    2016-01-01

    'Microtubule-associated protein tau' (MAPT), 'granulin' (GRN) and 'chromosome 9 open reading frame72' (C9ORF72) gene mutations are the major known genetic causes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Recent studies suggest that mutations in these genes may also be associated with other forms of dementia. Therefore we investigated whether MAPT, GRN and C9ORF72 gene mutations are major contributors to dementia in a random, unselected Turkish cohort of dementia patients. A combination of whole-exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing and fragment analysis/Southern blot was performed in order to identify pathogenic mutations and novel variants in these genes as well as other FTD-related genes such as the 'charged multivesicular body protein 2B' (CHMP2B), the 'FUS RNA binding protein' (FUS), the 'TAR DNA binding protein' (TARDBP), the 'sequestosome1' (SQSTM1), and the 'valosin containing protein' (VCP). We determined one pathogenic MAPT mutation (c.1906C>T, p.P636L) and one novel missense variant (c.38A>G, p.D13G). In GRN we identified a probably pathogenic TGAG deletion in the splice donor site of exon 6. Three patients were found to carry the GGGGCC expansions in the non-coding region of the C9ORF72 gene. In summary, a complete screening for mutations in MAPT, GRN and C9ORF72 genes revealed a frequency of 5.4% of pathogenic mutations in a random cohort of 93 Turkish index patients with dementia.

  7. Mutation Frequency of the Major Frontotemporal Dementia Genes, MAPT, GRN and C9ORF72 in a Turkish Cohort of Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Gamze; Lohmann, Ebba; Bras, Jose; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Gurvit, Hakan; Bilgic, Basar; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Rizzu, Patrizia; Heutink, Peter; Emre, Murat; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan; Just, Walter; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew; Guerreiro, Rita

    2016-01-01

    ‘Microtubule-associated protein tau’ (MAPT), ‘granulin’ (GRN) and ‘chromosome 9 open reading frame72’ (C9ORF72) gene mutations are the major known genetic causes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Recent studies suggest that mutations in these genes may also be associated with other forms of dementia. Therefore we investigated whether MAPT, GRN and C9ORF72 gene mutations are major contributors to dementia in a random, unselected Turkish cohort of dementia patients. A combination of whole-exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing and fragment analysis/Southern blot was performed in order to identify pathogenic mutations and novel variants in these genes as well as other FTD-related genes such as the ‘charged multivesicular body protein 2B’ (CHMP2B), the ‘FUS RNA binding protein’ (FUS), the ‘TAR DNA binding protein’ (TARDBP), the ‘sequestosome1’ (SQSTM1), and the ‘valosin containing protein’ (VCP). We determined one pathogenic MAPT mutation (c.1906C>T, p.P636L) and one novel missense variant (c.38A>G, p.D13G). In GRN we identified a probably pathogenic TGAG deletion in the splice donor site of exon 6. Three patients were found to carry the GGGGCC expansions in the non-coding region of the C9ORF72 gene. In summary, a complete screening for mutations in MAPT, GRN and C9ORF72 genes revealed a frequency of 5.4% of pathogenic mutations in a random cohort of 93 Turkish index patients with dementia. PMID:27632209

  8. Functional multivesicular bodies are required for autophagic clearance of protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Filimonenko, Maria; Stuffers, Susanne; Raiborg, Camilla; Yamamoto, Ai; Malerød, Lene; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Isaacs, Adrian; Brech, Andreas; Stenmark, Harald; Simonsen, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) are required to sort integral membrane proteins into intralumenal vesicles of the multivesicular body (MVB). Mutations in the ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2B were recently associated with frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal ubiquitin-positive protein deposits in affected neurons. We show here that autophagic degradation is inhibited in cells depleted of ESCRT subunits and in cells expressing CHMP2B mutants, leading to accumulation of protein aggregates containing ubiquitinated proteins, p62 and Alfy. Moreover, we find that functional MVBs are required for clearance of TDP-43 (identified as the major ubiquitinated protein in ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin deposits), and of expanded polyglutamine aggregates associated with Huntington's disease. Together, our data indicate that efficient autophagic degradation requires functional MVBs and provide a possible explanation to the observed neurodegenerative phenotype seen in patients with CHMP2B mutations. PMID:17984323

  9. Functional multivesicular bodies are required for autophagic clearance of protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Filimonenko, Maria; Stuffers, Susanne; Raiborg, Camilla; Yamamoto, Ai; Malerød, Lene; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Isaacs, Adrian; Brech, Andreas; Stenmark, Harald; Simonsen, Anne

    2007-11-05

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) are required to sort integral membrane proteins into intralumenal vesicles of the multivesicular body (MVB). Mutations in the ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2B were recently associated with frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal ubiquitin-positive protein deposits in affected neurons. We show here that autophagic degradation is inhibited in cells depleted of ESCRT subunits and in cells expressing CHMP2B mutants, leading to accumulation of protein aggregates containing ubiquitinated proteins, p62 and Alfy. Moreover, we find that functional MVBs are required for clearance of TDP-43 (identified as the major ubiquitinated protein in ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin deposits), and of expanded polyglutamine aggregates associated with Huntington's disease. Together, our data indicate that efficient autophagic degradation requires functional MVBs and provide a possible explanation to the observed neurodegenerative phenotype seen in patients with CHMP2B mutations.

  10. Intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity in a Taiwanese family with a MAPT p.R5H mutation: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Chi; Lin, Chin-Hsien; Chen, Pei-Lung; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chen, Pei-Hao

    2017-09-18

    Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in executive function that frequently overlaps with parkinsonism and motor neuron disorders. Several genes have been identified to cause autosomal dominant forms of FTD, including the gene coding for the protein associated with microtubule tau (MAPT). While most reported pathogenic mutations in MAPT occur in exons 9-13, few families have been reported with mutations outside of this region. Herein, we report a first Taiwanese family having the exon 1 p.Arg5His mutation in MAPT with intrafamilial phenotype heterogeneity. A 63-year-old man presented with progressive non-fluent speech and impaired memory for 3 years. He then developed apraxia, myoclonus and parkinsonism feature at his right hand. Extensive neurologic and neurocognitive examination lead to a diagnosis of FTD mixed with corticobasal syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed asymmetric atrophy in the left frontal and temporal lobes and single-photon emission computed tomography indicated decreased metabolism in the same areas as well as the left basal ganglia. The patient's mother had been diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at the age of 60 and was deceased 10 years later due to respiratory failure. The patient's younger sister had persistent depressive disorder in her early forties and did not have any prominent cognitive or motor dysfunctions. We performed genetic analysis applying a targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) panel covering MAPT, GRN, VCP, FUS, CHMP2B, and TARDBP on the proband, followed by Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in eight family members. Hexanucleotide repeat expansion of C9Orf72 was determined by repeat-primed PCR. We identified a missense mutation in exon 1 of MAPT gene, c.14G > A (p.R5H), which was previously reported in only two Japanese patients in a literature review. This substitution co-segregated with the

  11. Genetics of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: From the Bench to the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shan-Shan; Li, Jun; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-04-19

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease with a strong genetic component. In this review, we summarize most common mutations in MAPT, GRN, and C90RF72, as well as less common mutations in VCP, CHMP2B, TARDBP, FUS gene and so on. Several guidelines have been developed to help gene testing based on genotype-phenotype correlation, the underlying histopathological subtypes, and the neuroanatomic associations. Furthermore, we also summarize molecular pathways implicated by genes and novel targets for FTLD prevention and management in recent years.

  12. Genetic overlap between apparently sporadic motor neuron diseases.

    PubMed

    van Blitterswijk, Marka; Vlam, Lotte; van Es, Michael A; van der Pol, W-Ludo; Hennekam, Eric A M; Dooijes, Dennis; Schelhaas, Helenius J; van der Kooi, Anneke J; de Visser, Marianne; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2012-01-01

    Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are devastating motor neuron diseases (MNDs), which result in muscle weakness and/or spasticity. We compared mutation frequencies in genes known to be associated with MNDs between patients with apparently sporadic PMA and ALS. A total of 261 patients with adult-onset sporadic PMA, patients with sporadic ALS, and control subjects of Dutch descent were obtained at national referral centers for neuromuscular diseases in The Netherlands. Sanger sequencing was used to screen these subjects for mutations in the coding regions of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), angiogenin (ANG), fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP), and multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B). In our cohort of PMA patients we identified two SOD1 mutations (p.D90A, p.I113T), one ANG mutation (p.K17I), one FUS/TLS mutation (p.R521H), one TARDBP mutation (p.N352S), and one novel CHMP2B mutation (p.R69Q). The mutation frequency of these genes was similar in sporadic PMA (2.7%) and ALS (2.0%) patients, and therefore, our findings demonstrate a genetic overlap between apparently sporadic PMA and ALS.

  13. Genetic Overlap between Apparently Sporadic Motor Neuron Diseases

    PubMed Central

    van Blitterswijk, Marka; Vlam, Lotte; van Es, Michael A.; van der Pol, W-Ludo; Hennekam, Eric A. M.; Dooijes, Dennis; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are devastating motor neuron diseases (MNDs), which result in muscle weakness and/or spasticity. We compared mutation frequencies in genes known to be associated with MNDs between patients with apparently sporadic PMA and ALS. A total of 261 patients with adult-onset sporadic PMA, patients with sporadic ALS, and control subjects of Dutch descent were obtained at national referral centers for neuromuscular diseases in The Netherlands. Sanger sequencing was used to screen these subjects for mutations in the coding regions of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), angiogenin (ANG), fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP), and multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B). In our cohort of PMA patients we identified two SOD1 mutations (p.D90A, p.I113T), one ANG mutation (p.K17I), one FUS/TLS mutation (p.R521H), one TARDBP mutation (p.N352S), and one novel CHMP2B mutation (p.R69Q). The mutation frequency of these genes was similar in sporadic PMA (2.7%) and ALS (2.0%) patients, and therefore, our findings demonstrate a genetic overlap between apparently sporadic PMA and ALS. PMID:23155438

  14. Frontotemporal Dementia: Implications for Understanding Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, Michel; Ghetti, Bernardino; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) comprises a group of behavioral, language, and movement disorders. On the basis of the nature of the characteristic protein inclusions, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) can be subdivided into the common FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP as well as the less common FTLD-FUS and FTLD-UPS. Approximately 10% of cases of FTD are inherited in an autosomal-dominant manner. Mutations in seven genes cause FTD, with those in tau (MAPT), chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72), and progranulin (GRN) being the most common. Mutations in MAPT give rise to FTLD-tau and mutations in C9ORF72 and GRN to FTLD-TDP. The other four genes are transactive response–DNA binding protein-43 (TARDBP), fused in sarcoma (FUS), valosin-containing protein (VCP), and charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B). Mutations in TARDBP and VCP give rise to FTLD-TDP, mutations in FUS to FTLD-FUS, and mutations in CHMP2B to FTLD-UPS. The discovery that mutations in MAPT cause neurodegeneration and dementia has important implications for understanding Alzheimer disease. PMID:22355793

  15. Frontotemporal dementia: implications for understanding Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Goedert, Michel; Ghetti, Bernardino; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2012-02-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) comprises a group of behavioral, language, and movement disorders. On the basis of the nature of the characteristic protein inclusions, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) can be subdivided into the common FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP as well as the less common FTLD-FUS and FTLD-UPS. Approximately 10% of cases of FTD are inherited in an autosomal-dominant manner. Mutations in seven genes cause FTD, with those in tau (MAPT), chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72), and progranulin (GRN) being the most common. Mutations in MAPT give rise to FTLD-tau and mutations in C9ORF72 and GRN to FTLD-TDP. The other four genes are transactive response-DNA binding protein-43 (TARDBP), fused in sarcoma (FUS), valosin-containing protein (VCP), and charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B). Mutations in TARDBP and VCP give rise to FTLD-TDP, mutations in FUS to FTLD-FUS, and mutations in CHMP2B to FTLD-UPS. The discovery that mutations in MAPT cause neurodegeneration and dementia has important implications for understanding Alzheimer disease.

  16. Mutation and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.L. ); Albertini, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: Somatic Mutation: Animal Model; Somatic Mutation: Human; Heritable Mutation: Animal Model; Heritable Mutation: Approaches to Human Induction Rates; Heritable Mutation: Human Risk; Epidemiology: Population Studies on Genotoxicity; and Epidemiology: Workplace Studies of Genotoxicity.

  17. Mutation rates and mutational loads in man

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The following areas of research are discussed: (1) the study of human mutation rates; (2) geography of human genes and its relevance to mutation; (3) sociocultural studies correlated with population genetics; (4) consanguineous marriages; and (5) surnames. (ACR)

  18. Characterization of the 3p12.3-pcen region associated with tumor suppression in a novel ovarian cancer cell line model genetically modified by chromosome 3 fragment transfer.

    PubMed

    Cody, Neal A L; Shen, Zhen; Ripeau, Jean-Sebastien; Provencher, Diane M; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Chevrette, Mario; Tonin, Patricia N

    2009-12-01

    The genetic analysis of nontumorigenic radiation hybrids generated by transfer of chromosome 3 fragments into the tumorigenic OV-90 ovarian cancer cell line identified the 3p12.3-pcen region as a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) locus. In the present study, polymorphic microsatellite repeat analysis of the hybrids further defined the 3p12.3-pcen interval to a 16.1 Mb common region containing 12 known or hypothetical genes: 3ptel-ROBO2-ROBO1-GBE1-CADM2-VGLL3-CHMP2B-POU1F1-HTR1F-CGGBP1-ZNF654-C3orf38-EPHA3-3pcen. Seven of these genes, ROBO1, GBE1, VGLL3, CHMP2B, CGGBP1, ZNF654, and C3orf38, exhibited gene expression in the hybrids, placing them as top TSG candidates for further analysis. The expression of all but one (VGLL3) of these genes was also detected in the parental OV-90 cell line. Mutations were not identified in a comparative sequence analysis of the predicted protein coding regions of these candidates in OV-90 and donor normal chromosome 3 contig. However, the nondeleterious sequence variants identified in the transcribed regions distinguished parent of origin alleles for ROBO1, VGLL3, CHMP2B, and CGGBP1 and cDNA sequencing of the hybrids revealed biallelic expression of these genes. Interestingly, underexpression of VGLL3 and ZNF654 were observed in malignant ovarian tumor samples as compared with primary cultures of normal ovarian surface epithelial cells or benign ovarian tumors, and this occurred regardless of allelic content of 3p12.3-pcen. The results taken together suggest that dysregulation of VGLL3 and/or ZNF654 expression may have affected pathways important in ovarian tumorigenesis which was offset by the transfer of chromosome 3 fragments in OV-90, a cell line hemizygous for 3p.

  19. FUS pathology defines the majority of tau- and TDP-43-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Hazel; Josephs, Keith A; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Mackenzie, Ian R; Neumann, Manuela; Authier, Astrid; Seelaar, Harro; Van Swieten, John C; Brown, Jeremy M; Johannsen, Peter; Nielsen, Jorgen E; Holm, Ida E; Dickson, Dennis W; Rademakers, Rosa; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Parisi, Joseph E; Petersen, Ronald C; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; White, Charles L; Weiner, Myron F; Geser, Felix; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Trojanowski, John Q; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; van der Zee, Julie; Kumar-Singh, Samir; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Bigio, Eileen H; Deng, Han-Xiang; Halliday, Glenda M; Kril, Jillian J; Munoz, David G; Mann, David M; Pickering-Brown, Stuart M; Doodeman, Valerie; Adamson, Gary; Ghazi-Noori, Shabnam; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Holton, Janice L; Revesz, Tamas; Rossor, Martin N; Collinge, John; Mead, Simon; Isaacs, Adrian M

    2010-07-01

    Through an international consortium, we have collected 37 tau- and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-negative frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases, and present here the first comprehensive analysis of these cases in terms of neuropathology, genetics, demographics and clinical data. 92% (34/37) had fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein pathology, indicating that FTLD-FUS is an important FTLD subtype. This FTLD-FUS collection specifically focussed on aFTLD-U cases, one of three recently defined subtypes of FTLD-FUS. The aFTLD-U subtype of FTLD-FUS is characterised clinically by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and has a particularly young age of onset with a mean of 41 years. Further, this subtype had a high prevalence of psychotic symptoms (36% of cases) and low prevalence of motor symptoms (3% of cases). We did not find FUS mutations in any aFTLD-U case. To date, the only subtype of cases reported to have ubiquitin-positive but tau-, TDP-43- and FUS-negative pathology, termed FTLD-UPS, is the result of charged multivesicular body protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) mutation. We identified three FTLD-UPS cases, which are negative for CHMP2B mutation, suggesting that the full complement of FTLD pathologies is yet to be elucidated.

  20. Mechanisms of viral mutation.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Domingo-Calap, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    The remarkable capacity of some viruses to adapt to new hosts and environments is highly dependent on their ability to generate de novo diversity in a short period of time. Rates of spontaneous mutation vary amply among viruses. RNA viruses mutate faster than DNA viruses, single-stranded viruses mutate faster than double-strand virus, and genome size appears to correlate negatively with mutation rate. Viral mutation rates are modulated at different levels, including polymerase fidelity, sequence context, template secondary structure, cellular microenvironment, replication mechanisms, proofreading, and access to post-replicative repair. Additionally, massive numbers of mutations can be introduced by some virus-encoded diversity-generating elements, as well as by host-encoded cytidine/adenine deaminases. Our current knowledge of viral mutation rates indicates that viral genetic diversity is determined by multiple virus- and host-dependent processes, and that viral mutation rates can evolve in response to specific selective pressures.

  1. CF Mutation Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities CF Gene Mutations Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Cystic Fibrosis Genotyping; CF DNA Analysis; CF Gene Mutation Panel; ...

  2. ESCRT functions in autophagy and associated disease.

    PubMed

    Rusten, Tor Erik; Simonsen, Anne

    2008-05-01

    Mutations in the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III subunit CHMP2B are associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), both human neurodegenerative diseases characterized by accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins aggregates in affected neurons. The ESCRT proteins are known to be involved in diverse cellular processes such as mRNA transport, cytokinesis, transcriptional regulation and sorting of transmembrane proteins into the inner vesicles of the multivesicular body (MVB) during endocytosis. It was until recently not clear how ESCRT function may be involved in neurodegeneration. New findings in mammalian cells and in Drosophila melanogaster show that functional ESCRTs are required for efficient fusion of autophagic vesicles with the endocytic pathway and for degradation of autophagic cargo. Moreover, defective ESCRT function led to the accumulation of cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing ubiquitin, p62/Sequestosome-1 and TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Using cellular and Drosophila models for Huntington's disease it was also shown that reduced ESCRT levels inhibit clearance of expanded polyglutamine aggregates and aggravate their neurotoxic effect. These data indicate that efficient autophagic degradation requires functional MVBs and provides a possible explanation to the observed neurodegenerative phenotype seen in patients with CHMP2B mutations.

  3. Rab8, POSH, and TAK1 regulate synaptic growth in a Drosophila model of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    West, Ryan J H; Lu, Yubing; Marie, Bruno; Gao, Fen-Biao; Sweeney, Sean T

    2015-03-30

    Mutations in genes essential for protein homeostasis have been identified in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Why mature neurons should be particularly sensitive to such perturbations is unclear. We identified mutations in Rab8 in a genetic screen for enhancement of an FTD phenotype associated with ESCRT-III dysfunction. Examination of Rab8 mutants or motor neurons expressing a mutant ESCRT-III subunit, CHMP2B(Intron5), at the Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junction synapse revealed synaptic overgrowth and endosomal dysfunction. Expression of Rab8 rescued overgrowth phenotypes generated by CHMP2B(Intron5). In Rab8 mutant synapses, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 and TGF-β signaling were overactivated and acted synergistically to potentiate synaptic growth. We identify novel roles for endosomal JNK-scaffold POSH (Plenty-of-SH3s) and a JNK kinase kinase, TAK1, in regulating growth activation in Rab8 mutants. Our data uncover Rab8, POSH, and TAK1 as regulators of synaptic growth responses and point to recycling endosome as a key compartment for synaptic growth regulation during neurodegenerative processes. © 2015 West et al.

  4. UV Signature Mutations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  5. Genetics of Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Diana A; Lonergan, Roisin; Fallon, Emer M; Lynch, Tim

    2016-12-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD). Between 20 and 50% of cases are familial. Mutations in MAPT, GRN and C9orf72 are found in 60% of familial FTD cases. C9orf72 mutations are the most common and account for 25%. Rarer mutations (<5%) occur in other genes such as VPC, CHMP2B, TARDP, FUS, ITM2B, TBK1 and TBP. The diagnosis is often challenging due to symptom overlap with AD and other conditions. We review the genetics, clinical presentations, neuroimaging, neuropathology, animal studies and therapeutic trials in FTD. We describe clinical scenarios including the original family with the tau stem loop mutation (+14) and also the recently discovered 'missing tau' mutation +15 that 'closed the loop' in 2015.

  6. Roles of ESCRT in autophagy-associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2008-02-01

    Autophagy is a regulated pathway for bulk degradation of cytoplasmic contents and organelles, an important process involved in many physiological and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including the nervous system. It has been proposed that developing autophagosomes fuse with late endosomal compartments before their fusion with lysosomes; however, little is known about the functional relationship between the autophagy and endocytic pathways. In the endosomal-lysosomal pathway, a key step in sorting transmembrane cargo proteins is regulated by multimeric complexes called ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport). We recently reported that dysfunction of ESCRT-III, either by depletion of its essential subunit mSnf7-2 or by expression of a mutant CHMP2B protein associated with frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3), caused autophagosome accumulation and dendritic retraction before neurodegeneration in cultured mature cortical neurons. This defect is likely a result of an abnormal fusion process between autophagosomes and endosomal compartments or lysosomes. This study suggests that defects in the late steps of the autophagy pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of FTD and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Autophagy defects contribute to neurodegeneration induced by dysfunctional ESCRT-III.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Liu, Lei; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2009-10-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is involved in multiple cellular processes, including autophagy (macroautophagy). Autophagy is an important intracellular pathway that involves the formation and maturation of autophagosomes and their fusion with lysosomes for bulk degradation of cytoplasmic contents and organelles. In flies and cultured mammalian cells, autophagosomes accumulate when ESCRT-III is rendered dysfunctional by reduced activity of its subunits or by ectopic expression of mutant CHMP2B associated with frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). Compromised ESCRT-III function results in eventual neuronal cell loss; however, the mechanism of this form of neurodegeneration is largely unknown. Recently, we found that inhibiting autophagy induction in cultured cortical neurons, either by small-molecule inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PtdIns3K) or by loss of atg5 or atg7 activity, delays but does not completely suppress neuronal cell loss caused by dysfunctional ESCRT-III. These findings indicate that excess accumulation of autophagosomes is detrimental to neuronal survival, and dysfunctional ESCRT-III appears to cause neurodegeneration through multiple mechanisms.

  8. Effective Temperature of Mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derényi, Imre; Szöllősi, Gergely J.

    2015-02-01

    Biological macromolecules experience two seemingly very different types of noise acting on different time scales: (i) point mutations corresponding to changes in molecular sequence and (ii) thermal fluctuations. Examining the secondary structures of a large number of microRNA precursor sequences and model lattice proteins, we show that the effects of single point mutations are statistically indistinguishable from those of an increase in temperature by a few tens of kelvins. The existence of such an effective mutational temperature establishes a quantitative connection between robustness to genetic (mutational) and environmental (thermal) perturbations.

  9. Gestational mutations in radiation carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, R.; Luebeck, G.; Moolgavkar, S.

    Mutations in critical genes during gestation could increase substantially the risk of cancer. We examine the consequences of such mutations using the Luebeck-Moolgavkar model for colorectal cancer and the Lea-Coulson modification of the Luria-Delbruck model for the accumulation of mutations during gestation. When gestational mutation rates are high, such mutations make a significant contribution to cancer risk even for adult tumors. Furthermore, gestational mutations ocurring at distinct times during emryonic developmemt lead to substantially different numbers of mutated cells at birth, with early mutations leading to a large number (jackpots) of mutated cells at birth and mutation occurring late leading to only a few mutated cells. Thus gestational mutations could confer considerable heterogeneity of the risk of cancer. If the fetus is exposed to an environmental mutagen, such as ionizing radiation, the gestational mutation rate would be expected to increase. We examine the consequences of such exposures during gestation on the subsequent development of cancer.

  10. Mutation and premating isolation.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N

    2002-11-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  11. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  12. Mutation and premating isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  13. New genes, new dilemmas: FTLD genetics and its implications for families.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jill S; Adamson, Jennifer; Karydas, Anna; Miller, Bruce L; Hutton, Mike

    After Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second leading cause of dementia in persons less than 65 years of age. Up to 40% of FTLD cases have a positive family history. Research on these families has led to the discovery of four disease-causing genes: microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), progranulin (PGRN), valosin-containing protein (VCP), and charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B). MAPT and PGRN are responsible for the largest number of familial cases. Each of these genes differs by disease mechanism. Moreover mutations in both genes are associated with significant interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variation. Genetic counseling needs to address the differences between the PGRN and MAPT mutations as well as the variation in clinical symptoms. The aims of this article are to describe the genetics of the FTLD spectrum and aid in the genetic counseling of individuals who may carry genetic mutations.

  14. AIP mutations and gigantism.

    PubMed

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Potorac, Iulia; Beckers, Pablo; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2017-06-01

    AIP mutations are rare in sporadic acromegaly but they are seen at a higher frequency among certain specific populations of pituitary adenoma patients (pituitary gigantism cases, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindreds, and patients with macroadenomas who are diagnosed ≤30 years). AIP mutations are most prevalent in patients with pituitary gigantism (29% of this group were found to have mutations in AIP gene). These data support targeted genetic screening for AIP mutations/deletions in these groups of pituitary adenoma patients. Earlier diagnosis of AIP-related acromegaly-gigantism cases enables timely clinical evaluation and treatment, thereby improving outcomes in terms of excessive linear growth and acromegaly comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. ATM mutations for surgeons.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Sara A; Pilarski, Robert; Agnese, Doreen M

    2016-12-17

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encodes a protein kinase involved in DNA repair. Heterozygotic carriers are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. As the use of genetic testing increases, identification of at-risk patients will also increase. The aim of this study is to review two cases of heterozygous ATM mutation carriers and review the literature to clarify the cancer risks and suggested management for breast surgeons who will be intimately involved in the care of these patients.

  16. Comparing Mutational Variabilities

    PubMed Central

    Houle, D.; Morikawa, B.; Lynch, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have reviewed the available data on V(M), the amount of genetic variation in phenotypic traits produced each generation by mutation. We use these data to make several qualitative tests of the mutation-selection balance hypothesis for the maintenance of genetic variance (MSB). To compare V(M) values, we use three dimensionless quantities: mutational heritability, V(M)/V(E); the mutational coefficient of variation, CV(M); and the ratio of the standing genetic variance to V(M), V(G)/V(M). Since genetic coefficients of variation for life history traits are larger than those for morphological traits, we predict that under MSB, life history traits should also have larger CV(M). This is confirmed; life history traits have a median CV(M) value more than six times higher than that for morphological traits. V(G)/V(M) approximates the persistence time of mutations under MSB in an infinite population. In order for MSB to hold, V(G)/V(M) must be small, substantially less than 1000, and life history traits should have smaller values than morphological traits. V(G)/V(M) averages about 50 generations for life history traits and 100 generations for morphological traits. These observations are all consistent with the predictions of a mutation-selection balance model. PMID:8807316

  17. [Introduction of mutations in insulin molecule: positive and negative mutations].

    PubMed

    Ksenofontova, O I

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of mutations in an insulin molecule is one of the important approaches to drug development for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Generally, usage of mutations is aimed at activation of insulin and insulin receptor interaction. Such mutations can be considered as positive. Mutations that reduce the binding efficacy are negative. There are neutral mutations as well. This article considers both natural mutations that are typical for various members of the insulin superfamily and artificial ones which are introduced to improve the insulin pharmacological characteristics. Data presented here can be useful in developing new effective insulin analogues for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Mutations in Lettuce Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Beiquan

    2011-01-01

    Lettuce is a major vegetable in western countries. Mutations generated genetic variations and played an important role in the domestication of the crop. Many traits derived from natural and induced mutations, such as dwarfing, early flowering, male sterility, and chlorophyll deficiency, are useful in physiological and genetic studies. Mutants were also used to develop new lettuce products including miniature and herbicide-tolerant cultivars. Mutant analysis was critical in lettuce genomic studies including identification and cloning of disease-resistance genes. Mutagenesis combined with genomic technology may provide powerful tools for the discovery of novel gene alleles. In addition to radiation and chemical mutagens, unconventional approaches such as tissue or protoplast culture, transposable elements, and space flights have been utilized to generate mutants in lettuce. Since mutation breeding is considered nontransgenic, it is more acceptable to consumers and will be explored more in the future for lettuce improvement. PMID:22287955

  19. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions: a molecular genetic update.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Julie; Gijselinck, Ilse; Pirici, Daniel; Kumar-Singh, Samir; Cruts, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a clinically, pathologically and genetically highly complex disorder. In the last few years enormous progress has been made in dissecting the genetic etiology of FTLD. Mutations have been identified in the progranulin gene (PGRN), the charged multivesicular body protein 2B gene (CHMP2B) and the valosin-containing protein gene (VCP). Mutations in these genes all lead to FTLD pathology characterized by ubiquitin-immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear lentiform inclusions (FTLD-U). The similar pathology suggests that these genes may be connected trough a common disease pathway leading to neurodegeneration and the formation of these pathognomic inclusions. This review focuses on the molecular genetic processes underlying FTLD-U pathology. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. ALS2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype. PMID:24562058

  1. Msx1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Kong, H.; Mues, G.; D’Souza, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the transcription factors PAX9 and MSX1 cause selective tooth agenesis in humans. In tooth bud mesenchyme of mice, both proteins are required for the expression of Bmp4, which is the key signaling factor for progression to the next step of tooth development. We have previously shown that Pax9 can transactivate a 2.4-kb Bmp4 promoter construct, and that most tooth-agenesis-causing PAX9 mutations impair DNA binding and Bmp4 promoter activation. We also found that Msx1 by itself represses transcription from this proximal Bmp4 promoter, and that, in combination with Pax9, it acts as a potentiator of Pax9-induced Bmp4 transactivation. This synergism of Msx1 with Pax9 is significant, because it is currently the only documented mechanism for Msx1-mediated activation of Bmp4. In this study, we investigated whether the 5 known tooth-agenesis-causing MSX1 missense mutations disrupt this Pax9-potentiation effect, or if they lead to deficiencies in protein stability, protein-protein interactions, nuclear translocation, and DNA-binding. We found that none of the studied molecular mechanisms yielded a satisfactory explanation for the pathogenic effects of the Msx1 mutations, calling for an entirely different approach to the investigation of this step of odontogenesis on the molecular level. PMID:21297014

  2. Mutations in galactosemia

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, J.K.V.

    1995-10-01

    This Letter raises four issues concerning two papers on galactosemia published in the March 1995 of the Journal. First, table 2 in the paper by Elsas et al. incorrectly attributes seven galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) mutations (S135L, L195P, K285N, N314D, R333W, R333G, and K334R). The table also fails to mention that others have reported the same two findings attributed to {open_quotes}Leslie et al.; Elsas et al. and in press{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Leslie et al.; Elsas et al.{close_quotes} The first finding on the prevalence of the Q188R galactosemia mutation in the G/G Caucasian population has also been described by Ng et al., and the second finding on the correlation of the N314D GALT mutation with the Duarte variant was reported by Lin et al. Second, Elsas et al. suggest that the E203K and N314D mutations may {open_quotes}produce intra-allelic complementation when in cis{close_quotes}. This speculation is supported by the activity data of individual III-2 but is inconsistent with the activities of three other individuals I-1, II-1, and III-1 of the same pedigree. The GALT activity measured in these three individuals suggests a dominant negative effect of E203K in E203K-N314D chromosomes, since they all have less than normal activity. Thus, the preponderance of the data in this paper is at odds with the authors speculation. It is worth recalling that Lin et al. also identified four N314D GALT mutations on 95 galactosemic chromosomes examined. A similar situation also appears to be the case in proband III-1 (with genotype E203K-N314D/IVSC) in the Elsas et al. paper. 9 refs.

  3. Synonymous mutations frequently act as driver mutations in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Supek, Fran; Miñana, Belén; Valcárcel, Juan; Gabaldón, Toni; Lehner, Ben

    2014-03-13

    Synonymous mutations change the sequence of a gene without directly altering the sequence of the encoded protein. Here, we present evidence that these "silent" mutations frequently contribute to human cancer. Selection on synonymous mutations in oncogenes is cancer-type specific, and although the functional consequences of cancer-associated synonymous mutations may be diverse, they recurrently alter exonic motifs that regulate splicing and are associated with changes in oncogene splicing in tumors. The p53 tumor suppressor (TP53) also has recurrent synonymous mutations, but, in contrast to those in oncogenes, these are adjacent to splice sites and inactivate them. We estimate that between one in two and one in five silent mutations in oncogenes have been selected, equating to ~6%- 8% of all selected single-nucleotide changes in these genes. In addition, our analyses suggest that dosage-sensitive oncogenes have selected mutations in their 3' UTRs.

  4. OXPHOS mutations and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Werner J H; Distelmaier, Felix; Smeitink, Jan AM; Willems, Peter HGM

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) sustains organelle function and plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism. The OXPHOS system consists of 5 multisubunit complexes (CI–CV) that are built up of 92 different structural proteins encoded by the nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Biogenesis of a functional OXPHOS system further requires the assistance of nDNA-encoded OXPHOS assembly factors, of which 35 are currently identified. In humans, mutations in both structural and assembly genes and in genes involved in mtDNA maintenance, replication, transcription, and translation induce ‘primary' OXPHOS disorders that are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including Leigh syndrome (LS), which is probably the most classical OXPHOS disease during early childhood. Here, we present the current insights regarding function, biogenesis, regulation, and supramolecular architecture of the OXPHOS system, as well as its genetic origin. Next, we provide an inventory of OXPHOS structural and assembly genes which, when mutated, induce human neurodegenerative disorders. Finally, we discuss the consequences of mutations in OXPHOS structural and assembly genes at the single cell level and how this information has advanced our understanding of the role of OXPHOS dysfunction in neurodegeneration. PMID:23149385

  5. Mutator and MULE Transposons.

    PubMed

    Lisch, Damon

    2015-04-01

    The Mutator system of transposable elements (TEs) is a highly mutagenic family of transposons in maize. Because they transpose at high rates and target genic regions, these transposons can rapidly generate large numbers of new mutants, which has made the Mutator system a favored tool for both forward and reverse mutagenesis in maize. Low copy number versions of this system have also proved to be excellent models for understanding the regulation and behavior of Class II transposons in plants. Notably, the availability of a naturally occurring locus that can heritably silence autonomous Mutator elements has provided insights into the means by which otherwise active transposons are recognized and silenced. This chapter will provide a review of the biology, regulation, evolution and uses of this remarkable transposon system, with an emphasis on recent developments in our understanding of the ways in which this TE system is recognized and epigenetically silenced as well as recent evidence that Mu-like elements (MULEs) have had a significant impact on the evolution of plant genomes.

  6. Mutation Rates among RNA Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, John W.; Holland, John J.

    1999-11-01

    The rate of spontaneous mutation is a key parameter in modeling the genetic structure and evolution of populations. The impact of the accumulated load of mutations and the consequences of increasing the mutation rate are important in assessing the genetic health of populations. Mutation frequencies are among the more directly measurable population parameters, although the information needed to convert them into mutation rates is often lacking. A previous analysis of mutation rates in RNA viruses (specifically in riboviruses rather than retroviruses) was constrained by the quality and quantity of available measurements and by the lack of a specific theoretical framework for converting mutation frequencies into mutation rates in this group of organisms. Here, we describe a simple relation between ribovirus mutation frequencies and mutation rates, apply it to the best (albeit far from satisfactory) available data, and observe a central value for the mutation rate per genome per replication of μ g≈ 0.76. (The rate per round of cell infection is twice this value or about 1.5.) This value is so large, and ribovirus genomes are so informationally dense, that even a modest increase extinguishes the population.

  7. Septin Mutations in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Angelis, Dimitrios; Spiliotis, Elias T.

    2016-01-01

    Septins are GTP-binding proteins that are evolutionarily and structurally related to the RAS oncogenes. Septin expression levels are altered in many cancers and new advances point to how abnormal septin expression may contribute to the progression of cancer. In contrast to the RAS GTPases, which are frequently mutated and actively promote tumorigenesis, little is known about the occurrence and role of septin mutations in human cancers. Here, we review septin missense mutations that are currently in the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. The majority of septin mutations occur in tumors of the large intestine, skin, endometrium and stomach. Over 25% of the annotated mutations in SEPT2, SEPT4, and SEPT9 belong to large intestine tumors. From all septins, SEPT9 and SEPT14 exhibit the highest mutation frequencies in skin, stomach and large intestine cancers. While septin mutations occur with frequencies lower than 3%, recurring mutations in several invariant and highly conserved amino acids are found across different septin paralogs and tumor types. Interestingly, a significant number of these mutations occur in the GTP-binding pocket and septin dimerization interfaces. Future studies may determine how these somatic mutations affect septin structure and function, whether they contribute to the progression of specific cancers and if they could serve as tumor-specific biomarkers. PMID:27882315

  8. Estimation of spontaneous mutation rates.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Loki; Berry, Charles C; Gasche, Christoph

    2003-09-01

    Spontaneous or randomly occurring mutations play a key role in cancer progression. Estimation of the mutation rate of cancer cells can provide useful information about the disease. To ascertain these mutation rates, we need mathematical models that describe the distribution of mutant cells. In this investigation, we develop a discrete time stochastic model for a mutational birth process. We assume that mutations occur concurrently with mitosis so that when a nonmutant parent cell splits into two progeny, one of these daughter cells could carry a mutation. We propose an estimator for the mutation rate and investigate its statistical properties via theory and simulations. A salient feature of this estimator is the ease with which it can be computed. The methods developed herein are applied to a human colorectal cancer cell line and compared to existing continuous time models.

  9. Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA mutations in Chinese patients: 16 novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Weimin; Wang, Yun; Meng, Yan; Su, Liang; Shi, Huiping; Huang, Shangzhi

    2010-08-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) and transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. This is the first systematic mutation screen in Chinese MPS IVA patients. Mutation detections in 24 unrelated Chinese MPS IVA patients were performed by PCR and direct sequencing of exons or the mRNA of GALNS. A total of 42 mutant alleles were identified, belonging to 27 different mutations. Out of the 27 mutations, 16 were novel, including 2 splicing mutations (c.567-1G>T and c.634-1G>A), 2 nonsense mutations (p.W325X and p.Q422X) and 12 missense mutations (p.T88I, p.H142R, p.P163H, p.G168L, p.H236D, p.N289S, p.T312A, p.G316V, p.A324E, p.L366P, p.Q422K and p.F452L). p.G340D was found to be a common mutation in the Chinese MPS IVA patients, accounting for 16.7% of the total number of mutant alleles. The results show that the mutations in Chinese MPS IVA patients are also family specific but have a different mutation spectrum as compared to those of other populations.

  10. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lavi, Noa

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations) and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations) in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin) were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review. PMID:25386351

  11. Pathology and genetics of frontotemporal lobar degeneration: an update.

    PubMed

    Tolnay, M; Frank, S

    2007-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a common form of dementia that usually afflicts patients in their mid-life. Clinically, patients with FTLD present with changes in behavior and/or language dysfunction. According to their underlying neuropathological substrate, these neurodegenerative conditions can now be classified into two main groups: those with tau pathology (tauopathies), and those without tau pathology. In the majority of nontauopathy disorders the recently identified TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is found as the major inclusion protein (TDP-43 proteinopathies), and TDP-43 is also present in motor neuron inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Presently, mutations in 4 genes (MAPT, PGRN, VCP, CHMP2B) are known to cause diverse types of FTLD pathology. Here, we summarize the recent neuropathological and genetic advances in FTLD research.

  12. Novel types of frontotemporal lobar degeneration: beyond tau and TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ian R A; Neumann, Manuela; Cairns, Nigel J; Munoz, David G; Isaacs, Adrian M

    2011-11-01

    Most cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of either the microtubule-associated protein tau or the transactive response DNA-binding protein with M(r) 43 kDa, TDP-43 (FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP, respectively). However, there remain ∼10% of cases, composed of a heterogenous collection of uncommon disorders, for which the molecular basis remains uncertain. In this review, we describe the characteristic genetic, clinical, and pathological features of the major tau/TDP-negative FTLD subtypes, with focus on recent advances in our understanding of their molecular basis. This includes the discovery that the pathological changes in atypical FTLD with ubiquitinated inclusions, neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease, and basophilic inclusion body disease are immunoreactive for the fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein, resulting in the creation of a new molecular subgroup (FTLD-FUS), and studies clarifying the functional consequences of pathogenic CHMP2B mutations.

  13. MECP2 mutations in males

    PubMed Central

    Villard, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS; MIM 312750) is a severe neurological disorder affecting exclusively females. Its prevalence is about 1 in 10 000 female births, and it is a prominent cause of profound mental handicap in women. RS is caused by mutations in the X‐linked methyl CpG‐binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. These mutations were initially thought to be lethal in males. However, MECP2 mutations are now frequently identified in mentally retarded male patients. The frequency of disease‐causing MECP2 mutations in this population is between 1.3% and 1.7%. Surprisingly, MECP2 mutations in males are responsible for a wide spectrum of neurological disorders, ranging from mild mental retardation to severe neonatal encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to describe the nature of the MECP2 mutations identified in male patients to date and their associated phenotypes. PMID:17351020

  14. Recurrent gene mutations in CLL.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Quesada, Víctor; Villamor, Neus; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing of whole genomes and exomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has provided the first comprehensive view of somatic mutations in this disease. Subsequent studies have characterized the oncogenic pathways and clinical implications of a number of these mutations. The global number of somatic mutations per case is lower than those described in solid tumors but is in agreement with previous estimates of less than one mutation per megabase in hematological neoplasms. The number and pattern of somatic mutations differ in tumors with unmutated and mutated IGHV, extending at the genomic level the clinical differences observed in these two CLL subtypes. One of the striking conclusions of these studies has been the marked genetic heterogeneity of the disease, with a relatively large number of genes recurrently mutated at low frequency and only a few genes mutated in up to 10-15 % of the patients. The mutated genes tend to cluster in different pathways that include NOTCH1 signaling, RNA splicing and processing machinery, innate inflammatory response, Wnt signaling, and DNA damage and cell cycle control, among others. These results highlight the molecular heterogeneity of CLL and may provide new biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for the diagnosis and management of the disease.

  15. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers.

  16. Exposing synonymous mutations.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Ryan C; Simhadri, Vijaya L; Iandoli, Matthew; Sauna, Zuben E; Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava

    2014-07-01

    Synonymous codon changes, which do not alter protein sequence, were previously thought to have no functional consequence. Although this concept has been overturned in recent years, there is no unique mechanism by which these changes exert biological effects. A large repertoire of both experimental and bioinformatic methods has been developed to understand the effects of synonymous variants. Results from this body of work have provided global insights into how biological systems exploit the degeneracy of the genetic code to control gene expression, protein folding efficiency, and the coordinated expression of functionally related gene families. Although it is now clear that synonymous variants are important in a variety of contexts, from human disease to the safety and efficacy of therapeutic proteins, there is no clear consensus on the approaches to identify and validate these changes. Here, we review the diverse methods to understand the effects of synonymous mutations.

  17. PTCH mutations: distribution and analyses.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Erika; Shimokawa, Takashi; Toftgård, Rune; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2006-03-01

    Mutations in the PTCH (PTCH1) gene are the underlying cause of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), and are also found in many different sporadic tumors in which PTCH is thought to act as a tumor suppressor gene. To investigate the distribution pattern of these mutations in tumors and NBCCS, we analyzed 284 mutations and 48 SNPs located in the PTCH gene that were compiled from our PTCH mutation database. We found that the PTCH mutations were mainly clustered into the predicted two large extracellular loops and the large intracellular loop. The SNPs appeared to be clustered around the sterol sensing domain and the second half of the protein. The NBCCS cases and each class of tumor analyzed revealed a different distribution of the mutations in the various PTCH domains. Moreover, the types of mutations were also unique for the different groups. Finally, the PTCH gene harbors mutational hot spot residues and regions, including a slippage-sensitive sequence in the N-terminus.

  18. ENAM Mutations with Incomplete Penetrance

    PubMed Central

    Seymen, F.; Lee, K.-E.; Koruyucu, M.; Gencay, K.; Bayram, M.; Tuna, E.B.; Lee, Z.H.; Kim, J.-W.

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetic disease affecting tooth enamel formation. AI can be an isolated entity or a phenotype of syndromes. To date, more than 10 genes have been associated with various forms of AI. We have identified 2 unrelated Turkish families with hypoplastic AI and performed mutational analysis. Whole-exome sequencing identified 2 novel heterozygous nonsense mutations in the ENAM gene (c.454G>T p.Glu152* in family 1, c.358C>T p.Gln120* in family 2) in the probands. Affected individuals were heterozygous for the mutation in each family. Segregation analysis within each family revealed individuals with incomplete penetrance or extremely mild enamel phenotype, in spite of having the same mutation with the other affected individuals. We believe that these findings will broaden our understanding of the clinical phenotype of AI caused by ENAM mutations. PMID:25143514

  19. A genotypic mutation system measuring mutations in restriction recognition sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Felley-Bosco, E; Pourzand, C; Zijlstra, J; Amstad, P; Cerutti, P

    1991-01-01

    The RFLP/PCR approach (restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction) to genotypic mutation analysis described here measures mutations in restriction recognition sequences. Wild-type DNA is restricted before the resistant, mutated sequences are amplified by PCR and cloned. We tested the capacity of this experimental design to isolate a few copies of a mutated sequence of the human c-Ha-ras1 gene from a large excess of wild-type DNA. For this purpose we constructed a 272 bp fragment with 2 mutations in the PvuII recognition sequence 1727-1732 and studied the rescue by RFLP/PCR of a few copies of this 'PvuII mutant standard'. Following amplification with Taq-polymerase and cloning into lambda gt10, plaques containing wild-type sequence, PvuII mutant standard or Taq-polymerase induced bp changes were quantitated by hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes. Our results indicate that 10 PvuII mutant standard copies can be rescued from 10(8) to 10(9) wild-type sequences. Taq polymerase errors originating from unrestricted, residual wild-type DNA were sequence dependent and consisted mostly of transversions originating at G.C bp. In contrast to a doubly mutated 'standard' the capacity to rescue single bp mutations by RFLP/PCR is limited by Taq-polymerase errors. Therefore, we assessed the capacity of our protocol to isolate a G to T transversion mutation at base pair 1698 of the MspI-site 1695-1698 of the c-Ha-ras1 gene from excess wild-type ras1 DNA. We found that 100 copies of the mutated ras1 fragment could be readily rescued from 10(8) copies of wild-type DNA. Images PMID:1676153

  20. Clusters of mutations from transient hypermutability.

    PubMed

    Drake, John W; Bebenek, Anna; Kissling, Grace E; Peddada, Shyamal

    2005-09-06

    Collections of mutants usually contain more mutants bearing multiple mutations than expected from the mutant frequency and a random distribution of mutations. This excess is seen in a variety of organisms and also after DNA synthesis in vitro. The excess is unlikely to originate in mutator mutants but rather from transient hypermutability resulting from a perturbation of one of the many transactions that maintain genetic fidelity. The multiple mutations are sometimes clustered and sometimes randomly distributed. We model some spectra as populations comprising a majority with a low mutation frequency and a minority with a high mutation frequency. In the case of mutants produced in vitro by a bacteriophage RB69 mutator DNA polymerase, mutants with two mutations are in approximately 10-fold excess and mutants with three mutations are in even greater excess. However, phenotypically undetectable mutations seen only as hitchhikers with detectable mutations are approximately 5-fold more frequent than mutants bearing detectable mutations, indicating that they arose in a subpopulation with a higher mutation frequency. Excess multiple mutations may contribute critically to carcinogenesis and to adaptive mutation, including the adaptations of pathogens as they move from host to host. In the case of the rapidly mutating riboviruses, the viral population appears to be composed of a majority with a mutation frequency substantially lower than the average and a minority with a huge mutational load.

  1. Mutation breeding by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

    1991-07-01

    Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

  2. Mutational profiling reveals PIK3CA mutations in gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetics of advanced biliary tract cancers (BTC), which encompass intra- and extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas as well as gallbladder carcinomas, are heterogeneous and remain to be fully defined. Methods To better characterize mutations in established known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes we tested a mass spectrometric based platform to interrogate common cancer associated mutations across a panel of 77 formalin fixed paraffin embedded archived BTC cases. Results Mutations among three genes, KRAS, NRAS and PIK3CA were confirmed in this cohort. Activating mutations in PIK3CA were identified exclusively in GBC (4/32, 12.5%). KRAS mutations were identified in 3 (13%) intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas and 1 (33%) perihillar cholangiocarcinoma but were not identified in gallbladder carcinomas and extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusions The presence of activating mutations in PIK3CA specifically in GBC has clinical implications in both the diagnosis of this cancer type, as well as the potential utility of targeted therapies such as PI3 kinase inhibitors. PMID:21303542

  3. Rare mutations in evolutionary dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, Anna Lisa; Calzolari, Antonella; Natalini, Roberto; Torti, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we study the effect of rare mutations, driven by a marked point process, on the evolutionary behavior of a population. We derive a Kolmogorov equation describing the expected values of the different frequencies and prove some rigorous analytical results about their behavior. Finally, in a simple case of two different quasispecies, we are able to prove that the rarity of mutations increases the survival opportunity of the low fitness species.

  4. Genome destabilizing mutator alleles drive specific mutational trajectories in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Peter C; Shen, Yaoqing; Corbett, Richard; Jones, Steven J M; Hieter, Philip

    2014-02-01

    In addition to environmental factors and intrinsic variations in base substitution rates, specific genome-destabilizing mutations can shape the mutational trajectory of genomes. How specific alleles influence the nature and position of accumulated mutations in a genomic context is largely unknown. Understanding the impact of genome-destabilizing alleles is particularly relevant to cancer genomes where biased mutational signatures are identifiable. We first created a more complete picture of cellular pathways that impact mutation rate using a primary screen to identify essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene mutations that cause mutator phenotypes. Drawing primarily on new alleles identified in this resource, we measure the impact of diverse mutator alleles on mutation patterns directly by whole-genome sequencing of 68 mutation-accumulation strains derived from wild-type and 11 parental mutator genotypes. The accumulated mutations differ across mutator strains, displaying base-substitution biases, allele-specific mutation hotspots, and break-associated mutation clustering. For example, in mutants of POLα and the Cdc13-Stn1-Ten1 complex, we find a distinct subtelomeric bias for mutations that we show is independent of the target sequence. Together our data suggest that specific genome-instability mutations are sufficient to drive discrete mutational signatures, some of which share properties with mutation patterns seen in tumors. Thus, in a population of cells, genome-instability mutations could influence clonal evolution by establishing discrete mutational trajectories for genomes.

  5. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M N; Hughes, I A; Gottlieb, B; Pinsky, L

    1994-09-01

    The androgen receptor gene mutations database is a comprehensive listing of mutations published in journals and meetings proceedings. The majority of mutations are point mutations identified in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Information is included regarding the phenotype, the nature and location of the mutations, as well as the effects of the mutations on the androgen binding activity of the receptor. The current version of the database contains 149 entries, of which 114 are unique mutations. The database is available from EMBL (NetServ@EMBL-Heidelberg.DE) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (mc33001@musica.mcgill.ca).

  6. Heterozygosity increases microsatellite mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Amos, William

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing of families of Arabidopsis has recently lent strong support to the heterozygote instability (HI) hypothesis that heterozygosity locally increases mutation rate. However, there is an important theoretical difference between the impact on base substitutions, where mutation rate increases in regions surrounding a heterozygous site, and the impact of HI on sequences such as microsatellites, where mutations are likely to occur at the heterozygous site itself. At microsatellite loci, HI should create a positive feedback loop, with heterozygosity and mutation rate mutually increasing each other. Direct support for HI acting on microsatellites is limited and contradictory. I therefore analysed AC microsatellites in 1163 genome sequences from the 1000 genomes project. I used the presence of rare alleles, which are likely to be very recent in origin, as a surrogate measure of mutation rate. I show that rare alleles are more likely to occur at locus-population combinations with higher heterozygosity even when all populations carry exactly the same number of alleles. PMID:26740567

  7. Driven by Mutations: The Predictive Value of Mutation Subtype in EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Emily; Feld, Emily; Horn, Leora

    2016-12-23

    EGFR-mutated NSCLC is a genetically heterogeneous disease that includes more than 200 distinct mutations. The implications of mutational subtype for both prognostic and predictive value are being increasingly understood. Although the most common EGFR mutations-exon 19 deletions or L858R mutations-predict sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), it is now being recognized that outcomes may be improved in patients with exon 19 deletions. Additionally, 10% of patients will have an uncommon EGFR mutation, and response to EGFR TKI therapy is highly variable depending on the mutation. Given the growing recognition of the genetic and clinical variation seen in this disease, the development of comprehensive bioinformatics-driven tools to both analyze response in uncommon mutation subtypes and inform clinical decision making will be increasingly important. Clinical trials of novel EGFR TKIs should prospectively account for the presence of uncommon mutation subtypes in study design.

