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Sample records for fts catalytic evaluation

  1. Electrostatic Evaluation of the ARES I FTS Antenna Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2010-01-01

    Surface resistivity and volume resistivity data show all the tested non-metallic materials of the Ares I FTS antenna assembly to be insulative. The external materials (White foam, phenolic) should be able to develop a large surface charge density upon tribocharging with ice crystal impingement. Dielectric breakdown tests on the FTS antenna housing materials show that each of the insulative materials are very resistive to electrical breakdown. The thicknesses of these materials in a nominal housing should protect the antenna from direct breakdown from external triboelectric charging potentials. Per data from the Air Force study, a maximum external electric potential in the range of 100kV can be developed on surfaces tribocharged by ice crystal impingement. Testing showed that under operational pressure ranges, this level of exterior voltage can result in a potential of about 6 kV induced on the electrically floating interior antenna vanes. Testing the vanes up to this voltage level showed that electrostatic discharges can occur between the electrically floating vanes and the center, grounded screw heads. Repeated tests with multiple invisible and visible discharges caused only superficial physical damage to the vanes. Fourier analysis of the discharge signals showed that the frequency range of credible discharges would not interfere with the nominal operation of the FTS antenna. However, due to the limited scope, short timetable, and limited funding of this study, a direct measurement of the triboelectric charge that could be generated on the Ares I antenna housing when the rocket traverses an ice cloud at supersonic speeds was not performed. Instead, data for the limited Air Force study [3] was used as input for our experiments. The Air Force data used was not collected with a sensor located to provide us with the best approximation at the geometry of the Ares I rocket, namely that of the windshield electrometer, because brush discharges to the metal frame of the

  2. Technology identification, evaluation, selection, and demonstration processes for space qualification of subsystems for FTS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glumb, Ronald J.; Macoy, Norman H.; Jordan, David C.; Predina, Joe P.

    1999-10-01

    Development of space-qualified Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) systems for long-life operational space missions requires development of new technologies. ITT Industries has been developing these new FTS technologies for the past 5 years, in anticipation of their use in FTS systems for operational meteorological satellites and other long-life space applications. Our objectives are to identify FTS technologies that have important mission advantages, design and build new components using these technologies, and prove the new technologies in a complete FTS interferometer technology testbed. This paper describes the process used at ITT to identify and develop these new technologies, the Dynamically Aligned Porch Swing (DAPS) interferometer technology testbed used to prove the new technologies, characterization tests of the DAPS used to verify the performance of the new technologies, and space qualification efforts now underway to verify that the new technologies can survive space environments.

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of Quinazolines as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, Gabriella M; Chan, Katie M; Huynh, Valerie; Martin, Kevin S; Moore, Jared T; O'Brien, Terrence E; Pollo, Luiz A E; Sarabia, Francisco J; Tadeus, Clarissa; Yao, Zi; Anderson, David E; Ames, James B; Shaw, Jared T

    2015-03-12

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is one of many potential targets for the development of novel antibiotics. Recently, zantrin Z3 was shown to be a cross-species inhibitor of FtsZ; however, its specific interactions with the protein are still unknown. Herein we report the synthesis of analogues that contain a more tractable core structure and an analogue with single-digit micromolar inhibition of FtsZ's GTPase activity, which represents the most potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli FtsZ reported to date. In addition, the zantrin Z3 core has been converted to two potential photo-cross-linking reagents for proteomic studies that could shed light on the molecular interactions between FtsZ and molecules related to zantrin Z3.

  4. Synthesis and Evaluation of Quinazolines as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is one of many potential targets for the development of novel antibiotics. Recently, zantrin Z3 was shown to be a cross-species inhibitor of FtsZ; however, its specific interactions with the protein are still unknown. Herein we report the synthesis of analogues that contain a more tractable core structure and an analogue with single-digit micromolar inhibition of FtsZ’s GTPase activity, which represents the most potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli FtsZ reported to date. In addition, the zantrin Z3 core has been converted to two potential photo-cross-linking reagents for proteomic studies that could shed light on the molecular interactions between FtsZ and molecules related to zantrin Z3. PMID:25815151

  5. FTS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provost, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on flight telerobotic servicer evolution are presented. Topics covered include: paths for FTS evolution; frequently performed actions; primary task states; EPS radiator panel installation; generic task definitions; path planning; non-contact alignment; contact planning and control; and human operator interface.

  6. FTS evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provost, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on flight telerobotic servicer evolution are presented. Topics covered include: paths for FTS evolution; frequently performed actions; primary task states; EPS radiator panel installation; generic task definitions; path planning; non-contact alignment; contact planning and control; and human operator interface.

  7. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  8. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles targeting FtsZ as antitubercular agents.

    PubMed

    Park, Bora; Awasthi, Divya; Chowdhury, Soumya R; Melief, Eduard H; Kumar, Kunal; Knudson, Susan E; Slayden, Richard A; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-05-01

    Filamenting temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), an essential cell division protein, is a promising target for the drug discovery of new-generation antibacterial agents against various bacterial pathogens. As a part of SAR studies on benzimidazoles, we have synthesized a library of 376 novel 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles, bearing ether or thioether linkage at the 6-position. In a preliminary HTP screening against Mtb H37Rv, 108 compounds were identified as hits at a cut off concentration of 5 μg/mL. Among those hits, 10 compounds exhibited MIC values in the range of 0.63-12.5 μg/mL. Light scattering assay and TEM analysis with the most potent compound 5a clearly indicate that its molecular target is Mtb-FtsZ. Also, the Kd of 5a with Mtb-FtsZ was determined to be 1.32 μM.

  9. ACE-FTS measurements of HCFC-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Strahan, S.; McLinden, C. A.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Bernath, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    In the 1980s scientists discovered an annual springtime minimum in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic. It was determined that the decline in ozone concentration was primarily caused by catalytic reactions of ozone and chlorine. The emissions of anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were determined to be major sources of the chlorine. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (with its subsequent amendments) restricts the emissions of ozone depleting substances. To fulfill the need for safe, stable replacements of CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were developed. The use of HCFC-22 as a replacement has led to an increase in its atmospheric abundance. This is of concern due to its ozone depletion potential and its global warming potential. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT. The primary instrument on SCISAT is a high-resolution infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). With its wide spectral range, the ACE-FTS is capable of measuring an extensive range of gases including key CFC and HCFC species. The altitude distribution from the ACE-FTS profiles provides information that is complementary to the ground-based measurements that have been used to monitor these species. The global distribution of HCFC-22 has been computed from measurements by ACE-FTS. Both seasonal variations and an inter-hemispheric difference are observed. Additionally, a rapid increase in the global concentration of HCFC-22 has been observed since the start of the ACE mission in 2004. Comparisons to ground-based and air-borne measurements show good agreement with the ACE-FTS measurements. The global distributions of HCFC-22 have also been compared to a chemistry and transport model (CTM), the Global Modelling Initiative Combined Stratospheric-Tropospheric Model. There are distinct differences between the model results and ACE-FTS measurements. The causes and

  10. FTS3: Quantitative Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, H.; Salichos, M.; Keeble, O.; Andreeva, J.; Ayllon, A. A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Magini, N.; Roiser, S.; Simon, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    The overall success of LHC data processing depends heavily on stable, reliable and fast data distribution. The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) relies on the File Transfer Service (FTS) as the data movement middleware for moving sets of files from one site to another. This paper describes the components of FTS3 monitoring infrastructure and how they are built to satisfy the common and particular requirements of the LHC experiments. We show how the system provides a complete and detailed cross-virtual organization (VO) picture of transfers for sites, operators and VOs. This information has proven critical due to the shared nature of the infrastructure, allowing a complete view of all transfers on shared network links between various workflows and VOs using the same FTS transfer manager. We also report on the performance of the FTS service itself, using data generated by the aforementioned monitoring infrastructure both during the commissioning and the first phase of production. We also explain how this monitoring information and network metrics produced can be used both as a starting point for troubleshooting data transfer issues, but also as a mechanism to collect information such as transfer efficiency between sites, achieved throughput and its evolution over time, most common errors, etc, and take decision upon them to further optimize transfer workflows. The service setup is subject to sites policies to control the network resource usage, as well as all the VOs making use of the Grid resources at the site to satisfy their requirements. FTS3 is the new version of FTS and has been deployed in production in August 2014.

  11. Morphological features and signature gene response elicited by inactivation of FtsI in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Slayden, Richard A.; Belisle, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Universally conserved events in cell division provide the opportunity for the development of novel chemotherapeutics against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to use the β-lactam antimicrobials cefalexin and piperacillin to inhibit FtsI and characterize the morphological changes and global transcriptional activities of genes to identify a signature response to FtsI inactivation. Methods Cefalexin and piperacillin were used to block cell division, and microscopy was used to evaluate the effects on bacterial morphology and ultrastructure. Global transcriptional analysis was performed to determine the impact of FtsI inhibition on cell cycle processes and to identify molecular markers. Results Inhibition of FtsI with cefalexin and piperacillin resulted in filamentous cells with multiple concentric rings and occasional branching as visualized by light and electron microscopy. Whole genome microarray-based transcriptional profiling and transcriptional mapping allowed the evaluation of cell cycle processes in response to inhibition of FtsI and characterization of transcriptional response and cell cycle processes. Conclusions This study substantiated that FtsZ-ring constriction and septal resolution require the transpeptidase activity of FtsI, making FtsI essential for cell division in M. tuberculosis. Therefore, FtsI is a target for drug discovery, and these studies provided a molecular signature of FtsI inactivation that can be applied to screening strategies for novel FtsI inhibitors. PMID:19109339

  12. SOFIS FTS EM test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 μm. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

  13. Roles for both FtsA and the FtsBLQ subcomplex in FtsN-stimulated cell constriction in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Persons, Logan; Lee, Lynda; de Boer, Piet A. J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Escherichia coli FtsN is a bitopic membrane protein that is essential for triggering active cell constriction. A small periplasmic subdomain (EFtsN) is required and sufficient for function, but its mechanism of action is unclear. We isolated extragenic EFtsN*-suppressing mutations that restore division in cells producing otherwise non-functional variants of FtsN. These mapped to the IC domain of FtsA in the cytoplasm and to small subdomains of the FtsB and FtsL proteins in the periplasm. All FtsB and FtsL variants allowed survival without EFtsN, but many then imposed a new requirement for interaction between the cytoplasmic domain of FtsN (NFtsN) with FtsA. Alternatively, variants of FtsA, FtsB or FtsL acted synergistically to allow cell division in the complete absence of FtsN. Strikingly, moreover, substitution of a single residue in FtsB (E56) proved sufficient to rescue ΔftsN cells as well. In FtsN+ cells, EFtsN*-suppressing mutations promoted cell fission at an abnormally small cell size, and caused cell shape and integrity defects under certain conditions. This and additional evidence support a model in which FtsN acts on either side of the membrane to induce a conformational switch in both FtsA and the FtsBLQ subcomplex to derepress septal peptidoglycan synthesis and membrane invagination. PMID:25496160

  14. Biological activity of Pinus nigra terpenes--evaluation of FtsZ inhibition by selected compounds as contribution to their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Zorica; Matejić, Jelena S; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Veselinović, Jovana B; Džamić, Ana M; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2014-11-01

    In the current work, in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activites of the needle terpenes of three taxa of Pinus nigra from Serbia (ssp. nigra, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) were analyzed. The black pine essential oils showed generally weak antioxidative properties tested by two methods (DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays), where the highest activity was identified in P. nigra var. banatica (IC50=25.08 mg/mL and VitC=0.67 mg (vitamin C)/g when tested with the DPPH and ABTS reagents, respectively). In the antimicrobial assays, one fungal (Aspergilus niger) and two bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) showed sensitivity against essential oils of all three P. nigra taxa. The tested oils have been shown to possess inhibitory action in the range from 20.00 to 0.62 mg/mL, where var. banatica exhibited the highest and ssp. nigra the lowest antimicrobial action. In order to determine potential compounds that are responsible for alternative mode of action, molecular docking simulations inside FtsZ (a prokaryotic homolog of tubulin) were performed. Tested compounds were the most abundant terpenoid (germacrene D-4-ol) and its structurally similar terpene (germacrene D), both present in all three essential oils. It was determined that the oxygenated form of the molecule creates stable bonds with investigated enzyme FtsZ, and that this compound, through this mechanism of action participates in the antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Probing the binding site of curcumin in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis FtsZ--a structural insight to unveil antibacterial activity of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Modi, Niraj H; Panda, Dulal; Roy, Nilanjan

    2010-09-01

    The cytoskeletal protein, FtsZ plays a pivotal role in prokaryotic cell division and is present in majority of the bacterial species. In recent years, inhibitors of FtsZ have been identified that may function as lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobials. It has been found that curcumin, the main bioactive component of Curcuma longa, inhibits Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli growth by inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Though it is experimentally established that curcumin inhibits FtsZ polymerization, the binding site of curcumin in FtsZ is not known. In this study, interaction of curcumin with catalytic core domain of E. coli and B. subtilis FtsZ was investigated using computational docking. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen-oxygen catalytic ignition and thruster investigation. Volume 1: Catalytic ignition and low pressure thruster evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental and analytical program was conducted to evaluate catalytic igniter operational limits, igniter scaling criteria, and delivered performance of cooled, flightweight gaseous hydrogen-oxygen reaction control thrusters. Specific goals were to: (1) establish operating life and environmental effects for both Shell 405-ABSG and Engelhard MFSA catalysts, (2) provide generalized igniter design guidelines for high response without flashback, and (3) to determine overall performance of thrusters at chamber pressures of 15 and 300 psia (103 and 2068 kN/sq m) and thrust levels of 30 and 1500 lbf, respectively. The experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility of reliable, high response catalytic ignition and the effectiveness of ducted chamber cooling for a high performance flightweight thruster. This volume presents the results of the catalytic igniter and low pressure thruster evaluations are presented.

  17. Evaluation of bias in lower and middle tropospheric GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR V1.0 CO2 data through comparisons with aircraft and NICAM-TM CO2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, N.; Hatta, H.; Imasu, R.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Niwa, Y.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsueda, H.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been observing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in several atmospheric layers in the thermal infrared (TIR) band since its launch on 23 January 2009. We have compared TANSO-FTS TIR Version 1 (V1) CO2 data from 2010 to 2012 and CO2 data obtained by the Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME) installed on several JAL aircraft in the framework of the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) project to evaluate bias in the TIR CO2 data in the lower and middle troposphere. Here, we have regarded the CME data obtained during the ascent and descent flights over several airports as part of CO2 vertical profiles there. The comparisons showed that the TIR V1 CO2 data had a negative bias against the CME CO2 data; the magnitude of the bias varied depending on season and latitude. We have estimated bias correction values for the TIR V1 lower and middle tropospheric CO2 data in each latitude band from 40°S to 60°N in each season on the basis of the comparisons with the CME CO2 profiles in limited areas over airports, applied the bias correction values to the TIR V1 CO2 data, and evaluated the quality of the bias-corrected TIR CO2 data globally through comparisons with CO2 data taken from the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM)-based Transport Model (TM). The bias-corrected TIR CO2 data showed a better agreement with the NICAM-TM CO2 than the original TIR data, which suggests that the bias correction values estimated in the limited areas are basically applicable to global TIR CO2 data. We have compared XCO2 data calculated from both the original and bias-corrected TIR CO2 data with TANSO-FTS SWIR and NICAM-TM XCO2 data; both the TIR XCO2 data agreed with SWIR and NICAM-TM XCO2 data within 1% except over the Sahara desert and strong source and sink regions.

  18. Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Scot P.; Rueden, Kelsey J.; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Cox, John V.; Belland, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g., FtsZ) and late (e.g., FtsI/Pbp3) components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with Escherichia coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components. PMID:26617598

  19. Escherichia coli FtsA forms lipid-bound minirings that antagonize lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, Marcin; Rowlett, Veronica W.; Morado, Dustin; Vitrac, Heidi; Schoenemann, Kara; Liu, Jun; Margolin, William

    2017-01-01

    Most bacteria divide using a protein machine called the divisome that spans the cytoplasmic membrane. Key divisome proteins on the membrane’s cytoplasmic side include tubulin-like FtsZ, which forms GTP-dependent protofilaments, and actin-like FtsA, which tethers FtsZ to the membrane. Here we present genetic evidence that in Escherichia coli, FtsA antagonizes FtsZ protofilament bundling in vivo. We then show that purified FtsA does not form straight polymers on lipid monolayers as expected, but instead assembles into dodecameric minirings, often in hexameric arrays. When coassembled with FtsZ on lipid monolayers, these FtsA minirings appear to guide FtsZ to form long, often parallel, but unbundled protofilaments, whereas a mutant of FtsZ (FtsZ*) with stronger lateral interactions remains bundled. In contrast, a hypermorphic mutant of FtsA (FtsA*) forms mainly arcs instead of minirings and enhances lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. Based on these results, we propose that FtsA antagonizes lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments, and that the oligomeric state of FtsA may influence FtsZ higher-order structure and divisome function. PMID:28695917

  20. The Mechanics of FtsZ Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Daniel J.; Portman, Ian; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Rodger, Alison; Roper, David I.; Smith, Corinne J.; Turner, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of the Fts family of proteins causes the growth of long filamentous cells, indicating that they play some role in cell division. FtsZ polymerizes into protofilaments and assembles into the Z-ring at the future site of the septum of cell division. We analyze the rigidity of GTP-bound FtsZ protofilaments by using cryoelectron microscopy to sample their bending fluctuations. We find that the FtsZ-GTP filament rigidity is κ = 4.7±1.0×10 − 27κ=4.7±1.0×10−27 Nm2, with a corresponding thermal persistence length of lp = 1.15±0.25lp=1.15±0.25μm, much higher than previous estimates. In conjunction with other model studies, our new higher estimate for FtsZ rigidity suggests that contraction of the Z-ring may generate sufficient force to facilitate cell division. The good agreement between the measured mode amplitudes and that predicted by equipartition of energy supports our use of a simple mechanical model for FtsZ fibers. The study also provides evidence that the fibers have no intrinsic global or local curvatures, such as might be caused by partial hydrolysis of the GTP. PMID:22385843

  1. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier Transform Spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three datasets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Lab at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and between 1.5 and 3

  2. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier transform spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Gerrit; Walker, Kaley A.; Conway, Stephanie; Saitoh, Naoko; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly; Drummond, James R.

    2016-05-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three data sets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Laboratory at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional collocation criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and

  3. Domain-swapping analysis of FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ, bitopic membrane proteins essential for cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, L M; Weiss, D S; Beckwith, J

    1997-01-01

    FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ are three membrane proteins required for assembly of the division septum in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Cells lacking any of these three proteins form long, aseptate filaments that eventually lyse. FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ are not homologous but have similar overall structures: a small cytoplasmic domain, a single membrane-spanning segment (MSS), and a large periplasmic domain that probably encodes the primary functional activities of these proteins. The periplasmic domain of FtsI catalyzes transpeptidation and is involved in the synthesis of septal peptidoglycan. The precise functions of FtsL and FtsQ are not known. To ask whether the cytoplasmic domain and MSS of each protein serve only as a membrane anchor or have instead a more sophisticated function, we have used molecular genetic techniques to swap these domains among the three Fts proteins and one membrane protein not involved in cell division, MalF. In the cases of FtsI and FtsL, replacement of the cytoplasmic domain and/or MSS resulted in the loss of the ability to support cell division. For FtsQ, MSS swaps supported cell division but cytoplasmic domain swaps did not. We discuss several potential interpretations of these results, including that the essential domains of FtsI, FtsL, and FtsQ have a role in regulating the localization and/or activity of these proteins to ensure that septum formation occurs at the right place in the cell and at the right time during the division cycle. PMID:9260951

  4. 3-Phenyl substituted 6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline derivatives as FtsZ-targeting antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Cody; Zhang, Yongzheng; Parhi, Ajit; Kaul, Malvika; Pilch, Daniel S.; LaVoie, Edmond J.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has created an urgent need for antibiotics with a novel mechanism of action. The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is an attractive target for the development of novel antibiotics. The benzo[c]phenanthridinium sanguinarine and the dibenzo[a,g]quinolizin-7-ium berberine are two structurally similar plant alkaloids that alter FtsZ function. The presence of a hydrophobic functionality at either the 1-position of 5-methylbenzo[c]phenanthridinium derivatives or the 2-position of dibenzo[a,g]quinolizin-7-ium derivatives is associated with significantly enhanced antibacterial activity. 3-Phenylisoquinoline represents a subunit within the ring-systems of both of these alkaloids. Several 3-phenylisoquinolines and 3-phenylisoquinolinium derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, including multidrug-resistant strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis (VRE). A number of derivatives were found to have activity against both MRSA and VRE. The binding of select compounds to S. aureus FtsZ (SaFtsZ) was demonstrated and characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, the compounds were shown to act as stabilizers of SaFtsZ polymers and concomitant inhibitors of SaFtsZ GTPase activity. Toxicological assessment of select compounds revealed minimal cross-reaction mammalian β-tubulin as well as little or no human cytotoxicity. PMID:23127490

  5. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  6. Catalytic test reactions for the evaluation of hierarchical zeolites.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin; Machoke, Albert Gonche; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2016-06-13

    Hierarchical zeolites have received increasing attention in the last decade due to their outstanding catalytic performance. Several types of hierarchical zeolites can be prepared by a large number of different techniques. Hierarchical zeolites combine the intrinsic catalytic properties of conventional zeolites and the facilitated access and transport in the additional meso- or macropore system. In this tutorial review, we discuss several test reactions that have been explored to show the benefit of the hierarchical pore system with respect to their suitability to prove the positive effects of hierarchical porous zeolites. It is important to note that positive effects on activity, stability and less frequently selectivity observed for hierarchically structured catalysts not necessarily are only a consequence of the additional meso- or macropores but also the number, strength and location of active sites as well as defects and impurities. With regard to these aspects, the test reaction has to be chosen carefully and potential changes in the chemistry of the catalyst have to be considered as well. In addition to the determination of conversion, yield and selectivity, we will show that the calculation of the activation energy and the determination of the Thiele modulus and the effectiveness factor are good indicators of the presence or absence of diffusion limitations in hierarchical zeolites compared to their parent materials.

  7. The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) NASA's first operational robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, J.; Halterman, K.; Hewitt, D.; Sabelhaus, P.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has completed the preliminary definition phase of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and is now preparing to begin the detailed design and fabrication phase. The FTS will be designed and built by Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, CO, for the Goddard Space Flight Center, in support of the Space Station Freedom Program. The design concepts for the FTS are discussed, as well as operational scenarios for the assembly, maintenance, servicing and inspection tasks which are being considered for the FTS. The upcoming Development Test Flight (DTF-1) is the first of two shuttle test flights to test FTS operations in the environment of space and to demonstrate the FTS capabilities in performing tasks for Space Station Freedom. Operational planning for DTF-1 is discussed as well as development plans for the operational support of the FTS on the space station.

  8. Evaluation of the Experimental and Theoretical Intensities of Water-Vapor Lines in the 2 μm Region Using Solar-Pointing FTS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Lodi, L.; Tennyson, J.; Toon, G. C.; Brown, L. R.

    2012-06-01

    The HITRAN spectroscopic database contains water-vapor absorption lines in a wide spectral range (0-25 000 wn). The precision and accuracy of the transition intensities are diverse and strongly depend on the spectral region and dynamic range. Now, a significant volume of new experimental and theoretical studies must be evaluated region by region prior to inclusion in the next update of HITRAN. For this presentation, we examine the quality of water absorption parameters at 2 μm because they overlap spectral features of prominent CO2 bands that are important to ongoing and future missions (such as GOSAT and OCO-2) designed to monitor the carbon cycle globally from orbit. The accurate knowledge of water-vapor spectral parameters is important not only for accounting for water transitions in spectra, but also for evaluating how pressure broadening of the CO2 lines by water affect atmospheric retrievals. It was determined (using different air-mass retrievals from the solar-pointing Fourier transform spectrometer at Park Falls, WI) that the new ab initio intensities calculated at the University College London have proven to be an improvement over currently tabulated HITRAN intensities, which in the 800-8 000 wn region are based on the semi-empirical values from the SISAM database. In addition, it was found that these new ab initio intensities provide better consistency between the bands in this region (namely 3ν2, ν2+ν3 and ν1+ν2) with respect to previous theoretical attempts. It was also determined that many SISAM experimental intensities are superior to the SISAM semi-empirical values that are now in HITRAN. Lodi L.,Tennyson J., Polyansky O. L., J Chem Phys, 135, 034113-10 (2011). http://mark4sun.jpl.nasa.gov/h2o.html.

  9. FtsZ Placement in Nucleoid-Free Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Margolin, William; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We describe the placement of the cytoplasmic FtsZ protein, an essential component of the division septum, in nucleoid-free Escherichia coli maxicells. The absence of the nucleoid is accompanied in maxicells by degradation of the SlmA protein. This protein, together with the nucleoid, prevents the placement of the septum in the regions occupied by the chromosome by a mechanism called nucleoid occlusion (NO). A second septum placement mechanism, the MinCDE system (Min) involving a pole-to-pole oscillation of three proteins, nonetheless remains active in maxicells. Both Min and NO act on the polymerization of FtsZ, preventing its assembly into an FtsZ-ring except at midcell. Our results show that even in the total absence of NO, Min oscillations can direct placement of FtsZ in maxicells. Deletion of the FtsZ carboxyl terminal domain (FtsZ*), a central hub that receives signals from a variety of proteins including MinC, FtsA and ZipA, produces a Min-insensitive form of FtsZ unable to interact with the membrane-anchoring FtsA and ZipA proteins. This protein produces a totally disorganized pattern of FtsZ localization inside the maxicell cytoplasm. In contrast, FtsZ*-VM, an artificially cytoplasmic membrane-anchored variant of FtsZ*, forms helical or repetitive ring structures distributed along the entire length of maxicells even in the absence of NO. These results show that membrane anchoring is needed to organize FtsZ into rings and underscore the role of the C-terminal hub of FtsZ for their correct placement. PMID:24638110

  10. FtsZ placement in nucleoid-free bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Margolin, William; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We describe the placement of the cytoplasmic FtsZ protein, an essential component of the division septum, in nucleoid-free Escherichia coli maxicells. The absence of the nucleoid is accompanied in maxicells by degradation of the SlmA protein. This protein, together with the nucleoid, prevents the placement of the septum in the regions occupied by the chromosome by a mechanism called nucleoid occlusion (NO). A second septum placement mechanism, the MinCDE system (Min) involving a pole-to-pole oscillation of three proteins, nonetheless remains active in maxicells. Both Min and NO act on the polymerization of FtsZ, preventing its assembly into an FtsZ-ring except at midcell. Our results show that even in the total absence of NO, Min oscillations can direct placement of FtsZ in maxicells. Deletion of the FtsZ carboxyl terminal domain (FtsZ*), a central hub that receives signals from a variety of proteins including MinC, FtsA and ZipA, produces a Min-insensitive form of FtsZ unable to interact with the membrane-anchoring FtsA and ZipA proteins. This protein produces a totally disorganized pattern of FtsZ localization inside the maxicell cytoplasm. In contrast, FtsZ*-VM, an artificially cytoplasmic membrane-anchored variant of FtsZ*, forms helical or repetitive ring structures distributed along the entire length of maxicells even in the absence of NO. These results show that membrane anchoring is needed to organize FtsZ into rings and underscore the role of the C-terminal hub of FtsZ for their correct placement.

  11. FtsZ polymerization assays: simple protocols and considerations.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewa; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2013-11-16

    During bacterial cell division, the essential protein FtsZ assembles in the middle of the cell to form the so-called Z-ring. FtsZ polymerizes into long filaments in the presence of GTP in vitro, and polymerization is regulated by several accessory proteins. FtsZ polymerization has been extensively studied in vitro using basic methods including light scattering, sedimentation, GTP hydrolysis assays and electron microscopy. Buffer conditions influence both the polymerization properties of FtsZ, and the ability of FtsZ to interact with regulatory proteins. Here, we describe protocols for FtsZ polymerization studies and validate conditions and controls using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis FtsZ as model proteins. A low speed sedimentation assay is introduced that allows the study of the interaction of FtsZ with proteins that bundle or tubulate FtsZ polymers. An improved GTPase assay protocol is described that allows testing of GTP hydrolysis over time using various conditions in a 96-well plate setup, with standardized incubation times that abolish variation in color development in the phosphate detection reaction. The preparation of samples for light scattering studies and electron microscopy is described. Several buffers are used to establish suitable buffer pH and salt concentration for FtsZ polymerization studies. A high concentration of KCl is the best for most of the experiments. Our methods provide a starting point for the in vitro characterization of FtsZ, not only from E. coli and B. subtilis but from any other bacterium. As such, the methods can be used for studies of the interaction of FtsZ with regulatory proteins or the testing of antibacterial drugs which may affect FtsZ polymerization.

  12. FtsZ Polymerization Assays: Simple Protocols and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Król, Ewa; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During bacterial cell division, the essential protein FtsZ assembles in the middle of the cell to form the so-called Z-ring. FtsZ polymerizes into long filaments in the presence of GTP in vitro, and polymerization is regulated by several accessory proteins. FtsZ polymerization has been extensively studied in vitro using basic methods including light scattering, sedimentation, GTP hydrolysis assays and electron microscopy. Buffer conditions influence both the polymerization properties of FtsZ, and the ability of FtsZ to interact with regulatory proteins. Here, we describe protocols for FtsZ polymerization studies and validate conditions and controls using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis FtsZ as model proteins. A low speed sedimentation assay is introduced that allows the study of the interaction of FtsZ with proteins that bundle or tubulate FtsZ polymers. An improved GTPase assay protocol is described that allows testing of GTP hydrolysis over time using various conditions in a 96-well plate setup, with standardized incubation times that abolish variation in color development in the phosphate detection reaction. The preparation of samples for light scattering studies and electron microscopy is described. Several buffers are used to establish suitable buffer pH and salt concentration for FtsZ polymerization studies. A high concentration of KCl is the best for most of the experiments. Our methods provide a starting point for the in vitro characterization of FtsZ, not only from E. coli and B. subtilis but from any other bacterium. As such, the methods can be used for studies of the interaction of FtsZ with regulatory proteins or the testing of antibacterial drugs which may affect FtsZ polymerization. PMID:24300445

  13. Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Bekker, D. L.; Blavier, J. L.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.; Frankenberg, C.; Key, R.; Manatt, K.; Miller, C. E.; Natraj, V.; Rider, D. M.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In order to confidently project the future evolution of climate and support efforts to mitigate the climate change, quantifying the emissions of CO2 and CH4 is a national and international priority. To accomplish this goal, new observational approaches are required that operate over spatial scales ranging from regional to global, and temporal scales from diurnal to decadal. Geostationary satellite observations of CO2, CH4 and correlative quantities such as CO and chlorophyll fluorescence provide a new measurement approach to deliver the quantity and quality of data needed for improved flux estimates and an improved understanding of the partitioning between biogenic and anthropogenic sources. GeoFTS is an exciting new concept that combines the game changing technology of imaging Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with the observational advantages of a geostationary orbit. The GeoFTS observations enable well-posed surface-atmospheric carbon exchange assessments as well as quantify the atmospheric signatures of anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions. GeoFTS uses a single instrument to make measurements in the near-infrared spectral region at high spectral resolution. The imaging FTS measures atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO to deliver high-resolution maps multiple times per day. A half-meter-sized cube, the instrument is designed to be a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial GEO satellite. The instrument leverages recent NASA technology investments, uses a flight-proven interferometer and sensor chip assemblies, and requires no new technology development. NASA and other government agencies have adopted the hosted payload implementation approach because it substantially reduces the overall mission cost. Dense continuous mapping (4 km x 4 km pixels at 40 deg. latitude) is a transformational advance beyond, and complementary to, the capabilities of the NASA missions of record in low earth orbit, providing two to three orders of magnitude improvement in the number of

  14. Arabidopsis FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2 are functionally redundant, but FtsZ-based plastid division is not essential for chloroplast partitioning or plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Aaron J; Glynn, Jonathan M; Olson, Bradley J S C; Stokes, Kevin D; Osteryoung, Katherine W

    2009-11-01

    FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 are phylogenetically distinct families of FtsZ in plants that co-localize to mid-plastid rings and facilitate division of chloroplasts. In plants, altered levels of either FtsZ1 or FtsZ2 cause dose-dependent defects in chloroplast division; thus, studies on the functional relationship between FtsZ genes require careful manipulation of FtsZ levels in vivo. To define the functional relationship between the two FtsZ2 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2, we expressed FtsZ2-1 in an ftsZ2-2 null mutant, and vice versa, and determined whether the chloroplast division defects were rescued in plants expressing different total levels of FtsZ2. Full rescue was observed when either the FtsZ2-1 or FtsZ2-2 level approximated total FtsZ2 levels in wild-type (WT). Additionally, FtsZ2-2 interacts with ARC6, as shown previously for FtsZ2-1. These data indicate that FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2 are functionally redundant for chloroplast division in Arabidopsis. To rigorously validate the requirement of each FtsZ family for chloroplast division, we replaced FtsZ1 with FtsZ2 in vivo, and vice versa, while maintaining the FtsZ level in the transgenic plants equal to that of the total level in WT. Chloroplast division defects were not rescued, demonstrating conclusively that FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 are non-redundant for maintenance of WT chloroplast numbers. Finally, we generated ftsZ triple null mutants and show that plants completely devoid of FtsZ protein are viable and fertile. As plastids are presumably essential organelles, these findings suggest that an FtsZ-independent mode of plastid partitioning may occur in higher plants.

  15. Quality control of Photosystem II: where and how does the degradation of the D1 protein by FtsH proteases start under light stress?--Facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Miho; Yamamoto, Yasusi

    2011-01-01

    Degradation of the reaction center-binding D1 protein of Photosystem II is central in photoinhibition of Photosystem II. In higher plant chloroplasts, Photosystem II complexes are abundant in the grana. It has been suggested that the Photosystem II complexes containing photodamaged D1 protein migrate for their repair from the grana to the non-appressed stroma thylakoids, where the photodamaged D1 protein is degraded by a specific protease(s) such as filamentation temperature sensitive H (FtsH) protease. There are several possible ways to activate the FtsH proteases. As FtsH is a membrane-bound ATP-dependent metalloprotease, it requires ATP and zinc as essential part of its catalytic mechanism. It is also suggested that a membrane protein(s) associated with FtsH is required for modulation of the FtsH activity. Here, we propose several possible mechanisms for activation of the proteases, which depend on oligomerization of the monomer subunits. In relation to the oligomerization of FtsH subunits, we also suggest unique distribution of active FtsH hexamers on the thylakoids: hexamers of the FtsH proteases are localized near the Photosystem II complexes at the grana. Degradation of the D1 protein probably takes place in the grana rather than in the stroma thylakoids to circumvent long-distance migration of both the Photosystem II complexes containing the photodamaged D1 protein and the proteases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contribution of individual promoters in the ddlB-ftsZ region to the transcription of the essential cell-division gene ftsZ in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Flärdh, K; Garrido, T; Vicente, M

    1997-06-01

    The essential cell-division gene ftsZ is transcribed in Escherichia coli from at least six promoters found within the coding regions of the upstream ddlB, ftsQ, and ftsA genes. The contribution of each one to the final yield of ftsZ transcription has been estimated using transcriptional lacZ fusions. The most proximal promoter, ftsZ2p, contributes less than 5% of the total transcription from the region that reaches ftsZ. The ftsZ4p and ftsZ3p promoters, both located inside ftsA, produce almost 37% of the transcription. An ftsAp promoter within the ftsQ gene yields nearly 12% of total transcription from the region. A large proportion of transcription (approximately 46%) derives from promoters ftsQ2p and ftsQ1p, which are located inside the upstream ddlB gene. Thus, the ftsQAZ genes are to a large extent transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA. However, we find that the ftsZ proximal region is necessary for full expression, which is in agreement with a recent report that mRNA cleavage by RNase E at the end of the ftsA cistron has a significant role in the contol of ftsZ expression.

  17. The transmembrane domains of the bacterial cell division proteins FtsB and FtsL form a stable high-order oligomer.

    PubMed

    Khadria, Ambalika S; Senes, Alessandro

    2013-10-29

    FtsB and FtsL are two essential integral membrane proteins of the bacterial division complex or "divisome", both characterized by a single transmembrane helix and a juxtamembrane coiled coil domain. The two domains are important for the association of FtsB and FtsL, a key event for their recruitment to the divisome, which in turn allows the recruitment of the late divisomal components to the Z-ring and subsequent completion of the division process. Here we present a biophysical analysis performed in vitro that shows that the transmembrane domains of FtsB and FtsL associate strongly in isolation. Using Förster resonance energy transfer, we have measured the oligomerization of fluorophore-labeled transmembrane domains of FtsB and FtsL in both detergent and lipid. The data indicate that the transmembrane helices are likely a major contributor to the stability of the FtsB-FtsL complex. Our analyses show that FtsB and FtsL form a 1:1 higher-order oligomeric complex, possibly a tetramer. This finding suggests that the FtsB-FtsL complex is capable of multivalent binding to FtsQ and other divisome components, a hypothesis that is consistent with the possibility that the FtsB-FtsL complex has a structural role in the stabilization of the Z-ring.

  18. Targeting the Bacterial Division Protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Katherine A; Santos, Thiago M A; Nepomuceno, Gabriella M; Huynh, Valerie; Shaw, Jared T; Weibel, Douglas B

    2016-08-11

    Similar to its eukaryotic counterpart, the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is essential for the structural and mechanical properties of bacterial cells. The essential protein FtsZ is a central player in the cytoskeletal family, forms a cytokinetic ring at mid-cell, and recruits the division machinery to orchestrate cell division. Cells depleted of or lacking functional FtsZ do not divide and grow into long filaments that eventually lyse. FtsZ has been studied extensively as a target for antibacterial development. In this Perspective, we review the structural and biochemical properties of FtsZ, its role in cell biochemistry and physiology, the different mechanisms of inhibiting FtsZ, small molecule antagonists (including some misconceptions about mechanisms of action), and their discovery strategies. This collective information will inform chemists on different aspects of FtsZ that can be (and have been) used to develop successful strategies for devising new families of cell division inhibitors.

  19. Reconstitution of Contractile FtsZ Rings in Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Masaki; Anderson, David E.; Erickson, Harold P.

    2009-01-01

    FtsZ is a tubulin homolog and the major cytoskeletal protein in bacterial cell division. It assembles into the Z ring, which contains FtsZ and a dozen other division proteins, and constricts to divide the cell. We have constructed a membrane-targeted FtsZ (FtsZ-mts) by splicing an amphipathic helix to its C terminus. When mixed with lipid vesicles, FtsZ-mts was incorporated into the interior of some tubular vesicles. There it formed multiple Z rings that could move laterally in both directions along the length of the liposome and coalesce into brighter Z rings. Brighter Z rings produced visible constrictions in the liposome, suggesting that FtsZ itself can assemble the Z ring and generate a force. No other proteins were needed for assembly and force generation. PMID:18420899

  20. Structural/surface characterization and catalytic evaluation of rare-earth (Y, Sm and La) doped ceria composite oxides for CH3SH catalytic decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dedong; Chen, Dingkai; Hao, Husheng; Yu, Jie; Liu, Jiangping; Lu, Jichang; Liu, Feng; Wan, Gengping; He, Sufang; Luo, Yongming

    2016-12-01

    A series of rare earth (Y, Sm and La) doped ceria composite oxides and pure CeO2 were synthesized and evaluated by conducting CH3SH catalytic decomposition test. Several characterization studies, including XRD, BET, Raman, H2-TPR, XPS, FT-IR, CO2-TPD and CH3SH-TPD, were undertaken to correlate structural and surface properties of the obtained ceria-based catalysts with their catalytic performance for CH3SH decomposition. More oxygen vacancies and increased basic sites exhibited in the rare earth doped ceria catalysts. Y doped ceria sample (Ce0.75Y0.25O2-δ), with a moderate increase in basic sites, contained more oxygen vacancies. More structural defects and active sites could be provided, and a relatively small amount of sulfur would accumulate, which resulted in better catalytic performance. The developed catalyst presented good catalytic behavior with stability very similar to that of typical zeolite-based catalysts reported previously. However, La doped ceria catalyst (Ce0.75La0.25O2-δ) with the highest alkalinity was not the most active one. More sulfur species would be adsorbed and a large amount of cerium sulfide species (Ce2S3) would accumulate, which caused deactivation of the catalysts. The combined effect of increased oxygen vacancies and alkalinity led to the catalytic stability of Ce0.75Sm0.25O2-δ sample was comparable to that of pure CeO2 catalyst.