  8. Accelerating Mutational Load Is Not Due to Synergistic Epistasis or Mutator Alleles in Mutation Accumulation Lines of Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jasmin, Jean-Nicolas; Lenormand, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Much of our knowledge about the fitness effects of new mutations has been gained from mutation accumulation (MA) experiments. Yet the fitness effect of single mutations is rarely measured in MA experiments. This raises several issues, notably for inferring epistasis for fitness. The acceleration of fitness decline in MA lines has been taken as evidence for synergistic epistasis, but establishing the role of epistasis requires measuring the fitness of genotypes carrying known numbers of mutations. Otherwise, accelerating fitness loss could be explained by increased genetic mutation rates. Here we segregated mutations accumulated over 4800 generations in haploid and diploid MA lines of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found no correspondence between an accelerated fitness decline and synergistic epistasis among deleterious mutations in haploid lines. Pairs of mutations showed no overall epistasis. Furthermore, several lines of evidence indicate that genetic mutation rates did not increase in the MA lines. Crucially, segregant fitness analyses revealed that MA accelerated in both haploid and diploid lines, even though the fitness of diploid lines was nearly constant during the MA experiment. This suggests that the accelerated fitness decline in haploids was caused by cryptic environmental factors that increased mutation rates in all lines during the last third of the lines’ transfers. In addition, we provide new estimates of deleterious mutation rates, including lethal mutations, and highlight that nearly all the mutational load we observed was due to one or two mutations having a large effect on fitness. PMID:26596348

  9. Accelerating Mutational Load Is Not Due to Synergistic Epistasis or Mutator Alleles in Mutation Accumulation Lines of Yeast.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, Jean-Nicolas; Lenormand, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Much of our knowledge about the fitness effects of new mutations has been gained from mutation accumulation (MA) experiments. Yet the fitness effect of single mutations is rarely measured in MA experiments. This raises several issues, notably for inferring epistasis for fitness. The acceleration of fitness decline in MA lines has been taken as evidence for synergistic epistasis, but establishing the role of epistasis requires measuring the fitness of genotypes carrying known numbers of mutations. Otherwise, accelerating fitness loss could be explained by increased genetic mutation rates. Here we segregated mutations accumulated over 4800 generations in haploid and diploid MA lines of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found no correspondence between an accelerated fitness decline and synergistic epistasis among deleterious mutations in haploid lines. Pairs of mutations showed no overall epistasis. Furthermore, several lines of evidence indicate that genetic mutation rates did not increase in the MA lines. Crucially, segregant fitness analyses revealed that MA accelerated in both haploid and diploid lines, even though the fitness of diploid lines was nearly constant during the MA experiment. This suggests that the accelerated fitness decline in haploids was caused by cryptic environmental factors that increased mutation rates in all lines during the last third of the lines' transfers. In addition, we provide new estimates of deleterious mutation rates, including lethal mutations, and highlight that nearly all the mutational load we observed was due to one or two mutations having a large effect on fitness. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Gene mutations in Cushing's disease

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qi; Ge, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's disease (CD) is a severe (and potentially fatal) disease caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenomas of the pituitary gland (often termed pituitary adenomas). The majority of ACTH-secreting corticotroph tumors are sporadic and CD rarely appears as a familial disorder, thus, the genetic mechanisms underlying CD are poorly understood. Studies have reported that various mutated genes are associated with CD, such as those in menin 1, aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein and the nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1. Recently it was identified that ubiquitin-specific protease 8 mutations contribute to CD, which was significant towards elucidating the genetic mechanisms of CD. The present study reviews the associated gene mutations in CD patients. PMID:27588171

  11. Rapid generation of hypomorphic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Laura L.; Chung, Joyce J.; Jankirama, Preetam; Keefer, Kathryn M.; Kolotilin, Igor; Pavlovic-Djuranovic, Slavica; Chalker, Douglas L.; Grbic, Vojislava; Green, Rachel; Menassa, Rima; True, Heather L.; Skeath, James B.; Djuranovic, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Hypomorphic mutations are a valuable tool for both genetic analysis of gene function and for synthetic biology applications. However, current methods to generate hypomorphic mutations are limited to a specific organism, change gene expression unpredictably, or depend on changes in spatial-temporal expression of the targeted gene. Here we present a simple and predictable method to generate hypomorphic mutations in model organisms by targeting translation elongation. Adding consecutive adenosine nucleotides, so-called polyA tracks, to the gene coding sequence of interest will decrease translation elongation efficiency, and in all tested cell cultures and model organisms, this decreases mRNA stability and protein expression. We show that protein expression is adjustable independent of promoter strength and can be further modulated by changing sequence features of the polyA tracks. These characteristics make this method highly predictable and tractable for generation of programmable allelic series with a range of expression levels. PMID:28106166

  12. Calreticulin mutations in Chinese with primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Xu, Junqing; Wang, Jingya; Gale, Robert Peter; Xu, Zefeng; Cui, Yajuan; Yang, Lin; Xing, Ruixian; Ai, Xiaofei; Qin, Tiejun; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Peihong; Xiao, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    We tested 357 Chinese with primary myelofibrosis for mutations in CALR, JAK2 and MPL. CALR mutations were detected in 76 subjects (21%). There were 24 (32%) type-1 (L367fs*46) and 49 (64%) type-2 (K385fs*47) mutations. Seventy-two of 168 subjects (43%) without a JAK2 or MPL mutation had a CALR mutation. Subjects with a type-2 CALR mutation had lower hemoglobin concentrations (P=0.001), lower WBC counts (P<0.001), a higher percentage of blood blasts (P=0.009), and higher conventional (P<0.001) and Chinese-adjusted Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (P<0.001) scores compared with subjects with JAK2 mutations. Subjects with a type-2 CALR mutation were also likely to have abnormal platelet levels (<100 × 109/L, P=0.01 or >450 × 109/L, P=0.042) and no splenomegaly (P=0.004). Type-2 CALR mutation or no detectable mutation was an independent high-risk factor for survival in multivariate analyses. These data suggest the ratio between type-1 and type-2 mutations is reversed in Chinese with primary myelofibrosis compared with populations of subjects with primary myelofibrosis of predominately European descent. The unfavorable prognostic impact of CALR mutations in Chinese with primary myelofibrosis is only seen in those with type-2 mutations. These data underscore the need to evaluate the prognostic impact of genetic mutations in different populations. PMID:24997152

  13. Domain landscapes of somatic mutations in cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Large-scale tumor sequencing projects are now underway to identify genetic mutations that drive tumor initiation and development. Most studies take a gene-based approach to identifying driver mutations, highlighting genes mutated in a large percentage of tumor samples as those likely to contain driver mutations. However, this gene-based approach usually does not consider the position of the mutation within the gene or the functional context the position of the mutation provides. Here we introduce a novel method for mapping mutations to distinct protein domains, not just individual genes, in which they occur, thus providing the functional context for how the mutation contributes to disease. Furthermore, aggregating mutations from all genes containing a specific protein domain enables the identification of mutations that are rare at the gene level, but that occur frequently within the specified domain. These highly mutated domains potentially reveal disruptions of protein function necessary for cancer development. Results We mapped somatic mutations from the protein coding regions of 100 colon adenocarcinoma tumor samples to the genes and protein domains in which they occurred, and constructed topographical maps to depict the “mutational landscapes” of gene and domain mutation frequencies. We found significant mutation frequency in a number of genes previously known to be somatically mutated in colon cancer patients including APC, TP53 and KRAS. In addition, we found significant mutation frequency within specific domains located in these genes, as well as within other domains contained in genes having low mutation frequencies. These domain “peaks” were enriched with functions important to cancer development including kinase activity, DNA binding and repair, and signal transduction. Conclusions Using our method to create the domain landscapes of mutations in colon cancer, we were able to identify somatic mutations with high potential to drive cancer

  14. Identification of HRAS mutations and absence of GNAQ or GNA11 mutations in deep penetrating nevi.

    PubMed

    Bender, Ryan P; McGinniss, Matthew J; Esmay, Paula; Velazquez, Elsa F; Reimann, Julie Dr

    2013-10-01

    HRAS is mutated in ∼15% of Spitz nevi, and GNAQ or GNA11 is mutated in blue nevi (46-83% and ∼7% respectively). Epithelioid blue nevi and deep penetrating nevi show features of both blue nevi (intradermal location, pigmentation) and Spitz nevi (epithelioid morphology). Epithelioid blue nevi and deep penetrating nevi can also show overlapping features with melanoma, posing a diagnostic challenge. Although epithelioid blue nevi are considered blue nevic variants, no GNAQ or GNA11 mutations have been reported. Classification of deep penetrating nevi as blue nevic variants has also been proposed, however, no GNAQ or GNA11 mutations have been reported and none have been tested for HRAS mutations. To better characterize these tumors, we performed mutational analysis for GNAQ, GNA11, and HRAS, with blue nevi and Spitz nevi as controls. Within deep penetrating nevi, none demonstrated GNAQ or GNA11 mutations (0/38). However, 6% revealed HRAS mutation (2/32). Twenty percent of epithelioid blue nevi contained a GNAQ mutation (2/10), while none displayed GNA11 or HRAS mutation. Eighty-seven percent of blue nevi contained a GNAQ mutation (26/30), 4% a GNA11 mutation (1/28), and none an HRAS mutation. Within Spitz nevi, none demonstrated GNAQ or GNA11 mutations (0/30). Seventeen percent contained an HRAS mutation (5/30). All GNAQ and GNA11 mutations were p.Q209L (c.626A>T) point mutations, except 2 GNAQ mutations, which contained novel c.625_626CA>TT double mutations. Four HRAS mutations were in exon 2, and three in exon 3. This is the first study to identify HRAS mutations in deep penetrating nevi. The presence of HRAS mutations and absence of GNAQ or GNA11 mutations in deep penetrating nevi suggests classification of these unusual nevi within the Spitz nevus category of melanocytic tumors, rather than the blue nevus category.

  15. Sporadic medulloblastomas contain PTCH mutations.

    PubMed

    Raffel, C; Jenkins, R B; Frederick, L; Hebrink, D; Alderete, B; Fults, D W; James, C D

    1997-03-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), or Gorlin's syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes to developmental defects and various forms of cancer. PTCH was recently proposed as a candidate gene for NBCCS due to its frequent mutation in basal cell carcinomas, the cancer most often associated with this syndrome. Another NBCCS-associated cancer is medulloblastoma, a common central nervous system tumor in children. Most medulloblastomas, however, occur without indication of an inherited predisposition. We have examined 24 sporadic medulloblastomas for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at loci flanking as well as within PTCH. In cases with LOH, single-strand conformational polymorphism and sequencing analysis were performed to determine the status of the remaining PTCH allele. Microsatellite analysis indicated LOH of PTCH in 5 of 24 tumors, and in three of these cases a mutation of the remaining allele was identified. Two of the mutations were duplication insertions, and the third consisted of a single base deletion. It is interesting that all three mutations occur in exon 17 of the PTCH gene. These data suggest that inactivation of PTCH function is involved in the development of at least a subset of sporadic medulloblastomas.

  16. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Diplas, Bill H.; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg132 of IDH1 and Arg172 of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  17. New mutation to Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Wolff, G; Deuschl, G; Wienker, T F; Hummel, K; Bender, K; Lücking, C H; Schumacher, M; Hammer, J; Oepen, G

    1989-01-01

    We report a large family with an isolated case of Huntington's disease (HD), which is probably the result of a new mutation. The patient developed clinical signs typical of HD at the age of 36. The clinical course of the patient's disease is documented by several clinical admissions over a period of 14 years at present. The family history is strikingly negative with the parents having been clearly unaffected into their 80s and with 13 older and two younger, living, healthy sibs. Extensive testing of polymorphic markers (blood groups, red cell and serum proteins, HLA antigens) showed no indication of non-paternity, but rather gave strong support to the hypothesis that the proband is a full sib. In addition, DNA typing for several RFLPs known to be closely linked to the HD gene locus indicated that several clearly unaffected sibs share one or the other or both of the patient's haplotypes. This is further evidence in favour of the hypothesis of a new mutation at the HD locus. The posterior probability of a new mutation to HD in the patient exceeds 99%, even if an a priori probability of non-paternity of 10% and a mutation rate of HD of 10(-7) is assumed.

  18. Mutational analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Hacia, J.; Collins, F.

    1999-01-01

    The development of inexpensive high throughput methods to identify individual DNA sequence differences is important to the future growth of medical genetics. This has become increasingly apparent as epidemiologists, pathologists, and clinical geneticists focus more attention on the molecular basis of complex multifactorial diseases. Such undertakings will rely upon genetic maps based upon newly discovered, common, single nucleotide polymorphisms. Furthermore, candidate gene approaches used in identifying disease associated genes necessitate screening large sequence blocks for changes tracking with the disease state. Even after such genes are isolated, large scale mutational analyses will often be needed for risk assessment studies to define the likely medical consequences of carrying a mutated gene.
This review concentrates on the use of oligonucleotide arrays for hybridisation based comparative sequence analysis. Technological advances within the past decade have made it possible to apply this technology to many different aspects of medical genetics. These applications range from the detection and scoring of single nucleotide polymorphisms to mutational analysis of large genes. Although we discuss published scientific reports, unpublished work from the private sector12 could also significantly affect the future of this technology.


Keywords: mutational analysis; oligonucleotide microarrays; DNA chips PMID:10528850

  19. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wedge, David C.; Aparicio, Samuel A.J.R.; Behjati, Sam; Biankin, Andrew V.; Bignell, Graham R.; Bolli, Niccolo; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boyault, Sandrine; Burkhardt, Birgit; Butler, Adam P.; Caldas, Carlos; Davies, Helen R.; Desmedt, Christine; Eils, Roland; Eyfjörd, Jórunn Erla; Foekens, John A.; Greaves, Mel; Hosoda, Fumie; Hutter, Barbara; Ilicic, Tomislav; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Imielinsk, Marcin; Jäger, Natalie; Jones, David T.W.; Jones, David; Knappskog, Stian; Kool, Marcel; Lakhani, Sunil R.; López-Otín, Carlos; Martin, Sancha; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Nakamura, Hiromi; Northcott, Paul A.; Pajic, Marina; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Paradiso, Angelo; Pearson, John V.; Puente, Xose S.; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Richardson, Andrea L.; Richter, Julia; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schlesner, Matthias; Schumacher, Ton N.; Span, Paul N.; Teague, Jon W.; Totoki, Yasushi; Tutt, Andrew N.J.; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; van Buuren, Marit M.; van ’t Veer, Laura; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Waddell, Nicola; Yates, Lucy R.; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Futreal, P. Andrew; McDermott, Ultan; Lichter, Peter; Meyerson, Matthew; Grimmond, Sean M.; Siebert, Reiner; Campo, Elías; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Pfister, Stefan M.; Campbell, Peter J.; Stratton, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    All cancers are caused by somatic mutations. However, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here, we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, kataegis, is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer with potential implications for understanding of cancer etiology, prevention and therapy. PMID:23945592

  20. Radiation-induced mutation at minisatellite loci

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrova, Y.E. |; Nesterov, V.N.; Krouchinsky, N.G.

    1997-10-01

    We are studying the radiation-induced increase of mutation rate in minisatellite loci in mice and humans. Minisatellite mutations were scored by multilocus DNA fingerprint analysis in the progeny of {gamma}-irradiated and non-irradiated mice. The frequency of mutation in offspring of irradiated males was 1.7 higher that in the control group. Germline mutation at human minisatellite loci was studied among children born in heavily polluted areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and in a control population. The frequency of mutation assayed both by DNA fingerprinting and by eight single locus probes was found to be two times higher in the exposed families than in the control group. Furthermore, mutation rate was correlated with the parental radiation dose for chronic exposure {sup 137}Cs, consistent with radiation-induction of germline mutation. The potential use of minisatellites in monitoring germline mutation in humans will be discussed.

  1. Gefitinib Treatment in EGFR Mutated Caucasian NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Ostoros, Gyula; Cobo, Manuel; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Cole, Rebecca; McWalter, Gael; Walker, Jill; Dearden, Simon; Webster, Alan; Milenkova, Tsveta; McCormack, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the phase IV, open-label, single-arm study NCT01203917, first-line gefitinib 250 mg/d was effective and well tolerated in Caucasian patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non–small-cell lung cancer (previously published). Here, we report EGFR mutation analyses of plasma-derived, circulating-free tumor DNA. Methods: Mandatory tumor and duplicate plasma (1 and 2) baseline samples were collected (all screened patients; n = 1060). Preplanned, exploratory analyses included EGFR mutation (and subtype) status of tumor versus plasma and between plasma samples. Post hoc, exploratory analyses included efficacy by tumor and plasma EGFR mutation (and subtype) status. Results: Available baseline tumor samples were 1033 of 1060 (118 positive of 859 mutation status known; mutation frequency, 13.7%). Available plasma 1 samples were 803 of 1060 (82 positive of 784 mutation status known; mutation frequency, 10.5%). Mutation status concordance between 652 matched tumor and plasma 1 samples was 94.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.3–96.0) (comparable for mutation subtypes); test sensitivity was 65.7% (95% CI, 55.8–74.7); and test specificity was 99.8% (95% CI, 99.0–100.0). Twelve patients of unknown tumor mutation status were subsequently identified as plasma mutation-positive. Available plasma 2 samples were 803 of 1060 (65 positive of 224 mutation status-evaluable and -known). Mutation status concordance between 224 matched duplicate plasma 1 and 2 samples was 96.9% (95% CI, 93.7–98.7). Objective response rates are as follows: mutation-positive tumor, 70% (95% CI, 60.5–77.7); mutation-positive tumor and plasma 1, 76.9% (95% CI, 65.4–85.5); and mutation-positive tumor and mutation-negative plasma 1, 59.5% (95% CI, 43.5–73.7). Median progression-free survival (months) was 9.7 (95% CI, 8.5–11.0; 61 events) for mutation-positive tumor and 10.2 (95% CI, 8.5–12.5; 36 events) for mutation-positive tumor and plasma 1

  2. Mutation analysis in Turkish phenylketonuria patients.

    PubMed Central

    Ozgüç, M; Ozalp, I; Coşkun, T; Yilmaz, E; Erdem, H; Ayter, S

    1993-01-01

    Forty-four classical PKU patients have been screened for various mutations. The newly identified IVS 10 splicing mutation was found in 32% of the mutant alleles and comprises 74.5% of the mutations that could be typed: 261arg-gln (6.8%), 158arg-gly (2.3%), 252arg-trp (1.1%), 280glu-lys (-), and 272gly-stop (-) were the other mutations that were screened. Images PMID:8445616

  3. WRN Mutation Update: Mutation Spectrum, Patient Registries, and Translational Prospects.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Koutaro; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Lee, Lin; Eirich, Katharina; Takemoto, Minoru; Watanabe, Aki; Koizumi, Naoko; Lessel, Davor; Mori, Takayasu; Hisama, Fuki M; Ladd, Paula D; Angle, Brad; Baris, Hagit; Cefle, Kivanc; Palanduz, Sukru; Ozturk, Sukru; Chateau, Antoinette; Deguchi, Kentaro; Easwar, T K M; Federico, Antonio; Fox, Amy; Grebe, Theresa A; Hay, Beverly; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Seiter, Karen; Streeten, Elizabeth; Piña-Aguilar, Raul E; Poke, Gemma; Poot, Martin; Posmyk, Renata; Martin, George M; Kubisch, Christian; Schindler, Detlev; Oshima, Junko

    2017-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a constellation of adult onset phenotypes consistent with an acceleration of intrinsic biological aging. It is caused by pathogenic variants in the WRN gene, which encodes a multifunctional nuclear protein with exonuclease and helicase activities. WRN protein is thought to be involved in optimization of various aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA repair, recombination, replication, and transcription. In this update, we summarize a total of 83 different WRN mutations, including eight previously unpublished mutations identified by the International Registry of Werner Syndrome (Seattle, WA) and the Japanese Werner Consortium (Chiba, Japan), as well as 75 mutations already reported in the literature. The Seattle International Registry recruits patients from all over the world to investigate genetic causes of a wide variety of progeroid syndromes in order to contribute to the knowledge of basic mechanisms of human aging. Given the unusually high prevalence of WS patients and heterozygous carriers in Japan, the major goal of the Japanese Consortium is to develop effective therapies and to establish management guidelines for WS patients in Japan and elsewhere. This review will also discuss potential translational approaches to this disorder, including those currently under investigation. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. WRN Mutation Update: Mutation Spectrum, Patient Registries, and Translational Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yokote, Koutaro; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Lee, Lin; Eirich, Katharina; Takemoto, Minoru; Watanabe, Aki; Koizumi, Naoko; Lessel, Davor; Mori, Takayasu; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ladd, Paula D.; Angle, Brad; Baris, Hagit; Cefle, Kivanc; Palanduz, Sukru; Ozturk, Sukru; Chateau, Antoinette; Deguchi, Kentaro; Easwar, T.K.M; Federico, Antonio; Fox, Amy; Grebe, Theresa A.; Hay, Beverly; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Seiter, Karen; Streeten, Elizabeth; Piña-Aguilar, Raul E.; Poke, Gemma; Poot, Martin; Posmyk, Renata; Martin, George M.; Kubisch, Christian; Schindler, Detlev; Oshima, Junko

    2017-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a constellation of adult onset phenotypes consistent with an acceleration of intrinsic biological aging. It is caused by pathogenic variants in the WRN gene, which encodes a multifunctional nuclear protein with exonuclease and helicase activities. WRN protein is thought to be involved in optimization of various aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA repair, recombination, replication, and transcription. In this update, we summarize a total of 83 different WRN mutations, including eight previously unpublished mutations identified by the International Registry of Werner Syndrome (Seattle, WA) and the Japanese Werner Consortium (Chiba, Japan), as well as 75 mutations already reported in the literature. The Seattle International Registry recruits patients from all over the world to investigate genetic causes of a wide variety of progeroid syndromes in order to contribute to the knowledge of basic mechanisms of human aging. Given the unusually high prevalence of WS patients and heterozygous carriers in Japan, the major goal of the Japanese Consortium is to develop effective therapies and to establish management guidelines for WS patients in Japan and elsewhere. This review will also discuss potential translational approaches to this disorder, including those currently under investigation. PMID:27667302

  5. Plastome Mutations and Recombination Events in Barley Chloroplast Mutator Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Landau, Alejandra; Lencina, Franco; Pacheco, María G; Prina, Alberto R

    2016-05-01

    The barley chloroplast mutator (cpm) is an allele of a nuclear gene that when homozygous induces several types of cytoplasmically inherited chlorophyll deficiencies. In this work, a plastome Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) strategy based on mismatch digestion was used on families that carried the cpm genotype through many generations. Extensive scanning of 33 plastome genes and a few intergenic regions was conducted. Numerous polymorphisms were detected on both genic and intergenic regions. The detected polymorphisms can be accounted for by at least 61 independent mutational events. The vast majority of the polymorphisms originated in substitutions and small indels (insertions/deletions) in microsatellites. The rpl23 and the rps16 genes were the most polymorphic. Interestingly, the variation observed in the rpl23 gene consisted of several combinations of 5 different one nucleotide polymorphisms. Besides, 4 large indels that have direct repeats at both ends were also observed, which appear to be originated from recombinational events. The cpm mutation spectrum suggests that the CPM gene product is probably involved in plastome mismatch repair. The numerous subtle molecular changes that were localized in a wide range of plastome sites show the cpm as a valuable source of plastome variability for plant research and/or plant breeding. Moreover, the cpm mutant appears to be an interesting experimental material for investigating the mechanisms responsible for maintaining the stability of plant organelle DNA.

  6. Biological evolution model with conditional mutation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakian, David B.; Ghazaryan, Makar; Bratus, Alexander; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2017-05-01

    We consider an evolution model, in which the mutation rates depend on the structure of population: the mutation rates from lower populated sequences to higher populated sequences are reduced. We have applied the Hamilton-Jacobi equation method to solve the model and calculate the mean fitness. We have found that the modulated mutation rates, directed to increase the mean fitness.

  7. Environmental stress and the effects of mutation

    PubMed Central

    Elena, Santiago F; de Visser, J Arjan GM

    2003-01-01

    Mutations are the ultimate fuel for evolution, but most mutations have a negative effect on fitness. It has been widely accepted that these deleterious fitness effects are, on average, magnified in stressful environments. Recent results suggest that the effects of deleterious mutations can, instead, sometimes be ameliorated in stressful environments. PMID:12831400

  8. Studies of human mutation rates: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.

    1988-07-01

    Progress was recorded between January 1 and July 1, 1987 on a project entitled ''Studies of Human Mutation Rates''. Studies underway include methodology for studying mutation at the DNA level, algorithms for automated analyses of two-dimensional polyacrylamide DNA gels, theoretical and applied population genetics, and studies of mutation frequency in A-bomb survivors.

  9. Mutational signatures: the patterns of somatic mutations hidden in cancer genomes☆

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Stratton, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    All cancers originate from a single cell that starts to behave abnormally due to the acquired somatic mutations in its genome. Until recently, the knowledge of the mutational processes that cause these somatic mutations has been very limited. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and the development of novel mathematical approaches have allowed deciphering the patterns of somatic mutations caused by different mutational processes. Here, we summarize our current understanding of mutational patterns and mutational signatures in light of both the somatic cell paradigm of cancer research and the recent developments in the field of cancer genomics. PMID:24657537

  10. TCOF1 mutation database: novel mutation in the alternatively spliced exon 6A and update in mutation nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Splendore, Alessandra; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Masotti, Cibele; Morganti, Lucas S C; Passos-Bueno, M Rita

    2005-05-01

    Recently, a novel exon was described in TCOF1 that, although alternatively spliced, is included in the major protein isoform. In addition, most published mutations in this gene do not conform to current mutation nomenclature guidelines. Given these observations, we developed an online database of TCOF1 mutations in which all the reported mutations are renamed according to standard recommendations and in reference to the genomic and novel cDNA reference sequences (www.genoma.ib.usp.br/TCOF1_database). We also report in this work: 1) results of the first screening for large deletions in TCOF1 by Southern blot in patients without mutation detected by direct sequencing; 2) the identification of the first pathogenic mutation in the newly described exon 6A; and 3) statistical analysis of pathogenic mutations and polymorphism distribution throughout the gene.

  11. Anaerobically Grown Escherichia coli Has an Enhanced Mutation Rate and Distinct Mutational Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Shewaramani, Sonal; Finn, Thomas J.; Kassen, Rees; Rainey, Paul B.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major cause of mutation but little is known about how growth in the absence of oxygen impacts the rate and spectrum of mutations. We employed long-term mutation accumulation experiments to directly measure the rates and spectra of spontaneous mutation events in Escherichia coli populations propagated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To detect mutations, whole genome sequencing was coupled with methods of analysis sufficient to identify a broad range of mutational classes, including structural variants (SVs) generated by movement of repetitive elements. The anaerobically grown populations displayed a mutation rate nearly twice that of the aerobic populations, showed distinct asymmetric mutational strand biases, and greater insertion element activity. Consistent with mutation rate and spectra observations, genes for transposition and recombination repair associated with SVs were up-regulated during anaerobic growth. Together, these results define differences in mutational spectra affecting the evolution of facultative anaerobes. PMID:28103245

  12. Genetic Analysis of 63 Mutations Affecting Maize Kernel Development Isolated from Mutator Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, M. J.; Stinard, P. S.; James, M. G.; Myers, A. M.; Robertson, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three mutations affecting development of the maize kernel were isolated from active Robertson's Mutator (Mu) stocks. At least 14 previously undescribed maize gene loci were defined by mutations in this collection. Genetic mapping located 53 of these defective kernel (dek) mutations to particular chromosome arms, and more precise map determinations were made for 21 of the mutations. Genetic analyses identified 20 instances of allelism between one of the novel mutations and a previously described dek mutation, or between new dek mutations identified in this study; phenotypic variability was observed in three of the allelic series. Viability testing of homozygous mutant kernels identified numerous dek mutations with various pleiotropic effects on seedling and plant development. The mutations described here presumably arose by insertion of a Mu transposon within a dek gene; thus, many of the affected loci are expected to be accessible to molecular cloning via transposon-tagging. PMID:8138165

  13. Neutral evolution of mutational robustness

    PubMed Central

    van Nimwegen, Erik; Crutchfield, James P.; Huynen, Martijn

    1999-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a general model of a population evolving over a network of selectively neutral genotypes. We show that the population’s limit distribution on the neutral network is solely determined by the network topology and given by the principal eigenvector of the network’s adjacency matrix. Moreover, the average number of neutral mutant neighbors per individual is given by the matrix spectral radius. These results quantify the extent to which populations evolve mutational robustness—the insensitivity of the phenotype to mutations—and thus reduce genetic load. Because the average neutrality is independent of evolutionary parameters—such as mutation rate, population size, and selective advantage—one can infer global statistics of neutral network topology by using simple population data available from in vitro or in vivo evolution. Populations evolving on neutral networks of RNA secondary structures show excellent agreement with our theoretical predictions. PMID:10449760

  14. Mutation Clusters from Cancer Exome.

    PubMed

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2017-08-15

    We apply our statistically deterministic machine learning/clustering algorithm *K-means (recently developed in https://ssrn.com/abstract=2908286) to 10,656 published exome samples for 32 cancer types. A majority of cancer types exhibit a mutation clustering structure. Our results are in-sample stable. They are also out-of-sample stable when applied to 1389 published genome samples across 14 cancer types. In contrast, we find in- and out-of-sample instabilities in cancer signatures extracted from exome samples via nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), a computationally-costly and non-deterministic method. Extracting stable mutation structures from exome data could have important implications for speed and cost, which are critical for early-stage cancer diagnostics, such as novel blood-test methods currently in development.

  15. Mutation Clusters from Cancer Exome

    PubMed Central

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2017-01-01

    We apply our statistically deterministic machine learning/clustering algorithm *K-means (recently developed in https://ssrn.com/abstract=2908286) to 10,656 published exome samples for 32 cancer types. A majority of cancer types exhibit a mutation clustering structure. Our results are in-sample stable. They are also out-of-sample stable when applied to 1389 published genome samples across 14 cancer types. In contrast, we find in- and out-of-sample instabilities in cancer signatures extracted from exome samples via nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), a computationally-costly and non-deterministic method. Extracting stable mutation structures from exome data could have important implications for speed and cost, which are critical for early-stage cancer diagnostics, such as novel blood-test methods currently in development. PMID:28809811

  16. CFTR mutations altering CFTR fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Tosoni, Kendra; Stobbart, Michelle; Cassidy, Diane M.; Venerando, Andrea; Pagano, Mario A.; Luz, Simão; Amaral, Margarida D.; Kunzelmann, Karl; Pinna, Lorenzo A.; Farinha, Carlos M.; Mehta, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Most CF (cystic fibrosis) results from deletion of a phenylalanine (F508) in the CFTR {CF transmembrane-conductance regulator; ABCC7 [ABC (ATP-binding cassette) sub-family C member 7]} which causes ER (endoplasmic reticulum) degradation of the mutant. Using stably CFTR-expressing BHK (baby-hamster kidney) cell lines we demonstrated that wild-type CTFR and the F508delCFTR mutant are cleaved into differently sized N- and C-terminal-bearing fragments, with each hemi-CFTR carrying its nearest NBD (nucleotide-binding domain), reflecting differential cleavage through the central CFTR R-domain. Similar NBD1-bearing fragments are present in the natively expressing HBE (human bronchial epithelial) cell line. We also observe multiple smaller fragments of different sizes in BHK cells, particularly after F508del mutation (ladder pattern). Trapping wild-type CFTR in the ER did not generate a F508del fragmentation fingerprint. Fragments change their size/pattern again post-mutation at sites involved in CFTR's in vitro interaction with the pleiotropic protein kinase CK2 (S511A in NBD1). The F508del and S511A mutations generate different fragmentation fingerprints that are each unlike the wild-type; yet, both mutants generate new N-terminal-bearing CFTR fragments that are not observed with other CK2-related mutations (S511D, S422A/D and T1471A/D). We conclude that the F508delCFTR mutant is not degraded completely and there exists a relationship between CFTR's fragmentation fingerprint and the CFTR sequence through putative CK2-interactive sites that lie near F508. PMID:23067305

  17. Somatic Mutation, Genomic Variation, and Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Annapurna; Evrony, Gilad D.; Cai, Xuyu; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations causing human disease are conventionally thought to be inherited through the germ line from one’s parents and present in all somatic (body) cells, except for most cancer mutations, which arise somatically. Increasingly, somatic mutations are being identified in diseases other than cancer, including neurodevelopmental diseases. Somatic mutations can arise during the course of prenatal brain development and cause neurological disease—even when present at low levels of mosaicism, for example—resulting in brain malformations associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability. Novel, highly sensitive technologies will allow more accurate evaluation of somatic mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders and during normal brain development. PMID:23828942

  18. Rare beneficial mutations can halt Muller's ratchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Daniel; Goyal, Sidhartha; Jerison, Elizabeth; Neher, Richard; Shraiman, Boris; Desai, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In viral, bacterial, and other asexual populations, the vast majority of non-neutral mutations are deleterious. This motivates the application of models without beneficial mutations. Here we show that the presence of surprisingly few compensatory mutations halts fitness decay in these models. Production of deleterious mutations is balanced by purifying selection, stabilizing the fitness distribution. However, stochastic vanishing of fitness classes can lead to slow fitness decay (i.e. Muller's ratchet). For weakly deleterious mutations, production overwhelms purification, rapidly decreasing population fitness. We show that when beneficial mutations are introduced, a stable steady state emerges in the form of a dynamic mutation-selection balance. We argue this state is generic for all mutation rates and population sizes, and is reached as an end state as genomes become saturated by either beneficial or deleterious mutations. Assuming all mutations have the same magnitude selective effect, we calculate the fraction of beneficial mutations necessary to maintain the dynamic balance. This may explain the unexpected maintenance of asexual genomes, as in mitochondria, in the presence of selection. This will affect in the statistics of genetic diversity in these populations.

  19. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Julia F; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Simon, Ronald; Aguiar, Jennifer A; Alkallas, Rached; Heisler, Lawrence E; Zhang, Junyan; Watson, John D; Chua, Melvin L K; Fraser, Michael; Favero, Francesco; Lawerenz, Chris; Plass, Christoph; Sauter, Guido; McPherson, John D; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Korbel, Jan; Schlomm, Thorsten; Bristow, Robert G; Boutros, Paul C

    2017-09-22

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer patients, and identify a median of one mitochondrial single-nucleotide variant (mtSNV) per patient. Some of these mtSNVs occur in recurrent mutational hotspots and associate with aggressive disease. Younger patients have fewer mtSNVs than those who diagnosed at an older age. We demonstrate strong links between mitochondrial and nuclear mutational profiles, with co-occurrence between specific mutations. For example, certain control region mtSNVs co-occur with gain of the MYC oncogene, and these mutations are jointly associated with patient survival. These data demonstrate frequent mitochondrial mutation in prostate cancer, and suggest interplay between nuclear and mitochondrial mutational profiles in prostate cancer.In prostate cancer, the role of mutations in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome are not well known. Here, the authors demonstrate frequent, age-dependent mitochondrial mutation in prostate cancer. Strong links between mitochondrial and nuclear mutational profiles are associated with clinical aggressivity.

  20. Estimating mutation rates from paternity casework.

    PubMed

    Vicard, P; Dawid, A P; Mortera, J; Lauritzen, S L

    2008-01-01

    We present a statistical methodology for making inferences about mutation rates from paternity casework. This takes account of a number of sources of potential bias, including hidden mutation, incomplete family triplets, uncertain paternity status and differing maternal and paternal mutation rates, while allowing a wide variety of mutation models. An object-oriented Bayesian network is used to facilitate computation of the likelihood function for the mutation parameters. This can process either full or summary genotypic information, both from complete putative father-mother-child triplets and from defective cases where only the child and one of its parents are observed. We use a dataset from paternity casework to illustrate the effects on inferences about mutation parameters of various types of biases and the mutation model assumed. In particular, we show that there can be relevant information in cases of unconfirmed paternity, and that excluding these, as has generally been done, can lead to biased conclusions.

  1. Androgen receptor gene mutation, rearrangement, polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Eisermann, Kurtis; Wang, Dan; Jing, Yifeng; Pascal, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic aberrations of the androgen receptor (AR) caused by mutations, rearrangements, and polymorphisms result in a mutant receptor that has varied functions compared to wild type AR. To date, over 1,000 mutations have been reported in the AR with most of these being associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). While mutations of AR associated with prostate cancer occur less often in early stage localized disease, mutations in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with anti-androgens occur more frequently with 10-30% of these patients having some form of mutation in the AR. Resistance to anti-androgen therapy usually results from gain-of-function mutations in the LBD such as is seen with bicalutamide and more recently with enzalutamide (MDV3100). Thus, it is crucial to investigate these new AR mutations arising from drug resistance to anti-androgens and other small molecule pharmacological agents. PMID:25045626

  2. [Obesity caused by melanocortin-4 receptor mutations].

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Linda; Glorie-Docter, Miriam; van den Akker, Erica; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is usually the result of a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. In monogenic obesity, overweight is caused by a single gene mutation. The most frequent form of monogenic obesity is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R gene). Approximately 2% of Dutch children with obesity have a mutation in the MC4R gene. Children with homozygous and 'compound' heterozygous MC4R mutations have a phenotype distinguished by extreme overweight at an early age and hyperphagia. Children with heterozygous MC4R mutations have a more subtle phenotype and are difficult to distinguish clinically from obese children without this mutation. MC4R mutations can be identified by DNA diagnostics.- Drug treatment is not yet available for this condition.

  3. Comparison of uncommon EGFR exon 21 L858R compound mutations with single mutation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Song, Zhigang; Jiao, Shunchang

    2015-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). But little is known about the response to EGFR TKIs and the prognostic role of compound mutations. This study compared the uncommon EGFR exon 21 L858R compound mutations with single mutation to characterize EGFR compound mutations and investigated their response to EGFR TKI treatment. We retrospectively screened 799 non-small-cell lung cancer patients from August 1, 2009 to June 1, 2012 by EGFR mutation testing. EGFR mutations were detected in 443 patients, with 22 (4.97%) compound mutations. Subsequently, six patients with EGFR exon 21 L858R compound mutations and 18 paired patients with single L858R mutation were well characterized. Finally, we also analyzed the EGFR TKI treatment response and patients' outcomes of compound or single L858R mutations. There was no differential treatment effect on the disease control rate and objective response rate between the L858R compound mutations and single mutation groups. No significant difference in overall survival or progression-free survival of these two groups was found by log-rank test. In conclusion, we demonstrated that no significant difference was detected in the response to EGFR TKIs and patients' outcomes in the compound and single mutation groups.

  4. Epigenomic annotation of noncoding mutations identifies mutated pathways in primary liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lowdon, Rebecca F.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence that noncoding mutation can result in cancer driver events is mounting. However, it is more difficult to assign molecular biological consequences to noncoding mutations than to coding mutations, and a typical cancer genome contains many more noncoding mutations than protein-coding mutations. Accordingly, parsing functional noncoding mutation signal from noise remains an important challenge. Here we use an empirical approach to identify putatively functional noncoding somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) from liver cancer genomes. Annotation of candidate variants by publicly available epigenome datasets finds that 40.5% of SNVs fall in regulatory elements. When assigned to specific regulatory elements, we find that the distribution of regulatory element mutation mirrors that of nonsynonymous coding mutation, where few regulatory elements are recurrently mutated in a patient population but many are singly mutated. We find potential gain-of-binding site events among candidate SNVs, suggesting a mechanism of action for these variants. When aggregating noncoding somatic mutation in promoters, we find that genes in the ERBB signaling and MAPK signaling pathways are significantly enriched for promoter mutations. Altogether, our results suggest that functional somatic SNVs in cancer are sporadic, but occasionally occur in regulatory elements and may affect phenotype by creating binding sites for transcriptional regulators. Accordingly, we propose that noncoding mutation should be formally accounted for when determining gene- and pathway-mutation burden in cancer. PMID:28333948

  5. Parkinsonism, movement disorders and genetics in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Jankovic, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) refers to a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders that are a common cause of adult-onset behavioural and cognitive impairment. FTD often presents in combination with various hyperkinetic or hypokinetic movement disorders, and evidence suggests that various genetic mutations underlie these different presentations. Here, we review the known syndromatic-genetic correlations in FTD. Although no direct genotype-phenotype correlations have been identified, mutations in multiple genes have been associated with various presentations. Mutations in the genes that encode microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (PGRN) can manifest as symmetrical parkinsonism, including the phenotypes of Richardson syndrome and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Expansions in the C9orf72 gene are most frequently associated with familial FTD, typically combined with motor neuron disease, but other manifestations, such as symmetrical parkinsonism, CBS and multiple system atrophy-like presentations, have been described in patients with these mutations. Less common gene mutations, such as those in TARDBP, CHMP2B, VCP, FUS and TREM2, can also present as atypical parkinsonism. The most common hyperkinetic movement disorders in FTD are motor and vocal stereotypies, which have been observed in up to 78% of patients with autopsy-proven FTD. Other hyperkinetic movements, such as chorea, orofacial dyskinesias, myoclonus and dystonia, are also observed in some patients with FTD.

  6. Calreticulin Mutations in Bulgarian MPN Patients.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Ivan; Hadjiev, Evgueniy; Alaikov, Tzvetan; Spassova, Sylva; Stoimenov, Angel; Naumova, Elissaveta; Shivarov, Velizar; Ivanova, Milena

    2017-04-14

    Somatic mutations in JAK2, MPL and CALR are recurrently identified in most of the cases with Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We applied four molecular genetic methods for identification of CALR exon 9 mutations, including high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, Sanger sequencing, semiconductor target genes sequencing and whole exome sequencing. A total of 78 patients with myeloid malignancies were included in the study. We identified 14 CALR exon 9 mutated cases out of 78 studied patients with myeloid malignancies. All mutated patients were diagnosed with MPN being either PMF (n = 7) or ET (n = 7). Nine cases had type 1 mutations and 5 cases had type 2 mutations. CALR exon 9, MPL exon 10 and JAK2 p. V617F were mutually exclusive. There were no statistically significant differences in the hematological parameters between the cases with CALR and JAK2 or MPL mutations. Notably, all four techniques were fully concordant in the detection of CALR mutations. This is one of the few reports on the CALR mutations frequency in South-eastern populations. Our study shows that the frequency and patterns of these mutations is identical to those in the patients' cohorts from Western countries. Besides we demonstrated the utility of four different methods for their detection.

  7. Too Many Mutants with Multiple Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Drake, John W.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently become clear that the classical notion of the random nature of mutation does not hold for the distribution of mutations among genes: most collections of mutants contain more isolates with two or more mutations than predicted by the mutant frequency on the assumption of a random distribution of mutations. Excesses of multiples are seen in a wide range of organisms, including riboviruses, DNA viruses, prokaryotes, yeasts, and higher eukaryotic cell lines and tissues. In addition, such excesses are produced by DNA polymerases in vitro. These “multiples” appear to be generated by transient, localized hypermutation rather than by heritable mutator mutations. The components of multiples are sometimes scattered at random and sometimes display an excess of smaller distances between mutations. As yet, almost nothing is known about the mechanisms that generate multiples, but such mutations have the capacity to accelerate those evolutionary pathways that require multiple mutations where the individual mutations are neutral or deleterious. Examples that impinge on human health may include carcinogenesis and the adaptation of microbial pathogens as they move between individual hosts. PMID:17687667

  8. Too many mutants with multiple mutations.

    PubMed

    Drake, John W

    2007-01-01

    It has recently become clear that the classical notion of the random nature of mutation does not hold for the distribution of mutations among genes: most collections of mutants contain more isolates with two or more mutations than predicted by the mutant frequency on the assumption of a random distribution of mutations. Excesses of multiples are seen in a wide range of organisms, including riboviruses, DNA viruses, prokaryotes, yeasts, and higher eukaryotic cell lines and tissues. In addition, such excesses are produced by DNA polymerases in vitro. These "multiples" appear to be generated by transient, localized hypermutation rather than by heritable mutator mutations. The components of multiples are sometimes scattered at random and sometimes display an excess of smaller distances between mutations. As yet, almost nothing is known about the mechanisms that generate multiples, but such mutations have the capacity to accelerate those evolutionary pathways that require multiple mutations where the individual mutations are neutral or deleterious. Examples that impinge on human health may include carcinogenesis and the adaptation of microbial pathogens as they move between individual hosts.

  9. [TP53 mutations and molecular epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Kazunori; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2007-05-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 protein is activated by a variety of cellular stresses through several pathways and transactivates its downstream genes, including regulators of cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. The loss of p53 function by TP53 gene mutations therefore fails to activate these genes and is thought to be a critical cause of carcinogenesis and/or tumor progression. TP53 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. TP53 mutations are found in about 50% of human cancers, although the frequency of TP53 mutations differs among tumor types. However, the degree of functional disorder of mutant p53 varies according to the type of TP53 mutation. And the effects of p53 on cancer formation and/or progression are influenced by the degree of p53 dysfunction. So it is important to analyze the effects of TP53 mutations carefully according to the oncogenicity of each mutation from the molecular epidemiological point of view. Here, together with some cautions needed for analyzing and interpreting the significance of TP53 gene mutations, we present some examples of the identified specific mutation spectrum and the correlation between the prognosis and TP53 mutation in some cancers.

  10. Mutations affecting enzymatic activity in liver arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Vockley, J.G.; Tabor, D.E.; Goodman, B.K.

    1994-09-01

    The hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea is catalyzed by arginase in the last step of the urea cycle. We examined a group of arginase deficient patients by PCR-SSCP analysis to characterize the molecular basis of this disorder. A heterogeneous population of nonsense mutations, microdeletions, and missense mutations has been identified in our cohort. Microdeletions which introduce premature stop codons downstream of the deletion and nonsense mutations result in no arginase activity. These mutations occur randomly along the gene. The majority of missense mutations identified appear to occur in regions of high cross-species homology. To test the effect of these missense mutations on arginase activity, site-directed mutagenesis was used to re-create the patient mutations for in vivo expression studies in a prokaryotic fusion-protein expression system. Of 4 different missense mutations identified in 6 individuals, only one was located outside of a conserved region. The three substitution mutations within the conserved regions had a significant effect on enzymatic activity (0-3.1 nmole/30min, normal is 1300-1400 nmoles/30min, as determined by in vitro arginase assay), while the fourth mutation, a T to S substitution, did not. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to create mutations not in residues postulated to play a significant role in the enzymatic function or active site formation in manganese-binding proteins such as arginase. We have determined that the substitution of glycine for a histidine residue, located in a very highly conserved region of exon 3, and the substitution of a histidine and an aspartic acid residue within a similarly conserved region in exon 4, totally abolishes enzymatic activity. Mutations substituting glycine for an additional histidine and aspartic acid residue in exon 4 and two aspartic acid residues in exon 7 have also been created. We are currently in the process of characterizing these mutations.

  11. Impacts of mutation effects and population size on mutation rate in asexual populations: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In any natural population, mutation is the primary source of genetic variation required for evolutionary novelty and adaptation. Nevertheless, most mutations, especially those with phenotypic effects, are harmful and are consequently removed by natural selection. For this reason, under natural selection, an organism will evolve to a lower mutation rate. Overall, the action of natural selection on mutation rate is related to population size and mutation effects. Although theoretical work has intensively investigated the relationship between natural selection and mutation rate, most of these studies have focused on individual competition within a population, rather than on competition among populations. The aim of the present study was to use computer simulations to investigate how natural selection adjusts mutation rate among asexually reproducing subpopulations with different mutation rates. Results The competition results for the different subpopulations showed that a population could evolve to an "optimum" mutation rate during long-term evolution, and that this rate was modulated by both population size and mutation effects. A larger population could evolve to a higher optimum mutation rate than could a smaller population. The optimum mutation rate depended on both the fraction and the effects of beneficial mutations, rather than on the effects of deleterious ones. The optimum mutation rate increased with either the fraction or the effects of beneficial mutations. When strongly favored mutations appeared, the optimum mutation rate was elevated to a much higher level. The competition time among the subpopulations also substantially shortened. Conclusions Competition at the population level revealed that the evolution of the mutation rate in asexual populations was determined by both population size and mutation effects. The most striking finding was that beneficial mutations, rather than deleterious mutations, were the leading force that modulated the

  12. Trichohepatoenteric syndrome: founder mutation in asian indians.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, U H; Movva, S; Puri, R D; Verma, I C

    2012-08-01

    Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES) is characterized by chronic diarrhea, dysmorphic facies and hair abnormalities. Hepatic involvement varies from no abnormality to cirrhosis and hemochromatosis. Recently, mutations in the tetratricopeptide repeat domain 37 (TTC37) gene were identified to cause THES. The c.2808G>A variation was suggested as a possible founder mutation among the South Asians. We further report 2 unrelated cases of Asian-Indian ethnicity (Gujrati) with THES, wherein targeted mutation analysis revealed the same mutation in homozygous form in both cases. These findings, as well as haplotype analysis, corroborate the founder mutation hypothesis amongst Asian Indo-Pakistani ethnic groups. A restriction enzyme-based method is also described to identify this founder mutation. One of our probands had multiple hepatic hemangiomas, a feature not previously observed in this syndrome.

  13. PRKAG2 mutations presenting in infancy.

    PubMed

    Torok, Rachel D; Austin, Stephanie L; Phornphutkul, Chanika; Rotondo, Kathleen M; Bali, Deeksha; Tatum, Gregory H; Wechsler, Stephanie B; Buckley, Anne F; Kishnani, Priya S

    2017-08-11

    PRKAG2 encodes the γ2 subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is an important regulator of cardiac metabolism. Mutations in PRKAG2 cause a cardiac syndrome comprising ventricular hypertrophy, pre-excitation, and progressive conduction-system disease, which is typically not diagnosed until adolescence or young adulthood. However, significant variability exists in the presentation and outcomes of patients with PRKAG2 mutations, with presentation in infancy being underrecognized. The diagnosis of PRKAG2 can be challenging in infants, and we describe our experience with three patients who were initially suspected to have Pompe disease yet ultimately diagnosed with mutations in PRKAG2. A disease-causing PRKAG2 mutation was identified in each case, with a novel missense mutation described in one patient. We highlight the potential for patients with PRKAG2 mutations to mimic Pompe disease in infancy and the need for confirmatory testing when diagnosing Pompe disease.

  14. How mutation affects evolutionary games on graphs.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin; Traulsen, Arne; Tarnita, Corina E; Nowak, Martin A

    2012-04-21

    Evolutionary dynamics are affected by population structure, mutation rates and update rules. Spatial or network structure facilitates the clustering of strategies, which represents a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation. Mutation dilutes this effect. Here we analyze how mutation influences evolutionary clustering on graphs. We introduce new mathematical methods to evolutionary game theory, specifically the analysis of coalescing random walks via generating functions. These techniques allow us to derive exact identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities, which characterize spatial assortment on lattices and Cayley trees. From these IBD probabilities we obtain exact conditions for the evolution of cooperation and other game strategies, showing the dual effects of graph topology and mutation rate. High mutation rates diminish the clustering of cooperators, hindering their evolutionary success. Our model can represent either genetic evolution with mutation, or social imitation processes with random strategy exploration.

  15. Determination of a mutational spectrum

    DOEpatents

    Thilly, William G.; Keohavong, Phouthone

    1991-01-01

    A method of resolving (physically separating) mutant DNA from nonmutant DNA and a method of defining or establishing a mutational spectrum or profile of alterations present in nucleic acid sequences from a sample to be analyzed, such as a tissue or body fluid. The present method is based on the fact that it is possible, through the use of DGGE, to separate nucleic acid sequences which differ by only a single base change and on the ability to detect the separate mutant molecules. The present invention, in another aspect, relates to a method for determining a mutational spectrum in a DNA sequence of interest present in a population of cells. The method of the present invention is useful as a diagnostic or analytical tool in forensic science in assessing environmental and/or occupational exposures to potentially genetically toxic materials (also referred to as potential mutagens); in biotechnology, particularly in the study of the relationship between the amino acid sequence of enzymes and other biologically-active proteins or protein-containing substances and their respective functions; and in determining the effects of drugs, cosmetics and other chemicals for which toxicity data must be obtained.

  16. Mutation detection using Surveyor nuclease.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peter; Shandilya, Harini; D'Alessio, James M; O'Connor, Kevin; Durocher, Jeffrey; Gerard, Gary F

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a simple and flexible mutation detection technology for the discovery and mapping of both known and unknown mutations. This technology is based on a new mismatch-specific DNA endonuclease from celery, Surveyor nuclease, which is a member of the CEL nuclease family of plant DNA endonucleases. Surveyor nuclease cleaves with high specificity at the 3' side of any mismatch site in both DNA strands, including all base substitutions and insertion/deletions up to at least 12 nucleotides. Surveyor nuclease technology involves four steps: (i) PCR to amplify target DNA from both mutant and wild-type reference DNA; (ii) hybridization to form heteroduplexes between mutant and wild-type reference DNA; (iii) treatment of annealed DNA with Surveyor nuclease to cleave heteroduplexes; and (iv) analysis of digested DNA products using the detection/separation platform of choice. The technology is highly sensitive, detecting rare mutants present at as low as 1 in 32 copies. Unlabeled Surveyor nuclease digestion products can be analyzed using conventional gel electrophoresis or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while end labeled digestion products are suitable for analysis by automated gel or capillary electrophoresis. The entire protocol can be performed in less than a day and is suitable for automated and high-throughput procedures.

  17. Somatic mutations of calreticulin in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Klampfl, Thorsten; Gisslinger, Heinz; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Nivarthi, Harini; Rumi, Elisa; Milosevic, Jelena D; Them, Nicole C C; Berg, Tiina; Gisslinger, Bettina; Pietra, Daniela; Chen, Doris; Vladimer, Gregory I; Bagienski, Klaudia; Milanesi, Chiara; Casetti, Ilaria Carola; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Elena, Chiara; Schischlik, Fiorella; Cleary, Ciara; Six, Melanie; Schalling, Martin; Schönegger, Andreas; Bock, Christoph; Malcovati, Luca; Pascutto, Cristiana; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Cazzola, Mario; Kralovics, Robert

    2013-12-19

    Approximately 50 to 60% of patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis carry a mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2), and an additional 5 to 10% have activating mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL). So far, no specific molecular marker has been identified in the remaining 30 to 45% of patients. We performed whole-exome sequencing to identify somatically acquired mutations in six patients who had primary myelofibrosis without mutations in JAK2 or MPL. Resequencing of CALR, encoding calreticulin, was then performed in cohorts of patients with myeloid neoplasms. Somatic insertions or deletions in exon 9 of CALR were detected in all patients who underwent whole-exome sequencing. Resequencing in 1107 samples from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms showed that CALR mutations were absent in polycythemia vera. In essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, CALR mutations and JAK2 and MPL mutations were mutually exclusive. Among patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis with nonmutated JAK2 or MPL, CALR mutations were detected in 67% of those with essential thrombocythemia and 88% of those with primary myelofibrosis. A total of 36 types of insertions or deletions were identified that all cause a frameshift to the same alternative reading frame and generate a novel C-terminal peptide in the mutant calreticulin. Overexpression of the most frequent CALR deletion caused cytokine-independent growth in vitro owing to the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) by means of an unknown mechanism. Patients with mutated CALR had a lower risk of thrombosis and longer overall survival than patients with mutated JAK2. Most patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis that was not associated with a JAK2 or MPL alteration carried a somatic mutation in CALR. The clinical course in these patients was more indolent than that in patients with the JAK2 V617F

  18. Activating GNAS mutations in parosteal osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jodi M; Inwards, Carrie Y; Jin, Long; Evers, Barbara; Wenger, Doris E; Oliveira, Andre M; Fritchie, Karen J

    2014-03-01

    Parosteal osteosarcoma is a surface-based osteosarcoma that often exhibits deceptively bland cytologic features, hindering diagnosis in small biopsies or when correlative radiologic imaging is not readily available. A number of benign and malignant fibro-osseous lesions, including fibrous dysplasia (FD) and low-grade central osteosarcoma, fall within the morphologic differential diagnosis of parosteal osteosarcoma. Somatic mutations in GNAS, encoding the α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex (Gsα), occur in FD and McCune-Albright syndrome but have not been reported in parosteal osteosarcoma. We evaluated GNAS mutational status in parosteal osteosarcoma and several of its histologic mimics to determine its utility in differentiating these entities. Eleven of 14 (79%) FD cases had GNAS mutations within codon 201 (5 R201C and 6 R201H mutations). GNAS mutations were not detected in any cases of adamantinoma or osteofibrous dysplasia. Direct sequencing of 9 parosteal osteosarcomas, including 3 of low grade and 6 with dedifferentiation, revealed activating GNAS mutations in 5 cases (55%), distributed as 4 R201C-mutated tumors and 1 tumor with an R201H mutation. GNAS codon 227 mutations were not detected in any of the cases. There was no association between GNAS mutational status and patient demographics, histologic dedifferentiation, or clinical outcome. To our knowledge, we report the first series of parosteal osteosarcomas harboring activating GNAS mutations. Our data suggest that GNAS mutational status may have limited utility as an ancillary technique in differentiating benign and malignant fibro-osseous lesions of the bone.