  1. Synthesis, characterisation, and catalytic evaluation of hierarchical faujasite zeolites: milestones, challenges, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Verboekend, D; Nuttens, N; Locus, R; Van Aelst, J; Verolme, P; Groen, J C; Pérez-Ramírez, J; Sels, B F

    2016-06-13

    Faujasite (X, Y, and USY) zeolites represent one of the most widely-applied and abundant catalysts and sorbents in the chemical industry. In the last 5 years substantial progress was made in the synthesis, characterisation, and catalytic exploitation of hierarchically-structured variants of these zeolites. Hererin, we provide an overview of these contributions, highlighting the main advancements regarding the evaluation of the nature and functionality of introduced secondary porosity. The novelty, efficiency, versatility, and sustainability of the reported bottom-up and (predominately) top-down strategies are discussed. The crucial role of the relative stability of faujasites in aqueous media is highlighted. The interplay between the physico-chemical properties of the hierarchical zeolites and their use in petrochemical and biomass-related catalytic processes is assessed.

  2. DCS/FTS Commercial Satellite Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, T.; Rosner, R.; Pearsall, C.

    In order to control the rising costs of telephonic services and meeting the increasing demand for wideband video and data services within U.S. Federal Government agencies, the Defense Communications Agency and the General Services Administration have begun the implementation of a leased Commercial Satellite Communications System. Service volume demand, commonality of service requirements, and common geographic communities of interest facilitate economies of scale in the course of meeting DOD and other Federal agencies' objectives. The service, which incorporates the Federal Telecommunications Service and is therefore designated DCS/FTS, is presently studied with respect to military and national objectives.

  3. The FtsZ-Like Protein FtsZm of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense Likely Interacts with Its Generic Homolog and Is Required for Biomineralization under Nitrate Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Frank D.; Raschdorf, Oliver; Nudelman, Hila; Messerer, Maxim; Katzmann, Emanuel; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Zarivach, Raz

    2014-01-01

    Midcell selection, septum formation, and cytokinesis in most bacteria are orchestrated by the eukaryotic tubulin homolog FtsZ. The alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (MSR-1) septates asymmetrically, and cytokinesis is linked to splitting and segregation of an intracellular chain of membrane-enveloped magnetite crystals (magnetosomes). In addition to a generic, full-length ftsZ gene, MSR-1 contains a truncated ftsZ homolog (ftsZm) which is located adjacent to genes controlling biomineralization and magnetosome chain formation. We analyzed the role of FtsZm in cell division and biomineralization together with the full-length MSR-1 FtsZ protein. Our results indicate that loss of FtsZm has a strong effect on microoxic magnetite biomineralization which, however, could be rescued by the presence of nitrate in the medium. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that FtsZm-mCherry does not colocalize with the magnetosome-related proteins MamC and MamK but is confined to asymmetric spots at midcell and at the cell pole, coinciding with the FtsZ protein position. In Escherichia coli, both FtsZ homologs form distinct structures but colocalize when coexpressed, suggesting an FtsZ-dependent recruitment of FtsZm. In vitro analyses indicate that FtsZm is able to interact with the FtsZ protein. Together, our data suggest that FtsZm shares key features with its full-length homolog but is involved in redox control for magnetite crystallization. PMID:24272781

  4. Conformational transition of the lid helix covering the protease active site is essential for the ATP-dependent protease activity of FtsH.

    PubMed

    Suno, Ryoji; Shimoyama, Masakazu; Abe, Akiko; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Shimodate, Natsuka; Watanabe, Yo-hei; Akiyama, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Masasuke

    2012-09-21

    When bound to ADP, ATP-dependent protease FtsH subunits adopt either an "open" or "closed" conformation. In the open state, the protease catalytic site is located in a narrow space covered by a lidlike helix. This space disappears in the closed form because the lid helix bends at Gly448. Here, we replaced Gly448 with various residues that stabilize helices. Most mutants retained low ATPase activity and bound to the substrate protein, but lost protease activity. However, a mutant proline substitution lost both activities. Our study shows that the conformational transition of the lid helix is essential for the function of FtsH.

  5. Resilient FTS3 service at GridKa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, T.; Bubeliene, J.; Hoeft, B.; Obholz, L.; Petzold, A.; Wisniewski, K.

    2015-12-01

    The FTS (File Transfer Service) service provides a transfer job scheduler to distribute and replicate vast amounts of data over the heterogeneous WLCG infrastructures. Compared to the channel model of the previous versions, the most recent version of FTS simplifies and improves the flexibility of the service while reducing the load to the service components. The improvements allow to handle a higher number of transfers with a single FTS3 setup. Covering now continent-wide transfers compared to the previous version, whose installations handled only transfers within specific clouds, a resilient system becomes even more necessary with the increased number of depending users. Having set up a FTS3 services at the German T1 site GridKa at KIT in Karlsruhe, we present our experiences on the preparations for a high-availability FTS3 service. Trying to avoid single points of failure, we rely on a database cluster as fault tolerant data back-end and the FTS3 service deployed on an own cluster setup to provide a resilient infrastructure for the users. With the database cluster providing a basic resilience for the data back-end, we ensure on the FTS3 service level a consistent and reliable database access through a proxy solution. On each FTS3 node a HAproxy instance is monitoring the integrity of each database node and distributes database queries over the whole cluster for load balancing during normal operations; in case of a broken database node, the proxy excludes it transparently to the local FTS3 service. The FTS3 service itself consists of a main and a backup instance, which takes over the identity of the main instance, i.e., IP, in case of an error using a CTDB (Cluster Trivial Database) infrastructure offering clients a consistent service.

  6. The bacterial cell division proteins FtsA and FtsZ self-organize into dynamic cytoskeletal patterns.

    PubMed

    Loose, Martin; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cytokinesis is commonly initiated by the Z-ring, a cytoskeletal structure that assembles at the site of division. Its primary component is FtsZ, a tubulin superfamily GTPase, which is recruited to the membrane by the actin-related protein FtsA. Both proteins are required for the formation of the Z-ring, but if and how they influence each other's assembly dynamics is not known. Here, we reconstituted FtsA-dependent recruitment of FtsZ polymers to supported membranes, where both proteins self-organize into complex patterns, such as fast-moving filament bundles and chirally rotating rings. Using fluorescence microscopy and biochemical perturbations, we found that these large-scale rearrangements of FtsZ emerge from its polymerization dynamics and a dual, antagonistic role of FtsA: recruitment of FtsZ filaments to the membrane and negative regulation of FtsZ organization. Our findings provide a model for the initial steps of bacterial cell division and illustrate how dynamic polymers can self-organize into large-scale structures.

  7. Dimethyl sulphoxide and Ca2+ stimulate assembly of Vibrio cholerae FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhisek; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2014-10-01

    We cloned, overexpressed and purified Vibrio cholerae FtsZ protein for the first time. We used several complementary techniques to probe and compare the comparative assembly properties of recombinant Vibrio cholerae FtsZ (VcFtsZ) and Escherichia coli FtsZ (EcFtsZ). We observed that VcFtsZ polymerized at a slower rate than EcFtsZ and interestingly its polymerization was highly dependent on the presence of Ca(2+) ion. Furthermore, DMSO specifically modulated the polymerization of VcFtsZ, promoted polymer bundling and increased the stability of the VcFtsZ protofilaments. Whereas DMSO showed no significant stimulatory effect on the assembly and bundling of EcFtsZ. Transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated that in presence of 8% DMSO the average thickness of the VcFtsZ polymers were increased significantly. DMSO specifically stabilized the VcFtsZ polymers against dilution induced disassembly and it reduced the GTPase activity of VcFtsZ. These results collectively suggested that despite lot of sequence homology, the assembly of VcFtsZ and EcFtsZ are differently regulated processes. We expect to use this knowledge of assembly properties of VcFtsZ for screening of small molecules against VcFtsZ for development of anti-cholera agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Two types of FtsZ proteins in mitochondria and red-lineage chloroplasts: the duplication of FtsZ is implicated in endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Nishida, Keishin; Nishida, Keiji; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2004-03-01

    The ancestors of plastids and mitochondria were once free-living bacteria that became organelles as a result of endosymbiosis. According to this theory, a key bacterial division protein, FtsZ, plays a role in plastid division in algae and plants as well as in mitochondrial division in lower eukaryotes. Recent studies have shown that organelle division is a process that combines features derived from the bacterial division system with features contributed by host eukaryotic cells. Two nonredundant versions of FtsZ, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, have been identified in green-lineage plastids, whereas most bacteria have a single ftsZ gene. To examine whether there is also more than one type of FtsZ in red-lineage chloroplasts (red algal chloroplasts and chloroplasts that originated from the secondary endosymbiosis of red algae) and in mitochondria, we obtained FtsZ sequences from the complete sequence of the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and the draft sequence of the stramenopile (heterokont) Thalassiosira pseudonana. Phylogenetic analyses that included known FtsZ proteins identified two types of chloroplast FtsZ in red algae (FtsZA and FtsZB) and stramenopiles (FtsZA and FtsZC). These analyses also showed that FtsZB emerged after the red and green lineages diverged, while FtsZC arose by the duplication of an ftsZA gene that in turn descended from a red alga engulfed by the ancestor of stramenopiles. A comparison of the predicted proteins showed that like bacterial FtsZ and green-lineage FtsZ2, FtsZA has a short conserved C-termmal sequence (the C-terminal core domain), whereas FtsZB and FtsZC, like the green-lineage FtsZ1, lack this sequence. In addition, the Cyanidioschyzon and Dictyostelium genomes encode two types of mitochondrial FtsZ proteins, one of which lacks the C-terminal variable domain. These results suggest that the acquisition of an additional FtsZ protein with a modified C terminus was common to the primary and secondary endosymbioses that produced

  9. Study of structural and catalytic properties of Ni catalysts prepared from inorganic complex precursor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saheli, Sania; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Malekzadeh, Azim

    2017-09-01

    The silica- and alumina- supported Ni catalysts synthesized by thermal decomposition of inorganic precursors were evaluated for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS); the structural properties and performance of the catalysts were compared to those of samples constructed via impregnation method. The results revealed that the synthesized catalysts have higher catalytic activity comparison to those prepared via the conventional impregnation method. The effect of the preparation method on the structural properties shows that synthesizing the catalyst through inorganic precursor route is more appropriate. Characterization of catalysts is carried out using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and BET specific surface area.

  10. An Evaluation of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Process for Use in a Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Borchers, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    An experimental program has been developed to evaluate the potential of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) technology for use as a Mars Transit Vehicle water purification system. Design modifications which will be required to ensure proper operation of the VPCAR system in reduced gravity are also evaluated. The VPCAR system is an integrated wastewater treatment technology that combines a distillation process with high temperature catalytic oxidation. The distillation portion of the system utilizes a vapor compression distillation process to provide an energy efficient phase change separation. This portion of the system removes any inorganic salts and large molecular weight, organic contaminates, i.e., non-volatile, from the product water stream and concentrates these contaminates into a byproduct stream. To oxidize the volatile organic compounds and ammonia, a vapor phase, high temperature catalytic oxidizer is used. This catalytic system converts these compounds along with the aqueous product into CO2, H2O, and N2O. A secondary catalytic bed can then be used to reduce the N2O to nitrogen and oxygen (although not evaluated in this study). This paper describes the design specification of the VPCAR process, the relative benefits of its utilization in a Mars Transit Vehicle, and the design modification which will be required to ensure its proper operation in reduced gravity. In addition, the results of an experimental evaluation of the processors is presented. This evaluation presents the processors performance based upon product water purity, water recovery rates, and power.

  11. An Evaluation of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Process for Use in a Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Borchers, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    An experimental program has been developed to evaluate the potential of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) technology for use as a Mars Transit Vehicle water purification system. Design modifications which will be required to ensure proper operation of the VPCAR system in reduced gravity are also evaluated. The VPCAR system is an integrated wastewater treatment technology that combines a distillation process with high temperature catalytic oxidation. The distillation portion of the system utilizes a vapor compression distillation process to provide an energy efficient phase change separation. This portion of the system removes any inorganic salts and large molecular weight, organic contaminates, i.e., non-volatile, from the product water stream and concentrates these contaminates into a byproduct stream. To oxidize the volatile organic compounds and ammonia, a vapor phase, high temperature catalytic oxidizer is used. This catalytic system converts these compounds along with the aqueous product into CO2, H2O, and N2O. A secondary catalytic bed can then be used to reduce the N2O to nitrogen and oxygen (although not evaluated in this study). This paper describes the design specification of the VPCAR process, the relative benefits of its utilization in a Mars Transit Vehicle, and the design modification which will be required to ensure its proper operation in reduced gravity. In addition, the results of an experimental evaluation of the processors is presented. This evaluation presents the processors performance based upon product water purity, water recovery rates, and power.

  12. The Chloroplast Tubulin Homologs FtsZA and FtsZB from the Red Alga Galdieria sulphuraria Co-assemble into Dynamic Filaments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaodong; Porter, Katie; Osawa, Masaki; Augustus, Anne Marie; Milam, Sara L; Joshi, Chandra; Osteryoung, Katherine W; Erickson, Harold P

    2017-03-31

    FtsZ is a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin and is present in almost all bacteria and many archaea, where it is the major cytoskeletal protein in the Z ring, required for cell division. Unlike some other cell organelles of prokaryotic origin, chloroplasts have retained FtsZ as an essential component of the division machinery. However, chloroplast FtsZs have been challenging to study because they are difficult to express and purify. To this end, we have used a FATT tag expression system to produce as soluble proteins the two chloroplast FtsZs from Galdieria sulphuraria, a thermophilic red alga. GsFtsZA and GsFtsZB assembled individually in the presence of GTP, forming large bundles of protofilaments. GsFtsZA also assembled in the presence of GDP, the first member of the FtsZ/tubulin superfamily to do so. Mixtures of GsFtsZA and GsFtsZB assembled protofilament bundles and hydrolyzed GTP at a rate approximately equal to the sum of their individual rates, suggesting a random co-assembly. GsFtsZA assembly by itself in limiting GTP gave polymers that remained stable for a prolonged time. However, when GsFtsZB was added, the co-polymers disassembled with enhanced kinetics, suggesting that the GsFtsZB regulates and enhances disassembly dynamics. GsFtsZA-mts (where mts is a membrane-targeting amphipathic helix) formed Z ring-like helices when expressed in Escherichia coli Co-expression of GsFtsZB (without an mts) gave co-assembly of both into similar helices. In summary, we provide biochemical evidence that GsFtsZA assembles as the primary scaffold of the chloroplast Z ring and that GsFtsZB co-assembly enhances polymer disassembly and dynamics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Recent Topics about the GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR L2 Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Kikuchi, N.; Inoue, M.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Yokota, T.

    2014-12-01

    The column-averaged dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane (XCO2 and XCH4) have been retrieved globally from the Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectral data observed with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The retrieval results have been released as the GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR L2 product, and there are two related topics recently. From mid-June, 2014, the TANSO-FTS has recorded interferograms with the zero-path difference (ZPD) position shifted about 800 fringes from its nominal position to avoid the operation with an unstable condition after the sudden shutdown of GOSAT by solar paddle accident at the end of May, 2014. This brings slightly, but non-negligible lower spectral resolution on the observed spectrum. If the nominal instrumental line shape function (ILSF) is used in the retrieval analysis, a beat structure is appeared in the residual spectrum and the retrieved XCO2 and XCH4 show negative bias. The ILSF considering the 800-fringe bias of the ZPD position is provided by JAXA, and the most of the beat structure are disappeared by using this ILSF. The retrieval accuracy and precision will be evaluated until the presentation. Other topic is the evaluation of the sample of the new TANSO-FTS L1B product. JAXA plans to implement following items for SWIR spectrum in the new version; (i) new sampling interval non-uniformity correction (SINUC), (ii) updated non-linearity correction, and (iii) unified spectral resolution to avoid the ZPD position shift. Preliminary evaluation shows that the new SINUC can remove a small bias in the XCO2 and XCH4 due to the scan direction. Further evaluation as well as the latest status of the L2 version up are also presented.

  14. Evaluation of on-board diagnosis methods for three-way catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Tsinoglou, Dimitrios N; Koltsakis, Grigorios C; Samaras, Zissis C

    2002-12-01

    On-board diagnosis (OBD) aims at detecting malfunctions of emission-related components of road vehicles. It is required by legislation in United States and the European Union, as it is considered to be beneficial for the reduction of vehicle-related air pollution. On-board diagnosis of the catalytic converter is a challenging task, as it relies on indirect assessments of catalyst activity. Several methods have been proposed for catalyst diagnosis, presenting a varying degree of correlation between the quantities used as OBD indexes and the actual tailpipe emissions. This paper evaluates two methods, with the support of mathematical modeling; in the first one, which is commonly used by vehicle manufacturers, malfunction detection relies on the oxygen storage properties of the catalyst, while in the second, detection relies on the heat released by the chemical reactions in the catalyst. Both are found to be sufficient for the diagnosis of catalytic converters for current legislation requirements. However, the thermal method presents higher sensitivity to low levels of catalyst deactivation and could therefore be more suitable for diagnosis of future, ultra-low-emitting vehicles.

  15. Relating FTS Catalyst Properties to Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Wenping; Ramana Rao Pendyala, Venkat; Gao, Pei; Jermwongratanachai, Thani; Jacobs, Gary; Davis, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    During the reporting period June 23, 2011 to August 31, 2013, CAER researchers carried out research in two areas of fundamental importance to the topic of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS): promoters and stability. The first area was research into possible substitute promoters that might be used to replace the expensive promoters (e.g., Pt, Re, and Ru) that are commonly used. To that end, three separate investigations were carried out. Due to the strong support interaction of ?-Al2O3 with cobalt, metal promoters are commonly added to commercial FTS catalysts to facilitate the reduction of cobalt oxides and thereby boost active surface cobalt metal sites. To date, the metal promoters examined have been those up to and including Group 11. Because two Group 11 promoters (i.e., Ag and Au) were identified to exhibit positive impacts on conversion, selectivity, or both, research was undertaken to explore metals in Groups 12 - 14. The three metals selected for this purpose were Cd, In, and Sn. At a higher loading of 25%Co on alumina, 1% addition of Cd, In, or Sn was found to-on average-facilitate reduction by promoting a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt consisting of larger lesser interacting cobalt clusters and smaller strongly interacting cobalt species. The lesser interacting species were identified in TPR profiles, where a sharp low temperature peak occurred for the reduction of larger, weakly interacting, CoO species. In XANES, the Cd, In, and Sn promoters were found to exist as oxides, whereas typical promoters (e.g., Re, Ru, Pt) were previously determined to exist in an metallic state in atomic coordination with cobalt. The larger cobalt clusters significantly decreased the active site density relative to the unpromoted 25%Co/Al2O3 catalyst. Decreasing the cobalt loading to 15%Co eliminated the large non-interacting species. The TPR peak for reduction of strongly interacting CoO in the Cd promoted catalyst occurred at a measurably lower temperature

  16. FtsK actively segregates sister chromosomes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stouf, Mathieu; Meile, Jean-Christophe; Cornet, François

    2013-07-02

    Bacteria use the replication origin-to-terminus polarity of their circular chromosomes to control DNA transactions during the cell cycle. Segregation starts by active migration of the region of origin followed by progressive movement of the rest of the chromosomes. The last steps of segregation have been studied extensively in the case of dimeric sister chromosomes and when chromosome organization is impaired by mutations. In these special cases, the divisome-associated DNA translocase FtsK is required. FtsK pumps chromosomes toward the dif chromosome dimer resolution site using polarity of the FtsK-orienting polar sequence (KOPS) DNA motifs. Assays based on monitoring dif recombination have suggested that FtsK acts only in these special cases and does not act on monomeric chromosomes. Using a two-color system to visualize pairs of chromosome loci in living cells, we show that the spatial resolution of sister loci is accurately ordered from the point of origin to the dif site. Furthermore, ordered segregation in a region ∼200 kb long surrounding dif depended on the oriented translocation activity of FtsK but not on the formation of dimers or their resolution. FtsK-mediated segregation required the MatP protein, which delays segregation of the dif-surrounding region until cell division. We conclude that FtsK segregates the terminus region of sister chromosomes whether they are monomeric or dimeric and does so in an accurate and ordered manner. Our data are consistent with a model in which FtsK acts to release the MatP-mediated cohesion and/or interaction with the division apparatus of the terminus region in a KOPS-oriented manner.

  17. Correction of scan-speed instability of TANSO-FTS on GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, H.; Kuze, A.

    2010-12-01

    To characterize the performance of Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation- Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on GOSAT observe global column density of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from space with high accuracy, the impacts of FTS scan-speed instability induced by the moving components on GOSAT have been investigated. The newly developed correction algorithm is also demonstrated. Moving components such as Reaction Wheel (RW), Inertia Reference Unit (IRU), Earth Sensor Head (ESH), Paddle Drive Motor (PDM), and Mechanical Cooler for MCT detector are predicted as the disturbance sources on-orbit. As an index of micro vibration effect on spectrum, the ghost signal intensity related to monochromatic light source has been evaluated. To derive accurate spectrum, the non-distorted interferogram has been conducted by applying a complex interferogram and re-sampling technique. The corrected spectrum show minimized offset caused by micro-vibration.

  18. FTS measurements of submillimeter-wave opacity at Pampa la Bola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Akihiro; Matsushita, Satoki

    1998-07-01

    The first measurement of submillimeter-wave atmospheric opacity spectra at the Pampa la Bola site (Northern Chile, Atacama 4800 m altitude) has been performed during the winter season using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Atmospheric emission spectra, as a function of airmass, were measured under various weather conditions. Atmospheric opacity was evaluated from sky temperature at zenith as well as from tipping measurements, which are independent measure but give consistent results. The FTS opacity measurements also show good match with 220 GHz radiometer measurements. Correlations between millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave opacities get worse when 220 GHz opacity is larger than 0.1. Deviations from the opacity correlation at each frequency show good correlations themselves but have different relative variations at each frequency. This indicates that atmospheric transparency cannot be characterized only by millimeter-wave opacity buy requires simultaneous opacity measurements at millimeter and submillimeter-wavelengths.

  19. Chloroplast Division Protein ARC3 Regulates Chloroplast FtsZ-Ring Assembly and Positioning in Arabidopsis through Interaction with FtsZ2[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Schmitz, Aaron J.; Kadirjan-Kalbach, Deena K.; TerBush, Allan D.; Osteryoung, Katherine W.

    2013-01-01

    Chloroplast division is initiated by assembly of a mid-chloroplast FtsZ (Z) ring comprising two cytoskeletal proteins, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2. The division-site regulators ACCUMULATION AND REPLICATION OF CHLOROPLASTS3 (ARC3), MinD1, and MinE1 restrict division to the mid-plastid, but their roles are poorly understood. Using genetic analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that ARC3 mediates division-site placement by inhibiting Z-ring assembly, and MinD1 and MinE1 function through ARC3. ftsZ1 null mutants exhibited some mid-plastid FtsZ2 rings and constrictions, whereas neither constrictions nor FtsZ1 rings were observed in mutants lacking FtsZ2, suggesting FtsZ2 is the primary determinant of Z-ring assembly in vivo. arc3 ftsZ1 double mutants exhibited multiple parallel but no mid-plastid FtsZ2 rings, resembling the Z-ring phenotype in arc3 single mutants and showing that ARC3 affects positioning of FtsZ2 rings as well as Z rings. ARC3 overexpression in the wild type and ftsZ1 inhibited Z-ring and FtsZ2-ring assembly, respectively. Consistent with its effects in vivo, ARC3 interacted with FtsZ2 in two-hybrid assays and inhibited FtsZ2 assembly in a heterologous system. Our studies are consistent with a model wherein ARC3 directly inhibits Z-ring assembly in vivo primarily through interaction with FtsZ2 in heteropolymers and suggest that ARC3 activity is spatially regulated by MinD1 and MinE1 to permit Z-ring assembly at the mid-plastid. PMID:23715471

  20. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  1. An outline of a method for evaluating liquid products obtained by catalytic conversion of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, A.; De Zutter, D.; Churin, E.; Poncelet, G.; Grange, P. )

    1987-04-01

    The authors propose an analytical procedure for the evaluation of the products of catalytic liquefaction of wood (mild hydrogenolysis). The analysis starts with a vacuum distillation giving a light fraction and water. The light fraction is constituted of the solvent and a phenolic fraction which is separated by alkaline extraction. The residue of distillation is a heavy fraction, which is extracted in a Soxhlet for recovery of benzene soluble products. A precipitation by pentane allows the separation of neutral and phenolic fractions from asphaltenes. The identification of the major components in the different fractions is performed principally by GC/MS and NMR. This methodology can potentially be extended to the analysis of complex products obtained by thermochemical treatments of biomass, in particular, virgin pyrolysis oil or treated oil.

  2. Preparation of gold nanoparticles using Salicornia brachiata plant extract and evaluation of catalytic and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Subramanian, Swetha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Ganapathy; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-09-01

    The current study deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Salicornia brachiata (Sb) and evaluation of their antibacterial and catalytic activity. The SbAuNPs showed purple color with a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 532 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed polydispersed AuNPs with the size range from 22 to 35 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray and thin layer X-ray diffraction analysis clearly shows that SbAuNPs was pure and crystalline in nature. As prepared gold nanoparticles was used as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol and methylene blue to leucomethylene blue. The green synthesized nanoparticles exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria, as evidenced by their zone of inhibition. In addition, we showed that the SbAuNPs in combination with the regular antibiotic, ofloxacin, exhibit superior antibacterial activity than the individual.

  3. NDK Interacts with FtsZ and Converts GDP to GTP to Trigger FtsZ Polymerisation - A Novel Role for NDK

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Saurabh; Jakkala, Kishor; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Arumugam, Muthu; Ranjeri, Raghavendra; Gupta, Prabuddha; Rajeswari, Haryadi; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), conserved across bacteria to humans, synthesises NTP from NDP and ATP. The eukaryotic homologue, the NDPK, uses ATP to phosphorylate the tubulin-bound GDP to GTP for tubulin polymerisation. The bacterial cytokinetic protein FtsZ, which is the tubulin homologue, also uses GTP for polymerisation. Therefore, we examined whether NDK can interact with FtsZ to convert FtsZ-bound GDP and/or free GDP to GTP to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. Methods Recombinant and native NDK and FtsZ proteins of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as the experimental samples. FtsZ polymersation was monitored using 90° light scattering and FtsZ polymer pelleting assays. The γ32P-GTP synthesised by NDK from GDP and γ32P-ATP was detected using thin layer chromatography and quantitated using phosphorimager. The FtsZ bound 32P-GTP was quantitated using phosphorimager, after UV-crosslinking, followed by SDS-PAGE. The NDK-FtsZ interaction was determined using Ni2+-NTA-pulldown assay and co-immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and native proteins in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Results NDK triggered instantaneous polymerisation of GDP-precharged recombinant FtsZ in the presence of ATP, similar to the polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) upon the direct addition of GTP. Similarly, NDK triggered polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) in the presence of free GDP and ATP as well. Mutant NDK, partially deficient in GTP synthesis from ATP and GDP, triggered low level of polymerisation of MsFtsZ, but not of MtFtsZ. As characteristic of NDK’s NTP substrate non-specificity, it used CTP, TTP, and UTP also to convert GDP to GTP, to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. The NDK of one mycobacterial species could trigger the polymerisation of the FtsZ of another mycobacterial species. Both the recombinant and the native NDK and FtsZ showed interaction with each other in vitro and ex vivo, alluding

  4. NDK Interacts with FtsZ and Converts GDP to GTP to Trigger FtsZ Polymerisation--A Novel Role for NDK.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saurabh; Jakkala, Kishor; Srinivasan, Ramanujam; Arumugam, Muthu; Ranjeri, Raghavendra; Gupta, Prabuddha; Rajeswari, Haryadi; Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), conserved across bacteria to humans, synthesises NTP from NDP and ATP. The eukaryotic homologue, the NDPK, uses ATP to phosphorylate the tubulin-bound GDP to GTP for tubulin polymerisation. The bacterial cytokinetic protein FtsZ, which is the tubulin homologue, also uses GTP for polymerisation. Therefore, we examined whether NDK can interact with FtsZ to convert FtsZ-bound GDP and/or free GDP to GTP to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. Recombinant and native NDK and FtsZ proteins of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as the experimental samples. FtsZ polymersation was monitored using 90° light scattering and FtsZ polymer pelleting assays. The γ32P-GTP synthesised by NDK from GDP and γ32P-ATP was detected using thin layer chromatography and quantitated using phosphorimager. The FtsZ bound 32P-GTP was quantitated using phosphorimager, after UV-crosslinking, followed by SDS-PAGE. The NDK-FtsZ interaction was determined using Ni2+-NTA-pulldown assay and co-immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and native proteins in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. NDK triggered instantaneous polymerisation of GDP-precharged recombinant FtsZ in the presence of ATP, similar to the polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) upon the direct addition of GTP. Similarly, NDK triggered polymerisation of recombinant FtsZ (not GDP-precharged) in the presence of free GDP and ATP as well. Mutant NDK, partially deficient in GTP synthesis from ATP and GDP, triggered low level of polymerisation of MsFtsZ, but not of MtFtsZ. As characteristic of NDK's NTP substrate non-specificity, it used CTP, TTP, and UTP also to convert GDP to GTP, to trigger FtsZ polymerisation. The NDK of one mycobacterial species could trigger the polymerisation of the FtsZ of another mycobacterial species. Both the recombinant and the native NDK and FtsZ showed interaction with each other in vitro and ex vivo, alluding to the possibility of direct

  5. Evaluation of Catalytic and Thermal Cracking in a JP-8 Fueled Pulsed Detonation Engine (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Additionally, a zeolite catalytic coating is applied to the heat-exchanger surfaces to stimulate further cracking of the fuel and reduce coke deposition. To...concentric-counter-flow heat exchangers to elevate the fuel temperature levels sufficiently to induce thermal cracking. Additionally, a zeolite catalytic ...to elevate the fuel temperatures sufficiently to crack the fuel thermally with the assistance of a zeolite catalytic coating. II. Background

  6. Evaluation of the coordination preferences and catalytic pathways of heteroaxial cobalt oximes towards hydrogen generation

    DOE PAGES

    Basu, Debashis; Mazumder, Shivnath; Niklas, Jens; ...

    2016-02-02

    Three new heteroaxial cobalt oxime catalysts, namely [CoIII(prdioxH)(4tBupy)(Cl)]PF6 (1), [CoIII(prdioxH)(4Pyrpy)(Cl)]PF6 (2), and [CoIII(prdioxH)(4Bzpy)(Cl)]PF6 (3) have been studied. These species contain chloro and substituted tert-butyl/pyrrolidine/benzoyl-pyridino ligands axially coordinated to a trivalent cobalt ion bound to the N4-oxime macrocycle (2E,2'E,3E,3'E)-3,3'-(propane-1,3-diylbis(azanylylidene))bis(butan-2-one)dioxime, abbreviated (prdioxH)– in its monoprotonated form. Emphasis was given to the spectroscopic investigation of the coordination preferences and spin configurations among the different 3d6 CoIII, 3d7 CoII, and 3d8 CoI oxidation states of the metal, and to the catalytic proton reduction with an evaluation of the pathways for the generation of H2via CoIII–H– or CoII–H– intermediates by mono and bimetallic routes. Themore » strong field imposed by the (prdioxH)– ligand precludes the existence of high-spin configurations, and 6-coordinate geometry is favored by the LSCoIII species. Species 1 and 3 show a split CoIII/CoII electrochemical wave associated with partial chemical conversion to a [CoIII(prdioxH)Cl2] species, whereas 2 shows a single event. The reduction of these CoIII complexes yields LSCoII and LSCoI species in which the pyridine acts as the dominant axial ligand. In the presence of protons, the catalytically active CoI species generates a CoIII–H– hydride species that reacts heterolytically with another proton to generate dihydrogen. The intermediacy of a trifluoroacetate-bound CoIII/CoII couple in the catalytic mechanism is proposed. Finally, these results allow for a generalization of the behavior of heteroaxial cobalt macrocycles and serve as guidelines for the development of new catalysts based on macrocyclic frameworks.« less

  7. Contribution of the FtsQ Transmembrane Segment to Localization to the Cell Division Site▿

    PubMed Central

    Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; Robichon, Carine; Haan, Gert Jan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Koningstein, Gregory; van Bloois, Edwin; Beckwith, Jon; Luirink, Joen

    2007-01-01

    The Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsQ is a central component of the divisome. FtsQ is a bitopic membrane protein with a large C-terminal periplasmic domain. In this work we investigated the role of the transmembrane segment (TMS) that anchors FtsQ in the cytoplasmic membrane. A set of TMS mutants was made and analyzed for the ability to complement an ftsQ mutant. Study of the various steps involved in FtsQ biogenesis revealed that one mutant (L29/32R;V38P) failed to functionally insert into the membrane, whereas another mutant (L29/32R) was correctly assembled and interacted with FtsB and FtsL but failed to localize efficiently to the cell division site. Our results indicate that the FtsQ TMS plays a role in FtsQ localization to the division site. PMID:17693520

  8. FTS Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Methane at Sodankylä, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Hatakka, Juha; Laurila, Tuomas; Tukiainen, Simo; Chen, Huilin

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of column CO2 and CH4 have been performed at Sodankylä (67.4° N, 26.6° E) since February 2009 using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), operating in the near-infrared spectral region. Sodankylä is one of the stations participating in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), thus our measurements include column-averaged, dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4). During the seven-year period of observations from year 2009 until 2015 we observed a positive trend of 2.2 ± 0.2 ppm per year in XCO2 and 7.1 ± 0.8 ppb yr-1 in XCH4. Our data have also contributed to the validation of space borne measurements. In case of the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observations the relative difference in XCO2 has been -0.04 ± 0.02 % and the relative difference in XCH4 has been -0.09 ± 0.03 %. In situ profile observations over Sodankylä have been performed using balloon borne AirCore sondes. The method provides vertical profiles of gas concentration in the troposphere and lower stratosphere and is used to evaluate the accuracy of the FTS retrievals. Here we present AirCore measurements of CO2, CH4, CO and column comparisons with the FTS measurements.

  9. Roles of the essential protein FtsA in cell growth and division in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Mura, Andrea; Fadda, Daniela; Perez, Amilcar J; Danforth, Madeline L; Musu, Daniela; Rico, Ana Isabel; Krupka, Marcin; Denapaite, Dalia; Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Winkler, Malcolm E; Branny, Pavel; Vicente, Miguel; Margolin, William; Massidda, Orietta

    2016-11-21

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an ovoid-shaped Gram-positive bacterium that grows by carrying out peripheral and septal peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis, analogous to model bacilli such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis In the model bacilli, FtsZ and FtsA proteins assemble into a ring at midcell and are dedicated to septal PG synthesis, but not peripheral PG synthesis; hence inactivation of FtsZ or FtsA results in long filamentous cells unable to divide. Here we demonstrate that FtsA and FtsZ colocalize at midcell in S. pneumoniae and that partial depletion of FtsA perturbs septum synthesis, resulting in elongated cells with multiple FtsZ rings that fail to complete septation. Unexpectedly, complete depletion of FtsA resulted in delocalization of FtsZ rings and ultimately cell ballooning and lysis. In contrast, depletion or deletion of gpsB and sepF, which in B. subtilis are synthetically lethal with ftsA, resulted in enlarged and elongated cells, with multiple FtsZ rings, the latter mimicking partial depletion of FtsA. Notably, cell ballooning was not observed, consistent with later recruitment of these proteins to midcell after Z ring assembly. Overproduction of FtsA stimulates septation and suppresses the cell division defects caused by deletion of sepF and gpsB under some conditions, supporting the notion that FtsA shares overlapping functions with GpsB and SepF at later steps in the division process. Our results indicate that, in S. pneumoniae, both GpsB and SepF are involved in septal PG synthesis, whereas FtsA and FtsZ coordinate both peripheral and septal PG synthesis and are codependent for localization at midcell.

  10. Dimer dynamics and filament organization of the bacterial cell division protein FtsA.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Jen; Fu, Rui; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2013-11-15

    FtsA is a bacterial actin homolog and one of the core proteins involved in cell division. While previous studies have demonstrated the capability of FtsA to polymerize, little is known about its polymerization state in vivo or if polymerization is necessary for FtsA function. Given that one function of FtsA is to tether FtsZ filaments to the membrane, in vivo polymerization of FtsA imposes geometric constraints and requires a specific polymer curvature direction. Here, we report a series of molecular dynamics simulations probing the structural dynamics of FtsA as a dimer and as a tetrameric single filament. We found that the FtsA polymer exhibits a preferred bending direction that would allow for its placement parallel with FtsZ polymers underneath the cytoplasmic membrane. We also identified key interfacial amino acids that mediate FtsA-FtsA interaction and propose that some amino acids play more critical roles than others. We performed in silico mutagenesis on FtsA and demonstrated that, while a moderate mutation at the polymerization interface does not significantly affect polymer properties such as bending direction and association strength, more drastic mutations change both features and could lead to non-functional FtsA.

  11. Commissioning of the FTS-2 Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, M.; Naylor, D.; Gom, B.; Bell, G.; Friberg, P.; Bintley, D.

    2015-09-01

    FTS-2 is the intermediate resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer coupled to the SCUBA-2 facility bolometer camera at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. Although in principle FTS instruments have the advantage of relatively simple optics compared to other spectrometers, they require more sophisticated data processing to compute spectra from the recorded interferogram signal. In the case of FTS-2, the complicated optical design required to interface with the existing telescope optics introduces performance compromises that complicate spectral and spatial calibration, and the response of the SCUBA-2 arrays introduce interferogram distortions that are a challenge for data reduction algorithms. We present an overview of the pipeline and discuss new algorithms that have been written to correct the noise introduced by unexpected behavior of the SCUBA-2 arrays.

  12. A new Escherichia coli cell division gene, ftsK.

    PubMed Central

    Begg, K J; Dewar, S J; Donachie, W D

    1995-01-01

    A mutation in a newly discovered Escherichia coli cell division gene, ftsK, causes a temperature-sensitive late-stage block in division but does not affect chromosome replication or segregation. This defect is specifically suppressed by deletion of dacA, coding for the peptidoglycan DD-carboxypeptidase, PBP 5. FtsK is a large polypeptide (147 kDa) consisting of an N-terminal domain with several predicted membrane-spanning regions, a proline-glutamine-rich domain, and a C-terminal domain with a nucleotide-binding consensus sequence. FtsK has extensive sequence identity with a family of proteins from a wide variety of prokaryotes and plasmids. The plasmid proteins are required for intercellular DNA transfer, and one of the bacterial proteins (the SpoIIIE protein of Bacillus subtilis) has also been implicated in intracellular chromosomal DNA transfer. PMID:7592387

  13. Seasonal variability of upper tropospheric acetone using ACE-FTS observations and LMDz-INCA model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Gaëlle; Harrison, Jeremy; Szopa, Sophie; Bernath, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The vertically-resolved distributions of oxygenated organic compounds (oVOCs) are mainly inferred from surface and airborne measurements with limited spatial and temporal coverage. This results in a limited understanding of the atmospheric budget of these compounds and of their impact on the upper tropospheric chemistry. In the last decade, satellite observations which complement in-situ measurements have become available, providing global distributions of several oVOCs. For example, Scisat-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) has measured several oVOCs including methanol and formaldehyde. ACE is a Canadian-led satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere that has been in operation since 2004. The primary instrument on board is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) featuring broad spectral coverage in the infrared (750-4400 cm-1) with high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1). The FTS instrument can measure down to 5 km altitude with a high signal-to-noise ratio using solar occultation. The ACE-FTS has the ability to measure seasonal and height-resolved distributions of minor tropospheric constituents on a near-global scale and provides the opportunity to evaluate our understanding of important atmospheric oxygenated organic species. ACE-FTS acetone retrievals will be presented. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of acetone will be described and compared to LMDz-INCA model simulations.

  14. Experimental evaluation of premixing-prevaporizing fuel injection concepts for a gas turbine catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were performed to evolve and evaluate a premixing-prevaporizing fuel system to be used with a catalytic combustor for possible application in an automotive gas turbine. Spatial fuel distribution and degree of vaporization were measured using Jet A fuel. Three types of air blast injectors, an air assist nozzle and a simplex pressure atomizer were tested. Air swirlers with vane angles up to 30 deg were used to improve the spatial fuel distribution. The work was done in a 12-cm (4.75-in.) diameter tubular rig. Test conditions were: a pressure of 0.3 and 0.5 MPa (3 and 5 atm), inlet air temperatures up to 800 K (980 F), velocity of 20 m/sec (66 ft/sec) and fuel-air ratios of 0.01 and 0.025. Uniform spatial fuel distributions that were within plus or minus 10 percent of the mean were obtained. Complete vaporization of the fuel was achieved with air blast configurations at inlet air temperatures of 550 K (530 F) and higher. The total pressure loss was less than 0.5 percent for configurations without air swirlers and less than 1 percent for configurations with a 30 deg vane angle air swirler.

  15. Evaluation of variation in the phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha oncogene and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, K N; Garcia-Closas, M; Fredericksen, Z; Kosel, M; Pankratz, V S; Hopper, J L; Dite, G S; Apicella, C; Southey, M C; Schmidt, M K; Broeks, A; Van ‘t Veer, L J; Tollenaar, R A E M; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Hein, A; Ekici, A B; Johnson, N; Peto, J; dos Santos Silva, I; Gibson, L; Sawyer, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerin, M J; Chanock, S; Lissowska, J; Hunter, D J; Hoover, R N; Thomas, G D; Milne, R L; Pérez, JI Arias; González-Neira, A; Benítez, J; Burwinkel, B; Meindl, A; Schmutzler, R K; Bartrar, C R; Hamann, U; Ko, Y D; Brüning, T; Chang-Claude, J; Hein, R; Wang-Gohrke, S; Dörk, T; Schürmann, P; Bremer, M; Hillemanns, P; Bogdanova, N; Zalutsky, J V; Rogov, Y I; Antonenkova, N; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Mannermaa, A; Kataja, V; Kosma, V-M; Hartikainen, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; Chen, X; Peterlongo, P; Bonanni, B; Bernard, L; Manoukian, S; Wang, X; Cerhan, J; Vachon, C M; Olson, J; Giles, G G; Baglietto, L; McLean, C A; Severi, G; John, E M; Miron, A; Winqvist, R; Pylkäs, K; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A; Grip, M; Andrulis, I; Knight, J A; Glendon, G; Mulligan, A M; Cox, A; Brock, I W; Elliott, G; Cross, S S; Pharoah, P P; Dunning, A M; Pooley, K A; Humphreys, M K; Wang, J; Kang, D; Yoo, K-Y; Noh, D-Y; Sangrajrang, S; Gabrieau, V; Brennan, P; McKay, J; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Couch, F J; Easton, D F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Somatic mutations in phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) are frequent in breast tumours and have been associated with oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 overexpression, lymph node metastasis and poor survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between inherited variation in this oncogene and risk of breast cancer. Methods: A single-nucleotide polymorphism from the PIK3CA locus that was associated with breast cancer in a study of Caucasian breast cancer cases and controls from the Mayo Clinic (MCBCS) was genotyped in 5436 cases and 5280 controls from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study and in 30 949 cases and 29 788 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Results: Rs1607237 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in MCBCS, CGEMS and all studies of white Europeans combined (odds ratio (OR)=0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95–0.99, P=4.6 × 10−3), but did not reach significance in the BCAC replication study alone (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.01, P=0.139). Conclusion: Common germline variation in PIK3CA does not have a strong influence on the risk of breast cancer PMID:22033276

  16. Evaluation of the coordination preferences and catalytic pathways of heteroaxial cobalt oximes towards hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Debashis; Mazumder, Shivnath; Niklas, Jens; Baydoun, Habib; Wanniarachchi, Dakshika; Shi, Xuetao; Staples, Richard J.; Poluektov, Oleg; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Verani, Cláudio N.

    2016-02-02

    Three new heteroaxial cobalt oxime catalysts, namely [CoIII(prdioxH)(4tBupy)(Cl)]PF6 (1), [CoIII(prdioxH)(4Pyrpy)(Cl)]PF6 (2), and [CoIII(prdioxH)(4Bzpy)(Cl)]PF6 (3) have been studied. These species contain chloro and substituted tert-butyl/pyrrolidine/benzoyl-pyridino ligands axially coordinated to a trivalent cobalt ion bound to the N4-oxime macrocycle (2E,2'E,3E,3'E)-3,3'-(propane-1,3-diylbis(azanylylidene))bis(butan-2-one)dioxime, abbreviated (prdioxH)– in its monoprotonated form. Emphasis was given to the spectroscopic investigation of the coordination preferences and spin configurations among the different 3d6 CoIII, 3d7 CoII, and 3d8 CoI oxidation states of the metal, and to the catalytic proton reduction with an evaluation of the pathways for the generation of H2via CoIII–H or CoII–H intermediates by mono and bimetallic routes. The strong field imposed by the (prdioxH)– ligand precludes the existence of high-spin configurations, and 6-coordinate geometry is favored by the LSCoIII species. Species 1 and 3 show a split CoIII/CoII electrochemical wave associated with partial chemical conversion to a [CoIII(prdioxH)Cl2] species, whereas 2 shows a single event. The reduction of these CoIII complexes yields LSCoII and LSCoI species in which the pyridine acts as the dominant axial ligand. In the presence of protons, the catalytically active CoI species generates a CoIII–H hydride species that reacts heterolytically with another proton to generate dihydrogen. The intermediacy of a trifluoroacetate-bound Co

  17. SCUBA-2 Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS-2) commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gom, Brad G.; Naylor, David A.; Friberg, Per; Bell, Graham S.; Bintley, Daniel; Abdelazim, Sherif; Sherwood, Matt

    2014-07-01

    We present the latest commissioning results and instrument performance for the SCUBA-2 imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS-2) installed at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This ancillary instrument provides intermediate spectral resolution (R ~10 to 5000) across both the 450 and 850 μm atmospheric transmission windows with a FOV of ~5 arcmin2. The superconducting TES sensors and SQUID readout of SCUBA-2 present unique challenges for operation of an FTS; the sensitivity requirements demand high detector linearity and stability in addition to control of systematic atmospheric and optical spillover effects. We discuss the challenges encountered during commissioning and ongoing efforts to mitigate their effects.

  18. ARC3, a chloroplast division factor, is a chimera of prokaryotic FtsZ and part of eukaryotic phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Masato; Kuroki, Kouta; Mochizuki, Mariko; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Tatsuru; Takamiya, Ken-ichiro

    2004-08-01

    The arc3 (accumulation and replication of chloroplast) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has a small number of abnormally large chloroplasts in the cell, suggesting that chloroplast division is arrested in the mutant and ARC3 has an important role in the initiation of chloroplast division. To elucidate the role of ARC3, first we identified the ARC3 gene, and determined the location of ARC3 protein during chloroplast division because the localization and spatial orientation of such division factors are vital for correct chloroplast division. Sequencing analysis showed that ARC3 was a fusion of the prokaryotic FtsZ and part of the eukaryotic phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) genes. The PIP5K-homologous region of ARC3 had no catalytic domain but a membrane-occupation-and-recognition-nexus (MORN) repeat motif. Immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blotting analysis and in vitro chloroplast import and protease protection assays revealed that ARC3 protein was soluble, and located on the outer surface of the chloroplast in a ring-like structure at the early stage of chloroplast division. Prokaryotes have one FtsZ as a gene for division but have no ARC3 counterparts, the chimera of FtsZ and PIP5K, suggesting that the ARC3 gene might have been generated from FtsZ as another division factor during the evolution of chloroplast by endosymbiosis.

  19. Borrelia burgdorferi ftsZ Plays a Role in Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Dubytska, Lydia; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2006-01-01

    ftsZ is essential for cell division in many microorganisms. In Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, FtsZ plays a role in ring formation at the leading edge of the cell division septum. An ftsZ homologue is present in the Borrelia burgdorferi genome (ftsZBbu). Its gene product (FtsZBbu) is strongly homologous to other bacterial FtsZ proteins, but its function has not been established. Because loss-of-function mutants of ftsZBbu might be lethal, the tetR/tetO system was adapted for regulated control of this gene in B. burgdorferi. Sixty-two nucleotides of an ftsZBbu antisense DNA sequence under the control of a tetracycline-responsive modified hybrid borrelial promoter were cloned into pKFSS1. This construct was electroporated into a B. burgdorferi host strain carrying a chromosomally located tetR under the control of the B. burgdorferi flaB promoter. After induction by anhydrotetracycline, expression of antisense ftsZ RNA resulted in generation of filamentous B. burgdorferi that were unable to divide and grew more slowly than uninduced cells. To determine whether FtsZBbu could interfere with the function of E. coli FtsZ, ftsZBbu was amplified from chromosomal DNA and placed under the control of the tetracycline-regulated hybrid promoter. After introduction of the construct into E. coli and induction with anhydrotetracycline, overexpression of ftsZBbu generated a filamentous phenotype. This suggested interference of ftsZBbu with E. coli FtsZ function and confirmed the role of ftsZBbu in cell division. This is the first report of the generation of a B. burgdorferi conditional lethal mutant equivalent by tetracycline-controlled expression of antisense RNA. PMID:16484209

  20. Ruthenium red-induced bundling of bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Santra, Manas Kumar; Beuria, Tushar K; Banerjee, Abhijit; Panda, Dulal

    2004-06-18

    The assembly of FtsZ plays a major role in bacterial cell division, and it is thought that the assembly dynamics of FtsZ is a finely regulated process. Here, we show that ruthenium red is able to modulate FtsZ assembly in vitro. In contrast to the inhibitory effects of ruthenium red on microtubule polymerization, we found that a substoichiometric concentration of ruthenium red strongly increased the light-scattering signal of FtsZ assembly. Further, sedimentable polymer mass was increased by 1.5- and 2-fold in the presence of 2 and 10 microm ruthenium red, respectively. In addition, ruthenium red strongly reduced the GTPase activity and prevented dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers. Electron microscopic analysis showed that 4-10 microm of ruthenium red produced thick bundles of FtsZ polymers. The significant increase in the light-scattering signal and pelletable polymer mass in the presence of ruthenium red seemed to be due to the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments into larger polymers rather than the actual increase in the level of polymeric FtsZ. Furthermore, ruthenium red was found to copolymerize with FtsZ, and the copolymerization of substoichiometric amounts of ruthenium red with FtsZ polymers promoted cooperative assembly of FtsZ that produced large bundles. Calcium inhibited the binding of ruthenium red to FtsZ. However, a concentration of calcium 1000-fold higher than that of ruthenium red was required to produce similar effects on FtsZ assembly. Ruthenium red strongly modulated FtsZ polymerization, suggesting the presence of an important regulatory site on FtsZ and suggesting that a natural ligand, which mimics the action of ruthenium red, may regulate the assembly of FtsZ in bacteria.

  1. Role of inter-species recombination of the ftsI gene in the dissemination of altered penicillin-binding-protein-3-mediated resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Witherden, Elizabeth A; Bajanca-Lavado, Maria Paula; Tristram, Stephen G; Nunes, Alexandra

    2014-06-01

    To screen the ftsI gene sequences obtained from clinical isolates of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Haemophilus haemolyticus for the presence of mosaic ftsI gene structures, and to evaluate the role of inter-species recombination of the ftsI gene in the formation and distribution of resistant ftsI genes. The ftsI genes of 100 Haemophilus isolates comprising genetically defined β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-susceptible (gBLNAS), β-lactamase-positive ampicillin-resistant (gBLPAR), β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (gBLNAR) and β-lactamase-positive amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant (gBLPACR) isolates of NTHi (n = 50) and H. haemolyticus (n = 50) were analysed in this study. Both the flanking regions and the full-length ftsI gene sequences of all study isolates were screened for mosaic structures using H. influenzae Rd and H. haemolyticus ATCC 33390 as reference parental sequences, and bioinformatics methods were used for recombination analysis using SimPlot. Of the 100 clinical isolates analysed 34% (34/100) harboured mosaic ftsI gene structures containing distinct ftsI gene fragments similar to both reference parental sequences. The inter-species recombination events were exclusively encountered in the ftsI gene of gBLNAR/gBLPACR isolates of both NTHi and H. haemolyticus, and were always associated with the formation of a mosaic fragment at the 3' end of the ftsI gene. There was no evidence supporting horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involving the entire ftsI gene among the clinical isolates in vivo. We provide evidence for the HGT and inter-species recombination of the ftsI gene among gBLNAR/gBLPACR isolates of NTHi and H. haemolyticus in a clinical setting, highlighting the importance of recombination of the ftsI gene in the emergence of altered penicillin-binding protein 3 and BLNAR-mediated resistance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All

  2. FtsH11 Proteases play a critical role in high temperature stress tolerance in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    FtsHs (Filamentous temperature sensitive H), ATP-dependent zinc metalloproteases of the AAA-superfamily, play essential roles in the turn over of thylakoid proteins damaged by high light stress during photosynthesis. Here, we show that FtsH11, one of the 12 FtsH members in Arabidopsis, plays critic...

  3. Cationic lipid enhances assembly of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ: a possible role of bacterial membrane in FtsZ assembly dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kuchibhatla, Anuradha; Bellare, Jayesh; Panda, Dulal

    2011-11-01

    The assembly of FtsZ plays an important role in bacterial cell division. Lipids in the bacterial cell membrane have been suggested to play a role in directing the site of FtsZ assembly. Using lipid monolayer and bilayer (liposome) systems, we directly examined the effects of cationic lipids on FtsZ assembly. We found that cationic lipids enhanced the assembly of FtsZ in association with an increase in the GTPase activity of FtsZ. The system consisting of lipid monolayer and bilayer (liposome) may mimic the bacterial membrane and therefore, the data might indicate the influence of bacterial membrane on the assembly of FtsZ protofilaments.

  4. FtsZ-Dependent Elongation of a Coccoid Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana R.; Hsin, Jen; Król, Ewa; Tavares, Andreia C.; Flores, Pierre; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Ng, Natalie; Dajkovic, Alex; Brun, Yves V.; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Roemer, Terry; Carballido-Lopez, Rut; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A mechanistic understanding of the determination and maintenance of the simplest bacterial cell shape, a sphere, remains elusive compared with that of more complex shapes. Cocci seem to lack a dedicated elongation machinery, and a spherical shape has been considered an evolutionary dead-end morphology, as a transition from a spherical to a rod-like shape has never been observed in bacteria. Here we show that a Staphylococcus aureus mutant (M5) expressing the ftsZG193D allele exhibits elongated cells. Molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro studies indicate that FtsZG193D filaments are more twisted and shorter than wild-type filaments. In vivo, M5 cell wall deposition is initiated asymmetrically, only on one side of the cell, and progresses into a helical pattern rather than into a constricting ring as in wild-type cells. This helical pattern of wall insertion leads to elongation, as in rod-shaped cells. Thus, structural flexibility of FtsZ filaments can result in an FtsZ-dependent mechanism for generating elongated cells from cocci. PMID:27601570

  5. FtsZ Condensates: An In Vitro Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Popp, David; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Narita, Akihiro; Erickson, Harold P.; Maéda, Yuichiro

    2009-01-01

    In vivo cell division protein FtsZ from E. coli forms rings and spirals which have only been observed by low resolution light microscopy. We show that these suprastructures are likely formed by molecular crowding which is a predominant factor in prokaryotic cells and enhances the weak lateral bonds between proto-filaments. Although FtsZ assembles into single proto-filaments in dilute aqueous buffer, with crowding agents above a critical concentration, it forms polymorphic supramolecular structures including rings and toroids (with multiple protofilaments) about 200 nm in diameter, similar in appearance to DNA toroids, and helices with pitches of several hundred nm as well as long, linear bundles. Helices resemble those observed in vivo, whereas the rings and toroids may represent a novel energy minimized state of FtsZ, at a later stage of Z-ring constriction. We shed light on the molecular arrangement of FtsZ filaments within these suprastructures using high resolution electron microscopy. PMID:19137575

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-substituted indolizinoquinolinediones as catalytic DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Le-Mao; Zhang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Xiao-Bing; Yang, Yuan; Wei, Hong-Yu; He, Xi-Xin; Gu, Lian-Quan; Huang, Zhi-Shu; Pommier, Yves; An, Lin-Kun

    2015-08-28

    In our previous work, indolizinoquinolinedione derivative 1 was identified as a Top1 catalytic inhibitor. Herein, a series of 6-substituted indolizinoquinolinedione derivatives were synthesized through modification of the parent compound 1. Top1 cleavage and relaxation assays indicate that none of these novel compounds act as classical Top1 poison, and that the compounds with alkylamino terminus at C-6 side chain, including 8, 11-16, 18-21, 25, 26 and 28-30, are the most potent Top1 catalytic inhibitors. Top1-mediated unwinding assay demonstrated that 14, 22 and 26 were Top1 catalytic inhibitors without Top1-mediated unwinding effect. Moreover, MTT results showed that compounds 26, 28-30 exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human leukemia HL-60 cells, and that compound 26 exerts potent cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells at nanomolar range.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-substituted indolizinoquinolinediones as catalytic DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Le-Mao; Zhang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Xiao-Bing; Yang, Yuan; Wei, Hong-Yu; He, Xi-Xin; Gu, Lian-Quan; Huang, Zhi-Shu; Pommier, Yves; An, Lin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work, indolizinoquinolinedione derivative 1 was identified as a Top1 catalytic inhibitor. Herein, a series of 6-substituted indolizinoquinolinedione derivatives were synthesized through modification of the parent compound 1. Top1 cleavage and relaxation assays indicate that none of these novel compounds act as classical Top1 poison, and that the compounds with alkylamino terminus at C-6 side chain, including 8, 11–16, 18–21, 25, 26 and 28–30, are the most potent Top1 catalytic inhibitors. Top1-mediated unwinding assay demonstrated that 14, 22 and 26 were Top1 catalytic inhibitors without Top1-mediated unwinding effect. Moreover, MTT results showed that compounds 26, 28–30 exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human leukemia HL-60 cells, and that compound 26 exerts potent cytotoxicity against A549 lung cancer cells at nanomolar range. PMID:26188908

  8. Polymer Stability Plays an Important Role in the Positional Regulation of FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Petra Anne; Schwartz, Rachel L.; Grossman, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments examining the effect of polymer stability on FtsZ localization dynamics in Bacillus subtilis. A loss-of-function mutation in ezrA, a putative polymer-destabilizing factor, suppresses the defects in FtsZ polymer stability associated with minCD overexpression. In addition, a mutation that is predicted to stabilize the FtsZ polymer leads to the formation of polar FtsZ rings. These data support the hypothesis that carefully balanced polymer stability is important for the assembly and localization of FtsZ during the bacterial cell cycle. PMID:11514533

  9. Inhibition of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ by cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Domadia, Prerna; Swarup, Sanjay; Bhunia, Anirban; Sivaraman, J; Dasgupta, Debjani

    2007-09-15

    Cinnamaldehyde is a natural product from spices that inhibits cell separation in Bacillus cereus. Cell division is regulated by FtsZ, a prokaryotic homolog of tubulin. FtsZ assembles into the Z-ring at the site of cell division. Here, we report the effect of cinnamaldehyde on FtsZ and hence on the cell division apparatus. Cinnamaldehyde decreases the in vitro assembly reaction and bundling of FtsZ. It is found that cinnamaldehyde perturbs the Z-ring morphology in vivo and reduces the frequency of the Z ring per unit cell length of Escherichia coli. In addition, GTP dependent FtsZ polymerization is inhibited by cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits the rate of GTP hydrolysis and binds FtsZ with an affinity constant of 1.0+/-0.2 microM(-1). Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that binding of cinnamaldehyde to FtsZ is driven by favorable enthalpic interactions. Further, we map the cinnamaldehyde binding region of FtsZ, using the saturation transfer difference-nuclear magnetic resonance and an in silico docking model. Both predict the cinnamaldehyde binding pocket at the C terminal region involving the T7 loop of FtsZ. Our results show that cinnamaldehyde binds FtsZ, perturbs the cytokinetic Z-ring formation and inhibits its assembly dynamics. This suggests that cinnamaldehyde, a small molecule of plant origin, is a potential lead compound that can be developed as an anti-FtsZ agent towards drug design.

  10. Life without Division: Physiology of Escherichia coli FtsZ-Deprived Filaments.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Palacios, Pilar; Martínez-Arteaga, Rocío; Sánchez, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes; Vicente, Miguel

    2016-10-11

    When deprived of FtsZ, Escherichia coli cells (VIP205) grown in liquid form long nonseptated filaments due to their inability to assemble an FtsZ ring and their failure to recruit subsequent divisome components. These filaments fail to produce colonies on solid medium, in which synthesis of FtsZ is induced, upon being diluted by a factor greater than 4. However, once the initial FtsZ levels are recovered in liquid culture, they resume division, and their plating efficiency returns to normal. The potential septation sites generated in the FtsZ-deprived filaments are not annihilated, and once sufficient FtsZ is accumulated, they all become active and divide to produce cells of normal length. FtsZ-deprived cells accumulate defects in their physiology, including an abnormally high number of unsegregated nucleoids that may result from the misplacement of FtsK. Their membrane integrity becomes compromised and the amount of membrane proteins, such as FtsK and ZipA, increases. FtsZ-deprived cells also show an altered expression pattern, namely, transcription of several genes responding to DNA damage increases, whereas transcription of some ribosomal or global transcriptional regulators decreases. We propose that the changes caused by the depletion of FtsZ, besides stopping division, weaken the cell, diminishing its resiliency to minor challenges, such as dilution stress.

  11. Life without Division: Physiology of Escherichia coli FtsZ-Deprived Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Palacios, Pilar; Martínez-Arteaga, Rocío; Sánchez, Manuel; Casanova, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT When deprived of FtsZ, Escherichia coli cells (VIP205) grown in liquid form long nonseptated filaments due to their inability to assemble an FtsZ ring and their failure to recruit subsequent divisome components. These filaments fail to produce colonies on solid medium, in which synthesis of FtsZ is induced, upon being diluted by a factor greater than 4. However, once the initial FtsZ levels are recovered in liquid culture, they resume division, and their plating efficiency returns to normal. The potential septation sites generated in the FtsZ-deprived filaments are not annihilated, and once sufficient FtsZ is accumulated, they all become active and divide to produce cells of normal length. FtsZ-deprived cells accumulate defects in their physiology, including an abnormally high number of unsegregated nucleoids that may result from the misplacement of FtsK. Their membrane integrity becomes compromised and the amount of membrane proteins, such as FtsK and ZipA, increases. FtsZ-deprived cells also show an altered expression pattern, namely, transcription of several genes responding to DNA damage increases, whereas transcription of some ribosomal or global transcriptional regulators decreases. We propose that the changes caused by the depletion of FtsZ, besides stopping division, weaken the cell, diminishing its resiliency to minor challenges, such as dilution stress. PMID:27729511

  12. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Daniel O.; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli. PMID:27609565

  13. Curcumin inhibits FtsZ assembly: an attractive mechanism for its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Rai, Dipti; Singh, Jay Kumar; Roy, Nilanjan; Panda, Dulal

    2008-02-15

    The assembly and stability of FtsZ protofilaments have been shown to play critical roles in bacterial cytokinesis. Recent evidence suggests that FtsZ may be considered as an important antibacterial drug target. Curcumin, a dietary polyphenolic compound, has been shown to have a potent antibacterial activity against a number of pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus. We found that curcumin induced filamentation in the Bacillus subtilis 168, suggesting that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. Further, curcumin strongly inhibited the formation of the cytokinetic Z-ring in B. subtilis 168 without detectably affecting the segregation and organization of the nucleoids. Since the assembly dynamics of FtsZ protofilaments plays a major role in the formation and functioning of the Z-ring, we analysed the effects of curcumin on the assembly of FtsZ protofilaments. Curcumin inhibited the assembly of FtsZ protofilaments and also increased the GTPase activity of FtsZ. Electron microscopic analysis showed that curcumin reduced the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. Further, curcumin was found to bind to FtsZ in vitro with a dissociation constant of 7.3+/-1.8 microM and the agent also perturbed the secondary structure of FtsZ. The results indicate that the perturbation of the GTPase activity of FtsZ assembly is lethal to bacteria and suggest that curcumin inhibits bacterial cell proliferation by inhibiting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ in the Z-ring.

  14. Tubulin-like protofilaments in Ca2+-induced FtsZ sheets.

    PubMed Central

    Löwe, J; Amos, L A

    1999-01-01

    The 40 kDa protein FtsZ is a major septum-forming component of bacterial cell division. Early during cytokinesis at midcell, FtsZ forms a cytokinetic ring that constricts as septation progresses. FtsZ has a high propensity to polymerize in vitro into various structures, including sheets and filaments, in a GTP-dependent manner. Together with limited sequence homology, the occurrence of the tubulin signature motif in FtsZ and a similar three-dimensional structure, this leads to the conclusion that FtsZ is the bacterial tubulin homologue. We have polymerized FtsZ1 from Methanococcus jannaschii in the presence of millimolar concentrations of Ca2+ ions to produce two-dimensional crystals of plane group P2221. Most of the protein precipitates and forms filaments approximately 23.0 nm in diameter. A three-dimensional reconstruction of tilted micrographs of FtsZ sheets in negative stain between 0 and 60 degrees shows protofilaments of FtsZ running along the sheet axis. Pairs of parallel FtsZ protofilaments associate in an antiparallel fashion to form a two-dimensional sheet. The antiparallel arrangement is believed to generate flat sheets instead of the curved filaments seen in other FtsZ polymers. Together with the subunit spacing along the protofilament axis, a fitting of the FtsZ crystal structure into the reconstruction suggests a protofilamant structure very similar to that of tubulin protofilaments. PMID:10228151

  15. FtsZ filament capping by MciZ, a developmental regulator of bacterial division

    PubMed Central

    Bisson-Filho, Alexandre W.; Discola, Karen F.; Castellen, Patrícia; Blasios, Valdir; Martins, Alexandre; Sforça, Maurício L.; Garcia, Wanius; Zeri, Ana Carolina M.; Erickson, Harold P.; Dessen, Andréa; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J.

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal structures are dynamically remodeled with the aid of regulatory proteins. FtsZ (filamentation temperature-sensitive Z) is the bacterial homolog of tubulin that polymerizes into rings localized to cell-division sites, and the constriction of these rings drives cytokinesis. Here we investigate the mechanism by which the Bacillus subtilis cell-division inhibitor, MciZ (mother cell inhibitor of FtsZ), blocks assembly of FtsZ. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that MciZ binds to the C-terminal polymerization interface of FtsZ, the equivalent of the minus end of tubulin. Using in vivo and in vitro assays and microscopy, we show that MciZ, at substoichiometric levels to FtsZ, causes shortening of protofilaments and blocks the assembly of higher-order FtsZ structures. The findings demonstrate an unanticipated capping-based regulatory mechanism for FtsZ. PMID:25848052

  16. FtsZ filament capping by MciZ, a developmental regulator of bacterial division.

    PubMed

    Bisson-Filho, Alexandre W; Discola, Karen F; Castellen, Patrícia; Blasios, Valdir; Martins, Alexandre; Sforça, Maurício L; Garcia, Wanius; Zeri, Ana Carolina M; Erickson, Harold P; Dessen, Andréa; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J

    2015-04-28

    Cytoskeletal structures are dynamically remodeled with the aid of regulatory proteins. FtsZ (filamentation temperature-sensitive Z) is the bacterial homolog of tubulin that polymerizes into rings localized to cell-division sites, and the constriction of these rings drives cytokinesis. Here we investigate the mechanism by which the Bacillus subtilis cell-division inhibitor, MciZ (mother cell inhibitor of FtsZ), blocks assembly of FtsZ. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that MciZ binds to the C-terminal polymerization interface of FtsZ, the equivalent of the minus end of tubulin. Using in vivo and in vitro assays and microscopy, we show that MciZ, at substoichiometric levels to FtsZ, causes shortening of protofilaments and blocks the assembly of higher-order FtsZ structures. The findings demonstrate an unanticipated capping-based regulatory mechanism for FtsZ.

  17. Organization of FtsZ filaments in the bacterial division ring measured from polarized fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Si, Fangwei; Busiek, Kimberly; Margolin, William; Sun, Sean X

    2013-11-05

    Cytokinesis in bacteria is accomplished by a ring-shaped cell-division complex (the Z-ring). The primary component of the Z-ring is FtsZ, a filamentous tubulin homolog that serves as a scaffold for the recruitment of other cell-division-related proteins. FtsZ forms filaments and bundles. In the cell, it has been suggested that FtsZ filaments form the arcs of the ring and are aligned in the cell-circumferential direction. Using polarized fluorescence microscopy in live Escherichia coli cells, we measure the structural organization of FtsZ filaments in the Z-ring. The data suggest a disordered organization: a substantial portion of FtsZ filaments are aligned in the cell-axis direction. FtsZ organization in the Z-ring also appears to depend on the bacterial species. Taken together, the unique arrangement of FtsZ suggests novel unexplored mechanisms in bacterial cell division.

  18. Preferential cytoplasmic location of FtsZ, a protein essential for Escherichia coli septation.

    PubMed

    Pla, J; Sánchez, M; Palacios, P; Vicente, M; Aldea, M

    1991-07-01

    An ftsZ thermonull mutant has been constructed in which the ftsZ gene has been deleted from the Escherichia coli chromosome while maintaining a wild-type copy of the gene in a thermosensitive plasmid. Under conditions in which the ftsZ+ allele is unable to be replicated at the same pace as the chromosome, the cells become non-viable and grow as filaments, indicating that, contrary to other reports, FtsZ performs a function essential for cell survival. Antibodies raised against FtsZ have been used to detect the cellular location of FtsZ and its contents per cell. Fractionation experiments indicate that most of the total FtsZ present in the cell stays in the cytoplasm.

  19. Evaluation of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Primary Amines and Implications to Selective Catalytic Reduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the mandated reduction of NOx, advanced emission control technologies are being implemented. One strategy is the adaptation of selective catalytic reduction units with urea as a focus. However, urea suffers from issues such as stability at elevated temperatures and the tendency to form deposits...

  20. Surface characterization and catalytic evaluation of manganese nodule leached residue toward oxidation of benzene to phenol.

    PubMed

    Parida, K M; Dash, Saswati Soumya

    2007-12-15

    Water washed manganese nodule leached residue (WMNLR) calcined at different temperatures was characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DTA, surface area, surface oxygen, and surface acid sites. Surface area, surface oxygen, surface hydroxyl group, and surface acid sites increase up to 400 degrees C and then decrease with further rise in calcination temperature up to 700 degrees C. The catalytic activity of the calcined samples was tested for single-step oxidation of benzene to phenol using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant and acetic acid as the solvent at room temperature. The influence of various reaction parameters such as solvent, concentration of solvent, oxidant amount, time, temperature, and catalyst amount was studied to optimize the reaction conditions. WMNLR calcined at 400 degrees C showed the highest catalytic activity towards oxidation of benzene with 12.7% conversion and 98% selectivity.

  1. Roles of the Essential Protein FtsA in Cell Growth and Division in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, Daniela; Perez, Amilcar J.; Danforth, Madeline L.; Musu, Daniela; Krupka, Marcin; Denapaite, Dalia; Tsui, Ho-Ching T.; Winkler, Malcolm E.; Branny, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae is an ovoid-shaped Gram-positive bacterium that grows by carrying out peripheral and septal peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis, analogous to model bacilli, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In the model bacilli, FtsZ and FtsA proteins assemble into a ring at midcell and are dedicated to septal PG synthesis but not peripheral PG synthesis; hence, inactivation of FtsZ or FtsA results in long filamentous cells unable to divide. Here, we demonstrate that FtsA and FtsZ colocalize at midcell in S. pneumoniae and that partial depletion of FtsA perturbs septum synthesis, resulting in elongated cells with multiple FtsZ rings that fail to complete septation. Unexpectedly, complete depletion of FtsA resulted in the delocalization of FtsZ rings and ultimately cell ballooning and lysis. In contrast, depletion or deletion of gpsB and sepF, which in B. subtilis are synthetically lethal with ftsA, resulted in enlarged and elongated cells with multiple FtsZ rings, with deletion of sepF mimicking partial depletion of FtsA. Notably, cell ballooning was not observed, consistent with later recruitment of these proteins to midcell after Z-ring assembly. The overproduction of FtsA stimulates septation and suppresses the cell division defects caused by the deletion of sepF and gpsB under some conditions, supporting the notion that FtsA shares overlapping functions with GpsB and SepF at later steps in the division process. Our results indicate that, in S. pneumoniae, both GpsB and SepF are involved in septal PG synthesis, whereas FtsA and FtsZ coordinate both peripheral and septal PG synthesis and are codependent for localization at midcell. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a clinically important human pathogen for which more therapies against unexploited essential targets, like cell growth and division proteins, are needed. Pneumococcus is an ovoid-shaped Gram-positive bacterium with cell growth and division properties that

  2. Manned Evaluation of a Diver Heater for SDV Applications Using Hydrogen Catalytic Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    DIVER HEATER FOR SDV APPLICATIONS USING HYDROGEN CATALYTIC REACTIONS GAS CIRCUIT The basic heater design uses a gas ejector pump to recirculate the gas...entrance of the gas ejector pump. In this manner the hydrogen is mixed inside the pressure vessel with the recirculated gas and the fresh incoming air to...recirculatory flow then passes through a gas-to-water heat exchanger where the heat is removed and some of the water vapor condenses . The recirculatory flow then

  3. Energetics and Geometry of FtsZ Polymers: Nucleated Self-Assembly of Single Protofilaments☆

    PubMed Central

    Huecas, Sonia; Llorca, Oscar; Boskovic, Jasminka; Martín-Benito, Jaime; Valpuesta, José María; Andreu, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Essential cell division protein FtsZ is an assembling GTPase which directs the cytokinetic ring formation in dividing bacterial cells. FtsZ shares the structural fold of eukaryotic tubulin and assembles forming tubulin-like protofilaments, but does not form microtubules. Two puzzling problems in FtsZ assembly are the nature of protofilament association and a possible mechanism for nucleated self-assembly of single-stranded protofilaments above a critical FtsZ concentration. We assembled two-dimensional arrays of FtsZ on carbon supports, studied linear polymers of FtsZ with cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified unsupported solutions, and formulated possible polymerization models. Nucleated self-assembly of FtsZ from Escherichia coli with GTP and magnesium produces flexible filaments 4–6 nm-wide, only compatible with a single protofilament. This agrees with previous scanning transmission electron microscopy results and is supported by recent cryo-electron tomography studies of two bacterial cells. Observations of double-stranded FtsZ filaments in negative stain may come from protofilament accretion on the carbon support. Preferential protofilament cyclization does not apply to FtsZ assembly. The apparently cooperative polymerization of a single protofilament with identical intermonomer contacts is explained by the switching of one inactive monomer into the active structure preceding association of the next, creating a dimer nucleus. FtsZ behaves as a cooperative linear assembly machine. PMID:18024502

  4. Energetics and geometry of FtsZ polymers: nucleated self-assembly of single protofilaments.

    PubMed

    Huecas, Sonia; Llorca, Oscar; Boskovic, Jasminka; Martín-Benito, Jaime; Valpuesta, José María; Andreu, José Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Essential cell division protein FtsZ is an assembling GTPase which directs the cytokinetic ring formation in dividing bacterial cells. FtsZ shares the structural fold of eukaryotic tubulin and assembles forming tubulin-like protofilaments, but does not form microtubules. Two puzzling problems in FtsZ assembly are the nature of protofilament association and a possible mechanism for nucleated self-assembly of single-stranded protofilaments above a critical FtsZ concentration. We assembled two-dimensional arrays of FtsZ on carbon supports, studied linear polymers of FtsZ with cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified unsupported solutions, and formulated possible polymerization models. Nucleated self-assembly of FtsZ from Escherichia coli with GTP and magnesium produces flexible filaments 4-6 nm-wide, only compatible with a single protofilament. This agrees with previous scanning transmission electron microscopy results and is supported by recent cryo-electron tomography studies of two bacterial cells. Observations of double-stranded FtsZ filaments in negative stain may come from protofilament accretion on the carbon support. Preferential protofilament cyclization does not apply to FtsZ assembly. The apparently cooperative polymerization of a single protofilament with identical intermonomer contacts is explained by the switching of one inactive monomer into the active structure preceding association of the next, creating a dimer nucleus. FtsZ behaves as a cooperative linear assembly machine.

  5. Imaging-based identification of a critical regulator of FtsZ protofilament curvature in Caulobacter

    PubMed Central

    Goley, Erin D.; Dye, Natalie A.; Werner, John N.; Gitai, Zemer; Shapiro, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY FtsZ is an essential bacterial GTPase that polymerizes at midcell, recruits the division machinery, and may generate constrictive forces necessary for cytokinesis. However, many of the mechanistic details underlying these functions are unknown. We sought to identify FtsZ-binding proteins that influence FtsZ function in Caulobacter crescentus. Here, we present a microscopy-based screen through which we discovered two FtsZ-binding proteins, FzlA and FzlC. FzlA is conserved in α-proteobacteria and was found to be functionally critical for cell division in Caulobacter. FzlA altered FtsZ structure both in vivo and in vitro, forming stable higher order structures that were resistant to depolymerization by MipZ, a spatial determinant of FtsZ assembly. Electron microscopy revealed that FzlA organizes FtsZ protofilaments into striking helical bundles. The degree of curvature induced by FzlA depended on the nucleotide bound to FtsZ. Induction of FtsZ curvature by FzlA carries implications for regulating FtsZ function by modulating its superstructure. PMID:20864042

  6. Transcription of the ftsZ gene and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Robin, A; Joseleau-Petit, D; D'Ari, R

    1990-01-01

    The ftsZ gene of Escherichia coli, which lies in a cluster of cell division genes at 2 min on the genetic map, codes for a protein which is thought to play a key role in triggering cell division. Using an ftsZ::lacZ operon fusion, we have studied the transcription of the ftsZ gene under conditions in which cell division was either inhibited or synchronized in the bacterial population. In ftsZ, ftsA, ftsQ, and ftsI (or pbpB) mutants, there was no change in the differential rate of expression of the ftsZ gene in nonpermissive conditions, when cell division was completely blocked. Although the FtsZ protein is thought to be limiting for cell division, in synchronized cultures the ftsZ gene was expressed not only at the moment of septation initiation but throughout the cell cycle. Its expression, however, was not exponential but linear, with a rapid doubling in rate at a specific cell age; this age, about 20 min after division in a 60-min cycle, was different from the age at which the ftsZ::lacZ operon was duplicated. However, it was close to the age at which replication initiated and at which the rate of phospholipid synthesis doubled. During the transient division inhibition after a nutritional shift-up, ftsZ transcription again became linear, with two doublings in rate at intervals equal to the mass doubling time in the rich medium; it adopted the exponential rate typical of rich medium about 60 min after the shift-up, just before the bacterial population resumed cell division. The doubling in the rate of ftsZ transcription once per cycle in synchronized cultures and once per mass doubling time during the transition period after a nutritional shift-up reflects a new cell cycle event. PMID:2106510

  7. Torsion and curvature of FtsZ filaments.

    PubMed

    González de Prado Salas, Pablo; Hörger, Ines; Martín-García, Fernando; Mendieta, Jesús; Alonso, Álvaro; Encinar, Mario; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Vélez, Marisela; Tarazona, Pedro

    2014-03-28

    FtsZ filaments participate in bacterial cell division, but it is still not clear how their dynamic polymerization and shape exert force on the underlying membrane. We present a theoretical description of individual filaments that incorporates information from molecular dynamic simulations. The structure of the crystallized Methanococcus jannaschii FtsZ dimer was used to model a FtsZ pentamer that showed a curvature and a twist. The estimated bending and torsion angles between monomers and their fluctuations were included in the theoretical description. The MD data also permitted positioning the curvature with respect to the protein coordinates and allowed us to explore the effect of the relative orientation of the preferred curvature with respect to the surface plane. We find that maximum tension is attained when filaments are firmly attached and oriented with their curvature perpendicular to the surface and that the twist serves as a valve to release or to tighten the tension exerted by the curved filaments on the membrane. The theoretical model also shows that the presence of torsion can explain the shape distribution of short filaments observed by Atomic Force Microscopy in previously published experiments. New experiments with FtsZ covalently attached to lipid membranes show that the filament on-plane curvature depends on lipid head charge, confirming the predicted monomer orientation effects. This new model underlines the fact that the combination of the three elements, filament curvature, twist and the strength and orientation of its surface attachment, can modulate the force exerted on the membrane during cell division.