  19. The Mutational Robustness of Influenza A Virus.

    PubMed

    Visher, Elisa; Whitefield, Shawn E; McCrone, John T; Fitzsimmons, William; Lauring, Adam S

    2016-08-01

    A virus' mutational robustness is described in terms of the strength and distribution of the mutational fitness effects, or MFE. The distribution of MFE is central to many questions in evolutionary theory and is a key parameter in models of molecular evolution. Here we define the mutational fitness effects in influenza A virus by generating 128 viruses, each with a single nucleotide mutation. In contrast to mutational scanning approaches, this strategy allowed us to unambiguously assign fitness values to individual mutations. The presence of each desired mutation and the absence of additional mutations were verified by next generation sequencing of each stock. A mutation was considered lethal only after we failed to rescue virus in three independent transfections. We measured the fitness of each viable mutant relative to the wild type by quantitative RT-PCR following direct competition on A549 cells. We found that 31.6% of the mutations in the genome-wide dataset were lethal and that the lethal fraction did not differ appreciably between the HA- and NA-encoding segments and the rest of the genome. Of the viable mutants, the fitness mean and standard deviation were 0.80 and 0.22 in the genome-wide dataset and best modeled as a beta distribution. The fitness impact of mutation was marginally lower in the segments coding for HA and NA (0.88 ± 0.16) than in the other 6 segments (0.78 ± 0.24), and their respective beta distributions had slightly different shape parameters. The results for influenza A virus are remarkably similar to our own analysis of CirSeq-derived fitness values from poliovirus and previously published data from other small, single stranded DNA and RNA viruses. These data suggest that genome size, and not nucleic acid type or mode of replication, is the main determinant of viral mutational fitness effects.

  20. The Mutational Robustness of Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    McCrone, John T.; Lauring, Adam S.

    2016-01-01

    A virus’ mutational robustness is described in terms of the strength and distribution of the mutational fitness effects, or MFE. The distribution of MFE is central to many questions in evolutionary theory and is a key parameter in models of molecular evolution. Here we define the mutational fitness effects in influenza A virus by generating 128 viruses, each with a single nucleotide mutation. In contrast to mutational scanning approaches, this strategy allowed us to unambiguously assign fitness values to individual mutations. The presence of each desired mutation and the absence of additional mutations were verified by next generation sequencing of each stock. A mutation was considered lethal only after we failed to rescue virus in three independent transfections. We measured the fitness of each viable mutant relative to the wild type by quantitative RT-PCR following direct competition on A549 cells. We found that 31.6% of the mutations in the genome-wide dataset were lethal and that the lethal fraction did not differ appreciably between the HA- and NA-encoding segments and the rest of the genome. Of the viable mutants, the fitness mean and standard deviation were 0.80 and 0.22 in the genome-wide dataset and best modeled as a beta distribution. The fitness impact of mutation was marginally lower in the segments coding for HA and NA (0.88 ± 0.16) than in the other 6 segments (0.78 ± 0.24), and their respective beta distributions had slightly different shape parameters. The results for influenza A virus are remarkably similar to our own analysis of CirSeq-derived fitness values from poliovirus and previously published data from other small, single stranded DNA and RNA viruses. These data suggest that genome size, and not nucleic acid type or mode of replication, is the main determinant of viral mutational fitness effects. PMID:27571422

  1. Gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nisar A; Malek, Sami N

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of genes mutated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has stimulated new research into the role of these genes in CLL pathogenesis. CLL cases carry approximately 5-20 mutated genes per exome, a lower number than detected in many human tumors. Of the recurrently mutated genes in CLL, all are mutated in 10% or less of patients when assayed in unselected CLL cohorts at diagnosis. Mutations in TP53 are of major clinical relevance, are often associated with del17p and gain in frequency over time. TP53 mutated and associated del17p states substantially lower response rates, remission duration, and survival in CLL. Mutations in NOTCH1 and SF3B1 are recurrent, often associated with progressive CLL that is also IgVH unmutated and ZAP70-positive and are under investigation as targets for novel therapies and as factors influencing CLL outcome. There are an estimated 20-50 additional mutated genes with frequencies of 1%-5% in CLL; more work is needed to identify these and to study their significance. Finally, of the major biological aberration categories influencing CLL as a disease, gene mutations will need to be placed into context with regard to their ultimate role and importance. Such calibrated appreciation necessitates studies incorporating multiple CLL driver aberrations into biological and clinical analyses.

  2. DHPLC screening of cystic fibrosis gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Ravnik-Glavac, Metka; Atkinson, Andrew; Glavac, Damjan; Dean, Michael

    2002-04-01

    Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) using ion-pairing reverse phase chromatography (IPRPC) columns is a technique for the screening of gene mutations. In order to evaluate the potential utility of this assay method in a clinical laboratory setting, we subjected the PCR products of 73 CF patients known to bear CFTR mutations to this analytic technique. We used thermal denaturation profile parameters specified by the MELT program tool, made available by Stanford University. Using this strategy, we determined an initial analytic sensitivity of 90.4% for any of 73 known CFTR mutations. Most of the mutations not detected by DHPLC under these conditions are alpha-substitutions. This information may eventually help to improve the MELT algorithm. Increasing column denaturation temperatures for one or two degrees above those recommended by the MELT program allowed 100% detection of CFTR mutations tested. By comparing DHPLC methodology used in this study with the recently reported study based on Wavemaker 3.4.4 software (Transgenomic, Omaha, NE) [Le Marechal et al., 2001) and with previous SSCP analysis of CFTR mutations [Ravnik-Glavac et al., 1994] we emphasized differences and similarities in order to refine the DHPLC system and discuss the relationship to the alternative approaches. We conclude that the DHPLC method, under optimized conditions, is highly accurate, rapid, and efficient in detecting mutations in the CFTR gene and may find high utility in screening individuals for CFTR mutations. Hum Mutat 19:374-383, 2002. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Methods for detection of ataxia telangiectasia mutations

    DOEpatents

    Gatti, Richard A.

    2005-10-04

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening large, complex, polyexonic eukaryotic genes such as the ATM gene for mutations and polymorphisms by an improved version of single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis that allows electrophoresis of two or three amplified segments in a single lane. The present invention also is directed to new mutations and polymorphisms in the ATM gene that are useful in performing more accurate screening of human DNA samples for mutations and in distinguishing mutations from polymorphisms, thereby improving the efficiency of automated screening methods.

  4. Nature of Deleterious Mutation Load in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Keightley, P. D.

    1996-01-01

    Much population genetics and evolution theory depends on knowledge of genomic mutation rates and distributions of mutation effects for fitness, but most information comes from a few mutation accumulation experiments in Drosophila in which replicated chromosomes are sheltered from natural selection by a balancer chromosome. I show here that data from these experiments imply the existence of a large class of minor viability mutations with approximately equivalent effects. However, analysis of the distribution of viabilities of chromosomes exposed to EMS mutagenesis reveals a qualitatively different distribution of effects lacking such a minor effects class. A possible explanation for this difference is that transposable element insertions, a common class of spontaneous mutation event in Drosophila, frequently generate minor viability effects. This explanation would imply that current estimates of deleterious mutation rates are not generally applicable in evolutionary models, as transposition rates vary widely. Alternatively, much of the apparent decline in viability under spontaneous mutation accumulation could have been nonmutational, perhaps due to selective improvement of balancer chromosomes. This explanation accords well with the data and implies a spontaneous mutation rate for viability two orders of magnitude lower than previously assumed, with most mutation load attributable to major effects. PMID:8978082

  5. The population genetics of beneficial mutations

    PubMed Central

    Orr, H. Allen

    2010-01-01

    The population genetic study of advantageous mutations has lagged behind that of deleterious and neutral mutations. But over the past two decades, a number of significant developments, both theoretical and empirical, have occurred. Here, I review two of these developments: the attempt to determine the distribution of fitness effects among beneficial mutations and the attempt to determine their average dominance. Considering both theory and data, I conclude that, while considerable theoretical progress has been made, we still lack sufficient data to draw confident conclusions about the distribution of effects or the dominance of beneficial mutations. PMID:20308094

  6. Calreticulin Exon 9 Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CALR) mutations were recently discovered in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We studied the frequency and type of CALR mutations and their hematological characteristics. Methods A total of 168 MPN patients (36 polycythemia vera [PV], 114 essential thrombocythemia [ET], and 18 primary myelofibrosis [PMF] cases) were included in the study. CALR mutation was analyzed by the direct sequencing method. Results CALR mutations were detected in 21.9% of ET and 16.7% of PMF patients, which accounted for 58.5% and 33.3% of ET and PMF patients without Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) or myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogenes (MPL) mutations, respectively. A total of five types of mutation were detected, among which, L367fs*46 (53.6%) and K385fs*47 (35.7%) were found to be the most common. ET patients with CALR mutation had lower leukocyte counts and ages compared with JAK2-mutated ET patients. Conclusion Genotyping for CALR could be a useful diagnostic tool for JAK2-or MPL-negative ET or PMF patients. CALR mutation may be a distinct disease group, with different hematological characteristics than that of JAK2-positive patients. PMID:25553276

  7. Sequence specificity of streptozotocin-induced mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Mack, S L; Fram, R J; Marinus, M G

    1988-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mutations in the phage P22 mnt repressor gene is described. Cells carrying the plasmid-borne mnt gene were exposed to STZ to give 10-20 percent survival and at least an eleven-fold increase in mutation frequency. DNA sequence analysis showed that 50 of 51 STZ-induced mutations were GC to AT transitions, and one was an AT to GC transition. We have also compared the STZ mutational spectrum to that for N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG). There are sites in the mnt gene which are mutated only by STZ; only by MNNG, or by both agents. Sites at which only STZ induced GC to AT transition mutations occur were in sequences that are pyrimidine rich 5' to the mutated site and purine rich 3' to the mutated site. Induction of mutations by both STZ and MNNG should be considered to maximize the number of mutable sites. PMID:2972994

  8. Evolution of Mutation Rate in Asexual Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Scott; Levine, Herbert; Kessler, David

    2007-03-01

    Several evolution experiments with E. coli document the spontaneous emergence and eventual fixation of so called ``mutator'' alleles that increase the genomic mutation rate by the order of 100-fold. Variations in mutation rates are due to polymorphisms in the molecular machinery that copies and checks the genome for errors. These polymorphisms are coded in the genome and thus heritable. Like any heritable trait, elevated mutation rates are subject to natural selection and evolution. However, unlike other traits, mutation rate does not directly affect the rate at which an organism reproduces, i.e. its fitness. Rather, it affects the statistical distribution of the offspring's fitness. This fitness distribution, in turn, leads via ``hitchhiking'' to a change in the frequency of the mutator allele, i.e. evolution of the mutation rate itself. In our work we simulate a birth-death process that approximates simple asexual populations and we measure the fixation probability of rare mutators. We then develop an approximate analytic model of the population dynamics, the results of which agree reasonably well with simulation. In particular, we are able to analytically predict the ``effective fitness'' of mutators and the conditions under which they are expected to emerge.

  9. Factors affecting the nature of induced mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.B.; Russell, W.L.; Rinchik, E.M.; Hunsicker, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The recent considerable expansion of specific-locus-mutation data has made possible an examination of the effects of germ-cell stage on both quantity of mutation yield and nature of mutations. For chemicals mutagenic in poststem-cell stages, three patterns have been identified according to the stages in which they elicit maximum response: (1) early spermatozoa and late spermatids; (2) early spermatids; and (3) differentiating spermatogonia. The majority of chemicals tested fall into Pattern 1. Chemicals that are also mutagenic in stem-cell spermatogonia do not preferentially belong to any one of these three categories. For only one chemical (CHL) has an entire set of mutations been analyzed molecularly. However, the results of genetic and molecular analyses of genomic regions surrounding six of the specific-locus markers allow us to conclude that any mutation that causes lethality of homozygotes (in the case of d, prenatal lethality, specifically) must involve one or more loci in addition to the marked one. Such mutations have been classified as large lesions'' (LL), the remainder as other lesions'' (OL). Analysis of the data shows that, regardless of the nature of the chemical (Pattern-1, -2, or -3), (1) LLs constitute a very low proportion of the mutations induced in either stem-cell or differentiating spermatogonia, and (b) LLs constitute a high proportion of mutations induced in postmeiotic stages. Chemicals that are active in both pre- and postmeiotic stages produce LL or OL mutations depending on cell stage.

  10. WRN mutations in Werner syndrome patients: genomic rearrangements, unusual intronic mutations and ethnic-specific alterations.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Katrin; Lee, Lin; Leistritz, Dru F; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Saha, Bidisha; Hisama, Fuki M; Eyman, Daniel K; Lessel, Davor; Nürnberg, Peter; Li, Chumei; Garcia-F-Villalta, María J; Kets, Carolien M; Schmidtke, Joerg; Cruz, Vítor Tedim; Van den Akker, Peter C; Boak, Joseph; Peter, Dincy; Compoginis, Goli; Cefle, Kivanc; Ozturk, Sukru; López, Norberto; Wessel, Theda; Poot, Martin; Ippel, P F; Groff-Kellermann, Birgit; Hoehn, Holger; Martin, George M; Kubisch, Christian; Oshima, Junko

    2010-07-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive segmental progeroid syndrome caused by null mutations at the WRN locus, which codes for a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Since 1988, the International Registry of Werner syndrome had enrolled 130 molecularly confirmed WS cases from among 110 worldwide pedigrees. We now report 18 new mutations, including two genomic rearrangements, a deep intronic mutation resulting in a novel exon, a splice consensus mutation leading to utilization of the nearby splice site, and two rare missense mutations. We also review evidence for founder mutations among various ethnic/geographic groups. Founder WRN mutations had been previously reported in Japan and Northern Sardinia. Our Registry now suggests characteristic mutations originated in Morocco, Turkey, The Netherlands and elsewhere.

  11. WRN mutations in Werner syndrome patients: genomic rearrangements, unusual intronic mutations and ethnic-specific alterations

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Katrin; Lee, Lin; Leistritz, Dru F.; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Saha, Bidisha; Hisama, Fuki M.; Eyman, Daniel K.; Lessel, Davor; Nürnberg, Peter; Li, Chumei; Garcia-F-Villalta, María J.; Kets, Carolien M.; Schmidtke, Joerg; Cruz, Vítor Tedim; Van den Akker, Peter C.; Boak, Joseph; Peter, Dincy; Compoginis, Goli; Cefle, Kivanc; Ozturk, Sukru; López, Norberto; Wessel, Theda; Poot, Martin; Ippel, P. F.; Groff-Kellermann, Birgit; Hoehn, Holger; Martin, George M.; Kubisch, Christian; Oshima, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive segmental progeroid syndrome caused by null mutations at the WRN locus, which codes for a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Since 1988, the International Registry of Werner syndrome had enrolled 130 molecularly confirmed WS cases from among 110 worldwide pedigrees. We now report 18 new mutations, including two genomic rearrangements, a deep intronic mutation resulting in a novel exon, a splice consensus mutation leading to utilization of the nearby splice site, and two rare missense mutations. We also review evidence for founder mutations among various ethnic/geographic groups. Founder WRN mutations had been previously reported in Japan and Northern Sardinia. Our Registry now suggests characteristic mutations originated in Morocco, Turkey, The Netherlands and elsewhere. PMID:20443122

  12. A frequent splicing mutation and novel missense mutations color the updated mutational spectrum of classic galactosemia in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ana I; Ramos, Ruben; Gaspar, Ana; Costa, Cláudia; Oliveira, Anabela; Diogo, Luísa; Garcia, Paula; Paiva, Sandra; Martins, Esmeralda; Teles, Elisa Leão; Rodrigues, Esmeralda; Cardoso, M Teresa; Ferreira, Elena; Sequeira, Sílvia; Leite, Margarida; Silva, Maria João; de Almeida, Isabel Tavares; Vicente, João B; Rivera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficient galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) activity. Patients develop symptoms in the neonatal period, which can be ameliorated by dietary restriction of galactose. Many patients develop long-term complications, with a broad range of clinical symptoms whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. The high allelic heterogeneity of GALT gene that characterizes this disorder is thought to play a determinant role in biochemical and clinical phenotypes. We aimed to characterize the mutational spectrum of GALT deficiency in Portugal and to assess potential genotype-phenotype correlations. Direct sequencing of the GALT gene and in silico analyses were employed to evaluate the impact of uncharacterized mutations upon GALT functionality. Molecular characterization of 42 galactosemic Portuguese patients revealed a mutational spectrum comprising 14 nucleotide substitutions: ten missense, two nonsense and two putative splicing mutations. Sixteen different genotypic combinations were detected, half of the patients being p.Q188R homozygotes. Notably, the second most frequent variation is a splicing mutation. In silico predictions complemented by a close-up on the mutations in the protein structure suggest that uncharacterized missense mutations have cumulative point effects on protein stability, oligomeric state, or substrate binding. One splicing mutation is predicted to cause an alternative splicing event. This study reinforces the difficulty in establishing a genotype-phenotype correlation in classic galactosemia, a monogenic disease whose complex pathogenesis and clinical features emphasize the need to expand the knowledge on this "cloudy" disorder.

  13. FKRP mutations, including a founder mutation, cause phenotype variability in Chinese patients with dystroglycanopathies.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaona; Yang, Haipo; Wei, Cuijie; Jiao, Hui; Wang, Shuo; Yang, Yanling; Han, Chunxi; Wu, Xiru; Xiong, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Mutations in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene have been associated with dystroglycanopathies, which are common in Europe but rare in Asia. Our study aimed to retrospectively analyze and characterize the clinical, myopathological and genetic features of 12 Chinese patients with FKRP mutations. Three patients were diagnosed with congenital muscular dystrophy type 1C (MDC1C) and nine patients were diagnosed with limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I). Three muscle biopsy specimens had dystrophic changes and reduced glycosylated α-dystroglycan staining, and two showed reduced expression of laminin α2. Two known and 13 novel mutations were identified in our single center cohort. Interestingly, the c.545A>G mutation was found in eight of the nine LGMD2I patients as a founder mutation and this founder mutation in Chinese patients differs from the one seen in European patients. Moreover, patients homozygous for the c.545A>G mutation were clinically asymptomatic, a less severe phenotype than in compound heterozygous patients with the c.545A>G mutation. The 13 novel mutations of FKRP significantly expanded the mutation spectrum of MDC1C and LGMD2I, and the different founder mutations indicate the ethnic difference in FKRP mutations.

  14. TERT Promoter Mutations in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rengyun; Xing, Mingzhao

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 discovery of TERT promoter mutations chr5, 1,295,228 C>T (C228T) and 1,295,250 C>T (C250T) in thyroid cancer represents an important event in the thyroid cancer field and much progress has occurred since then. This article provides a comprehensive review of this exciting new thyroid cancer field. The oncogenic role of TERT promoter mutations involves their creation of consensus binding sites for ETS transcriptional factors. TERT C228T is far more common than TERT C250T and their collective prevalence is, on average, 0%, 11.3%, 17.1%, 43.2%, and 40.1% in benign thyroid tumors, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), follicular thyroid cancer, poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, displaying an association with aggressive types of thyroid cancer. TERT promoter mutations are associated with aggressive thyroid tumor characteristics, tumor recurrence, and patient mortality as well as BRAF V600E mutation. Coexisting BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations have a robust synergistic impact on the aggressiveness of PTC, including a sharply increased tumor recurrence and patient mortality, while either mutation alone has a modest impact. Thus, TERT with promoter mutations represents a prominent new oncogene in thyroid cancer and the mutations are promising new diagnostic and prognostic genetic markers for thyroid cancer, which, in combination with BRAF V600E mutation or other genetic markers (e.g., RAS mutations), are proving to be clinically useful for the management of thyroid cancer. Future studies will specifically define such clinical utilities, elucidate the biological mechanisms, and explore the potential as therapeutic targets of TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer. PMID:26733501

  15. TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rengyun; Xing, Mingzhao

    2016-03-01

    The 2013 discovery of Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations chr5, 1,295,228 C>T (C228T) and 1,295,250 C>T (C250T) in thyroid cancer represents an important event in the thyroid cancer field and much progress has occurred since then. This article provides a comprehensive review of this exciting new thyroid cancer field. The oncogenic role of TERT promoter mutations involves their creation of consensus binding sites for E-twenty-six transcriptional factors. TERT C228T is far more common than TERT C250T and their collective prevalence is, on average, 0, 11.3, 17.1, 43.2 and 40.1% in benign thyroid tumors, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), follicular thyroid cancer, poorly differentiated thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer, respectively, displaying an association with aggressive types of thyroid cancer. TERT promoter mutations are associated with aggressive thyroid tumor characteristics, tumor recurrence and patient mortality as well as BRAF V600E mutation. Coexisting BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations have a robust synergistic impact on the aggressiveness of PTC, including a sharply increased tumor recurrence and patient mortality, while either mutation alone has a modest impact. Thus, TERT with promoter mutations represents a prominent new oncogene in thyroid cancer and the mutations are promising new diagnostic and prognostic genetic markers for thyroid cancer, which, in combination with BRAF V600E mutation or other genetic markers (e.g. RAS mutations), are proving to be clinically useful for the management of thyroid cancer. Future studies will specifically define such clinical utilities, elucidate the biological mechanisms and explore the potential as therapeutic targets of TERT promoter mutations in thyroid cancer. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Effect of mutation order on myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Christina A; Kent, David G; Nangalia, Jyoti; Silber, Yvonne; Wedge, David C; Grinfeld, Jacob; Baxter, E Joanna; Massie, Charles E; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Menon, Suraj; Godfrey, Anna L; Dimitropoulou, Danai; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles; Döhner, Konstanze; Harrison, Claire N; Vassiliou, George S; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Campbell, Peter J; Green, Anthony R

    2015-02-12

    Cancers result from the accumulation of somatic mutations, and their properties are thought to reflect the sum of these mutations. However, little is known about the effect of the order in which mutations are acquired. We determined mutation order in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms by genotyping hematopoietic colonies or by means of next-generation sequencing. Stem cells and progenitor cells were isolated to study the effect of mutation order on mature and immature hematopoietic cells. The age at which a patient presented with a myeloproliferative neoplasm, acquisition of JAK2 V617F homozygosity, and the balance of immature progenitors were all influenced by mutation order. As compared with patients in whom the TET2 mutation was acquired first (hereafter referred to as "TET2-first patients"), patients in whom the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation was acquired first ("JAK2-first patients") had a greater likelihood of presenting with polycythemia vera than with essential thrombocythemia, an increased risk of thrombosis, and an increased sensitivity of JAK2-mutant progenitors to ruxolitinib in vitro. Mutation order influenced the proliferative response to JAK2 V617F and the capacity of double-mutant hematopoietic cells and progenitor cells to generate colony-forming cells. Moreover, the hematopoietic stem-and-progenitor-cell compartment was dominated by TET2 single-mutant cells in TET2-first patients but by JAK2-TET2 double-mutant cells in JAK2-first patients. Prior mutation of TET2 altered the transcriptional consequences of JAK2 V617F in a cell-intrinsic manner and prevented JAK2 V617F from up-regulating genes associated with proliferation. The order in which JAK2 and TET2 mutations were acquired influenced clinical features, the response to targeted therapy, the biology of stem and progenitor cells, and clonal evolution in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. (Funded by Leukemia and Lymphoma Research and others.).

  17. GNAS1 mutational analysis in pseudohypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S F; Dixon, P H; Bonthron, D T; Stirling, H F; Barr, D G; Kelnar, C J; Thakker, R V

    1998-10-01

    Mutations of the GNAS1 gene, which is located on chromosome 20q13.11 and encodes the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory GTP-binding protein, have been identified in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHPIa) and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). We have undertaken studies to determine the prevalence of GNAS1 mutations and to explore methods for their more rapid detection. Thirteen unrelated families (8 with PHPIa and PPHP patients, and 5 with PPHP patients only) were investigated for GNAS1 mutations in the 1050 base-pair (bp) region spanning exons 2-13 by single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequence analysis. GNAS1 mutations were detected in 4 of the 8 families with PHPIa patients. These consisted of: two novel de novo missense mutations (Pro115Ser and Glu259Val) in two families and an identical 4 bp deletion of codons 189 and 190 resulting in a frame-shift in two unrelated families. These results expand the spectrum of GNAS1 mutations associated with this disorder and confirm the presence of a mutational hot-spot involving codons 189 and 190. SSCP analysis was found to be a specific and sensitive method that detected all 4 mutations. GNAS1 mutations were not detected in any of the PPHP only families. The pseudohypoparathyroid disorders appear to represent a heterogeneous group with GNAS1 mutations forming the molecular aetiology in approximately 50% of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia families. Such mutations can be reliably identified by single-stranded conformational polymorphism and this will help to supplement the clinical evaluation of some patients and their families, particularly as the disease may not be fully penetrant.

  18. Clock-like mutational processes in human somatic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Jones, Philip H.; Wedge, David C.; Sale, Julian E.; Campbell, Peter J.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-11-09

    During the course of a lifetime, somatic cells acquire mutations. Different mutational processes may contribute to the mutations accumulated in a cell, with each imprinting a mutational signature on the cell's genome. Some processes generate mutations throughout life at a constant rate in all individuals, and the number of mutations in a cell attributable to these processes will be proportional to the chronological age of the person. Using mutations from 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 cancer types, we investigated clock-like mutational processes that have been operating in normal human cells. Two mutational signatures show clock-like properties. Both exhibit different mutation rates in different tissues. However, their mutation rates are not correlated, indicating that the underlying processes are subject to different biological influences. For one signature, the rate of cell division may influence its mutation rate. This paper provides the first survey of clock-like mutational processes operating in human somatic cells.

  19. Clock-like mutational processes in human somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Jones, Philip H.; Wedge, David C.; Sale, Julian E.; Campbell, Peter J.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Stratton, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    During the course of a lifetime somatic cells acquire mutations. Different mutational processes may contribute to the mutations accumulated in a cell, with each imprinting a mutational signature on the cell’s genome. Some processes generate mutations throughout life at a constant rate in all individuals and the number of mutations in a cell attributable to these processes will be proportional to the chronological age of the person. Using mutations from 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 cancer types, we investigated clock-like mutational processes that have been operating in normal human cells. Two mutational signatures show clock-like properties. Both exhibit different mutation rates in different tissues. However, their mutation rates are not correlated indicating that the underlying processes are subject to different biological influences. For one signature, the rate of cell division may influence its mutation rate. This study provides the first survey of clock-like mutational processes operative in human somatic cells. PMID:26551669

  20. Studies of human mutation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    November 1989, marked the beginning of a new three-year cycle of DOE grant support, in connection with which the program underwent a major reorganization. This document presents the progress on the three objectives of the present program which are: to isolate by the technique of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), proteins of special interest because of the relative mutability of the corresponding gene, establish the identity of the protein, and, for selected proteins, move to a characterization of the corresponding gene; to develop a more efficient approach, based on 2-D PAGE, for the detection of variants in DNA, with special reference to the identification of mutations in the parents of the individual whose DNA is being examined; and, to continue an effective interface with the genetic studies on the children of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, with reference to both the planning and implementation of new studies at the molecular level.

  1. Parkin dosage mutations have greater pathogenicity in familial PD than simple sequence mutations.

    PubMed

    Pankratz, N; Kissell, D K; Pauciulo, M W; Halter, C A; Rudolph, A; Pfeiffer, R F; Marder, K S; Foroud, T; Nichols, W C

    2009-07-28

    Mutations in both alleles of parkin have been shown to result in Parkinson disease (PD). However, it is unclear whether haploinsufficiency (presence of a mutation in only 1 of the 2 parkin alleles) increases the risk for PD. We performed comprehensive dosage and sequence analysis of all 12 exons of parkin in a sample of 520 independent patients with familial PD and 263 controls. We evaluated whether presence of a single parkin mutation, either a sequence (point mutation or small insertion/deletion) or dosage (whole exon deletion or duplication) mutation, was found at increased frequency in cases as compared with controls. We then compared the clinical characteristics of cases with 0, 1, or 2 parkin mutations. We identified 55 independent patients with PD with at least 1 parkin mutation and 9 controls with a single sequence mutation. Cases and controls had a similar frequency of single sequence mutations (3.1% vs 3.4%, p = 0.83); however, the cases had a significantly higher rate of dosage mutations (2.6% vs 0%, p = 0.009). Cases with a single dosage mutation were more likely to have an earlier age at onset (50% with onset at < or =45 years) compared with those with no parkin mutations (10%, p = 0.00002); this was not true for cases with only a single sequence mutation (25% with onset at < or =45 years, p = 0.06). Parkin haploinsufficiency, specifically for a dosage mutation rather than a point mutation or small insertion/deletion, is a risk factor for familial PD and may be associated with earlier age at onset.

  2. Selective sweeps and parallel mutation in the adaptive recovery from deleterious mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Denver, Dee R.; Howe, Dana K.; Wilhelm, Larry J.; Palmer, Catherine A.; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Stein, Kevin C.; Phillips, Patrick C.; Estes, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Deleterious mutation poses a serious threat to human health and the persistence of small populations. Although adaptive recovery from deleterious mutation has been well-characterized in prokaryotes, the evolutionary mechanisms by which multicellular eukaryotes recover from deleterious mutation remain unknown. We applied high-throughput DNA sequencing to characterize genomic divergence patterns associated with the adaptive recovery from deleterious mutation using a Caenorhabditis elegans recovery-line system. The C. elegans recovery lines were initiated from a low-fitness mutation-accumulation (MA) line progenitor and allowed to independently evolve in large populations (N ∼ 1000) for 60 generations. All lines rapidly regained levels of fitness similar to the wild-type (N2) MA line progenitor. Although there was a near-zero probability of a single mutation fixing due to genetic drift during the recovery experiment, we observed 28 fixed mutations. Cross-generational analysis showed that all mutations went from undetectable population-level frequencies to a fixed state in 10–20 generations. Many recovery-line mutations fixed at identical timepoints, suggesting that the mutations, if not beneficial, hitchhiked to fixation during selective sweep events observed in the recovery lines. No MA line mutation reversions were detected. Parallel mutation fixation was observed for two sites in two independent recovery lines. Analysis using a C. elegans interactome map revealed many predicted interactions between genes with recovery line-specific mutations and genes with previously accumulated MA line mutations. Our study suggests that recovery-line mutations identified in both coding and noncoding genomic regions might have beneficial effects associated with compensatory epistatic interactions. PMID:21036923

  3. Interlaboratory comparison of IDH mutation detection.

    PubMed

    van den Bent, Martin J; Hartmann, C; Preusser, Matthias; Ströbel, Thomas; Dubbink, Hendrikus J; Kros, Johan M; von Deimling, Andreas; Boisselier, Blandine; Sanson, Marc; Halling, Kevin C; Diefes, Kristin L; Aldape, Kenneth; Giannini, Caterina

    2013-04-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutational testing is becoming increasingly important. For this, robust and reliable assays are needed. We tested the variation of results between six laboratories of testing for IDH mutations. Each laboratory received five unstained slides from 31 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) glioma samples, and followed its own standard IDH diagnostic routine. All laboratories used immunohistochemistry (IHC) with an antibody against the most frequent IDH1 mutation (R132H) as a first step. Three laboratories then sequenced only IHC negative cases while the others sequenced all cases. Based on the overall analysis, 13 samples from 11 tumors had an R132H mutation and one tumor showed an R132G mutation. Results of IHC for IDH1 R132H mutations in all six laboratories were completely in agreement, and identified all R132H mutations. Upon sequencing the results of two laboratories deviated from those of the others. After a review of the entire diagnostic process, on repeat (blinded) testing one laboratory was completely in agreement with the overall result. A change in technique did only partially improve the results in the other laboratory. IHC for the IDH1 R132H mutation is very reliable and consistent across laboratories. IDH sequencing procedures yielded inconsistent results in 2 out of 6 laboratories. Quality assurance is pivotal before IDH testing is made part of clinical management of patients.

  4. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations

    MedlinePlus

    ... mutation. Should You Be Tested? If you answer “yes” to any of the following questions, genetic risk assessment is ... known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation? If you answer “yes” to any of the following questions, genetic risk assessment may ...

  5. Controllability of selection-mutation systems.

    PubMed

    Scarelli, Antonino; Varga, Zoltán

    2002-01-01

    The well-known Fisher type selection-mutation model is studied from the point of view of mathematical systems theory. Mutation rates are considered as control functions. Based on a general sufficient condition for local controllability of non-linear systems with invariant manifold, a method is proposed to guarantee the controllability of the considered population into a polymorphic equilibrium.

  6. TERT promoter mutations in soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Nathália C; Penna, Valter; Abrahão-Machado, Lucas Faria; Cruvinel-Carloni, Adriana; Ribeiro, Guilherme; Soares, Paula; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Reis, Rui M

    2016-02-28

    Oncogenic hotspot mutations in the promoter region of the TERT gene have been identified in several cancer types as being associated with a worse outcome. Additionally, a polymorphism (rs2853669) in the TERT promoter region was reported to modify the survival of TERT-mutated patients. Our aim is to determine the frequency of c.-124 C>T and c.-146 C>T TERT mutations and to genotype the rs2853669 polymorphism in a series of 68 soft tissue sarcomas (STS) comprising 22 histological subtypes. PCR was performed, followed by direct sequencing of a fragment of TERT containing the hotspots and the rs2853669. We found TERT mutations in 4/68 (5.9%) STSs including 1 pleomorphic liposarcoma (1/1), 1 dedifferentiated liposarcoma (1/1) and 2 myxoid liposarcomas (2/9). The variant C allele of rs2853669 was found in 54.8% (34/62) of all STSs and in 75% (3/4) of TERT-mutated cases. TERT mutations were associated with younger age, and the C allele of the rs2853669 was associated with high histological grade (2 and 3). No association was found between TERT mutation status or rs2853669 genotype and patient prognosis. We showed that TERT promoter mutation is not a recurrent event in STS and is present in particular histological subtypes.

  7. Rapid evolution of the human mutation spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kelley; Pritchard, Jonathan K

    2017-01-01

    DNA is a remarkably precise medium for copying and storing biological information. This high fidelity results from the action of hundreds of genes involved in replication, proofreading, and damage repair. Evolutionary theory suggests that in such a system, selection has limited ability to remove genetic variants that change mutation rates by small amounts or in specific sequence contexts. Consistent with this, using SNV variation as a proxy for mutational input, we report here that mutational spectra differ substantially among species, human continental groups and even some closely related populations. Close examination of one signal, an increased TCC→TTC mutation rate in Europeans, indicates a burst of mutations from about 15,000 to 2000 years ago, perhaps due to the appearance, drift, and ultimate elimination of a genetic modifier of mutation rate. Our results suggest that mutation rates can evolve markedly over short evolutionary timescales and suggest the possibility of mapping mutational modifiers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24284.001 PMID:28440220

  8. Inverse PCR for Point Mutation Introduction.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diogo; Santos, Gustavo; Barroca, Mário; Collins, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Inverse PCR is a powerful tool for the rapid introduction of desired mutations at desired positions in a circular double-stranded DNA sequence. Here, custom-designed mutant primers oriented in the inverse direction are used to amplify the entire circular template with incorporation of the required mutation(s). By careful primer design it can be used to perform such diverse modifications as the introduction of point mutations and multiple mutations, the insertion of new sequences, and even sequence deletions. Three primer formats are commonly used; nonoverlapping, partially overlapping and fully overlapping primers, and here we describe the use of nonoverlapping primers for introduction of a point mutation. Use of such a primer setup in the PCR reaction, with one of the primers containing the desired mismatch mutation, results in the amplification of a linear, double-stranded, mutated product. Methylated template DNA is removed from the nonmethylated PCR product by DpnI digestion and the PCR product is then phosphorylated by polynucleotide kinase treatment before being recircularized by ligation, and transformed to E. coli. This relatively simple site-directed mutagenesis procedure is of major importance in biology and biotechnology today where it is commonly employed for the study and engineering of DNA, RNA, and proteins.

  9. Molecular methods for the detection of mutations.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, C; Marcelino, L A; Conde, A R; Saraiva, C; Giphart-Gassler, M; De Nooij-van Dalen, A G; Van Buuren-van Seggelen, V; Van der Keur, M; May, C A; Cole, J; Lehmann, A R; Steinsgrimsdottir, H; Beare, D; Capulas, E; Armour, J A

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of a collaborative study aimed at developing reliable, direct assays for mutation in human cells. The project used common lymphoblastoid cell lines, both with and without mutagen treatment, as a shared resource to validate the development of new molecular methods for the detection of low-level mutations in the presence of a large excess of normal alleles. As the "gold standard, " hprt mutation frequencies were also measured on the same samples. The methods under development included i) the restriction site mutation (RSM) assay, in which mutations lead to the destruction of a restriction site; ii) minisatellite length-change mutation, in which mutations lead to alleles containing new numbers of tandem repeat units; iii) loss of heterozygosity for HLA epitopes, in which antibodies can be used to direct selection for mutant cells; iv) multiple fluorescence-based long linker arm nucleotides assay (mf-LLA) technology, for the detection of substitutional mutations; v) detection of alterations in the TP53 locus using a (CA) array as the target for the screening; and vi) PCR analysis of lymphocytes for the presence of the BCL2 t(14:18) translocation. The relative merits of these molecular methods are discussed, and a comparison made with more "traditional" methods.

  10. p53 mutations promote proteasomal activity.

    PubMed

    Oren, Moshe; Kotler, Eran

    2016-07-27

    p53 mutations occur very frequently in human cancer. Besides abrogating the tumour suppressive functions of wild-type p53, many of those mutations also acquire oncogenic gain-of-function activities. Augmentation of proteasome activity is now reported as a common gain-of-function mechanism shared by different p53 mutants, which promotes cancer resistance to proteasome inhibitors.

  11. TFAP2B mutation and dental anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Tanasubsinn, Natchaya; Sittiwangkul, Rekwan; Pongprot, Yupada; Kawasaki, Katsushige; Ohazama, Atsushi; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Kaewgahya, Massupa; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2017-01-01

    Mutations inTFAP2B has been reported in patients with isolated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and Char syndrome. We performed mutation analysis of TFAP2B in 43 patients with isolated PDA, 7 patients with PDA with other congenital heart defects and 286 patients with isolated tooth agenesis with or without other dental anomalies. The heterozygous c.1006G>A mutation was identified in 20 individuals. Those mutation carriers consisted of 1 patient with term PDA (1/43), 16 patients with isolated tooth agenesis with or without other dental anomalies (16/286; 5.6%), 1 patient with PDA and severe valvular aortic stenosis and tooth agenesis (1/4) and 2 normal controls (2/100; 1%). The mutation is predicted to cause an amino-acid substitution p.Val336Ile in the TFAP2B protein. Tfap2b expression during early mouse tooth development supports the association of TFAP2B mutation and dental anomalies. It is hypothesized that this incidence might have been the result of founder effect. Here we report for the first time that TFAP2B mutation is associated with tooth agenesis, microdontia, supernumerary tooth and root maldevelopment. In addition, we also found that TFAP2B mutations, the common causes of PDA in Caucasian, are not the common cause of PDA in Thai population. PMID:28381879

  12. BRAF mutation: supporting diversity in HCL.

    PubMed

    Burger, Jan A

    2012-04-05

    In this issue of Blood, Xi and colleagues report on v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutations in hairy cell leukemia (HCL) subsets, demonstrating that BRAF V600E mutations are absent in variant HCL forms and in a subset of classic HCL (HCLc).

  13. Analyzing effects of naturally occurring missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Miteva, Maria A; Wang, Lin; Alexov, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Single-point mutation in genome, for example, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or rare genetic mutation, is the change of a single nucleotide for another in the genome sequence. Some of them will produce an amino acid substitution in the corresponding protein sequence (missense mutations); others will not. This paper focuses on genetic mutations resulting in a change in the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein and how to assess their effects on protein wild-type characteristics. The existing methods and approaches for predicting the effects of mutation on protein stability, structure, and dynamics are outlined and discussed with respect to their underlying principles. Available resources, either as stand-alone applications or webservers, are pointed out as well. It is emphasized that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind these effects due to these missense mutations is of critical importance for detecting disease-causing mutations. The paper provides several examples of the application of 3D structure-based methods to model the effects of protein stability and protein-protein interactions caused by missense mutations as well.

  14. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  15. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle.

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  16. The fitness costs of antibiotic resistance mutations

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Anita H; Wong, Alex; Kassen, Rees

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is increasing in pathogenic microbial populations and is thus a major threat to public health. The fate of a resistance mutation in pathogen populations is determined in part by its fitness. Mutations that suffer little or no fitness cost are more likely to persist in the absence of antibiotic treatment. In this review, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the fitness costs associated with single mutational events that confer resistance. Generally, these mutations were costly, although several drug classes and species of bacteria on average did not show a cost. Further investigations into the rate and fitness values of compensatory mutations that alleviate the costs of resistance will help us to better understand both the emergence and management of antibiotic resistance in clinical settings. PMID:25861385

  17. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Vasiliou, D M; Pinsky, L

    1996-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. We have added (if available) data on the androgen binding phenotype of the mutant AR, the clinical phenotype of the affected persons, the family history and whether the pathogenicity of a mutation has been proven. Exonic mutations are now listed in 5'-->3' sequence regardless of type and single base pair changes are presented in codon context. Splice site and intronic mutations are listed separately. The database has allowed us to substantiate and amplify the observation of mutational hot spots within exons encoding the AR androgen binding domain. The database is available from EML (ftp://www.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  18. Elevated germline mutation rate in teenage fathers.

    PubMed

    Forster, Peter; Hohoff, Carsten; Dunkelmann, Bettina; Schürenkamp, Marianne; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Neuhuber, Franz; Brinkmann, Bernd

    2015-03-22

    Men age and die, while cells in their germline are programmed to be immortal. To elucidate how germ cells maintain viable DNA despite increasing parental age, we analysed DNA from 24 097 parents and their children, from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. We chose repetitive microsatellite DNA that mutates (unlike point mutations) only as a result of cellular replication, providing us with a natural 'cell-cycle counter'. We observe, as expected, that the overall mutation rate for fathers is seven times higher than for mothers. Also as expected, mothers have a low and lifelong constant DNA mutation rate. Surprisingly, however, we discover that (i) teenage fathers already set out from a much higher mutation rate than teenage mothers (potentially equivalent to 77-196 male germline cell divisions by puberty); and (ii) ageing men maintain sperm DNA quality similar to that of teenagers, presumably by using fresh batches of stem cells known as 'A-dark spermatogonia'.

  19. The Human PAX6 Mutation Database.

    PubMed

    Brown, A; McKie, M; van Heyningen, V; Prosser, J

    1998-01-01

    The Human PAX6 Mutation Database contains details of 94 mutations of the PAX6 gene. A Microsoft Access program is used by the Curator to store, update and search the database entries. Mutations can be entered directly by the Curator, or imported from submissions made via the World Wide Web. The PAX6 Mutation Database web page at URL http://www.hgu.mrc.ac.uk/Softdata/PAX6/ provides information about PAX6, as well as a fill-in form through which new mutations can be submitted to the Curator. A search facility allows remote users to query the database. A plain text format file of the data can be downloaded via the World Wide Web. The Curation program contains prior knowledge of the genetic code and of the PAX6 gene including cDNA sequence, location of intron/exon boundaries, and protein domains, so that the minimum of information need be provided by the submitter or Curator.

  20. Natural radioactivity and human mitochondrial DNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Lucy; Forster, Peter; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Willkomm, Horst; Brinkmann, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Radioactivity is known to induce tumors, chromosome lesions, and minisatellite length mutations, but its effects on the DNA sequence have not previously been studied. A coastal peninsula in Kerala (India) contains the world's highest level of natural radioactivity in a densely populated area, offering an opportunity to characterize radiation-associated DNA mutations. We sampled 248 pedigrees (988 individuals) in the high-radiation peninsula and in nearby low-radiation islands as a control population. We sequenced their mtDNA, and found that the pedigrees living in the high-radiation area have significantly (P < 0.01) increased germ-line point mutations between mothers and their offspring. In each mutation case, we confirmed maternity by autosomal profiling. Strikingly, the radioactive conditions accelerate mutations at nucleotide positions that have been evolutionary hot spots for at least 60,000 years. PMID:12370437

  1. Mutation studies in ascidians: a review.

    PubMed

    Crocetta, Fabio; Marino, Rita; Cirino, Paola; Macina, Alberto; Staiano, Leopoldo; Esposito, Rosaria; Pezzotti, Maria Rosa; Racioppi, Claudia; Toscano, Francesco; De Felice, Elena; Locascio, Annamaria; Ristoratore, Filomena; Spagnuolo, Antonietta; Zanetti, Laura; Branno, Margherita; Sordino, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Historically, mutations have had a significant impact on the study of developmental processes and phenotypic evolution. Lesions in DNA are created by artificial methods or detected by natural genetic variation. Random mutations are then ascribed to genetic change by direct sequencing or positional cloning. Tunicate species of the ascidian genus Ciona represent nearly fully realized model systems in which gene function can be investigated in depth. Additionally, tunicates are valuable organisms for the study of naturally occurring mutations due to the capability to exploit genetic variation down to the molecular level. Here, we summarize the available information about how mutations are studied in ascidians with examples of insights that have resulted from these applications. We also describe notions and methodologies that might be useful for the implementation of easy and tight procedures for mutations studies in Ciona.

  2. On the Specificity of Adaptive Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hall, B. G.

    1997-01-01

    Adaptive mutations are mutations that occur in nondividing or slowly dividing cells during prolonged nonlethal selection, and that appear to be specific to the challenge of the selection in the sense that the only mutations that arise are those that provide a growth advantage to the cell. The issue of the specificity has been controversial because it violates our most basic assumptions about the randomness of mutations with respect to their effect on the cell. Although a variety of experiments in several systems in both bacteria and yeast have claimed to demonstrate that specificity, those experiments have been subjected to a variety of technical criticisms suggesting that the specificity may not be real. Here I use the ebg system to provide evidence that when selection is applied to one specific nucleotide site within a gene, mutation occurs at that site but not at an alternative and equally mutable site within the same gene. PMID:9017388

  3. Somatic Mutations in Cerebral Cortical Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Jamuar, Saumya S.; Lam, Anh-Thu N.; Kircher, Martin; D'Gama, Alissa M.; Wang, Jian; Barry, Brenda J.; Zhang, Xiaochang; Hill, Robert Sean; Partlow, Jennifer N.; Rozzo, Aldo; Servattalab, Sarah; Mehta, Bhaven K.; Topcu, Meral; Amrom, Dina; Andermann, Eva; Dan, Bernard; Parrini, Elena; Guerrini, Renzo; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Leventer, Richard J.; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai Lin; Barkovich, A. James; Sahin, Mustafa; Chang, Bernard S.; Bamshad, Michael; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Shendure, Jay; Poduri, Annapurna; Yu, Timothy W.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although there is increasing recognition of the role of somatic mutations in genetic disorders, the prevalence of somatic mutations in neurodevelopmental disease and the optimal techniques to detect somatic mosaicism have not been systematically evaluated. METHODS Using a customized panel of known and candidate genes associated with brain malformations, we applied targeted high-coverage sequencing (depth, ≥200×) to leukocyte-derived DNA samples from 158 persons with brain malformations, including the double-cortex syndrome (subcortical band heterotopia, 30 persons), polymicrogyria with megalencephaly (20), periventricular nodular heterotopia (61), and pachygyria (47). We validated candidate mutations with the use of Sanger sequencing and, for variants present at unequal read depths, subcloning followed by colony sequencing. RESULTS Validated, causal mutations were found in 27 persons (17%; range, 10 to 30% for each phenotype). Mutations were somatic in 8 of the 27 (30%), predominantly in persons with the double-cortex syndrome (in whom we found mutations in DCX and LIS1), persons with periventricular nodular heterotopia (FLNA), and persons with pachygyria (TUBB2B). Of the somatic mutations we detected, 5 (63%) were undetectable with the use of traditional Sanger sequencing but were validated through subcloning and subsequent sequencing of the subcloned DNA. We found potentially causal mutations in the candidate genes DYNC1H1, KIF5C, and other kinesin genes in persons with pachygyria. CONCLUSIONS Targeted sequencing was found to be useful for detecting somatic mutations in patients with brain malformations. High-coverage sequencing panels provide an important complement to whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing in the evaluation of somatic mutations in neuropsychiatric disease. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others.) PMID:25140959

  4. HPMV: human protein mutation viewer - relating sequence mutations to protein sequence architecture and function changes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Westley Arthur; Kuchibhatla, Durga Bhavani; Limviphuvadh, Vachiranee; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing advances are rapidly expanding the number of human mutations to be analyzed for causative roles in genetic disorders. Our Human Protein Mutation Viewer (HPMV) is intended to explore the biomolecular mechanistic significance of non-synonymous human mutations in protein-coding genomic regions. The tool helps to assess whether protein mutations affect the occurrence of sequence-architectural features (globular domains, targeting signals, post-translational modification sites, etc.). As input, HPMV accepts protein mutations - as UniProt accessions with mutations (e.g. HGVS nomenclature), genome coordinates, or FASTA sequences. As output, HPMV provides an interactive cartoon showing the mutations in relation to elements of the sequence architecture. A large variety of protein sequence architectural features were selected for their particular relevance to mutation interpretation. Clicking a sequence feature in the cartoon expands a tree view of additional information including multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains and a simple 3D viewer mapping the mutation to known PDB structures, if available. The cartoon is also correlated with a multiple sequence alignment of similar sequences from other organisms. In cases where a mutation is likely to have a straightforward interpretation (e.g. a point mutation disrupting a well-understood targeting signal), this interpretation is suggested. The interactive cartoon can be downloaded as standalone viewer in Java jar format to be saved and viewed later with only a standard Java runtime environment. The HPMV website is: http://hpmv.bii.a-star.edu.sg/ .

  5. The CDC Hemophilia B mutation project mutation list: a new online resource.

    PubMed

    Li, Tengguo; Miller, Connie H; Payne, Amanda B; Craig Hooper, W

    2013-11-01

    Hemophilia B (HB) is caused by mutations in the human gene F9. The mutation type plays a pivotal role in genetic counseling and prediction of inhibitor development. To help the HB community understand the molecular etiology of HB, we have developed a listing of all F9 mutations that are reported to cause HB based on the literature and existing databases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hemophilia B Mutation Project (CHBMP) mutation list is compiled in an easily accessible format of Microsoft Excel and contains 1083 unique mutations that are reported to cause HB. Each mutation is identified using Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) nomenclature standards. The mutation types and the predicted changes in amino acids, if applicable, are also provided. Related information including the location of mutation, severity of HB, the presence of inhibitor, and original publication reference are listed as well. Therefore, our mutation list provides an easily accessible resource for genetic counselors and HB researchers to predict inhibitors. The CHBMP mutation list is freely accessible at http://www.cdc.gov/hemophiliamutations.

  6. MutationFinder: a high-performance system for extracting point mutation mentions from text.

    PubMed

    Caporaso, J Gregory; Baumgartner, William A; Randolph, David A; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence

    2007-07-15

    Discussion of point mutations is ubiquitous in biomedical literature, and manually compiling databases or literature on mutations in specific genes or proteins is tedious. We present an open-source, rule-based system, MutationFinder, for extracting point mutation mentions from text. On blind test data, it achieves nearly perfect precision and a markedly improved recall over a baseline. MutationFinder, along with a high-quality gold standard data set, and a scoring script for mutation extraction systems have been made publicly available. Implementations, source code and unit tests are available in Python, Perl and Java. MutationFinder can be used as a stand-alone script, or imported by other applications. http://bionlp.sourceforge.net.

  7. SOS mutator DNA polymerase IV functions in adaptive mutation and not adaptive amplification.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, G J; Lee, P L; Lombardo, M J; Hastings, P J; Rosenberg, S M

    2001-03-01

    Adaptive point mutation and amplification are induced responses to environmental stress, promoting genetic changes that can enhance survival. A specialized adaptive mutation mechanism has been documented in one Escherichia coli assay, but its enzymatic basis remained unclear. We report that the SOS-inducible, error-prone DNA polymerase (pol) IV, encoded by dinB, is required for adaptive point mutation in the E. coli lac operon. A nonpolar dinB mutation reduces adaptive mutation frequencies by 85% but does not affect adaptive amplification, growth-dependent mutation, or survival after oxidative or UV damage. We show that pol IV, together with the major replicase, pol III, can account for all adaptive point mutations at lac. The results identify a role for pol IV in inducible genetic change.