  8. The GTPase Activity of Escherichia coli FtsZ Determines the Magnitude of the FtsZ Polymer Bundling by ZapA in Vitro†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    FtsZ polymerizes in a ring-like structure at mid cell to initiate cell division in Escherichia coli. The ring is stabilized by a number of proteins among which the widely conserved ZapA protein. Using antibodies against ZapA, we found surprisingly that the cellular concentration of ZapA is approximately equal to that of FtsZ. This raised the question of how the cell can prevent their interaction and thereby the premature stabilization of FtsZ protofilaments in nondividing cells. Therefore, we studied the FtsZ−ZapA interaction at the physiological pH of 7.5 instead of pH 6.5 (the optimal pH for FtsZ polymerization), under conditions that stimulate protofilament formation (5 mM MgCl2) and under conditions that stimulate and stabilize protofilaments (10 mM MgCl2). Using pelleting, light scattering, and GTPase assays, it was found that stabilization and bundling of FtsZ polymers by ZapA was inversely correlated to the GTPase activity of FtsZ. As GTP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting factor for depolymerization of FtsZ, we propose that ZapA will only enhance the cooperativity of polymer association during the transition from helical filament to mid cell ring and will not stabilize the short single protofilaments in the cytoplasm. All thus far published in vitro data on the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA have been obtained with His-ZapA. We found that in our case the presence of a His tag fused to ZapA prevented the protein to complement a ΔzapA strain in vivo and that it affected the interaction between FtsZ and ZapA in vitro. PMID:19842714

  9. Treadmilling by FtsZ filaments drives peptidoglycan synthesis and bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Bisson-Filho, Alexandre W; Hsu, Yen-Pang; Squyres, Georgia R; Kuru, Erkin; Wu, Fabai; Jukes, Calum; Sun, Yingjie; Dekker, Cees; Holden, Seamus; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Garner, Ethan C

    2017-02-17

    The mechanism by which bacteria divide is not well understood. Cell division is mediated by filaments of FtsZ and FtsA (FtsAZ) that recruit septal peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes to the division site. To understand how these components coordinate to divide cells, we visualized their movements relative to the dynamics of cell wall synthesis during cytokinesis. We found that the division septum was built at discrete sites that moved around the division plane. FtsAZ filaments treadmilled circumferentially around the division ring and drove the motions of the peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes. The FtsZ treadmilling rate controlled both the rate of peptidoglycan synthesis and cell division. Thus, FtsZ treadmilling guides the progressive insertion of new cell wall by building increasingly smaller concentric rings of peptidoglycan to divide the cell.

  10. Structure of the Z Ring-associated Protein, ZapD, Bound to the C-terminal Domain of the Tubulin-like Protein, FtsZ, Suggests Mechanism of Z Ring Stabilization through FtsZ Cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Maria A; Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Zeng, Wenjie; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2017-03-03

    Cell division in most bacteria is mediated by the tubulin-like FtsZ protein, which polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form the cytokinetic Z ring. A diverse repertoire of FtsZ-binding proteins affects FtsZ localization and polymerization to ensure correct Z ring formation. Many of these proteins bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of FtsZ, which serves as a hub for FtsZ regulation. FtsZ ring-associated proteins, ZapA-D (Zaps), are important FtsZ regulatory proteins that stabilize FtsZ assembly and enhance Z ring formation by increasing lateral assembly of FtsZ protofilaments, which then form the Z ring. There are no structures of a Zap protein bound to FtsZ; therefore, how these proteins affect FtsZ polymerization has been unclear. Recent data showed ZapD binds specifically to the FtsZ CTD. Thus, to obtain insight into the ZapD-CTD interaction and how it may mediate FtsZ protofilament assembly, we determined the Escherichia coli ZapD-FtsZ CTD structure to 2.67 Å resolution. The structure shows that the CTD docks within a hydrophobic cleft in the ZapD helical domain and adopts an unusual structure composed of two turns of helix separated by a proline kink. FtsZ CTD residue Phe-377 inserts into the ZapD pocket, anchoring the CTD in place and permitting hydrophobic contacts between FtsZ residues Ile-374, Pro-375, and Leu-378 with ZapD residues Leu-74, Trp-77, Leu-91, and Leu-174. The structural findings were supported by mutagenesis coupled with biochemical and in vivo studies. The combined data suggest that ZapD acts as a molecular cross-linking reagent between FtsZ protofilaments to enhance FtsZ assembly.

  11. The development of FtsZ inhibitors as potential antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Siti; Ma, Shutao

    2012-07-01

    The emergence and prevalence of bacterial resistance has resulted in a clear demand for novel antibacterial drugs. As a tubulin homologue, FtsZ is an essential cell-division protein in prokaryotic organisms and is showing increasing promise as a target for antibacterial drug discovery. This review describes the role of FtsZ in bacterial cytokinesis and various FtsZ inhibitors, with particular focus on their discovery, antibacterial activities, mechanisms of action, synthetic methods, and representative analogues.

  12. Evaluating and optimizing pretreatment technique for catalytic hydrogenolysis conversion of corn stalk into polyol.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong Gang; Ma, Yulong; Wang, Zheng; Yao, Junkang

    2014-04-01

    A combinative pretreatment technology of steam explosion (SE) and alkali was applied to enhance hydrogenolysis conversion of corn stalk into polyol with Ni-W2C or Fe-Mn-K catalyst. The results showed that treatments corn stalk with 0.4 MPa SE and alkali removed 84.16 wt% of hemicellulose and 71.83 wt% of lignin and thereby increased the cellulose content from 31.54 to 80.41 wt%. But the glucose loss was insignificant during pretreatment. Data from catalytic hydrogenolysis showed that pretreatment corn stalk with 0.4 MPa SE and alkali improved the yield of polyol, and about 20.38 wt% of ethylene glycol and 52.36 wt% of glycerol were produced after catalysis with Ni-W2C/(coconut shell activated carbon, CSAC). Based on the yield of polyol, the catalytic performance of Ni-W2C/CSAC was significantly better than those of Ni-W2C/(coal-based activated carbon) and Fe-Mn-K/(amorphous carbon).

  13. Thermal and chemical approaches for oxygen catalytic recombination evaluation on ceramic materials at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balat, M.; Czerniak, M.; Badie, J. M.

    1997-12-01

    During the atmospheric entry phase, the physico-chemical phenomena taking place on space shuttle walls can lead to an important excess of heating and damage of the protective materials. The aim of this work is the study of the catalytic recombination of atomic oxygen under plasma conditions chosen to simulate the atmospheric reentry. To do that, we have developed an experimental set-up MESOX (Moyen d'Essai Solaire d'OXydation), which associates a solar radiation concentrator and a microwave generator to reach high temperature, low enthalpy flow and low pressure plasma with an air gas flow. The study of atomic oxygen recombination on silicon- or aluminum-based ceramic materials, at high temperature (1000-1800 K) has been done for different pressures (200-2000 Pa) by a thermal and a chemical understanding. The results give a catalycity scale of materials (thermal recombination flux, qrec, and coefficient of atomic oxygen recombination, γ). The catalycity activity is weak for the sintered SiC target with atomic oxygen recombination flux reaching 35 kW/m 2, however, for a target of sintered Al 2O 3, catalytic effect is obtained with energy fluxes between 90 to 180 kW/m 2. The recombination coefficient γ confirms the catalycity scale of these ceramic materials.

  14. Identification and characterization of two members of the FtsH gene family in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Yue, Guidong; Hu, Xiaorui; He, Ying; Yang, Aifang; Zhang, Juren

    2010-02-01

    Two full-length cDNAs, designated as ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B, were isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization coupled with in silico cloning approach. The predicted proteins of ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B both consisted of 677 amino acid residues and displayed high similarity to FtsH2 protease of Arabidopsis thaliana. DNA gel blotting analysis indicated that AtFtsH2-like genes exist as two copies in maize genome. The genomic sequences of ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B were cloned and the main difference was that the first intron of ZmFtsH2B was much longer than that of ZmFtsH2A. RT-PCR analysis revealed that both genes were constitutively expressed in all examined tissues and the expression level of ZmFtsH2B transcripts was higher than that of ZmFtsH2A. The responses of the two genes in maize seedlings to PEG, cold, high salt, and ABA treatments were compared, and the results showed that ZmFtsH2B transcription in leaves was markedly up-regulated by water deficit stress and ABA treatments while ZmFtsH2A constitutively expressed both in leaves and roots under all tested stressful conditions. Drought tolerance of transgenic tobaccos overexpressing ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B weren't improved compared to wild-type controls, which indicated that two genes might not be directly involved in plant drought tolerance or the number of functional FtsH heterocomplex might not be increased in this condition. Our current study provides fundamental information for the further investigation of the maize FtsH proteins.

  15. An FtsH protease is recruited to the mitochondrion of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Aiman; Allen, Stacey M; Jackson, Katherine E; Charan, Manish; Ralph, Stuart A; Habib, Saman

    2013-01-01

    The two organelles, apicoplast and mitochondrion, of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have unique morphology in liver and blood stages; they undergo complex branching and looping prior to division and segregation into daughter merozoites. Little is known about the molecular processes and proteins involved in organelle biogenesis in the parasite. We report the identification of an AAA+/FtsH protease homolog (PfFtsH1) that exhibits ATP- and Zn(2+)-dependent protease activity. PfFtsH1 undergoes processing, forms oligomeric assemblies, and is associated with the membrane fraction of the parasite cell. Generation of a transfectant parasite line with hemagglutinin-tagged PfFtsH1, and immunofluorescence assay with anti-PfFtsH1 Ab demonstrated that the protein localises to P. falciparum mitochondria. Phylogenetic analysis and the single transmembrane region identifiable in PfFtsH1 suggest that it is an i-AAA like inner mitochondrial membrane protein. Expression of PfFtsH1 in Escherichia coli converted a fraction of bacterial cells into division-defective filamentous forms implying a sequestering effect of the Plasmodium factor on the bacterial homolog, indicative of functional conservation with EcFtsH. These results identify a membrane-associated mitochondrial AAA+/FtsH protease as a candidate regulatory protein for organelle biogenesis in P. falciparum.

  16. Super-resolution imaging of the bacterial cytokinetic protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Phoebe C; Cox, Guy C; Monahan, Leigh G; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2011-06-01

    The idea of a bacterial cytoskeleton arose just 10 years ago with the identification of the cell division protein, FtsZ, as a tubulin homolog. FtsZ plays a pivotal role in bacterial division, and is present in virtually all prokaryotes and in some eukaryotic organelles. The earliest stage of bacterial cell division is the assembly of FtsZ into a Z ring at the division site, which subsequently constricts during cytokinesis. FtsZ also assembles into dynamic helical structures along the bacterial cell, which are thought to act as precursors to the Z ring via a cell cycle-mediated FtsZ polymer remodelling. The fine structures of the FtsZ helix and ring are unknown but crucial for identifying the molecular details of Z ring assembly and its regulation. We now reveal using STED microscopy that the FtsZ helical structure in cells of the gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, is a highly irregular and discontinuous helix of FtsZ; very different to the smooth cable-like appearance observed by conventional fluorescence optics. STED also identifies a novel FtsZ helical structure of smaller pitch that is invisible to standard optical methods, identifying a possible third intermediate in the pathway to Z ring assembly, which commits bacterial cells to divide.

  17. Catalytic Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Don Little's Catalytic Reforming deals exclusively with reforming. With the increasing need for unleaded gasoline, the importance of this volume has escalated since it combines various related aspects of reforming technology into a single publication. For those with no practical knowledge of catalytic reforming, the chemical reactions, flow schemes and how the cat reformer fits into the overall refinery process will be of interest. Contents include: Catalytic reforming in refinery processing: How catalytic reformers work - chemical reactions; Process design; The catalyst, process variables and unit operation; Commercial processes; BTX operation; Feed preparation; naphtha hydrotreating and catalytic reforming; Index.

  18. Experimental evaluation of catalytic combustion with heat removal at near stoichiometric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two concentric tube configurations were tested. Tests were conducted at an inlet pressure of 150,000 Pa, inlet fuel air mixture temperatures from 780 to 960 K, combustion air flow rates from 0.78 to 1.5 g/s, equivalence ratios up to 0.90, and a range of cooling air flow rates. Propane and propylene fuels were used. Both configurations used air flowing through the center tube for cooling and combustion in the annulus on the catalytic surface. One configuration had the catalyst applied to the outside surface of the inner tube. Conversion of the fuel was very low for this configuration. The other configuration had the catalyst applied to the inside surface of the outer tube. Conversion of the fuel was considerably better in this configuration.

  19. Evaluation of humic fractions potential to produce bio-oil through catalytic hydroliquefaction.

    PubMed

    Lemée, L; Pinard, L; Beauchet, R; Kpogbemabou, D

    2013-12-01

    Humic substances were extracted from biodegraded lignocellulosic biomass (LCBb) and submitted to catalytic hydroliquefaction. The resulting bio-oils were compared with those of the initial biomass. Compared to fulvic and humic acids, humin presented a high conversion rate (74 wt.%) and the highest amount of liquid fraction (66 wt.%). Moreover it represented 78% of LCBb. Humin produced 43 wt.% of crude oil and 33 wt.% of hexane soluble fraction containing hydrocarbons which is a higher yield than those from other humic substances as well as from the initial biomass. Hydrocarbons were mainly aromatics, but humin produces the highest amount of aliphatics. Considering the quantity, the quality and the molecular composition of the humic fractions, a classification of the potential of the latter to produce fuel using hydroliquefaction process can be assess: Hu>AF>AH. The higher heating value (HHV) and oxygen content of HSF from humin were fully compatible with biofuel characteristics.

  20. Evaluation of the Catalytic Activity and Cytotoxicity of Palladium Nanocubes. The Role of Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Dahal, Eshan; Curtiss, Jessica; Subedi, Deepak; Chen, Gen; Houston, Jessica P.; Smirnov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that palladium nanocubes (PdNC) are capable of generating singlet oxygen without photo-excitation simply via chemisorption of molecular oxygen on its surface. Such a trait would make PdNC a highly versatile catalyst suitable in organic synthesis and a Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) inducing cancer treatment reagent. Here we thoroughly investigated the catalytic activity of PdNC with respect to their ability to produce singlet oxygen and to oxidize 3,5,3′,5′-tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB), as well as, analyzed the cytotoxic properties of PdNC on HeLa cells. Our findings showed no evidence of singlet oxygen production by PdNC. The nanocubes’ activity is not necessarily linked to activation of oxygen. The oxidation of substrate on PdNC can be a first step followed by PdNC regeneration with oxygen or other oxidant. The catalytic activity of PdNC towards oxidation of TMB is very high and shows direct two-electrons oxidation when the surface of PdNC is clean and the ratio of TMB/PdNC is not very high. Sequential one electron oxidation is observed when the pristine quality of PdNC surface is compromised by serum or uncontrolled impurities and/or the ratio of TMB/PdNC is high. Clean PdNC in serum-free media efficiently induce apoptosis of HeLa cells. It is the primary route of cell death and is associated with hyperpolarization of mitochondria, contrary to a common mitochondrial depolarization initiated by ROS. Again, the effects are very sensitive to how well the pristine surface of PdNC is preserved, suggesting that PdNC can be used as an apoptosis inducing agent but only with appropriate drug delivery system. PMID:25886644

  1. The Hetero-Hexameric Nature of a Chloroplast AAA+ FtsH Protease Contributes to Its Thermodynamic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Tamar; Adam, Zach; Prag, Gali

    2012-01-01

    FtsH is an evolutionary conserved membrane-bound metalloprotease complex. While in most prokaryotes FtsH is encoded by a single gene, multiple FtsH genes are found in eukaryotes. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Arabidopsis chloroplast FtsH is a hetero-hexamer. This raises the question why photosynthetic organisms require a heteromeric complex, whereas in most bacteria a homomeric one is sufficient. To gain structural information of the possible complexes, the Arabidopsis FtsH2 (type B) and FtsH5 (type A) were modeled. An in silico study with mixed models of FtsH2/5 suggests that heteromeric hexamer structure with ratio of 4∶2 is more likely to exists. Specifically, calculation of the buried surface area at the interfaces between neighboring subunits revealed that a hetero-complex should be thermodynamically more stable than a homo-hexamer, due to the presence of additional hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. To biochemically assess this model, we generated Arabidopsis transgenic plants, expressing epitope-tagged FtsH2 and immuno-purified the protein. Mass-spectrometry analysis showed that FtsH2 is associated with FtsH1, FtsH5 and FtsH8. Interestingly, we found that ‘type B’ subunits (FtsH2 and FtsH8) were 2–3 fold more abundant than ‘type A’ (FtsH1 and FtsH5). The biochemical data corroborate the in silico model and suggest that the thylakoid FtsH hexamer is composed of two ‘type A’ and four ‘type B’ subunits. PMID:22558304

  2. Role of Escherichia coli FtsN protein in the assembly and stability of the cell division ring.

    PubMed

    Rico, Ana Isabel; García-Ovalle, Marta; Palacios, Pilar; Casanova, Mercedes; Vicente, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Deprivation of FtsN, the last protein in the hierarchy of divisome assembly, causes the disassembly of other elements from the division ring, even extending to already assembled proto-ring proteins. Therefore the stability and function of the divisome to produce rings active in septation is not guaranteed until FtsN is recruited. Disassembly follows an inverse sequential pathway relative to assembly. In the absence of FtsN, the frequencies of FtsN and FtsQ rings are affected similarly. Among the proto-ring components, ZipA are more sensitive than FtsZ or FtsA rings. In contrast, removal of FtsZ leads to an almost simultaneous disappearance of the other elements from rings. Although restoration of FtsN allows for a quick reincorporation of ZipA into proto-rings, the de novo joint assembly of the three components when FtsZ levels are restored to FtsZ-deprived filaments is even faster. This suggests that the recruitment of ZipA into FtsZ-FtsA incomplete proto-rings may require first a period for the reversal of these partial assemblies.

  3. Identification and Characterization of ZapC, a Stabilizer of the FtsZ Ring in Escherichia coli▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Heredia, Jorge M.; Yu, Helen H.; De Carlo, Sacha; Lesser, Cammie F.; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, spatiotemporal control of cell division occurs at the level of the assembly/disassembly process of the essential cytoskeletal protein FtsZ. A number of regulators interact with FtsZ and modulate the dynamics of the assembled FtsZ ring at the midcell division site. In this article, we report the identification of an FtsZ stabilizer, ZapC (Z-associated protein C), in a protein localization screen conducted with E. coli. ZapC colocalizes with FtsZ at midcell and interacts directly with FtsZ, as determined by a protein-protein interaction assay in yeast. Cells lacking or overexpressing ZapC are slightly elongated and have aberrant FtsZ ring morphologies indicative of a role for ZapC in FtsZ regulation. We also demonstrate the ability of purified ZapC to promote lateral bundling of FtsZ in a sedimentation reaction visualized by transmission electron microscopy. While ZapC lacks sequence similarity with other nonessential FtsZ regulators, ZapA and ZapB, all three Zap proteins appear to play an important role in FtsZ regulation during rapid growth. Taken together, our results suggest a key role for lateral bundling of the midcell FtsZ polymers in maintaining FtsZ ring stability during division. PMID:21216995

  4. A novel membrane anchor for FtsZ is linked to cell wall hydrolysis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Meier, Elizabeth L; Razavi, Shiva; Inoue, Takanari; Goley, Erin D

    2016-07-01

    In most bacteria, the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ forms an annulus at midcell (the Z-ring) which recruits the division machinery and regulates cell wall remodeling. Although both activities require membrane attachment of FtsZ, few membrane anchors have been characterized. FtsA is considered to be the primary membrane tether for FtsZ in bacteria, however in Caulobacter crescentus, FtsA arrives at midcell after stable Z-ring assembly and early FtsZ-directed cell wall synthesis. We hypothesized that additional proteins tether FtsZ to the membrane and demonstrate that in C. crescentus, FzlC is one such membrane anchor. FzlC associates with membranes directly in vivo and in vitro and recruits FtsZ to membranes in vitro. As for most known membrane anchors, the C-terminal peptide of FtsZ is required for its recruitment to membranes by FzlC in vitro and midcell recruitment of FzlC in cells. In vivo, overproduction of FzlC causes cytokinesis defects whereas deletion of fzlC causes synthetic defects with dipM, ftsE and amiC mutants, implicating FzlC in cell wall hydrolysis. Our characterization of FzlC as a novel membrane anchor for FtsZ expands our understanding of FtsZ regulators and establishes a role for membrane-anchored FtsZ in the regulation of cell wall hydrolysis.

  5. Cytological Profile of Antibacterial FtsZ Inhibitors and Synthetic Peptide MciZ

    PubMed Central

    Araújo-Bazán, Lidia; Ruiz-Avila, Laura B.; Andreu, David; Huecas, Sonia; Andreu, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites. FtsZ inhibitors lead to long undivided cells, impair the normal assembly of FtsZ into the midcell Z-rings, induce aberrant ring distributions, punctate FtsZ foci, membrane spots and also modify nucleoid length. Quantitative analysis of cell and nucleoid length combined, or the Z-ring distribution, allows categorizing FtsZ inhibitors and to distinguish them from antibiotics with other mechanisms of action, which should be useful for identifying new antibacterial FtsZ inhibitors. Biochemical assays of FtsZ polymerization and GTPase activity combined explain the cellular effects of the FtsZ polymer stabilizing agent PC190723 and its fragments. MciZ is a 40-aminoacid endogenous inhibitor of cell division normally expressed during sporulation in B. subtilis. Using FtsZ cytological profiling we have determined that exogenous synthetic MciZ is an effective inhibitor of B. subtilis cell division, Z-ring formation and localization. This finding supports our cell-based approach to screen for FtsZ inhibitors and opens new possibilities for peptide inhibitors of bacterial cell division. PMID:27752253

  6. Development of the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 Simulator and Preliminary Sensitivity Analysis for CO2 Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Dupuy, E.; Hiraki, K.; Yokota, Y.; Oishi, Y.; Murakami, K.; Morino, I.; Matsunaga, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite-2 (GOSAT-2), which is a successor mission to the GOSAT, is planned to be launched in FY 2017. The Fourier Transform Spectrometer-2 (FTS-2) onboard the GOSAT-2 is a primary sensor to observe infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. The FTS-2 obtains high-spectral resolution spectra with four bands from near to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region and one band in the thermal infrared (TIR) region. The column amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are retrieved from the obtained radiance spectra with SWIR bands. Compared to the FTS onboard the GOSAT, the FTS-2 includes an additional SWIR band to allow for carbon monoxide (CO) measurement. We have been developing a tool, named GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator, which is capable of simulating the spectral radiance data observed by the FTS-2 using the Pstar2 radiative transfer code. The purpose of the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator is to obtain data which is exploited in the sensor specification, the optimization of parameters for Level 1 processing, and the improvement of Level 2 algorithms. The GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator, composed of the six components: 1) Overall control, 2) Onboarding platform, 3) Spectral radiance calculation, 4) Fourier transform, 5) L1B processing, and 6) L1B data output, has been installed on the GOSAT Research Computation Facility (GOSAT RCF), which is a large-scale, high-performance, and energy-efficient computer. We present the progress in the development of the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator and the preliminary sensitivity analysis, relating to the engineering parameters, the aerosols and clouds, and so on, on the Level 1 processing for CO2 retrieval from the obtained data by simulating the FTS-2 SWIR observation using the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator.

  7. Evaluating the catalytic contribution from the oxyanion hole in ketosteroid isomerase.

    PubMed

    Schwans, Jason P; Sunden, Fanny; Gonzalez, Ana; Tsai, Yingssu; Herschlag, Daniel

    2011-12-21

    Prior site-directed mutagenesis studies in bacterial ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) reported that substitution of both oxyanion hole hydrogen bond donors gives a 10(5)- to 10(8)-fold rate reduction, suggesting that the oxyanion hole may provide the major contribution to KSI catalysis. But these seemingly conservative mutations replaced the oxyanion hole hydrogen bond donors with hydrophobic side chains that could lead to suboptimal solvation of the incipient oxyanion in the mutants, thereby potentially exaggerating the apparent energetic benefit of the hydrogen bonds relative to water-mediated hydrogen bonds in solution. We determined the functional and structural consequences of substituting the oxyanion hole hydrogen bond donors and several residues surrounding the oxyanion hole with smaller residues in an attempt to create a local site that would provide interactions more analogous to those in aqueous solution. These more drastic mutations created an active-site cavity estimated to be ~650 Å(3) and sufficient for occupancy by 15-17 water molecules and led to a rate decrease of only ~10(3)-fold for KSI from two different species, a much smaller effect than that observed from more traditional conservative mutations. The results underscore the strong context dependence of hydrogen bond energetics and suggest that the oxyanion hole provides an important, but moderate, catalytic contribution relative to the interactions in the corresponding solution reaction.

  8. Isolation, Characterization and Lipid-Binding Properties of the Recalcitrant FtsA Division Protein from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Silvia; Reija, Belén; Alfonso, Carlos; Mingorance, Jesús; Rivas, Germán; Jiménez, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    We have obtained milligram amounts of highly pure Escherichia coli division protein FtsA from inclusion bodies with an optimized purification method that, by overcoming the reluctance of FtsA to be purified, surmounts a bottleneck for the analysis of the molecular basis of FtsA function. Purified FtsA is folded, mostly monomeric and interacts with lipids. The apparent affinity of FtsA binding to the inner membrane is ten-fold higher than to phospholipids, suggesting that inner membrane proteins could modulate FtsA-membrane interactions. Binding of FtsA to lipids and membranes is insensitive to ionic strength, indicating that a net contribution of hydrophobic interactions is involved in the association of FtsA to lipid/membrane structures. PMID:22761913

  9. Continuous treatment with FTS confers resistance to apoptosis and affects autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Schmukler, Eran; Wolfson, Eya; Elazar, Zvulun; Kloog, Yoel; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2017-01-01

    High percentage of human cancers involves alteration or mutation in Ras proteins, including the most aggressive malignancies, such as lung, colon and pancreatic cancers. FTS (Salirasib) is a farnesylcysteine mimetic, which acts as a functional Ras inhibitor, and was shown to exert anti-tumorigenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Previously, we have demonstrated that short-term treatment with FTS also induces protective autophagy in several cancer cell lines. Drug resistance is frequently observed in cancer cells exposed to prolonged treatment, and is considered a major cause for therapy inefficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of a prolonged treatment with FTS on drug resistance of HCT-116 human colon cancer cells, and the involvement of autophagy in this process. We found that cells grown in the presence of FTS for 6 months have become resistant to FTS-induced cell growth inhibition and cell death. Furthermore, we discovered that the resistant cells exhibit altered autophagy, reduced apoptosis and changes in Ras-related signaling pathways following treatment with FTS. Moreover we found that while FTS induces an apoptosis-related cleavage of p62, the FTS-resistant cells were more resistant to apoptosis and p62 cleavage. PMID:28151959

  10. Bacterial Division: FtsZ Treadmills to Build a Beautiful Wall.

    PubMed

    Schoenemann, Kara M; Margolin, William

    2017-04-24

    The tubulin-like FtsZ protein polymerizes into a contractile ring structure required for cytokinesis in most bacteria. Two new studies report that FtsZ polymers move around the ring by treadmilling, which guides and regulates the inward growth of the septal wall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Three rings for the evolution of plastid shape: a tale of land plant FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Grosche, Christopher; Rensing, Stefan A

    2017-03-03

    Nuclear-encoded plant FtsZ genes are derived from endosymbiotic gene transfer of cyanobacteria-like genes. The green lineage (Chloroplastida) and red lineage (Rhodophyta) feature FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 or FtsZB and FtsZA, respectively, which are involved in plastid division. These two proteins show slight differences and seem to heteropolymerize to build the essential inner plastid division ring. A third gene, encoding FtsZ3, is present in glaucophyte and charophyte algae, as well as in land plants except ferns and angiosperms. This gene was probably present in the last common ancestor of the organisms united by having a primary plastid (Archaeplastida) and was lost during vascular plant evolution as well as in the red and green algae. The presence/absence pattern of FtsZ3 mirrors that of a full set of Mur genes and the peptidoglycan wall encoded by them. Based on these findings, we discuss a role for FtsZ3 in the establishment or maintenance of plastid peptidoglycan shells.

  12. Probing for Binding Regions of the FtsZ Protein Surface through Site-Directed Insertions: Discovery of Fully Functional FtsZ-Fluorescent Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Desmond A.; Whatley, Zakiya N.; Joshi, Chandra P.; Osawa, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin homologue, is a cytoskeletal protein that assembles into protofilaments that are one subunit thick. These protofilaments assemble further to form a “Z ring” at the center of prokaryotic cells. The Z ring generates a constriction force on the inner membrane and also serves as a scaffold to recruit cell wall remodeling proteins for complete cell division in vivo. One model of the Z ring proposes that protofilaments associate via lateral bonds to form ribbons; however, lateral bonds are still only hypothetical. To explore potential lateral bonding sites, we probed the surface of Escherichia coli FtsZ by inserting either small peptides or whole fluorescent proteins (FPs). Among the four lateral surfaces on FtsZ protofilaments, we obtained inserts on the front and back surfaces that were functional for cell division. We concluded that these faces are not sites of essential interactions. Inserts at two sites, G124 and R174, located on the left and right surfaces, completely blocked function, and these sites were identified as possible sites for essential lateral interactions. However, the insert at R174 did not interfere with association of protofilaments into sheets and bundles in vitro. Another goal was to find a location within FtsZ that supported insertion of FP reporter proteins while allowing the FtsZ-FPs to function as the sole source of FtsZ. We discovered one internal site, G55-Q56, where several different FPs could be inserted without impairing function. These FtsZ-FPs may provide advances for imaging Z-ring structure by superresolution techniques. IMPORTANCE One model for the Z-ring structure proposes that protofilaments are assembled into ribbons by lateral bonds between FtsZ subunits. Our study excluded the involvement of the front and back faces of the protofilament in essential interactions in vivo but pointed to two potential lateral bond sites, on the right and left sides. We also identified an FtsZ loop where

  13. FTS Measurements of Submillimeter-Wave Atmospheric Opacity at Pampa la Bola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Akihiro; Matsushita, Satoki

    1998-06-01

    The first measurements of submillimeter-wave atmospheric opacity spectra at the Pampa la Bola site (Northern Chile, Atacama, 4800 m altitude) have been performed during the winter season using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Atmospheric emission spectra, as a function of airmass, were measured under various weather conditions. Atmospheric opacity was evaluated from sky temperature at the zenith as well as from tipping measurements, which are independent measures but give consistent results. Correlation diagrams between 220 GHz and 345 GHz, 410 GHz, 492 GHz, 675 GHz, 691 GHz, 809 GHz, 875 GHz are shown. Correlations between millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave opacities get worse when 220 GHz opacity is larger than 0.1. Deviations from the opacity correlation at each frequency show good correlations themselves, but have different relative variations at each frequency. This indicates that atmospheric transparency cannot be characterized only by millimeter-wave opacity, but requires simultaneous opacity measurements at millimeter and submillimeter-wavelengths.

  14. Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of isatin derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zhi-Min; Sun, Juan; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Seven isatin derivatives have been designed, and their chemical structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, 1H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. Structural stabilization followed by intramolecular as well as intermolecular H-bonds makes these molecules as perfect examples in molecular recognition with self-complementary donor and acceptor units within a single molecule. These compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activities. Docking simulations have been performed to position compounds into the FtsZ active site to determine their probable binding models. All of the compounds exhibited better antibacterial activities. Interestingly, compound 5c and 5d exhibited better antibacterial activities with IC50 values of 0.03 and 0.05 μmol/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Compound 5g displays antibacterial activity with IC50 values of 0.672 and 0.830 μmol/mL against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively.

  15. FtsHi1/ARC1 is an essential gene in Arabidopsis that links chloroplast biogenesis and division.

    PubMed

    Kadirjan-Kalbach, Deena K; Yoder, David W; Ruckle, Michael E; Larkin, Robert M; Osteryoung, Katherine W

    2012-12-01

    The Arabidopsis arc1 (accumulation and replication of chloroplasts 1) mutant has pale seedlings and smaller, more numerous chloroplasts than the wild type. Previous work has suggested that arc1 affects the timing of chloroplast division but does not function directly in the division process. We isolated ARC1 by map-based cloning and discovered it encodes FtsHi1 (At4g23940), one of several FtsHi proteins in Arabidopsis. These poorly studied proteins resemble FtsH metalloproteases important for organelle biogenesis and protein quality control but are presumed to be proteolytically inactive. FtsHi1 bears a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and localizes to the chloroplast envelope membrane. Phenotypic studies showed that arc1 (hereafter ftsHi1-1), which bears a missense mutation, is a weak allele of FtsHi1 that disrupts thylakoid development and reduces de-etiolation efficiency in seedlings, suggesting that FtsHi1 is important for chloroplast biogenesis. Consistent with this finding, transgenic plants suppressed for accumulation of an FtsHi1 fusion protein were often variegated. A strong T-DNA insertion allele, ftsHi1-2, caused embryo-lethality, indicating that FtsHi1 is an essential gene product. A wild-type FtsHi1 transgene rescued both the chloroplast division and pale phenotypes of ftsHi1-1 and the embryo-lethal phenotype of ftsHi1-2. FtsHi1 overexpression produced a subtle increase in chloroplast size and decrease in chloroplast number in wild-type plants while suppression led to increased numbers of small chloroplasts, providing new evidence that FtsHi1 negatively influences chloroplast division. Taken together, our analyses reveal that FtsHi1 functions in an essential, envelope-associated process that may couple plastid development with division. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, T; Laksanalamai, P; Jiemjit, A; Kagawa, H K; Alton, T; Trent, J D

    2000-09-07

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Cloning and characterization of ftsZ and pyrF from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaoi, T.; Laksanalamai, P.; Jiemjit, A.; Kagawa, H. K.; Alton, T.; Trent, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    To characterize cytoskeletal components of archaea, the ftsZ gene from Thermoplasma acidophilum was cloned and sequenced. In T. acidophilum ftsZ, which is involved in cell division, was found to be in an operon with the pyrF gene, which encodes orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODC), an essential enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Both ftsZ and pyrF from T. acidophilum were expressed in Escherichia coli and formed functional proteins. FtsZ expression in wild-type E. coli resulted in the filamentous phenotype characteristic of ftsZ mutants. T. acidophilum pyrF expression in an E. coli mutant lacking pyrF complemented the mutation and rescued the strain. Sequence alignments of ODCs from archaea, bacteria, and eukarya reveal five conserved regions, two of which have homology to 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS), suggesting a common substrate recognition and binding motif. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

    2000-12-01

    Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

  19. Catalytic and synergistic antibacterial potential of green synthesized silver nanoparticles: Their ecotoxicological evaluation on Poecillia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were fabricated at a rapid rate from leaf extract of medicinally important plant Alstonia macrophylla. Biosynthesized AgNPs are of spherical shape and narrow size (70 nm), exhibiting a surface plasmon resonance peak at 435 nm, and a zeta potential of -30.8 mV and have a crystalline nature. A diverse biochemical consortium of protein, terpenoids, phenolics, and flavonoids in leaf extract of A. macrophylla was found to be responsible for AgNP synthesis as evidenced from qualitative-quantitative chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies. Nitroaromatic compounds are anthropogenic pollutants with long-lasting environmental persistence and are needed to transform into less toxic derivatives. 4-Nitrophenol and p-nitroaniline were reduced to less hazardous and commercially useful 4-aminophenol and p-phenylenediamine by phytosynthesized AgNPs. Rate constants of 0.052 and 0.040 Min(-1) were calculated for 4-nitrophenol and p-nitroaniline reduction, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography also confirms the reduction of these nitroaromatic compounds. Combinational studies could be one of the strategies to overcome microbial resistance to antibiotics. In synergistic antibacterial assay, the highest increase in a fold area of 3.84 was reported against Staphylococcus aureus using a combination of AgNPs with penicillin. Biosynthesized AgNPs were found to be less toxic (LC50 = 9.13 ppm) than chemically synthesized AgNPs having a LC50 value of 2.86 ppm against nontarget fish Poecillia reticulata. Our green nanosynthesis method offers a faster rate of formation of stable AgNPs having antibacterial and catalytic potential with lower environmental toxicity. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Effects of rhodomyrtone on Gram-positive bacterial tubulin homologue FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Saeloh, Dennapa; Wenzel, Michaela; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Hamoen, Leendert Willem

    2017-01-01

    Rhodomyrtone, a natural antimicrobial compound, displays potent activity against many Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, comparable to last-defence antibiotics including vancomycin and daptomycin. Our previous studies pointed towards effects of rhodomyrtone on the bacterial membrane and cell wall. In addition, a recent molecular docking study suggested that the compound could competitively bind to the main bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. In this study, we applied a computational approach (in silico), in vitro, and in vivo experiments to investigate molecular interactions of rhodomyrtone with FtsZ. Using molecular simulation, FtsZ conformational changes were observed in both (S)- and (R)-rhodomyrtone binding states, compared with the three natural states of FtsZ (ligand-free, GDP-, and GTP-binding states). Calculations of free binding energy showed a higher affinity of FtsZ to (S)-rhodomyrtone (−35.92 ± 0.36 kcal mol−1) than the GDP substrate (−23.47 ± 0.25 kcal mol−1) while less affinity was observed in the case of (R)-rhodomyrtone (−18.11 ± 0.11 kcal mol−1). In vitro experiments further revealed that rhodomyrtone reduced FtsZ polymerization by 36% and inhibited GTPase activity by up to 45%. However, the compound had no effect on FtsZ localization in Bacillus subtilis at inhibitory concentrations and cells also did not elongate after treatment. Higher concentrations of rhodomyrtone did affect localization of FtsZ and also affected localization of its membrane anchor proteins FtsA and SepF, showing that the compound did not specifically inhibit FtsZ but rather impaired multiple divisome proteins. Furthermore, a number of cells adopted a bean-like shape suggesting that rhodomyrtone possibly possesses further targets involved in cell envelope synthesis and/or maintenance. PMID:28168121

  1. Synthetic inhibitors of bacterial cell division targeting the GTP-binding site of FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Avila, Laura B; Huecas, Sonia; Artola, Marta; Vergoñós, Albert; Ramírez-Aportela, Erney; Cercenado, Emilia; Barasoain, Isabel; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Chacón, Pablo; López-Rodríguez, María L; Andreu, José M

    2013-09-20

    Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic Z-ring in most bacteria and a target for new antibiotics. FtsZ assembles with GTP into filaments that hydrolyze the nucleotide at the association interface between monomers and then disassemble. We have replaced FtsZ's GTP with non-nucleotide synthetic inhibitors of bacterial division. We searched for these small molecules among compounds from the literature, from virtual screening (VS), and from our in-house synthetic library (UCM), employing a fluorescence anisotropy primary assay. From these screens we have identified the polyhydroxy aromatic compound UCM05 and its simplified analogue UCM44 that specifically bind to Bacillus subtilis FtsZ monomers with micromolar affinities and perturb normal assembly, as examined with light scattering, polymer sedimentation, and negative stain electron microscopy. On the other hand, these ligands induce the cooperative assembly of nucleotide-devoid archaeal FtsZ into distinct well-ordered polymers, different from GTP-induced filaments. These FtsZ inhibitors impair localization of FtsZ into the Z-ring and inhibit bacterial cell division. The chlorinated analogue UCM53 inhibits the growth of clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. We suggest that these interfacial inhibitors recapitulate binding and some assembly-inducing effects of GTP but impair the correct structural dynamics of FtsZ filaments and thus inhibit bacterial division, possibly by binding to a small fraction of the FtsZ molecules in a bacterial cell, which opens a new approach to FtsZ-based antibacterial drug discovery.

  2. FHIP and FTS proteins are critical for dynein-mediated transport of early endosomes in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xuanli; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The minus end–directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein transports various cellular cargoes, including early endosomes, but how dynein binds to its cargo remains unclear. Recently fungal Hook homologues were found to link dynein to early endosomes for their transport. Here we identified FhipA in Aspergillus nidulans as a key player for HookA (A. nidulans Hook) function via a genome-wide screen for mutants defective in early-endosome distribution. The human homologue of FhipA, FHIP, is a protein in the previously discovered FTS/Hook/FHIP (FHF) complex, which contains, besides FHIP and Hook proteins, Fused Toes (FTS). Although this complex was not previously shown to be involved in dynein-mediated transport, we show here that loss of either FhipA or FtsA (A. nidulans FTS homologue) disrupts HookA–early endosome association and inhibits early endosome movement. Both FhipA and FtsA associate with early endosomes, and interestingly, while FtsA–early endosome association requires FhipA and HookA, FhipA–early endosome association is independent of HookA and FtsA. Thus FhipA is more directly linked to early endosomes than HookA and FtsA. However, in the absence of HookA or FtsA, FhipA protein level is significantly reduced. Our results indicate that all three proteins in the FtsA/HookA/FhipA complex are important for dynein-mediated early endosome movement. PMID:24870033

  3. A Carbocyclic Curcumin Inhibits Proliferation of Gram-Positive Bacteria by Targeting FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Groundwater, Paul W; Narlawar, Rajeshwar; Liao, Vivian Wan Yu; Bhattacharya, Anusri; Srivastava, Shalini; Kunal, Kishore; Doddareddy, Munikumar; Oza, Pratik M; Mamidi, Ramesh; Marrs, Emma C L; Perry, John D; Hibbs, David E; Panda, Dulal

    2017-01-24

    Inhibition of FtsZ assembly has been found to stall bacterial cell division. Here, we report the identification of a potent carbocyclic curcumin analogue (2d) that inhibits Bacillus subtilis 168 cell proliferation by targeting the assembly of FtsZ. 2d also showed potent inhibitory activity (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 2-4 mg/L) against several clinically important species of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, 2d displayed a significantly reduced inhibitory effect on human cervical cancer cells in comparison to its effect on bacterial cells. Using live cell imaging of GFP-FtsZ by confocal microscopy, 2d was found to rapidly perturb the cytokinetic FtsZ rings in Bacillus subtilis cells. The immunofluorescence imaging of FtsZ also showed that 2d destroyed the Z-ring in bacteria within 5 min. Prolonged treatment with 2d produced filamentous bacteria, but 2d had no detectable effect either on the nucleoids or on the membrane potential of bacteria. 2d inhibited FtsZ assembly in vitro, whereas it had minimal effects on tubulin assembly. Interestingly, 2d strongly enhanced the GTPase activity of FtsZ and reduced the GTPase activity of tubulin. Furthermore, 2d bound to purified FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 4.0 ± 1.1 μM, and the binding of 2d altered the secondary structures of FtsZ. The results together suggested that the non-natural curcumin analogue 2d possesses powerful antibacterial activity against important pathogenic bacteria, and the evidence indicates that 2d inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting FtsZ.

  4. Sequence Variation in the ftsZ Gene of Bartonella henselae Isolates and Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenborg, C.; Wesslén, L.; Jakobson, Å.; Friman, G.; Holmberg, M.

    2000-01-01

    In a search for methods for subtyping of Bartonella henselae in clinical samples, we amplified and sequenced a 701-bp region in the 3′ end of the ftsZ gene in 15 B. henselae isolates derived from cats and humans in the United States and Europe. The ftsZ sequence variants that were discovered were designated variants Bh ftsZ 1, 2, and 3 and were compared with 16S rRNA genotypes I and II of the same isolates. There was no ftsZ gene variation in the strains of 16S rRNA type I, all of which were Bh ftsZ 1. The type II strains constituted two groups, with nucleotide sequence variation in the ftsZ gene resulting in amino acid substitutions at three positions, one of which was shared by the two groups. One 16S rRNA type II isolate had an ftsZ gene sequence identical to those of the type I strains. Variants Bh ftsZ 1 and 2 were detected in tissue specimens from seven Swedish patients with diagnoses such as chronic multifocal osteomyelitis, cardiomyopathy, and lymphadenopathy. Patients with similar clinical entities displayed either Bh ftsZ variant. The etiological role of B. henselae in these patients was supported by positive Bartonella antibody titers and/or amplification and sequencing of a part of the B. henselae gltA gene. B. henselae ftsZ gene sequence variation may be useful in providing knowledge about the epidemiology of various B. henselae strains in clinical samples, especially when isolation attempts have failed. This report also describes manifestations of atypical Bartonella infections in Sweden. PMID:10655367

  5. Doxorubicin inhibits E. coli division by interacting at a novel site in FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pragnya; Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Satpati, Suresh; Kar, Mitali Madhusmita; Dixit, Anshuman; Beuria, Tushar Kant

    2015-11-01

    The increase in antibiotic resistance has become a major health concern in recent times. It is therefore essential to identify novel antibacterial targets as well as discover and develop new antibacterial agents. FtsZ, a highly conserved bacterial protein, is responsible for the initiation of cell division in bacteria. The functions of FtsZ inside cells are tightly regulated and any perturbation in its functions leads to inhibition of bacterial division. Recent reports indicate that small molecules targeting the functions of FtsZ may be used as leads to develop new antibacterial agents. To identify small molecules targeting FtsZ and inhibiting bacterial division, we screened a U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drug library of 800 molecules using an independent computational, biochemical and microbial approach. From this screen, we identified doxorubicin, an anthracycline molecule that inhibits Escherichia coli division and forms filamentous cells. A fluorescence-binding assay shows that doxorubicin interacts strongly with FtsZ. A detailed biochemical analysis demonstrated that doxorubicin inhibits FtsZ assembly and its GTPase activity through binding to a site other than the GTP-binding site. Furthermore, using molecular docking, we identified a probable doxorubicin-binding site in FtsZ. A number of single amino acid mutations at the identified binding site in FtsZ resulted in a severalfold decrease in the affinity of FtsZ for doxorubicin, indicating the importance of this site for doxorubicin interaction. The present study suggests the presence of a novel binding site in FtsZ that interacts with the small molecules and can be targeted for the screening and development of new antibacterial agents.

  6. Serum thymic factor, FTS, attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity by suppressing cisplatin-induced ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Yuka; Kawai, Yoshiko; Iwamoto, Noriaki; Matsunaga, Yoshiko; Aiga, Hiromi; Awaya, Akira; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-11-01

    Serum thymic factor (FTS), a thymic peptide hormone, has been reported to attenuate the bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury and also experimental pancreatitis and diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of FTS on cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin)-induced nephrotoxicity. We have already demonstrated that cephaloridine, a nephrotoxic antibiotic, leads to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation in the rat kidney, which probably contributes to cephaloridine-induced renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cisplatin on ERK activation in the rat kidney and also the effect of FTS on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. In vitro treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with FTS significantly ameliorated cisplatin-induced cell injury. Treatment of rats with intravenous cisplatin for 3 days markedly induced renal dysfunction and increased platinum contents in the kidney cortex. An increase in pERK was detected in the nuclear fraction prepared from the rat kidney cortex from days 1 to 3 after injection of cisplatin. FTS suppressed cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and ERK activation in the kidney. FTS did not influence any Pt contents in the kidney after cisplatin administration. FTS has been shown to enhance the in vivo expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 in the kidney cortex. The beneficial role of FTS against cisplatin nephrotoxicity may be mediated in part by HSP70, as suggested by its up-regulation in the kidney cortex treated with FTS alone. Our results suggest that FTS participates in protection from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by suppressing ERK activation caused by cisplatin.

  7. FtsZ-less prokaryotic cell division as well as FtsZ- and dynamin-less chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastid division

    PubMed Central

    Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Nakamura, Mami; Uzuka, Akihiro; Era, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast division machinery is a mixture of a stromal FtsZ-based complex descended from a cyanobacterial ancestor of chloroplasts and a cytosolic dynamin-related protein (DRP) 5B-based complex derived from the eukaryotic host. Molecular genetic studies have shown that each component of the division machinery is normally essential for normal chloroplast division. However, several exceptions have been found. In the absence of the FtsZ ring, non-photosynthetic plastids are able to proliferate, likely by elongation and budding. Depletion of DRP5B impairs, but does not stop chloroplast division. Chloroplasts in glaucophytes, which possesses a peptidoglycan (PG) layer, divide without DRP5B. Certain parasitic eukaryotes possess non-photosynthetic plastids of secondary endosymbiotic origin, but neither FtsZ nor DRP5B is encoded in their genomes. Elucidation of the FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast division mechanism will lead to a better understanding of the function and evolution of the chloroplast division machinery and the finding of the as-yet-unknown mechanism that is likely involved in chloroplast division. Recent studies have shown that FtsZ was lost from a variety of prokaryotes, many of which lost PG by regressive evolution. In addition, even some of the FtsZ-bearing bacteria are able to divide when FtsZ and PG are depleted experimentally. In some cases, alternative mechanisms for cell division, such as budding by an increase of the cell surface-to-volume ratio, are proposed. Although PG is believed to have been lost from chloroplasts other than in glaucophytes, there is some indirect evidence for the existence of PG in chloroplasts. Such information is also useful for understanding how non-photosynthetic plastids are able to divide in FtsZ-depleted cells and the reason for the retention of FtsZ in chloroplast division. Here we summarize information to facilitate analyses of FtsZ- and/or DRP5B-less chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastid division. PMID

  8. The Information of PSC and PMC from GOSAT FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadosaki, G.; Ichimaru, T.; Hirasawa, N.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge of the current climate system is necessary to clearly estimate large-scale global warming and abnormal weather in the future. Net radiation is one of the main factors that influence a climate system. There is no doubt that clouds are closely related to the radiation balance. Satellite data analysis is the most useful method to understand cloud climatology. However, it is difficult to detect a specific part of a cloud (ex., very thin cirrus in polar areas, stratus during the night). This is because the radiation intensity difference within split window band is very small between cloud to cloud, and cloud to snow or ice surface. In this case, spectral profile is useful to obtain information of such a cloud. Radiation property of cloud particles varies by spectral from visible to thermal infrared. GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) was launched on January 23 2009, has two observation instruments, TANSO-FTS (Fourier-Transform Spectrometer) and TANSO-CAI (Cloud Aerosol Imager). The FTS has three narrow band polarization spectrometers, (0.758-0.775, 1.56-1.72 and 1.92-2.08 micro meters) and one wide spectrometer (5.56-14.3 micro meters) with 0.2 cm^-1 spectral resolution. FTS is a useful tool to obtain the atmospheric spectral from ground to satellite, shows the variation of the condition of each cloud, and learn about the cloud such as Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) and Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) which is very thin optically but has no small effect on radiation balance. PSC was confirmed on June 29, July 18-20 and Aug 7 2010 over the Syowa station in the Antarctic using Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO). The PMC was confirmed on June 16 2010 over the Aegean Sea from the International Space Station. In this study, the possibility of access to information of PSC and PMC from GOSAT data has been thoroughly checked.

  9. Organization of FtsZ Filaments in the Bacterial Division Ring Measured from Polarized Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Si, Fangwei; Busiek, Kimberly; Margolin, William; Sun, Sean X.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinesis in bacteria is accomplished by a ring-shaped cell-division complex (the Z-ring). The primary component of the Z-ring is FtsZ, a filamentous tubulin homolog that serves as a scaffold for the recruitment of other cell-division-related proteins. FtsZ forms filaments and bundles. In the cell, it has been suggested that FtsZ filaments form the arcs of the ring and are aligned in the cell-circumferential direction. Using polarized fluorescence microscopy in live Escherichia coli cells, we measure the structural organization of FtsZ filaments in the Z-ring. The data suggest a disordered organization: a substantial portion of FtsZ filaments are aligned in the cell-axis direction. FtsZ organization in the Z-ring also appears to depend on the bacterial species. Taken together, the unique arrangement of FtsZ suggests novel unexplored mechanisms in bacterial cell division. PMID:24209842

  10. Condensation of FtsZ filaments can drive bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ganhui; Daniels, Brian R; Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X

    2009-01-06

    Forces are important in biological systems for accomplishing key cell functions, such as motility, organelle transport, and cell division. Currently, known force generation mechanisms typically involve motor proteins. In bacterial cells, no known motor proteins are involved in cell division. Instead, a division ring (Z-ring) consists of mostly FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA is used to exerting a contractile force. The mechanism of force generation in bacterial cell division is unknown. Using computational modeling, we show that Z-ring formation results from the colocalization of FtsZ and FtsA mediated by the favorable alignment of FtsZ polymers. The model predicts that the Z-ring undergoes a condensation transition from a low-density state to a high-density state and generates a sufficient contractile force to achieve division. FtsZ GTP hydrolysis facilitates monomer turnover during the condensation transition, but does not directly generate forces. In vivo fluorescence measurements show that FtsZ density increases during division, in accord with model results. The mechanism is akin to van der Waals picture of gas-liquid condensation, and shows that organisms can exploit microphase transitions to generate mechanical forces.

  11. Transcription of ftsZ oscillates during the cell cycle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Garrido, T; Sánchez, M; Palacios, P; Aldea, M; Vicente, M

    1993-10-01

    The FtsZ protein is a key element controlling cell division in Escherichia coli. A powerful transcription titration assay was used to quantify the ftsZ mRNA present in synchronously dividing cells. The ftsZ mRNA levels oscillate during the cell cycle reaching a maximum at about the time DNA replication initiates. This cell cycle dependency is specifically due to the two proximal ftsZ promoters. A strain was constructed in which expression of ftsZ could be modulated by an exogenous inducer. In this strain cell size and cell division frequency were sensitive to the cellular FtsZ contents, demonstrating the rate-limiting role of this protein in cell division. Transcriptional activity of the ftsZ promoters was found to be independent of DnaA, indicating that DNA replication and cell division may be independently controlled at the time when new rounds of DNA replication are initiated. This suggests a parallelism between the prokaryotic cell cycle signals and the START point of eukaryotic cell cycles.

  12. Transcription of ftsZ oscillates during the cell cycle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, T; Sánchez, M; Palacios, P; Aldea, M; Vicente, M

    1993-01-01

    The FtsZ protein is a key element controlling cell division in Escherichia coli. A powerful transcription titration assay was used to quantify the ftsZ mRNA present in synchronously dividing cells. The ftsZ mRNA levels oscillate during the cell cycle reaching a maximum at about the time DNA replication initiates. This cell cycle dependency is specifically due to the two proximal ftsZ promoters. A strain was constructed in which expression of ftsZ could be modulated by an exogenous inducer. In this strain cell size and cell division frequency were sensitive to the cellular FtsZ contents, demonstrating the rate-limiting role of this protein in cell division. Transcriptional activity of the ftsZ promoters was found to be independent of DnaA, indicating that DNA replication and cell division may be independently controlled at the time when new rounds of DNA replication are initiated. This suggests a parallelism between the prokaryotic cell cycle signals and the START point of eukaryotic cell cycles. Images PMID:8404863

  13. Transposon insertions in the Flavobacterium johnsoniae ftsX gene disrupt gliding motility and cell division.

    PubMed

    Kempf, M J; McBride, M J

    2000-03-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae is a gram-negative bacterium that exhibits gliding motility. To determine the mechanism of flavobacterial gliding motility, we isolated 33 nongliding mutants by Tn4351 mutagenesis. Seventeen of these mutants exhibited filamentous cell morphology. The region of DNA surrounding the transposon insertion in the filamentous mutant CJ101-207 was cloned and sequenced. The transposon was inserted in a gene that was similar to Escherichia coli ftsX. Two of the remaining 16 filamentous mutants also carried insertions in ftsX. Introduction of the wild-type F. johnsoniae ftsX gene restored motility and normal cell morphology to each of the three ftsX mutants. CJ101-207 appears to be blocked at a late stage of cell division, since the filaments produced cross walls but cells failed to separate. In E. coli, FtsX is thought to function with FtsE in translocating proteins involved in potassium transport, and perhaps proteins involved in cell division, into the cytoplasmic membrane. Mutations in F. johnsoniae ftsX may prevent translocation of proteins involved in cell division and proteins involved in gliding motility into the cytoplasmic membrane, thus resulting in defects in both processes. Alternatively, the loss of gliding motility may be an indirect result of the defect in cell division. The inability to complete cell division may alter the cell architecture and disrupt gliding motility by preventing the synthesis, assembly, or functioning of the motility apparatus.

  14. Curved FtsZ protofilaments generate bending forces on liposome membranes

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Masaki; Anderson, David E; Erickson, Harold P

    2009-01-01

    We have created FtsZ-YFP-mts where an amphipathic helix on the C-terminus tethers FtsZ to the membrane. When incorporated inside multi-lamellar tubular liposomes, FtsZ-YFP-mts can assemble Z rings that generate a constriction force. When added to the outside of liposomes, FtsZ-YFP-mts bound and produced concave depressions, bending the membrane in the same direction as the Z ring inside liposomes. Prominent membrane tubules were then extruded at the intersections of concave depressions. We tested the effect of moving the membrane-targeting sequence (mts) from the C-terminus to the N-terminus, which is approximately 180 degrees from the C-terminal tether. When mts-FtsZ-YFP was applied to the outside of liposomes, it generated convex bulges, bending the membrane in the direction opposite to the concave depressions. We conclude that FtsZ protofilaments have a fixed direction of curvature, and the direction of membrane bending depends on which side of the bent protofilament the mts is attached to. This supports models in which the FtsZ constriction force is generated by protofilament bending. PMID:19779463

  15. Specificity of the transport of lipid II by FtsW in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Sijbrandi, Robert; Lutters, Mandy; Verheul, Jolanda; Martin, Nathaniel I; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2014-05-23

    Synthesis of biogenic membranes requires transbilayer movement of lipid-linked sugar molecules. This biological process, which is fundamental in prokaryotic cells, remains as yet not clearly understood. In order to obtain insights into the molecular basis of its mode of action, we analyzed the structure-function relationship between Lipid II, the important building block of the bacterial cell wall, and its inner membrane-localized transporter FtsW. Here, we show that the predicted transmembrane helix 4 of Escherichia coli FtsW (this protein consists of 10 predicted transmembrane segments) is required for the transport activity of the protein. We have identified two charged residues (Arg(145) and Lys(153)) within this segment that are specifically involved in the flipping of Lipid II. Mutating these two amino acids to uncharged ones affected the transport activity of FtsW. This was consistent with loss of in vivo activity of the mutants, as manifested by their inability to complement a temperature-sensitive strain of FtsW. The transport activity of FtsW could be inhibited with a Lipid II variant having an additional size of 420 Da. Reducing the size of this analog by about 274 Da resulted in the resumption of the transport activity of FtsW. This suggests that the integral membrane protein FtsW forms a size-restricted porelike structure, which accommodates Lipid II during transport across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsX extracellular domain activates the peptidoglycan hydrolase, RipC

    PubMed Central

    Mavrici, Daniela; Marakalala, Mohlopheni J.; Holton, James M.; Prigozhin, Daniil M.; Gee, Christine L.; Zhang, Yanjia J.; Rubin, Eric J.; Alber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial growth and cell division are coordinated with hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan (PG) layer of the cell wall, but the mechanisms of regulation of extracellular PG hydrolases are not well understood. Here we report the biochemical, structural, and genetic analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis homolog of the transmembrane PG-hydrolase regulator, FtsX. The purified FtsX extracellular domain binds the PG peptidase Rv2190c/RipC N-terminal segment, causing a conformational change that activates the enzyme. Deletion of ftsEX and ripC caused similar phenotypes in Mycobacterium smegmatis, as expected for genes in a single pathway. The crystal structure of the FtsX extracellular domain reveals an unprecedented fold containing two lobes connected by a flexible hinge. Mutations in the hydrophobic cleft between the lobes reduce RipC binding in vitro and inhibit FtsX function in M. smegmatis. These studies suggest how FtsX recognizes RipC and support a model in which a conformational change in FtsX links the cell division apparatus with PG hydrolysis. PMID:24843173

  17. Structural reorganization of the bacterial cell-division protein FtsZ from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takashi; Yamane, Junji; Mogi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroto; Takemoto, Hiroshi; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao

    2012-09-01

    FtsZ is a key molecule in bacterial cell division. In the presence of GTP, it polymerizes into tubulin-like protofilaments by head-to-tail association. Protofilaments of FtsZ seem to adopt a straight or a curved conformation in relation to the bound nucleotide. However, although several bacterial and archaeal FtsZ structures have been determined, all of the structures reported previously are considered to have a curved conformation. In this study, structures of FtsZ from Staphylococcus aureus (SaFtsZ) were determined in apo, GDP-bound and inhibitor-complex forms and it was found that SaFtsZ undergoes marked conformational changes. The accumulated evidence suggests that the GDP-bound structure has the features of the straight form. The structural change between the curved and straight forms shows intriguing similarity to the eukaryotic cytoskeletal protein tubulin. Furthermore, the structure of the apo form showed an unexpectedly large conformational change in the core region. FtsZ has also been recognized as a novel target for antibacterial drugs. The structure of the complex with the inhibitor PC190723, which has potent and selective antistaphylococcal activity, indicated that the inhibitor binds at the cleft between the two subdomains.

  18. Multispectrum Fitting of FTS and Crds Spectra Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Sung, Keeyoon; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2012-06-01

    Various types of spectra contain different sorts of spectral line information. An FTS spectrum provides broad coverage of an identical sample at all parts of the spectrum, but a cavity ring down spectrometer provides higher resolution, more information about line shapes and greater dynamic range in spectral line intensity. In order to use all of the information available, one should put all the spectra available into a single solution. The multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique has proven successful in doing this with transmission spectra from various spectrometers. However, fitting data from cavity ring down spectrometers that produce cross sections is a problem when combined with transmission spectrometers. The solution is to choose a path length for the CRDS data to produce transmissions and use the uncertainty of each cross section as a means of weighting the transmission in the multispectrum solution. This has been incorporated into our fitting technique. Sample oxygen A band fits of CRDS data from NIST combined with FTS data from a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer in the Infrared, Bruker IFS125-HR, at JPL, equipped with two multipass White cells (absorption path length extendible to 32.5 m and 148 m, respectively) will be shown. D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. M. Devi, M. A. H. Smith, and D. A. Atkins, JQSRT 1995;53:705-21. Support for the work at William and Mary was provided by JPL and the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contracts with National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Support for the work at NIST was provided by at the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program.

  19. Robotic technologies of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) including fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    The original FTS concept for Space Station Freedom (SSF) was to provide telerobotic assistance to enhance crew activity and safety and to reduce crew EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) activity. The first flight of the FTS manipulator systems would demonstrate several candidate tasks and would verify manipulator performance parameters. These first flight tasks included unlocking a SSF Truss Joint, mating/demating a fluid coupling, contact following of a contour board, demonstrating peg-in-hole assembly, and grasping and moving a mass. Future tasks foreseen for the FTS system included ORU (Orbit Replaceable Unit) change-out, Hubble Space Telescope Servicing, Gamma Ray Observatory refueling, and several in-situ SSF servicing and maintenance tasks. Operation of the FTS was planned to evolve from teleoperation to fully autonomous execution of many tasks. This wide range of mission tasks combined with the desire to evolve toward fully autonomy forced several requirements which may seen extremely demanding to the telerobotics community. The FTS requirements appear to have been created to accommodate the open-ended evolution plan such that operational evolution would not be impeded by function limitations. A recommendation arising from the FTS program to remedy the possible impacts from such ambitious requirements is to analyze candidate robotic tasks. Based on these task analyses, operational impacts against development impacts were weighed prior to requirements definition. Many of the FTS requirements discussed in the following sections greatly influenced the development cost and schedule of the FTS manipulator. The FTS manipulator has been assembled at Martin Marietta and is currently in testing. Successful component tests indicate a manipulator which achieves unprecedented performance specifications.

  20. FtsZ rings and helices: physical mechanisms for the dynamic alignment of biopolymers in rod-shaped bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Gov, Nir S.

    2012-02-01

    In many bacterial species, the protein FtsZ forms a cytoskeletal ring that marks the future division site and scaffolds the division machinery. In rod-shaped bacteria, most frequently membrane-attached FtsZ rings or ring fragments are reported and occasionally helices. By contrast, axial FtsZ clusters have never been reported. In this paper, we investigate theoretically how dynamic FtsZ aggregates align in rod-shaped bacteria. We study systematically different physical mechanisms that affect the alignment of FtsZ polymers using a computational model that relies on autocatalytic aggregation of FtsZ filaments at the membrane. Our study identifies a general tool kit of physical and geometrical mechanisms by which rod-shaped cells align biopolymer aggregates. Our analysis compares the relative impact of each mechanism on the circumferential alignment of FtsZ as observed in rod-shaped bacteria. We determine spontaneous curvature of FtsZ polymers and axial confinement of FtsZ on the membrane as the strongest factors. Including Min oscillations in our model, we find that these stabilize axial and helical clusters on short time scales, but promote the formation of an FtsZ ring at the cell middle at longer times. This effect could provide an explanation to the long standing puzzle of transiently observed oscillating FtsZ helices in Escherichia coli cells prior to cell division.

  1. E93R Substitution of Escherichia coli FtsZ Induces Bundling of Protofilaments, Reduces GTPase Activity, and Impairs Bacterial Cytokinesis*

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Richa; Patel, Ronak Y.; Asthana, Jayant; Jindal, Bhavya; Balaji, Petety V.; Panda, Dulal

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we found that divalent calcium has no detectable effect on the assembly of Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ (MtbFtsZ), whereas it strongly promoted the assembly of Escherichia coli FtsZ (EcFtsZ). While looking for potential calcium binding residues in EcFtsZ, we found a mutation (E93R) that strongly promoted the assembly of EcFtsZ. The mutation increased the stability and bundling of the FtsZ protofilaments and produced a dominating effect on the assembly of the wild type FtsZ (WT-FtsZ). Although E93R-FtsZ was found to bind to GTP similarly to the WT-FtsZ, it displayed lower GTPase activity than the WT-FtsZ. E93R-FtsZ complemented for its wild type counterpart as observed by a complementation test using JKD7–1/pKD3 cells. However, the bacterial cells became elongated upon overexpression of the mutant allele. We modeled the structure of E93R-FtsZ using the structures of MtbFtsZ/Methanococcus jannaschi FtsZ (MjFtsZ) dimers as templates. The MtbFtsZ-based structure suggests that the Arg93-Glu138 salt bridge provides the additional stability, whereas the effect of mutation appears to be indirect (allosteric) if the EcFtsZ dimer is similar to that of MjFtsZ. The data presented in this study suggest that an increase in the stability of the FtsZ protofilaments is detrimental for the bacterial cytokinesis. PMID:20667825

  2. The hypermorph FtsA* protein has an in vivo role in relieving the Escherichia coli proto-ring block caused by excess ZapC.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Cristina; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Vicente, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Assembly of the proto-ring, formed by the essential FtsZ, FtsA and ZipA proteins, and its progression into a divisome, are essential events for Escherichia coli division. ZapC is a cytoplasmic protein that belongs to a group of non-essential components that assist FtsZ during proto-ring assembly. Any overproduction of these proteins leads to faulty FtsZ-rings, resulting in a cell division block. We show that ZapC overproduction can be counteracted by an excess of the ZipA-independent hypermorph FtsA* mutant, but not by similar amounts of wild type FtsA+. An excess of FtsA+ allowed regular spacing of the ZapC-blocked FtsZ-rings, but failed to promote recruitment of the late-assembling proteins FtsQ, FtsK and FtsN and therefore, to activate constriction. In contrast, overproduction of FtsA*, besides allowing correct FtsZ-ring localization at midcell, restored the ability of FtsQ, FtsK and FtsN to be incorporated into active divisomes.

  3. The hypermorph FtsA* protein has an in vivo role in relieving the Escherichia coli proto-ring block caused by excess ZapC+

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Cristina; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Assembly of the proto-ring, formed by the essential FtsZ, FtsA and ZipA proteins, and its progression into a divisome, are essential events for Escherichia coli division. ZapC is a cytoplasmic protein that belongs to a group of non-essential components that assist FtsZ during proto-ring assembly. Any overproduction of these proteins leads to faulty FtsZ-rings, resulting in a cell division block. We show that ZapC overproduction can be counteracted by an excess of the ZipA-independent hypermorph FtsA* mutant, but not by similar amounts of wild type FtsA+. An excess of FtsA+ allowed regular spacing of the ZapC-blocked FtsZ-rings, but failed to promote recruitment of the late-assembling proteins FtsQ, FtsK and FtsN and therefore, to activate constriction. In contrast, overproduction of FtsA*, besides allowing correct FtsZ-ring localization at midcell, restored the ability of FtsQ, FtsK and FtsN to be incorporated into active divisomes. PMID:28877250

  4. SB-RA-2001 Inhibits Bacterial Proliferation by Targeting FtsZ Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    FtsZ has been recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target because of its vital role in bacterial cell division. In this work, we found that a taxane SB-RA-2001 inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Mycobacterium smegmatis cells with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38 and 60 μM, respectively. Cell lengths of these microorganisms increased remarkably in the presence of SB-RA-2001, indicating that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. SB-RA-2001 perturbed the formation of the FtsZ ring in B. subtilis 168 cells and also affected the localization of the late cell division protein, DivIVA, at the midcell position. Flow cytometric analysis of the SB-RA-2001-treated cells indicated that the compound did not affect the duplication of DNA in B. subtilis 168 cells. Further, SB-RA-2001 treatment did not affect the localization of the chromosomal partitioning protein, Spo0J, along the two ends of the nucleoids and also had no discernible effect on the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis 168 cells. The agent also did not appear to perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis 168 cells. In vitro, SB-RA-2001 bound to FtsZ with modest affinity, promoted the assembly and bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, and reduced the GTPase activity of FtsZ. GTP did not inhibit the binding of SB-RA-2001 to FtsZ, suggesting that it does not bind to the GTP binding site on FtsZ. A computational analysis indicated that SB-RA-2001 binds to FtsZ in the cleft region between the C-terminal domain and helix H7, and the binding site of SB-RA-2001 on FtsZ resembled that of PC190723, a well-characterized inhibitor of FtsZ. The findings collectively suggested that SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ, and this can be exploited further to develop potent FtsZ-targeted antimicrobials. PMID:24749867

  5. SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dipty; Bhattacharya, Anusri; Rai, Ankit; Dhaked, Hemendra Pal Singh; Awasthi, Divya; Ojima, Iwao; Panda, Dulal

    2014-05-13

    FtsZ has been recognized as a promising antimicrobial drug target because of its vital role in bacterial cell division. In this work, we found that a taxane SB-RA-2001 inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Mycobacterium smegmatis cells with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38 and 60 μM, respectively. Cell lengths of these microorganisms increased remarkably in the presence of SB-RA-2001, indicating that it inhibits bacterial cytokinesis. SB-RA-2001 perturbed the formation of the FtsZ ring in B. subtilis 168 cells and also affected the localization of the late cell division protein, DivIVA, at the midcell position. Flow cytometric analysis of the SB-RA-2001-treated cells indicated that the compound did not affect the duplication of DNA in B. subtilis 168 cells. Further, SB-RA-2001 treatment did not affect the localization of the chromosomal partitioning protein, Spo0J, along the two ends of the nucleoids and also had no discernible effect on the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis 168 cells. The agent also did not appear to perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis 168 cells. In vitro, SB-RA-2001 bound to FtsZ with modest affinity, promoted the assembly and bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, and reduced the GTPase activity of FtsZ. GTP did not inhibit the binding of SB-RA-2001 to FtsZ, suggesting that it does not bind to the GTP binding site on FtsZ. A computational analysis indicated that SB-RA-2001 binds to FtsZ in the cleft region between the C-terminal domain and helix H7, and the binding site of SB-RA-2001 on FtsZ resembled that of PC190723, a well-characterized inhibitor of FtsZ. The findings collectively suggested that SB-RA-2001 inhibits bacterial proliferation by targeting the assembly dynamics of FtsZ, and this can be exploited further to develop potent FtsZ-targeted antimicrobials.

  6. [Construction of three-dimensional models of Arabidopsis thaliana FtsZ-proteins on basis of crystal structure of archaebacterial FtsZ-GDP complex].

    PubMed

    Demchuk, O N; Nyporko, A Iu; Blium, Ia B

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of FtsZ-protein complexes with GDP from Arabidopsis thaliana L. localized in cytosol (Entrez database code NP190843) and in chloroplasts (Entrez database code AAA82068) were developed. Crystal structure of the FtsZ-GDP complex from archaea Methanococcus jannaschii (PDB-code 1FSZ) was used as a matrix. Secondary structures of computed models contain ten beta-strands. A chloroplast form of FtsZ-protein has ten alpha-helices and four 3(10)-helices, whereas cytosolic form of protein has nine and three structures correspondently and neither a0-helix before nucleotide-binding domain nor C-terminal 3(10)-helix in secondary domain. The T2-loop of nucleotide-binding pocket of chloroplast form of FtsZ-ptotein in position 111 contains non-charged alanin residue instead of the charged one which is typical for cytosolic and bacterial forms of proteins. At low sequence homology of FtsZ-proteins (approximately 47%) the developed models demonstrate high coincidence with matrix both in the structures of nucleotide-binding pocket and in the whole molecule. The models are completely suitable for further studies of possible sites of binding with dinitroaniline herbicides.

  7. Report on SARS backfit evaluation, Catalytic, Inc. Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.F. Jr.

    1980-07-02

    A site visit was made in company with the DOE-OPTA-EA Safety and Health Official for the purpose of providing that official with technical assistance in evaluating the validity of an earlier DOE-OPTA recommendation exempting this facility from the Safety and Analysis and Review backfit requirements of DOE Order 5481.1. A further purpose of the visit was to assess and evaluate the occupational safety and health program at this facility, as compared with the criteria and guidelines contained in ASFE Order 5481.1. Adequate documentation regarding compliance with codes, standards, and regulations were observed at this facility. There is in existence an ongoing continuous safety analysis effort for both modifications or additions to this facility. Adequate environmental safeguards and plans and procedures were observed. The SARS backfit exemption is appropriate. The occupational safety and health program is in many ways a model for the scope of work and nature of hazards involved, and is consistent with ASFE guidelines and statutory requirements.

  8. Evaluation of anode (electro)catalytic materials for the direct borohydride fuel cell: Methods and benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olu, Pierre-Yves; Job, Nathalie; Chatenet, Marian

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, different methods are discussed for the evaluation of the potential of a given catalyst, in view of an application as a direct borohydride fuel cell DBFC anode material. Characterizations results in DBFC configuration are notably analyzed at the light of important experimental variables which influence the performances of the DBFC. However, in many practical DBFC-oriented studies, these various experimental variables prevent one to isolate the influence of the anode catalyst on the cell performances. Thus, the electrochemical three-electrode cell is a widely-employed and useful tool to isolate the DBFC anode catalyst and to investigate its electrocatalytic activity towards the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) in the absence of other limitations. This article reviews selected results for different types of catalysts in electrochemical cell containing a sodium borohydride alkaline electrolyte. In particular, propositions of common experimental conditions and benchmarks are given for practical evaluation of the electrocatalytic activity towards the BOR in three-electrode cell configuration. The major issue of gaseous hydrogen generation and escape upon DBFC operation is also addressed through a comprehensive review of various results depending on the anode composition. At last, preliminary concerns are raised about the stability of potential anode catalysts upon DBFC operation.

  9. An advanced retrieval algorithm for greenhouse gases using polarization information measured by GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR I: Simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, N.; Yoshida, Y.; Uchino, O.; Morino, I.; Yokota, T.

    2016-11-01

    We present an algorithm for retrieving column-averaged dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) from reflected spectra in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) measured by the TANSO-FTS (Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer) sensor on board the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The algorithm uses the two linear polarizations observed by TANSO-FTS to improve corrections to the interference effects of atmospheric aerosols, which degrade the accuracy in the retrieved greenhouse gas concentrations. To account for polarization by the land surface reflection in the forward model, we introduced a bidirectional reflection matrix model that has two parameters to be retrieved simultaneously with other state parameters. The accuracy in XCO2 and XCH4 values retrieved with the algorithm was evaluated by using simulated retrievals over both land and ocean, focusing on the capability of the algorithm to correct imperfect prior knowledge of aerosols. To do this, we first generated simulated TANSO-FTS spectra using a global distribution of aerosols computed by the aerosol transport model SPRINTARS. Then the simulated spectra were submitted to the algorithms as measurements both with and without polarization information, adopting a priori profiles of aerosols that differ from the true profiles. We found that the accuracy of XCO2 and XCH4, as well as profiles of aerosols, retrieved with polarization information was considerably improved over values retrieved without polarization information, for simulated observations over land with aerosol optical thickness greater than 0.1 at 1.6 μm.

  10. Evaluation of the catalytic specificity, biochemical properties, and milk clotting abilities of an aspartic peptidase from Rhizomucor miehei.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues; Souto, Tatiane Beltramini; de Oliveira, Tássio Brito; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Karcher, Daniel; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; de Oliveira, Arthur H C; Rodrigues, André; Rosa, Jose C; Cabral, Hamilton

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we detail the specificity of an aspartic peptidase from Rhizomucor miehei and evaluate the effects of this peptidase on clotting milk using the peptide sequence of k-casein (Abz-LSFMAIQ-EDDnp) and milk powder. Molecular mass of the peptidase was estimated at 37 kDa, and optimum activity was achieved at pH 5.5 and 55 °C. The peptidase was stable at pH values ranging from 3 to 5 and temperatures of up 45 °C for 60 min. Dramatic reductions in proteolytic activity were observed with exposure to sodium dodecyl sulfate, and aluminum and copper (II) chloride. Peptidase was inhibited by pepstatin A, and mass spectrometry analysis identified four peptide fragments (TWSISYGDGSSASGILAK, ASNGGGGEYIFGGYDSTK, GSLTTVPIDNSR, and GWWGITVDRA), similar to rhizopuspepsin. The analysis of catalytic specificity showed that the coagulant activity of the peptidase was higher than the proteolytic activity and that there was a preference for aromatic, basic, and nonpolar amino acids, particularly methionine, with specific cleavage of the peptide bond between phenylalanine and methionine. Thus, this peptidase may function as an important alternative enzyme in milk clotting during the preparation of cheese.

  11. Surface characterization and catalytic evaluation of copper-promoted Al-MCM-41 toward hydroxylation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Parida, K M; Rath, Dharitri

    2009-12-15

    The Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 (MCM-41) containing Cu and Al with Si/Al ratios varying from 100 to 10 and 1 to 6wt.% of Cu was synthesized under hydrothermal and impregnation conditions, respectively. The samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and (29)Si and (27)Al magic-angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectra. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the modified materials retain the standard MCM-41 structure. TPR patterns show the two-step reduction of Cu species. TPD study shows that Cu-impregnated Al-MCM-41 samples are more acidic than Al-MCM-41. From the MAS-NMR it was confirmed that most of the Al atoms are present tetrahedrally within the framework and some are present octahedrally in extraframework position. Impregnation of Cu shifted Al to the extraframework position. The catalytic activity of the samples toward hydroxylation of phenol in aqueous medium was evaluated using H(2)O(2) as the oxidant at 80 degrees C. The effects of reaction parameters such as temperature, catalyst amount, amount of H(2)O(2), and solvent were also investigated. Sample containing 4wt.% copper-loaded Al-MCM-41-100 showed high phenol conversion (78%) with 68% catechol and 32% hydroquinone selectivity.