  8. Mutation profiling of adenoid cystic carcinomas from multiple anatomical sites identifies mutations in the RAS pathway, but no KIT mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wetterskog, Daniel; Wilkerson, Paul M; Rodrigues, Daniel N; Lambros, Maryou B; Fritchie, Karen; Andersson, Mattias K; Natrajan, Rachael; Gauthier, Arnaud; Di Palma, Silvana; Shousha, Sami; Gatalica, Zoran; Töpfer, Chantal; Vukovic, Vesna; A’Hern, Roger; Weigelt, Britta; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Stenman, Göran; Rubin, Brian P; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2016-01-01

    Aims The majority of adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCCs), regardless of anatomical site, harbour the MYB–NFIB fusion gene. The aim of this study was to characterize the repertoire of somatic genetic events affecting known cancer genes in AdCCs. Methods and results DNA was extracted from 13 microdissected breast AdCCs, and subjected to a mutation survey using the Sequenom OncoCarta Panel v1.0. Genes found to be mutated in any of the breast AdCCs and genes related to the same canonical molecular pathways, as well as KIT, a proto-oncogene whose protein product is expressed in AdCCs, were sequenced in an additional 68 AdCCs from various anatomical sites by Sanger sequencing. Using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform and Sanger sequencing, mutations in BRAF and HRAS were identified in three and one cases, respectively (breast, and head and neck). KIT, which has previously been reported to be mutated in AdCCs, was also investigated, but no mutations were identified. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that mutations in genes pertaining to the canonical RAS pathway are found in a minority of AdCCs, and that activating KIT mutations are either absent or remarkably rare in these cancers, and unlikely to constitute a driver and therapeutic target for patients with AdCC. PMID:23398044

  9. Dynamics and Fate of Beneficial Mutations Under Lineage Contamination by Linked Deleterious Mutations.

    PubMed

    Pénisson, Sophie; Singh, Tanya; Sniegowski, Paul; Gerrish, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Beneficial mutations drive adaptive evolution, yet their selective advantage does not ensure their fixation. Haldane's application of single-type branching process theory showed that genetic drift alone could cause the extinction of newly arising beneficial mutations with high probability. With linkage, deleterious mutations will affect the dynamics of beneficial mutations and might further increase their extinction probability. Here, we model the lineage dynamics of a newly arising beneficial mutation as a multitype branching process. Our approach accounts for the combined effects of drift and the stochastic accumulation of linked deleterious mutations, which we call lineage contamination We first study the lineage-contamination phenomenon in isolation, deriving dynamics and survival probabilities (the complement of extinction probabilities) of beneficial lineages. We find that survival probability is zero when [Formula: see text] where U is deleterious mutation rate and [Formula: see text] is the selective advantage of the beneficial mutation in question, and is otherwise depressed below classical predictions by a factor bounded from below by [Formula: see text] We then put the lineage contamination phenomenon into the context of an evolving population by incorporating the effects of background selection. We find that, under the combined effects of lineage contamination and background selection, ensemble survival probability is never zero but is depressed below classical predictions by a factor bounded from below by [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is mean selective advantage of beneficial mutations, and [Formula: see text] This factor, and other bounds derived from it, are independent of the fitness effects of deleterious mutations. At high enough mutation rates, lineage contamination can depress fixation probabilities to values that approach zero. This fact suggests that high mutation rates can, perhaps paradoxically, (1) alleviate competition

  10. Prevalence of MYH germline mutations in Swiss APC mutation-negative polyposis patients.

    PubMed

    Russell, Anna M; Zhang, Jian; Luz, Judith; Hutter, Pierre; Chappuis, Pierre O; Berthod, Claudine Rey; Maillet, Philippe; Mueller, Hansjakob; Heinimann, Karl

    2006-04-15

    In 10-30% of patients with classical familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and up to 90% of those with attenuated (<100 colorectal adenomas; AFAP) polyposis, no pathogenic germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene can be identified (APC mutation-negative). Recently, biallelic mutations in the base excision repair gene MYH have been shown to predispose to a multiple adenoma and carcinoma phenotype. This study aimed to (i) assess the MYH mutation carrier frequency among Swiss APC mutation-negative patients and (ii) identify phenotypic differences between MYH mutation carriers and APC/MYH mutation-negative polyposis patients. Seventy-nine unrelated APC mutation-negative Swiss patients with either classical (n=18) or attenuated (n=61) polyposis were screened for germline mutations in MYH by dHPLC and direct genomic DNA sequencing. Overall, 7 (8.9%) biallelic and 9 (11.4%) monoallelic MYH germline mutation carriers were identified. Among patients with a family history compatible with autosomal recessive inheritance (n=45), 1 (10.0%) out of 10 classical polyposis and 6 (17.1%) out of 35 attenuated polyposis patients carried biallelic MYH alterations, 2 of which represent novel gene variants (p.R171Q and p.R231H). Colorectal cancer was significantly (p<0.007) more frequent in biallelic mutation carriers (71.4%) compared with that of monoallelic and MYH mutation-negative polyposis patients (0 and 13.8%, respectively). On the basis of our findings and earlier reports, MYH mutation screening should be considered if all of the following criteria are fulfilled: (i) presence of classical or attenuated polyposis coli, (ii) absence of a pathogenic APC mutation, and (iii) a family history compatible with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Seventeen novel mutations that cause profound biotinidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B; Jensen, K; Hüner, G; Demirkol, M; Baykal, T; Divry, P; Rolland, M-O; Perez-Cerdá, C; Ugarte, M; Straussberg, R; Basel-Vanagaite, L; Baumgartner, E R; Suormala, T; Scholl, S; Das, A M; Schweitzer, S; Pronicka, E; Sykut-Cegielska, J

    2002-01-01

    We report 17 novel mutations that cause profound biotinidase deficiency. Six of the mutations are due to deletions, whereas the remaining 11 mutations are missense mutations located throughout the gene and encode amino acids that are conserved in mammals. Our results increase the total number of different mutations that cause biotinidase deficiency to 79. These additional mutations will undoubtedly be helpful in identifying structure/function relationships once the three-dimensional structure of biotinidase is determined.

  12. Significance of duon mutations in cancer genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Smith, Kyle S.; Flinders, Colin; Mumenthaler, Shannon M.; de, Subhajyoti

    2016-06-01

    Functional mutations in coding regions not only affect the structure and function of the protein products, but may also modulate their expression in some cases. This class of mutations, recently dubbed “duon mutations” due to their dual roles, can potentially have major impacts on downstream pathways. However their significance in diseases such as cancer remain unclear. In a survey covering 4606 samples from 19 cancer types, and integrating allelic expression, overall mRNA expression, regulatory motif perturbation, and chromatin signatures in one composite index called REDACT score, we identified potential duon mutations. Several such mutations are detected in known cancer genes in multiple cancer types. For instance a potential duon mutation in TP53 is associated with increased expression of the mutant allelic gene copy, thereby possibly amplifying the functional effects on the downstream pathways. Another potential duon mutation in SF3B1 is associated with abnormal splicing and changes in angiogenesis and matrix degradation related pathways. Our findings emphasize the need to interrogate the mutations in coding regions beyond their obvious effects on protein structures.

  13. New mutations in CMT 1 and HNPP

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberghe, A.; Boucherat, M.; Bonnebouche, C.

    1994-09-01

    The majority of mutations in CMT 1 (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1) are due to a duplication of a 1.5 Mb fragment from chromosome 17 containing the PMP22 myelin gene. In addition, micromutations are found in the genes for PMP22 and myelin Po. We collected data from over one hundred families with a duplication in 17p11.2. In about 10% of these families, a de novo mutation was observed. All parents were clinically examined as normal and correct paternity was confirmed. Some families were informative for polymorphic probes located in the duplicated region, and we could deduce a majority of new mutations to be from paternal origin. HNPP (hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies) is believed to be the reciprocal product of an unequal crossing over underlying the CMT 1 mutation and is due to a deletion of the 1.5 Mb fragment. One new HNPP mutation was found among 7 deleted HNPP families. This mutation is of paternal origin. Clinically assigned CMT 1 patients without a duplication are screened for micromutations applying the SSCP technique. In one family, a de novo mutation was found in the gene for Po.

  14. Genes and mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Daiger, SP; Sullivan, LS; Bowne, SJ

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous set of inherited retinopathies with many disease-causing genes, many known mutations, and highly varied clinical consequences. Progress in finding treatments is dependent on determining the genes and mutations causing these diseases, which includes both gene discovery and mutation screening in affected individuals and families. Despite the complexity, substantial progress has been made in finding RP genes and mutations. Depending on the type of RP, and the technology used, it is possible to detect mutations in 30–80% of cases. One of the most powerful approaches to genetic testing is high-throughput ‘deep sequencing’, that is, next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS has identified several novel RP genes but a substantial fraction of previously unsolved cases have mutations in genes that are known causes of retinal disease but not necessarily RP. Apparent discrepancy between the molecular defect and clinical findings may warrant reevaluation of patients and families. In this review, we summarize the current approaches to gene discovery and mutation detection for RP, and indicate pitfalls and unsolved problems. Similar considerations apply to other forms of inherited retinal disease. PMID:23701314

  15. Periodontal disease and FAM20A mutations.

    PubMed

    Kantaputra, Piranit Nik; Bongkochwilawan, Chotika; Lubinsky, Mark; Pata, Supansa; Kaewgahya, Massupa; Tong, Huei Jinn; Ketudat Cairns, James R; Guven, Yeliz; Chaisrisookumporn, Nipon

    2017-03-16

    Enamel-renal-gingival syndrome (ERGS; OMIM #204690), a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in FAM20A, is characterized by nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, amelogenesis imperfecta, hypoplastic type, gingival fibromatosis and other dental abnormalities, including hypodontia and unerupted teeth with large dental follicles. We report three patients and their families with findings suggestive of ERGS. Mutation analysis of FAM20A was performed in all patients and their family members. Patients with homozygous frameshift and compound heterozygous mutations in FAM20A had typical clinical findings along with periodontitis. The other had a novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 10, mild gingival fibromatosis and renal calcifications. The periodontitis in our patients may be a syndrome component, and similar findings in previous reports suggest more than coincidence. Fam20a is an allosteric activator that increases Fam20c kinase activity. It is hypothesized that lack of FAM20A activation of FAM20C in our patients with FAM20A mutations might have caused amelogenesis imperfecta, abnormal bone remodeling and periodontitis. Nephrocalcinosis appears not to be a consistent finding of the syndrome and the missense mutation may correlate with mild gingival fibromatosis. Here we report three patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in FAM20A and findings that extend the phenotypic spectrum of this disorder, showing that protein truncation is associated with greater clinical severity.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 16 March 2017; doi:10.1038/jhg.2017.26.

  16. RET mutations in MEN 2 associated diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstra, R.M.W.; Stelwagen, T.; Stulp, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) comprises three clinically distinct dominantly inherited cancer syndromes namely MEN 2A, MEN 2B and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Germline (point) mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have been reported to occur in all these syndromes. In MEN 2A and FMTC patients the mutations occurred within codons specifying cysteine residues in the transition of the RET extracellular and transmembrane domains, while in MEN 2B patients we could detect a single RET mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain in all patients. Also in patients suffering from Hirschsprung`s disease (HSCR), mutations in the RET gene have been found. These mutations are spread all over the gene. Several families have been described in which MEN 2 and HSCR are associated. MEN 2A is also found associated with cutaneous lichen amyloidosis (CLA). It might be that specific RET mutations correlate with these disease associations. We therefore scanned DNA from patients from a family with MEN 2A and HSCR, MEN 2A and CLA and CLA only for RET mutations. Results obtained thus far do not support the existence of specific correlations.

  17. Predicting Resistance Mutations Using Protein Design Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, K.; Georgiev, I; Donald, B; Anderson, A

    2010-01-01

    Drug resistance resulting from mutations to the target is an unfortunate common phenomenon that limits the lifetime of many of the most successful drugs. In contrast to the investigation of mutations after clinical exposure, it would be powerful to be able to incorporate strategies early in the development process to predict and overcome the effects of possible resistance mutations. Here we present a unique prospective application of an ensemble-based protein design algorithm, K*, to predict potential resistance mutations in dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus using positive design to maintain catalytic function and negative design to interfere with binding of a lead inhibitor. Enzyme inhibition assays show that three of the four highly-ranked predicted mutants are active yet display lower affinity (18-, 9-, and 13-fold) for the inhibitor. A crystal structure of the top-ranked mutant enzyme validates the predicted conformations of the mutated residues and the structural basis of the loss of potency. The use of protein design algorithms to predict resistance mutations could be incorporated in a lead design strategy against any target that is susceptible to mutational resistance.

  18. Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

  19. Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining.

    PubMed

    Klein, Artjom; Riazanov, Alexandre; Hindle, Matthew M; Baker, Christopher Jo

    2014-02-25

    Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption.

  20. Fitness effects of mutations in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gordo, Isabel; Perfeito, Lilia; Sousa, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Mutation is the primary source of variation in any organism. Without it, natural selection cannot operate and organisms cannot adapt to novel environments. Mutation is also generally a source of defect: many mutations are not neutral but cause fitness decreases in the organisms where they arise. In bacteria, another important source of variation is horizontal gene transfer. This source of variation can also cause beneficial or deleterious effects. Determining the distribution of fitness effects of mutations in different environments and genetic backgrounds is an active research field. In bacteria, knowledge of these distributions is key for understanding important traits. For example, for determining the dynamics of microorganisms with a high genomic mutation rate (mutators), and for understanding the evolution of antibiotic resistance, and the emergence of pathogenic traits. All of these characteristics are extremely relevant for human health both at the individual and population levels. Experimental evolution has been a valuable tool to address these questions. Here, we review some of the important findings of mutation effects in bacteria revealed through laboratory experiments.

  1. BRCC3 mutations in myeloid neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dayong; Nagata, Yasunobu; Grossmann, Vera; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Okuno, Yusuke; Nagae, Genta; Hosono, Naoko; Schnittger, Susanne; Sanada, Masashi; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Kon, Ayana; Polprasert, Chantana; Shen, Wenyi; Clemente, Michael J.; Phillips, James G.; Alpermann, Tamara; Yoshida, Kenichi; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Oakley, Kevin; Nguyen, Nhu; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Koeffler, H. Phillip; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Dugas, Martin; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Satoru; Haferlach, Claudia; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Du, Yang; Ogawa, Seishi; Makishima, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the molecular heterogeneity of various myeloid neoplasms, revealing previously unknown somatic genetic events. In our cohort of 1444 cases analyzed by next generation sequencing, somatic mutations in the gene BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex 3 (BRCC3) were identified in 28 cases (1.9%). BRCC3 is a member of the JAMM/MPN+ family of zinc metalloproteases capable of cleaving Lys-63 linked polyubiquitin chains, and is implicated in DNA repair. The mutations were located throughout its coding region. The average variant allelic frequency of BRCC3 mutations was 30.1%, and by a serial sample analysis at two different time points a BRCC3 mutation was already identified in the initial stage of a myelodysplastic syndrome. BRCC3 mutations commonly occurred in nonsense (n=12), frameshift (n=4), and splice site (n=5) configurations. Due to the marginal male dominance (odds ratio; 2.00, 0.84–4.73) of BRCC3 mutations, the majority of mutations (n=23; 82%) were hemizygous. Phenotypically, BRCC3 mutations were frequently observed in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms and associated with -Y abnormality (odds ratio; 3.70, 1.25–11.0). Clinically, BRCC3 mutations were also related to higher age (P=0.01), although prognosis was not affected. Knockdown of Brcc3 gene expression in murine bone marrow lineage negative, Sca1 positive, c-kit positive cells resulted in 2-fold more colony formation and modest differentiation defect. Thus, BRCC3 likely plays a role as tumor-associated gene in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:26001790

  2. Reverse mutations in fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.T.; Nolin, S.; Houck, G.E.

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. Yet new mutations have not been described and no affected child has been born to a carrier mother having less than 60 FMR-1 CGG triplet repeats. Reverse mutations also appear to be very rare. We have previously identified the daughter of a premutation mother (95 CGGs) who inherited a normal repeat size of 35 as a reverse mutation. In the process of carrier testing by PCR, we have now identified two additional females with reverse mutations. All three of these reverse mutation women were previously tested by linkage as part of known fragile X families (subsequently confirmed by direct analysis), and assigned a > 99% risk as a carrier. In the second family, the mother carries a premutation allele of 95 repeats and the daughter inherited a 43 repeat allele. Prior to direct DNA testing, she had a positive prenatal diagnosis by linkage (> 99% risk) and cytogenetics with 3/450 cells apparently positive. Subsequent retesting of the products of conception by PCR now reveals a 43 repeat allele from her carrier mother with an 82 repeat allele. Testing with close CA markers (FRAXAC1 and DXS548) confirmed that these women inherited the same chromosome and their full mutation brothers. Further analysis is pending. These examples of reverse mutations are the only ones we have identified in our study of offspring of more than 200 carriers (400+ meioses) examined to date. Therefore, we conclude the frequency of fragile X back mutations is likely to be less than 1%. Retesting of linkage positive carriers is recommended to detect reverse mutations and assure accurate genetic counseling.

  3. TERT promoter mutations in melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Nagore, Eduardo; Heidenreich, Barbara; Rachakonda, Sívaramakrishna; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Requena, Celia; Soriano, Virtudes; Frank, Christoph; Traves, Victor; Quecedo, Esther; Sanjuan-Gimenez, Josefa; Hemminki, Kari; Landi, Maria Teresa; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    Despite advances in targeted therapies, the treatment of advanced melanoma remains an exercise in disease management, hence a need for biomarkers for identification of at-risk primary melanoma patients. In this study, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of TERT promoter mutations in primary melanomas. Tumors from 300 patients with stage I/II melanoma were sequenced for TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations. Cumulative curves were drawn for patients with and without mutations with progression-free and melanoma-specific survival as outcomes. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the effect of the mutations on survivals. Individually, presence of TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations associated with poor disease-free and melanoma-specific survival with modification of the effect by the rs2853669 polymorphism within the TERT promoter. Hazard ratio (HR) for simultaneous occurrence of TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations for disease-free survival was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.4) and for melanoma-specific survival 5.8 (95% CI 1.9-18.3). The effect of the mutations on melanoma-specific survival in noncarriers of variant allele of the polymorphism was significant (HR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4-15.2) but could not be calculated for the carriers due to low number of events. The variant allele per se showed association with increased survival (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9). The data in this study provide preliminary evidence that TERT promoter mutations in combination with BRAF/NRAS mutations can be used to identify patients at risk of aggressive disease and the possibility of refinement of the classification with inclusion of the rs2853669 polymorphism within TERT promoter. © 2016 UICC.

  4. TERT Promoter Mutations in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinomas.

    PubMed

    de Biase, Dario; Gandolfi, Greta; Ragazzi, Moira; Eszlinger, Markus; Sancisi, Valentina; Gugnoni, Mila; Visani, Michela; Pession, Annalisa; Casadei, Gianpaolo; Durante, Cosimo; Costante, Giuseppe; Bruno, Rocco; Torlontano, Massimo; Paschke, Ralf; Filetti, Sebastiano; Piana, Simonetta; Frasoldati, Andrea; Tallini, Giovanni; Ciarrocchi, Alessia

    2015-09-01

    Small papillary thyroid carcinomas have contributed to the worldwide increased incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer observed over the past decades. However, the mortality rate has not changed over the same period of time, raising questions about the possibility that thyroid cancer patients, especially those with small tumors, are overdiagnosed and overtreated. Molecular prognostic marker able to discriminate aggressive thyroid cancers from those with an indolent course would be of great relevance to tailor the therapeutic approach and reduce overtreatment. Mutations in the TERT promoter were recently reported to correlate strongly with aggressiveness in advanced forms of thyroid cancer, holding promise for a possible clinical application. The occurrence and potential clinical relevance of TERT mutations in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (mPTCs) is currently unknown. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of two TERT promoter mutations (-124C>T and -146C>T) and their potential association with unfavorable clinical features in a large cohort of mPTCs. A total of 431 mPTCs cases were collected from six Italian institutions, and TERT promoter mutational status was assessed by a next-generation sequencing approach. TERT promoter mutations were found in 4.7% of the analyzed mPTCs, showing that even microcarcinomas carry mutations in this gene. Correlation analysis showed that TERT promoter mutations are not associated with aggressive features or clinical outcome in the cohort analyzed. TERT mutations are present but uncommon in mPTCs. Apparently, in mPTCs, the occurrence of TERT mutations is not correlated with unfavorable clinical features.

  5. Multicentric origin of hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Rochette, J; Pointon, J J; Fisher, C A; Perera, G; Arambepola, M; Arichchi, D S; De Silva, S; Vandwalle, J L; Monti, J P; Old, J M; Merryweather-Clarke, A T; Weatherall, D J; Robson, K J

    1999-01-01

    Genetic hemochromatosis (GH) is believed to be a disease restricted to those of European ancestry. In northwestern Europe, >80% of GH patients are homozygous for one mutation, the substitution of tyrosine for cysteine at position 282 (C282Y) in the unprocessed protein. In a proportion of GH patients, two mutations are present, C282Y and H63D. The clinical significance of this second mutation is such that it appears to predispose 1%-2% of compound heterozygotes to expression of the disease. The distribution of the two mutations differ, C282Y being limited to those of northwestern European ancestry and H63D being found at allele frequencies>5%, in Europe, in countries bordering the Mediterranean, in the Middle East, and in the Indian subcontinent. The C282Y mutation occurs on a haplotype that extends mutation has arisen during the past 2,000 years. The H63D mutation is older and does not occur on such a large extended haplotype, the haplotype in this case extending mutations on new haplotypes. In Sri Lanka we have found H63D on three new haplotypes and have found C282Y on one new haplotype, demonstrating that these mutations have arisen independently on this island. These results suggest that the HFE gene has been the subject of selection pressure. These selection pressures could be due to infectious diseases, environmental conditions, or other genetic disorders such as anemia. PMID:10090890

  6. Suppressors of Yeast Actin Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Novick, P.; Osmond, B. C.; Botstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    Suppressors of a temperature-sensitive mutation (act1-1) in the single actin gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected that had simultaneously acquired a cold-sensitive growth phenotype. Five genes, called SAC (suppressor of actin) were defined by complementation tests; both suppression and cold-sensitive phenotypes were recessive. Three of the genes (SAC1, SAC2 and SAC3) were subjected to extensive genetic and phenotypic analysis, including molecular cloning. Suppression was found to be allele-specific with respect to actin alleles. The sac mutants, even in ACT1(+) genetic backgrounds, displayed phenotypes similar to those of actin mutants, notably aberrant organization of intracellular actin and deposition of chitin at the cell surface. These results are interpreted as being consistent with the idea that the SAC genes encode proteins that interact with actin, presumably as components or controllers of the assembly or stability of the yeast actin cytoskeleton. Two unexpected properties of the SAC1 gene were noted. Disruptions of the gene indicated that its function is essential only at temperatures below about 17° and all sac1 alleles are inviable when combined with act1-2. These properties are interpreted in the context of the evolution of the actin cytoskeleton of yeast. PMID:2656401

  7. Studies of human mutation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.

    1991-07-15

    The three objectives of the program are: To isolate by the technique of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), proteins of special interest because of the relative mutability of the corresponding gene, establish the identity of the protein, and, for selected proteins, move to a characterization of the corresponding gene; To develop a more efficient approach, based on 2-D PAGE, for the detection of variants in DNA, with special reference to the identification of a variant in a child not present in either parent of the child (i.e., a mutation); and, To continue an effective interface with the genetic studies on the children of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, with reference to both the planning and implementation of new studies at the molecular level. For administrative purposes, the program is subdivided into four sections, each under the direction of one of the four co-PIs; the progress during the past year will be summarized in accordance with this sectional structure. 1 tab.

  8. Energy parasites trigger oncogene mutation.

    PubMed

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Jandová, Anna; Kobilková, Jitka; Vrba, Jan; Vrba, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Cancer initialization can be explained as a result of parasitic virus energy consumption leading to randomized genome chemical bonding. Analysis of experimental data on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) containing about 12,000 cases of healthy humans, cancer patients and patients with precancerous cervical lesions disclosed that the specific cancer and the non-specific lactate dehydrogenase-elevating (LDH) virus antigen elicit similar responses. The specific antigen is effective only in cancer type of its origin but the non-specific antigen in all examined cancers. CMI results of CIN patients display both healthy and cancer state. The ribonucleic acid (RNA) of the LDH virus parasitizing on energy reduces the ratio of coherent/random oscillations. Decreased effect of coherent cellular electromagnetic field on bonding electrons in biological macromolecules leads to elevating probability of random genome reactions. Overlapping of wave functions in biological macromolecules depends on energy of the cellular electromagnetic field which supplies energy to bonding electrons for selective chemical bonds. CMI responses of cancer and LDH virus antigens in all examined healthy, precancerous and cancer cases point to energy mechanism in cancer initiation. Dependence of the rate of biochemical reactions on biological electromagnetic field explains yet unknown mechanism of genome mutation.

  9. Melanoma: from mutations to medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Hensin; Chin, Lynda; Garraway, Levi A.; Fisher, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma is often considered one of the most aggressive and treatment-resistant human cancers. It is a disease that, due to the presence of melanin pigment, was accurately diagnosed earlier than most other malignancies and that has been subjected to countless therapeutic strategies. Aside from early surgical resection, no therapeutic modality has been found to afford a high likelihood of curative outcome. However, discoveries reported in recent years have revealed a near avalanche of breakthroughs in the melanoma field—breakthroughs that span fundamental understanding of the molecular basis of the disease all the way to new therapeutic strategies that produce unquestionable clinical benefit. These discoveries have been born from the successful fruits of numerous researchers working in many—sometimes-related, although also distinct—biomedical disciplines. Discoveries of frequent mutations involving BRAF(V600E), developmental and oncogenic roles for the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) pathway, clinical efficacy of BRAF-targeted small molecules, and emerging mechanisms underlying resistance to targeted therapeutics represent just a sample of the findings that have created a striking inflection in the quest for clinically meaningful progress in the melanoma field. PMID:22661227

  10. Mutational screening of the RB1 gene in Italian patients with retinoblastoma reveals 11 novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Katia; Hadjistilianou, Theodora; Mari, Francesca; Speciale, Caterina; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Cetta, Francesco; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Giachino, Daniela; Pasini, Barbara; Acquaviva, Antonio; Caporossi, Aldo; Frezzotti, Renato; Renieri, Alessandra; Bruttini, Mirella

    2006-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB, OMIM#180200) is the most common intraocular tumour in infancy and early childhood. Constituent mutations in the RB1 gene predispose individuals to RB development. We performed a mutational screening of the RB1 gene in Italian patients affected by RB referred to the Medical Genetics of the University of Siena. In 35 unrelated patients, we identified germline RB1 mutations in 6 out of 9 familial cases (66%) and in 7 out of 26 with no family history of RB (27%). Using the single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique, 11 novel mutations were detected, including 3 nonsense, 5 frameshift and 4 splice-site mutations. Only two of these mutations (1 splice site and 1 missense) were previously reported. The mutation spectrum reflects the published literature, encompassing predominately nonsense or frameshift and splicing mutations. RB1 germline mutation was detected in 37% of our cases. Gross rearrangements outside the investigated region, altered DNA methylation, or mutations in non-coding regions, may be the cause of disease in the remainder of the patients. Some cases, e.g. a case of incomplete penetrance, or variable expressivity ranging from retinoma to multiple tumours, are discussed in detail. In addition, a case of pre-conception genetic counselling resolved by rescue of banked cordonal blood of the affected deceased child is described.

  11. MutationAligner: a resource of recurrent mutation hotspots in protein domains in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Nicholas Paul; Reznik, Ed; Gao, Jianjiong; Sumer, Selcuk Onur; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sander, Chris; Miller, Martin L

    2016-01-04

    The MutationAligner web resource, available at http://www.mutationaligner.org, enables discovery and exploration of somatic mutation hotspots identified in protein domains in currently (mid-2015) more than 5000 cancer patient samples across 22 different tumor types. Using multiple sequence alignments of protein domains in the human genome, we extend the principle of recurrence analysis by aggregating mutations in homologous positions across sets of paralogous genes. Protein domain analysis enhances the statistical power to detect cancer-relevant mutations and links mutations to the specific biological functions encoded in domains. We illustrate how the MutationAligner database and interactive web tool can be used to explore, visualize and analyze mutation hotspots in protein domains across genes and tumor types. We believe that MutationAligner will be an important resource for the cancer research community by providing detailed clues for the functional importance of particular mutations, as well as for the design of functional genomics experiments and for decision support in precision medicine. MutationAligner is slated to be periodically updated to incorporate additional analyses and new data from cancer genomics projects. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Cancer-specific high-throughput annotation of somatic mutations: computational prediction of driver missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Carter, Hannah; Chen, Sining; Isik, Leyla; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Velculescu, Victor E; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Karchin, Rachel

    2009-08-15

    Large-scale sequencing of cancer genomes has uncovered thousands of DNA alterations, but the functional relevance of the majority of these mutations to tumorigenesis is unknown. We have developed a computational method, called Cancer-specific High-throughput Annotation of Somatic Mutations (CHASM), to identify and prioritize those missense mutations most likely to generate functional changes that enhance tumor cell proliferation. The method has high sensitivity and specificity when discriminating between known driver missense mutations and randomly generated missense mutations (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, >0.91; area under Precision-Recall curve, >0.79). CHASM substantially outperformed previously described missense mutation function prediction methods at discriminating known oncogenic mutations in P53 and the tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor. We applied the method to 607 missense mutations found in a recent glioblastoma multiforme sequencing study. Based on a model that assumed the glioblastoma multiforme mutations are a mixture of drivers and passengers, we estimate that 8% of these mutations are drivers, causally contributing to tumorigenesis.

  13. Mutation tendency of mutator Plasmodium berghei with proofreading-deficient DNA polymerase δ

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Hajime; Niikura, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Fumie; Horii, Toshihiro; Mita, Toshihiro; Endo, Hiroyoshi; Hirai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mutation tendency of a mutator rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, with proofreading-deficient DNA polymerase δ. Wild-type and mutator parasites were maintained in mice for over 24 weeks, and the genome-wide accumulated mutations were determined by high-throughput sequencing. The mutator P. berghei had a significant preference for C/G to A/T substitutions; thus, its genome had a trend towards a higher AT content. The mutation rate was influenced by the sequence context, and mutations were markedly elevated at TCT. Some genes mutated repeatedly in replicate passage lines. In particular, knockout mutations of the AP2-G gene were frequent, which conferred strong growth advantages on parasites during the blood stage but at the cost of losing the ability to form gametocytes. This is the first report to demonstrate a biased mutation tendency in malaria parasites, and its results help to promote our basic understanding of Plasmodium genetics. PMID:27845384

  14. Role of ADAMTSL4 mutations in FBN1 mutation-negative ectopia lentis patients.

    PubMed

    Aragon-Martin, Jose Antonio; Ahnood, Dana; Charteris, David G; Saggar, Anand; Nischal, Ken K; Comeglio, Paolo; Chandra, Aman; Child, Anne H; Arno, Gavin

    2010-08-01

    Ectopia lentis (EL) is genetically heterogeneous with both autosomal-dominant and -recessive forms. The dominant disorder can be caused by mutations in FBN1, at the milder end of the type-1 fibrillinopathies spectrum. Recently in a consanguineous Jordanian family, recessive EL was mapped to locus 1q21 containing the ADAMTSL4 gene and a nonsense mutation was found in exon 11 (c.1785T>G, p.Y595X). In this study, 36 consecutive probands with EL who did not fulfill the Ghent criteria for MFS were screened for mutations in FBN1 and ADAMTSL4. Causative FBN1 mutations were identified in 23/36 (64%) of probands while homozygous or compound heterozygous ADAMTSL4 mutations were identified in 6/12 (50%) of the remaining probands. Where available, familial screening of these families confirmed the mutation co-segregated with the EL phenotype. This study confirms that homozygous mutations in ADAMTSL4 are associated with autosomal-recessive EL in British families. Furthermore; the first compound heterozygous mutation is described resulting in a PTC and a missense mutation in the PLAC (protease and lacunin) domain. The identification of a causative mutation in ADAMTSL4 may allow the exclusion of Marfan syndrome in these families and guide the clinical management, of particular relevance in young children affected by EL.

  15. MutationAligner: a resource of recurrent mutation hotspots in protein domains in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Nicholas Paul; Reznik, Ed; Gao, Jianjiong; Sumer, Selcuk Onur; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sander, Chris; Miller, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    The MutationAligner web resource, available at http://www.mutationaligner.org, enables discovery and exploration of somatic mutation hotspots identified in protein domains in currently (mid-2015) more than 5000 cancer patient samples across 22 different tumor types. Using multiple sequence alignments of protein domains in the human genome, we extend the principle of recurrence analysis by aggregating mutations in homologous positions across sets of paralogous genes. Protein domain analysis enhances the statistical power to detect cancer-relevant mutations and links mutations to the specific biological functions encoded in domains. We illustrate how the MutationAligner database and interactive web tool can be used to explore, visualize and analyze mutation hotspots in protein domains across genes and tumor types. We believe that MutationAligner will be an important resource for the cancer research community by providing detailed clues for the functional importance of particular mutations, as well as for the design of functional genomics experiments and for decision support in precision medicine. MutationAligner is slated to be periodically updated to incorporate additional analyses and new data from cancer genomics projects. PMID:26590264

  16. De novo mutational profile in RB1 clarified using a mutation rate modeling algorithm.

    PubMed

    Aggarwala, Varun; Ganguly, Arupa; Voight, Benjamin F

    2017-02-14

    Studies of de novo mutations offer great promise to improve our understanding of human disease. After a causal gene has been identified, it is natural to hypothesize that disease relevant mutations accumulate within a sub-sequence of the gene - for example, an exon, a protein domain, or at CpG sites. These assessments are typically qualitative, because we lack methodology to assess the statistical significance of sub-gene mutational burden ultimately to infer disease-relevant biology. To address this issue, we present a generalized algorithm to grade the significance of de novo mutational burden within a gene ascertained from affected probands, based on our model for mutation rate informed by local sequence context. We applied our approach to 268 newly identified de novo germline mutations by re-sequencing the coding exons and flanking intronic regions of RB1 in 642 sporadic, bilateral probands affected with retinoblastoma (RB). We confirm enrichment of loss-of-function mutations, but demonstrate that previously noted 'hotspots' of nonsense mutations in RB1 are compatible with the elevated mutation rates expected at CpG sites, refuting a RB specific pathogenic mechanism. Our approach demonstrates an enrichment of splice-site donor mutations of exon 6 and 12 but depletion at exon 5, indicative of previously unappreciated heterogeneity in penetrance within this class of substitution. We demonstrate the enrichment of missense mutations to the pocket domain of RB1, which contains the known Arg661Trp low-penetrance mutation. Our approach is generalizable to any phenotype, and affirms the importance of statistical interpretation of de novo mutations found in human genomes.

  17. Repeat instability: mechanisms of dynamic mutations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Christopher E; Nichol Edamura, Kerrie; Cleary, John D

    2005-10-01

    Disease-causing repeat instability is an important and unique form of mutation that is linked to more than 40 neurological, neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders. DNA repeat expansion mutations are dynamic and ongoing within tissues and across generations. The patterns of inherited and tissue-specific instability are determined by both gene-specific cis-elements and trans-acting DNA metabolic proteins. Repeat instability probably involves the formation of unusual DNA structures during DNA replication, repair and recombination. Experimental advances towards explaining the mechanisms of repeat instability have broadened our understanding of this mutational process. They have revealed surprising ways in which metabolic pathways can drive or protect from repeat instability.

  18. Metapopulation extinction caused by mutation accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Kevin; Lynch, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Theory suggests that the risk of extinction by mutation accumulation can be comparable to that by environmental stochasticity for an isolated population smaller than a few thousand individuals. Here we show that metapopulation structure, habitat loss or fragmentation, and environmental stochasticity can be expected to greatly accelerate the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations, lowering the genetic effective size to such a degree that even large metapopulations may be at risk of extinction. Because of mutation accumulation, viable metapopulations may need to be far larger and better connected than would be required under just stochastic demography. PMID:11226343

  19. The human FOXL2 mutation database.

    PubMed

    Beysen, Diane; Vandesompele, Jo; Messiaen, Ludwine; De Paepe, Anne; De Baere, Elfride

    2004-09-01

    Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES; MIM# 110100) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition in which an eyelid malformation is associated (type I) or not associated (type II) with premature ovarian failure (POF). In 2001, mutations in the FOXL2 gene, encoding a forkhead transcription factor, were shown to cause both BPES type I and II. Since then, a number of reports have appeared that describe intragenic FOXL2 mutations in BPES patients. In addition, a few FOXL2 variants have been reported in isolated POF patients and XX males. Previously, our group has described a large number of FOXL2 mutations, thereby demonstrating the existence of two mutational hotspots in FOXL2, intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability in BPES families, and genotype-phenotype correlations for a number of mutations in BPES patients. Here we describe a locus-specific Human FOXL2 Mutation Database (http://medgen.ugent.be/foxl2/), created using the MuStaR software. Our database contains general information about the FOXL2 gene, as well as details about 135 intragenic mutations and variants of FOXL2, obtained from published papers, abstracts of meetings, and from unpublished data produced by our group. Not included in the current version of the database are variants residing outside the coding region of FOXL2 and molecular cytogenetic rearrangements of the FOXL2 locus. The Human FOXL2 Mutation Database was created to provide a unique publicly available online resource of information about human FOXL2 mutations/variants associated with BPES and POF. It allows remote users to submit new mutations to the database and to query the database using a web form. It will facilitate evaluation of the pathogenicity of a particular mutation, as it contains data about disease-causing mutations and polymorphisms in BPES and isolated POF patients, and a link to the known FOXL2 orthologs. Moreover, it will allow us to establish more accurate genotype-phenotype correlations, since

  20. ShiftDetector: detection of shift mutations.

    PubMed

    Seroussi, Eyal; Ron, Micha; Kedra, Darek

    2002-08-01

    Sequencing of a bi-allelic PCR product, which contains an allele with a deletion/insertion mutation results in a superimposed tracefile following the site of this shift mutation. A trace file of this type hampers the use of current computer programs for base calling. ShiftDetector analyses a sequencing trace file in order to discover if it is a superimposed sequence of two molecules that differ in a shift mutation of 1 to 25 bases. The program calculates a probability score for the existence of such a shift and reconstructs the sequence of the original molecule. ShiftDetector is available from http://cowry.agri.huji.ac.il

  1. Inherited Mutations in Women with Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Norquist, Barbara M.; Harrell, Maria I.; Brady, Mark F.; Walsh, Tom; Lee, Ming K.; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Bernards, Sarah S.; Casadei, Silvia; Yi, Qian; Burger, Robert A.; Chan, John K.; Davidson, Susan A.; Mannel, Robert S.; DiSilvestro, Paul A.; Lankes, Heather A.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; King, Mary Claire; Swisher, Elizabeth M.; Birrer, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are relatively common in women with ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma (OC) causing a greatly increased lifetime risk of these cancers, but the frequency and relevance of inherited mutations in other genes is less well characterized. Objective To determine the frequency and importance of germline mutations in cancer-associated genes in OC. Design Subjects were ascertained from two phase III clinical trials in newly diagnosed advanced stage OC (GOG 218 and GOG 262), and a university-based gynecologic oncology tissue bank. Germline DNA was sequenced from women with OC using the targeted capture and multiplex sequencing assay BROCA. Setting Referral centers participating in NRG Oncology studies, and a University-based gynecologic oncology practice (UW). Participants The study population was 1915 women with OC with available germline DNA, unselected for age or family history, enrolled at the time of OC diagnosis (GOG 218, N=788; GOG 262, N=557; UW, N=570). Main Outcomes and Measures Mutation frequencies in OC were compared to the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). Clinical characteristics and survival were assessed by mutation status. Results Of 1915 subjects, 280 (15%) had mutations in BRCA1 (182), or BRCA2 (98) and 8 (0.4%) had mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Mutations in BRIP1 (26), RAD51C (11), RAD51D (11), PALB2 (12) and BARD1 (4), were significantly more common in OC patients than in the ESP or ExAC, and in total were present in 3.3% of patients. Race, histologic subtype, and disease site were not predictive of mutation frequency. Mutation status affected survival, in particular for BRCA2 mutation carriers with HR 0.60 (95% CI 0.45 – 0.79, p<0.001) for progression-free survival, and HR 0.39 (95% CI 0.25 – 0.60, p<0.001) for overall survival in the GOG patients. Conclusions and Relevance In total, 347/1915 (18%) OC patients carried

  2. Mutational specificity analysis: assay for mutations in the yeast SUP4-o gene.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Bernard A

    2014-01-01

    Mutational specificity analysis can yield valuable insights into processes that generate genetic change or maintain genetic stability. Powerful diagnostic tools for such analysis have been created by combining genetic assays for mutation with DNA sequencing. Here, steps for isolating spontaneous mutations in the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suppressor tRNA gene SUP4-o as a prelude to sequence characterization are described (modifications of this protocol can be used to study induction of mutations by various physical or chemical agents). Mutations in SUP4-o are selected on drug-containing medium by virtue of their inactivation of suppressor activity. The small size, detailed knowledge of detectably mutable sites, and other features of the target gene facilitate subsequent analysis of these mutations.

  3. Multiple mutations and mutation combinations in the sodium channel of permethrin resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Lee; Reid, William R.; Xu, Qiang; Dong, Ke; Liu, Nannan

    2012-10-01

    A previous study identified 3 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous mutations in the entire mosquito sodium channel of Culex quinquefasciatus, the prevalence of which were strongly correlated with levels of resistance and increased dramatically following insecticide selection. However, it is unclear whether this is unique to this specific resistant population or is a common mechanism in field mosquito populations in response to insecticide pressure. The current study therefore further characterized these mutations and their combinations in other field and permethrin selected Culex mosquitoes, finding that the co-existence of all 9 mutations was indeed correlated with the high levels of permethrin resistance in mosquitoes. Comparison of mutation combinations revealed several common mutation combinations presented across different field and permethrin selected populations in response to high levels of insecticide resistance, demonstrating that the co-existence of multiple mutations is a common event in response to insecticide resistance across different Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito populations.

  4. Mutation loads in different tissues from six pathogenic mtDNA point mutations.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, María M; Emperador, Sonia; Pineda, Mercè; López-Gallardo, Ester; Montero, Raquel; Yubero, Delia; Jou, Cristina; Jimenez-Mallebrera, Cecilia; Nascimento, Andrés; Ferrer, Isidre; García-Cazorla, Angels; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Montoya, Julio; Artuch, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we studied the mtDNA mutations m.3243A>G, m.3252A>G, m.15923A>G, m.13513G>A, m.8993T>G and m.9176T>C in the blood, urine and buccal mucosa of a cohort of 27 subjects. Urine cells had the highest mutation load for all of the mtDNA mutations studied. The mutation loads in the blood, urine and the buccal mucosa were significantly higher in the mitochondrial disorder group that manifested clinical signs than in the asymptomatic subjects. In conclusion, urine is a suitable biological sample for molecular diagnosis of mtDNA mutations and for the study of the attendant risk of recurrence in the offspring of asymptomatic mothers identified as non-carriers after mutation analysis in blood. Copyright © 2015 © Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous mutation parameters for Arabidopsis thaliana measured in the wild.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Matthew T; Shaw, Frank H; Fenster, Charles B

    2010-06-01

    Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic diversity and their contributions to evolutionary process depend critically on their rate and their effects on traits, notably fitness. Mutation rate and mutation effect can be measured simultaneously through the use of mutation accumulation lines, and previous mutation accumulation studies measuring these parameters have been performed in laboratory conditions. However, estimation of mutation parameters for fitness in wild populations requires assays in environments where mutations are exposed to natural selection and natural environmental variation. Here we quantify mutation parameters in both the wild and greenhouse environments using 100 25th generation Arabidopsis thaliana mutation accumulation lines. We found significantly greater mutational variance and a higher mutation rate for fitness under field conditions relative to greenhouse conditions. However, our field estimates were low when scaled to natural environmental variation. Many of the mutation accumulation lines have increased fitness, counter to the expectation that nearly all mutations decrease fitness. A high mutation rate and a low mutational contribution to phenotypic variation may explain observed levels of natural genetic variation. Our findings indicate that mutation parameters are not fixed, but are variables whose values may reflect the specific environment in which mutations are tested.

  6. Management of the asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier

    PubMed Central

    Teller, Paige; Kramer, Rita K

    2010-01-01

    Current management of an asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier includes early initiation and intensive cancer screening in combination with risk reduction strategies. The primary objectives of these interventions are earlier detection and cancer prevention to increase quality of life and prolonged survival. Existing recommendations are often based on the consensus of experts as there are few, supportive, randomized control trials. Management strategies for unaffected patients with BRCA mutations are continually redefined and customized as more evidence-based knowledge is acquired with regard to current intervention efficacy, mutation-related histology, and new treatment modalities. This review provides an outline of current, supported management principles, and interventions in the care of the asymptomatic BRCA mutation carrier. Topics covered include surveillance modalities and risk reduction achieved through behavioral modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. PMID:23776357

  7. Early mutation bursts in colorectal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Matthew P.; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina; Siegmund, Kimberly; Marjoram, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Tumor growth is an evolutionary process involving accumulation of mutations, copy number alterations, and cancer stem cell (CSC) division and differentiation. As direct observation of this process is impossible, inference regarding when mutations occur and how stem cells divide is difficult. However, this ancestral information is encoded within the tumor itself, in the form of intratumoral heterogeneity of the tumor cell genomes. Here we present a framework that allows simulation of these processes and estimation of mutation rates at the various stages of tumor development and CSC division patterns for single-gland sequencing data from colorectal tumors. We parameterize the mutation rate and the CSC division pattern, and successfully retrieve their posterior distributions based on DNA sequence level data. Our approach exploits Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), a method that is becoming widely-used for problems of ancestral inference. PMID:28257429

  8. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 212 to 272. We have expanded the database: (i) by adding a large amount of new data on somatic mutations in prostatic cancer tissue; (ii) by defining a new constitutional phenotype, mild androgen insensitivity (MAI); (iii) by placing additional relevant information on an internet site (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/ ). The database has allowed us to examine the contribution of CpG sites to the multiplicity of reports of the same mutation in different families. The database is also available from EMBL (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker Pro or Word file (MC33@musica,mcgill.ca)

  9. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 212 to 272. We have expanded the database: (i) by adding a large amount of new data on somatic mutations in prostatic cancer tissue; (ii) by defining a new constitutional phenotype, mild androgen insensitivity (MAI); (iii) by placing additional relevant information on an internet site (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/ ). The database has allowed us to examine the contribution of CpG sites to the multiplicity of reports of the same mutation in different families. The database is also available from EMBL (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker Pro or Word file (MC33@musica,mcgill.ca) PMID:9016528

  10. Mutations responsible for 3-phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Collet, Jean-François; Prieur, Benoît; Jaeken, Jaak; Peeraer, Yves; Rabbijns, Anja; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2004-02-01

    We report the identification of the mutations in the only known case of L-3-phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency, a recessively inherited condition. The two mutations correspond to the replacement of the semiconserved Asp32 residue by an asparagine and of the extremely conserved Met52 by a threonine. The effects of both mutations were studied on the human recombinant enzyme, expressed in Escherichia coli. Met52Thr almost abolished the enzymatic activity, whereas the Asp32Asn mutation caused a 50% decrease in Vmax. In addition, L-serine, which inhibits the conversion of [(14)C] phosphoserine to serine when catalysed by the wild-type enzyme, had a lesser inhibitory effect on the Asp32Asn mutant, indicating a reduction in the rate of phosphoenzyme hydrolysis. These modifications in the properties of the enzyme are consistent with the modification in the kinetic properties observed in fibroblasts from the patient.

  11. Sex biases in the mutation rate.

    PubMed

    Hurst, L D; Ellegren, H

    1998-11-01

    Men have more germ-line cell divisions than women. Does this lead to a higher mutation rate in males? Most estimates of the proportion of mutations originating in men come either from direct observation of disease-inducing mutations or from analysis of the relative rate of evolution of sex-linked and autosomal genes in primates. The latter mode of analysis has also been applied to other mammals, birds and files. For unknown reasons, this method produces contradictory results. A majority of estimates using the best direct methods in humans indicate a male bias for point mutations, but the variance in estimates is high. It is unclear how the evolutionary and direct data correspond and a consensus as to the extent of any male bias is not presently possible. While the number of germ-line cell divisions might contribute to differences, this by no means accounts for all of the data.

  12. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing may be offered. Genetic testing requires a DNA sample from blood or saliva. There are several ... specific BRCA mutation is present. This is called DNA sequencing. Your DNA then can be tested to ...

  13. Mutational Meltdown in Large Sexual Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, A. T.

    1995-11-01

    When a new individual is formed (independently of the reproduction process) it inherits harmful mutations. Moreover, new mutations are acquired even in the genetic code formation, most of them deleterious ones. This might lead to a time decay in the mean fitness of the whole population that, for long enough time, would produce the extinction of the species. This process is called Mutational Meltdown and such question used to be considered in the biological literature as a problem that only occurs in small populations. In contrast with earlier biological assumptions, here we present results obtained in different models showing that the mutational meltdown can occur in large populations, even in sexual reproductive ones. We used a bit-string model introduced to study the time evolution of age-structured populations and a genetically inspired model that allows to observe the time evolution of the population mean fitness.

  14. Ivacaftor: A Novel Mutation Modulating Drug

    PubMed Central

    Koolwal, Astha; Singh, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is multisystemic disorder presenting in newborn period to adulthood, predominantly affecting respiratory system. It is caused by mutation in CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene. ΔF508 is the most common mutation seen worldwide. Supportive management with bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory, mucolytics, antibiotics are the corner stone of therapy. Mutation specific drug, Ivacaftor, was recently approved USFDA in January 2012 for patients carrying G551D mutation. It is approved in patients who are six years and older in 150 mg twice daily dosing schedule with fat containing meals. It improves the lung function and other aspects of disease including weight gain. The side effects like upper respiratory infection, headache, rash, diarrhoea, stomach ache and dizziness are mild and self-limiting. This is excellent example of promise of personalised medicine – targeted drug that treat patients with specific genetic makeup. PMID:25584290

  15. Emerging patterns of somatic mutations in cancer.

    PubMed

    Watson, Ian R; Takahashi, Koichi; Futreal, P Andrew; Chin, Lynda

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in technological tools for massively parallel, high-throughput sequencing of DNA have enabled the comprehensive characterization of somatic mutations in a large number of tumour samples. In this Review, we describe recent cancer genomic studies that have assembled emerging views of the landscapes of somatic mutations through deep-sequencing analyses of the coding exomes and whole genomes in various cancer types. We discuss the comparative genomics of different cancers, including mutation rates and spectra, as well as the roles of environmental insults that influence these processes. We highlight the developing statistical approaches that are used to identify significantly mutated genes, and discuss the emerging biological and clinical insights from such analyses, as well as the future challenges of translating these genomic data into clinical impacts.

  16. IFITM5 mutations and osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2016-03-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5 (IFITM5) is an osteoblast-specific membrane protein that has been shown to be a positive regulatory factor for mineralization in vitro. However, Ifitm5 knockout mice do not exhibit serious bone abnormalities, and thus the function of IFITM5 in vivo remains unclear. Recently, a single point mutation (c.-14C>T) in the 5' untranslated region of IFITM5 was identified in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type V (OI-V). Furthermore, a single point mutation (c.119C>T) in the coding region of IFITM5 was identified in OI patients with more severe symptoms than patients with OI-V. Although IFITM5 is not directly involved in the formation of bone in vivo, the reason why IFITM5 mutations cause OI remains a major mystery. In this review, the current state of knowledge of OI pathological mechanisms due to IFITM5 mutations will be reviewed.

  17. Mutational analysis of yeast profilin.

    PubMed

    Haarer, B K; Petzold, A S; Brown, S S

    1993-12-01

    We have mutated two regions within the yeast profilin gene in an effort to functionally dissect the roles of actin and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding in profilin function. A series of truncations was carried out at the C terminus of profilin, a region that has been implicated in actin binding. Removal of the last three amino acids nearly eliminated the ability of profilin to bind polyproline in vitro but had no dramatic in vivo effects. Thus, the extreme C terminus is implicated in polyproline binding, but the physiological relevance of this interaction is called into question. More extensive truncation, of up to eight amino acids, had in vivo effects of increasing severity and resulted in changes in conformation and expression level of the mutant profilins. However, the ability of these mutants to bind actin in vitro was not eliminated, suggesting that this region cannot be solely responsible for actin binding. We also mutagenized a region of profilin that we hypothesized might be involved in PIP2 binding. Alteration of basic amino acids in this region produced mutant profilins that functioned well in vivo. Many of these mutants, however, were unable to suppress the loss of adenylate cyclase-associated protein (Cap/Srv2p [A. Vojtek, B. Haarer, J. Field, J. Gerst, T. D. Pollard, S. S. Brown, and M. Wigler, Cell 66:497-505, 1991]), indicating that a defect could be demonstrated in vivo. In vitro assays demonstrated that the inability to suppress loss of Cap/Srv2p correlated with a defect in the interaction with actin, independently of whether PIP2 binding was reduced. Since our earlier studies of Acanthamoeba profilins suggested the importance of PIP2 binding for suppression, we conclude that both activities are implicated and that an interplay between PIP2 binding and actin binding may be important for profilin function.

  18. Effect of Mutation Order on Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Nangalia, Jyoti; Silber, Yvonne; Wedge, David C.; Grinfeld, Jacob; Baxter, E. Joanna; Massie, Charles E.; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Menon, Suraj; Godfrey, Anna L.; Dimitropoulou, Danai; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles; Döhner, Konstanze; Harrison, Claire N.; Vassiliou, George S.; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Campbell, Peter J.; Green, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancers result from the accumulation of somatic mutations, and their properties are thought to reflect the sum of these mutations. However, little is known about the effect of the order in which mutations are acquired. METHODS We determined mutation order in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms by genotyping hematopoietic colonies or by means of next-generation sequencing. Stem cells and progenitor cells were isolated to study the effect of mutation order on mature and immature hematopoietic cells. RESULTS The age at which a patient presented with a myeloproliferative neoplasm, acquisition of JAK2 V617F homozygosity, and the balance of immature progenitors were all influenced by mutation order. As compared with patients in whom the TET2 mutation was acquired first (hereafter referred to as “TET2-first patients”), patients in whom the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation was acquired first (“JAK2-first patients”) had a greater likelihood of presenting with polycythemia vera than with essential thrombocythemia, an increased risk of thrombosis, and an increased sensitivity of JAK2-mutant progenitors to ruxolitinib in vitro. Mutation order influenced the proliferative response to JAK2 V617F and the capacity of double-mutant hematopoietic cells and progenitor cells to generate colony-forming cells. Moreover, the hematopoietic stem-and-progenitor-cell compartment was dominated by TET2 single-mutant cells in TET2-first patients but by JAK2–TET2 double-mutant cells in JAK2-first patients. Prior mutation of TET2 altered the transcriptional consequences of JAK2 V617F in a cell-intrinsic manner and prevented JAK2 V617F from up-regulating genes associated with proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The order in which JAK2 and TET2 mutations were acquired influenced clinical features, the response to targeted therapy, the biology of stem and progenitor cells, and clonal evolution in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. (Funded by Leukemia and Lymphoma Research

  19. Germline Mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Korean Ovarian Cancer Patients: Finding Founder Mutations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Chul; Heo, Jin-Hyung; Jang, Ja-Hyun; Jung, Sang Geun; Park, Hyun; Joo, Won Duk; Lee, Chan; Lee, Je Ho; Lee, Jun Mo; Hwang, Yoon Young; Kim, Seung Jo

    2015-10-01

    To investigate and analyze the BRCA mutations in Korean ovarian cancer patients with or without family history and to find founder mutations in this group. One hundred two patients who underwent a staging operation for pathologically proven epithelial cancer between January 2013 and December 2014 were enrolled. Thirty-two patients declined to analyze BRCA1/2 gene alterations after genetic counseling and pedigree analysis. Lymphocyte specimens from peripheral blood were assessed for BRCA1/2 by direct sequencing. BRCA genetic test results of 70 patients were available. Eighteen BRCA1/2 mutations and 17 unclassified variations (UVs) were found. Five of the BRCA1/2 mutations and 4 of the UVs were not reported in the Breast Cancer Information Core database. One BRCA2 UV (8665_8667delGGA) was strongly suspicious to be a deleterious mutation. BRCA1/2 mutations were identified in 11 (61.1%) of 18 patients with a family history and in 7 (13.5%) of 52 patients without a family history.Candidates for founder mutations in Korean ovarian cancer patients were assessed among 39 BRCA1/2 mutations from the present study and from literature reviews. The analysis showed that 1041_1043delAGCinsT (n = 4; 10.2%) and 3746insA (n = 4; 10.2%) were possible BRCA1 founder mutations. Only one of the BRCA2 mutations (5804_5807delTTAA) was repeated twice (n = 2; 5.1%). The prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean ovarian cancer patients irrespective of the family history was significantly higher than previously reported. Possible founder mutations in Korean ovarian cancer patients were identified.