  12. Clean catalytic combustor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekstedt, E. E.; Lyon, T. F.; Sabla, P. E.; Dodds, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    A combustor program was conducted to evolve and to identify the technology needed for, and to establish the credibility of, using combustors with catalytic reactors in modern high-pressure-ratio aircraft turbine engines. Two selected catalytic combustor concepts were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The combustors were sized for use in the NASA/General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3). One of the combustor designs was a basic parallel-staged double-annular combustor. The second design was also a parallel-staged combustor but employed reverse flow cannular catalytic reactors. Subcomponent tests of fuel injection systems and of catalytic reactors for use in the combustion system were also conducted. Very low-level pollutant emissions and excellent combustor performance were achieved. However, it was obvious from these tests that extensive development of fuel/air preparation systems and considerable advancement in the steady-state operating temperature capability of catalytic reactor materials will be required prior to the consideration of catalytic combustion systems for use in high-pressure-ratio aircraft turbine engines.

  13. Hydrogen-oxygen catalytic ignition and thruster investigation. Volume 2: High pressure thruster evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. J.; Heckert, B.; Burge, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    A high pressure thruster effort was conducted with the major objective of demonstrating a duct cooling concept with gaseous propellant in a thruster operating at nominally 300 psia and 1500 lbf. The analytical design methods for the duct cooling were proven in a series of tests with both ambient and reduced temperature propellants. Long duration tests as well as pulse mode tests demonstrated the feasibility of the concept. All tests were conducted with a scaling of the raised post triplet injector design previously demonstrated at 900 lbf in demonstration firings. A series of environmental conditioned firings were also conducted to determine the effects of thermal soaks, atmospheric air and high humidity. This volume presents the results of the high pressure thruster evaluations.

  14. Cooperative Recruitment of FtsW to the Division Site of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Gamba, Pamela; Hamoen, Leendert W.; Daniel, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Five essential proteins are known to assemble at the division site of Bacillus subtilis. However, the recruitment of the FtsW homolog is still unclear. Here, we take advantage of spore germination to facilitate the depletion of essential proteins and to study the divisome assembly in the absence of previous division events. We show that, unlike what has been shown for the Escherichia coli divisome, the assembly of FtsW is interdependent with the localization of PBP 2B and FtsL, which are key components of the membrane bound division complex. Interestingly, the Z-ring appeared to disassemble upon prolonged depletion of late division proteins. Nevertheless, we could restore Z-ring formation and constriction by re-inducing FtsW, which suggests that the stability of the Z-ring is stimulated by the assembly of a functional division complex. PMID:27895631

  15. SCIAMACHY and FTS CO2 Retrievals Using the OCO Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesch, Hartmut; Buchwitz, M.; Sen, Bhaswar; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2005-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission will make the first global, space-based measurements of atmospheric C02 with the precision and coverage needed to characterize C02 sources and sinks on regional scales. OCO will make spectrally and spatially highly resolved measurements of reflected sunlight in the 02A -band and two near-infrared C02 bands. To test the OCO retrieval algorithm, SCIAMACHY and ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements at Park Falls, Wisconsin have been analyzed. Good agreement between SCIAMACHY and FTS C02 columns has been found with SCIAMACHY showing a much larger scatter than FTS measurements. Both SCIAMACHY and FTS overestimate the surface pressure by a few percent which significantly impacts retrieved C02 columns.

  16. FtsZ Directs a Second Mode of Peptidoglycan Synthesis in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Archana; de Pedro, Miguel A.; Young, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Certain penicillin binding protein mutants of Escherichia coli grow with spirillum-like morphologies when the FtsZ protein is inhibited, suggesting that FtsZ might govern aspects of cell wall growth other than those strictly associated with septation. While investigating the mechanism of spiral cell formation, we discovered conditions for visualizing this second function of FtsZ. Normally, inhibiting the cytoskeleton protein MreB forces E. coli cells to grow as smoothly enlarging spheres from which the poles disappear, yielding coccoid or lemon-shaped forms. However, when FtsZ and MreB were inhibited simultaneously in a strain lacking PBP 5 and PBP 7, the resulting cells ballooned outward but retained conspicuous rod-shaped extensions at sites representing the original poles. This visual phenotype was paralleled by the biochemistry of sacculus growth. Muropeptides are usually inserted homogeneously into the lateral cell walls, but when FtsZ polymerization was inhibited, the incorporation of new material occurred mainly in the central regions of cells and was significantly lower in those portions of side walls abutting a pole. Thus, reduced precursor incorporation into side walls near the poles explained why these regions retained their rod-like morphology while the rest of the cell grew spherically. Also, inhibiting FtsZ increased the amount of pentapeptides in sacculi by about one-third. Finally, the MreB protein directed the helical or diagonal incorporation of new peptidoglycan into the wall, but the location of that incorporation depended on whether FtsZ was active. In sum, the results indicate that in addition to nucleating cell septation in E. coli, FtsZ can direct the insertion of new peptidoglycan into portions of the lateral wall. PMID:17513471

  17. FtsZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles.

    PubMed

    Margolin, William

    2005-11-01

    Binary fission of many prokaryotes as well as some eukaryotic organelles depends on the FtsZ protein, which self-assembles into a membrane-associated ring structure early in the division process. FtsZ is homologous to tubulin, the building block of the microtubule cytoskeleton in eukaryotes. Recent advances in genomics and cell-imaging techniques have paved the way for the remarkable progress in our understanding of fission in bacteria and organelles.

  18. Genetic Evidence for Inhibition of Bacterial Division Protein FtsZ by Berberine

    PubMed Central

    Boberek, Jaroslaw M.; Stach, Jem; Good, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Background Berberine is a plant alkaloid that is widely used as an anti-infective in traditional medicine. Escherichia coli exposed to berberine form filaments, suggesting an antibacterial mechanism that involves inhibition of cell division. Berberine is a DNA ligand and may induce filamentation through induction of the SOS response. Also, there is biochemical evidence for berberine inhibition of the cell division protein FtsZ. Here we aimed to assess possible berberine mechanism(s) of action in growing bacteria using genetics tools. Methodology/Principal Findings First, we tested whether berberine inhibits bacterial growth through DNA damage and induction of the SOS response. The SOS response induced by berberine was much lower compared to that induced by mitomycin C in an SOS response reporter strain. Also, cell filamentation was observed in an SOS-negative E. coli strain. To test whether berberine inhibits FtsZ, we assessed its effects on formation of the cell division Z-rings, and observed a dramatic reduction in Z-rings in the presence of berberine. We next used two different strategies for RNA silencing of ftsZ and both resulted in sensitisation of bacteria to berberine, visible as a drop in the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Furthermore, Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Indices (FICIs) showed a high level of synergy between ftsZ silencing and berberine treatment (FICI values of 0.23 and 0.25 for peptide nucleic acid- and expressed antisense RNA-based silencing of ftsZ, respectively). Finally, over-expression of ftsZ led to a mild rescue effect in berberine-treated cells. Conclusions The results argue against DNA binding as the primary mechanism of action of berberine and support the hypothesis that its antibacterial properties are due to inhibition of the cell division protein FtsZ. In addition, the genetic approach used here provides a means to rapidly test the activity of other putative FtsZ inhibitors. PMID:21060782

  19. BT-benzo-29 inhibits bacterial cell proliferation by perturbing FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shashikant; Jindal, Bhavya; Kunal, Kishore; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2015-10-01

    We have identified a potent antibacterial agent N-(4-sec-butylphenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-4-carboxamide (BT-benzo-29) from a library of benzimidazole derivatives that stalled bacterial division by inhibiting FtsZ assembly. A short (5 min) exposure of BT-benzo-29 disassembled the cytokinetic Z-ring in Bacillus subtilis cells without affecting the cell length and nucleoids. BT-benzo-29 also perturbed the localization of early and late division proteins such as FtsA, ZapA and SepF at the mid-cell. Further, BT-benzo-29 bound to FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 24 ± 3 μm and inhibited the assembly and GTPase activity of purified FtsZ. A docking analysis suggested that BT-benzo-29 may bind to FtsZ at the C-terminal domain near the T7 loop. BT-benzo-29 displayed significantly weaker inhibitory effects on the assembly and GTPase activity of two mutants (L272A and V275A) of FtsZ supporting the prediction of the docking analysis. Further, BT-benzo-29 did not appear to inhibit DNA duplication and nucleoid segregation and it did not perturb the membrane potential of B. subtilis cells. The results suggested that BT-benzo-29 exerts its potent antibacterial activity by inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Interestingly, BT-benzo-29 did not affect the membrane integrity of mammalian red blood cells. BT-benzo-29 bound to tubulin with a much weaker affinity than FtsZ and exerted significantly weaker effects on mammalian cells than on the bacterial cells indicating that the compound may have a strong antibacterial potential.

  20. Targeting cell division: Small-molecule inhibitors of FtsZ GTPase perturb cytokinetic ring assembly and induce bacterial lethality

    PubMed Central

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Romberg, Laura; Mets, Rebecca B.; Hebert, Alan M.; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Kirschner, Marc W.; RayChaudhuri, Debabrata

    2004-01-01

    FtsZ, the ancestral homolog of eukaryotic tubulins, is a GTPase that assembles into a cytokinetic ring structure essential for cell division in prokaryotic cells. Similar to tubulin, purified FtsZ polymerizes into dynamic protofilaments in the presence of GTP; polymer assembly is accompanied by GTP hydrolysis. We used a high-throughput protein-based chemical screen to identify small molecules that target assembly-dependent GTPase activity of FtsZ. Here, we report the identification of five structurally diverse compounds, named Zantrins, which inhibit FtsZ GTPase either by destabilizing the FtsZ protofilaments or by inducing filament hyperstability through increased lateral association. These two classes of FtsZ inhibitors are reminiscent of the antitubulin drugs colchicine and Taxol, respectively. We also show that Zantrins perturb FtsZ ring assembly in Escherichia coli cells and cause lethality to a variety of bacteria in broth cultures, indicating that FtsZ antagonists may serve as chemical leads for the development of new broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. Our results illustrate the utility of small-molecule chemical probes to study FtsZ polymerization dynamics and the feasibility of FtsZ as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:15289600

  1. Modeling FtsZ ring formation in the bacterial cell—anisotropic aggregation via mutual interactions of polymer rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Gov, Nir

    2011-04-01

    The cytoskeletal protein FtsZ polymerizes to a ring structure (Z ring) at the inner cytoplasmic membrane that marks the future division site and scaffolds the division machinery in many bacterial species. FtsZ is known to polymerize in the presence of GTP into single-stranded protofilaments. In vivo, FtsZ polymers become associated with the cytoplasmic membrane via interaction with the membrane-binding proteins FtsA and ZipA. The FtsZ ring structure is highly dynamic and undergoes constantly polymerization and depolymerization processes and exchange with the cytoplasmic pool. In this theoretical study, we consider a scenario of Z ring self-organization via self-enhanced attachment of FtsZ polymers due to end-to-end interactions and lateral interactions of FtsZ polymers on the membrane. With the assumption of exclusively circumferential polymer orientations, we derive coarse-grained equations for the dynamics of the pool of cytoplasmic and membrane-bound FtsZ. To capture stochastic effects expected in the system due to low particle numbers, we simulate our computational model using a Gillespie-type algorithm. We obtain ring- and arc-shaped aggregations of FtsZ polymers on the membrane as a function of monomer numbers in the cell. In particular, our model predicts the number of FtsZ rings forming in the cell as a function of cell geometry and FtsZ concentration. We also calculate the time of FtsZ ring localization to the midplane in the presence of Min oscillations. Finally, we demonstrate that the assumptions and results of our model are confirmed by 3D reconstructions of fluorescently-labeled FtsZ structures in E. coli that we obtained.

  2. Charged Molecules Modulate the Volume Exclusion Effects Exerted by Crowders on FtsZ Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Monterroso, Begoña; Reija, Belén; Jiménez, Mercedes; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of protein crowders, either combined or individually, on the GTP-induced FtsZ cooperative assembly, crucial for the formation of the dynamic septal ring and, hence, for bacterial division. It was earlier demonstrated that high concentrations of inert polymers like Ficoll 70, used to mimic the crowded cellular interior, favor the assembly of FtsZ into bundles with slow depolymerization. We have found, by fluorescence anisotropy together with light scattering measurements, that the presence of protein crowders increases the tendency of FtsZ to polymerize at micromolar magnesium concentration, being the effect larger with ovomucoid, a negatively charged protein. Neutral polymers and a positively charged protein also diminished the critical concentration of assembly, the extent of the effect being compatible with that expected according to pure volume exclusion models. FtsZ polymerization was also observed to be strongly promoted by a negatively charged polymer, DNA, and by some unrelated polymers like PEGs at concentrations below the crowding regime. The influence of mixed crowders mimicking the heterogeneity of the intracellular environment on the tendency of FtsZ to assemble was also studied and nonadditive effects were found to prevail. Far from exactly reproducing the bacterial cytoplasm environment, this approach serves as a simplified model illustrating how its intrinsically crowded and heterogeneous nature may modulate FtsZ assembly into a functional Z-ring. PMID:26870947

  3. Architecture of the ring formed by the tubulin homologue FtsZ in bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Szwedziak, Piotr; Wang, Qing; Bharat, Tanmay A M; Tsim, Matthew; Löwe, Jan

    2014-12-09

    Membrane constriction is a prerequisite for cell division. The most common membrane constriction system in prokaryotes is based on the tubulin homologue FtsZ, whose filaments in E. coli are anchored to the membrane by FtsA and enable the formation of the Z-ring and divisome. The precise architecture of the FtsZ ring has remained enigmatic. In this study, we report three-dimensional arrangements of FtsZ and FtsA filaments in C. crescentus and E. coli cells and inside constricting liposomes by means of electron cryomicroscopy and cryotomography. In vivo and in vitro, the Z-ring is composed of a small, single-layered band of filaments parallel to the membrane, creating a continuous ring through lateral filament contacts. Visualisation of the in vitro reconstituted constrictions as well as a complete tracing of the helical paths of the filaments with a molecular model favour a mechanism of FtsZ-based membrane constriction that is likely to be accompanied by filament sliding.

  4. FtsH-dependent degradation of phage shock protein C in Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sindhoora; Darwin, Andrew J

    2011-12-01

    The widely conserved phage shock protein (Psp) extracytoplasmic stress response has been studied extensively in Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica. Both species have the PspF, -A, -B, and -C proteins, which have been linked to robust phenotypes, including Y. enterocolitica virulence. PspB and PspC are cytoplasmic membrane proteins required for stress-dependent induction of psp gene expression and for bacterial survival during the mislocalization of outer membrane secretin proteins. Previously, we reported that Y. enterocolitica PspB functions to positively control the amount of PspC by an uncharacterized posttranscriptional mechanism. In this study, we have discovered that the cytoplasmic membrane protease FtsH is involved in this phenomenon. FtsH destabilizes PspC in Y. enterocolitica, but coproduction of PspC with its binding partner PspB was sufficient to prevent this destabilization. In contrast, FtsH did not affect any other core component of the Psp system. These data suggested that uncomplexed PspC might be particularly deleterious to the bacterial cell and that FtsH acts as an important quality control mechanism to remove it. This was supported by the observation that toxicity caused by PspC production was reduced either by coproduction of PspB or by increased synthesis of FtsH. We also found that the phenomenon of FtsH-dependent PspC destabilization is conserved between Y. enterocolitica and E. coli.

  5. Novel Trisubstituted Benzimidazoles, Targeting Mtb FtsZ, As A New Class of Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kunal; Awasthi, Divya; Lee, Seung-Yub; Zanardi, Ilaria; Ruzsicska, Bela; Knudson, Susan; Tonge, Peter J.; Slayden, Richard A.; Ojima, Iwao

    2010-01-01

    Libraries of novel trisubstituted benzimidazoles were created through rational drug design. A good number of these benzimidazoles exhibited promising MIC values in the range of 0.5-6 μg/mL (2-15 μM) for their antibacterial activity against Mtb H37Rv strain. Moreover, five of the lead compounds also exhibited excellent activity against clinical Mtb strains with different drug-resistance profiles. All lead compounds do not show appreciable cytotoxicity (IC50 >200 μM) against Vero cells, which inhibit Mtb FtsZ assembly in a dose dependent manner. The two lead compounds unexpectedly showed enhancement of the GTPase activity of Mtb FtsZ. The result strongly suggests that the increased GTPase activity destabilizes FtsZ assembly leading to efficient inhibition of FtsZ polymerization and filament formation. The TEM and SEM analyses of Mtb FtsZ and Mtb cells, respectively, treated with a lead compound strongly suggest that lead benzimidazoles have a novel mechanism of action on the inhibition of Mtb FtsZ assembly and Z-ring formation. PMID:21126020

  6. FtsH-Dependent Degradation of Phage Shock Protein C in Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sindhoora; Darwin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The widely conserved phage shock protein (Psp) extracytoplasmic stress response has been studied extensively in Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica. Both species have the PspF, -A, -B, and -C proteins, which have been linked to robust phenotypes, including Y. enterocolitica virulence. PspB and PspC are cytoplasmic membrane proteins required for stress-dependent induction of psp gene expression and for bacterial survival during the mislocalization of outer membrane secretin proteins. Previously, we reported that Y. enterocolitica PspB functions to positively control the amount of PspC by an uncharacterized posttranscriptional mechanism. In this study, we have discovered that the cytoplasmic membrane protease FtsH is involved in this phenomenon. FtsH destabilizes PspC in Y. enterocolitica, but coproduction of PspC with its binding partner PspB was sufficient to prevent this destabilization. In contrast, FtsH did not affect any other core component of the Psp system. These data suggested that uncomplexed PspC might be particularly deleterious to the bacterial cell and that FtsH acts as an important quality control mechanism to remove it. This was supported by the observation that toxicity caused by PspC production was reduced either by coproduction of PspB or by increased synthesis of FtsH. We also found that the phenomenon of FtsH-dependent PspC destabilization is conserved between Y. enterocolitica and E. coli. PMID:21965563

  7. FtsZ Protofilament Curvature Is the Opposite of Tubulin Rings.

    PubMed

    Housman, Max; Milam, Sara L; Moore, Desmond A; Osawa, Masaki; Erickson, Harold P

    2016-07-26

    FtsZ protofilaments (pfs) form the bacterial cytokinetic Z ring. Previous work suggested that a conformational change from straight to curved pfs generated the constriction force. In the simplest model, the C-terminal membrane tether is on the outside of the curved pf, facing the membrane. Tubulin, a homologue of FtsZ, also forms pfs with a curved conformation. However, it is well-established that tubulin rings have the C terminus on the inside of the ring. Could FtsZ and tubulin rings have the opposite curvature? In this study, we explored the FtsZ curvature direction by fusing large protein tags to the FtsZ termini. Thin section electron microscopy showed that the C-terminal tag was on the outside, consistent with the bending pf model. This has interesting implications for the evolution of tubulin. Tubulin likely began with the curvature of FtsZ, but evolution managed to reverse direction to produce outward-curving rings, which are useful for pulling chromosomes.

  8. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of an emerging pollutant (enrofloxacin) by catalytic wet air oxidation and ozonation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao; Yediler, Ayfer

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the degradation efficiency of enrofloxacin (ENR) by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) and ozonation. Results obtained by CWAO experiments show that 99.5% degradation, 37.0% chemical oxidation demand (COD) removal and 51.0% total organic carbon (TOC) conversion were obtained when 100 mol% FeCl(3) and 25 mol% NaNO(2) at 150 °C under 0.5 MPa oxygen pressure after 120 min are used. The degradation products are identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC). The oxidation end products, F(-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) were determined by IC. The BOD(5)/COD ratio as a measure of the biodegradability of the parent compound increased from 0.01 to 0.12 after 120 min of reaction time, indicating an improved biodegradability of the parent compound. The inhibition of bioluminescence of the marine bacteria V. fischeri decreased from 43% to 12% demonstrating a loss in toxicity of ENR during CWAO. Ozonation of 0.2 mM ENR was carried out with an ozone concentration of 7.3 g m(-3) at pH 7. ENR decomposition with a degradation rate of 87% was obtained corresponding to the reaction time. Moderate changes in COD (18%) and TOC (17%) removal has been observed. The bioluminescence inhibition increased from 8% to 50%, due to the generation of toxic degradation products during ozonation. In comparison to the widely use of well developed method of ozonation CWAO exhibits better performance in terms of COD, TOC removals and generates less toxic products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mutation at G103 of MtbFtsZ Altered their Sensitivity to Coumarins

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, Duggirala; Sudhakar, Karpagam U.; Ananthathatmula, Ragamanvitha; Nankar, Rakesh P.; Doble, Mukesh

    2017-01-01

    Coumarins are natural polyphenol lactones comprising of fused rings of benzene and α-pyrone. The current study demonstrates the inhibitory effect of coumarins with various substitutions on Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155. We also demonstrate the effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract containing ellagic acid, on M. smegmatis as well as their affect on MtbFtsZ (FtsZ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The ellagic acid extracts from pomegranate peels inhibit mycobacteria with a MIC of 25 μM and 0.3 to 3.5 mg/mL, respectively, but failed to inhibit the polymerization of MtbFtsZ. However, the coumarins were shown to inhibit the polymerization and GTPase activity of the protein as well as have an inhibitory affect on M. smegmatis mc2 155. Docking of the most active coumarin (7-Dimethyl-4-methyl coumarin with MIC of 38.7 μM) to the GTP binding site suggests that it interacted with the G103 residue. Based on the docking results two mutants of varying activity (G103S and G103A) were constructed to elucidate the interaction of MtbFtsZ and coumarins. Mutation of G103 with Serine (a bulky group) results in an inactive mutant and substitution with alanine produces a variant that retains most of the activity of the wild type. There is a disruption of the protofilament formation of the MtbFtsZ upon interaction with coumarins as demonstrated by TEM. The coumarins increase the length of Mycobacteria five times and MtbFtsZ localization is disturbed. The mutant proteins altered the GTPase and polymerization activity of coumarins as compared to wild type protein. The results here support that coumarins inhibit proliferation of Mycobacteria by targeting the assembly of MtbFtsZ and provide the possible binding site of coumarins on MtbFtsZ. This study may aid in the design of natural products as anti-mycobacterial agents. The currently reported GTP analogs for FtsZ are toxic to the human cell lines; natural coumarins targeting the GTP binding site of MtbFtsZ may hold promise as

  10. Sensitivity Analysis for CO2 Retrieval using GOSAT-2 FTS-2 Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, Akihide; Yoshida, Yukio; Dupuy, Eric; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Hiraki, Kaduo; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2015-04-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), launched in 2009, is the world's first satellite dedicated to global greenhouse gases observation. GOSAT-2, the successor mission to GOSAT, is scheduled for launch in early 2018. The Fourier Transform Spectrometer-2 (FTS-2) is the primary sensor onboard GOSAT-2. It observes infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. The FTS-2 obtains high resolution spectra using three bands in the near to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region and two bands in the thermal infrared (TIR) region. Column amounts and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are retrieved from the radiance spectra obtained with the SWIR and TIR bands, respectively. Further, compared to the FTS onboard the GOSAT, the FTS-2 has several improvements: 1) added spectral coverage in the SWIR region for carbon monoxide (CO) retrieval, 2) increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for all bands, 3) extended range of along-track pointing angles for sunglint observations, 4) intelligent pointing to avoid cloud contamination. Since 2012, we have been developing a simulator software to simulate the spectral radiance data that will be acquired by the GOSAT-2 FTS-2. The purpose of the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator is to analyze/optimize data with respect to the sensor specification, the parameters for Level 1 processing, and the improvement of the Level 2 algorithms. The GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator includes the six components: 1) overall control, 2) sensor carrying platform, 3) spectral radiance calculation, 4) Fourier Transform module, 5) Level 1B (L1B) processing, and 6) L1B data output. It has been installed on the GOSAT Research Computation Facility (GOSAT RCF), which is a high-performance and energy-efficient supercomputer. More realistic and faster simulations have been made possible by the improvement of the details of sensor characteristics, the sophistication of the data processing and algorithms, the addition of the

  11. Concentration and Assembly of the Division Ring Proteins FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA during the Escherichia coli Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Sonsoles; Vicente, Miguel; Mingorance, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of the cell division proteins FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA and their assembly into a division ring during the Escherichia coli B/r K cell cycle have been measured in synchronous cultures obtained by the membrane elution technique. Immunostaining of the three proteins revealed no organized structure in newly born cells. In a culture with a doubling time of 49 min, assembly of the Z ring started around minute 25 and was detected first as a two-dot structure that became a sharp band before cell constriction. FtsA and ZipA localized into a division ring following the same pattern and time course as FtsZ. The concentration (amount relative to total mass) of the three proteins remained constant during one complete cell cycle, showing that assembly of a division ring is not driven by changes in the concentration of these proteins. Maintenance of the Z ring during the process of septation is a dynamic energy-dependent event, as evidenced by its disappearance in cells treated with sodium azide. PMID:12754232

  12. Characterization of the ftsZ cell division gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: expression in Escherichia coli and N. gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Salimnia, H; Radia, A; Bernatchez, S; Beveridge, T J; Dillon, J R

    2000-01-01

    We cloned the cell division gene ftsZ of the gram-negative coccus Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) strain CH811, characterized it genetically and phenotypically, and studied its localization in N. gonorrhoeae and Escherichia coli (Ec). The 1,179-bp ORF of ftsZ(Ng) encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.5 kDa. Protein sequence alignments indicate that FtsZ(Ng) is similar to other FtsZ proteins and contains the conserved GTP binding motif. FtsZ homologues were identified in several N. gonorrhoeae strains and in Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria polysaccharae and Neisseria cinerea either by Western blot or by PCR-Southern blot analysis. Attempts to inactivate the ftsZ(Ng) on the chromosome failed, indicating that it is essential for gonococcal growth. FtsZ(Ng) was synthesized in an in vitro transcription/translation system and was shown to be 43 kDa, the same size as in Western blots. Expression of the ftsZ(Ng) gene from nongonococcal promoters resulted in a filamentous phenotype in E. coli. Under controlled expression, the FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusion protein localized at the mid-cell division site in E. coli. E. coli expressing high levels of the FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusion protein formed filaments and exhibited different fluorescent structures including helices, spiral tubules extending from pole to pole, and regularly spaced dots or bands that did not localize at the middle of the cell. Expression of the FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusion protein in N. gonorrhoeae resulted in abnormal cell division as shown by electron microscopy. FtsZ(Ng)-GFP fusions were also expressed in a gonococcal background using a unique shuttle vector.

  13. Protective effect of serum thymic factor, FTS, on cephaloridine-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Yuka; Matsunaga, Yoshiko; Yonogi, Katsuya; Kawai, Yoshiko; Awaya, Akira; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-11-01

    Serum thymic factor (FTS), a thymic peptide hormone, has been reported to increase superoxide disumutase (SOD) levels in senescence-accelerated mice. In the present study, we examined the effect of FTS on cephaloridine (CER)-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. We previously reported that CER led to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation in the rat kidney. So, we also investigated whether FTS has an effect on ERK activation induced by CER. Treatment of male Sprague-Dawley rats with intravenous CER (1.2 g/kg) for 24 h markedly increased BUN and plasma creatinine levels and urinary excretion of glucose and protein, decreased creatinine clearance and also led to marked pathological changes in the proximal tubules, as revealed by electron micrographs. An increase in phosphorylated ERK (pERK) was detected in the nuclear fraction prepared from the rat kidney cortex 24 h after CER injection. Pretreatment of rats with FTS (50 microg/kg, i.v.) attenuated the CER-induced renal dysfunction and pathological damage. FTS also suppressed CER-induced ERK activation in the kidney. In vitro treatment of the established cell line, LLC-PK1 cells, with FTS significantly ameliorated CER-induced cell injury, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Our results, taken together with our previous report that MEK inhibitors ameliorated CER-induced renal cell injury and ERK activation induced by CER, suggest that FTS participates in protection from CER-induced nephrotoxicity by suppressing ERK activation induced by CER.

  14. Correlation between the structure and biochemical activities of FtsA, an essential cell division protein of the actin family.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M; Valencia, A; Ferrándiz, M J; Sander, C; Vicente, M

    1994-10-17

    Cell division protein FtsA, predicted to belong to the actin family, is present in different cell compartments depending on its phosphorylation state. The FtsA fraction isolated from the cytoplasm is phosphorylated and capable of binding ATP, while the membrane-bound form is unphosphorylated and does not bind ATP. A variant of the protein FtsA102, in which the nucleotide binding site was destroyed by mutagenesis of a highly conserved residue predicted to be needed for the binding, does not bind ATP. Another variant, FtsA104, cannot be phosphorylated because the predicted phosphorylatable residue has been replaced by a non-phosphorylatable one. This protein although unable to bind ATP in vitro, is able to rescue the reversible ftsA2, the irreversible ftsA3 and, almost with the same efficiency, the ftsA16 amber alleles. Consequently, phosphorylation and ATP binding may not be essential for the function of FtsA. Alternatively they may have a regulatory role on the action of FtsA in the septator.

  15. Correlation between the structure and biochemical activities of FtsA, an essential cell division protein of the actin family.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, M; Valencia, A; Ferrándiz, M J; Sander, C; Vicente, M

    1994-01-01

    Cell division protein FtsA, predicted to belong to the actin family, is present in different cell compartments depending on its phosphorylation state. The FtsA fraction isolated from the cytoplasm is phosphorylated and capable of binding ATP, while the membrane-bound form is unphosphorylated and does not bind ATP. A variant of the protein FtsA102, in which the nucleotide binding site was destroyed by mutagenesis of a highly conserved residue predicted to be needed for the binding, does not bind ATP. Another variant, FtsA104, cannot be phosphorylated because the predicted phosphorylatable residue has been replaced by a non-phosphorylatable one. This protein although unable to bind ATP in vitro, is able to rescue the reversible ftsA2, the irreversible ftsA3 and, almost with the same efficiency, the ftsA16 amber alleles. Consequently, phosphorylation and ATP binding may not be essential for the function of FtsA. Alternatively they may have a regulatory role on the action of FtsA in the septator. Images PMID:7957059

  16. Antibacterial activity of alkyl gallates is a combination of direct targeting of FtsZ and permeabilization of bacterial membranes

    PubMed Central

    Król, Ewa; de Sousa Borges, Anabela; da Silva, Isabel; Polaquini, Carlos R.; Regasini, Luis O.; Ferreira, Henrique; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Alkyl gallates are compounds with reported antibacterial activity. One of the modes of action is binding of the alkyl gallates to the bacterial membrane and interference with membrane integrity. However, alkyl gallates also cause cell elongation and disruption of cell division in the important plant pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, suggesting that cell division proteins may be targeted by alkyl gallates. Here, we use Bacillus subtilis and purified B. subtilis FtsZ to demonstrate that FtsZ is a direct target of alkyl gallates. Alkyl gallates disrupt the FtsZ-ring in vivo, and cause cell elongation. In vitro, alkyl gallates bind with high affinity to FtsZ, causing it to cluster and lose its capacity to polymerize. The activities of a homologous series of alkyl gallates with alkyl side chain lengths ranging from five to eight carbons (C5–C8) were compared and heptyl gallate was found to be the most potent FtsZ inhibitor. Next to the direct effect on FtsZ, alkyl gallates also target B. subtilis membrane integrity—however the observed anti-FtsZ activity is not a secondary effect of the disruption of membrane integrity. We propose that both modes of action, membrane disruption and anti-FtsZ activity, contribute to the antibacterial activity of the alkyl gallates. We propose that heptyl gallate is a promising hit for the further development of antibacterials that specifically target FtsZ. PMID:25972861

  17. Chloroplast division in higher plants requires members of two functionally divergent gene families with homology to bacterial ftsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Osteryoung, K W; Stokes, K D; Rutherford, S M; Percival, A L; Lee, W Y

    1998-01-01

    The division of plastids is critical for viability in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but the mechanisms associated with this process are still poorly understood. We previously identified a nuclear gene from Arabidopsis encoding a chloroplast-localized homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an essential cytoskeletal component of the prokaryotic cell division apparatus. Here, we report the identification of a second nuclear-encoded FtsZ-type protein from Arabidopsis that does not contain a chloroplast targeting sequence or other obvious sorting signals and is not imported into isolated chloroplasts, which strongly suggests that it is localized in the cytosol. We further demonstrate using antisense technology that inhibiting expression of either Arabidopsis FtsZ gene (AtFtsZ1-1 or AtFtsZ2-1) in transgenic plants reduces the number of chloroplasts in mature leaf cells from 100 to one, indicating that both genes are essential for division of higher plant chloroplasts but that each plays a distinct role in the process. Analysis of currently available plant FtsZ sequences further suggests that two functionally divergent FtsZ gene families encoding differentially localized products participate in chloroplast division. Our results provide evidence that both chloroplastic and cytosolic forms of FtsZ are involved in chloroplast division in higher plants and imply that important differences exist between chloroplasts and prokaryotes with regard to the roles played by FtsZ proteins in the division process. PMID:9836740

  18. Dynamic FtsA and FtsZ localization and outer membrane alterations during polar growth and cell division in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Zupan, John R; Cameron, Todd A; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2013-05-28

    Growth and cell division in rod-shaped bacteria have been primarily studied in species that grow predominantly by peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis along the length of the cell. Rhizobiales species, however, predominantly grow by PG synthesis at a single pole. Here we characterize the dynamic localization of several Agrobacterium tumefaciens components during the cell cycle. First, the lipophilic dye FM 4-64 predominantly stains the outer membranes of old poles versus growing poles. In cells about to divide, however, both poles are equally labeled with FM 4-64, but the constriction site is not. Second, the cell-division protein FtsA alternates from unipolar foci in the shortest cells to unipolar and midcell localization in cells of intermediate length, to strictly midcell localization in the longest cells undergoing septation. Third, the cell division protein FtsZ localizes in a cell-cycle pattern similar to, but more complex than, FtsA. Finally, because PG synthesis is spatially and temporally regulated during the cell cycle, we treated cells with sublethal concentrations of carbenicillin (Cb) to assess the role of penicillin-binding proteins in growth and cell division. Cb-treated cells formed midcell circumferential bulges, suggesting that interrupted PG synthesis destabilizes the septum. Midcell bulges contained bands or foci of FtsA-GFP and FtsZ-GFP and no FM 4-64 label, as in untreated cells. There were no abnormal morphologies at the growth poles in Cb-treated cells, suggesting unipolar growth uses Cb-insensitive PG synthesis enzymes.

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis-gc/ms of spirulina: evaluation of a highly proteinaceous biomass source for production of fuels and chemicals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyrolysis of microalgae offers a pathway towards the production of compounds derived from the thermal decomposition of triglycerides, proteins as well as lignocelluloses and their combinations thereof. When catalytically induced, this could lead to the production of fuels and chemicals including aro...

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of various biochars as porous media for biodiesel synthesis via pseudo-catalytic transesterification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jechan; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Ok, Yong Sik; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on investigating the optimized chemical composition of biochar used as porous material for biodiesel synthesis via pseudo-catalytic transesterification. To this end, six biochars from different sources were prepared and biodiesel yield obtained from pseudo-catalytic transesterification of waste cooking oil using six biochars were measured. Biodiesel yield and optimal reaction temperature for pseudo-catalytic transesterification were strongly dependent on the raw material of biochar. For example, biochar generated from maize residue exhibited the best performance, which yield was reached ∼90% at 300°C; however, the maximum biodiesel yield with pine cone biochar was 43% at 380°C. The maximum achievable yield of biodiesel was sensitive to the lignin content of biomass source of biochar but not sensitive to the cellulose and hemicellulose content. This study provides an insight for screening the most effective biochar as pseudo-catalytic porous material, thereby helping develop more sustainable and economically viable biodiesel synthesis process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MinD directly interacting with FtsZ at the H10 helix suggests a model for robust activation of MinC to destabilize FtsZ polymers.

    PubMed

    Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Beuria, Tushar Kant

    2017-09-07

    Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring-like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen other cell division proteins. The Min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid-cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD. However, the mechanism by which MinD triggers MinC activity is not yet known. We showed that MinD directly interacts with FtsZ with an affinity stronger than the reported MinC-FtsZ interaction. We determined the MinD-binding site of FtsZ using computational, mutational and biochemical analyses. Our study showed that MinD binds to the H10 helix of FtsZ. Single-point mutations at the charged residues in the H10 helix resulted in a decrease in the FtsZ affinity towards MinD. Based on our findings, we propose a novel model for MinCD-FtsZ interaction, where MinD through its direct interaction with FtsZ would trigger MinC activity to inhibit FtsZ functions. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. A comparison between data processing techniques for FTS based on high frequency interferogram sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzeri, R.; Saggin, S.; Scaccabarozzi, D.; Tarabini, M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper compares different data processing techniques for FTS with the aim of assessing the feasibility of a spectrometer leveraging on standard DAC boards, without dedicated hardware for sampling and speed control of the moving mirrors. Fourier transform spectrometers rely on the sampling of the interferogram at constant steps of the optical path difference (OPD) to evaluate the spectra through standard discrete Fourier transform. Constant OPD sampling is traditionally achieved with dedicated hardware but, recently, sampling methods based on the use of common analog to digital converters with large dynamic range and high sampling frequency have become viable when associated with specific data processing techniques. These methods offer advantages from the point of view of insensitivity to disturbances, in particular mechanical vibrations, and should be less sensitive to OPD speed errors. In this work the performances of three algorithms, two taken from literature based on phase demodulation of a reference interferogram have been compared with a method based on direct phase computation of the reference interferogram in terms of robustness against mechanical vibrations and OPD speed errors. All methods provided almost correct spectra with vibrations amplitudes up to 10% of the average OPD speed and speed drifts within the scan up to 20% of the average, as long as the disturbance frequency was lower than the reference signal nominal one. The developed method based on the arccosine function keeps working also with frequencies of the disturbances larger than the reference channel one, the common limit for the other two.

  3. Phenylpropanoids inhibit protofilament formation of Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Hemaiswarya, Shanmugam; Soudaminikkutty, Rohini; Narasumani, Mohana Lakshmi; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-09-01

    The earliest step in cell division in bacteria is the assembly of FtsZ, an essential cell division protein, into a ring at the division site. FtsZ has GTPase activity and can assemble in vitro to form protein filaments. The present work involved the study of eight phenylpropanoids (cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic and 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acids and eugenol) as inhibitors of Escherichia coli FtsZ. Phenylpropanoids make up the majority of our diet and act as antibacterial agents. Polymerization and GTPase inhibition assays showed that chlorogenic and caffeic acids were the most active amongst these (IC(50) of 70 and 106 µM, respectively). Circular dichroism studies indicated that chlorogenic acid perturbed the protein conformation and electron microscopy showed distorted filaments. Bacillus subtilis 168 cells treated with the phenylpropanoids were longer when compared to the control. The highest binding energy was observed between chlorogenic acid and the homology modelled E. coli FtsZ, which was consistent with the experimental results. A strong negative correlation was observed between binding energy and inhibition of the polymerization ability. 3D-Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies using GTPase activity indicated that the presence of more hydrophilic groups around the 3'- and 4'-carbon increased the activity. The effect of stress-induced formation of cell filamentation has to be understood before confirming the role of phenylpropanoids as FtsZ inhibitors.

  4. On-board Processing to Advance the PanFTS Imaging System for GEO-CAPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Pingree, P.; Bekker, D. L.; Blavier, J. L.; Bryk, M.; Franklin, B.; Hayden, J.; Ryan, M.; Werne, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) is an imaging instrument designed to record atmospheric spectra of the Earth from the vantage point of a geosynchronous orbit. Each observation covers a scene of 128x128 pixels. In order to retrieve multiple chemical families and perform passive vertical profiling, the recorded spectra will cover a wide wavelength range, from the thermal infrared to the near ultraviolet. The small size of the nadir ground-sampling distance and the desire to re-visit each scene hourly result in a PanFTS design that challenges the downlink capabilities of current radio communication. The PanFTS on-board processing will reduce downlink rates by converting time-domain interferograms to band-limited spectra, hence achieving a factor 20 in data reduction. In this paper, we report on the first year progress of this NASA AIST-11 task and on the adaptation of existing Virtex-5 FPGA designs to support the PanFTS Focal Plane Array control and data interfaces. We have produced a software demonstration of the current PanFTS data reduction algorithms. The real-time processing of the interferometer metrology laser signal is the first step required for the conversion of time-domain interferograms to path difference. This laser processing is now performed entirely as digital signal processing inside the Virtex-5 FPGA and also allows for tip/tilt correction of the interferometer mirrors, a task that was previously performed only with complicated and inflexible analog electronics.

  5. Thylakoid-Bound FtsH Proteins Facilitate Proper Biosynthesis of Photosystem I1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thylakoid membrane-bound FtsH proteases have a well-characterized role in degradation of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein D1 upon repair of photodamaged PSII. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) var1 and var2 mutants, devoid of the FtsH5 and FtsH2 proteins, respectively, are capable of normal D1 protein turnover under moderate growth light intensity. Instead, they both demonstrate a significant scarcity of PSI complexes. It is further shown that the reduced level of PSI does not result from accelerated photodamage of the PSI centers in var1 or var2 under moderate growth light intensity. On the contrary, radiolabeling experiments revealed impaired synthesis of the PsaA/B reaction center proteins of PSI, which was accompanied by the accumulation of PSI-specific assembly factors. psaA/B transcript accumulation and translation initiation, however, occurred in var1 and var2 mutants as in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting problems in later stages of PsaA/B protein expression in the two var mutants. Presumably, the thylakoid membrane-bound FtsH5 and FtsH2 have dual functions in the maintenance of photosynthetic complexes. In addition to their function as a protease in the degradation of the photodamaged D1 protein, they also are required, either directly or indirectly, for early assembly of the PSI complexes. PMID:27208291

  6. Influence of GTP/GDP and magnesium ion on the solvated structure of the protein FtsZ: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Jamous, Carla; Basdevant, Nathalie; Ha-Duong, Tap

    2014-01-01

    We present here a structural analysis of ten extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the monomeric protein FtsZ in various binding states. Since the polymerization and GTPase activities of FtsZ depend on the nature of a bound nucleotide as well as on the presence of a magnesium ion, we studied the structural differences between the average conformations of the following five systems: FtsZ-Apo, FtsZ-GTP, FtsZ-GDP, FtsZ-GTP-Mg, and FtsZ-GDP-Mg. The in silico solvated average structure of FtsZ-Apo significantly differs from the crystallographic structure 1W59 of FtsZ which was crystallized in a dimeric form without nucleotide and magnesium. The simulated Apo form of the protein also clearly differs from the FtsZ structures when it is bound to its ligand, the most important discrepancies being located in the loops surrounding the nucleotide binding pocket. The three average structures of FtsZ-GTP, FtsZ-GDP, and FtsZ-GTP-Mg are overall similar, except for the loop T7 located at the opposite side of the binding pocket and whose conformation in FtsZ-GDP notably differs from the one in FtsZ-GTP and FtsZ-GTP-Mg. The presence of a magnesium ion in the binding pocket has no impact on the FtsZ conformation when it is bound to GTP. In contrast, when the protein is bound to GDP, the divalent cation causes a translation of the nucleotide outwards the pocket, inducing a significant conformational change of the loop H6-H7 and the top of helix H7.

  7. Two essential FtsH proteases control the level of the Fur repressor during iron deficiency in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Krynická, Vendula; Tichý, Martin; Krafl, Jaroslav; Yu, Jianfeng; Kaňa, Radek; Boehm, Marko; Nixon, Peter J; Komenda, Josef

    2014-11-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 expresses four different FtsH protease subunits (FtsH1-4) that assemble into specific homo- and heterocomplexes. The FtsH2/FtsH3 complex is involved in photoprotection but the physiological roles of the other complexes, notably the essential FtsH1/FtsH3 complex, remain unclear. Here we show that the FtsH1 and FtsH3 proteases are involved in the acclimation of cells to iron deficiency. A mutant conditionally depleted in FtsH3 was unable to induce normal expression of the IsiA chlorophyll-protein and FutA1 iron transporter upon iron deficiency due to a block in transcription, which is regulated by the Fur transcriptional repressor. Levels of Fur declined in the WT and the FtsH2 null mutant upon iron depletion but not in the FtsH3 downregulated strain. A similar stabilizing effect on Fur was also observed in a mutant conditionally depleted in the FtsH1 subunit. Moreover, a mutant overexpressing FtsH1 showed reduced levels of Fur and enhanced accumulation of both IsiA and FutA1 even under iron sufficiency. Analysis of GFP-tagged derivatives and biochemical fractionation supported a common location for FtsH1 and FtsH3 in the cytoplasmic membrane. Overall we propose that degradation of the Fur repressor mediated by the FtsH1/FtsH3 heterocomplex is critical for acclimation to iron depletion.

  8. WhmD promotes the assembly of Mycobacterium smegmatis FtsZ: A possible role of WhmD in bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Dipanwita; Kumar, Ashutosh; Panda, Dulal

    2017-02-01

    WhmD is considered to have a role in the septation and division of Mycobacterium smegmatis cells. Since FtsZ is the central protein of the septum, we determined the effect of WhmD on the assembly of Mycobacterium smegmatis FtsZ (MsFtsZ) in vitro. WhmD increased both the rate and extent of the assembly of MsFtsZ in vitro. WhmD also increased the amount of polymerized MsFtsZ as evident from a sedimentation assay. Further, the assembly promoting activity of WhmD occurred in the presence of GTP. MsFtsZ polymerized to form thin filaments in the absence of WhmD while MsFtsZ formed thick filaments in the presence of WhmD suggesting that WhmD enhanced the bundling of MsFtsZ filaments. Interestingly, WhmD neither suppressed the dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ filaments nor significantly altered the GTPase activity of FtsZ. Using size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, WhmD was found to bind to MsFtsZ in vitro. The results showed that WhmD can promote the assembly of FtsZ and indicated that WhmD may play a role in the division of M. smegmatis cells by assisting the polymerization of FtsZ.

  9. Ca2+-mediated GTP-dependent dynamic assembly of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ into asters and polymer networks in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, X C; Margolin, W

    1997-01-01

    FtsZ, a tubulin-like GTPase that forms a dynamic ring marking the division plane of prokaryotic cells, is essential for cytokinesis. It is not known what triggers FtsZ ring assembly. In this work, we use a FtsZ-green fluorescent protein (Gfp) chimera to assay FtsZ assembly over time by using fluorescence microscopy. We show that FtsZ polymers can assemble dynamically in solution in a GTP-dependent manner. Initially, FtsZ nucleation centers grow into aster-like structures that dramatically resemble microtubule organizing centers. As assembly proceeds further, protofilament bundles emanating from different asters interconnect, mimicking the closure of the FtsZ ring in vivo. Surprisingly, millimolar levels of Ca2+ promote FtsZ dynamic assembly. FtsZ can undergo repeated GTP-dependent assembly and disassembly in solution by sequential addition and removal of Ca2+. In addition, GTP binding and hydrolysis by FtsZ are regulated by Ca2+ concentration. Although the concentration of Ca2+ required for FtsZ assembly in vitro is high, its clear and specific effect on FtsZ dynamics suggests the possibility that Ca2+ may have a role in regulating FtsZ ring assembly in the cell. PMID:9312004

  10. Ground-based demonstration of imaging SWIR-FTS for space-based detection of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Tadashi; Murooka, Jumpei; Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Sato, Ryota

    2013-10-01

    Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) has many advantages, especially for greenhouse gases and air pollution detection in the atmosphere, because a single instrument can provide wide spectral coverage and high spectral resolution with highly stabilized instrumental line function for all wavenumbers. Several channels are usually required to derive the column amount or vertical profile of a target species. Near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral regions are very attractive for remote sensing applications. The GHG and CO of precursors of air pollution have absorption lines in the SWIR region, and the sensitivity against change in the amounts in the boundary layer is high enough to measure mole fractions near the Earth surface. One disadvantage of conventional space-based FTS is the spatial density of effective observation. To improve the effective numbers of observations, an imaging FTS coupled with a two-dimensional (2D)-camera was considered. At first, a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT)-based imaging FTS was considered. However, an MCT-based system requires a calibration source (black body and deep-space view) and a highly accurate and super-low temperature control system for the MCT detector. As a result, size, weight, and power consumption are increased and the cost of the instrument becomes too high. To reduce the size, weight, power consumption, and cost, a commercial 2D indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera can be used to detect SWIR light. To demonstrate a small imaging SWIR-FTS (IS-FTS), an imaging FTS coupled with a commercial 2D InGaAs camera was developed. In the demonstration, the CH4 gas cell was equipped with an IS-FTS for the absorber to make the spectra in the SWIR region. The spectra of CH4 of the IS-FTS demonstration model were then compared with those of traditional FTS. The spectral agreement between the traditional and IS-FTS instruments was very good.

  11. Chrysophaentins are competitive inhibitors of FtsZ and inhibit Z-ring formation in live bacteria.

    PubMed

    Keffer, Jessica L; Huecas, Sonia; Hammill, Jared T; Wipf, Peter; Andreu, Jose M; Bewley, Carole A

    2013-09-15

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form a Z-ring that marks the plane of division. As a validated antimicrobial target, considerable efforts have been devoted to identify small molecule FtsZ inhibitors. We recently discovered the chrysophaentins, a novel suite of marine natural products that inhibit FtsZ activity in vitro. These natural products along with a synthetic hemi-chrysophaentin exhibit strong antimicrobial activity toward a broad spectrum of Gram-positive pathogens. To define their mechanisms of FtsZ inhibition and determine their in vivo effects in live bacteria, we used GTPase assays and fluorescence anisotropy to show that hemi-chrysophaentin competitively inhibits FtsZ activity. Furthermore, we developed a model system using a permeable Escherichia coli strain, envA1, together with an inducible FtsZ-yellow fluorescent protein construct to show by fluorescence microscopy that both chrysophaentin A and hemi-chrysophaentin disrupt Z-rings in live bacteria. We tested the E. coli system further by reproducing phenotypes observed for zantrins Z1 and Z3, and demonstrate that the alkaloid berberine, a reported FtsZ inhibitor, exhibits auto-fluorescence, making it incompatible with systems that employ GFP or YFP tagged FtsZ. These studies describe unique examples of nonnucleotide, competitive FtsZ inhibitors that disrupt FtsZ in vivo, together with a model system that should be useful for in vivo testing of FtsZ inhibitor leads that have been identified through in vitro screens but are unable to penetrate the Gram-negative outer membrane. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of the non-catalytic binding function of Ts26GST a glutathione transferase isoform of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, A; Romero, J R; Nava, G; Reyes, H; Hernández, M

    2014-03-01

    Taenia solium glutathione transferase isoform of 26.5 kDa (Ts26GST) was observed to bind non-catalytically to porphyrins, trans-trans-dienals, bile acids and fatty acids, as assessed by inhibition kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and competitive fluorescence assays with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The quenching of Ts26GST intrinsic fluorescence allowed for the determination of the dissociation constants (KD) for all ligands. Obtained data indicate that Ts26GST binds to all ligands but with different affinity. Porphyrins and lipid peroxide products inhibited Ts26GST catalytic activity up to 100% in contrast with only 20-30% inhibition observed for bile acids and two saturated fatty acids. Non-competitive type inhibition was observed for all enzyme inhibitor ligands except for trans-trans-2,4-decadienal, which exhibited uncompetitive type inhibition. The dissociation constant value KD = 0.7 μM for the hematin ligand, determined by competitive fluorescence assays with ANS, was in good agreement with its inhibition kinetic value Ki = 0.3 μM and its intrinsic fluorescence quenching KD = 0.7 μM. The remaining ligands did not displace ANS from the enzyme suggesting the existence of different binding sites. In addition to the catalytic activity of Ts26GST the results obtained suggest that the enzyme exhibits a ligandin function with broad specificity towards nonsubstrate ligands.

  13. Identification of two substrates of FTS_1067 protein - An essential virulence factor of Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Spidlova, Petra; Senitkova, Iva; Link, Marek; Stulik, Jiri

    2016-11-15

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular pathogen with the capacity to infect a variety of hosts including humans. One of the most important proteins involved in F. tularensis virulence and pathogenesis is the protein DsbA. This protein is annotated as a lipoprotein with disulfide oxidoreductase/isomerase activity. Therefore, its interactions with different substrates, including probable virulence factors, to assist in their proper folding are anticipated. We aimed to use the immunopurification approach to find DsbA (gene locus FTS_1067) interacting partners in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain FSC200 and compare the identified substrates with proteins which were found in our previous comparative proteome analysis. As a result of our work two FTS_1067 substrates, D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase family protein and HlyD family secretion protein, were identified. Bacterial two-hybrid systems were further used to test their relevance in confirming FTS_1067 protein interactions.

  14. Discovery of chlamydial peptidoglycan reveals bacteria with murein sacculi but without FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Kuru, Erkin; Hall, Edward; Brun, Yves V.; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Horn, Matthias; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydiae are important pathogens and symbionts, with unique cell biology features. They lack the cell-division protein FtsZ, which functions in maintaining cell shape and orchestrating cell division in almost all other bacteria. In addition, the existence of peptidoglycan (PG) in chlamydial cell envelopes has been highly controversial. Using electron cryotomography, mass spectrometry and fluorescent labeling dyes, here we show that some environmental chlamydiae have cell-wall sacculi consisting of an unusual PG type. Treatment with fosfomycin (a PG synthesis inhibitor) leads to lower infection rates and aberrant cell shapes, suggesting that PG synthesis is crucial for the chlamydial life cycle. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of PG in a member of the Chlamydiae. They also present a unique example of a bacterium with a PG sacculus but without FtsZ, challenging the current hypothesis that it is the absence of a cell wall that renders FtsZ non-essential. PMID:24292151

  15. Catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Aldag, A.W. Jr.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound. The process consists of contacting the feedstock under suitable reforming conditions with a catalyst composition selected from the group consisting of a catalyst. The catalyst essentially consists of zinc oxide and a spinel structure alumina. Another catalyst consists essentially of a physical mixture of zinc titanate and a spinel structure alumina in the presence of sufficient added hydrogen to substantially prevent the formation of coke. Insufficient zinc is present in the catalyst composition for the formation of a bulk zinc aluminate.

  16. Validation of ACE-FTS version 3.5 NOy species profiles using correlative satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; McLinden, Chris A.; Bernath, Peter F.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Burrows, John P.; Degenstein, Doug A.; Funke, Bernd; Fussen, Didier; Manney, Gloria L.; McElroy, C. Thomas; Murtagh, Donal; Randall, Cora E.; Raspollini, Piera; Rozanov, Alexei; Russell, James M., III; Suzuki, Makoto; Shiotani, Masato; Urban, Joachim; von Clarmann, Thomas; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on the Canadian SCISAT satellite, which has been in operation for over 12 years, has the capability of deriving stratospheric profiles of many of the NOy (N + NO + NO2+ NO3+ 2 × N2O5+ HNO3+ HNO4+ ClONO2+ BrONO2) species. Version 2.2 of ACE-FTS NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 has previously been validated, and this study compares the most recent version (v3.5) of these five ACE-FTS products to spatially and temporally coincident measurements from other satellite instruments - GOMOS, HALOE, MAESTRO, MIPAS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM III, SAGE III, SCIAMACHY, SMILES, and SMR. For each ACE-FTS measurement, a photochemical box model was used to simulate the diurnal variations of the NOy species and the ACE-FTS measurements were scaled to the local times of the coincident measurements. The comparisons for all five species show good agreement with correlative satellite measurements. For NO in the altitude range of 25-50 km, ACE-FTS typically agrees with correlative data to within -10 %. Instrument-averaged mean relative differences are approximately -10 % at 30-40 km for NO2, within ±7 % at 8-30 km for HNO3, better than -7 % at 21-34 km for local morning N2O5, and better than -8 % at 21-34 km for ClONO2. Where possible, the variations in the mean differences due to changes in the comparison local time and latitude are also discussed.

  17. A proteomic study of Corynebacterium glutamicum AAA+ protease FtsH

    PubMed Central

    Lüdke, Alja; Krämer, Reinhard; Burkovski, Andreas; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2007-01-01

    Background The influence of the membrane-bound AAA+ protease FtsH on membrane and cytoplasmic proteins of Corynebacterium glutamicum was investigated in this study. For the analysis of the membrane fraction, anion exchange chromatography was combined with SDS-PAGE, while the cytoplasmic protein fraction was studied by conventional two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Results In contrast to the situation in other bacteria, deletion of C. glutamicum ftsH has no significant effect on growth in standard minimal medium or response to heat or osmotic stress. On the proteome level, deletion of the ftsH gene resulted in a strong increase of ten cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, namely biotin carboxylase/biotin carboxyl carrier protein (accBC), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap), homocysteine methyltransferase (metE), malate synthase (aceB), isocitrate lyase (aceA), a conserved hypothetical protein (NCgl1985), succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA), succinate dehydrogenase B (sdhB), succinate dehydrogenase CD (sdhCD), and glutamate binding protein (gluB), while 38 cytoplasmic and membrane-associated proteins showed a decreased abundance. The decreasing amount of succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA) in the cytoplasmic fraction of the ftsH mutant compared to the wild type and its increasing abundance in the membrane fraction indicates that FtsH might be involved in the cleavage of a membrane anchor of this membrane-associated protein and by this changes its localization. Conclusion The data obtained hint to an involvement of C. glutamicum FtsH protease mainly in regulation of energy and carbon metabolism, while the protease is not involved in stress response, as found in other bacteria. PMID:17254330

  18. Chloroplast targeting of FtsHprotease is essential for chloroplast development and thylakoid stability at elevated temperatures in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    AtFtsH11 is a chloroplast and mitochondria dual targeted metalloprotease, identified as essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate high temperatures at all developmental stages. Our study showed that FtsH11 plays critical roles in both the early stages of chloroplast biogenesis and main...

  19. Catalytic Hydrogenation of the Sweet Principles of Stevia rebaudiana, Rebaudioside B, Rebaudioside C, and Rebaudioside D and Sensory Evaluation of Their Reduced Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Indra; Campbell, Mary; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of rebaudioside B, rebaudioside C, and rebaudioside D; the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana was carried out using Pd(OH)2. Reduction of steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward synthetic chemistry with the catalyst Pd(OH)2 and structures of the corresponding dihydro derivatives were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data indicating that all are novel compounds being reported for the first time. Also, the taste properties of all reduced compounds were evaluated against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose. PMID:23203115

  20. Catalytic hydrogenation of the sweet principles of Stevia rebaudiana, Rebaudioside B, Rebaudioside C, and Rebaudioside D and sensory evaluation of their reduced derivatives.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Indra; Campbell, Mary; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash

    2012-11-16

    Catalytic hydrogenation of rebaudioside B, rebaudioside C, and rebaudioside D; the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana was carried out using Pd(OH)(2). Reduction of steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward synthetic chemistry with the catalyst Pd(OH)(2) and structures of the corresponding dihydro derivatives were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data indicating that all are novel compounds being reported for the first time. Also, the taste properties of all reduced compounds were evaluated against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose.

  1. Efficient Catalytic Oxidation of 3-Arylthio- and 3-Cyclohexylthio-lapachone Derivatives to New Sulfonyl Derivatives and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Activities.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Mariana F do C; Gomes, Ana T P C; Moreira, Caroline Dos S; Simões, Mário M Q; Neves, Maria G P M S; da Rocha, David R; da Silva, Fernando de C; Moreirinha, Catarina; Almeida, Adelaide; Ferreira, Vitor F; Cavaleiro, José A S

    2017-02-16

    New sulfonyl-lapachones were efficiently obtained through the catalytic oxidation of arylthio- and cyclohexylthio-lapachone derivatives with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a Mn(III) porphyrin complex. The antibacterial activities of the non-oxidized and oxidized lapachone derivatives against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated after their incorporation into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) micelles. The obtained results show that the PVP-formulations of the lapachones 4b-g and of the sulfonyl-lapachones 7e and 7g reduced the growth of S. aureus.

  2. Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde derivatives as inhibitors of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Sheng, Juzheng; Huang, Guihua; Ma, Ruixin; Yin, Fengxin; Song, Di; Zhao, Can; Ma, Shutao

    2015-06-05

    In an attempt to discover potential antibacterial agents against the increasing bacterial resistance, novel cinnamaldehyde derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity against nine significant pathogens using broth microdilution method, and their cell division inhibitory activity against four representative strains. In the in vitro antibacterial activity, the newly synthesized compounds generally displayed better efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 than the others. In particular, compounds 3, 8 and 10 exerted superior or comparable activity to all the reference drugs. In the cell division inhibitory activity, all the compounds showed the same trend as their in vitro antibacterial activity, exhibiting better activity against S. aureus ATCC25923 than the other strains. Additionally, compounds 3, 6, 7 and 8 displayed potent cell division inhibitory activity with an MIC value of below 1 μg/mL, over 256-fold better than all the reference drugs.

  3. The Kil Peptide of Bacteriophage λ Blocks Escherichia coli Cytokinesis via ZipA-Dependent Inhibition of FtsZ Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Haeusser, Daniel P.; Hoashi, Marina; Weaver, Anna; Brown, Nathan; Pan, James; Sawitzke, James A.; Thomason, Lynn C.; Court, Donald L.; Margolin, William

    2014-01-01

    Assembly of the essential, tubulin-like FtsZ protein into a ring-shaped structure at the nascent division site determines the timing and position of cytokinesis in most bacteria and serves as a scaffold for recruitment of the cell division machinery. Here we report that expression of bacteriophage λ kil, either from a resident phage or from a plasmid, induces filamentation of Escherichia coli cells by rapid inhibition of FtsZ ring formation. Mutant alleles of ftsZ resistant to the Kil protein map to the FtsZ polymer subunit interface, stabilize FtsZ ring assembly, and confer increased resistance to endogenous FtsZ inhibitors, consistent with Kil inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Cells with the normally essential cell division gene zipA deleted (in a modified background) display normal FtsZ rings after kil expression, suggesting that ZipA is required for Kil-mediated inhibition of FtsZ rings in vivo. In support of this model, point mutations in the C-terminal FtsZ-interaction domain of ZipA abrogate Kil activity without discernibly altering FtsZ-ZipA interactions. An affinity-tagged-Kil derivative interacts with both FtsZ and ZipA, and inhibits sedimentation of FtsZ filament bundles in vitro. Together, these data inspire a model in which Kil interacts with FtsZ and ZipA in the cell to prevent FtsZ assembly into a coherent, division-competent ring structure. Phage growth assays show that kil+ phage lyse ∼30% later than kil mutant phage, suggesting that Kil delays lysis, perhaps via its interaction with FtsZ and ZipA. PMID:24651041

  4. The Kil peptide of bacteriophage λ blocks Escherichia coli cytokinesis via ZipA-dependent inhibition of FtsZ assembly.

    PubMed

    Haeusser, Daniel P; Hoashi, Marina; Weaver, Anna; Brown, Nathan; Pan, James; Sawitzke, James A; Thomason, Lynn C; Court, Donald L; Margolin, William

    2014-03-01

    Assembly of the essential, tubulin-like FtsZ protein into a ring-shaped structure at the nascent division site determines the timing and position of cytokinesis in most bacteria and serves as a scaffold for recruitment of the cell division machinery. Here we report that expression of bacteriophage λ kil, either from a resident phage or from a plasmid, induces filamentation of Escherichia coli cells by rapid inhibition of FtsZ ring formation. Mutant alleles of ftsZ resistant to the Kil protein map to the FtsZ polymer subunit interface, stabilize FtsZ ring assembly, and confer increased resistance to endogenous FtsZ inhibitors, consistent with Kil inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Cells with the normally essential cell division gene zipA deleted (in a modified background) display normal FtsZ rings after kil expression, suggesting that ZipA is required for Kil-mediated inhibition of FtsZ rings in vivo. In support of this model, point mutations in the C-terminal FtsZ-interaction domain of ZipA abrogate Kil activity without discernibly altering FtsZ-ZipA interactions. An affinity-tagged-Kil derivative interacts with both FtsZ and ZipA, and inhibits sedimentation of FtsZ filament bundles in vitro. Together, these data inspire a model in which Kil interacts with FtsZ and ZipA in the cell to prevent FtsZ assembly into a coherent, division-competent ring structure. Phage growth assays show that kil+ phage lyse ∼30% later than kil mutant phage, suggesting that Kil delays lysis, perhaps via its interaction with FtsZ and ZipA.

  5. Bacterial division proteins FtsZ and ZipA induce vesicle shrinkage and cell membrane invagination.

    PubMed

    Cabré, Elisa J; Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Carrara, Paolo; Ropero, Noelia; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Stano, Pasquale; Jiménez, Mercedes; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-09-13

    Permeable vesicles containing the proto-ring anchoring ZipA protein shrink when FtsZ, the main cell division protein, polymerizes in the presence of GTP. Shrinkage, resembling the constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane, occurs at ZipA densities higher than those found in the cell and is modulated by the dynamics of the FtsZ polymer. In vivo, an excess of ZipA generates multilayered membrane inclusions within the cytoplasm and causes the loss of the membrane function as a permeability barrier. Overproduction of ZipA at levels that block septation is accompanied by the displacement of FtsZ and two additional division proteins, FtsA and FtsN, from potential septation sites to clusters that colocalize with ZipA near the membrane. The results show that elementary constriction events mediated by defined elements involved in cell division can be evidenced both in bacteria and in vesicles.

  6. Bacterial Division Proteins FtsZ and ZipA Induce Vesicle Shrinkage and Cell Membrane Invagination*

    PubMed Central

    Cabré, Elisa J.; Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Alicia; Carrara, Paolo; Ropero, Noelia; Casanova, Mercedes; Palacios, Pilar; Stano, Pasquale; Jiménez, Mercedes; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Permeable vesicles containing the proto-ring anchoring ZipA protein shrink when FtsZ, the main cell division protein, polymerizes in the presence of GTP. Shrinkage, resembling the constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane, occurs at ZipA densities higher than those found in the cell and is modulated by the dynamics of the FtsZ polymer. In vivo, an excess of ZipA generates multilayered membrane inclusions within the cytoplasm and causes the loss of the membrane function as a permeability barrier. Overproduction of ZipA at levels that block septation is accompanied by the displacement of FtsZ and two additional division proteins, FtsA and FtsN, from potential septation sites to clusters that colocalize with ZipA near the membrane. The results show that elementary constriction events mediated by defined elements involved in cell division can be evidenced both in bacteria and in vesicles. PMID:23921390

  7. Recent advances in the discovery and development of antibacterial agents targeting the cell-division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Haranahalli, Krupanandan; Tong, Simon; Ojima, Iwao

    2016-12-15

    With the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, there is a dire need for new drug targets for antibacterial drug discovery and development. Filamentous temperature sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), is a GTP-dependent prokaryotic cell division protein, sharing less than 10% sequence identity with the eukaryotic cell division protein, tubulin. FtsZ forms a dynamic Z-ring in the middle of the cell, leading to septation and subsequent cell division. Inhibition of the Z-ring blocks cell division, thus making FtsZ a highly attractive target. Various groups have been working on natural products and synthetic small molecules as inhibitors of FtsZ. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of FtsZ inhibitors, focusing on those in the last 5years, but also includes significant findings in previous years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu-SAPO-34 Catalysts for Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction. 1. Aqueous Solution Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-06

    SAPO-34 molecular sieves are synthesized using various structure directing agents (SDAs). Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are prepared via aqueous solution ion exchange. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. During solution ion exchange, different SAPO-34 samples undergo different extent of structural damage via irreversible hydrolysis. Si content within the samples (i.e., Al-O-Si bond density) and framework stress are key factors that affect irreversible hydrolysis. Even using very dilute Cu acetate solutions, it is not possible to generate Cu-SAPO-34 samples with only isolated Cu2+ ions. Small amounts of CuOx species always coexist with isolated Cu2+ ions. Highly active and selective Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts for NH3-SCR are readily generated using this synthesis protocol, even for SAPO-34 samples that degrade substantially during solution ion exchange. High-temperature aging is found to improve the catalytic performance. This is likely due to reduction of intracrystalline mass-transfer limitations via formation of additional porosity in the highly defective SAPO-34 particles formed after ion exchange. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  9. ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Funke, Bernd; Raspollini, Piera; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric limb sounders, ACE-FTS on the SCISAT satellite, MIPAS on ESA's Envisat satellite, and MLS on NASA's Aura satellite, take measurements used to retrieve atmospheric profiles of O3, N2O, H2O, HNO3, and CO. Each was taking measurements between February 2004 and April 2012 (ACE-FTS and MLS are currently operational), providing hundreds of profile coincidences in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and during local morning and evening. Focusing on determining diurnal and hemispheric biases in the ACE-FTS data, this study compares ACE-FTS version 3.5 profiles that are collocated with MIPAS and MLS, and analyzes the differences between instrument retrievals for Northern and Southern hemispheres and for local morning and evening data. For O3, ACE-FTS is typically within ±5% of mid-stratospheric MIPAS and MLS data and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% in the upper stratosphere - lower mesosphere. For H2O, ACE-FTS exhibits an average bias of -5% between 20 and 60 km. For N2O, ACE-FTS agrees with MIPAS and MLS within -20 to +10% up to 45 km and 35 km, respectively. For HNO3, ACE-FTS typically agrees within ±10% below 30 km, and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% above 30 km. With respect to MIPAS CO, ACE-FTS exhibits an average -11% bias between 28 and 50 km, and at higher altitudes a positive bias on the order of 10% (>100%) in the winter (summer). With respect to winter MLS CO, ACE-FTS is typically within ±10% between 25 and 40 km, and has an average bias of -11% above 40 km.

  10. Evidence That Bacteriophage λ Kil Peptide Inhibits Bacterial Cell Division by Disrupting FtsZ Protofilaments and Sequestering Protein Subunits*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M.; Alfonso, Carlos; Margolin, William; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Kil peptide from bacteriophage λ on the assembly of Escherichia coli FtsZ into one subunit thick protofilaments were studied using combined biophysical and biochemical methods. Kil peptide has recently been identified as the factor from bacteriophage λ responsible for the inhibition of bacterial cell division during lytic cycle, targeting FtsZ polymerization. Here, we show that this antagonist blocks FtsZ assembly into GTP-dependent protofilaments, producing a wide distribution of smaller oligomers compared with the average size of the intact protofilaments. The shortening of FtsZ protofilaments by Kil is detectable at concentrations of the peptide in the low micromolar range, the mid-point of the inhibition being close to its apparent affinity for GDP-bound FtsZ. This antagonist not only interferes with FtsZ assembly but also reverses the polymerization reaction. The negative regulation by Kil significantly reduces the GTPase activity of FtsZ protofilaments, and FtsZ polymers assembled in guanosine-5′-[(α,β)-methyleno]triphosphate are considerably less sensitive to Kil. Our results suggest that, at high concentrations, Kil may use an inhibition mechanism involving the sequestration of FtsZ subunits, similar to that described for other inhibitors like the SOS response protein SulA or the moonlighting enzyme OpgH. This mechanism is different from those employed by the division site selection antagonists MinC and SlmA. This work provides new insight into the inhibition of FtsZ assembly by phages, considered potential tools against bacterial infection. PMID:26124275

  11. Evidence That Bacteriophage λ Kil Peptide Inhibits Bacterial Cell Division by Disrupting FtsZ Protofilaments and Sequestering Protein Subunits.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M; Alfonso, Carlos; Margolin, William; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2015-08-14

    The effects of Kil peptide from bacteriophage λ on the assembly of Escherichia coli FtsZ into one subunit thick protofilaments were studied using combined biophysical and biochemical methods. Kil peptide has recently been identified as the factor from bacteriophage λ responsible for the inhibition of bacterial cell division during lytic cycle, targeting FtsZ polymerization. Here, we show that this antagonist blocks FtsZ assembly into GTP-dependent protofilaments, producing a wide distribution of smaller oligomers compared with the average size of the intact protofilaments. The shortening of FtsZ protofilaments by Kil is detectable at concentrations of the peptide in the low micromolar range, the mid-point of the inhibition being close to its apparent affinity for GDP-bound FtsZ. This antagonist not only interferes with FtsZ assembly but also reverses the polymerization reaction. The negative regulation by Kil significantly reduces the GTPase activity of FtsZ protofilaments, and FtsZ polymers assembled in guanosine-5'-[(α,β)-methyleno]triphosphate are considerably less sensitive to Kil. Our results suggest that, at high concentrations, Kil may use an inhibition mechanism involving the sequestration of FtsZ subunits, similar to that described for other inhibitors like the SOS response protein SulA or the moonlighting enzyme OpgH. This mechanism is different from those employed by the division site selection antagonists MinC and SlmA. This work provides new insight into the inhibition of FtsZ assembly by phages, considered potential tools against bacterial infection.

  12. Reduced Binding of the Endolysin LysTP712 to Lactococcus lactis ΔftsH Contributes to Phage Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Roces, Clara; Campelo, Ana B.; Escobedo, Susana; Wegmann, Udo; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Absence of the membrane protease FtsH in Lactococcus lactis hinders release of the bacteriophage TP712. In this work we have analyzed the mechanism responsible for the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH after phage infection. The lytic cassette of TP712 contains a putative antiholin–pinholin system and a modular endolysin (LysTP712). Inducible expression of the holin gene demonstrated the presence of a dual start motif which is functional in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells. Moreover, simulating holin activity with ionophores accelerated lysis of wildtype cells but not L. lactis ΔftsH cells, suggesting inhibition of the endolysin rather than a role of FtsH in holin activation. However, zymograms revealed the synthesis of an active endolysin in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH TP712 lysogens. A reporter protein was generated by fusing the cell wall binding domain of LysTP712 to the fluorescent mCherry protein. Binding of this reporter protein took place at the septa of both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Nonetheless, fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that mutant cells bound 40% less protein. In conclusion, the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH is not due to direct action of the FtsH protease on the phage lytic proteins but rather to a putative function of FtsH in modulating the architecture of the L. lactis cell envelope that results in a lower affinity of the phage endolysin to its substrate. PMID:26904011

  13. Reduced Binding of the Endolysin LysTP712 to Lactococcus lactis ΔftsH Contributes to Phage Resistance.

    PubMed

    Roces, Clara; Campelo, Ana B; Escobedo, Susana; Wegmann, Udo; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Absence of the membrane protease FtsH in Lactococcus lactis hinders release of the bacteriophage TP712. In this work we have analyzed the mechanism responsible for the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH after phage infection. The lytic cassette of TP712 contains a putative antiholin-pinholin system and a modular endolysin (LysTP712). Inducible expression of the holin gene demonstrated the presence of a dual start motif which is functional in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells. Moreover, simulating holin activity with ionophores accelerated lysis of wildtype cells but not L. lactis ΔftsH cells, suggesting inhibition of the endolysin rather than a role of FtsH in holin activation. However, zymograms revealed the synthesis of an active endolysin in both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH TP712 lysogens. A reporter protein was generated by fusing the cell wall binding domain of LysTP712 to the fluorescent mCherry protein. Binding of this reporter protein took place at the septa of both wildtype and L. lactis ΔftsH cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Nonetheless, fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that mutant cells bound 40% less protein. In conclusion, the non-lytic phenotype of L. lactis ΔftsH is not due to direct action of the FtsH protease on the phage lytic proteins but rather to a putative function of FtsH in modulating the architecture of the L. lactis cell envelope that results in a lower affinity of the phage endolysin to its substrate.

  14. Cell division genes ftsQAZ in Escherichia coli require distant cis-acting signals upstream of ddlB for full expression.

    PubMed

    Flärdh, K; Palacios, P; Vicente, M

    1998-10-01

    A transcriptional reporter fusion has been introduced into the chromosomal ftsZ locus in such a way that all transcription that normally reaches ftsZ can be monitored. The new Phi(ftsZ-lacZ ) fusion yields four times more beta-galactosidase activity than a ddlB-ftsQAZ-lacZ fusion on a lambda prophage vector. A strongly polar ddlB ::Omega insertion prevents contributions from signals upstream of the ftsQAZ promoters and decreases transcription of the chromosomal Phi(ftsZ-lacZ ) fusion by 66%, demonstrating that around two-thirds of total ftsZ transcription require cis-acting elements upstream of ddlB. We suggest that those elements are distant promoters, and thus that the cell division and cell wall synthesis genes in the dcw gene cluster are to a large extent co-transcribed. The ddlB ::Omega insertion is lethal unless additional copies of ftsQA are provided or a compensatory decrease in FtsZ synthesis is made. This shows that ddlB is a dispensable gene, and reinforces the critical role of the FtsA/FtsZ ratio in septation. Using the new reporter fusion, it is demonstrated that ftsZ expression is not autoregulated.

  15. An amino-proximal domain required for the localization of FtsQ in the cytoplasmic membrane, and for its biological function in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dopazo, A; Palacios, P; Sánchez, M; Pla, J; Vicente, M

    1992-03-01

    The location of FtsQ, an Escherichia coli protein essential for cell division, is, under physiological conditions, in the cytoplasmic membrane facing towards the periplasmic space. An amino-proximal hydrophobic domain is required for FtsQ to reach its location and for its activity in the cell. Overexpression of modified forms of FtsQ is deleterious for the cell.

  16. Catalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  17. Bacillus anthracis Peptidoglycan Integrity Is Disrupted by the Chemokine CXCL10 through the FtsE/X Complex.