  20. Transglutaminase 1 mutations in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis: private and recurrent mutations in an isolated population.

    PubMed Central

    Laiho, E; Ignatius, J; Mikkola, H; Yee, V C; Teller, D C; Niemi, K M; Saarialho-Kere, U; Kere, J; Palotie, A

    1997-01-01

    Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a rare, heterogenous keratinization disorder of the skin, classically divided into two clinical subtypes, lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiformis erythroderma (CIE). Recently, strong evidence for the involvement of the transglutaminase 1 gene (TGM1) in LI has evolved. We have studied ARCI in the isolated Finnish population, in which recessive disorders are often caused by single mutations enriched by a founder effect. Surprisingly, five different mutations of TGM1 (Arg141His, Arg142Cys, Gly217Ser, Val378Leu, and Arg395Leu) were found in Finnish ARCI patients. In addition to affected LI patients, we also identified TGM1 mutations in CIE patients. Moreover, haplotype analysis of the chromosomes carrying the most common mutation, a C-->T transition changing Arg142 to Cys, revealed that the same mutation has been introduced twice in the Finnish population. In addition to this Arg142Cys mutation, three other mutations, in Arg141 and Arg142, have been described elsewhere, in other populations. These findings suggest that this region of TGM1 is more susceptible to mutation. The corresponding amino acid sequence is conserved in other transglutaminases, but, for example, coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) mutations do not cluster in this region. Protein modeling of the Arg142Cys mutation suggested disruption or destabilization of the protein. In transfection studies, the closely related transglutaminase FXIII protein with the corresponding mutation was shown to be susceptible to degradation in COS cells, further supporting evidence of the destabilizing effect of the Arg142Cys mutation in TGM1. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9326318

  1. [Afatinib as first-line therapy in mutation-positive EGFR. Results by type of mutation].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Óscar Juan

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has laid the foundations for personalized medicine in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In phase III trials, the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib and erlotinib, demonstrated greater efficacy compared with chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutations, achieving progression-free survival of 8-13.5 months. Afatinib, a second-generation irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, is the first TKI that has shown a benefit in overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC when used as first-line treatment. Exon 19 deletion (Del19) and the single-point substitution mutation (L858R) in exon 21, called activating mutations due to their ability to confer sensitivity to TKI, represent approximately 90% of the EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Distinct sensitivity to TKI has been observed depending on the type of mutation, with greater progression-free survival in patients with the Del19 mutation. The analysis of OS in the LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6 trials showed a statistically significant increase in survival in afatinib-treated patients with the Del 19 mutation, but no significant increase in that of patients with the L858R mutation. Direct comparison of afatinib and gefitinib as first-line therapy (LUX-Lung 7 trial) showed a statistically-significant increase in progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.95; p=0.0165) with afatinib. In the analysis by type of mutation, this benefit was observed for both the Del19 and the L858R mutations.

  2. Mutations in GNA11 in Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Van Raamsdonk, Catherine D.; Griewank, Klaus G.; Crosby, Michelle B.; Garrido, Maria C.; Vemula, Swapna; Wiesner, Thomas; Obenauf, Anna C.; Wackernagel, Werner; Green, Gary; Bouvier, Nancy; Sozen, M. Mert; Baimukanova, Gail; Roy, Ritu; Heguy, Adriana; Dolgalev, Igor; Khanin, Raya; Busam, Klaus; Speicher, Michael R.; O’Brien, Joan; Bastian, Boris C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular cancer. There are no effective therapies for metastatic disease. Mutations in GNAQ, the gene encoding an alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, are found in 40% of uveal melanomas. METHODS We sequenced exon 5 of GNAQ and GNA11, a paralogue of GNAQ, in 713 melanocytic neoplasms of different types (186 uveal melanomas, 139 blue nevi, 106 other nevi, and 282 other melanomas). We sequenced exon 4 of GNAQ and GNA11 in 453 of these samples and in all coding exons of GNAQ and GNA11 in 97 uveal melanomas and 45 blue nevi. RESULTS We found somatic mutations in exon 5 (affecting Q209) and in exon 4 (affecting R183) in both GNA11 and GNAQ, in a mutually exclusive pattern. Mutations affecting Q209 in GNA11 were present in 7% of blue nevi, 32% of primary uveal melanomas, and 57% of uveal melanoma metastases. In contrast, we observed Q209 mutations in GNAQ in 55% of blue nevi, 45% of uveal melanomas, and 22% of uveal melanoma metastases. Mutations affecting R183 in either GNAQ or GNA11 were less prevalent (2% of blue nevi and 6% of uveal melanomas) than the Q209 mutations. Mutations in GNA11 induced spontaneously metastasizing tumors in a mouse model and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. CONCLUSIONS Of the uveal melanomas we analyzed, 83% had somatic mutations in GNAQ or GNA11. Constitutive activation of the pathway involving these two genes appears to be a major contributor to the development of uveal melanoma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:21083380

  3. Mutations in GNA11 in uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Van Raamsdonk, Catherine D; Griewank, Klaus G; Crosby, Michelle B; Garrido, Maria C; Vemula, Swapna; Wiesner, Thomas; Obenauf, Anna C; Wackernagel, Werner; Green, Gary; Bouvier, Nancy; Sozen, M Mert; Baimukanova, Gail; Roy, Ritu; Heguy, Adriana; Dolgalev, Igor; Khanin, Raya; Busam, Klaus; Speicher, Michael R; O'Brien, Joan; Bastian, Boris C

    2010-12-02

    Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular cancer. There are no effective therapies for metastatic disease. Mutations in GNAQ, the gene encoding an alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, are found in 40% of uveal melanomas. We sequenced exon 5 of GNAQ and GNA11, a paralogue of GNAQ, in 713 melanocytic neoplasms of different types (186 uveal melanomas, 139 blue nevi, 106 other nevi, and 282 other melanomas). We sequenced exon 4 of GNAQ and GNA11 in 453 of these samples and in all coding exons of GNAQ and GNA11 in 97 uveal melanomas and 45 blue nevi. We found somatic mutations in exon 5 (affecting Q209) and in exon 4 (affecting R183) in both GNA11 and GNAQ, in a mutually exclusive pattern. Mutations affecting Q209 in GNA11 were present in 7% of blue nevi, 32% of primary uveal melanomas, and 57% of uveal melanoma metastases. In contrast, we observed Q209 mutations in GNAQ in 55% of blue nevi, 45% of uveal melanomas, and 22% of uveal melanoma metastases. Mutations affecting R183 in either GNAQ or GNA11 were less prevalent (2% of blue nevi and 6% of uveal melanomas) than the Q209 mutations. Mutations in GNA11 induced spontaneously metastasizing tumors in a mouse model and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Of the uveal melanomas we analyzed, 83% had somatic mutations in GNAQ or GNA11. Constitutive activation of the pathway involving these two genes appears to be a major contributor to the development of uveal melanoma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

  4. Simulated coevolution in a mutating ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá Martins, J. S.

    2000-03-01

    The bit-string Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and a sexual population sharing the same environment. A newborn of either population can mutate and become a part of the other with some probability. In a stable environment the sexual population soon dies out. When an infestation by rapidly mutating genetically coupled parasites is introduced, however, sexual reproduction prevails, as predicted by the so-called Red Queen hypothesis for the evolution of sex.

  5. K-ras oncogene mutation in pterygium.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, B T; Yıldırım, M S; Zamani, A; Bozkurt, B

    2017-03-01

    PurposePterygium is claimed to be a benign proliferation triggered by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The frequency of K-ras oncogene mutation, which is among the initial mutations in tumorigenesis, is evaluated in this study.Patients and methodsIn this prospective randomized clinical, trial pterygium tissues and normal conjunctiva tissue specimens are obtained from the superotemporal quadrant of patients who underwent primary pterygium excision with autograft transplantation. DNA extraction from tissues was performed using the QIAamp DNA FFPE tissue kit. A PCR reaction was performed to amplify sequences containing codons 12, 13, and 61 of the K-ras gene in DNA. These PCR products then underwent the 'pyrosequencing' procedure for mutations at these codons.ResultsPterygium and normal conjunctival tissue samples of 25 patients (10 females, 15 males) were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.54±13.13 years. Genetic analysis revealed no K-ras mutations in normal conjunctival tissues, whereas pterygium tissues of the same cases demonstrated mutation at codon 12 in one case and mutations at codon 61 in seven cases, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). The point missense mutations at codon 61 were glutamine to arginine (Glu61Arg CAA>CGA) in four cases and glutamine to leucine (Glu61Leu CAA>CTA) in three cases.ConclusionThe significantly higher frequency of codon 61 mutation of the ras oncogene in primary and bilateral pterygium specimens compared with normal conjunctiva supports the tumoral origin of pterygium, and thus set the stage for research into a targeted therapy for pterygium with better outcomes than surgical excision.

  6. Mutational Analysis of Cell Types in TSC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal disorder resulting from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that is associated with epilepsy, cognitive ...that is associated with epilepsy, cognitive disability, and autism. TSC1/TSC2 gene mutations lead to developmental alterations in brain structure...and obsessive-compulsive disorder ( OCD ) are common in TSC patients (Prather and de Vries, 2004). Thus, TSC is a common cause of significant and

  7. Calreticulin (CALR) mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    As a heterogeneous group of disease, myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have confused hematologists and hematopathologists with their protean clinical presentations and myriads of morphologies. A thought of classifying MPNs based on molecular alterations has gained popularity because there is increasing evidence that molecular or chromosomal alterations have a better correlation with clinical presentation, response to therapies, and prognosis than conventional morphological classification. This type of efforts has been facilitated by the advancement of molecular technologies. A significant number of gene mutations have been identified in MPNs with JAK2 and MPL being the major ones. However, a significant gap is present in that many cases of MPNs do not harbor any of these mutations. This gap is recently filled by the discovery of Calreticulin (CALR) mutation in MPNs without JAK2 or MPL mutation and since then, the clinical and molecular correlation in MPNs has become a hot research topic. There seems to be a fairly consistent correlation between CALR mutation and certain hematological parameters such as a high platelet count and a better prognosis in MPNs with CALR mutation. However, controversies are present regarding the risks of thrombosis, interactions of CALR with other gene mutation, the role of CALR in the pathogenesis, and the optimal treatment strategies. In addition, there are many questions remain to be answered, which all boiled down to the molecular mechanisms by which CALR causes or contributes to MPNs. Here, we summarized current published literatures on CALR mutations in MPNs with an emphasis on the clinical-molecular correlation. We also discussed the controversies and questions remain to be answered. PMID:27358884

  8. Comparative mutational analyses of influenza A viruses

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Peter Pak-Hang; Rogozin, Igor B.; Choy, Ka-Tim; Ng, Hoi Yee

    2015-01-01

    The error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and external selective pressures are the driving forces for RNA viral diversity. When confounded by selective pressures, it is difficult to assess if influenza A viruses (IAV) that have a wide host range possess comparable or distinct spontaneous mutational frequency in their RdRPs. We used in-depth bioinformatics analyses to assess the spontaneous mutational frequencies of two RdRPs derived from human seasonal (A/Wuhan/359/95; Wuhan) and H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04; VN1203) viruses using the mini-genome system with a common firefly luciferase reporter serving as the template. High-fidelity reverse transcriptase was applied to generate high-quality mutational spectra which allowed us to assess and compare the mutational frequencies and mutable motifs along a target sequence of the two RdRPs of two different subtypes. We observed correlated mutational spectra (τ correlation P < 0.0001), comparable mutational frequencies (H3N2:5.8 ± 0.9; H5N1:6.0 ± 0.5), and discovered a highly mutable motif “(A)AAG” for both Wuhan and VN1203 RdRPs. Results were then confirmed with two recombinant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) viruses that possess RdRP derived from Wuhan or VN1203 (RG-PR8×WuhanPB2, PB1, PA, NP and RG-PR8×VN1203PB2, PB1, PA, NP). Applying novel bioinformatics analysis on influenza mutational spectra, we provide a platform for a comprehensive analysis of the spontaneous mutation spectra for an RNA virus. PMID:25404565

  9. BRAF MUTATIONS IN HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Tiacci, Enrico; Trifonov, Vladimir; Schiavoni, Gianluca; Holmes, Antony; Kern, Wolfgang; Martelli, Maria Paola; Pucciarini, Alessandra; Bigerna, Barbara; Pacini, Roberta; Wells, Victoria; Sportoletti, Paolo; Pettirossi, Valentina; Mannucci, Roberta; Elliott, Oliver; Liso, Arcangelo; Ambrosetti, Achille; Pulsoni, Alessandro; Forconi, Francesco; Trentin, Livio; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Inghirami, Giorgio; Capponi, Monia; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Patti, Caterina; Arcaini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Pileri, Stefano; Haferlach, Claudia; Schnittger, Susanne; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Foà, Robin; Farinelli, Laurent; Haferlach, Torsten; Pasqualucci, Laura; Rabadan, Raul; Falini, Brunangelo

    2013-01-01

    Background Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a well defined clinico-pathological entity whose underlying genetic lesion is still obscure. Methods We searched for HCL-associated mutations by massively parallel sequencing of the whole exome of leukemic and matched normal mononuclear cells purified from the peripheral blood of one patient with HCL. Results Whole exome sequencing identified 5 missense somatic clonal mutations that were confirmed at Sanger sequencing, including a heterozygous V600E mutation involving the BRAF gene. Since the BRAF V600E mutation is oncogenic in other tumors, further analyses were focused on this genetic lesion. Sanger sequencing detected mutated BRAF in 46/46 additional HCL patients (47/47 including the index case; 100%). None of the 193 peripheral B-cell lymphomas/leukemias other than HCL that were investigated carried the BRAF V600E mutation, including 36 cases of splenic marginal zone lymphomas and unclassifiable splenic lymphomas/leukemias. Immunohistological and Western blot studies showed that HCL cells express phospho-MEK and phospho-ERK (the downstream targets of the BRAF kinase), indicating a constitutive activation of the RAF-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in HCL. In vitro incubation of BRAF-mutated primary leukemic cells from 5 HCL patients with PLX-4720, a specific inhibitor of active BRAF, led to marked decrease of phosphorylated ERK and MEK. Conclusions The BRAF V600E mutation was present in all HCL patients investigated. This finding may have relevant implications for the pathogenesis, diagnosis and targeted therapy of HCL (Funded by the Associazione Italiana Ricerca Cancro and others). PMID:21663470

  10. Mutation spectra of complex environmental mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.

    1997-10-01

    Bioassay-directed chemical analysis of complex environmental mixtures has indicated that much of the genotoxic activity of mixtures is due to the presence of one or a few classes or chemicals within the mixture. We have extended this observation to the molecular level by using colony probe hybridization and PCR/DNA sequence analysis to determine the mutation spectra of {approximately}8,000 revertants induced by a variety of complex mixtures and their chemical fractions in TA100 and TA98 of Salmonella. For urban air, >80% of mutagenic activity was due to a base/neutral fraction that contained primarily PAHs. The mutation spectrum induced by unfractionated urban air was not significantly different from that produced by a model PAH, B(a)P. The mutation spectrum induced by organic extracts of chlorinated drinking water were similar to those produced by the chlorinated furanone MX, which accounted for {approximately}20% of the mutagenic activity of the samples. The base/neutral fraction of municipal waste incinerator emissions accounted for the primary class of mutations induced by the emissions, and a polar neutral fraction accounted for the secondary class of mutations induced by the emissions. The primary class of mutations induced by cigarette smoke condensate in TA100 (GC {yields} TA) is also the primary class of mutations in the p53 gene of lung tumors of cigarette smokers. These results confirm at the molecular level that the mutations induced by a complex mixture reflect the dominance of one or a few classes of chemicals within the mixture.

  11. (Somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The study is concerned the design of new assays that may detect rare somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which may increase upon exposure to mutagens, and thus become a marker of human exposure to such mutagens. Two assays for somatic mutation were presented, one for mitochondrial DNA deletions which was developed by the author, and one for deletions of the ADA gene which resides in the nucleus.

  12. Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutation in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    parent, and yet the resulting genetic blueprint is different for everyone (except identical twins ). During development, copying and partitioning of DNA...mutations and epigenetic alterations, that ultimately endow tumor cells with selective growth advantages. Aim 1 tests the genetic hypothesis by depleting... genetic landscape of a breast cancer cell. This will be done by deep- sequencing to document the APOBEC3B-dependent contribution to the overall mutation

  13. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  14. RELN Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lammert, Dawn B; Howell, Brian W

    2016-01-01

    RELN encodes a large, secreted glycoprotein integral to proper neuronal positioning during development and regulation of synaptic function postnatally. Rare, homozygous, null mutations lead to lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia (LCH), accompanied by developmental delay and epilepsy. Until recently, little was known about the frequency or consequences of heterozygous mutations. Several lines of evidence from multiple studies now implicate heterozygous mutations in RELN in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). RELN maps to the AUTS1 locus on 7q22, and at this time over 40 distinct mutations have been identified that would alter the protein sequence, four of which are de novo. The RELN mutations that are most clearly consequential are those that are predicted to inactivate the signaling function of the encoded protein and those that fall in a highly conserved RXR motif found at the core of the 16 Reelin subrepeats. Despite the growing evidence of RELN dysfunction in ASD, it appears that these mutations in isolation are insufficient and that secondary genetic or environmental factors are likely required for a diagnosis.

  15. RELN Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Dawn B.; Howell, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    RELN encodes a large, secreted glycoprotein integral to proper neuronal positioning during development and regulation of synaptic function postnatally. Rare, homozygous, null mutations lead to lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia (LCH), accompanied by developmental delay and epilepsy. Until recently, little was known about the frequency or consequences of heterozygous mutations. Several lines of evidence from multiple studies now implicate heterozygous mutations in RELN in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). RELN maps to the AUTS1 locus on 7q22, and at this time over 40 distinct mutations have been identified that would alter the protein sequence, four of which are de novo. The RELN mutations that are most clearly consequential are those that are predicted to inactivate the signaling function of the encoded protein and those that fall in a highly conserved RXR motif found at the core of the 16 Reelin subrepeats. Despite the growing evidence of RELN dysfunction in ASD, it appears that these mutations in isolation are insufficient and that secondary genetic or environmental factors are likely required for a diagnosis. PMID:27064498

  16. RAD21 mutations cause a human cohesinopathy.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Matthew A; Wilde, Jonathan J; Albrecht, Melanie; Dickinson, Emma; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Braunholz, Diana; Mönnich, Maren; Yan, Yuqian; Xu, Weizhen; Gil-Rodríguez, María Concepcion; Clark, Dinah; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halbach, Sara; Michelis, Laura Daniela; Rampuria, Abhinav; Rossier, Eva; Spranger, Stephanie; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Lynch, Sally Ann; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Ramsay, Robert G; McKay, Michael J; Krantz, Ian D; Xu, Huiling; Horsfield, Julia A; Kaiser, Frank J

    2012-06-08

    The evolutionarily conserved cohesin complex was originally described for its role in regulating sister-chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis. Cohesin and its regulatory proteins have been implicated in several human developmental disorders, including Cornelia de Lange (CdLS) and Roberts syndromes. Here we show that human mutations in the integral cohesin structural protein RAD21 result in a congenital phenotype consistent with a "cohesinopathy." Children with RAD21 mutations display growth retardation, minor skeletal anomalies, and facial features that overlap findings in individuals with CdLS. Notably, unlike children with mutations in NIPBL, SMC1A, or SMC3, these individuals have much milder cognitive impairment than those with classical CdLS. Mechanistically, these mutations act at the RAD21 interface with the other cohesin proteins STAG2 and SMC1A, impair cellular DNA damage response, and disrupt transcription in a zebrafish model. Our data suggest that, compared to loss-of-function mutations, dominant missense mutations result in more severe functional defects and cause worse structural and cognitive clinical findings. These results underscore the essential role of RAD21 in eukaryotes and emphasize the need for further understanding of the role of cohesin in human development.

  17. RAD21 Mutations Cause a Human Cohesinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Matthew A.; Wilde, Jonathan J.; Albrecht, Melanie; Dickinson, Emma; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Braunholz, Diana; Mönnich, Maren; Yan, Yuqian; Xu, Weizhen; Gil-Rodríguez, María Concepcion; Clark, Dinah; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halbach, Sara; Michelis, Laura Daniela; Rampuria, Abhinav; Rossier, Eva; Spranger, Stephanie; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Lynch, Sally Ann; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Ramsay, Robert G.; McKay, Michael J.; Krantz, Ian D.; Xu, Huiling; Horsfield, Julia A.; Kaiser, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved cohesin complex was originally described for its role in regulating sister-chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis. Cohesin and its regulatory proteins have been implicated in several human developmental disorders, including Cornelia de Lange (CdLS) and Roberts syndromes. Here we show that human mutations in the integral cohesin structural protein RAD21 result in a congenital phenotype consistent with a “cohesinopathy.” Children with RAD21 mutations display growth retardation, minor skeletal anomalies, and facial features that overlap findings in individuals with CdLS. Notably, unlike children with mutations in NIPBL, SMC1A, or SMC3, these individuals have much milder cognitive impairment than those with classical CdLS. Mechanistically, these mutations act at the RAD21 interface with the other cohesin proteins STAG2 and SMC1A, impair cellular DNA damage response, and disrupt transcription in a zebrafish model. Our data suggest that, compared to loss-of-function mutations, dominant missense mutations result in more severe functional defects and cause worse structural and cognitive clinical findings. These results underscore the essential role of RAD21 in eukaryotes and emphasize the need for further understanding of the role of cohesin in human development. PMID:22633399

  18. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  19. NMNAT1 mutations cause Leber congenital amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Marni J; Zhang, Qi; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Kannabiran, Chitra; Fonseca-Kelly, Zoe; Chakarova, Christina; Audo, Isabelle; Mackay, Donna S; Zeitz, Christina; Borman, Arundhati Dev; Staniszewska, Magdalena; Shukla, Rachna; Palavalli, Lakshmi; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Waseem, Naushin H; Jalali, Subhadra; Perin, Juan C; Place, Emily; Ostrovsky, Julian; Xiao, Rui; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Consugar, Mark; Webster, Andrew R; Sahel, José-Alain; Moore, Anthony T; Berson, Eliot L; Liu, Qin; Gai, Xiaowu; Pierce, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an infantile-onset form of inherited retinal degeneration characterized by severe vision loss1, 2. Two-thirds of LCA cases are caused by mutations in 17 known disease genes3 (RetNet Retinal Information Network). Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.25G>A, p.Val9Met) in NMNAT1 as likely disease-causing in two siblings of a consanguineous Pakistani kindred affected by LCA. This mutation segregated with disease in their kindred, including in three other children with LCA. NMNAT1 resides in the previously identified LCA9 locus and encodes the nuclear isoform of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis4, 5. Functional studies showed the p.Val9Met mutation decreased NMNAT1 enzyme activity. Sequencing NMNAT1 in 284 unrelated LCA families identified 14 rare mutations in 13 additional affected individuals. These results are the first to link an NMNAT isoform to disease and indicate that NMNAT1 mutations cause LCA. PMID:22842227

  20. Molecular analysis of heritable mouse mutations.

    PubMed

    Rinchik, E M

    1987-10-01

    Germ-line mutations of the mouse have for years comprised one class of biological markers for mammalian reproductive and developmental toxicology. Understanding the molecular nature of mutations and the mechanisms by which mutations are translated into specific (and often complex) phenotypes, however, still looms as a major goal of mammalian biology. Molecular genetic analysis of heritable mouse mutations constitutes a significant, experimentally malleable strategy for relating genomic DNA structure to genic expression and function in mammals. The integrated use of recombinant DNA technology, which allows both the identification and analysis of expression of single genes, and classical genetic and cytogenetic analysis, which allow the important correlation between basic DNA defects and the organismic consequences of such defects, has been crucial to this strategy. Some of the approaches (e.g., specific-gene cloning, random-clone analysis of genomic regions, insertional mutagenesis) for studying the nature and effect of both mutations and their wild-type counterparts that have resulted from this integration of genetic analysis and molecular biology have been applied to many loci within the murine genome. Studies of the nature and effects of a complex set of radiation-induced mutations at the dilute-short ear (d-se) region of chromosome 9, a specific example of this type of integrated analysis, are discussed.

  1. Mutational status of nevus associated-melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Shitara, D.; Tell-Martí, G.; Badenas, C.; Enokihara, M.M.S.S.; Alós, L.; Larque, A.B.; Michalany, Nilceo; Puig-Butille, J.; Carrera, C.; Malvehy, J.; Puig, S.; Bagatin, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melanoma origin has always been a debated subject, as well as the role of adjacent melanocytic nevi. Epidemiological and histopathological studies point to melanomas arising either de novo or from a nevus. Methods Sixty-one melanomas found in association with a preexisting nevus were microdissected, after careful selection of cell subpopulations and submitted to Sanger sequencing of the BRAF, NRAS, C-KIT, PPP6C, STK19 and RAC1 genes. Each gene was evaluated twice in all samples by sequencing or by sequencing and another confirmation method, allele-specific fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary electrophoresis detection, or by SNaPshot Analysis. Only mutations confirmed via two different molecular methods or twice by sequencing were considered positive. Results The majority of cases presented concordance of mutational status between melanoma and the associated nevus for all 6 genes (40/60; 66.7%). Nine cases presented concomitant BRAF and NRAS mutations, including one case, in which both the melanoma and the adjacent nevus harbored V600E and Q61K double mutations. In two cases, both melanoma and associated nevus, located on acral sites were BRAF mutated, including an acral lentiginous melanoma. Conclusions This is the largest nevus-associated melanoma series molecularly evaluated to our knowledge. The majority of melanomas and adjacent nevi in our sample share the same mutational profile, corroborating the theory that the adjacent nevus and melanoma are clonally related and that melanoma originated within a nevus. PMID:25857817

  2. How small are small mutation rates?

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Gokhale, Chaitanya S; Wang, Long; Traulsen, Arne

    2012-04-01

    We consider evolutionary game dynamics in a finite population of size N. When mutations are rare, the population is monomorphic most of the time. Occasionally a mutation arises. It can either reach fixation or go extinct. The evolutionary dynamics of the process under small mutation rates can be approximated by an embedded Markov chain on the pure states. Here we analyze how small the mutation rate should be to make the embedded Markov chain a good approximation by calculating the difference between the real stationary distribution and the approximated one. While for a coexistence game, where the best reply to any strategy is the opposite strategy, it is necessary that the mutation rate μ is less than N (-1/2)exp[-N] to ensure that the approximation is good, for all other games, it is sufficient if the mutation rate is smaller than (N ln N)(-1). Our results also hold for a wide class of imitation processes under arbitrary selection intensity.

  3. Genetic mutations and mechanisms in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    McNally, Elizabeth M; Golbus, Jessica R; Puckelwartz, Megan J

    2013-01-01

    Genetic mutations account for a significant percentage of cardiomyopathies, which are a leading cause of congestive heart failure. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cardiac output is limited by the thickened myocardium through impaired filling and outflow. Mutations in the genes encoding the thick filament components myosin heavy chain and myosin binding protein C (MYH7 and MYBPC3) together explain 75% of inherited HCMs, leading to the observation that HCM is a disease of the sarcomere. Many mutations are "private" or rare variants, often unique to families. In contrast, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is far more genetically heterogeneous, with mutations in genes encoding cytoskeletal, nucleoskeletal, mitochondrial, and calcium-handling proteins. DCM is characterized by enlarged ventricular dimensions and impaired systolic and diastolic function. Private mutations account for most DCMs, with few hotspots or recurring mutations. More than 50 single genes are linked to inherited DCM, including many genes that also link to HCM. Relatively few clinical clues guide the diagnosis of inherited DCM, but emerging evidence supports the use of genetic testing to identify those patients at risk for faster disease progression, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia.

  4. Mutational spectrum of adult T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Martin; Vosberg, Sebastian; Schlee, Cornelia; Heesch, Sandra; Schwartz, Stefan; Gökbuget, Nicola; Hoelzer, Dieter; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Bartram, Isabelle; Blum, Helmut; Brüggemann, Monika; Hecht, Jochen; Bohlander, Stefan K.

    2015-01-01

    Novel target discovery is warranted to improve treatment in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. We provide a comprehensive study on mutations to enhance the understanding of therapeutic targets and studied 81 adult T-ALL patients. NOTCH1 exhibitedthe highest mutation rate (53%). Mutation frequencies of FBXW7 (10%), WT1 (10%), JAK3 (12%), PHF6 (11%), and BCL11B (10%) were in line with previous reports. We identified recurrent alterations in transcription factors DNM2, and RELN, the WNT pathway associated cadherin FAT1, and in epigenetic regulators (MLL2, EZH2). Interestingly, we discovered novel recurrent mutations in the DNA repair complex member HERC1, in NOTCH2, and in the splicing factor ZRSR2. A frequently affected pathway was the JAK/STAT pathway (18%) and a significant proportion of T-ALL patients harboured mutations in epigenetic regulators (33%), both predominantly found in the unfavourable subgroup of early T-ALL. Importantly, adult T-ALL patients not only showed a highly heterogeneous mutational spectrum, but also variable subclonal allele frequencies implicated in therapy resistance and evolution of relapse. In conclusion, we provide novel insights in genetic alterations of signalling pathways (e.g. druggable by γ-secretase inhibitors, JAK inhibitors or EZH2 inhibitors), present in over 80% of all adult T-ALL patients, that could guide novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25595890

  5. GJB2 gene mutations in childhood deafness.

    PubMed

    Angeli, S; Utrera, R; Dib, S; Chiossone, E; Naranjo, C; Henríquez, O; Porta, M

    2000-03-01

    The frequency of childhood deafness is estimated at 1:1,000 and at least half of these cases are genetic. Recently, mutations in the GJB2 gene have been found in a great number of familial and sporadic cases of congenital deafness in Caucasians. The most common mutation (70%) is the frameshift mutation of a single guanine in position 35 (35delG). More than 20 mutations in the GJB2 gene are associated with DFNB1, a prevalent type of autosomal recessive non-syndromic neurosensory deafness. Last year we initiated a systematic screening programme to evaluate the causes of deafness in the population of prelingually deaf children who are referred to our cochlear implant programme. All of the deaf children and their parents undergo a comprehensive medical review, directed to identify causes of acquired deafness and manifestations of syndromic hearing impairment. DNA is extracted from the blood of all of the children. The technique AS-PCR (allele-specific polymerase chain reaction) is used for the identification of the mutation 35delG. Screening for other GJB2 gene mutations is carried out by single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP). Our results on the identification of DFNB1 will be presented, as well as a discussion on the implications of an aetiological diagnosis in cochlear implantation.

  6. Exploring the common molecular basis for the universal DNA mutation bias: Revival of Loewdin mutation model

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Liang-Yu; Wang, Guang-Zhong; Ma, Bin-Guang; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} There exists a universal G:C {yields} A:T mutation bias in three domains of life. {yields} This universal mutation bias has not been sufficiently explained. {yields} A DNA mutation model proposed by Loewdin 40 years ago offers a common explanation. -- Abstract: Recently, numerous genome analyses revealed the existence of a universal G:C {yields} A:T mutation bias in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. To explore the molecular basis for this mutation bias, we examined the three well-known DNA mutation models, i.e., oxidative damage model, UV-radiation damage model and CpG hypermutation model. It was revealed that these models cannot provide a sufficient explanation to the universal mutation bias. Therefore, we resorted to a DNA mutation model proposed by Loewdin 40 years ago, which was based on inter-base double proton transfers (DPT). Since DPT is a fundamental and spontaneous chemical process and occurs much more frequently within GC pairs than AT pairs, Loewdin model offers a common explanation for the observed universal mutation bias and thus has broad biological implications.

  7. Enrichment of mutations in chromatin regulators in people with Rett Syndrome lacking mutations in MECP2

    PubMed Central

    Sajan, Samin A.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Skinner, Steven A.; Anese, Fran; Friez, Michael J.; Jane, Lane; Percy, Alan K.; Neul, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused primarily by de novo mutations (DNMs) in MECP2 and sometimes in CDKL5 and FOXG1. However, some RTT cases lack mutations in these genes. Methods Twenty-two RTT cases without apparent MECP2, CDKL5, and FOXG1 mutations were subjected to both whole exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism array-based copy number variant (CNV) analyses. Results Three cases had MECP2 mutations initially missed by clinical testing. Of the remaining 19 cases, 17 (89.5%) had 29 other likely pathogenic intragenic mutations and/or CNVs (10 cases had two or more). Interestingly, 13 cases had mutations in a gene/region previously reported in other NDDs, thereby providing a potential diagnostic yield of 68.4%. These mutations were significantly enriched in chromatin regulators (corrected p = 0.0068) and moderately in postsynaptic cell membrane molecules (corrected p = 0.076) implicating glutamate receptor signaling. Conclusion The genetic etiology of RTT without MECP2, CDKL5, and FOXG1 mutations is heterogeneous, overlaps with other NDDs, and complex due to high mutation burden. Dysregulation of chromatin structure and abnormal excitatory synaptic signaling may form two common pathological bases of RTT. PMID:27171548

  8. An Alpha Tubulin Mutation Suppresses Nuclear Migration Mutations in Aspergillus Nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Willins, D. A.; Xiang, X.; Morris, N. R.

    1995-01-01

    Microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein, a microtubule-dependent motor, are required for nuclei to move along the hyphae of filamentous fungi. Nuclear migration in Aspergillus nidulans is blocked by heat-sensitive (hs(-)) mutations in the nudA gene, which encodes dynein heavy chain, and the nudF gene, which encodes a G protein β-subunit-like protein. Hs(-) mutations in the nudC and nudG genes also prevent nuclear migration. We have isolated extragenic suppressor mutations that reverse the hs(-) phenotypes caused by these mutations. Here we show that one nudF suppressor also suppresses hs(-) mutations in nudA, nudC, and nudG and deletions in nudA and nudF. This suppressor mutation is in the tubA alpha tubulin gene, and its characteristics suggest that it destabilizes microtubules. The mutation alters microtubule staining and confers sensitivity to cold and benomyl, two treatments that destabilize microtubules. Treatment with low concentrations of benomyl also suppresses the hs(-) nudA, nudC, nudF, and nudG mutations and the nudA and nudF deletions. Suppression of the hs(-) nudA mutation and the nudA deletion is especially interesting because these strains lack active dynein heavy chain. Together, these results suggest that microtubule destabilization allows nuclei to migrate even in the absence of cytoplasmic dynein motor function. PMID:8601474

  9. Effects of population size and mutation rate on the evolution of mutational robustness.

    PubMed

    Elena, Santiago F; Wilke, Claus O; Ofria, Charles; Lenski, Richard E

    2007-03-01

    It is often assumed that the efficiency of selection for mutational robustness would be proportional to mutation rate and population size, thus being inefficient in small populations. However, Krakauer and Plotkin (2002) hypothesized that selection in small populations would favor robustness mechanisms, such as redundancy, that mask the effect of deleterious mutations. In large populations, by contrast, selection is more effective at removing deleterious mutants and fitness would be improved by eliminating mechanisms that mask the effect of deleterious mutations and thus impede their removal. Here, we test whether these predictions are supported in experiments with evolving populations of digital organisms. Digital organisms are self-replicating programs that inhabit a virtual world inside a computer. Like their organic counterparts, digital organisms mutate, compete, evolve, and adapt by natural selection to their environment. In this study, 160 populations evolved at different combinations of mutation rate and population size. After 10(4) generations, we measured the mutational robustness of the most abundant genotype in each population. Mutational robustness tended to increase with mutation rate and to decline with population size, although the dependence with population size was in part mediated by a negative relationship between fitness and robustness. These results are independent of whether genomes were constrained to their original length or allowed to change in size.

  10. GJB2 mutations in deaf population of Ilam (Western Iran): a different pattern of mutation distribution.

    PubMed

    Mahdieh, Nejat; Mahmoudi, Hamdollah; Ahmadzadeh, Soleiman; Bakhtiyari, Salar

    2016-05-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory defect caused by heterogeneous factors. Up to now, more than 60 mutations in genes have been documented for nonsyndromic hearing loss. Hence, finding the causal gene in affected families could be a laborious and time-consuming process. GJB2 mutations, here, were investigated among deaf subjects of Ilam for the first time. In this study, we studied 62 unrelated patients with non-syndromic autosomal recessive deafness from 62 families. The most common mutation of GJB2, 35delG was checked, followed by direct sequencing of the GJB2 gene for determination of other mutations. In silico analyses were also performed using available software. In nine families, mutations in the connexin 26 gene were observed. In the studied population, R32H was the most common mutation. 35delG, W24X, and R127H were other mutations found in this study. In silico analyses showed pathogenicity of 35delG, R32H, and W24X but not R127H. Low frequency of GJB2 mutations in this population is probably indicative of the fact that other genes may be involved in nonsyndromic hearing loss in Ilam populations. In the other hand, the vicinity of Ilam and Iraq suggests that GJB2 mutations have likely a low frequency in this population.

  11. TERT promoter mutations and BRAF mutations are rare in sporadic, and TERT promoter mutations are absent in NF1-related malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

    PubMed

    Dubbink, Hendrikus J; Bakels, Hannah; Post, Edward; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Verdijk, Robert M

    2014-11-01

    Hot spot mutations in the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT promoter mutations) occur frequently in tumors of neuroectodermal origin such as melanoma and glioma. Many of these tumors are of neuroectodermal or ectomesenchymal origin which is suggestive of TERT promoter mutations playing a role in the development of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). In melanoma a correlation has been suggested between the occurrence of TERT promoter mutations and v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutations. We investigated TERT promoter and BRAF mutation frequency in respectively 94 and 86 consecutive MPNST cases from our institute. TERT promoter mutation analysis on DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens was performed by SNaPshot analysis. Sequence analysis of BRAF was performed by bidirectional DNA sequencing. We identified TERT C228T or C250T promoter mutations in 10 % (9/94) and BRAF V600E mutations in 3 % (3/86) of MPNSTs. All TERT promoter- and BRAF mutations occurred in NF1 unrelated tumors. One co-occurrence of a TERT promoter- and a BRAF mutation was observed. In comparison with other neuroectodermal derived malignant neoplasms, TERT promoter mutations occur at relatively low frequency in MPNSTs. The observation of TERT promotor and BRAF mutations in sporadic MPNSTs and the absence of TERT promotor and rarity of BRAF mutations in NF1 related tumors may imply an alternative genetic route of tumor progression in both patient groups.

  12. On the mutation rate of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Drake, John W; Hwang, Charles B C

    2005-06-01

    All seven DNA-based microbes for which carefully established mutation rates and mutational spectra were previously available displayed a genomic mutation rate in the neighborhood of 0.003 per chromosome replication. The pathogenic mammalian DNA virus herpes simplex type 1 has an estimated genomic mutation rate compatible with that value.

  13. Molecular chaperones and selection against mutations

    PubMed Central

    Tomala, Katarzyna; Korona, Ryszard

    2008-01-01

    Background Molecular chaperones help to restore the native states of proteins after their destabilization by external stress. It has been proposed that another function of chaperones is to maintain the activity of proteins destabilized by mutation, weakening the selection against suboptimal protein variants. This would allow for the accumulation of genetic variation which could then be exposed during environmental perturbation and facilitate rapid adaptation. Results We focus on studies describing interactions of chaperones with mutated polypeptides. There are some examples that chaperones can alleviate the deleterious effects of mutations through increased assistance of destabilized proteins. These experiments are restricted to bacteria and typically involve overexpression of chaperones. In eukaryotes, it was found that the malfunctioning of chaperones aggravated phenotypic aberrations associated with mutations. This effect could not be linked to chaperone-mediated stabilization of mutated proteins. More likely, the insufficient activity of chaperones inflicted a deregulation of multiple cellular systems, including those responsible for signaling and therefore important in development. As to why the assistance of mutated proteins by chaperones seems difficult to demonstrate, we note that chaperone-assisted folding can often co-exist with chaperone-assisted degradation. There is growing evidence that some chaperones, including those dependent on Hsp90, can detect potentially functional but excessively unstable proteins and direct them towards degradation instead of folding. This implies that at least some mutations are exposed rather than masked by the activity of molecular chaperones. Conclusion It is at present impossible to determine whether molecular chaperones are mostly helpers or examiners of mutated proteins because experiments showing either of these roles are very few. Depending on whether assistance or disposal prevails, molecular chaperones could speed

  14. Molecular chaperones and selection against mutations.

    PubMed

    Tomala, Katarzyna; Korona, Ryszard

    2008-02-26

    Molecular chaperones help to restore the native states of proteins after their destabilization by external stress. It has been proposed that another function of chaperones is to maintain the activity of proteins destabilized by mutation, weakening the selection against suboptimal protein variants. This would allow for the accumulation of genetic variation which could then be exposed during environmental perturbation and facilitate rapid adaptation. We focus on studies describing interactions of chaperones with mutated polypeptides. There are some examples that chaperones can alleviate the deleterious effects of mutations through increased assistance of destabilized proteins. These experiments are restricted to bacteria and typically involve overexpression of chaperones. In eukaryotes, it was found that the malfunctioning of chaperones aggravated phenotypic aberrations associated with mutations. This effect could not be linked to chaperone-mediated stabilization of mutated proteins. More likely, the insufficient activity of chaperones inflicted a deregulation of multiple cellular systems, including those responsible for signaling and therefore important in development. As to why the assistance of mutated proteins by chaperones seems difficult to demonstrate, we note that chaperone-assisted folding can often co-exist with chaperone-assisted degradation. There is growing evidence that some chaperones, including those dependent on Hsp90, can detect potentially functional but excessively unstable proteins and direct them towards degradation instead of folding. This implies that at least some mutations are exposed rather than masked by the activity of molecular chaperones. It is at present impossible to determine whether molecular chaperones are mostly helpers or examiners of mutated proteins because experiments showing either of these roles are very few. Depending on whether assistance or disposal prevails, molecular chaperones could speed up or slow down evolution of

  15. EXOSC3 mutations in pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1: novel mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) represents a group of neurodegenerative disorders with prenatal onset. Eight subtypes have been described thus far (PCH1-8) based on clinical and genetic features. Common characteristics include hypoplasia and atrophy of the cerebellum, variable pontine atrophy, and severe mental and motor impairments. PCH1 is distinctly characterized by the combination with degeneration of spinal motor neurons. Recently, mutations in the exosome component 3 gene (EXOSC3) have been identified in approximately half of the patients with PCH subtype 1. Methods We selected a cohort of 99 PCH patients (90 families) tested negative for mutations in the TSEN genes, RARS2, VRK1 and CASK. Patients in this cohort were referred with a tentative diagnose PCH type 1, 2, 4, 7 or unclassified PCH. Genetic analysis of the EXOSC3 gene was performed using Sanger sequencing. Clinical data, MR images and autopsy reports of patients positive for EXOSC3 mutations were analyzed. Results EXOSC3 mutations were found in twelve families with PCH subtype 1, and were not found in patients with other PCH subtypes. Identified mutations included a large deletion, nonsense and missense mutations. Examination of clinical data reveals a prolonged disease course in patients with a homozygous p.D132A mutation. MRI shows variable pontine hypoplasia in EXOSC3 mediated PCH, where the pons is largely preserved in patients with a homozygous p.D132A mutation, but attenuated in patients with other mutations. Additionally, bilateral cerebellar cysts were found in patients compound heterozygous for a p.D132A mutation and a nonsense allele. Conclusions EXOSC3 mediated PCH shows clear genotype-phenotype correlations. A homozygous p.D132A mutation leads to PCH with possible survival into early puberty, and preservation of the pons. Compound heterozygosity for a p.D132A mutation and a nonsense or p.Y109N allele, a homozygous p.G31A mutation or a p.G135E mutation causes a more rapidly

  16. Normal Mutation Rate Variants Arise in a Mutator (Mut S) Escherichia coli Population

    PubMed Central

    Turrientes, María-Carmen; Baquero, Fernando; Levin, Bruce R.; Martínez, José-Luis; Ripoll, Aida; González-Alba, José-María; Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; Baquero, Maria-Rosario; Rodríguez-Domínguez, Mario-José; Cantón, Rafael; Galán, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The rate at which mutations are generated is central to the pace of evolution. Although this rate is remarkably similar amongst all cellular organisms, bacterial strains with mutation rates 100 fold greater than the modal rates of their species are commonly isolated from natural sources and emerge in experimental populations. Theoretical studies postulate and empirical studies teort the hypotheses that these “mutator” strains evolved in response to selection for elevated rates of generation of inherited variation that enable bacteria to adapt to novel and/or rapidly changing environments. Less clear are the conditions under which selection will favor reductions in mutation rates. Declines in rates of mutation for established populations of mutator bacteria are not anticipated if such changes are attributed to the costs of augmented rates of generation of deleterious mutations. Here we report experimental evidence of evolution towards reduced mutation rates in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli with an hyper-mutable phenotype due a deletion in a mismatch repair gene, (ΔmutS). The emergence in a ΔmutS background of variants with mutation rates approaching those of the normal rates of strains carrying wild-type MutS was associated with increase in fitness with respect to ancestral strain. We postulate that such an increase in fitness could be attributed to the emergence of mechanisms driving a permanent “aerobic style of life”, the negative consequence of this behavior being regulated by the evolution of mechanisms protecting the cell against increased endogenous oxidative radicals involved in DNA damage, and thus reducing mutation rate. Gene expression assays and full sequencing of evolved mutator and normo-mutable variants supports the hypothesis. In conclusion, we postulate that the observed reductions in mutation rate are coincidental to, rather than, the selective force responsible for this evolution. PMID:24069167

  17. Frequent PIK3CA Mutations in Colorectal and Endometrial Cancer with Double Somatic Mismatch Repair Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stacey A.; Turner, Emily H.; Beightol, Mallory B.; Jacobson, Angela; Gooley, Ted A.; Salipante, Stephen J.; Haraldsdottir, Sigurdis; Smith, Christina; Scroggins, Sheena; Tait, Jonathan F.; Grady, William M.; Lin, Edward H.; Cohn, David E.; Goodfellow, Paul J.; Arnold, Mark W.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Pearlman, Rachel; Hampel, Heather; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Double somatic mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have recently been described in colorectal and endometrial cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI) not attributable to MLH1 hypermethylation or germline mutation. We sought to define the molecular phenotype of this newly recognized tumor subtype. Methods From two prospective Lynch syndrome screening studies, we identified patients with colorectal and endometrial tumors harboring ≥2 somatic MMR mutations, but normal germline MMR testing (“double somatic”). We determined the frequencies of tumor PIK3CA, BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, and PTEN mutations by targeted next-generation sequencing and used logistic-regression models to compare them to: Lynch syndrome, MLH1 hypermethylated, and microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors. We validated our findings using independent datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Results Among colorectal cancer cases, we found that 14/21 (67%) of double somatic cases had PIK3CA mutations vs. 4/18 (22%) Lynch syndrome, 2/10 (20%) MLH1 hypermethylated, and 12/78 (15%) MSS tumors; p<0.0001. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 100% of 13 double somatic endometrial cancers (p=0.04). BRAF mutations were absent in double somatic and Lynch syndrome colorectal tumors. We found highly similar results in a validation cohort from TCGA (113 colorectal, 178 endometrial cancer), with 100% of double somatic cases harboring a PIK3CA mutation (p<0.0001). Conclusions PIK3CA mutations are present in double somatic mutated colorectal and endometrial cancers at substantially higher frequencies than other MSI subgroups. PIK3CA mutation status may better define an emerging molecular entity in colorectal and endometrial cancers, with the potential to inform screening and therapeutic decision making. PMID:27302833

  18. TERT promoter mutations in telomere biology.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Barbara; Kumar, Rajiv

    Telomere repeats at chromosomal ends, critical to genome integrity, are maintained through an elaborate network of proteins and pathways. Shelterin complex proteins shield telomeres from induction of DNA damage response to overcome end protection problem. A specialized ribonucleic protein, telomerase, maintains telomere homeostasis through repeat addition to counter intrinsic shortcomings of DNA replication that leads to gradual sequence shortening in successive mitoses. The biogenesis and recruitment of telomerase composed of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunit and an RNA component, takes place through the intricate machinery that involves an elaborate number of molecules. The synthesis of telomeres remains a controlled and limited process. Inherited mutations in the molecules involved in the process directly or indirectly cause telomeropathies. Telomerase, while present in stem cells, is deactivated due to epigenetic silencing of the rate-limiting TERT upon differentiation in most of somatic cells with a few exceptions. However, in most of the cancer cells telomerase reactivation remains a ubiquitous process and constitutes one of the major hallmarks. Discovery of mutations within the core promoter of the TERT gene that create de novo binding sites for E-twenty-six (ETS) transcription factors provided a mechanism for cancer-specific telomerase reactivation. The TERT promoter mutations occur mainly in tumors from tissues with low rates of self-renewal. In melanoma, glioma, hepatocellular carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma and others, the promoter mutations have been shown to define subsets of patients with adverse disease outcomes, associate with increased transcription of TERT, telomerase reactivation and affect telomere length; in stem cells the mutations inhibit TERT silencing following differentiation into adult cells. The TERT promoter mutations cause an epigenetic switch on the mutant allele along with recruitment of pol II following the binding of

  19. Comprehensive Mutation Analysis in Colorectal Flat Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Voorham, Quirinus J. M.; Carvalho, Beatriz; Spiertz, Angela J.; Claes, Bart; Mongera, Sandra; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Grabsch, Heike; Kliment, Martin; Rembacken, Bjorn; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Quirke, Philip; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Lambrechts, Diether; van Engeland, Manon; Meijer, Gerrit A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Flat adenomas are a subgroup of colorectal adenomas that have been associated with a distinct biology and a more aggressive clinical behavior compared to their polypoid counterparts. In the present study, we aimed to compare the mutation spectrum of 14 cancer genes, between these two phenotypes. Methods A consecutive series of 106 flat and 93 polypoid adenomas was analyzed retrospectively for frequently occurring mutations in “hot spot” regions of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and NRAS, as well as selected mutations in CTNNB1 (β-catenin), EGFR, FBXW7 (CDC4), PTEN, STK11, MAP2K4, SMAD4, PIK3R1 and PDGFRA using a high-throughput genotyping technique. Additionally, APC was analyzed using direct sequencing. Results APC mutations were more frequent in polypoid adenomas compared to flat adenomas (48.5% versus 30.3%, respectively, p = 0.02). Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, FBXW7 and CTNNB1 showed similar frequencies in both phenotypes. Between the different subtypes of flat adenomas (0-IIa, LST-F and LST-G) no differences were observed for any of the investigated genes. Conclusion The lower APC mutation rate in flat adenomas compared to polypoid adenomas suggests that disruption of the Wnt-pathway may occur via different mechanisms in these two phenotypes. Furthermore, in contrast to previous observations our results in this large well-defined sample set indicate that there is no significant association between the different morphological phenotypes and mutations in key genes of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. PMID:22848674

  20. Mediastinal paragangliomas related to SDHx gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ćwikła, Jarosław; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Kwiatek, Paweł; Szperl, Małgorzata; Michalski, Wojciech; Wyrwicz, Lucjan; Kuśmierczyk, Mariusz; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Maciejczyk, Anna; Roszczynko, Marta; Pęczkowska, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paragangliomas (PGLs) related to hereditary syndromes are rare mediastinal tumors. Paragangliomas are caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (SDH). Aim To evaluate clinical, anatomical and functional characteristics of mediastinal paragangliomas related to SDHx gene mutations. Material and methods Retrospective analysis of 75 patients with confirmed SDHx gene mutations (24 patients with SDHB, 5 SDHC, 46 with SDHD mutations) was performed. Patients underwent evaluation using computed tomography (CT), somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) (99mTc-[HYNIC,Tyr3]-octreotide), 123I mIBG scintigraphy and urinary excretion of total methoxycatecholamines. Results Out of 75 patients, 16 (21%) patients (1 SDHB, 15 SDHD mutations) had 17 PGLs localized in the mediastinum. Fourteen PGLs were localized in the middle mediastinum (intrapericardial) and 3 PGLs in the posterior mediastinum. The median diameter of paragangliomas measured on the axial slice was 24.3 mm (interquartile range (IQR): 14.7–36.6), and the median volume was 2.78 ml (IQR: 0.87–16.16). Twelve out of 16 patients (75%) underwent SRS, and 11 of them (92.3%) had pathological uptake of the radiotracer. Eleven (68.75%) out of 16 patients underwent 123 I mIBG, with only 3 positive results. Symptoms of catecholamine excretion were observed in 3 patients with PGLs localized in the posterior mediastinum. All PGLs were benign except in 1 patient with the SDHB mutation and PGL detected in the posterior mediastinum, who had a metastatic disease. Conclusions Most mediastinal paragangliomas were related to SDHD gene mutations. They were asymptomatic, localized in the medial mediastinum, intrapericardially. PMID:27785149

  1. MUTATIONS INDUCED BY URBAN AIR AND DRINKING WATER: DO THEY LEAVE A MUTATIONAL SIGNATURE IN HUMAN TUMORS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutations Induced by Urban Air and Drinking Water: Do They Leave a Mutational Signature in Human Tumors?

    Mutation spectra of complex environmental mixtures have been determined thus far only in Salmonella. We have determined mutation spectra for the particulate organics ...

  2. MUTATIONS INDUCED BY URBAN AIR AND DRINKING WATER: DO THEY LEAVE A MUTATIONAL SIGNATURE IN HUMAN TUMORS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutations Induced by Urban Air and Drinking Water: Do They Leave a Mutational Signature in Human Tumors?

    Mutation spectra of complex environmental mixtures have been determined thus far only in Salmonella. We have determined mutation spectra for the particulate organics ...

  3. Integrative analysis of mutational and transcriptional profiles reveals driver mutations of metastatic breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Yoon, Ina; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Wang, Yin-Ying; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min-Joo; Kim, Jisun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; In, Yongho; Hao, Jin-Kao; Park, Kyung-Mii; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Sunghoon

    2016-01-01

    Despite the explosion in the numbers of cancer genomic studies, metastasis is still the major cause of cancer mortality. In breast cancer, approximately one-fifth of metastatic patients survive 5 years. Therefore, detecting the patients at a high risk of developing distant metastasis at first diagnosis is critical for effective treatment strategy. We hereby present a novel systems biology approach to identify driver mutations escalating the risk of metastasis based on both exome and RNA sequencing of our collected 78 normal-paired breast cancers. Unlike driver mutations occurring commonly in cancers as reported in the literature, the mutations detected here are relatively rare mutations occurring in less than half metastatic samples. By supposing that the driver mutations should affect the metastasis gene signatures, we develop a novel computational pipeline to identify the driver mutations that affect transcription factors regulating metastasis gene signatures. We identify driver mutations in ADPGK, NUP93, PCGF6, PKP2 and SLC22A5, which are verified to enhance cancer cell migration and prompt metastasis with in vitro experiments. The discovered somatic mutations may be helpful for identifying patients who are likely to develop distant metastasis.

  4. Fitness change in relation to mutation number in spontaneous mutation accumulation lines of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Susanne; Böndel, Katharina B; Ness, Robert W; Keightley, Peter D; Colegrave, Nick

    2017-09-08

    Although all genetic variation ultimately stems from mutations, their properties are difficult to study directly. Here, we used multiple mutation accumulation (MA) lines derived from five genetic backgrounds of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that have been previously subjected to whole genome sequencing to investigate the relationship between the number of spontaneous mutations and change in fitness from a non-evolved ancestor. MA lines were on average less fit than their ancestors and we detected a significantly negative correlation between the change in fitness and the total number of accumulated mutations in the genome. Likewise, the number of mutations located within coding regions significantly and negatively impacted MA line fitness. We used the fitness data to parameterize a maximum likelihood model to estimate discrete categories of mutational effects, and found that models containing one to two mutational effect categories (one neutral and one deleterious category) fitted the data best. However, the best-fitting mutational effects models were highly dependent on the genetic background of the ancestral strain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrative analysis of mutational and transcriptional profiles reveals driver mutations of metastatic breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Yoon, Ina; Lee, Jin Young; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Wang, Yin-Ying; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min-Joo; Kim, Jisun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; In, Yongho; Hao, Jin-Kao; Park, Kyung-Mii; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Sunghoon

    2016-01-01

    Despite the explosion in the numbers of cancer genomic studies, metastasis is still the major cause of cancer mortality. In breast cancer, approximately one-fifth of metastatic patients survive 5 years. Therefore, detecting the patients at a high risk of developing distant metastasis at first diagnosis is critical for effective treatment strategy. We hereby present a novel systems biology approach to identify driver mutations escalating the risk of metastasis based on both exome and RNA sequencing of our collected 78 normal-paired breast cancers. Unlike driver mutations occurring commonly in cancers as reported in the literature, the mutations detected here are relatively rare mutations occurring in less than half metastatic samples. By supposing that the driver mutations should affect the metastasis gene signatures, we develop a novel computational pipeline to identify the driver mutations that affect transcription factors regulating metastasis gene signatures. We identify driver mutations in ADPGK, NUP93, PCGF6, PKP2 and SLC22A5, which are verified to enhance cancer cell migration and prompt metastasis with in vitro experiments. The discovered somatic mutations may be helpful for identifying patients who are likely to develop distant metastasis. PMID:27625789

  6. Mutational randomness as conditional independence and the experimental vindication of mutational Lamarckism.

    PubMed

    Razeto-Barry, Pablo; Vecchi, Davide

    2017-05-01

    The Modern Synthesis enshrined natural selection as the driver of adaptive evolution mainly by eliminating competing explanations. One of the eliminated competitors was Lamarckism, particularly 'mutational Lamarckism', a hypothesis according to which mutations may be directed towards producing phenotypes that improve the performance of the organism in a particular environment. Contrary to this hypothesis, the Modern Synthesis' view claims that mutations are 'random', even though the precise meaning of the term was never formally explicated. Current evidence seemingly in favour of the existence of legitimate cases of mutational Lamarckism has revitalized interest to seek a clarification of the meaning of the term 'random' in this context. Herein we analyse previous definitions of random mutations and show that they are deficient in three ways: either they are too wide, or too narrow, or dyadic. We argue that the linguistic expression 'random mutation' refers to a triadic rather than a dyadic relationship, propose a new, formal and precise definition based on the probabilistic concept of conditional independence, and finally provide examples of its application. One important consequence of our analysis is that the genomic specificity of the mutational process is not a necessary condition for the existence of mutational Lamarckism.

  7. Mutation@A Glance: An Integrative Web Application for Analysing Mutations from Human Genetic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hijikata, Atsushi; Raju, Rajesh; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Ramabadran, Subhashri; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Ramadoss, Suresh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh; Mohan, Sujatha; Ohara, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Although mutation analysis serves as a key part in making a definitive diagnosis about a genetic disease, it still remains a time-consuming step to interpret their biological implications through integration of various lines of archived information about genes in question. To expedite this evaluation step of disease-causing genetic variations, here we developed Mutation@A Glance (http://rapid.rcai.riken.jp/mutation/), a highly integrated web-based analysis tool for analysing human disease mutations; it implements a user-friendly graphical interface to visualize about 40 000 known disease-associated mutations and genetic polymorphisms from more than 2600 protein-coding human disease-causing genes. Mutation@A Glance locates already known genetic variation data individually on the nucleotide and the amino acid sequences and makes it possible to cross-reference them with tertiary and/or quaternary protein structures and various functional features associated with specific amino acid residues in the proteins. We showed that the disease-associated missense mutations had a stronger tendency to reside in positions relevant to the structure/function of proteins than neutral genetic variations. From a practical viewpoint, Mutation@A Glance could certainly function as a ‘one-stop’ analysis platform for newly determined DNA sequences, which enables us to readily identify and evaluate new genetic variations by integrating multiple lines of information about the disease-causing candidate genes. PMID:20360267

  8. Recurrent and founder mutations in the PMS2 gene.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, J; Senter, L; Liyanarachchi, S; Clendenning, M; Vaughn, C P; Jenkins, M A; Hopper, J L; Young, J; Samowitz, W; de la Chapelle, A

    2013-03-01

    Germline mutations in PMS2 are associated with Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common known cause of hereditary colorectal cancer. Mutation detection in PMS2 has been difficult due to the presence of several pseudogenes, but a custom-designed long-range PCR strategy now allows adequate mutation detection. Many mutations are unique. However, some mutations are observed repeatedly across individuals not known to be related due to the mutation being either recurrent, arising multiple times de novo at hot spots for mutations, or of founder origin, having occurred once in an ancestor. Previously, we observed 36 distinct mutations in a sample of 61 independently ascertained Caucasian probands of mixed European background with PMS2 mutations. Eleven of these mutations were detected in more than one individual not known to be related and of these, six were detected more than twice. These six mutations accounted for 31 (51%) ostensibly unrelated probands. Here, we performed genotyping and haplotype analysis in four mutations observed in multiple probands and found two (c.137G>T and exon 10 deletion) to be founder mutations and one (c.903G>T) a probable founder. One (c.1A>G) could not be evaluated for founder mutation status. We discuss possible explanations for the frequent occurrence of founder mutations in PMS2. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. [Gene mutation analysis of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets].

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Ma, Hong-Wei; Li, Fang; Hu, Man; Ren, Shuang; Yu, Ya-Fen; Zhao, Gui-Jie

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the frequency and type of PHEX gene mutations in children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), the possible presence of mutational hot spots, and the relationship between genotype and clinical phenotype. Clinical data of 10 children with XLH was retrospectively reviewed. The relationship between gene mutation type and severity of XLH was evaluated. PHEX gene mutations were detected in all 10 children with XLH, including 6 cases of missense mutation, 2 cases of splice site mutation, 1 case of frameshift mutation, and 1 case of nonsense mutation. Two new mutations, c.2048T>C and IVS14+1delAG, were found. The type of PHEX gene mutation was not associated with the degree of short stature and leg deformity (P=0.571 and 0.467), and the mutation site was also not associated with the degree of short stature and leg deformity (P=0.400 and 1.000). Missense mutation is the most common type of PHEX gene mutation in children with XLH, and c.2048T>C and IVS14+1delAG are two new PHEX gene mutations. The type and site of PHEX gene mutation are not associated with the severity of XLH.

  10. Spontaneous mutation during the sexual cycle of Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Watters, M.K.; Stadler, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The DNA sequences of 42 spontaneous mutations of the mtr gene in Neurospora crassa have been determined. The mutants were selected among sexual spores to represent mutations arising in the sexual cycle. Three sexual-cycle-specific mutational classes are described: hotspot mutants, spontaneous repeat-induced point mutation (RIPs) and mutations occurring during a mutagenic phase of the sexual cycle. Together, these three sexual-cycle-specific mutational classes account for 50% of the mutations in the sexual-cycle mutational spectrum. One third of all mutations occurred at one of two mutational hotspots that predominantly produced tandem duplications of varying lengths with short repeats at their end-points. Neither of the two hotspots are present in the vegetative spectrum, suggesting that sexual-cycle-specific mutational pathways are responsible for their presence in the spectrum. One mutant was observed that appeared to have been RIPed precociously. The usual prerequisite for RIP, a duplication of the affected region, was not present in the parent stocks and was not detected in this mutant. Finally, there is a phase early in the premeiotic sexual cycle that is overrepresented in the generation of mutations. This {open_quotes}peak{close_quotes} appears to represent a phase during which the mutation rate rises significantly. This phase produces a disproportionally high fraction of frame shift mutations. In divisions subsequent to this, the mutation rate appears to be constant. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

    1980-05-29

    Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a jackknife method of the reversion frequencies of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

  12. Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a ''jackknife'' method of the reversion of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

  13. Novel progranulin mutation: screening for PGRN mutations in a Portuguese series of FTD/CBS cases.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Rita Joao; Santana, Isabel; Bras, Jose Miguel; Revesz, Tamas; Rebelo, Olinda; Ribeiro, Maria Helena; Santiago, Beatriz; Oliveira, Catarina Resende; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John

    2008-07-15

    Mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene were recently described as the cause of ubiquitin positive frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in many families. Different frequencies of these genetic changes have been reported in diverse populations leading us to determine if these mutations were a major cause of FTD in the Portuguese population. The entire coding sequence plus exon 0 of PGRN were sequenced in a consecutive series of 46 FTD/CBS Portuguese patients. Two mutations were found: a novel pathogenic insertion (p.Gln300GlnfsX61) and a previously described point variant (p.T182M) of unclear pathogenicity. Pathogenic mutations in the PGRN gene were found in one of the 36 probands studied (3% of the probands in our series) who had a corticobasal syndrome presentation, indicating that in the Portuguese population, mutations in this gene are not a major cause of FTD.

  14. Mutation hot spots in mammalian mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Galtier, Nicolas; Enard, David; Radondy, Yoan; Bazin, Eric; Belkhir, Khalid

    2006-02-01

    Animal mitochondrial DNA is characterized by a remarkably high level of within-species homoplasy, that is, phylogenetic incongruence between sites of the molecule. Several investigators have invoked recombination to explain it, challenging the dogma of maternal, clonal mitochondrial inheritance in animals. Alternatively, a high level of homoplasy could be explained by the existence of mutation hot spots. By using an exhaustive mammalian data set, we test the hot spot hypothesis by comparing patterns of site-specific polymorphism and divergence in several groups of closely related species, including hominids. We detect significant co-occurrence of synonymous polymorphisms among closely related species in various mammalian groups, and a correlation between the site-specific levels of variability within humans (on one hand) and between Hominoidea species (on the other hand), indicating that mutation hot spots actually exist in mammalian mitochondrial coding regions. The whole data, however, cannot be explained by a simple mutation hot spots model. Rather, we show that the site-specific mutation rate quickly varies in time, so that the same sites are not hypermutable in distinct lineages. This study provides a plausible mutation model that potentially accounts for the peculiar distribution of mitochondrial sequence variation in mammals without the need for invoking recombination. It also gives hints about the proximal causes of mitochondrial site-specific hypermutability in humans.

  15. Somatic mutation of PTEN in bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aveyard, J S; Skilleter, A; Habuchi, T; Knowles, M A

    1999-01-01

    The tumour suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1, which is mutated or homozygously deleted in glioma, breast and prostate cancer, is mapped to a region of 10q which shows loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in bladder cancer. We screened 123 bladder tumours for LOH in the region of PTEN. In 53 informative muscle invasive tumours (≥ pT2), allele loss was detected in 13 (24.5%) and allelic imbalance in four tumours (overall frequency 32%). LOH was found in four of 60 (6.6%) informative, non-invasive tumours (pTa/pT1). We screened 63 muscle invasive tumours for PTEN mutations by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and for homozygous deletion by duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two homozygous deletions were identified but no mutations. Of 15 bladder tumour cell lines analysed, three showed homozygous deletion of all or part of the PTEN gene, but none had mutations detectable by SSCP analysis. Our results indicate that PTEN is involved in the development of some bladder tumours. The low frequency of mutation of the retained allele in tumours with 10q23 LOH suggests that there may be another predominant mechanism of inactivation of the second allele, for example small intragenic deletions, that hemizygosity may be sufficient for phenotypic effect, or that there is another target gene at 10q23. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10360673

  16. Clinical prognosis in BRAF-mutated PTC.

    PubMed

    Puxeddu, Efisio; Moretti, Sonia

    2007-07-01

    BRAF mutation has recently emerged as a potential prognostic marker for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) due to several studies suggesting that it may condition the development of tumors with aggressive behavior. A study of the phenotypes of thyroid follicular cell lines and transgenic mice characterized by targeted expression of BRAF mutation indicates that, at variance with RET/PTC rearrangement, it induces or facilitates genomic instability and higher invasiveness and eventually deeper tumor de-differentiation and more significant suppression of apoptosis. An analysis of differential gene expression of PTCs harboring BRAF mutation versus PTCs characterized by other genetic alterations shows an important impairment of the expression of genes related to intra-thyroidal iodine metabolism machinery, up-regulation of Glut-1 mRNA, methylation-induced gene silencing of tumor suppressor genes and up-regulation of pro-angiogenetic proteins such as VEGF. Correlation of BRAF mutation with PTC clinico-pathological features yields controversial results, with several studies showing the association with unfavourable clinico-pathological qualities, while others do not confirm the findings. This review will summarize the studies in favor of or in contrast with a role of BRAF mutation as a prognostic marker in PTC. We will also indicate what information we still need in order to routinely introduce this indicator in clinical practice.

  17. Presymptomatic signs in healthy CJD mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gigi, Ariela; Vakil, Eli; Kahana, Ester; Hadar, Uri

    2005-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressing dementia with neurological, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. We focused our study on the familial CJD form among Libyan Jews (the E200K mutation), trying to identify preclinical neuropsychological signs in mutation carriers to facilitate early diagnosis of the disease. A wide range of neuropsychological tests was administered to 27 healthy volunteers, all first-degree relatives of genetic CJD patients. Thirteen of our participants were gene mutation carriers (E200K) and 14 controls. The healthy mutation carriers reported significantly lower Trait and higher State anxiety scores. Repeated Measure analysis showed statistical significance. The Anxiety Index (State-Trait Anxiety Score) progressed with age in the carriers' group but not in the controls. Since this was more pronounced in the older subjects, we suggest that abnormal stress mechanisms precede the clinical onset of CJD. Cognitive differences have also been found between carriers and controls, especially in visual recognition of pictured objects. Both kinds of differences (anxiety levels and cognitive deficits) were most pronounced in elderly subjects. This study is the first to show any dysfunction in healthy CJD mutation carriers.

  18. Expanding CEP290 mutational spectrum in ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Travaglini, Lorena; Brancati, Francesco; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Audollent, Sophie; Bertini, Enrico; Kaplan, Josseline; Perrault, Isabelle; Iannicelli, Miriam; Mancuso, Brunella; Rigoli, Luciana; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Swistun, Dominika; Tolentino, Jerlyn; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Valente, Enza Maria

    2015-01-01

    Ciliopathies are an expanding group of rare conditions characterised by multiorgan involvement, that are caused by mutations in genes encoding for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus. Among these genes, CEP290 bears an intriguing allelic spectrum, being commonly mutated in Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD), Meckel syndrome (MKS), Senior-Loken syndrome and isolated Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Although these conditions are recessively inherited, in a subset of patients only one CEP290 mutation could be detected. To assess whether genomic rearrangements involving the CEP290 gene could represent a possible mutational mechanism in these cases, exon dosage analysis on genomic DNA was performed in two groups of CEP290 heterozygous patients, including five JSRD/MKS cases and four LCA, respectively. In one JSRD patient, we identified a large heterozygous deletion encompassing CEP290 C-terminus, that resulted in marked reduction of mRNA expression. No copy number alterations were identified in the remaining probands. The present work expands the CEP290 genotypic spectrum to include multiexon deletions. Although this mechanism does not appear to be frequent, screening for genomic rearrangements should be considered in patients in whom a single CEP290 mutated allele was identified. PMID:19764032

  19. BRAF Mutation in Hairy Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Shahrabi, Saeid; Jaseb, Kaveh; Norozi, Fatemeh; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Vosoughi, Tina; Hajizamani, Saeideh; Saki, Najmaldin

    2014-01-01

    BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase with a regulatory role in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. A mutation in the RAF gene, especially in BRAF protein, leads to an increased stimulation of this cascade, causing uncontrolled cell division and development of malignancy. Several mutations have been observed in the gene coding for this protein in a variety of human malignancies, including hairy cell leukemia (HCL). BRAF V600E is the most common mutation reported in exon15 of BRAF, which is observed in almost all cases of classic HCL, but it is negative in other B-cell malignancies, including the HCL variant. Therefore it can be used as a marker to differentiate between these B-cell disorders. We also discuss the interaction between miRNAs and signaling pathways, including MAPK, in HCL. When this mutation is present, the use of BRAF protein inhibitors may represent an effective treatment. In this review we have evaluated the role of the mutation of the BRAF gene in the pathogenesis and progression of HCL. PMID:25992240

  20. Mutations in ANTXR1 Cause GAPO Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stránecký, Viktor; Hoischen, Alexander; Hartmannová, Hana; Zaki, Maha S.; Chaudhary, Amit; Zudaire, Enrique; Nosková, Lenka; Barešová, Veronika; Přistoupilová, Anna; Hodaňová, Kateřina; Sovová, Jana; Hůlková, Helena; Piherová, Lenka; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.; de Silva, Deepthi; Senanayake, Manouri P.; Farrag, Sameh; Zeman, Jiří; Martásek, Pavel; Baxová, Alice; Afifi, Hanan H.; St. Croix, Brad; Brunner, Han G.; Temtamy, Samia; Kmoch, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    The genetic cause of GAPO syndrome, a condition characterized by growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia, and progressive visual impairment, has not previously been identified. We studied four ethnically unrelated affected individuals and identified homozygous nonsense mutations (c.262C>T [p.Arg88*] and c.505C>T [p.Arg169*]) or splicing mutations (c.1435–12A>G [p.Gly479Phefs*119]) in ANTXR1, which encodes anthrax toxin receptor 1. The nonsense mutations predictably trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, resulting in the loss of ANTXR1. The transcript with the splicing mutation theoretically encodes a truncated ANTXR1 containing a neopeptide composed of 118 unique amino acids in its C terminus. GAPO syndrome’s major phenotypic features, which include dental abnormalities and the accumulation of extracellular matrix, recapitulate those found in Antxr1-mutant mice and point toward an underlying defect in extracellular-matrix regulation. Thus, we propose that mutations affecting ANTXR1 function are responsible for this disease’s characteristic generalized defect in extracellular-matrix homeostasis. PMID:23602711

  1. Analysis of mutations causing biotinidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pindolia, Kirit; Jordan, Megan; Wolf, Barry

    2010-09-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is an inherited disorder in which the vitamin, biotin, is not recycled. Individuals with biotinidase deficiency can develop neurological and cutaneous symptoms if they are not treated with biotin. Biotinidase deficiency screening has been incorporated into essentially all newborn screening programs in the United States and in many countries. We now report 140 known mutations in the biotinidase gene (BTD) that cause biotinidase deficiency. All types of mutations have been found to cause biotinidase deficiency. Variants have been identified throughout the coding sequence. Essentially all the variants result in enzymatic activities with less than 10% of mean normal enzyme activity (profound biotinidase deficiency) with the exception of the c.1330G>C (p.D444H) mutation, which results in an enzyme having 50% of mean normal serum activity. The putative three-dimensional structure of biotinidase has been predicted by homology to that of nitrilases/amidases. The effect of the various missense mutations can be predicted to affect various important sites within the structure of the enzyme. This compilation of variants causing biotinidase deficiency will be useful to clinical laboratories that are performing mutation analysis for confirmational testing when the enzymatic results are equivocal for children identified through newborn screening. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Expanding CEP290 mutational spectrum in ciliopathies.

    PubMed

    Travaglini, Lorena; Brancati, Francesco; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Audollent, Sophie; Bertini, Enrico; Kaplan, Josseline; Perrault, Isabelle; Iannicelli, Miriam; Mancuso, Brunella; Rigoli, Luciana; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Swistun, Dominika; Tolentino, Jerlyn; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gleeson, Joseph G; Valente, Enza Maria; Zankl, A; Leventer, R; Grattan-Smith, P; Janecke, A; D'Hooghe, M; Sznajer, Y; Van Coster, R; Demerleir, L; Dias, K; Moco, C; Moreira, A; Kim, C Ae; Maegawa, G; Petkovic, D; Abdel-Salam, G M H; Abdel-Aleem, A; Zaki, M S; Marti, I; Quijano-Roy, S; Sigaudy, S; de Lonlay, P; Romano, S; Touraine, R; Koenig, M; Lagier-Tourenne, C; Messer, J; Collignon, P; Wolf, N; Philippi, H; Kitsiou Tzeli, S; Halldorsson, S; Johannsdottir, J; Ludvigsson, P; Phadke, S R; Udani, V; Stuart, B; Magee, A; Lev, D; Michelson, M; Ben-Zeev, B; Fischetto, R; Benedicenti, F; Stanzial, F; Borgatti, R; Accorsi, P; Battaglia, S; Fazzi, E; Giordano, L; Pinelli, L; Boccone, L; Bigoni, S; Ferlini, A; Donati, M A; Caridi, G; Divizia, M T; Faravelli, F; Ghiggeri, G; Pessagno, A; Briguglio, M; Briuglia, S; Salpietro, C D; Tortorella, G; Adami, A; Castorina, P; Lalatta, F; Marra, G; Riva, D; Scelsa, B; Spaccini, L; Uziel, G; Del Giudice, E; Laverda, A M; Ludwig, K; Permunian, A; Suppiej, A; Signorini, S; Uggetti, C; Battini, R; Di Giacomo, M; Cilio, M R; Di Sabato, M L; Leuzzi, V; Parisi, P; Pollazzon, M; Silengo, M; De Vescovi, R; Greco, D; Romano, C; Cazzagon, M; Simonati, A; Al-Tawari, A A; Bastaki, L; Mégarbané, A; Sabolic Avramovska, V; de Jong, M M; Stromme, P; Koul, R; Rajab, A; Azam, M; Barbot, C; Martorell Sampol, L; Rodriguez, B; Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Teber, S; Anlar, B; Comu, S; Karaca, E; Kayserili, H; Yüksel, A; Akcakus, M; Al Gazali, L; Sztriha, L; Nicholl, D; Woods, C G; Bennett, C; Hurst, J; Sheridan, E; Barnicoat, A; Hennekam, R; Lees, M; Blair, E; Bernes, S; Sanchez, H; Clark, A E; DeMarco, E; Donahue, C; Sherr, E; Hahn, J; Sanger, T D; Gallager, T E; Dobyns, W B; Daugherty, C; Krishnamoorthy, K S; Sarco, D; Walsh, C A; McKanna, T; Milisa, J; Chung, W K; De Vivo, D C; Raynes, H; Schubert, R; Seward, A; Brooks, D G; Goldstein, A; Caldwell, J; Finsecke, E; Maria, B L; Holden, K; Cruse, R P; Swoboda, K J; Viskochil, D

    2009-10-01

    Ciliopathies are an expanding group of rare conditions characterized by multiorgan involvement, that are caused by mutations in genes encoding for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus. Among these genes, CEP290 bears an intriguing allelic spectrum, being commonly mutated in Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD), Meckel syndrome (MKS), Senior-Loken syndrome and isolated Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Although these conditions are recessively inherited, in a subset of patients only one CEP290 mutation could be detected. To assess whether genomic rearrangements involving the CEP290 gene could represent a possible mutational mechanism in these cases, exon dosage analysis on genomic DNA was performed in two groups of CEP290 heterozygous patients, including five JSRD/MKS cases and four LCA, respectively. In one JSRD patient, we identified a large heterozygous deletion encompassing CEP290 C-terminus that resulted in marked reduction of mRNA expression. No copy number alterations were identified in the remaining probands. The present work expands the CEP290 genotypic spectrum to include multiexon deletions. Although this mechanism does not appear to be frequent, screening for genomic rearrangements should be considered in patients in whom a single CEP290 mutated allele was identified.

  3. The new mutation theory of phenotypic evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nei, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies of developmental biology have shown that the genes controlling phenotypic characters expressed in the early stage of development are highly conserved and that recent evolutionary changes have occurred primarily in the characters expressed in later stages of development. Even the genes controlling the latter characters are generally conserved, but there is a large component of neutral or nearly neutral genetic variation within and between closely related species. Phenotypic evolution occurs primarily by mutation of genes that interact with one another in the developmental process. The enormous amount of phenotypic diversity among different phyla or classes of organisms is a product of accumulation of novel mutations and their conservation that have facilitated adaptation to different environments. Novel mutations may be incorporated into the genome by natural selection (elimination of preexisting genotypes) or by random processes such as genetic and genomic drift. However, once the mutations are incorporated into the genome, they may generate developmental constraints that will affect the future direction of phenotypic evolution. It appears that the driving force of phenotypic evolution is mutation, and natural selection is of secondary importance. PMID:17640887

  4. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations by Ethnicity and Mutation Location in BRCA Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Soley; Jackson, Michelle; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M; Liu, Diane; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Brandt, Amanda; Woodson, Ashley; Litton, Jennifer; Lu, Karen H; Valero, Vicente; Arun, Banu K

    2015-01-01

    The genotype-phenotype correlations of the specific BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in multi-ethnic populations in USA have not yet been fully investigated. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of ethnicity at specific mutation locations and breast/ovarian cancer phenotypes. Our cohort included 445 women with different ethnic backgrounds who underwent BRCA genetic testing between 1997 and 2010. Known clinical and pathologic characteristics were compared with Chi-Square Analysis or Fisher's Exact test as appropriate. The three most common mutation locations in BRCA1 (exons 2, 11, and 20) and BRCA2 (exons 10, 11, and 25) genes were chosen. Prevalence of BRCA1 exon 2 mutations were significantly higher in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) women compared to Caucasians (41% versus 15%; p = 0.001). Similarly, AJ women with breast cancer were more likely to have BRCA1 exon 2 mutation (47% positivity in AJ women versus 0-12.5% positivity in other ethnicities; p = 0.004). Women carrying the exon 20 BRCA1 mutation had the highest probability of having combined breast and ovarian cancers compared to women carrying other exon mutations (p = 0.05). The median age at initial cancer diagnosis, phenotypic features of breast cancer tumors, and overall survival did not vary significantly by ethnicity or mutation location. Our data suggest that ethnicity does not affect age of onset, overall survival or confer different risks of breast and ovarian cancer development in BRCA carriers. These results also suggest that women carrying the exon 20 BRCA1 mutation may warrant mutation-specific counseling and be more aggressively managed for risk reduction.

  5. Biological basis of germline mutation: comparisons of spontaneous germline mutation rates among drosophila, mouse, and human.

    PubMed

    Drost, J B; Lee, W R

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous mutation rates per generation are similar among the three species considered here--Drosophila, mouse, and human--and are not related to time, as is often assumed. Spontaneous germline mutation rates per generation averaged among loci are less variable among species than they are among loci and tests and between gender. Mutation rates are highly variable over time in diverse lineages. Recent estimates of the number of germ cell divisions per generation are: for humans, 401 (30-year generation) in males and 31 in females; for mice, 62 (9-month generation) in males and 25 in females; and for Drosophila melanogaster, 35.5 (18-day generation) in males and 36.5 (25-day generation) in females. The relationships between germ cell division estimates of the two sexes in the three species closely reflect those between mutation rates in the sexes, although mutation rates per cell division vary among species. Whereas the overall rate per generation is constant among species, this consistency must be achieved by diverse mechanisms. Modifiers of mutation rates, on which selection might act, include germline characteristics that contribute disproportionately to the total mutation rates. The germline mutation rates between the sexes within a species are largely influenced by germ cell divisions per generation. Also, a large portion of the total mutations occur during the interval between the beginning of meiosis and differentiation of the soma from the germline. Significant genetic events contributing to mutations during this time may include meiosis, lack of DNA repair in sperm cells, methylation of CpG dinucleotides in mammalian sperm and early embryo, gonomeric fertilization, and rapid cleavage divisions.

  6. Clinical Outcomes and Co-Occurring Mutations in Patients with RUNX1-Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Maliha; Cortes, Jorge; Kadia, Tapan; Naqvi, Kiran; Brandt, Mark; Pierce, Sherry; Patel, Keyur P; Borthakur, Gautam; Ravandi, Farhad; Konopleva, Marina; Kornblau, Steven; Kantarjian, Hagop; Bhalla, Kapil; DiNardo, Courtney D

    2017-07-26

    (1) Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are often associated with worse prognosis. We assessed co-occurring mutations, response to therapy, and clinical outcomes in patients with and without mutant RUNX1 (mRUNX1); (2) We analyzed 328 AML patients, including 177 patients younger than 65 years who received intensive chemotherapy and 151 patients >65 years who received hypomethylating agents. RUNX1 and co-existing mutations were identified using next-generation sequencing; (3) RUNX1 mutations were identified in 5.1% of younger patients and 15.9% of older patients, and were significantly associated with increasing age (p = 0.01) as well as intermediate-risk cytogenetics including normal karyotype (p = 0.02) in the elderly cohort, and with lower lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; p = 0.02) and higher platelet count (p = 0.012) overall. Identified co-occurring mutations were primarily ASXL1 mutations in older patients and RAS mutations in younger patients; FLT3-ITD and IDH1/2 co-mutations were also frequent. Younger mRUNX1 AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy experienced inferior treatment outcomes. In older patients with AML treated with hypomethylating agent (HMA) therapy, response and survival was independent of RUNX1 status. Older mRUNX1 patients with prior myelodysplastic syndrome or myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) had particularly dismal outcome. Future studies should focus on the prognostic implications of RUNX1 mutations relative to other co-occurring mutations, and the potential role of hypomethylating agents for this molecularly-defined group.

  7. Estimating the mutation load in human genomes.

    PubMed

    Henn, Brenna M; Botigué, Laura R; Bustamante, Carlos D; Clark, Andrew G; Gravel, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology has facilitated the discovery of millions of genetic variants in human genomes. A sizeable fraction of these variants are predicted to be deleterious. Here, we review the pattern of deleterious alleles as ascertained in genome sequencing data sets and ask whether human populations differ in their predicted burden of deleterious alleles - a phenomenon known as mutation load. We discuss three demographic models that are predicted to affect mutation load and relate these models to the evidence (or the lack thereof) for variation in the efficacy of purifying selection in diverse human genomes. We also emphasize why accurate estimation of mutation load depends on assumptions regarding the distribution of dominance and selection coefficients - quantities that remain poorly characterized for current genomic data sets.

  8. Evolutionarily stable sex ratios and mutation load.

    PubMed

    Hough, Josh; Immler, Simone; Barrett, Spencer C H; Otto, Sarah P

    2013-07-01

    Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex ratio, but biased sex ratios are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex ratios, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X- and Y-bearing pollen and the sex ratio is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex ratios evolve toward 1:1. When we also consider haploid selection acting on deleterious mutations, however, we find that biased sex ratios can be stably maintained, reflecting a balance between the advantages of purging deleterious mutations via haploid selection, and the disadvantages of haploid selection on the sex ratio. Our results provide a plausible evolutionary explanation for biased sex ratios in dioecious plants, given the extensive gene expression that occurs across plant genomes at the haploid stage.

  9. TARDBP mutations in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rayaprolu, Sruti; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Traynor, Sharleen; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Dickson, Dennis W.; Rademakers, Rosa; Boylan, Kevin B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Uitti, Ryan J.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Ross, Owen A.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations of the TARDBP gene encoding TDP-43 protein have been shown to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and have been reported to present with clinical heterogeneity including parkinsonism. In addition, TDP-43 pathology has been observed across a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Herein we report the presence of a TDP-43 mutation in a patient with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. The TDP-43 p.N267S substitution has been previously implicated in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Our findings widen the phenotypic presentation for the TDP-43 p.N267S substitution and support a possible role for rare TDP-43 mutations presenting with Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23231971

  10. Association of mutations in FLNA with craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Nathalie; Foulds, Nicola; Johnson, Diana S; Wilson, Louise C; Wyatt, Michelle; Robertson, Stephen P; Johnson, David; Wall, Steven A; Wilkie, Andrew OM

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of FLNA, an X-linked gene that encodes the cytoskeletal protein filamin A, cause diverse and distinct phenotypes including periventricular nodular heterotopia and otopalatodigital spectrum disorders (OPDS). Craniofacial abnormalities associated with OPDS include supraorbital hyperostosis, down-slanting palpebral fissures and micrognathia; craniosynostosis was previously described in association with FLNA mutations in two individual case reports. Here we present four further OPDS subjects who have pathological FLNA variants and craniosynostosis, supporting a causal link. Together with the previously reported patients, frontometaphyseal dysplasia was the most common clinical diagnosis (four of six cases overall); five patients had multiple suture synostosis with the sagittal suture being the most frequently involved (also five patients). No genotype–phenotype correlation was evident in the distribution of FLNA mutations. This report highlights the need to consider a filaminopathy in the differential diagnosis of craniosynostosis, especially in the presence of atypical cranial or skeletal features. PMID:25873011

  11. Reverse mutations in the fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.T.; Houck, G.E. Jr.; Ding, Xiaohua

    1996-08-09

    Three females were identified who have apparent reversal of fragile X premutations. Based on haplotype analysis of nearby markers, they were found to have inherited a fragile X chromosome from their premutation carrier mothers, and yet had normal size FMR1 repeat alleles. The changes in repeat sizes from mother to daughter was 95 to 35 in the first, 145 to 43 in the second, and 82 to 33 in the third. In the first family, mutations of the nearby microsatellites FRAXAC2 and DXS548 were also observed. In the other two, only mutations involving the FMR1 repeats were found. We suggest differing mutational mechanisms such as gene conversion versus DNA replication slippage may underlie such reversions. We estimate that such revertants may occur among 1% or less of premutation carrier offspring. Our results indicate that women identified to be carriers by linkage should be retested by direct DNA analysis. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Mutation Accumulation in Growing Asexual Lineages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanari, J. F.; Colato, A.; Howard, R. S.

    2003-11-01

    The stochastic loss of entire classes of individuals bearing the fewest number of mutations—a process known as Muller's ratchet—is studied in asexual populations growing unconstrained from a single founder. In the neutral regime, where mutations have zero effect on fitness, we derive a recursion equation for the probability distribution of the minimum number of mutations carried by individuals in the least-loaded class, and obtain an explicit condition for the halting of the ratchet. Next, we consider the case of deleterious mutations, and show that weak selection can actually accelerate the ratchet beyond that achieved for the neutral regime. This effect is transitory, however, as our results suggest that even weak purifying selection will eventually lead to the complete cessation of the ratchet. These results may have important implications for problems in biology and the medical sciences.

  13. Novel WDR72 Mutation and Cytoplasmic Localization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S.-K.; Seymen, F.; Lee, K.-E.; Kang, H.-Y.; Yildirim, M.; Bahar Tuna, E.; Gencay, K.; Hwang, Y.-H.; Nam, K.H.; De La Garza, R.J.; Hu, J.C.-C.; Simmer, J.P.; Kim, J.-W.

    2010-01-01

    The proven candidate genes for amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) are AMELX, ENAM, MMP20, KLK4, FAM83H, and WDR72. We performed mutation analyses on seven families with hypomaturation AI. A novel WDR72 dinucleotide deletion mutation (g.57,426_57,427delAT; c.1467_ 1468delAT; p.V491fsX497) was identified in both alleles of probands from Mexico and Turkey. Haplotype analyses showed that the mutations arose independently in the two families. The disease perfectly segregated with the genotype. Only persons with both copies of the mutant allele were affected. Their hypomineralized enamel suffered attrition and orange-brown staining following eruption. Expression of WDR72 fused to green fluorescent protein showed a cytoplasmic localization exclusively and was absent from the nucleus. We conclude that WDR72 is a cytoplasmic protein that is critical for dental enamel formation. PMID:20938048

  14. Radiation induced dynamic mutations and transgenerational effects.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed that radiation can induce genomic instability in whole body systems. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying induced genomic instability are not known at present, this interesting phenomenon could be the manifestation of a cellular fail-safe system in which fidelity of repair and replication is down-regulated to tolerate DNA damage. Two features of genomic instability namely, delayed mutation and untargeted mutation, require two mechanisms of ;damage memory' and ;damage sensing, signal transduction and execution' to induce mutations at a non damaged-site. In this report, the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability and possible mechanisms are discussed using mouse data collected in our laboratory as the main bases.

  15. Radiation-induced mutations and plant breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ionizing radiation could cause genetic changes in an organism and could modify gene linkages. The induction of mutation through radiation is random and the probability of getting the desired genetic change is low but can be increased by manipulating different parameters such as dose rate, physical conditions under which the material has been irradiated, etc. Induced mutations have been used as a supplement to conventional plant breeding, particularly for creating genetic variability for specific characters such as improved plant structure, pest and disease resistance, and desired changes in maturity period; more than 200 varieties of crop plants have been developed by this technique. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has used this technique fruitfully to evolve better germplasm in cotton, rice, chickpea, wheat and mungbean; some of the mutants have become popular commercial varieties. This paper describes some uses of radiation induced mutations and the results achieved in Pakistan so far.

  16. Effect of Mutations on HP Lattice Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangjie; Vogel, Thomas; Landau, David; Li, Ying; Wüst, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Using Wang-Landau sampling with approriate trial moves[2], we investigate the effect of different types of mutations on lattice proteins in the HP model. While exact studies have been carried out for short HP proteins[3], the systems we investigate are of much larger size and hence not accessible for exact enumerations. Based on the estimated density of states, we systematically analyse the changes in structure and degeneracy of ground states of particular proteins and measure thermodynamic quantities like the stability of ground states and the specific heat, for example. Both, neutral mutations, which do not change the structure and stability of ground states, as well as critical mutations, which do change the thermodynamic behavior qualitatively, have been observed. Research supported by NSF

  17. LRRK2 mutations and neurotoxicant susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between genetic and environmental factors are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the majority of Parkinson’s disease (PD) cases. However, our understanding of these interactions is at an early stage. Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of hereditary PD. Penetrance of LRRK2 mutations is incomplete and variable, suggesting that other environmental or genetic factors may contribute to the development of the disorder. Recently, using animal models, several attempts have been made to understand if LRRK2 may mediate sensitivity to environmental neurotoxicants. Here, we critically review the most current data on how LRRK2 mutations influence neurotoxicity in PD models. PMID:25888648

  18. BRAF Mutation in Colorectal Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Barras, David

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still one of the deadliest cancer-related diseases. About 10% of CRC patients are characterized by a mutation in the B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) gene resulting in a valine-to-glutamate change at the residue 600 (V600E). This mutation is also present in more than 60% of melanoma patients. BRAF inhibitors were developed and found to improve patient survival; however, most patients at the end of the track ultimately develop resistance to these inhibitors. Melanoma patients benefit from the combination of BRAF inhibitors with mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors, among others. Unfortunately, colorectal patients do not respond much efficiently, which suggests different resistance mechanisms between the two cancer types. This review aims at shedding light on recent discoveries that improve our understanding of the BRAF mutation biology in CRC. PMID:26396549

  19. Inherited thrombocytopenia due to GATA-1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Patrick D; Balamohan, Sanjeev M; Raskind, Wendy H; Kacena, Melissa A

    2011-09-01

    The GATA family of transcription factors, including the founding member, GATA-1, have an important role in gene regulation. GATA-1 is integral to successful hematopoiesis. A wide variety of mutations in GATA-1 affect its function, as well as its interaction with its cofactors (especially Friend of GATA) and the genes upon which GATA-1 acts. Here we review the known mutations, focusing on the specific alterations within the amino acid sequence, the resulting effect on hematopoietic development, and the clinical manifestations that result. Attention is also paid to the relationship between Trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome, and the phenomenon of a truncated GATA-1, named GATA-1s. The evidence for specific interaction between GATA-1 and chromosome 21, which may explain the correlation between these two mutations, is briefly reviewed.

  20. Estimating Mutation Load in Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Brenna M.; Botigué, Laura R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.; Gravel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology has facilitated the discovery of millions of variants in human genomes. A sizeable fraction of these alleles are thought to be deleterious. We review the pattern of deleterious alleles as ascertained in genomic data and ask whether human populations differ in their predicted burden of deleterious alleles, a phenomenon known as “mutation load.” We discuss three demographic models that are predicted to affect mutation load and relate these models to the evidence (or the lack thereof) for variation in the efficacy of purifying selection in diverse human genomes. We also discuss why accurate estimation of mutation load depends on assumptions regarding the distribution of dominance and selection coefficients, quantities that are poorly characterized for current genomic datasets. PMID:25963372

  1. The Importance of Mutational Drivers in GBM.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Rasime

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor, providing few effective therapeutic options, given the tumor heterogeneity and the accumulation of different genetic abnormalities that cause treatment failure. The many different genetic and epigenetic alterations present in GBM lead to modification of several major signaling pathways resulting in brain tumor growth, progression, and therapeutic resistance. Many functionally important mutations have been discovered, known as neutral passengers. IDH1/2, EZH2, and DNMT3A are the best known epigenetic modifiers in cancer. These mutations are important in determining disease prognosis such that the status of the MGMT gene is a direct target of chemotherapy. For these reasons, newly developed technologies are necessary to determine new candidate targets for targeted-therapy development in GBM. The determination of mutations will aid in this and in the discovery of combinations of targeted and conventional therapies to improve GBM treatment.

  2. Identification of Aneuploidy-tolerating Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Eduardo M.; Dephoure, Noah; Panneerselvam, Amudha; Tucker, Cheryl M.; Whittaker, Charles A.; Gygi, Steven P.; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Amon, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Aneuploidy causes a proliferative disadvantage in all normal cells analyzed to date, yet this condition is associated with a disease characterized by unabated proliferative potential, cancer. The mechanisms that allow cancer cells to tolerate the adverse effects of aneuploidy are not known. To probe this question, we identified aneuploid yeast strains with improved proliferative abilities. Their molecular characterization revealed strain-specific genetic alterations as well as mutations shared between different aneuploid strains. Among the latter, a loss of function mutation in the gene encoding the deubiquitinating enzyme UBP6 improves growth rates in four different aneuploid yeast strains by attenuating the changes in intracellular protein composition caused by aneuploidy. Our results demonstrate the existence of aneuploidy-tolerating mutations that improve the fitness of multiple different aneuploidies and highlight the importance of ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation in suppressing the adverse effects of aneuploidy. PMID:20850176

  3. How I treat FLT3-mutated AML

    PubMed Central

    Pratz, Keith W.

    2017-01-01

    FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), despite not being recognized as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system, is readily recognized as a particular challenge by clinical specialists who treat acute leukemia. This is especially true with regards to the patients harboring the most common type of FLT3 mutation, the internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation. Here we present 4 patient cases from our institution and discuss how our management reflects what we have learned about this subtype of the disease. We also reflect on how we anticipate the management might change in the near future, with the emergence of clinically useful tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:27872057

  4. Germline mutation rates and the long-term phenotypic effects of mutation accumulation in wild-type laboratory mice and mutator mice

    PubMed Central

    Uchimura, Arikuni; Higuchi, Mayumi; Minakuchi, Yohei; Ohno, Mizuki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Miura, Ikuo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Nishino, Jo; Yagi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The germline mutation rate is an important parameter that affects the amount of genetic variation and the rate of evolution. However, neither the rate of germline mutations in laboratory mice nor the biological significance of the mutation rate in mammalian populations is clear. Here we studied genome-wide mutation rates and the long-term effects of mutation accumulation on phenotype in more than 20 generations of wild-type C57BL/6 mice and mutator mice, which have high DNA replication error rates. We estimated the base-substitution mutation rate to be 5.4 × 10−9 (95% confidence interval = 4.6 × 10−9–6.5 × 10−9) per nucleotide per generation in C57BL/6 laboratory mice, about half the rate reported in humans. The mutation rate in mutator mice was 17 times that in wild-type mice. Abnormal phenotypes were 4.1-fold more frequent in the mutator lines than in the wild-type lines. After several generations, the mutator mice reproduced at substantially lower rates than the controls, exhibiting low pregnancy rates, lower survival rates, and smaller litter sizes, and many of the breeding lines died out. These results provide fundamental information about mouse genetics and reveal the impact of germline mutation rates on phenotypes in a mammalian population. PMID:26129709

  5. Germline mutation rates and the long-term phenotypic effects of mutation accumulation in wild-type laboratory mice and mutator mice.

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Arikuni; Higuchi, Mayumi; Minakuchi, Yohei; Ohno, Mizuki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Miura, Ikuo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Nishino, Jo; Yagi, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    The germline mutation rate is an important parameter that affects the amount of genetic variation and the rate of evolution. However, neither the rate of germline mutations in laboratory mice nor the biological significance of the mutation rate in mammalian populations is clear. Here we studied genome-wide mutation rates and the long-term effects of mutation accumulation on phenotype in more than 20 generations of wild-type C57BL/6 mice and mutator mice, which have high DNA replication error rates. We estimated the base-substitution mutation rate to be 5.4 × 10(-9) (95% confidence interval = 4.6 × 10(-9)-6.5 × 10(-9)) per nucleotide per generation in C57BL/6 laboratory mice, about half the rate reported in humans. The mutation rate in mutator mice was 17 times that in wild-type mice. Abnormal phenotypes were 4.1-fold more frequent in the mutator lines than in the wild-type lines. After several generations, the mutator mice reproduced at substantially lower rates than the controls, exhibiting low pregnancy rates, lower survival rates, and smaller litter sizes, and many of the breeding lines died out. These results provide fundamental information about mouse genetics and reveal the impact of germline mutation rates on phenotypes in a mammalian population.

  6. Mitochondrial tRNA mutations and disease.

    PubMed

    Yarham, John W; Elson, Joanna L; Blakely, Emma L; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt-) tRNA (MTT) gene mutations are an important cause of human morbidity and are associated with a wide range of pathology, from isolated organ-specific diseases such as myopathy or hearing loss, through to multisystem disorders with encephalopathy, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and life-threatening cardiomyopathy. Our understanding of how MTT mutations cause disease remains poor and progress has been hampered by the complex interaction of genotype with phenotype that can result in patients who harbor the same mutation exhibiting starkly contrasting phenotypes, whereas other (genetically heterogeneous) patients manifest clinically identical syndromes. A further complexity is the highly polymorphic nature of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which must temper any reflex assumptions of pathogenicity for novel MTT substitutions. Nevertheless significant progress is being made and we shall review the methods employed to identify and characterize MTT mutations as pathogenic. Also important is our understanding of the molecular processes involved and we shall discuss the data available on two of the most studied MTT mutations (m.8344A > G and m.3243A > G) as well as other potential pathogenic mechanisms. Knowledge of factors influencing the inheritance of MTT mutations, and therefore the likelihood of disease transmission, is of particular importance to female patients. At present, the factors determining transmission remain elusive, but we shall examine several possible mechanisms and discuss the evidence for each. Finally, a number of different yeast and mouse models are currently used to investigate mitochondrial disease and we will assess the importance of and difficulties associated with each model as well as the future of possible therapies for patients with mitochondrial disease.

  7. DNAJC13 mutations in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Rajput, Alex; Milnerwood, Austen J; Shah, Brinda; Szu-Tu, Chelsea; Trinh, Joanne; Yu, Irene; Encarnacion, Mary; Munsie, Lise N; Tapia, Lucia; Gustavsson, Emil K; Chou, Patrick; Tatarnikov, Igor; Evans, Daniel M; Pishotta, Frederick T; Volta, Mattia; Beccano-Kelly, Dayne; Thompson, Christina; Lin, Michelle K; Sherman, Holly E; Han, Heather J; Guenther, Bruce L; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Bernard, Virginie; Ross, Colin J; Appel-Cresswell, Silke; Stoessl, A Jon; Robinson, Christopher A; Dickson, Dennis W; Ross, Owen A; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Aasly, Jan O; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Hentati, Faycal; Gibson, Rachel A; McPherson, Peter S; Girard, Martine; Rajput, Michele; Rajput, Ali H; Farrer, Matthew J

    2014-04-01

    A Saskatchewan multi-incident family was clinically characterized with Parkinson disease (PD) and Lewy body pathology. PD segregates as an autosomal-dominant trait, which could not be ascribed to any known mutation. DNA from three affected members was subjected to exome sequencing. Genome alignment, variant annotation and comparative analyses were used to identify shared coding mutations. Sanger sequencing was performed within the extended family and ethnically matched controls. Subsequent genotyping was performed in a multi-ethnic case-control series consisting of 2928 patients and 2676 control subjects from Canada, Norway, Taiwan, Tunisia, and the USA. A novel mutation in receptor-mediated endocytosis 8/RME-8 (DNAJC13 p.Asn855Ser) was found to segregate with disease. Screening of cases and controls identified four additional patients with the mutation, of which two had familial parkinsonism. All carriers shared an ancestral DNAJC13 p.Asn855Ser haplotype and claimed Dutch-German-Russian Mennonite heritage. DNAJC13 regulates the dynamics of clathrin coats on early endosomes. Cellular analysis shows that the mutation confers a toxic gain-of-function and impairs endosomal transport. DNAJC13 immunoreactivity was also noted within Lewy body inclusions. In late-onset disease which is most reminiscent of idiopathic PD subtle deficits in endosomal receptor-sorting/recycling are highlighted by the discovery of pathogenic mutations VPS35, LRRK2 and now DNAJC13. With this latest discovery, and from a neuronal perspective, a temporal and functional ecology is emerging that connects synaptic exo- and endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, endosomal recycling and the endo-lysosomal degradative pathway. Molecular deficits in these processes are genetically linked to the phenotypic spectrum of parkinsonism associated with Lewy body pathology.

  8. Mutational Consequences of Ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Song, Lisa Yun; Goff, Marisa; Davidian, Christina; Mao, Zhiyuan; London, Marisa; Lam, Karen; Yung, Madeline; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2016-10-01

    We examined the mutagenic specificity of the widely used antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CPR), which displays weak to moderate mutagenic activity in several bacteria and generates short in-frame deletions in rpoB in Staphylococcus aureus To determine the spectrum of mutations in a system where any gene knockout would result in a recovered mutant, including frameshifts and both short and long deletions, we examined CPR-induced mutations in the thymidylate synthase-encoding thyA gene. Here, any mutation resulting in loss of thymidylate synthase activity generates trimethoprim (Trm) resistance. We found that deletions and insertions in all three reading frames predominated in the spectrum. They tend to be short deletions and cluster in two regions, one being a GC-rich region with potential extensive secondary structures. We also exploited the well-characterized rpoB-Rif(r) system in Escherichia coli to determine that cells grown in the presence of sublethal doses of CPR not only induced short in-frame deletions in rpoB, but also generated base substitution mutations resulting from induction of the SOS system. Some of the specific point mutations prominent in the spectrum of a strain that overproduces the dinB-encoded Pol IV were also present after growth in CPR. However, these mutations disappeared in CPR-treated dinB mutants, whereas the deletions remained. Moreover, CPR-induced deletions also occurred in a strain lacking all three SOS-induced polymerases. We discuss the implications of these findings for the consequences of overuse of CPR and other antibiotics. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The spectrum of mutation produced by low dose radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Morley,Alexander,A; Turner, David,R

    2004-10-31

    Inherited mutations are the basis of evolution and acquired mutations in humans are important in ageing, cancer and possibly various forms of tissue degeneration. Mutations are responsible for many of the long-term effects of radiation. However, sensitive direct detection of mutations in humans has been difficult. The aims of the project were to develop methods for the sensitive enumeration of mutations in DNA, to measure mutation frequencies in a wide variety of tissue types and to quantify the mutational effect of direct oxidative damage produced by radiation, at both high and low doses. The project was successful in developing a sensitive method which could detect mutations directly in the genetic material, DNA at a sensitivity of 1 mutated molecule in 1000000000 unmutated molecules. However a number of methodological problems had to be overcome and lack of ongoing funding made it impossible to fulfill all of the aims of the project

  10. Understanding mutagenesis through delineation of mutational signatures in human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Petljak, Mia; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.

    2016-05-04

    Each individual cell within a human body acquires a certain number of somatic mutations during a course of its lifetime. These mutations originate from a wide spectra of both endogenous and exogenous mutational processes that leave distinct patterns of mutations, termed mutational signatures, embedded within the genomes of all cells. In recent years, the vast amount of data produced by sequencing of cancer genomes was coupled with novel mathematical models and computational tools to generate the first comprehensive map of mutational signatures in human cancer. Up to date, >30 distinct mutational signatures have been identified, and etiologies have been proposed for many of them. This paper provides a brief historical background on examination of mutational patterns in human cancer, summarizes the knowledge accumulated since introducing the concept of mutational signatures and discusses their future potential applications and perspectives within the field.

  11. Understanding mutagenesis through delineation of mutational signatures in human cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Petljak, Mia; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.

    2016-05-04

    Each individual cell within a human body acquires a certain number of somatic mutations during a course of its lifetime. These mutations originate from a wide spectra of both endogenous and exogenous mutational processes that leave distinct patterns of mutations, termed mutational signatures, embedded within the genomes of all cells. In recent years, the vast amount of data produced by sequencing of cancer genomes was coupled with novel mathematical models and computational tools to generate the first comprehensive map of mutational signatures in human cancer. Up to date, >30 distinct mutational signatures have been identified, and etiologies have been proposedmore » for many of them. This paper provides a brief historical background on examination of mutational patterns in human cancer, summarizes the knowledge accumulated since introducing the concept of mutational signatures and discusses their future potential applications and perspectives within the field.« less

  12. Fitness cost of chromosomal drug resistance-conferring mutations.

    PubMed

    Sander, Peter; Springer, Burkhard; Prammananan, Therdsak; Sturmfels, Antje; Kappler, Martin; Pletschette, Michel; Böttger, Erik C

    2002-05-01

    To study the cost of chromosomal drug resistance mutations to bacteria, we investigated the fitness cost of mutations that confer resistance to different classes of antibiotics affecting bacterial protein synthesis (aminocyclitols, 2-deoxystreptamines, macrolides). We used a model system based on an in vitro competition assay with defined Mycobacterium smegmatis laboratory mutants; selected mutations were introduced by genetic techniques to address the possibility that compensatory mutations ameliorate the resistance cost. We found that the chromosomal drug resistance mutations studied often had only a small fitness cost; compensatory mutations were not involved in low-cost or no-cost resistance mutations. When drug resistance mutations found in clinical isolates were considered, selection of those mutations that have little or no fitness cost in the in vitro competition assay seems to occur. These results argue against expectations that link decreased levels of antibiotic consumption with the decline in the level of resistance.

  13. APC germline mutations in families with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    De Queiroz Rossanese, Lillian Barbosa; De Lima Marson, Fernando Augusto; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Coy, Claudio Saddy Rodrigues; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) germline mutations are responsible for the occurrence of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Somatic mutations lead to malignant transformation of adenomas. In this context, considering the significance of APC germline mutations in FAP, we aimed to identify APC germline mutations. In the present study, 20 FAP patients were enrolled. The determination of APC germline mutations was performed using sequencing, and the mutations were compared with clinical markers (gender, age at diagnosis, smoking habits, TNM stage, Astler‑Coller stage, degree of differentiation of adenocarcinoma). The data were compared using the SPSS program, with the Fisher's exact test and χ2 test, considering α=0.05. According to the main results in our sample, 16 alleles with deleterious mutations (80% of the patients) were identified while 7 (35%) patients had no deleterious mutations. There was a predominance of nonsense (45% of the patients) and frameshift (20% of the patients) mutations. There was no statistical significance between the APC germline mutations identified and the clinical variables considered in our study. Only TNM stage was associated with the presence of deleterious mutations. Patients with deleterious mutations had an OR, 0.086 (IC=0.001-0.984); TNM stage I+II in comparison with III+IV, when compared with the patients with no deleterious mutations identified. In this context, as a conclusion, we demonstrated the molecular heterogeneity of APC germline mutations in FAP and the difficulty to perform molecular diagnostics in a Brazilian population, considering the admixed population analyzed.

  14. p16 Mutations in hereditary melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Hussussian, C.J.; Struewing, J.P.; Goldstein, A.M.

    1994-09-01

    The p16 gene (CDK4 inhibitor) is located in chromosome 9p21, a region that shows linkage to hereditary melanoma and is deleted in many different tumors. p16 was analyzed in 19 families with hereditary melanoma by amplifying the entire coding region in 5 short segments and screening by SSCP under several conditions that should resolve >95% of polymorphisms. A total of 10 variants were detected in 15 families. The mutations detected included 7 missense, 1 silent, 1 nonsense, and one that destroyed a consensus splice donor site. One of the missense mutations was present in 5/21 spouses in these families, giving an estimated allele frequency of 0.12. Therefore the {triangle}436 [G{yields}A] variant is a common polymorphism and is not involved in the development of melanoma. However, there was strong evidence for the involvement of the other p16 mutations in five 9p21 linked families. In these families, a total of 17/19 individuals with melanoma inherited the mutant allele, while only 2/26 unaffected family members (1 with dysplastic nevi) and 0/13 spouses had the mutant alleles. In two additional 9p21 linked families, one segregated a silent mutation in 3/4 of the affected individuals, and the second only contained the common {triangle}436 [G{yields}A] mutation. In the two families with strong evidence of linkage to chromosome 1p36 and exclusion of linkage to 9p21, no SSCP variants were detected at p16 among 11 melanoma cases, except for a single affected individual who inherited the variant from an unaffected parent. These data confirm the existence of genetic heterogeneity in families with hereditary melanoma. Most (5/7) of the families with strong linkage to 9p21 had p16 missense mutations that segregated with the disease, while 2 families with strong linkage to chromosome 1p36 did not have any detectable p16 mutations that segregated with the disease. Further functional analyses of these mutations will clarify which are causally related to hereditary melanoma.

  15. Selection of mutations for increased protein stability.

    PubMed

    van den Burg, Bertus; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2002-08-01

    There are many ways to select mutations that increase the stability of proteins, including rational design, functional screening of randomly generated mutant libraries, and comparison of naturally occurring homologous proteins. The protein engineer's toolbox is expanding and the number of successful examples of engineered protein stability is increasing. Still, the selection of thermostable mutations is not a standard process. Selection is complicated by lack of knowledge of the process that leads to thermal inactivation and by the fact that proteins employ a large variety of structural tricks to achieve stability.

  16. Biotinidase deficiency: novel mutations in Algerian patients.

    PubMed

    Tiar, A; Mekki, A; Nagara, M; Rhouma, F Ben; Messaoud, O; Halim, N Ben; Kefi, R; Hamlaoui, M T; Lebied, A; Abdelhak, S

    2014-02-15

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism leading to varying degrees of neurologic and cutaneous symptoms when untreated. In the present study, we report the clinical features and the molecular investigation of biotinidase deficiency in four unrelated consanguineous Algerian families including five patients with profound biotinidase deficiency and one child characterized as partial biotinidase deficiency. Mutation analysis revealed three novel mutations, c.del631C and c.1557T>G within exon 4 and c.324-325insTA in exon 3. Since newborn screening is not available in Algeria, cascade screening in affected families would be very helpful to identify at risk individuals.

  17. On spatial mutation-selection models

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratiev, Yuri; Kutoviy, Oleksandr E-mail: kutovyi@mit.edu; Minlos, Robert Pirogov, Sergey

    2013-11-15

    We discuss the selection procedure in the framework of mutation models. We study the regulation for stochastically developing systems based on a transformation of the initial Markov process which includes a cost functional. The transformation of initial Markov process by cost functional has an analytic realization in terms of a Kimura-Maruyama type equation for the time evolution of states or in terms of the corresponding Feynman-Kac formula on the path space. The state evolution of the system including the limiting behavior is studied for two types of mutation-selection models.

  18. On spatial mutation-selection models

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratiev, Yuri; Kutoviy, Oleksandr E-mail: kutovyi@mit.edu; Minlos, Robert Pirogov, Sergey

    2013-11-15

    We discuss the selection procedure in the framework of mutation models. We study the regulation for stochastically developing systems based on a transformation of the initial Markov process which includes a cost functional. The transformation of initial Markov process by cost functional has an analytic realization in terms of a Kimura-Maruyama type equation for the time evolution of states or in terms of the corresponding Feynman-Kac formula on the path space. The state evolution of the system including the limiting behavior is studied for two types of mutation-selection models.

  19. INPPL1 gene mutations in opsismodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Fradet, Anaïs; Fitzgerald, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The INPPL1 (inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1) gene encodes the inositol phosphatase, SHIP2 (for src homology 2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase 2). SHIP2 functions to dephosphorylate, and negatively regulate, the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)P3. SHIP2 has been well studied in the area of insulin resistance and obesity but has roles in cancer and other disorders. Recently, it was reported that mutations in INPPL1 cause opsismodysplasia, a rare, autosomal recessive severe skeletal dysplasia. This review focuses on the mutations associated with opsismodysplasia and explores the role of INPPL1/ SHIP2 in skeletal development. PMID:27708270

  20. A TPM3 mutation causing cap myopathy.

    PubMed

    De Paula, Andre Maues; Franques, Jerome; Fernandez, Carla; Monnier, Nicole; Lunardi, Joel; Pellissier, Jean-François; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Pouget, Jean

    2009-10-01

    Cap disease is a rare congenital myopathy associated with skeletal malformations and respiratory involvement. Abnormally arranged myofibrils taking the appearance of a "cap" are the morphological hallmark of this entity. We report a case of cap disease concerning a 42-year-old man, without any family history and presenting a p.Arg168His mutation on the TPM3 gene. His first biopsy at 7years had only shown selective type I hypotrophy. Mutations of TPM3 gene have been found in nemaline myopathy, congenital fiber type disproportion, but never before in cap disease.

  1. The study of human mutation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    We will describe recent developments regarding the question of induced mutations in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As part of that work we, describe some developments with respect to the Amerindian blood samples collected under DoE sponsorship between 1964 and 1982. Then developments regarding the application of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) to the study of genetic variation and mutation affecting protein characteristics. In particular, we will report on the identification and isolation of genes of especial interest as reflected in the behavior of the proteins which they encode.

  2. INPPL1 gene mutations in opsismodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Fradet, Anaïs; Fitzgerald, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    The INPPL1 (inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1) gene encodes the inositol phosphatase, SHIP2 (for src homology 2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase 2). SHIP2 functions to dephosphorylate, and negatively regulate, the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)P3. SHIP2 has been well studied in the area of insulin resistance and obesity but has roles in cancer and other disorders. Recently, it was reported that mutations in INPPL1 cause opsismodysplasia, a rare, autosomal recessive severe skeletal dysplasia. This review focuses on the mutations associated with opsismodysplasia and explores the role of INPPL1/ SHIP2 in skeletal development.

  3. Mutational Dynamics of Aroid Chloroplast Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ibrar; Biggs, Patrick J.; Matthews, Peter J.; Collins, Lesley J.; Hendy, Michael D.; Lockhart, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A characteristic feature of eukaryote and prokaryote genomes is the co-occurrence of nucleotide substitution and insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. Although similar observations have also been made for chloroplast DNA, genome-wide associations have not been reported. We determined the chloroplast genome sequences for two morphotypes of taro (Colocasia esculenta; family Araceae) and compared these with four publicly available aroid chloroplast genomes. Here, we report the extent of genome-wide association between direct and inverted repeats, indels, and substitutions in these aroid chloroplast genomes. We suggest that alternative but not mutually exclusive hypotheses explain the mutational dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution. PMID:23204304

  4. Tyrosinemia type II: Mutation update, 11 novel mutations and description of 5 independent subjects with a novel founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Peña-Quintana, L; Scherer, G; Curbelo-Estévez, M L; Jiménez-Acosta, F; Hartmann, B; La Roche, F; Meavilla-Olivas, S; Pérez-Cerdá, C; García-Segarra, N; Giguère, Y; Huppke, P; Mitchell, G A; Mönch, E; Trump, D; Vianey-Saban, C; Trimble, E R; Vitoria-Miñana, I; Reyes-Suárez, D; Ramírez-Lorenzo, T; Tugores, A

    2017-09-01

    Tyrosinemia type II, also known as Richner-Hanhart Syndrome, is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder, caused by mutations in the gene encoding hepatic cytosolic tyrosine aminotransferase, leading to the accumulation of tyrosine and its metabolites which cause ocular and skin lesions, that may be accompanied by neurological manifestations, mostly intellectual disability. To update disease-causing mutations and current clinical knowledge of the disease. Genetic and clinical information were obtained from a collection of both unreported and previously reported cases. We report 106 families, represented by 143 individuals, carrying a total of 36 genetic variants, 11 of them not previously known to be associated with the disease. Variants include 3 large deletions, 21 non-synonymous and 5 nonsense amino-acid changes, 5 frameshifts and 2 splice variants. We also report 5 patients from Gran Canaria, representing the largest known group of unrelated families sharing the same P406L mutation. Data analysis did not reveal a genotype-phenotype correlation, but stressed the need of early diagnosis: All patients improved the oculocutaneous lesions after dietary treatment but neurological symptoms prevailed. The discovery of founder mutations in isolated populations, and the benefits of early intervention, should increase diagnostic awareness in newborns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Variable expressivity and mutation databases: The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Beitel, L K; Trifiro, M A

    2001-05-01

    For over 50 years genetics has presumed that variations in phenotypic expression have, for the most part, been the result of alterations in genotype. The importance and value of mutation databases has been based on the premise that the same gene or allelic variation in a specific gene that has been proven to determine a specific phenotype, will always produce the same phenotype. However, recent evidence has shown that so called "simple" Mendelian disorders or monogenic traits are often far from simple, exhibiting phenotypic variation (variable expressivity) that cannot be explained solely by a gene or allelic alteration. The AR gene mutations database now lists 25 cases where different degrees of androgen insensitivity are caused by identical mutations in the androgen receptor gene. In five of these cases the phenotypic variability is due to somatic mosaicism, that is, somatic mutations that occur in only certain cells of androgen-sensitive tissue. Recently, a number of other cases of variable expressivity have also been linked to somatic mosaicism. The impact of variable expressivity due to somatic mutations and mosaicism on mutation databases is discussed. In particular, the effect of an organism exhibiting genetic heterogeneity within its tissues, and the possibility of an organism's genotype changing over its lifetime, are considered to have important implications for mutation databases in the future. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Estimation of the upper limit of the mutation rate and mean heterozygous effect of deleterious mutations.

    PubMed

    Caballero, A

    2006-12-01

    Deng et al. have recently proposed that estimates of an upper limit to the rate of spontaneous mutations and their average heterozygous effect can be obtained from the mean and variance of a given fitness trait in naturally segregating populations, provided that allele frequencies are maintained at the balance between mutation and selection. Using simulations they show that this estimation method generally has little bias and is very robust to violations of the mutation-selection balance assumption. Here I show that the particular parameters and models used in these simulations generally reduce the amount of bias that can occur with this estimation method. In particular, the assumption of a large mutation rate in the simulations always implies a low bias of estimates. In addition, the specific model of overdominance used to check the violation of the mutation-selection balance assumption is such that there is not a dramatic decline in mean fitness from overdominant mutations, again implying a low bias of estimates. The assumption of lower mutation rates and/or other models of balancing selection may imply considerably larger biases of the estimates, making the reliability of the proposed method highly questionable.

  7. Mutation profiles of phenylketonuria in Quebec populations: Evidence of stratification and novel mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Rozen, R.; Mascisch, A.; Scriver, C.R. ); Lambert, M. ); Laframboise, R. )

    1994-08-01

    Independent phenylketonuria (PKU) chromosomes (n=109) representing 80% of a proband cohort in Quebec province carry 18 different identified mutations in 20 different mutation/haplotype combinations. The study reported here, the third in a series on Quebec populations, was done in the Montreal region and predominantly on French Canadians. It has identified three novel mutations (A309D, D338Y, and 1054/1055delG [352fs]) and one unusual mutation/RFLP haplotype combination (E280K on Hp 2). The relative frequencies and distribution of PKU mutations were then compared in three regions and population subsets (eastern Quebec, French Canadian; western Quebec, French Canadian; and Montreal, non-French Canadian). The distributions of the prevalent and rare mutations are nonrandom and provide evidence for genetic stratification. The latter and the presence of eight unusual mutation/haplotype combinations in Quebec families with European ancestries (the aforementioned four and M1V, 165T, S349P, and R408W on Hp 1) corroborate demographic and anthropologic evidence, from elsewhere, for different origins of French Canadians in eastern and western Quebec. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. PAH Mutation Analysis Consortium Database: 1997. Prototype for relational locus-specific mutation databases.

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, P M; Byck, S; Prevost, L; Scriver, C R

    1998-01-01

    PAHdb (http://www.mcgill.ca/pahdb ) is a curated relational database (Fig. 1) of nucleotide variation in the human PAH cDNA (GenBank U49897). Among 328 different mutations by state (Fig. 2) the majority are rare mutations causing hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) (OMIM 261600), the remainder are polymorphic variants without apparent effect on phenotype. PAHdb modules contain mutations, polymorphic haplotypes, genotype-phenotype correlations, expression analysis, sources of information and the reference sequence; the database also contains pages of clinical information and data on three ENU mouse orthologues of human HPA. Only six different mutations account for 60% of human HPA chromosomes worldwide, mutations stratify by population and geographic region, and the Oriental and Caucasian mutation sets are different (Fig. 3). PAHdb provides curated electronic publication and one third of its incoming reports are direct submissions. Each different mutation receives a systematic (nucleotide) name and a unique identifier (UID). Data are accessed both by a Newsletter and a search engine on the website; integrity of the database is ensured by keeping the curated template offline. There have been >6500 online interrogations of the website. PMID:9399840

  9. Mutation and mutation rates at Y chromosome specific Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms (STRs): a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Nádia; Gusmão, Leonor; Amorim, António

    2014-03-01

    Mutation is a topic of intense research and raises important problems in forensics. Since the markers of choice in current forensic genetics analyses are microsatellites or Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms (STRs), mutation is sufficiently common to cause difficulties in evaluating DNA evidence in a significant proportion of cases but at the same time rare enough to turn the estimation of the corresponding probability of occurrence into a hard task. We address these issues using the simplest model of transmission: the Y chromosome specific STRs. Within this model, and under an explicit set of definitions and involved assumptions, we developed the theoretical framework required for the study of allelic transitions in gametogenesis, identifying the required parameters and associated probabilities and finally we discuss the estimation of these parameters and their application in forensics. We conclude that (i) for forensic casework the relevant parameter for incorporation in a likelihood ratio is biallelic specific (i.e. the mutation rate estimate corresponds to the probability of the specific allelic transition observed) and (ii) for these estimates as well as in order to provide data for testing mutation models the absolute frequency of mutated and non-mutated transmissions per allele, along with the description of the observed mutations should be reported.

  10. Mutational load and mutational patterns in relation to age in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Stefano; Keilholz, Ulrich; Tinhofer, Ingeborg; Ebner, Oliva A.

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a cancer with well-defined tumor causes such as HPV infection, smoking and drinking.Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) HNSCC cohort we systematically studied the mutational load as well as patterns related to patient age in HNSCC. To obtain a homogenous set we excluded all patients with HPV infection as well as wild type TP53. We found that the overall mutational load is higher in patients of old age. Through unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we detected distinct mutational clusters in very young as well as very old patients. In the group of old patients, we identified four enriched pathways (“Axon Guidance”, “ECM-Receptor Interaction”, “Focal Adhesion” and “Notch Signaling”) that are only sporadically mutated in the other age groups. Our findings indicate that the four pathways regulate cell motility, tumor invasion and angiogenesis supposedly leading to less aggressive tumors in older age patients. Importantly, we did not see a strict pattern of genes always mutated in older age but rather an accumulation of mutations in the same pathways. Our study provides indications of age-dependent differences in mutational backgrounds of tumors that might be relevant for treatment approaches of HNSCCs patients. PMID:27596625

  11. Benchmarking mutation effect prediction algorithms using functionally validated cancer-related missense mutations.

    PubMed

    Martelotto, Luciano G; Ng, Charlotte Ky; De Filippo, Maria R; Zhang, Yan; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Lim, Raymond S; Shen, Ronglai; Norton, Larry; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta

    2014-10-28

    Massively parallel sequencing studies have led to the identification of a large number of mutations present in a minority of cancers of a given site. Hence, methods to identify the likely pathogenic mutations that are worth exploring experimentally and clinically are required. We sought to compare the performance of 15 mutation effect prediction algorithms and their agreement. As a hypothesis-generating aim, we sought to define whether combinations of prediction algorithms would improve the functional effect predictions of specific mutations. Literature and database mining of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) affecting 15 cancer genes was performed to identify mutations supported by functional evidence or hereditary disease association to be classified either as non-neutral (n = 849) or neutral (n = 140) with respect to their impact on protein function. These SNVs were employed to test the performance of 15 mutation effect prediction algorithms. The accuracy of the prediction algorithms varies considerably. Although all algorithms perform consistently well in terms of positive predictive value, their negative predictive value varies substantially. Cancer-specific mutation effect predictors display no-to-almost perfect agreement in their predictions of these SNVs, whereas the non-cancer-specific predictors showed no-to-moderate agreement. Combinations of predictors modestly improve accuracy and significantly improve negative predictive values. The information provided by mutation effect predictors is not equivalent. No algorithm is able to predict sufficiently accurately SNVs that should be taken forward for experimental or clinical testing. Combining algorithms aggregates orthogonal information and may result in improvements in the negative predictive value of mutation effect predictions.

  12. Variation in Cancer Risks, by Mutation Position, in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deborah; Easton, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Cancer occurrence in 164 families with breast/ovarian cancer and germline BRCA2 mutations was studied to evaluate the evidence for genotype-phenotype correlations. Mutations in a central portion of the gene (the “ovarian cancer cluster region” [OCCR]) were associated with a significantly higher ratio of cases of ovarian:breast cancer in female carriers than were mutations 5′ or 3′ of this region (P<.0001), extending previous observations. The optimal definition of the OCCR, as judged on the basis of deviance statistics, was bounded by nucleotides 3059–4075 and 6503–6629. The relative and absolute risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with OCCR and non-OCCR mutations were estimated by a conditional likelihood approach, conditioning on the set of mutations observed in the families. OCCR mutations were associated both with a highly significantly lower risk of breast cancer (relative risk [RR] 0.63; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.46–0.84; P=.0012) and with a significantly higher risk of ovarian cancer (RR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.08–3.33; P=.026). No other differences in breast or ovarian cancer risk, by mutation position, were apparent. There was some evidence for a lower risk of prostate cancer in carriers of an OCCR mutation (RR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.24–1.00; P=.05), but there was no evidence of a difference in breast cancer risk in males. By age 80 years, the cumulative risk of breast cancer in male carriers of a BRCA2 mutation was estimated as 6.92% (95% CI = 1.20%–38.57%). Possible mechanisms for the variation in cancer risk are suggested by the coincidence of the OCCR with the RAD51-binding domain. PMID:11170890

  13. Multi-institutional oncogenic driver mutation analysis in lung adenocarcinoma: The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium experience

    PubMed Central

    Dias-Santagata, Dora; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Chen, Heidi; Fujimoto, Junya; Kugler, Kelly; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Iafrate, A. John; Ladanyi, Marc; Kris, Mark G.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Bunn, Paul A.; Minna, John D.; Kwiatkowski, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Molecular genetic analyses of lung adenocarcinoma have recently become standard of care for treatment selection. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium was formed to enable collaborative multi-institutional analyses of 10 potential oncogenic driver mutations. Technical aspects of testing, and clinicopathologic correlations are presented. Methods Mutation testing in at least one of 8 genes (EGFR, KRAS, ERBB2, AKT1, BRAF, MEK1, NRAS, PIK3CA) using SNaPshot, mass spectrometry, Sanger sequencing +/− PNA and/or sizing assays, along with ALK and/or MET FISH were performed in 6 labs on 1007 patients from 14 institutions. Results 1007 specimens had mutation analysis performed, and 733 specimens had all 10 genes analyzed. Mutation identification rates did not vary by analytic method. Biopsy and cytology specimens were inadequate for testing in 26% and 35% of cases compared to 5% of surgical specimens. Among the 1007 cases with mutation analysis performed, EGFR, KRAS, ALK, and ERBB2 alterations were detected in 22, 25, 8.5, and 2.4% of cases, respectively. EGFR mutations were highly associated with female sex, Asian race, and never smoking status; and less strongly associated with stage IV disease, presence of bone metastases, and absence of adrenal metastases. ALK rearrangements were strongly associated with never smoking status, and more weakly associated with presence of liver metastases. ERBB2 mutations were strongly associated with Asian race and never smoking status. Two mutations were seen in 2.7% of samples, all but one of which involved one or more of PIK3CA, ALK or MET. Conclusion Multi-institutional molecular analysis across multiple platforms, sample types, and institutions can yield consistent results and novel clinicopathological observations. PMID:25738220

  14. Frequent somatic TERT promoter mutations and CTNNB1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Chang, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Wook Youn; Lim, So Dug; Kim, Wan Seop; Hwang, Tea Sook; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Genetic alterations of TERT and CTNNB1 have been documented in hepatocellular carcinoma. TERT promoter mutations are the earliest genetic events in the multistep process of hepatocarcinogenesis related to cirrhosis. However, analyses of TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma tumor samples have not been performed in the Korean population, where hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma is prevalent. In order to identify the role of TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations in the hepatocarcinogenesis and pathogenesis of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, we performed the sequence analyses in 140 hepatocellular nodules (including 107 hepatocellular carcinomas), and 8 pairs of matched primary and relapsed hepatocellular carcinomas. TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations were only observed in hepatocellular carcinomas but not in precursor lesions. Of 109 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 41 (39.0%) and 15 (14.6%) harbored TERT and CTNNB1 mutations, respectively. TERT promotermutations were significantly more frequent in hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C virus infection (5/6; 83.3%) compared to tumors of other etiologies (P = 0.001). In two cases, discordance in TERT promoter mutation status was observed between the primary and the corresponding recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. The two patients with discordant cases had early relapses. In conclusion, we identified TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations as the most frequent somatic genetic alterations observed in hepatocellular carcinoma, indicating its pivotal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, we suggest the possibility of intratumoral genetic heterogeneity of TERT promoter mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma as indicated by the discordance in TERT promoter mutations between primary and corresponding recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27661004

  15. Frequent somatic TERT promoter mutations and CTNNB1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Chang, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Wook Youn; Lim, So Dug; Kim, Wan Seop; Hwang, Tea Sook; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-10-25

    Genetic alterations of TERT and CTNNB1 have been documented in hepatocellular carcinoma. TERT promoter mutations are the earliest genetic events in the multistep process of hepatocarcinogenesis related to cirrhosis. However, analyses of TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma tumor samples have not been performed in the Korean population, where hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma is prevalent. In order to identify the role of TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations in the hepatocarcinogenesis and pathogenesis of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, we performed the sequence analyses in 140 hepatocellular nodules (including 107 hepatocellular carcinomas), and 8 pairs of matched primary and relapsed hepatocellular carcinomas. TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations were only observed in hepatocellular carcinomas but not in precursor lesions. Of 109 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 41 (39.0%) and 15 (14.6%) harbored TERT and CTNNB1 mutations, respectively. TERT promotermutations were significantly more frequent in hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C virus infection (5/6; 83.3%) compared to tumors of other etiologies (P = 0.001). In two cases, discordance in TERT promoter mutation status was observed between the primary and the corresponding recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. The two patients with discordant cases had early relapses. In conclusion, we identified TERT promoter and CTNNB1 mutations as the most frequent somatic genetic alterations observed in hepatocellular carcinoma, indicating its pivotal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, we suggest the possibility of intratumoral genetic heterogeneity of TERT promoter mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma as indicated by the discordance in TERT promoter mutations between primary and corresponding recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Variation in cancer risks, by mutation position, in BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D; Easton, D

    2001-02-01

    Cancer occurrence in 164 families with breast/ovarian cancer and germline BRCA2 mutations was studied to evaluate the evidence for genotype-phenotype correlations. Mutations in a central portion of the gene (the "ovarian cancer cluster region" [OCCR]) were associated with a significantly higher ratio of cases of ovarian:breast cancer in female carriers than were mutations 5' or 3' of this region (P<.0001), extending previous observations. The optimal definition of the OCCR, as judged on the basis of deviance statistics, was bounded by nucleotides 3059-4075 and 6503-6629. The relative and absolute risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with OCCR and non-OCCR mutations were estimated by a conditional likelihood approach, conditioning on the set of mutations observed in the families. OCCR mutations were associated both with a highly significantly lower risk of breast cancer (relative risk [RR] 0.63; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.46-0.84; P=.0012) and with a significantly higher risk of ovarian cancer (RR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.08-3.33; P=.026). No other differences in breast or ovarian cancer risk, by mutation position, were apparent. There was some evidence for a lower risk of prostate cancer in carriers of an OCCR mutation (RR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.24-1.00; P=.05), but there was no evidence of a difference in breast cancer risk in males. By age 80 years, the cumulative risk of breast cancer in male carriers of a BRCA2 mutation was estimated as 6.92% (95% CI = 1.20%-38.57%). Possible mechanisms for the variation in cancer risk are suggested by the coincidence of the OCCR with the RAD51-binding domain.

  17. High-throughput oncogene mutation profiling shows demographic differences in BRAF mutation rates among melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Karin; Balint, Balazs; Toomey, Sinead; O'Leary, Patrick C; Unwin, Louise; Sheahan, Kieran; McDermott, Enda W; Murphy, Ian; van den Oord, Joost J; Rafferty, Mairin; FitzGerald, Dara M; Moran, Julie; Cummins, Robert; MacEneaney, Owen; Kay, Elaine W; O'Brien, Cathal P; Finn, Stephen P; Heffron, Cynthia C B B; Murphy, Michelle; Yela, Ruben; Power, Derek G; Regan, Padraic J; McDermott, Clodagh M; O'Keeffe, Allan; Orosz, Zsolt; Donnellan, Paul P; Crown, John P; Hennessy, Bryan T; Gallagher, William M

    2015-06-01

    Because of advances in targeted therapies, the clinical evaluation of cutaneous melanoma is increasingly based on a combination of traditional histopathology and molecular pathology. Therefore, it is necessary to expand our knowledge of the molecular events that accompany the development and progression of melanoma to optimize clinical management. The central objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of the mutational events that complement melanoma progression. High-throughput genotyping was adapted to query 159 known single nucleotide mutations in 33 cancer-related genes across two melanoma cohorts from Ireland (n=94) and Belgium (n=60). Results were correlated with various clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 23 mutations in 12 genes were identified, that is--BRAF, NRAS, MET, PHLPP2, PIK3R1, IDH1, KIT, STK11, CTNNB1, JAK2, ALK, and GNAS. Unexpectedly, we discovered significant differences in BRAF, MET, and PIK3R1 mutations between the cohorts. That is, cases from Ireland showed significantly lower (P<0.001) BRAF(V600E) mutation rates (19%) compared with the mutation frequency observed in Belgian patients (43%). Moreover, MET mutations were detected in 12% of Irish cases, whereas none of the Belgian patients harbored these mutations, and Irish patients significantly more often (P=0.027) had PIK3R1-mutant (33%) melanoma versus 17% of Belgian cases. The low incidence of BRAF(V600E)(-) mutant melanoma among Irish patients was confirmed in five independent Irish cohorts, and in total, only 165 of 689 (24%) Irish cases carried mutant BRAF(V600E). Together, our data show that melanoma-driving mutations vary by demographic area, which has important implications for the clinical management of this disease.

  18. Recurrent APC gene mutations in Polish FAP families

    PubMed Central

    Pławski, Andrzej; Podralska, Marta; Słomski, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    The molecular diagnostics of genetically conditioned disorders is based on the identification of the mutations in the predisposing genes. Hereditary cancer disorders of the gastrointestinal tracts are caused by mutations of the tumour suppressor genes or the DNA repair genes. Occurrence of recurrent mutation allows improvement of molecular diagnostics. The mutation spectrum in the genes causing hereditary forms of colorectal cancers in the Polish population was previously described. In the present work an estimation of the frequency of the recurrent mutations of the APC gene was performed. Eight types of mutations occurred in 19.4% of our FAP families and these constitute 43% of all Polish diagnosed families. PMID:19725996

  19. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Suppressors of Ras Mutations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    mutation and enhance the Vulvaless phenotype of mutations in lin-45 raf, sur-8 or mpk-1. Double mutant analysis suggests that sur-6 PP2A-B acts...Multivulva phenotype of an activated ras mutation and enhance the Vulvaless phenotype of mutations in lin-45 raf, sur-8 or mpk-1. Double mutant...dosage analysis indicated that the sur-8(kul67) mutation is a recessive , strong loss-of-function mutation. The deficiency mDf4 failed to complement sur

  20. The inheritance of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Cree, L M; Samuels, D C; Chinnery, P F

    2009-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations cause disease in >1 in 5000 of the population, and approximately 1 in 200 of the population are asymptomatic carriers of a pathogenic mtDNA mutation. Many patients with these pathogenic mtDNA mutations present with a progressive, disabling neurological syndrome that leads to major disability and premature death. There is currently no effective treatment for mitochondrial disorders, placing great emphasis on preventing the transmission of these diseases. An empiric approach can be used to guide genetic counseling for common mtDNA mutations, but many families transmit rare or unique molecular defects. There is therefore a pressing need to develop techniques to prevent transmission based on a solid understanding of the biological mechanisms. Several recent studies have cast new light on the genetics and cell biology of mtDNA inheritance, but these studies have also raised new controversies. Here we compare and contrast these findings and discuss their relevance for the transmission of human mtDNA diseases.

  1. Prostaglandin transporter mutations cause pachydermoperiostosis with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Christine P; Parry, David A; Logan, Clare V; Laissue, Paul; Rivera, Carolina; Restrepo, Carlos Martín; Fonseca, Dora J; Morgan, Joanne E; Allanore, Yannick; Fontenay, Michaela; Wipff, Julien; Varret, Mathilde; Gibault, Laure; Dalantaeva, Nadezhda; Korbonits, Márta; Zhou, Bowen; Yuan, Gang; Harifi, Ghita; Cefle, Kivanc; Palanduz, Sukru; Akoglu, Hadim; Zwijnenburg, Petra J; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D; Aubry-Rozier, Bérengère; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Accadia, Maria; Brancati, Francesco; Sheridan, Eamonn G; Taylor, Graham R; Carr, Ian M; Johnson, Colin A; Markham, Alexander F; Bonthron, David T

    2012-08-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis, or primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO), is an inherited multisystem disorder, whose features closely mimic the reactive osteoarthropathy that commonly accompanies neoplastic and inflammatory pathologies. We previously described deficiency of the prostaglandin-degrading enzyme 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) as a cause of this condition, implicating elevated circulating prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as causative of PHO, and perhaps also as the principal mediator of secondary HO. However, PHO is genetically heterogeneous. Here, we use whole-exome sequencing to identify recessive mutations of the prostaglandin transporter SLCO2A1, in individuals lacking HPGD mutations. We performed exome sequencing of four probands with severe PHO, followed by conventional mutation analysis of SLCO2A1 in nine others. Biallelic SLCO2A1 mutations were identified in 12 of the 13 families. Affected individuals had elevated urinary PGE(2), but unlike HPGD-deficient patients, also excreted considerable quantities of the PGE(2) metabolite, PGE-M. Clinical differences between the two groups were also identified, notably that SLCO2A1-deficient individuals have a high frequency of severe anemia due to myelofibrosis. These findings reinforce the key role of systemic or local prostaglandin excess as the stimulus to HO. They also suggest that the induction or maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells by prostaglandin may depend upon transporter activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mutational load analysis of unrelated individuals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary genetic models predict that the cumulative effect of rare deleterious mutations across the genome—known as mutational load burden—increases the susceptibility to complex disease. To test the mutational load burden hypothesis, we adopted a two-tiered approach: assessing the impact of whole-exome minor allele load burden and then conducting individual-gene screening. For our primary analysis, we examined various minor allele frequency (MAF) thresholds and weighting schemes to examine the overall effect of minor allele load on affection status. We found a consistent association between minor allele load and affection status, but this effect did not markedly increase within rare and/or functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our follow-up analysis considered minor allele load in individual genes to see whether only one or a few genes were driving the overall effect. Examining our most significant result—minor allele load of nonsynonymous SNPs with MAF < 2.4%—we detected no significantly associated genes after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. After moderately significant genes (p < 0.05) were removed, the overall effect of rare nonsynonymous allele load remained significant. Overall, we did not find clear support for mutational load burden on affection status; however, these results are ultimately dependent on and limited by the nature of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 simulation. PMID:22373138

  3. PTCH gene mutations in odontogenic keratocysts.

    PubMed

    Barreto, D C; Gomez, R S; Bale, A E; Boson, W L; De Marco, L

    2000-06-01

    An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a benign cystic lesion of the jaws that occurs sporadically or in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). Recently, the gene for NBCCS was cloned and shown to be the human homologue of the Drosophila segment polarity gene Patched (PTCH), a tumor suppressor gene. The PTCH gene encodes a transmembrane protein that acts in opposition to the Hedgehog signaling protein, controlling cell fates, patterning, and growth in numerous tissues, including tooth. We investigated three cases of sporadic odontogenic keratocysts and three other cases associated with NBCCS, looking for mutations of the PTCH gene. Non-radioactive single-strand conformational polymorphism and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed a deletion of 5 base pairs (bp) in exon 3 (518delAAGCG) in one sporadic cyst as well as mutations in two cysts associated with NBCCS, a nonsense (C2760A) and a missense (G3499A) alteration. This report is the first to describe a somatic mutation of PTCH in sporadic odontogenic keratocysts as well as two novel mutations in cysts associated with NBCCS, indicating a similar pathogenesis in a subset of sporadic keratocysts.

  4. Inactivating CUX1 mutations promote tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chi C.; Martincorena, Inigo; Rust, Alistair G.; Rashid, Mamunur; Alifrangis, Constantine; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Tiffen, Jessamy C.; Kober, Christina; Green, Anthony R.; Massie, Charles E.; Nangalia, Jyoti; Lempidaki, Stella; Döhner, Hartmut; Döhner, Konstanze; Bray, Sarah J.; McDermott, Ultan; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Campbell, Peter J.; Adams, David J.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for cancer genetics is to determine which low frequency somatic mutations are drivers of tumorigenesis. Here we interrogate the genomes of 7,651 diverse human cancers to identify novel drivers and find inactivating mutations in the homeodomain transcription factor CUX1 (cut-like homeobox 1) in ~1-5% of tumors. Meta-analysis of CUX1 mutational status in 2,519 cases of myeloid malignancies reveals disruptive mutations associated with poor survival, highlighting the clinical significance of CUX1 loss. In parallel, we validate CUX1 as a bona fide tumor suppressor using mouse transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis and Drosophila cancer models. We demonstrate that CUX1 deficiency activates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling through direct transcriptional downregulation of the PI3K inhibitor PIK3IP1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase interacting protein 1), leading to increased tumor growth, while exposing susceptibility to PI3K-AKT inhibition. Thus, our complementary approaches identify CUX1 as a new pan-driver of tumorigenesis and uncover a potential strategy for treating CUX1-mutant tumors. PMID:24316979

  5. TNXB Mutations Can Cause Vesicoureteral Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Brophy, Patrick D.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hall, Gentzon; Gupta, Indra R.; Hains, David; Bartkowiak, Bartlomeij; Rabinovich, C. Egla; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Homstad, Alison; Westreich, Katherine; Wu, Guanghong; Liu, Yutao; Holanda, Danniele; Clarke, Jason; Lavin, Peter; Selim, Angelica; Miller, Sara; Wiener, John S.; Ross, Sherry S.; Foreman, John; Rotimi, Charles; Winn, Michelle P.

    2013-01-01

    Primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the most common congenital anomaly of the kidney and the urinary tract, and it is a major risk factor for pyelonephritic scarring and CKD in children. Although twin studies support the heritability of VUR, specific genetic causes remain elusive. We performed a sequential genome-wide linkage study and whole-exome sequencing in a family with hereditary VUR. We obtained a significant multipoint parametric logarithm of odds score of 3.3 on chromosome 6p, and whole-exome sequencing identified a deleterious heterozygous mutation (T3257I) in the gene encoding tenascin XB (TNXB in 6p21.3). This mutation segregated with disease in the affected family as well as with a pathogenic G1331R change in another family. Fibroblast cell lines carrying the T3257I mutation exhibited a reduction in both cell motility and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase expression, suggesting a defect in the focal adhesions that link the cell cytoplasm to the extracellular matrix. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the human uroepithelial lining of the ureterovesical junction expresses TNXB, suggesting that TNXB may be important for generating tensile forces that close the ureterovesical junction during voiding. Taken together, these results suggest that mutations in TNXB can cause hereditary VUR. PMID:23620400

  6. From Gene Mutation to Protein Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffet, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A seven-week "gene to protein" laboratory sequence is described for an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Student pairs were given the task of introducing a point mutation of their choosing into the well studied protein, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). After conducting literature searches, each student group chose the…

  7. Tilling to detect induced mutations in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is an important nitrogen-fixing crop that provides much of the world’s protein and oil. However, the available tools for investigation of soybean gene function are limited. Nevertheless, chemical mutagenesis can be applied to soybean followed by screening for mutations...

  8. Smoking, p53 mutation, and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Don L; Byers, Lauren A; Kurie, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    This issue marks the 50th anniversary of the release of the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health. Perhaps no other singular event has done more to highlight the effects of smoking on the development of cancer. Tobacco exposure is the leading cause of cancers involving the oral cavity, conductive airways, and the lung. Owing to the many carcinogens in tobacco smoke, smoking-related malignancies have a high genome-wide burden of mutations, including in the gene encoding for p53. The p53 protein is the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor in cancer, responsible for a range of critical cellular functions that are compromised by the presence of a mutation. Herein, we review the epidemiologic connection between tobacco exposure and cancer, the molecular basis of p53 mutation in lung cancer, and the normal molecular and cellular roles of p53 that are abrogated during lung tumor development and progression as defined by in vitro and in vivo studies. We also consider the therapeutic potential of targeting mutant p53 in a clinical setting based upon the cellular role of mutant p53 and data from genetic murine models.

  9. New mutation type in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; Barrio, Raquel; Pérez-Nanclares, Gustavo; Carcavilla, Atilano; Garin, Intza; Castaño, Luis; de Nanclares, Guiomar Pérez

    2008-11-01

    The GNAS gene encodes the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G proteins, which play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction of peptide and neurotransmitter receptors. Heterozygous inactivating maternally inherited mutations of GNAS (including translation initiation mutations, amino acid substitutions, nonsense mutations, splice site mutations and small insertions or deletions) lead to a phenotype in which Albright hereditary osteodystrophy is associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia. We sought to identify the molecular defect in a patient who was thought to have PHP-Ia. The GNAS gene of a 5-year-old boy with brachydactily, mental retardation, pseudohypoparathyroidism and congenital hypothyroidism was investigated. We found a heterozygous inversion of exon 2 and part of intron 1 of de novo origin. Molecular studies of cDNA from blood RNA demonstrated that both the normal and the mutant variants were stable and that new splice-sites were generated. This report demonstrates the first evidence for an inversion at the GNAS gene responsible of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia.

  10. Novel ATM mutations with ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Tian; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Luan, Xing-Hua; Shen, Jun-Yi; Chen, Sheng-Di; Cao, Li

    2016-01-12

    Ataxia telangiectasia is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia with onset in childhood, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, increased serum alpha-fetoprotein, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, and radiation hypersensitivity. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) is one of the known genes to be associated with ataxia telangiectasia. We reported the clinical and genetic findings of three early-onset Chinese patients who demonstrated ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis, myoclonus and telangiectasia of eyes. Sequence analysis of ATM revealed two known nonsense mutations c.8287C>T and c.9139C>T in the siblings. Though the siblings carried the same mutations, they showed different clinical features involving strephenopodia, exotropia, torsion dystonia, myoclonus and extrapyramidal impairments. The other patient was compound heterozygotes for ATM: c.8911C>T and c.7141_7151delAATGGAAAAAT, both of which were not reported previously and not found in 200 control chromosomes. This study widens the spectrum of mutations and phenotypes in ataxia telangiectasia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. From Gene Mutation to Protein Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffet, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A seven-week "gene to protein" laboratory sequence is described for an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Student pairs were given the task of introducing a point mutation of their choosing into the well studied protein, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). After conducting literature searches, each student group chose the…

  12. Oncogenic mutations of thyroid hormone receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Won; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    The C-terminal frame-shift mutant of the thyroid hormone receptor TRβ1, PV, functions as an oncogene. An important question is whether the oncogenic activity of mutated TRβ1 is uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Using four C-terminal frame-shift mutants—PV, Mkar, Mdbs, and AM—we examined that region in the oncogenic actions of TRβ1 mutants. Remarkably, these C-terminal mutants induced similar growth of tumors in mouse xenograft models. Molecular analyses showed that they physically interacted with the p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K similarly in cells. In vitro GST-binding assay showed that they bound to the C-terminal Src-homology 2 (CSH2) of p85α with markedly higher avidity. The sustained association of mutants with p85α led to activation of the common PI3K-AKT-ERK/STAT3 signaling to promote cell proliferation and invasion and to inhibit apoptosis. Thus, these results argue against the oncogenic activity of PV being uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Rather, these four mutants could favor a C-terminal conformation that interacted with the CSH2 domain of p85α to initiate activation of PI3K to relay downstream signaling to promote tumorigenesis. Thus, we propose that the mutated C-terminal region of TRβ1 could function as an “onco-domain” and TRβ1 is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25924236

  13. Emergence of new ALK mutations at relapse of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Javanmardi, Niloufar; Bernard, Virginie; Leroy, Quentin; Cappo, Julie; Rio Frio, Thomas; Pierron, Gaelle; Lapouble, Eve; Combaret, Valérie; Speleman, Frank; de Wilde, Bram; Djos, Anna; Ora, Ingrid; Hedborg, Fredrik; Träger, Catarina; Holmqvist, Britt-Marie; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Peuchmaur, Michel; Michon, Jean; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Kogner, Per; Delattre, Olivier; Martinsson, Tommy

    2014-09-01

    In neuroblastoma, the ALK receptor tyrosine kinase is activated by point mutations. We investigated the potential role of ALK mutations in neuroblastoma clonal evolution. We analyzed ALK mutations in 54 paired diagnosis-relapse neuroblastoma samples using Sanger sequencing. When an ALK mutation was observed in one paired sample, a minor mutated component in the other sample was searched for by more than 100,000× deep sequencing of the relevant hotspot, with a sensitivity of 0.17%. All nine ALK-mutated cases at diagnosis demonstrated the same mutation at relapse, in one case in only one of several relapse nodules. In five additional cases, the mutation seemed to be relapse specific, four of which were investigated by deep sequencing. In two cases, no mutation evidence was observed at diagnosis. In one case, the mutation was present at a subclonal level (0.798%) at diagnosis, whereas in another case, two different mutations resulting in identical amino acid changes were detected, one only at diagnosis and the other only at relapse. Further evidence of clonal evolution of ALK-mutated cells was provided by establishment of a fully ALK-mutated cell line from a primary sample with an ALK-mutated cell population at subclonal level (6.6%). In neuroblastoma, subclonal ALK mutations can be present at diagnosis with subsequent clonal expansion at relapse. Given the potential of ALK-targeted therapy, the significant spatiotemporal variation of ALK mutations is of utmost importance, highlighting the potential of deep sequencing for detection of subclonal mutations with a sensitivity 100-fold that of Sanger sequencing and the importance of serial samplings for therapeutic decisions. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Pathway-Driven Discovery of Rare Mutational Impact on Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Identifying driver mutation is important in understanding disease mechanism and future application of custom tailored therapeutic decision. Functional analysis of mutational impact usually focuses on the gene expression level of the mutated gene itself. However, complex regulatory network may cause differential gene expression among functional neighbors of the mutated gene. We suggest a new approach for discovering rare mutations that have real impact in the context of pathway; the philosophy of our method is iteratively combining rare mutations until no more mutations can be added under the condition that the combined mutational event can statistically discriminate pathway level mRNA expression between groups with and without mutational events. Breast cancer patients with somatic mutation and mRNA expression were analyzed by our approach. Our approach is shown to sensitively capture mutations that change pathway level mRNA expression, concurrently discovering important mutations previously reported in breast cancer such as TP53, PIK3CA, and RB1. In addition, out of 15,819 genes considered in breast cancer, our approach identified mutational events of 32 genes showing pathway level mRNA expression differences. PMID:24883302

  15. Pathway-driven discovery of rare mutational impact on cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, TaeJin; Park, Taesung

    2014-01-01

    Identifying driver mutation is important in understanding disease mechanism and future application of custom tailored therapeutic decision. Functional analysis of mutational impact usually focuses on the gene expression level of the mutated gene itself. However, complex regulatory network may cause differential gene expression among functional neighbors of the mutated gene. We suggest a new approach for discovering rare mutations that have real impact in the context of pathway; the philosophy of our method is iteratively combining rare mutations until no more mutations can be added under the condition that the combined mutational event can statistically discriminate pathway level mRNA expression between groups with and without mutational events. Breast cancer patients with somatic mutation and mRNA expression were analyzed by our approach. Our approach is shown to sensitively capture mutations that change pathway level mRNA expression, concurrently discovering important mutations previously reported in breast cancer such as TP53, PIK3CA, and RB1. In addition, out of 15,819 genes considered in breast cancer, our approach identified mutational events of 32 genes showing pathway level mRNA expression differences.

  16. Calreticulin mutation profile in Indian patients with primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sazawal, Sudha; Singh, Neha; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-12-01

    Somatic mutations in Calreticulin (CALR) have been recently discovered in JAK2/MPL unmutated patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) or essential thrombocythemia. Clinical and hematologic features were obtained for 80 patients with PMF. JAK2V617F mutation was analyzed by DNA tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR). CALR and MPL mutations were identified by bi-directional Sanger sequencing. CALR mutations were detected in 11.2% (9/80) of all PMF patients and 25.7% (9/35) of all JAK2V617F and MPL unmutated patients all of which were Type I mutation or deletions. A novel CALR mutation pattern (c.1241_1288del) was identified in one (1/9) patient. No case of Type II mutations or scattered point mutations was found in any of these patients. Uni-variate analysis at presentation showed that CALR mutations were significantly associated with younger age (P = 0.003) and larger spleen size (P = 0.001). No significant correlation was found between CALR mutation and clinico-hematologic characteristics or international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) scoring of the PMF patients. CALR mutations have a distinct molecular profile in Indian patients, different from that of other studies worldwide. Larger prospective studies need to be designed to establish the impact of paucity of Type II mutations in contributing to disease phenotype and prognostic outcome of patients.

  17. Timing, rates and spectra of human germline mutation.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, Raheleh; Wuster, Arthur; Lindsay, Sarah J; Hardwick, Robert J; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Al Turki, Saeed; Dominiczak, Anna; Morris, Andrew; Porteous, David; Smith, Blair; Stratton, Michael R; Hurles, Matthew E

    2016-02-01

    Germline mutations are a driving force behind genome evolution and genetic disease. We investigated genome-wide mutation rates and spectra in multi-sibling families. The mutation rate increased with paternal age in all families, but the number of additional mutations per year differed by more than twofold between families. Meta-analysis of 6,570 mutations showed that germline methylation influences mutation rates. In contrast to somatic mutations, we found remarkable consistency in germline mutation spectra between the sexes and at different paternal ages. In parental germ line, 3.8% of mutations were mosaic, resulting in 1.3% of mutations being shared by siblings. The number of these shared mutations varied significantly between families. Our data suggest that the mutation rate per cell division is higher during both early embryogenesis and differentiation of primordial germ cells but is reduced substantially during post-pubertal spermatogenesis. These findings have important consequences for the recurrence risks of disorders caused by de novo mutations.

  18. Patterns of Somatic Mutations in Immunoglobulin Variable Genes

    PubMed Central

    Golding, G. Brian; Gearhart, Patricia J.; Glickman, Barry W.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for somatic mutation in the variable genes of antibodies is unknown and may differ from previously described mechanisms that produce mutation in DNA. We have analyzed 421 somatic mutations from the rearranged immunoglobulin variable genes of mice to determine (1) if the nucleotide substitutions differ from those generated during meiosis and (2) if the presence of nearby direct and inverted repeated sequences could template mutations around the variable gene. The results reveal a difference in the pattern of substitutions obtained from somatic mutations vs. meiotic mutations. An increased frequency of T:A to C:G transitions and a decreased frequency of mutations involving a G in the somatic mutants compared to the meiotic mutants is indicated. This suggests that the mutational processes responsible for somatic mutation in antibody genes differs from that responsible for mutation during meiosis. An analysis of the local DNA sequences revealed many direct repeats and palindromic sequences that were capable of templating some of the known mutations. Although additional factors may be involved in targeting mutations to the variable gene, mistemplating by nearby repeats may provide a mechanism for the enhancement of somatic mutation. PMID:3557109

  19. Parent-progeny sequencing indicates higher mutation rates in heterozygotes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sihai; Wang, Long; Huang, Ju; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Yang; Chen, Jian-Qun; Hurst, Laurence D; Tian, Dacheng

    2015-07-23

    Mutation rates vary within genomes, but the causes of this remain unclear. As many prior inferences rely on methods that assume an absence of selection, potentially leading to artefactual results, we call mutation events directly using a parent-offspring sequencing strategy focusing on Arabidopsis and using rice and honey bee for replication. Here we show that mutation rates are higher in heterozygotes and in proximity to crossover events. A correlation between recombination rate and intraspecific diversity is in part owing to a higher mutation rate in domains of high recombination/diversity. Implicating diversity per se as a cause, we find an ∼3.5-fold higher mutation rate in heterozygotes than in homozygotes, with mutations occurring in closer proximity to heterozygous sites than expected by chance. In a genome that is a patchwork of heterozygous and homozygous domains, mutations occur disproportionately more often in the heterozygous domains. If segregating mutations predispose to a higher local mutation rate, clusters of genes dominantly under purifying selection (more commonly homozygous) and under balancing selection (more commonly heterozygous), might have low and high mutation rates, respectively. Our results are consistent with this, there being a ten times higher mutation rate in pathogen resistance genes, expected to be under positive or balancing selection. Consequently, we do not necessarily need to evoke extremely weak selection on the mutation rate to explain why mutational hot and cold spots might correspond to regions under positive/balancing and purifying selection, respectively.

  20. Tumour morphology predicts PALB2 germline mutation status

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Z L; Provenzano, E; Dite, G S; Park, D J; Apicella, C; Sawyer, S D; James, P A; Mitchell, G; Trainer, A H; Lindeman, G J; Shackleton, K; Cicciarelli, L; Buys, S S; Andrulis, I L; Mulligan, A M; Glendon, G; John, E M; Terry, M B; Daly, M; Odefrey, F A; Nguyen-Dumont, T; Giles, G G; Dowty, J G; Winship, I; Goldgar, D E; Hopper, J L; Southey, M C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Population-based studies of breast cancer have estimated that at least some PALB2 mutations are associated with high breast cancer risk. For women carrying PALB2 mutations, knowing their carrier status could be useful in directing them towards effective cancer risk management and therapeutic strategies. We sought to determine whether morphological features of breast tumours can predict PALB2 germline mutation status. Methods: Systematic pathology review was conducted on breast tumours from 28 female carriers of PALB2 mutations (non-carriers of other known high-risk mutations, recruited through various resources with varying ascertainment) and on breast tumours from a population-based sample of 828 Australian women diagnosed before the age of 60 years (which included 40 BRCA1 and 18 BRCA2 mutation carriers). Tumour morphological features of the 28 PALB2 mutation carriers were compared with those of 770 women without high-risk mutations. Results: Tumours arising in PALB2 mutation carriers were associated with minimal sclerosis (odds ratio (OR)=19.7; 95% confidence interval (CI)=6.0–64.6; P=5 × 10−7). Minimal sclerosis was also a feature that distinguished PALB2 mutation carriers from BRCA1 (P=0.05) and BRCA2 (P=0.04) mutation carriers. Conclusion: This study identified minimal sclerosis to be a predictor of germline PALB2 mutation status. Morphological review can therefore facilitate the identification of women most likely to carry mutations in PALB2. PMID:23787919

  1. Genetic mutations associated with status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, M; Shorvon, S

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary search of the literature aimed at identifying the genetic mutations reported to be strongly associated with status epilepticus. Genetic mutations were selected for inclusion if status epilepticus was specifically mentioned as a consequence of the mutation in standard genetic databases or in a case report or review article. Mutations in 122 genes were identified. The genetic mutations identified were found in only rare conditions (sometimes vanishingly rare) and mostly in infants and young children with multiple other handicaps. Most of the genetic mutations can be subdivided into those associated with cortical dysplasias, inborn errors of metabolism, mitochondrial disease, or epileptic encephalopathies and childhood syndromes. There are no identified 'pure status epilepticus genes'. The range of genes underpinning status epilepticus differs in many ways from the range of genes underpinning epilepsy, which suggests that the processes underpinning status epilepticus differ from those underpinning epilepsy. It has been frequently postulated that status epilepticus is the result of a failure of 'seizure termination mechanisms', but the wide variety of genes affecting very diverse biochemical pathways identified in this survey makes any unitary cause unlikely. The genetic influences in status epilepticus are likely to involve a wide range of mechanisms, some related to development, some to cerebral energy production, some to diverse altered biochemical pathways, some to transmitter and membrane function, and some to defects in networks or systems. The fact that many of the identified genes are involved with cerebral development suggests that status epilepticus might often be a system or network phenomenon. To date, there are very few genes identified which are associated with adult-onset status epilepticus (except in those with preexisting neurological damage), and this is disappointing as the cause of many adult

  2. Detection of mutations in the ALD gene (ABCD1) in seven Italian families: description of four novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Lira, M G; Mottes, M; Pignatti, P F; Medica, I; Uziel, G; Cappa, M; Bertini, E; Rizzuto, N; Salviati, A

    2000-09-01

    The study describes the mutations causing adrenoleukodystrophy in seven Italian families. Four missense mutations leading to amino acid substitutions, two frameshift mutations leading to a premature termination signal, and a splicing mutation were identified. Mutations 2014C>T (P543L), 2053A>G (Q556A), 673-674insCC, and 1874+1G>A are described for the first time in this report. Mutations 1638C>T (R418W), 1588G>A(R401Q), and 1801-1802delAG are already known to be link to ALD.

  3. Mutations induced by heavy charged particles.

    PubMed

    Yatagai, Fumio

    2004-12-01

    The relative biological-effectiveness of radiation is increased when cells or tissue are exposed to densely ionizing (high-LET) radiation. A large number of studies focus on the following aspects of the biological effects of high-LET radiation: (i) basic understanding of radiation damage and repair; (ii) developing radiotherapy protocols for accelerated charged particles; and (iii) estimation of human risks from exposure to high-LET heavy charged particles. The increased lethal effectiveness (cell inactivation) of high-LET radiation contributes to new methods for using radiation therapy, but it is also necessary to study the enhanced mutagenic effect of high LET radiation, because higher frequencies of mutation can be expected to provide higher rates of carcinogenicity with human exposure. It is important to note that both measures of biological effectiveness (lethality and mutagenicity) depend on the quality of radiation, the dose, dose-rate effects, and the biological endpoints studied. This paper is intended to provide a review of current research on the mutagenic effects of high-LET radiation, and is organized into three sections. First, are descriptions of the induced mutations studied with various detection systems (section 1) because the detectable mutations induced by ionizing radiation, including heavy-ions, depend largely on the detection system used. Second is a discussion of the biological significance of the dependence of induced mutations on LET (section 2). This is related to the molecular nature of radiation lesions and to the repair mechanisms used to help cells recover from such damage. Finally, applications of mutation detection systems for studies in space (section 3) are described, in which the carcinogenic effects of space environmental radiation are considered.

  4. Coherent Somatic Mutation in Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kenneth Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Many aspects of autoimmune disease are not well understood, including the specificities of autoimmune targets, and patterns of co-morbidity and cross-heritability across diseases. Prior work has provided evidence that somatic mutation caused by gene conversion and deletion at segmentally duplicated loci is relevant to several diseases. Simple tandem repeat (STR) sequence is highly mutable, both somatically and in the germ-line, and somatic STR mutations are observed under inflammation. Results Protein-coding genes spanning STRs having markers of mutability, including germ-line variability, high total length, repeat count and/or repeat similarity, are evaluated in the context of autoimmunity. For the initiation of autoimmune disease, antigens whose autoantibodies are the first observed in a disease, termed primary autoantigens, are informative. Three primary autoantigens, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), phogrin (PTPRN2) and filaggrin (FLG), include STRs that are among the eleven longest STRs spanned by protein-coding genes. This association of primary autoantigens with long STR sequence is highly significant (). Long STRs occur within twenty genes that are associated with sixteen common autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis. The repeat within the TTC34 gene is an outlier in terms of length and a link with systemic lupus erythematosus is proposed. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that many autoimmune diseases are triggered by immune responses to proteins whose DNA sequence mutates somatically in a coherent, consistent fashion. Other autoimmune diseases may be caused by coherent somatic mutations in immune cells. The coherent somatic mutation hypothesis has the potential to be a comprehensive explanation for the initiation of many autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988487

  5. Reverse mutation in fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Antinolo, G.; Borrego, S.; Cabeza, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of familial mental retardation, with an incidence of {approximately}1/1,500 in males and 1/2,500 in females. The clinical expression includes moderate to severe mental retardation, macroorchidism, dysmorphic facial features and behavior disturbances. In 1991, the FMR-1 gene was isolated from the region of the fragile X site. The fragile X phenotype has been found, in most cases, to be characterized at the molecular level by expansion of a (CGG){sub n} repeat and hypermethylation of a CpG island identified in the 5{prime}-UTR of the FMR-1 gene. It has been proposed, and some evidence has been shown, that germ cells carry only premutation alleles and that expansion occurs at a postzygotic stage. A few cases of reduction of the (CGG){sub n} repeat in fragile X syndrome have been reported. These reductions were from a larger premutation to a smaller premutation, in female-to-male transmission, from full mutation to a mosaic pattern, reduction from mosaic full-mutation/premutation females or regression from premutation to normal. We present here the novel observation of a phenotypically normal female carrying a nonmosaic full-mutation allele in somatic cells who transmits a premutation allele to her daughter. This daughter has three mosaic offspring with the full mutation and the premutation. Two of them are monozygotic (MZ) twins sharing a concordant mutation pattern. They are monoamniotic monochorionic, which indicates a late form of twinning. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  6. STK11 Mutation Identified in Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuanzeng; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Brose, Marcia S; Montone, Kathleen T; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Baloch, Zubair W

    2016-03-01

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder, in which germline mutation of serine threonine-protein kinase 11 (STK11) is identified in up to 90 % of the patients who meet clinical criteria for PJS. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of the tumor were reviewed to confirm areas with at least 25 % of tumor cellularity. Then, the designated area was extracted for genomic DNA. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis was performed using a 47-gene panel. Case 1 is a 71-year-old man with high grade follicular thyroid carcinoma with clear cell and oncocytic features. The carcinoma showed a missense mutation in TP53 (p.R342G, c.1024C > G) and a 16-nucleotide intronic deletion started next to the 3' of exon 6 (involving the canonical +1 and +2 bases of the splice donor site) in STK11 (p.?, c.862 + 1_862 + 16delGTGGGAGCCTCATCCC). Case 2 is a 76-year-old woman with tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. The carcinoma demonstrated a missense mutation in BRAF (p.V600E, c.1799T > A) and a missense mutation in STK11 (p.F354L, c.1062C > G). In summary, we present two elderly patients with thyroid carcinoma harboring STK11 mutation without clinical manifestation of PJS. The findings suggest that STK11 may play a role in thyroid carcinoma development.

  7. Clinical mutation assay of tumors: new developments.

    PubMed

    Starostik, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Mutation detection in tumors started with classical cytogenetics as the method of choice more than 50 years ago. Karyotyping proved to be sensitive enough to detect deletions or duplications of large chromosome segments, and translocations. Over time, new techniques were developed to detect mutations that are much smaller in scope. The availability of Sanger sequencing and the invention of the PCR improved the discriminatory power of mutation detection to just one base change in the genomic DNA sequence. Techniques derived from PCR (allele-specific PCR, qPCR) and improved or modified sequencing methods (capillary electrophoresis, pyrosequencing) considerably increased the efficiency and sample throughput of mutation detection assays. With the advent of massive parallel sequencing [also called next-generation sequencing (NGS)] in the past decade, a major shift to even higher sample throughput and a significant decrease in cost per sequenced base occurred. The application of the new technology provided a whole slew of novel biomarkers and potential therapy targets to improve diagnosis and treatment. It even led to changes in cancer classification as new information on the mutation profile of tumors became available that characterizes some disease entities better than morphology. NGS, which usually interrogates multiple genes at once and is a prime example of a multianalyte assay, started to replace older single analyte assays focused on analysis of one target, one gene. However, the transition to these extremely complex NGS-based assays is associated with multiple challenges. There are issues with adequate tissue source of nucleic acids, sequencing library preparation, bioinformatics, government regulations and oversight, reimbursement, and electronic medical records that need to be resolved to successfully implement the new technology in a clinical laboratory.

  8. Mutation History of the Roma/Gypsies

    PubMed Central

    Morar, Bharti; Gresham, David; Angelicheva, Dora; Tournev, Ivailo; Gooding, Rebecca; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Schmidt, Carolin; Abicht, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Tordai, Attila; Kalmár, Lajos; Nagy, Melinda; Karcagi, Veronika; Jeanpierre, Marc; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Beeson, David; Venkataraman, Viswanathan; Warwick Carter, Kim; Reeve, Jeff; de Pablo, Rosario; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2004-01-01

    The 8–10 million European Roma/Gypsies are a founder population of common origins that has subsequently split into multiple socially divergent and geographically dispersed Gypsy groups. Unlike other founder populations, whose genealogy has been extensively documented, the demographic history of the Gypsies is not fully understood and, given the lack of written records, has to be inferred from current genetic data. In this study, we have used five disease loci harboring private Gypsy mutations to examine some missing historical parameters and current structure. We analyzed the frequency distribution of the five mutations in 832–1,363 unrelated controls, representing 14 Gypsy populations, and the diversification of chromosomal haplotypes in 501 members of affected families. Sharing of mutations and high carrier rates supported a strong founder effect, and the identity of the congenital myasthenia 1267delG mutation in Gypsy and Indian/Pakistani chromosomes provided the best evidence yet of the Indian origins of the Gypsies. However, dramatic differences in mutation frequencies and haplotype divergence and very limited haplotype sharing pointed to strong internal differentiation and characterized the Gypsies as a founder population comprising multiple subisolates. Using disease haplotype coalescence times at the different loci, we estimated that the entire Gypsy population was founded ∼32–40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring ∼16–25 generations ago. The existence of multiple subisolates, with endogamy maintained to the present day, suggests a general approach to complex disorders in which initial gene mapping could be performed in large families from a single Gypsy group, whereas fine mapping would rely on the informed sampling of the divergent subisolates and searching for the shared genomic region that displays the strongest linkage disequilibrium with the disease. PMID:15322984

  9. Mutation history of the roma/gypsies.

    PubMed

    Morar, Bharti; Gresham, David; Angelicheva, Dora; Tournev, Ivailo; Gooding, Rebecca; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Schmidt, Carolin; Abicht, Angela; Lochmuller, Hanns; Tordai, Attila; Kalmar, Lajos; Nagy, Melinda; Karcagi, Veronika; Jeanpierre, Marc; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Beeson, David; Venkataraman, Viswanathan; Warwick Carter, Kim; Reeve, Jeff; de Pablo, Rosario; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2004-10-01

    The 8-10 million European Roma/Gypsies are a founder population of common origins that has subsequently split into multiple socially divergent and geographically dispersed Gypsy groups. Unlike other founder populations, whose genealogy has been extensively documented, the demographic history of the Gypsies is not fully understood and, given the lack of written records, has to be inferred from current genetic data. In this study, we have used five disease loci harboring private Gypsy mutations to examine some missing historical parameters and current structure. We analyzed the frequency distribution of the five mutations in 832-1,363 unrelated controls, representing 14 Gypsy populations, and the diversification of chromosomal haplotypes in 501 members of affected families. Sharing of mutations and high carrier rates supported a strong founder effect, and the identity of the congenital myasthenia 1267delG mutation in Gypsy and Indian/Pakistani chromosomes provided the best evidence yet of the Indian origins of the Gypsies. However, dramatic differences in mutation frequencies and haplotype divergence and very limited haplotype sharing pointed to strong internal differentiation and characterized the Gypsies as a founder population comprising multiple subisolates. Using disease haplotype coalescence times at the different loci, we estimated that the entire Gypsy population was founded approximately 32-40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring approximately 16-25 generations ago. The existence of multiple subisolates, with endogamy maintained to the present day, suggests a general approach to complex disorders in which initial gene mapping could be performed in large families from a single Gypsy group, whereas fine mapping would rely on the informed sampling of the divergent subisolates and searching for the shared genomic region that displays the strongest linkage disequilibrium with the disease.

  10. Wolfram Syndrome: New Mutations, Different Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Lorenzo; Lugani, Francesca; Perri, Katia; Russo, Chiara; Tallone, Ramona; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Lorini, Renata; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Background Wolfram Syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy, and Deafness identified by the acronym “DIDMOAD”. The WS gene, WFS1, encodes a transmembrane protein called Wolframin, which recent evidence suggests may serve as a novel endoplasmic reticulum calcium channel in pancreatic β-cells and neurons. WS is a rare disease, with an estimated prevalence of 1/550.000 children, with a carrier frequency of 1/354. The aim of our study was to determine the genotype of WS patients in order to establish a genotype/phenotype correlation. Methodology/Principal Findings We clinically evaluated 9 young patients from 9 unrelated families (6 males, 3 females). Basic criteria for WS clinical diagnosis were coexistence of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy occurring before 15 years of age. Genetic analysis for WFS1 was performed by direct sequencing. Molecular sequencing revealed 5 heterozygous compound and 3 homozygous mutations. All of them were located in exon 8, except one in exon 4. In one proband only an heterozygous mutation (A684V) was found. Two new variants c.2663 C>A and c.1381 A>C were detected. Conclusions/Significance Our study increases the spectrum of WFS1 mutations with two novel variants. The male patient carrying the compound mutation [c.1060_1062delTTC]+[c.2663 C>A] showed the most severe phenotype: diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy (visual acuity 5/10), deafness with deep auditory bilaterally 8000 Hz, diabetes insipidus associated to reduced volume of posterior pituitary and pons. He died in bed at the age of 13 years. The other patient carrying the compound mutation [c.409_424dup16]+[c.1381 A>C] showed a less severe phenotype (DM, OA). PMID:22238590

  11. Preaxial polydactyly associated with a MSX1 mutation and report of two novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Wattanarat, Onnida; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-01-01

    We report two novel heterozygous missense MSX1 mutations in two Thai families (c.739C>T; p.Pro247Ser and c.607G>A; p.Ala203Thr). The p.Ala203Thr mutation was found in a female patient, her sister, and their father and is associated with unilateral cleft lip and palate, hypodontia, and microdontia. The p.Pro247Ser mutation was found in a three-generation Thai family and was associated with bilateral cleft lip and palate, hypodontia, microdontia, and dens invaginatus. The proband also had preaxial polydactyly of the left hand. The role of Msx1 in limb development in mice is discussed. Intrafamilial variability of the phenotypes is clearly evident. This is the first time that a limb anomaly has been reported to be associated with a mutation in MSX1.

  12. The molecular basis of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Manuela; Tolnay, Markus; Mackenzie, Ian R A

    2009-07-29

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous molecular basis. Familial FTD has been linked to mutations in several genes, including those encoding the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), progranulin (GRN), valosin-containing protein (VCP) and charged multivescicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B). The associated neuropathology is characterised by selective degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes (frontotemporal lobar degeneration, FTLD), usually with the presence of abnormal intracellular protein accumulations. The current classification of FTLD neuropathology is based on the identity of the predominant protein abnormality, in the belief that this most closely reflects the underlying pathogenic process. Major subgroups include those characterised by the pathological tau, TDP-43, intermediate filaments and a group with cellular inclusions composed of an unidentified ubiquitinated protein. This review will focus on the current understanding of the molecular basis of each of the major FTLD subtypes. It is anticipated that this knowledge will provide the basis of future advances in the diagnosis and treatment of FTD.

  13. Recent advances in the genetics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: common pathways in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Kevin; Ansorge, Olaf

    2006-10-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease classically defined by the impairment of the voluntary motor system and ubiquitin-positive intraneuronal aggregates in anterior horn cells. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common form of neurodegenerative dementia and presents with personality change associated in a significant subgroup of patients with cortical ubiquitin-only neuropathology (FTD-U). Careful study of ALS as well as FTD patient cohorts suggests clinical as well as pathological overlap of ALS with FTD. The idea that this reflects a shared pathogenesis has received strong support from the identification of new genetic loci on chromosome 9p and of mutations in specific genes (CHMP2B and DCN1) in families with co-segregation of ALS and FTD. The identification of two further genetic causes of FTD-U with (rare) ALS (PGRN) or without ALS (VCP) also provides a starting point for exploring the pathways associated with ubiquitin-mediated protein mishandling in FTD-U and ALS. Pure ALS, through ALS with cognitive impairment and ALS-FTD to pure FTD-U, may represent a continuous spectrum of ubiquitin-associated neurodegenerative disease.

  14. The role of ESCRT during development and functioning of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sadoul, Rémy; Laporte, Marine H; Chassefeyre, Romain; Goldberg, Yves; Chatellard, Christine; Hemming, Fiona J; Fraboulet, Sandrine

    2017-08-12

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is made of subcomplexes (ESCRT I-III), crucial to membrane remodelling at endosomes, nuclear envelope and cell surface. ESCRT-III shapes membranes and in most cases cooperates with the ATPase VPS4 to mediate fission of membrane necks from the inside. The first ESCRT complexes mainly serve to catalyse the formation of ESCRT-III but can be bypassed by accessory proteins like the Alg-2 interacting protein-X (ALIX). In the nervous system, ALIX/ESCRT controls the survival of embryonic neural progenitors and later on the outgrowth and pruning of axons and dendrites, all necessary steps to establish a functional brain. In the adult brain, ESCRT allow the endosomal turn over of synaptic vesicle proteins while stable ESCRT complexes might serve as scaffolds for the postsynaptic parts. The necessity of ESCRT for the harmonious function of the brain has its pathological counterpart, the mutations in CHMP2B of ESCRT-III giving rise to several neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    Nacmias, B; Piaceri, I; Bagnoli, S; Tedde, A; Piacentini, S; Sorbi, S

    2014-01-01

    The genetics of neurodegenerative diseases has an important role to clarify the pathogenetic mechanism, the diagnosis and finally the therapeutic and ethical implications. Moreover, the genetic approach to the study of the main clinical forms of dementia (Alzheimer's disease-AD and Frontotemporal Dementia-FTD) suggests clinical guidelines for helping families to navigate through these complexities. AD and FTD are multifactorial, genetically complex diseases involving many candidate genes. Mutations in three genes (i.e. Amyloid Precursor Protein, APP; presenilin 1, PSEN1; presenilin 2, PSEN2) have been linked to 50% of all familial forms of AD (FAD). Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have involved an increasing number of genes with a possible role in the disease pathogenesis. Up to now, the genetics of familial forms of FTD is related to 7 genes: the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) progranulin (GRN), the valosin-containing protein (VCP), chromatin-modifying 2B (CHMP2B), the TARDNA binding protein 43 encoding gene (TARBDP), fused in sarcoma (FUS) and the last hexanucleotide expansion repeats in the open reading frame of chromosome 9 (C9orf72). Pre-test counseling and the identification of genetic defects are important in both patients and asymptomatic at risk family members. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. ALS-associated protein FIG4 is localized in Pick and Lewy bodies, and also neuronal nuclear inclusions, in polyglutamine and intranuclear inclusion body diseases.

    PubMed

    Kon, Tomoya; Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Miki, Yasuo; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Yoshida, Mari; Sasaki, Hidenao; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    FIG4 is a phosphatase that regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking along the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. Mutations of FIG4 lead to the development of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Moreover, ALS-associated proteins (transactivation response DNA protein 43 (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma (FUS), optineurin, ubiquilin-2, charged mutivesicular body protein 2b (CHMP2B) and valosin-containing protein) are involved in inclusion body formation in several neurodegenerative diseases. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the brains and spinal cords of patients with various neurodegenerative diseases, including sporadic TDP-43 proteinopathy (ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration). TDP-43 proteinopathy demonstrated no FIG4 immunoreactivity in neuronal inclusions. However, FIG4 immunoreactivity was present in Pick bodies in Pick's disease, Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, neuronal nuclear inclusions in polyglutamine and intranuclear inclusion body diseases, and Marinesco and Hirano bodies in aged control subjects. These findings suggest that FIG4 is not incorporated in TDP-43 inclusions and that it may have a common role in the formation or degradation of neuronal cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions in several neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  17. Rare autosomal copy number variations in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hooli, B V; Kovacs-Vajna, Z M; Mullin, K; Blumenthal, M A; Mattheisen, M; Zhang, C; Lange, C; Mohapatra, G; Bertram, L; Tanzi, R E

    2014-06-01

    Over 200 rare and fully penetrant pathogenic mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 and 2 (PSEN1 and PSEN2) cause a subset of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EO-FAD). Of these, 21 cases of EO-FAD families carrying unique APP locus duplications remain the only pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) identified to date in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using high-density DNA microarrays, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis for the presence of rare CNVs in 261 EO-FAD and early/mixed-onset pedigrees. Our analysis revealed 10 novel private CNVs in 10 EO-FAD families overlapping a set of genes that includes: A2BP1, ABAT, CDH2, CRMP1, DMRT1, EPHA5, EPHA6, ERMP1, EVC, EVC2, FLJ35024 and VLDLR. In addition, CNVs encompassing two known frontotemporal dementia genes, CHMP2B and MAPT were found. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting rare gene-rich CNVs in EO-FAD and early/mixed-onset AD that are likely to underlie pathogenicity in familial AD and perhaps related dementias.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Mutator Mice Confer Respiration Defects and B-Cell Lymphoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Mito, Takayuki; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Akinori; Hashizume, Osamu; Katada, Shun; Imanishi, Hirotake; Ota, Azusa; Kato, Yukina; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mice are proposed to express premature aging phenotypes including kyphosis and hair loss (alopecia) due to their carrying a nuclear-encoded mtDNA polymerase with a defective proofreading function, which causes accelerated accumulation of random mutations in mtDNA, resulting in expression of respiration defects. On the contrary, transmitochondrial mito-miceΔ carrying mtDNA with a large-scale deletion mutation (ΔmtDNA) also express respiration defects, but not express premature aging phenotypes. Here, we resolved this discrepancy by generating mtDNA mutator mice sharing the same C57BL/6J (B6J) nuclear background with that of mito-miceΔ. Expression patterns of premature aging phenotypes are very close, when we compared between homozygous mtDNA mutator mice carrying a B6J nuclear background and selected mito-miceΔ only carrying predominant amounts of ΔmtDNA, in their expression of significant respiration defects, kyphosis, and a short lifespan, but not the alopecia. Therefore, the apparent discrepancy in the presence and absence of premature aging phenotypes in mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ, respectively, is partly the result of differences in the nuclear background of mtDNA mutator mice and of the broad range of ΔmtDNA proportions of mito-miceΔ used in previous studies. We also provided direct evidence that mtDNA abnormalities in homozygous mtDNA mutator mice are responsible for respiration defects by demonstrating the co-transfer of mtDNA and respiration defects from mtDNA mutator mice into mtDNA-less (ρ0) mouse cells. Moreover, heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice had a normal lifespan, but frequently developed B-cell lymphoma, suggesting that the mtDNA abnormalities in heterozygous mutator mice are not sufficient to induce a short lifespan and aging phenotypes, but are able to contribute to the B-cell lymphoma development during their prolonged lifespan. PMID:23418460

  19. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in mutator mice confer respiration defects and B-cell lymphoma development.

    PubMed

    Mito, Takayuki; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Akinori; Hashizume, Osamu; Katada, Shun; Imanishi, Hirotake; Ota, Azusa; Kato, Yukina; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mice are proposed to express premature aging phenotypes including kyphosis and hair loss (alopecia) due to their carrying a nuclear-encoded mtDNA polymerase with a defective proofreading function, which causes accelerated accumulation of random mutations in mtDNA, resulting in expression of respiration defects. On the contrary, transmitochondrial mito-miceΔ carrying mtDNA with a large-scale deletion mutation (ΔmtDNA) also express respiration defects, but not express premature aging phenotypes. Here, we resolved this discrepancy by generating mtDNA mutator mice sharing the same C57BL/6J (B6J) nuclear background with that of mito-miceΔ. Expression patterns of premature aging phenotypes are very close, when we compared between homozygous mtDNA mutator mice carrying a B6J nuclear background and selected mito-miceΔ only carrying predominant amounts of ΔmtDNA, in their expression of significant respiration defects, kyphosis, and a short lifespan, but not the alopecia. Therefore, the apparent discrepancy in the presence and absence of premature aging phenotypes in mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ, respectively, is partly the result of differences in the nuclear background of mtDNA mutator mice and of the broad range of ΔmtDNA proportions of mito-miceΔ used in previous studies. We also provided direct evidence that mtDNA abnormalities in homozygous mtDNA mutator mice are responsible for respiration defects by demonstrating the co-transfer of mtDNA and respiration defects from mtDNA mutator mice into mtDNA-less (ρ(0)) mouse cells. Moreover, heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice had a normal lifespan, but frequently developed B-cell lymphoma, suggesting that the mtDNA abnormalities in heterozygous mutator mice are not sufficient to induce a short lifespan and aging phenotypes, but are able to contribute to the B-cell lymphoma development during their prolonged lifespan.

  20. Association of TERT Promoter Mutation, But Not BRAF Mutation, With Increased Mortality in PTC

    PubMed Central

    George, Jonathan R.; Henderson, Ying C.; Williams, Michelle D.; Roberts, Dianna B.; Hei, Hu; Lai, Stephen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) carrying the BRAF mutation has been reported to be associated with high recurrence and potentially increased mortality. PTC carrying the TERT promoter mutation has been associated with older age, recurrence, and aggressive disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association of BRAF and TERT promoter gene alterations with recurrence and survival in a high-risk population. Design: Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutation from 256 persistent/recurrent PTC (p/rPTC; 202 new, 54 previously reported) and for the TERT promoter mutation and polymorphism (242 p/rPTC). Two-tailed Fisher exact tests or the Pearson χ2 test were performed for the associations between mutations and other variables. Overall and disease-free survivals were compared by log rank tests on Kaplan-Meier plots and by Cox regression analysis. TERT promoter constructs were tested in PTC cell lines to determine their activities in these cells. Results: BRAF V600E mutation was identified in 235 of 256 (91.8%), TERT promoter mutation at −124 was detected in 77 of 242 (31.8%), and TERT promoter polymorphism at −245 was found in 113 of 242 (46.7%) p/rPTC patients. A significant difference in survival was found in p/rPTC patients with the TERT promoter mutation, which also displayed increased activity in vitro as compared to the nonmutated promoter sequence. No association was noted between the BRAF mutation or TERT promoter polymorphism and recurrence or survival. A drawback of our study could be the limited number of patients with nonmutated BRAF (21 of 256 [8.2%]). Conclusions: Mutation in the TERT promoter, but not in BRAF, was associated with decreased survival in 19 (24.7%) p/rPTC patients who died of disease and in 38 (49.4%) p/rPTC patients who died at last contact. The presence or absence of the BRAF mutation and TERT promoter polymorphism, however, was not significantly correlated with survival. PMID:26461266

  1. Association of TERT Promoter Mutation, But Not BRAF Mutation, With Increased Mortality in PTC.

    PubMed

    George, Jonathan R; Henderson, Ying C; Williams, Michelle D; Roberts, Dianna B; Hei, Hu; Lai, Stephen Y; Clayman, Gary L

    2015-12-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) carrying the BRAF mutation has been reported to be associated with high recurrence and potentially increased mortality. PTC carrying the TERT promoter mutation has been associated with older age, recurrence, and aggressive disease. The objective of this study was to determine the association of BRAF and TERT promoter gene alterations with recurrence and survival in a high-risk population. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutation from 256 persistent/recurrent PTC (p/rPTC; 202 new, 54 previously reported) and for the TERT promoter mutation and polymorphism (242 p/rPTC). Two-tailed Fisher exact tests or the Pearson χ(2) test were performed for the associations between mutations and other variables. Overall and disease-free survivals were compared by log rank tests on Kaplan-Meier plots and by Cox regression analysis. TERT promoter constructs were tested in PTC cell lines to determine their activities in these cells. BRAF V600E mutation was identified in 235 of 256 (91.8%), TERT promoter mutation at -124 was detected in 77 of 242 (31.8%), and TERT promoter polymorphism at -245 was found in 113 of 242 (46.7%) p/rPTC patients. A significant difference in survival was found in p/rPTC patients with the TERT promoter mutation, which also displayed increased activity in vitro as compared to the nonmutated promoter sequence. No association was noted between the BRAF mutation or TERT promoter polymorphism and recurrence or survival. A drawback of our study could be the limited number of patients with nonmutated BRAF (21 of 256 [8.2%]). Mutation in the TERT promoter, but not in BRAF, was associated with decreased survival in 19 (24.7%) p/rPTC patients who died of disease and in 38 (49.4%) p/rPTC patients who died at last contact. The presence or absence of the BRAF mutation and TERT promoter polymorphism, however, was not significantly correlated with survival.

  2. Pitfalls in mutational testing and reporting of common KIT and PDGFRA mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Dietmaier, Wolfgang; Füzesi, Laszlo; Gaumann, Andreas; Haller, Florian; Kitz, Julia; Krohn, Antje; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Penzel, Roland; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Simon, Ronald; Wardelmann, Eva

    2010-07-04

    Mutation analysis of KIT and PDGFRA genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors is gaining increasing importance for prognosis of GISTs and for prediction of treatment response. Several groups have identified specific mutational subtypes in KIT exon 11 associated with an increased risk of metastatic disease whereas GISTs with PDGFRA mutations often behave less aggressive. Furthermore, in advanced GIST disease with proven KIT exon 9 mutation the doubled daily dose of 800 mg imatinib increases the progression free survival and is now recommended both in the European and the American Guidelines. In Germany, there are still no general rules how to perform mutational analysis. When comparing results from six different molecular laboratories we recognized the need of standardisation. Six German university laboratories with experience in mutation analysis in GISTs joined together to develop recommendations for the mutation analysis of the most common and clinically relevant hot spots, i. e. KIT exons 9 and 11 and PDGFRA exon 18. We performed a three-phased interlaboratory trial to identify pitfalls in performing molecular analysis in GISTs. We developed a design for a continuous external laboratory trial. In 2009 this external trial was conducted by 19 laboratories via the initiative for quality assurance in pathology (QuiP) of the German Society of Pathology and the Professional Association of German Pathologists. By performing a three-phased internal interlaboratory trial and conducting an external trial in Germany we were able to identify potential pitfalls when performing KIT and PDGFRA mutational analysis in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We developed standard operation procedures which are provided with the manuscript to allow other laboratories to prevent these pitfalls.

  3. An MRPS12 mutation modifies aminoglycoside sensitivity caused by 12S rRNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Emperador, Sonia; Pacheu-Grau, David; Bayona-Bafaluy, M. Pilar; Garrido-Pérez, Nuria; Martín-Navarro, Antonio; López-Pérez, Manuel J.; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Several homoplasmic pathologic mutations in mitochondrial DNA, such as those causing Leber hereditary optic neuropathy or non-syndromic hearing loss, show incomplete penetrance. Therefore, other elements must modify their pathogenicity. Discovery of these modifying factors is not an easy task because in multifactorial diseases conventional genetic approaches may not always be informative. Here, we have taken an evolutionary approach to unmask putative modifying factors for a particular homoplasmic pathologic mutation causing aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss, the m.1494C>T transition in the mitochondrial DNA. The mutation is located in the decoding site of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA. We first looked at mammalian species that had fixed the human pathologic mutation. These mutations are called compensated pathogenic deviations because an organism carrying one must also have another that suppresses the deleterious effect of the first. We found that species from the primate family Cercopithecidae (old world monkeys) harbor the m.1494T allele even if their auditory function is normal. In humans the m.1494T allele increases the susceptibility to aminoglycosides. However, in primary fibroblasts from a Cercopithecidae species, aminoglycosides do not impair cell growth, respiratory complex IV activity and quantity or the mitochondrial protein synthesis. Interestingly, this species also carries a fixed mutation in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12. We show that the expression of this variant in a human m.1494T cell line reduces its susceptibility to aminoglycosides. Because several mutations in this human protein have been described, they may possibly explain the absence of pathologic phenotype in some pedigree members with the most frequent pathologic mutations in mitochondrial ribosomal RNA. PMID:25642242

  4. Mutator action by Escherichia coli strains carrying dnaE mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sevastopoulos, C. G.; Glaser, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Several newly isolated temperature-sensitive dnaE mutants of Escherichia coli exhibit powerful mutagenic action at permissive temperatures. Mutation rates for the two most active mutants were assayed at four different temperatures and compared to wild-type behavior. Temperature-resistant revertants of the original temperature-sensitive dnaE mutants exhibited lower, nearly normal, mutation rates, but no antimutator strains were found. PMID:333443

  5. The topography of mutational processes in breast cancer genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Morganella, Sandro; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Glodzik, Dominik; Zou, Xueqing; Davies, Helen; Staaf, Johan; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Brinkman, Arie B.; Martin, Sancha; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Butler, Adam; Kim, Hyung -Yong; Borg, Ake; Sotiriou, Christos; Futreal, P. Andrew; Campbell, Peter J.; Span, Paul N.; Van Laere, Steven; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Eyfjord, Jorunn E.; Thompson, Alastair M.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Martens, John W. M.; Borresen-Dale, Anne -Lise; Richardson, Andrea L.; Kong, Gu; Thomas, Gilles; Sale, Julian; Rada, Cristina; Stratton, Michael R.; Birney, Ewan; Nik-Zainal, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations in human cancers show unevenness in genomic distribution that correlate with aspects of genome structure and function. These mutations are, however, generated by multiple mutational processes operating through the cellular lineage between the fertilized egg and the cancer cell, each composed of specific DNA damage and repair components and leaving its own characteristic mutational signature on the genome. Using somatic mutation catalogues from 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences, here we show that each of 12 base substitution, 2 insertion/deletion (indel) and 6 rearrangement mutational signatures present in breast tissue, exhibit distinct relationships with genomic features relating to transcription, DNA replication and chromatin organization. This signature-based approach permits visualization of the genomic distribution of mutational processes associated with APOBEC enzymes, mismatch repair deficiency and homologous recombinational repair deficiency, as well as mutational processes of unknown aetiology. Lastly, it highlights mechanistic insights including a putative replication-dependent mechanism of APOBEC-related mutagenesis.

  6. Increased transversions in a novel mutator colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, J R; Donover, P S; Littman, S J; Swinler, S E; Li, G M; Lutterbaugh, J D; Willson, J K; Modrich, P; Sedwick, W D; Markowitz, S D; Veigl, M L

    1998-03-05

    We describe a novel mutator phenotype in the Vaco411 colon cancer cell line which increases the spontaneous mutation rate 10-100-fold over background. This mutator results primarily in transversion base substitutions which are found infrequently in repair competent cells. Of the four possible types of transversions, only three were principally recovered. Spontaneous mutations recovered also included transitions and large deletions, but very few frameshifts were recovered. When compared to known mismatch repair defective colon cancer mutators, the distribution of mutations in Vaco411 is significantly different. Consistent with this difference, Vaco411 extracts are proficient in assays of mismatch repair. The Vaco411 mutator appears to be novel, and is not an obvious human homologue of any of the previously characterized bacterial or yeast transversion phenotypes. Several hypotheses by which this mutator may produce transversions are presented.

  7. [Pathogenic mutation or polymorphism? (How to find criteria)].

    PubMed

    Kochański, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    The classification of amino-acid substitutions into pathogenic mutations and harmless polymorphisms should be revised. In the recent years it was shown that some amino-acid substitutions considered as pathogenic mutations were polymorphisms. Similarly, some 'harmless' polymorphisms have been shown to be pathogenic mutations. Functional analysis considered as a good method to estimate the pathogenic nature of mutations is also limited. The selection of DNA samples for the control group is also difficult. Due to the molecular mechanism mediated by recently discovered exonic splicing enhancers and silencers (ESE and ESS) it is hard to predict a pathogenic effect of some mutations. In addition, the phenotype variability observed between unrelated patients harboring the same mutation may reflect the effects of modifying genes as well as the lack of association between mutation and "its" phenotype. The aim of this study is to describe the problem of the pathogenic effect of mutations.

  8. Cancer-associated TERT promoter mutations abrogate telomerase silencing.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Kunitoshi; Johnson, Joshua Z; Vogan, Jacob M; Wagner, Tina; Boyle, John M; Hockemeyer, Dirk

    2015-07-21

    Mutations in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter are the most frequent non-coding mutations in cancer, but their molecular mechanism in tumorigenesis has not been established. We used genome editing of human pluripotent stem cells with physiological telomerase expression to elucidate the mechanism by which these mutations contribute to human disease. Surprisingly, telomerase-expressing embryonic stem cells engineered to carry any of the three most frequent TERT promoter mutations showed only a modest increase in TERT transcription with no impact on telomerase activity. However, upon differentiation into somatic cells, which normally silence telomerase, cells with TERT promoter mutations failed to silence TERT expression, resulting in increased telomerase activity and aberrantly long telomeres. Thus, TERT promoter mutations are sufficient to overcome the proliferative barrier imposed by telomere shortening without additional tumor-selected mutations. These data establish that TERT promoter mutations can promote immortalization and tumorigenesis of incipient cancer cells.

  9. Maternally transmitted mitochondrial DNA mutations can reduce lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jaime M.; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Hoffer, Barry J.; Olson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that germline transmission of mitochondrial DNA mutations via the oocyte cause aggravation of aging phenotypes in prematurely aging mtDNA mutator (PolgAmut/mut) mice. We discovered that 32% of these mice also exhibit stochastic disturbances of brain development, when maternal mtDNA mutations were combined with homozygosity for the PolgA mutation, leading to de novo somatic mtDNA mutations. Surprisingly, we also found that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations can cause mild premature aging phenotypes also in mice with a wild-type nuclear DNA background. We now report that in addition to the early onset of aging phenotypes, these mice, burdened only by low levels of mtDNA mutations transmitted via the germline, also exhibit reduced longevity. Our data thus demonstrate that low levels of maternally inherited mtDNA mutations when present during development can affect both overall health and lifespan negatively. PMID:25299268

  10. Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Matters NIH Research Matters August 12, 2013 Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks Schizophrenia networks in the prefrontal ... Vasculitis Therapy as Effective as Standard Care Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks Connect with Us Subscribe to ...

  11. Novel mutations cause biotinidase deficiency in Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Pomponio, R J; Coskun, T; Demirkol, M; Tokatli, A; Ozalp, I; Hüner, G; Baykal, T; Wolf, B

    2000-03-01

    Mutation analysis was performed on DNA from 31 Turkish children with profound biotinidase deficiency who were symptomatic or ascertained by newborn screening. The 98G:del7ins3 mutation is common in clinically ascertained children in both the United States and Turkish populations, but a unique common mutation, R79C, is found only in the Turkish children identified both clinically and by newborn screening. Another frequently occurring mutation, T532M, is only observed in the Turkish newborn screening group. There are four other less frequent novel mutations identified in the Turkish population. Interestingly, the Q456H and the A171T:D444H double mutation, which are the most common mutations found in the US newborn screening population and have not been observed in symptomatic children, do occur in clinically ascertained children in the Turkish population, although the double mutation may be associated with milder and/or later-onset symptoms.

  12. The topography of mutational processes in breast cancer genomes

    PubMed Central

    Morganella, Sandro; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Glodzik, Dominik; Zou, Xueqing; Davies, Helen; Staaf, Johan; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Brinkman, Arie B.; Martin, Sancha; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Butler, Adam; Kim, Hyung-Yong; Borg, Åke; Sotiriou, Christos; Futreal, P. Andrew; Campbell, Peter J.; Span, Paul N.; Van Laere, Steven; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Eyfjord, Jorunn E.; Thompson, Alastair M.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Martens, John W. M.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Richardson, Andrea L.; Kong, Gu; Thomas, Gilles; Sale, Julian; Rada, Cristina; Stratton, Michael R.; Birney, Ewan; Nik-Zainal, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations in human cancers show unevenness in genomic distribution that correlate with aspects of genome structure and function. These mutations are, however, generated by multiple mutational processes operating through the cellular lineage between the fertilized egg and the cancer cell, each composed of specific DNA damage and repair components and leaving its own characteristic mutational signature on the genome. Using somatic mutation catalogues from 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences, here we show that each of 12 base substitution, 2 insertion/deletion (indel) and 6 rearrangement mutational signatures present in breast tissue, exhibit distinct relationships with genomic features relating to transcription, DNA replication and chromatin organization. This signature-based approach permits visualization of the genomic distribution of mutational processes associated with APOBEC enzymes, mismatch repair deficiency and homologous recombinational repair deficiency, as well as mutational processes of unknown aetiology. Furthermore, it highlights mechanistic insights including a putative replication-dependent mechanism of APOBEC-related mutagenesis. PMID:27136393

  13. Modelling mutational landscapes of human cancers in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Magali; Weninger, Annette; Ardin, Maude; Huskova, Hana; Castells, Xavier; Vallée, Maxime P.; McKay, James; Nedelko, Tatiana; Muehlbauer, Karl-Rudolf; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Alexander, John; Hazelwood, Lee; Byrnes, Graham; Hollstein, Monica; Zavadil, Jiri

    2014-03-01

    Experimental models that recapitulate mutational landscapes of human cancers are needed to decipher the rapidly expanding data on human somatic mutations. We demonstrate that mutation patterns in immortalised cell lines derived from primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exposed in vitro to carcinogens recapitulate key features of mutational signatures observed in human cancers. In experiments with several cancer-causing agents we obtained high genome-wide concordance between human tumour mutation data and in vitro data with respect to predominant substitution types, strand bias and sequence context. Moreover, we found signature mutations in well-studied human cancer driver genes. To explore endogenous mutagenesis, we used MEFs ectopically expressing activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and observed an excess of AID signature mutations in immortalised cell lines compared to their non-transgenic counterparts. MEF immortalisation is thus a simple and powerful strategy for modelling cancer mutation landscapes that facilitates the interpretation of human tumour genome-wide sequencing data.

  14. Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations occur in epidermal nevi and seborrheic keratoses with a characteristic mutation pattern

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; López-Knowles, Elena; Luis, Nuno M.; Toll, Agustí; Baselga, Eulàlia; Fernández-Casado, Alex; Hernández, Silvia; Ribé, Adriana; Mentzel, Thomas; Stoehr, Robert; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Landthaler, Michael; Vogt, Thomas; Pujol, Ramòn M.; Hartmann, Arndt; Real, Francisco X.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations of the p110 α subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) oncogene have been identified in a broad spectrum of malignant tumors. However, their role in benign or preneoplastic conditions is unknown. Activating FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations are common in benign skin lesions, either as embryonic mutations in epidermal nevi (EN) or as somatic mutations in seborrheic keratoses (SK). FGFR3 mutations are also common in low-grade malignant bladder tumors, where they often occur in association with PIK3CA mutations. Therefore, we examined exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA and FGFR3 hotspot mutations in EN (n = 33) and SK (n = 62), two proliferative skin lesions lacking malignant potential. Nine of 33 (27%) EN harbored PIK3CA mutations; all cases showed the E545G substitution, which is uncommon in cancers. In EN, R248C was the only FGFR3 mutation identified. By contrast, 10 of 62 (16%) SK revealed the typical cancer-associated PIK3CA mutations E542K, E545K, and H1047R. The same lesions displayed a wide range of FGFR3 mutations. Corresponding unaffected tissue was available for four EN and two mutant SK: all control samples displayed a WT sequence, confirming the somatic nature of the mutations found in lesional tissue. Forty of 95 (42%) lesions showed at least one mutation in either gene. PIK3CA and FGFR3 mutations displayed an independent distribution; 5/95 lesions harbored mutations in both genes. Our findings suggest that, in addition to their role in cancer, oncogenic PIK3CA mutations contribute to the pathogenesis of skin tumors lacking malignant potential. The remarkable genotype–phenotype correlation as observed in this study points to a distinct etiopathogenesis of the mutations in keratinocytes occuring either during fetal development or in adult life. PMID:17673550

  15. Exonuclease mutations in DNA polymerase epsilon reveal replication strand specific mutation patterns and human origins of replication

    PubMed Central

    Shinbrot, Eve; Henninger, Erin E.; Weinhold, Nils; Covington, Kyle R.; Göksenin, A. Yasemin; Schultz, Nikolaus; Chao, Hsu; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Sander, Chris; Pursell, Zachary F.

    2014-01-01

    Tumors with somatic mutations in the proofreading exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE-exo*) exhibit a novel mutator phenotype, with markedly elevated TCT→TAT and TCG→TTG mutations and overall mutation frequencies often exceeding 100 mutations/Mb. Here, we identify POLE-exo* tumors in numerous cancers and classify them into two groups, A and B, according to their mutational properties. Group A mutants are found only in POLE, whereas Group B mutants are found in POLE and POLD1 and appear to be nonfunctional. In Group A, cell-free polymerase assays confirm that mutations in the exonuclease domain result in high mutation frequencies with a preference for C→A mutation. We describe the patterns of amino acid substitutions caused by POLE-exo* and compare them to other tumor types. The nucleotide preference of POLE-exo* leads to increased frequencies of recurrent nonsense mutations in key tumor suppressors such as TP53, ATM, and PIK3R1. We further demonstrate that strand-specific mutation patterns arise from some of these POLE-exo* mutants during genome duplication. This is the first direct proof of leading strand-specific replication by human POLE, which has only been demonstrated in yeast so far. Taken together, the extremely high mutation frequency and strand specificity of mutations provide a unique identifier of eukaryotic origins of replication. PMID:25228659

  16. Contributions of intrinsic mutation rate and selfish selection to levels of de novo HRAS mutations in the paternal germline.

    PubMed

    Giannoulatou, Eleni; McVean, Gilean; Taylor, Indira B; McGowan, Simon J; Maher, Geoffrey J; Iqbal, Zamin; Pfeifer, Susanne P; Turner, Isaac; Burkitt Wright, Emma M M; Shorto, Jennifer; Itani, Aysha; Turner, Karen; Gregory, Lorna; Buck, David; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Kerr, Bronwyn; Wilkie, Andrew O M; Goriely, Anne

    2013-12-10

    The RAS proto-oncogene Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) encodes a small GTPase that transduces signals from cell surface receptors to intracellular effectors to control cellular behavior. Although somatic HRAS mutations have been described in many cancers, germline mutations cause Costello syndrome (CS), a congenital disorder associated with predisposition to malignancy. Based on the epidemiology of CS and the occurrence of HRAS mutations in spermatocytic seminoma, we proposed that activating HRAS mutations become enriched in sperm through a process akin to tumorigenesis, termed selfish spermatogonial selection. To test this hypothesis, we quantified the levels, in blood and sperm samples, of HRAS mutations at the p.G12 codon and compared the results to changes at the p.A11 codon, at which activating mutations do not occur. The data strongly support the role of selection in determining HRAS mutation levels in sperm, and hence the occurrence of CS, but we also found differences from the mutation pattern in tumorigenesis. First, the relative prevalence of mutations in sperm correlates weakly with their in vitro activating properties and occurrence in cancers. Second, specific tandem base substitutions (predominantly GC>TT/AA) occur in sperm but not in cancers; genomewide analysis showed that this same mutation is also overrepresented in constitutional pathogenic and polymorphic variants, suggesting a heightened vulnerability to these mutations in the germline. We developed a statistical model to show how both intrinsic mutation rate and selfish selection contribute to the mutational burden borne by the paternal germline.

  17. Low frequency of AXIN2 mutations and high frequency of MUTYH mutations in patients with multiple polyposis.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Sophie; Guillemot, François; Triboulet, Jean-Pierre; Cattan, Stéphane; Mouton, Christine; Porchet, Nicole; Manouvrier, Sylvie; Buisine, Marie-Pierre

    2006-10-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis has been linked to germline mutations in the APC tumor suppressor gene. However, a number of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (with either classical or attenuated phenotype) have no APC mutation. Recently, germline mutations in the Wnt pathway component gene AXIN2 have been associated with tooth agenesis-colorectal cancer syndrome. Moreover, biallelic mutations in the base excision repair gene MUTYH have been associated with polyposis and early-onset colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to further assess the contribution of AXIN2 and MUTYH to hereditary colorectal cancer susceptibility. AXIN2 and MUTYH genes were screened for germline mutations by PCR and direct sequencing in 39 unrelated patients with multiple adenomas or colorectal cancer without evidence of APC mutation nor mismatch repair defect. Two novel AXIN2 variants were detected in one patient with multiple adenomas, but no clearly pathogenic mutation. In contrast, nine different MUTYH mutations were detected in eight patients, including four novel mutations. Biallelic MUTYH mutations were only found in patients with multiple adenomatous polyposis (7 out of 22 (32%)). Interestingly, five MUTYH mutation carriers had a family history consistent with dominant inheritance. Moreover, one patient with biallelic MUTYH mutations presented with multiple adenomas and severe tooth agenesis. Therefore, germline mutations are rare in AXIN2 but frequent in MUTYH in patients with multiple adenomas. Our data suggest that genetic testing of MUTYH may be of interest in patients with pedigrees apparently compatible with autosomal recessive as well as dominant inheritance.

  18. Exonuclease mutations in DNA polymerase epsilon reveal replication strand specific mutation patterns and human origins of replication.

    PubMed

    Shinbrot, Eve; Henninger, Erin E; Weinhold, Nils; Covington, Kyle R; Göksenin, A Yasemin; Schultz, Nikolaus; Chao, Hsu; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Sander, Chris; Pursell, Zachary F; Wheeler, David A

    2014-11-01

    Tumors with somatic mutations in the proofreading exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE-exo*) exhibit a novel mutator phenotype, with markedly elevated TCT→TAT and TCG→TTG mutations and overall mutation frequencies often exceeding 100 mutations/Mb. Here, we identify POLE-exo* tumors in numerous cancers and classify them into two groups, A and B, according to their mutational properties. Group A mutants are found only in POLE, whereas Group B mutants are found in POLE and POLD1 and appear to be nonfunctional. In Group A, cell-free polymerase assays confirm that mutations in the exonuclease domain result in high mutation frequencies with a preference for C→A mutation. We describe the patterns of amino acid substitutions caused by POLE-exo* and compare them to other tumor types. The nucleotide preference of POLE-exo* leads to increased frequencies of recurrent nonsense mutations in key tumor suppressors such as TP53, ATM, and PIK3R1. We further demonstrate that strand-specific mutation patterns arise from some of these POLE-exo* mutants during genome duplication. This is the first direct proof of leading strand-specific replication by human POLE, which has only been demonstrated in yeast so far. Taken together, the extremely high mutation frequency and strand specificity of mutations provide a unique identifier of eukaryotic origins of replication.

  19. Viral fitness: relation to drug resistance mutations and mechanisms involved: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jan; Henry, Kenneth R; Arts, Eric J; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E

    2007-03-01

    Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors constitute the backbone of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. One of the major obstacles in achieving the long-term efficacy of anti-HIV-1 therapy is the development of resistance. The advent of resistance mutations is usually accompanied by a change in viral replicative fitness. This review focuses on the most common nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated mutations and their effects on HIV-1 replicative fitness. Recent studies have explained the two main mechanisms of resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and their role in HIV-1 replicative fitness. The first involves mutations directly interfering with binding or incorporation and seems to impact replicative fitness more adversely than the second mechanism, which involves enhanced excision of the newly incorporated analogue. Further studies have helped explain the antagonistic effects between amino acid substitutions, K65R, L74V, M184V, and thymidine analogue mutations, showing how viral replicative fitness influences the evolution of thymidine analogue resistance pathways. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations impact HIV-1 replicative fitness to a lesser extent than protease resistance mutations. The monitoring of viral replicative fitness may help in the management of HIV-1 infection in highly antiretroviral-experienced individuals.

  20. Identifying recurrent mutations in cancer reveals widespread lineage diversity and mutational specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Matthew T.; Asthana, Saurabh; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Lee, Byron H.; Chapman, Jocelyn S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Gao, JianJiong; Socci, Nicholas D.; Solit, David B.; Olshen, Adam B.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Taylor, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Mutational hotspots indicate selective pressure across a population of tumor samples, but their prevalence within and across cancer types is incompletely characterized. An approach to detect significantly mutated residues, rather than methods that identify recurrently mutated genes, may uncover new biologically and therapeutically relevant driver mutations. Here we developed a statistical algorithm to identify recurrently mutated residues in tumour samples. We applied the algorithm to 11,119 human tumors, spanning 41 cancer types, and identified 470 hotspot somatic substitutions in 275 genes. We find that half of all human tumors possess one or more mutational hotspots with widespread lineage-, position-, and mutant allele-specific differences, many of which are likely functional. In total, 243 hotspots were novel and appeared to affect a broad spectrum of molecular function, including hotspots at paralogous residues of Ras-related small GTPases RAC1 and RRAS2. Redefining hotspots at mutant amino acid resolution will help elucidate the allele-specific di