    PubMed

    Margulieux, Katie R; Liebov, Benjamin K; Tirumala, Venkata S K K S; Singh, Arpita; Bushweller, John H; Nakamoto, Robert K; Hughes, Molly A

    2017-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the chemokine CXCL10 against vegetative cells of Bacillus anthracis occurs via both bacterial FtsE/X-dependent and-independent pathways. Previous studies established that the FtsE/X-dependent pathway was mediated through interaction of the N-terminal region(s) of CXCL10 with a functional FtsE/X complex, while the FtsE/X-independent pathway was mediated through the C-terminal α-helix of CXCL10. Both pathways result in cell lysis and death of B. anthracis. In other bacterial species, it has been shown that FtsE/X is involved in cellular elongation though activation of complex-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases. Thus, we hypothesized that the CXCL10-mediated killing of vegetative cells of B. anthracis through the FtsE/X-dependent pathway resulted from the disruption of peptidoglycan processing. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies using fluorescent peptidoglycan probes revealed that incubation of B. anthracis Sterne (parent) strain with CXCL10 or a C-terminal truncated CXCL10 (CTTC) affected peptidoglycan processing and/or incorporation of precursors into the cell wall. B. anthracis ΔftsX or ftsE(K123A/D481N) mutant strains, which lacked a functional FtsE/X complex, exhibited little to no evidence of disruption in peptidoglycan processing by either CXCL10 or CTTC. Additional studies demonstrated that the B. anthracis parent strain exhibited a statistically significant increase in peptidoglycan release in the presence of either CXCL10 or CTTC. While B. anthracis ΔftsX strain showed increased peptidoglycan release in the presence of CXCL10, no increase was observed with CTTC, suggesting that the FtsE/X-independent pathway was responsible for the activity observed with CXCL10. These results indicate that FtsE/X-dependent killing of vegetative cells of B. anthracis results from a loss of cell wall integrity due to disruption of peptidoglycan processing and suggest that FtsE/X may be an important antimicrobial target to study in the

  18. Structure and Mutational Analyses of Escherichia coli ZapD Reveal Charged Residues Involved in FtsZ Filament Bundling

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Elyse J.; Wroblewski, Charles; Seidel, Laura; Berezuk, Alison M.; Brewer, Dyanne; Kimber, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial cell division is an essential and highly coordinated process. It requires the polymerization of the tubulin homologue FtsZ to form a dynamic ring (Z-ring) at midcell. Z-ring formation relies on a group of FtsZ-associated proteins (Zap) for stability throughout the process of division. In Escherichia coli, there are currently five Zap proteins (ZapA through ZapE), of which four (ZapA, ZapB, ZapC, and ZapD) are small soluble proteins that act to bind and bundle FtsZ filaments. In particular, ZapD forms a functional dimer and interacts with the C-terminal tail of FtsZ, but little is known about its structure and mechanism of action. Here, we present the crystal structure of Escherichia coli ZapD and show it forms a symmetrical dimer with centrally located α-helices flanked by β-sheet domains. Based on the structure of ZapD and its chemical cross-linking to FtsZ, we targeted nine charged ZapD residues for modification by site-directed mutagenesis. Using in vitro FtsZ sedimentation assays, we show that residues R56, R221, and R225 are important for bundling FtsZ filaments, while transmission electron microscopy revealed that altering these residues results in different FtsZ bundle morphology compared to those of filaments bundled with wild-type ZapD. ZapD residue R116 also showed altered FtsZ bundle morphology but levels of FtsZ bundling similar to that of wild-type ZapD. Together, these results reveal that ZapD residues R116, R221, and R225 likely participate in forming a positively charged binding pocket that is critical for bundling FtsZ filaments. IMPORTANCE Z-ring assembly underpins the formation of the essential cell division complex known as the divisome and is required for recruitment of downstream cell division proteins. ZapD is one of several proteins in E. coli that associates with the Z-ring to promote FtsZ bundling and aids in the overall fitness of the division process. In the present study, we describe the dimeric structure of E. coli

  19. Electrostatics and Intrinsic Disorder Drive Translocon Binding of the SRP Receptor FtsY

    PubMed Central

    Draycheva, Albena; Bornemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Integral membrane proteins in bacteria are co‐translationally targeted to the SecYEG translocon for membrane insertion via the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway. The SRP receptor FtsY and its N‐terminal A domain, which is lacking in any structural model of FtsY, were studied using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. The A domain is mainly disordered and highly flexible; it binds to lipids via its N terminus and the C‐terminal membrane targeting sequence. The central A domain binds to the translocon non‐specifically and maintains disorder. Translocon targeting and binding of the A domain is driven by electrostatic interactions. The intrinsically disordered A domain tethers FtsY to the translocon, and because of its flexibility, allows the FtsY NG domain to scan a large area for binding to the NG domain of ribosome‐bound SRP, thereby promoting the formation of the quaternary transfer complex at the membrane. PMID:27346853

  20. Discovery of chlamydial peptidoglycan reveals bacteria with murein sacculi but without FtsZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilhofer, Martin; Aistleitner, Karin; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Kuru, Erkin; Hall, Edward; Brun, Yves V.; Vannieuwenhze, Michael S.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Horn, Matthias; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydiae are important pathogens and symbionts with unique cell biological features. They lack the cell-division protein FtsZ, and the existence of peptidoglycan (PG) in their cell wall has been highly controversial. FtsZ and PG together function in orchestrating cell division and maintaining cell shape in almost all other bacteria. Using electron cryotomography, mass spectrometry and fluorescent labelling dyes, here we show that some environmental chlamydiae have cell wall sacculi consisting of a novel PG type. Treatment with fosfomycin (a PG synthesis inhibitor) leads to lower infection rates and aberrant cell shapes, suggesting that PG synthesis is crucial for the chlamydial life cycle. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of PG in a member of the Chlamydiae. They also present a unique example of a bacterium with a PG sacculus but without FtsZ, challenging the current hypothesis that it is the absence of a cell wall that renders FtsZ non-essential.

  1. Space flight manipulator technologies and requirements for the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chladek, John T.; Craver, William M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Headquarters' Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) joined efforts with Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Automation and Robotics Division and Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Information Systems Division to capture the technologies developed during the cancelled NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) program planned for use on Space Station Freedom. The recent FTS technology capture effort completed the build and testing of one flight qualifiable FTS manipulator, deliverable to JSC's Automation & Robotics Division for environmental testing. The many robotic technologies developed to meet the 30 year space environment design requirements are discussed in this paper. The manipulator properties were to allow positioning control to one thousandths of an inch, with zero actuator backlash over a temperature range of -50 to +95 C, and were to include impedance control and inertial decoupling. Safety and reliability requirements are discussed that were developed to allow a thirty year life in space with minimum maintenance. The system had to meet the safety requirements for hazardous payloads for operation in the shuttle payload bay during demonstration test flights prior to station use. A brief description is contained on an orbiter based robotic experiment and operational application using the dexterous FTS manipulator operating on the end of the shuttle remote manipulator systems (SRMS) from ground control.

  2. Screening and Development of New Inhibitors of FtsZ from M. Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Bini; Ross, Larry; Connelly, Michele C.; Lofton, Hava; Rajagopalan, Malini; Guy, R. Kiplin; Reynolds, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of commercial analogs and a newer series of Sulindac derivatives were screened for inhibition of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) in vitro and specifically as inhibitors of the essential mycobacterial tubulin homolog, FtsZ. Due to the ease of preparing diverse analogs and a favorable in vivo pharmacokinetic and toxicity profile of a representative analog, the Sulindac scaffold may be useful for further development against Mtb with respect to in vitro bacterial growth inhibition and selective activity for Mtb FtsZ versus mammalian tubulin. Further discovery efforts will require separating reported mammalian cell activity from both antibacterial activity and inhibition of Mtb FtsZ. Modeling studies suggest that these analogs bind in a specific region of the Mtb FtsZ polymer that differs from human tubulin and, in combination with a pharmacophore model presented herein, future hybrid analogs of the reported active molecules that more efficiently bind in this pocket may improve antibacterial activity while improving other drug characteristics. PMID:27768711

  3. Small molecule inhibition of apicomplexan FtsH1 disrupts plastid biogenesis in human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amberg-Johnson, Katherine; Hari, Sanjay B; Ganesan, Suresh M; Lorenzi, Hernan A; Sauer, Robert T; Niles, Jacquin C; Yeh, Ellen

    2017-08-18

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and related apicomplexan pathogens contain an essential plastid organelle, the apicoplast, which is a key anti-parasitic target. Derived from secondary endosymbiosis, the apicoplast depends on novel, but largely cryptic, mechanisms for protein/lipid import and organelle inheritance during parasite replication. These critical biogenesis pathways present untapped opportunities to discover new parasite-specific drug targets. We used an innovative screen to identify actinonin as having a novel mechanism-of-action inhibiting apicoplast biogenesis. Resistant mutation, chemical-genetic interaction, and biochemical inhibition demonstrate that the unexpected target of actinonin in P. falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii is FtsH1, a homolog of a bacterial membrane AAA+ metalloprotease. PfFtsH1 is the first novel factor required for apicoplast biogenesis identified in a phenotypic screen. Our findings demonstrate that FtsH1 is a novel and, importantly, druggable antimalarial target. Development of FtsH1 inhibitors will have significant advantages with improved drug kinetics and multistage efficacy against multiple human parasites.

  4. Performance Verification of GOSAT-2 FTS-2 Simulator and Sensitivity Analysis for Greenhouse Gases Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Dupuy, E.; Hiraki, K.; Matsunaga, T.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-2, which is scheduled for launch in early 2018, is the successor mission to the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The FTS-2 onboard the GOSAT-2 is a Fourier transform spectrometer, which has three bands in the near to short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) region and two bands in the thermal infrared (TIR) region to observe infrared light reflected and emitted from the Earth's surface and atmosphere with high-resolution spectra. Column amounts and vertical profiles of major greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are retrieved from acquired radiance spectra. In addition, the FTS-2 has several improvements from the FTS onboard the GOSAT: 1) added spectral coverage in the SWIR region for carbon monoxide (CO) retrieval, 2) increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for all bands, 3) extended range of along-track pointing angles for sunglint observations, 4) intelligent pointing to avoid cloud contamination. Since 2012, we have been developing a software tool, which is called the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 simulator, to simulate spectral radiance data that will be acquired by the GOSAT-2 FTS-2. The objective of it is to analyze/optimize data with respect to the sensor specification, the parameters for Level 1 processing, and the improvement of Level 2 retrieval algorithms. It consists of six components: 1) overall control, 2) sensor carrying platform, 3) spectral radiance calculation, 4) Fourier transform module, 5) Level 1B (L1B) processing, and 6) L1B data output. More realistic and faster simulations have been made possible by the improvement of details about sensor characteristics, the sophistication of data processing and algorithms, the addition of various observation modes, the use of surface and atmospheric ancillary data, and the speed-up and parallelization of radiative transfer code. This simulator is confirmed to be working properly from the reproduction of GOSAT FTS L1B data depends on the ancillary data. We will summarize the

  5. Nearly arc-length tool path generation and tool radius compensation algorithm research in FTS turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghui; Zhao, Xuesen; Li, Zengqiang; Sun, Tao

    2014-08-01

    In the non-rotational symmetrical microstrcture surfaces generation using turning method with Fast Tool Servo(FTS), non-uniform distribution of the interpolation data points will lead to long processing cycle and poor surface quality. To improve this situation, nearly arc-length tool path generation algorithm is proposed, which generates tool tip trajectory points in nearly arc-length instead of the traditional interpolation rule of equal angle and adds tool radius compensation. All the interpolation points are equidistant in radial distribution because of the constant feeding speed in X slider, the high frequency tool radius compensation components are in both X direction and Z direction, which makes X slider difficult to follow the input orders due to its large mass. Newton iterative method is used to calculate the neighboring contour tangent point coordinate value with the interpolation point X position as initial value, in this way, the new Z coordinate value is gotten, and the high frequency motion components in X direction is decomposed into Z direction. Taking a typical microstructure with 4μm PV value for test, which is mixed with two 70μm wave length sine-waves, the max profile error at the angle of fifteen is less than 0.01μm turning by a diamond tool with big radius of 80μm. The sinusoidal grid is machined on a ultra-precision lathe succesfully, the wavelength is 70.2278μm the Ra value is 22.81nm evaluated by data points generated by filtering out the first five harmonics.

  6. Atmospheric composition and thermodynamic retrievals from the ARIES airborne TIR-FTS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Allen, Grant; Gallagher, Martin; Bower, Keith; O'Shea, Sebastian; Muller, Jennifer; Bauguitte, Stephane; Newman, Stuart; Vance, Alan; Kent, Joss; Taylor, Jonathan; Marenco, Franco; Harlow, Chawn; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    The role of airborne remote sensing instruments is important in building up an accurate quantitative and process-driven understanding of the atmospheric composition, where the benefit of a large spatial coverage and the potential for near surface measurements results in the characterization of possible localized emission sources. In the Thermal InfraRed (TIR), the opportunity to fly at relatively low altitudes allows for a greater sensitivity towards the surface than that provided by any current satellite measurements. In this study we present an assessment of the retrieval capability of the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES); an airborne remote sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operated on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft. As exemplars of the capability of the ARIES retrieval system, retrievals of temperature, water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4), and their corresponding sources of error and potential vertical sensitivity, are discussed. This work also presents ARIES scenes that have been retrieved and validated throughout the troposphere and planetary boundary layer over a wide range of environmental variability, using data from aircraft campaigns over and around London, the US Gulf Coast, and the Arctic Circle. Typically high DOFS for temperature and H2O confirm that vertically resolved information could be obtained for these parameters, whilst only partial-column retrievals of CO, CH4, and O3 can be usefully obtained. Partial-column mean biases averaged across all campaigns were less than 6% for all of the variables that were retrieved. This work demonstrates that remote sensing measurements from the ARIES instrument can provide valuable additional information, to supplement the aircraft measurements and ground-based networks that are already in operation, whilst also serving as a useful tool for the calibration and validation of satellites

  7. MapZ beacons the division sites and positions FtsZ-rings in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chao; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Macek, Boris; Combet, Christophe; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Brun, Yves V.; Sherratt, David; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In every living organism, cell division requires accurate identification of the division site and placement of the division machinery. In bacteria, this process is traditionally considered to begin with the polymerization of the highly conserved tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a ring that locates precisely at midcell1. Over the last decades, several systems have been reported to regulate the spatiotemporal assembly and placement of the FtsZ-ring2-5. However, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, as many other organisms, is devoid of these canonical systems and the mechanisms of positioning of the division machinery remain unknown4,6. Here we characterize a novel factor that locates at the division site before FtsZ and guides septum positioning in the pneumococcus. MapZ (Midcell Anchored Protein Z) forms ring structures at the cell equator and moves apart as the cell elongates, therefore behaving as a permanent beacon of division sites. MapZ then positions the FtsZ-ring through direct protein-protein interactions. MapZ-mediated control differs from previously described systems mostly based on negative regulation of FtsZ assembly. Further, MapZ is an endogenous target of the ser/thr-kinase StkP, which was recently shown to play a central role in cytokinesis and morphogenesis of the pneumococcus7-9. We show that both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of MapZ are required for proper Z-ring formation and dynamics. Altogether, this work uncovers a new mechanism for bacterial cell division that is regulated by phosphorylation and illustrates that nature has evolved a diversity of cell division mechanisms adapted to the different bacterial clades. PMID:25470041

  8. [Localization of the division protein FtsZ in mycoplasma cells Mycoplasma hominis].

    PubMed

    Vishniakov, I E; Borkhsenius, S N; Basovskiĭ, Iu I; Levitskiĭ, S A; Lazarev, V N; Snigirevskaia, E S; Komissarchik, Ia Iu

    2009-01-01

    Localization of the protein FtsZ in Mycoplasma hominis cells was determined. Ultra thin sections were treated by rabbit polyclonal antibodies against FtsZ M. hominis: a conjugate of protein A with colloidal gold particles was used instead of secondary antibodies. Considerable polymorphism of cells was seen on electron microscopy pictures of M. hominis cells, which is typical for mycoplasmas. Among a wide variety of cell shapes we distinguished dumbbell-shaped dividing cells, and the cells connected with each other with the aid of thin membrane tubules (former constrictions). Dominants distribution of the label in the constriction area of dividing M. hominis cells and in the area of the thin membrane tubules was observed. We revealed the cross septum in the mycoplasma cells for the first time, as well as the gold labeling of this structure. Furthermore, in some rounded and oval cells colloidal gold particles labeled the whole plasma membrane in ring-shaped manner. Probably, the label in these cases marks a submembrane contractile ring (Z-ring). The facts mentioned above confirm that FtsZ of M. hominis plays an active role in the mycoplasma cytokinesis. In a series of cases spiral-like distribution of gold particles was observed. Probably, FtsZ protofilaments in M. hominis cells can form spiral structures similar to Z-spirals of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Its presence in mycoplasma cells may be considered as an important argument in favour of model of Z-ring assembling through reorganization of Z-spirals. FtsZ also may participate in maintenance of mycoplasma cell shape (membrane localization).

  9. MapZ marks the division sites and positions FtsZ rings in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fleurie, Aurore; Lesterlin, Christian; Manuse, Sylvie; Zhao, Chao; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Macek, Boris; Combet, Christophe; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Sherratt, David; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-12-11

    In every living organism, cell division requires accurate identification of the division site and placement of the division machinery. In bacteria, this process is traditionally considered to begin with the polymerization of the highly conserved tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a ring that locates precisely at mid-cell. Over the past decades, several systems have been reported to regulate the spatiotemporal assembly and placement of the FtsZ ring. However, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, in common with many other organisms, is devoid of these canonical systems and the mechanisms of positioning the division machinery remain unknown. Here we characterize a novel factor that locates at the division site before FtsZ and guides septum positioning in pneumococcus. Mid-cell-anchored protein Z (MapZ) forms ring structures at the cell equator and moves apart as the cell elongates, therefore behaving as a permanent beacon of division sites. MapZ then positions the FtsZ ring through direct protein-protein interactions. MapZ-mediated control differs from previously described systems mostly on the basis of negative regulation of FtsZ assembly. Furthermore, MapZ is an endogenous target of the Ser/Thr kinase StkP, which was recently shown to have a central role in cytokinesis and morphogenesis of S. pneumoniae. We show that both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of MapZ are required for proper Z-ring formation and dynamics. Altogether, this work uncovers a new mechanism for bacterial cell division that is regulated by phosphorylation and illustrates that nature has evolved a diversity of cell division mechanisms adapted to the different bacterial clades.

  10. Characterisation of mutant alleles of the cell division protein FtsA, a regulator and structural component of the Escherichia coli septator.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M; Dopazo, A; Pla, J; Robinson, A C; Vicente, M

    1994-01-01

    Two alleles of ftsA, a gene that encodes an essential cell division protein in Escherichia coli, have-been mapped at the nucleotide level. The mutations are located inside domains that are conserved in an ATP-binding protein family. The ftsA2 mutation lies in the adenine-binding domain, and the ftsA3 in the ribose-binding domain. The defect in ampicillin binding to PBP3 described for allele ftsA3 is allele-specific. This supports the hypothesis of the existence of different domains in FtsA having different functions.

  11. Evaluation of a catalytic reduction technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Eubank, C. S.; Hubler, C. S.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of a technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy-containing species in the atmosphere has been examined. In the technique, an NOy component species, which may include NO, NO2, NO3, HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and particulate nitrate, are catalytically reduced by CO to form NO molecules on the surface of a metal converter tube, and the NO product is detected by chemiluminescence produced in reaction with O3. Among the catalysts tested in the temperature range of 25-500 C, Au was the preferred catalyst. The results of laboratory tests investigating the effects of pressure, O3, and H2O on NOy conversion, and the possible sources of interference, have shown that the technique is suitable for atmospheric analyses. The results of a test in ambient air at a remote ground-based field site are included.

  12. Evaluation of a catalytic reduction technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Eubank, C. S.; Hubler, C. S.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of a technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy-containing species in the atmosphere has been examined. In the technique, an NOy component species, which may include NO, NO2, NO3, HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and particulate nitrate, are catalytically reduced by CO to form NO molecules on the surface of a metal converter tube, and the NO product is detected by chemiluminescence produced in reaction with O3. Among the catalysts tested in the temperature range of 25-500 C, Au was the preferred catalyst. The results of laboratory tests investigating the effects of pressure, O3, and H2O on NOy conversion, and the possible sources of interference, have shown that the technique is suitable for atmospheric analyses. The results of a test in ambient air at a remote ground-based field site are included.

  13. Computational evaluation of the dynamic fluctuations of peripheral loops enclosing the catalytic tunnel of a family 7 cellobiohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Granum, David M; Schutt, Timothy C; Maupin, C Mark

    2014-05-22

    The size and character of the peripheral loops enclosing the active site for cellulase enzymes is believed to play a major role in dictating many critical enzymatic properties. For many cellulases it is observed that fully enclosed active sites forming a tunnel are more conducive to cellobiohydrolase activity and the ability to processively move along the substrate. Conversely, a more open active site groove is indicative of endoglucanase activity. For both cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases, the loop regions have been implicated in the ability of the enzyme to bind substrate, influence the pKa of active site residues, modulate the catalytic activity, and influence thermal stability. Reported here are constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) simulations that investigate the role of dynamic fluctuations, substrate interactions, and residue pKa values for the peripheral loops enclosing the active site of the cellobiohydrolase Melanocarpus albomyces Cel7B. Two highly flexible loop regions in the free enzyme have been identified, which impact the overall dynamical motions of the enzyme. Charge interactions between Asp198 and Asp367, which reside on two adjacent loops, were found to influence the overall loop conformations and dynamics. In the presence of a substrate the protonation of Asp367, Asp198, and Tyr370 were found to stabilize substrate binding and control the movement of two peripheral loops onto the active site containing the substrate (i.e., clamping down). The substrate-induced response of the loop regions secures the cellulose polymer in the catalytic tunnel and creates an environment that is conducive to hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond.

  14. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: reproductive and developmental effects of light catalytic cracked naphtha distillate in rats.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, C; Bui, Q; Breglia, R; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; Lapadula, E; White, R; Schroeder, R E

    1999-11-26

    A distillate of light catalytic cracked naphtha (CAS number 64741-55-5, LCCN-D), administered by inhalation, was tested for reproductive and developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats, following a modified OECD Guideline 421, Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Screening Protocol. LCCN-D was administered as a vapor, 6 h/d, 7 d/wk at target concentrations of 0, 750, 2500 or 7500 ppm to female rats for approximately 7 wk from 2 wk prior to mating, during mating through gestational d 19, and to males beginning 2 wk prior to mating for 8 consecutive weeks. Dams and litters were sacrificed on postnatal d 4, and males were sacrificed within the following week. Parental systemic effects observed at the 7500 ppm exposure level were increased kidney weights and relative liver weights in males and increased spleen weights in high-dose females. Livers and spleens from rats in the high-dose group were normal in appearance at necropsy. IncreaSed kidney weights in high-dose males were indicative of male-rat-specific light hydrocarbon nephropathy. No test-related microscopic changes were observed in the reproductive organs or nasal turbinate tissues of either sex. Reproductive performance was unaffected by treatment with LCCN-D. Fertility index was > or =90% in all dose groups. There were no exposure-related differences in implantation sites and live pups per litter, and no gross abnormalities were observed. Pups born from treated dams showed comparable body weights and weight gains to controls. The viability index on postpartum d 4 was > or =97%; the high-dose group had more male than female pups at birth and at d 4 postpartum. Under the conditions of this study, the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for exposure to light catalytic cracked naphtha distillate for parental toxicity was 2500 ppm and the NOAEL for reproductive performance and developmental toxicity was 7500 ppm.

  15. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: reproductive and developmental effects of light catalytic reformed naphtha distillate in rats.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, C; Bui, Q; Breglia, R; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; White, R; Hoffman, G; Schroeder, R

    2000-06-09

    A distillate of light catalytic reformed naphtha (CAS number 64741-63-5, LCRN-D) administered by inhalation was tested for reproductive and developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats, following a modified OECD Guideline 421, Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Screening protocol. LCRN-D was administered as a vapor, 6 h/d, 7 d/wk at target concentrations of 0, 750, 2500 or 7500 ppm to female rats for approximately 6 wk from 2 wk prior to mating, during mating through gestational d 19, and to males beginning 2 wk prior to mating for approximately 7 consecutive weeks. Dams and litters were sacrificed on postnatal d 4 and males were sacrificed within the week after the last litter was necropsied. Parental systemic effects observed at the 7500 ppm exposure level included slightly lower body weights for males throughout the study. Increased kidney to body weight and increased liver to body weight ratio in male rats exposed to 7500 ppm LCRN-D may be related to slightly lower final mean body weights. Body and organ weight data for female rats in all exposure groups were comparable to controls. No test-material-related microscopic changes were observed in the reproductive organs or nasal turbinate tissue of either sex. Reproductive performance was unaffected by exposure to LCRN-D. The mating and fertility indices were 100% in all groups. There were no significant exposure-related differences in implantation sites or live pups per litter, and no gross abnormalities were observed in pups from treated dams. Pups born from LCRN-D-exposed dams showed comparable body weights and weight gain to control pups. The viability index on postpartum d 4 was > or =97%. Under conditions of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for exposure to light catalytic reformed naphtha distillate for parental effects was 2500 ppm and the NOAEL for reproductive and developmental toxicity was 7500 ppm.

  16. Cell growth and lambda phage development controlled by the same essential Escherichia coli gene, ftsH/hflB.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, C; Ogura, T; Tomoyasu, T; Hiraga, S; Akiyama, Y; Ito, K; Thomas, R; D'Ari, R; Bouloc, P

    1993-01-01

    The lambda phage choice between lysis and lysogeny is influenced by certain host functions in Escherichia coli. We found that the frequency of lambda lysogenization is markedly increased in the ftsH1 temperature-sensitive mutant. The ftsH gene, previously shown to code for an essential inner membrane protein with putative ATPase activity, is identical to hflB, a gene involved in the stability of the phage cII activator protein. The lysogenic decision controlled by FtsH/HflB is independent of that controlled by the protease HflA. Overproduction of FtsH/HflB suppresses the high frequency of lysogenization in an hflA null mutant. The FtsH/HflB protein, which stimulates cII degradation, may be a component of an HflA-independent proteolytic pathway, or it may act as a chaperone, maintaining cII in a conformation subject to proteolysis via such a pathway. Suppressor mutations of ftsH1 temperature-sensitive lethality, located in the fur gene (coding for the ferric uptake regulator), did not restore FtsH/HflB activity with respect to lambda lysogenization. PMID:8248182

  17. Identification of a novel function for the FtsL cell division protein from Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Dayle K; Al Jubori, Sawsan; Morby, Andrew P

    2011-07-22

    Analysis of the essential cell division protein FtsL demonstrates the partial conservation of a cysteine-pair within the trans-membrane region which itself is flanked by histidine-pairs in the cytosol and periplasm. Similar arrangements of such amino acids are seen in proteins known to transport/bind metal ions in biological systems. Heterologous expression of ftsL in Escherichia coli K12 confers a Zn(II)-sensitive phenotype and alteration of the candidate metal-ion binding residues cysteine or histidine substantially alters this phenotype. Whilst the cysteine/histidine replacement derivatives of ftsL were able to complement an otherwise ftsL-null strain, the derivative carrying ftsL lacking the cysteine pair was sensitive to raised metal-ion concentrations in the media. We show that ftsL can confer a metal-ion sensitive phenotype and that trans-membrane cysteine residues play a role in FtsL function in elevated metal-ion concentrations.

  18. Role of the Carboxy Terminus of Escherichia coli FtsA in Self-Interaction and Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Lucía; Vandenbussche, Guy; Mingorance, Jesús; Rueda, Sonsoles; Casanova, Mercedes; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Vicente, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    The role of the carboxy terminus of the Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsA in bacterial division has been studied by making a series of short sequential deletions spanning from residue 394 to 420. Deletions as short as 5 residues destroy the biological function of the protein. Residue W415 is essential for the localization of the protein into septal rings. Overexpression of the ftsA alleles harboring these deletions caused a coiled cell phenotype previously described for another carboxy-terminal mutation (Gayda et al., J. Bacteriol. 174:5362–5370, 1992), suggesting that an interaction of FtsA with itself might play a role in its function. The existence of such an interaction was demonstrated using the yeast two-hybrid system and a protein overlay assay. Even these short deletions are sufficient for impairing the interaction of the truncated FtsA forms with the wild-type protein in the yeast two-hybrid system. The existence of additional interactions between FtsA molecules, involving other domains, can be postulated from the interaction properties shown by the FtsA deletion mutant forms, because although unable to interact with the wild-type and with FtsAΔ1, they can interact with themselves and cross-interact with each other. The secondary structures of an extensive deletion, FtsAΔ27, and the wild-type protein are indistinguishable when analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and moreover, FtsAΔ27 retains the ability to bind ATP. These results indicate that deletion of the carboxy-terminal 27 residues does not alter substantially the structure of the protein and suggest that the loss of biological function of the carboxy-terminal deletion mutants might be related to the modification of their interacting properties. PMID:11053380

  19. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO2 transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy; Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam; Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy; Viswanathan, Balasubramanian

    2017-02-01

    Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO2 to CO at an applied potential of -0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various value added chemicals.

  20. CO emission and export from Asia: an analysis combining complementary satellite measurements (MOPITT, SCIAMACHY and ACE-FTS) with global modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turquety, S.; Clerbaux, C.; Law, K.; Coheur, P.-F.; Cozic, A.; Szopa, S.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Gloudemans, A. M. S.; Schrijver, H.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.; Edwards, D. P.

    2008-09-01

    This study presents the complementary picture of the pollution outflow provided by several satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO), based on different observation techniques. This is illustrated by an analysis of the Asian outflow during the spring of 2005, through comparisons with simulations by the LMDz-INCA global chemistry transport model. The CO observations from the MOPITT and SCIAMACHY nadir sounders, which provide vertically integrated information with excellent horizontal sampling, and from the ACE-FTS solar occultation instrument, which has limited spatial coverage but allows the retrieval of vertical profiles, are used. Combining observations from MOPITT (mainly sensitive to the free troposphere) and SCIAMACHY (sensitive to the full column) allows a qualitative evaluation of the boundary layer CO. The model tends to underestimate this residual compared to the observations, suggesting underestimated emissions, especially in eastern Asia. However, a better understanding of the consistency and possible biases between the MOPITT and SCIAMACHY CO is necessary for a quantitative evaluation. Underestimated emissions, and possibly too low lofting and underestimated chemical production in the model, lead to an underestimate of the export to the free troposphere, as highlighted by comparisons with MOPITT and ACE-FTS. Both instruments observe large trans-Pacific transport extending from ~20° N to ~60° N, with high upper tropospheric CO observed by ACE-FTS above the eastern Pacific (with values of up to 300 ppbv around 50° N at 500 hPa and up to ~200 ppbv around 30° N at 300 hPa). The low vertical and horizontal resolutions of the global model do not allow the simulation of the strong enhancements in the observed plumes. However, the transport patterns are well captured, and are mainly attributed to export from eastern Asia, with increasing contributions from South Asia and Indonesia towards the tropics. Additional measurements of C2H2, C2H6 and HCN by

  1. Structures of the nucleoid occlusion protein SlmA bound to DNA and the C-terminal domain of the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Maria A.; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by FtsZ, which polymerizes to create the cytokinetic Z ring. Multiple FtsZ-binding proteins regulate FtsZ polymerization to ensure the proper spatiotemporal formation of the Z ring at the division site. The DNA-binding protein SlmA binds to FtsZ and prevents Z-ring formation through the nucleoid in a process called “nucleoid occlusion” (NO). As do most FtsZ-accessory proteins, SlmA interacts with the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that is connected to the FtsZ core by a long, flexible linker. However, SlmA is distinct from other regulatory factors in that it must be DNA-bound to interact with the FtsZ CTD. Few structures of FtsZ regulator–CTD complexes are available, but all reveal the CTD bound as a helix. To deduce the molecular basis for the unique SlmA–DNA–FtsZ CTD regulatory interaction and provide insight into FtsZ–regulator protein complex formation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, and Klebsiella pneumonia SlmA–DNA–FtsZ CTD ternary complexes. Strikingly, the FtsZ CTD does not interact with SlmA as a helix but binds as an extended conformation in a narrow, surface-exposed pocket formed only in the DNA-bound state of SlmA and located at the junction between the DNA-binding and C-terminal dimer domains. Binding studies are consistent with the structure and underscore key interactions in complex formation. Combined, these data reveal the molecular basis for the SlmA–DNA–FtsZ interaction with implications for SlmA’s NO function and underscore the ability of the FtsZ CTD to adopt a wide range of conformations, explaining its ability to bind diverse regulatory proteins. PMID:27091999

  2. Catalytic efficiency of designed catalytic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Korendovych, Ivan V; DeGrado, William F

    2014-01-01

    The de novo design of catalysts that mimic the affinity and specificity of natural enzymes remains one of the Holy Grails of chemistry. Despite decades of concerted effort we are still unable to design catalysts as efficient as enzymes. Here we critically evaluate approaches to (re)design of novel catalytic function in proteins using two test cases: Kemp elimination and ester hydrolysis. We show that the degree of success thus far has been modest when the rate enhancements seen for the designed proteins are compared with the rate enhancements by small molecule catalysts in solvents with properties similar to the active site. Nevertheless, there are reasons for optimism: the design methods are ever improving and the resulting catalyst can be efficiently improved using directed evolution. PMID:25048695

  3. Retrieval of carbon dioxide vertical profiles from solar occultation observations and associated error budgets for ACE-FTS and CASS-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, C. E.; Boone, C. D.; Nassar, R.; Sutton, K. J.; Gordon, I. E.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-07-01

    An algorithm is developed to retrieve the vertical profile of carbon dioxide in the 5 to 25 km altitude range using mid-infrared solar occultation spectra from the main instrument of the ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission, namely the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The main challenge is to find an atmospheric phenomenon which can be used for accurate tangent height determination in the lower atmosphere, where the tangent heights (THs) calculated from geometric and timing information are not of sufficient accuracy. Error budgets for the retrieval of CO2 from ACE-FTS and the FTS on a potential follow-on mission named CASS (Chemical and Aerosol Sounding Satellite) are calculated and contrasted. Retrieved THs have typical biases of 60 m relative to those retrieved using the ACE version 3.x software after revisiting the temperature dependence of the N2 CIA (collision-induced absorption) laboratory measurements and accounting for sulfate aerosol extinction. After correcting for the known residual high bias of ACE version 3.x THs expected from CO2 spectroscopic/isotopic inconsistencies, the remaining bias for tangent heights determined with the N2 CIA is -20 m. CO2 in the 5-13 km range in the 2009-2011 time frame is validated against aircraft measurements from CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container), CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airline), and HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations), yielding typical biases of -1.7 ppm in the 5-13 km range. The standard error of these biases in this vertical range is 0.4 ppm. The multi-year ACE-FTS data set is valuable in determining the seasonal variation of the latitudinal gradient which arises from the strong seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere. The annual growth of CO2 in this time frame is determined to be 2.6 ± 0.4 ppm year-1, in agreement with the currently accepted global growth rate based on

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf broth: Evaluation of their innate antimicrobial and catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Ajitha, B; Reddy, Y Ashok Kumar; Reddy, P Sreedhara

    2015-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared through green route with the aid of Momordica charantia leaf extract as both reductant and stabilizer. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) fringes revealed the structure of AgNPs as face centered cubic (fcc). Morphological studies elucidate the nearly spherical AgNPs formation with particle size in nanoscale. Biosynthesized AgNPs were found to be photoluminescent and UV-Vis absorption spectra showed one surface plasmon resonance peak (SPR) at 424nm attesting the spherical nanoparticles formation. XPS study provides the surface chemical nature and oxidation state of the synthesized nanoparticles. FTIR spectra ascertain the reduction and capping nature of phytoconstituents of leaf extract in AgNPs synthesis. Further, these AgNPs showed effective antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens and thus applicable as potent antimicrobial agent. In addition, the synthesized AgNPs were observed to have an excellent catalytic activity on the reduction of methylene blue by M. charantia which was confirmed by the decrement in maximum absorbance values of methylene blue with respect to time and is ascribed to electron relay effect.

  5. Synthesis of cobalt-impregnated carbon composite derived from a renewable resource: Characterization and catalytic performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Wan; Jeong, Kwang-Hwa; Kim, Sohyun; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik; Song, Hocheol

    2017-08-25

    A novel nitrogen-doped biochar embedded with cobalt (Co-NB) was fabricated via pyrolysis of glucose pretreated with melamine (N donor) and Co(II). The Co-NB showed high catalytic capability by converting p-nitrophenol (PNP) into p-aminophenol (PAP) by NaBH4. The analyses of FE-SEM, TEM, BET, XRD, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS of the Co-NB showed hierarchical porous structure (BET 326.5m(2)g(-1) and pore volume: 0.2403cm(3)g(-1)) with well-dispersed Co nanoparticles (20-60nm) on the N-doped graphitic biochar surface. The Co-NB showed higher PNP reduction capability compared to the Co-biochar without N-doping, achieving 94.3% removal within 4min at 0.24gL(-1) catalyst dose and initial concentration of 0.35mM PNP. Further conversion experiments under varying environmental conditions (e.g., NaBH4 concentration (7.5-30mM), biochar dosage (0.12-1.0gL(-1)), initial PNP concentration (0.08-0.17mM)) were conducted in batch mode. The reusability of Co-NB was validated by the repetitive conversion experiments (5cycles). The overall results demonstrated biochar potential as catalysts for environmental applications if properly designed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Raney nickel catalytic device

    DOEpatents

    O'Hare, Stephen A.

    1978-01-01

    A catalytic device for use in a conventional coal gasification process which includes a tubular substrate having secured to its inside surface by expansion a catalytic material. The catalytic device is made by inserting a tubular catalytic element, such as a tubular element of a nickel-aluminum alloy, into a tubular substrate and heat-treating the resulting composite to cause the tubular catalytic element to irreversibly expand against the inside surface of the substrate.

  7. Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE)Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Beer, R.; Blavier, J.; Bowman, K.; Eldering, A.; Rider, D.; Toon, G.; Traub, W.; Worden, J.

    2008-12-01

    The NRC decadal survey proposed the GEO-CAPE and GACM missions to study changes in atmospheric composition and the coastal oceans. To properly address air quality, the decadal survey highlighted the need for vertical profile measurements with sensitivity into the atmospheric boundary layer. The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS), a new project within the NASA Instrument Incubator Program, will measure all of the trace species called out in the decadal survey for GEO-CAPE and GACM. With continuous sensitivity from 0.26 to 15 micron and high spectral resolution, PanFTS combines the functionality of separate UV, visible and IR instruments in a single package. These capabilities also permit PanFTS to meet the requirements for high spatial resolution hyperspectral imaging of the coastal zone. This presentation will discuss the design approach and technology development challenges for PanFTS including high speed, high resolution focal plane arrays, and wide spectral coverage optical design.

  8. Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Beer, R.; Blavier, J. L.; Bowman, K. W.; Eldering, A.; Key, R.; Rider, D.; Toon, G. C.; Traub, W. A.; Worden, J.

    2009-12-01

    The NRC decadal survey proposed the GEO-CAPE and GACM missions to study changes in atmospheric composition and the coastal oceans. To properly address air quality, the decadal survey highlighted the need for vertical profile measurements with sensitivity into the atmospheric boundary layer. The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS), a new project within the NASA Instrument Incubator Program, will measure all of the trace species called out in the decadal survey for GEO-CAPE and GACM. With continuous sensitivity from 0.26 to 15 micron and high spectral resolution, PanFTS combines the functionality of separate UV, visible and IR instruments in a single package. These capabilities also permit PanFTS to meet the requirements for high spatial resolution hyperspectral imaging of the coastal zone. This presentation will discuss the design approach and technology development challenges for PanFTS including high speed, high resolution focal plane arrays, and wide spectral coverage optical design.

  9. STS-47 MS Jemison works with FTS equipment in SLJ module aboard OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist Mae C. Jemison injects a fluid into a mannequin's hand during research in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Working at Rack 9, Jemison conducts this Fluid Therapy System (FTS) experiment procedure. FTS will examine the effect of low gravity on the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids in space. Since gravity assists in the delivery and flow of IV fluids on Earth, researchers want to determine what problems the absence of gravity would cause if an IV had to be administrated to an astronaut in space. A new device that converts contaminated water into a sterile solution that can be used in IVs is part of the experiment. MS and Payload Commander Mark C. Lee is partially visible at lower right.

  10. STS-47 MS Jemison works with FTS equipment in SLJ module aboard OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist Mae C. Jemison injects a fluid into a mannequin's hand during research in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Working at Rack 9, Jemison conducts this Fluid Therapy System (FTS) experiment procedure. FTS will examine the effect of low gravity on the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids in space. Since gravity assists in the delivery and flow of IV fluids on Earth, researchers want to determine what problems the absence of gravity would cause if an IV had to be administrated to an astronaut in space. A new device that converts contaminated water into a sterile solution that can be used in IVs is part of the experiment. MS and Payload Commander Mark C. Lee is partially visible at lower right.

  11. Atmospheric Isotopologues Observed with Ace-Fts and Modeled with Waccm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, Eric M.; Beale, Christopher A.; Yousefi, Mahdi; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter F.

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric isotopologues are useful tracers of dynamics and chemistry and can be used to constrain budgets of gases in the atmosphere. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) routinely measures vertical profiles of over 35 molecules and 20 isotopologues via solar occultation from a satellite in low Earth orbit. The primary instrument is an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer with a spectral range of 750 - 4400 \\wn and a resolution of 0.02 \\wn. ACE began taking measurements in 2004 and is still active today. This talk focuses on isotopic measurements of CH_{4}, CO, CO_{2}, and N_{2}O from ACE-FTS. To complement ACE-FTS data, modeling using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) was performed for each molecule.

  12. FtsZ Bacterial Cytoskeletal Polymers on Curved Surfaces: The Importance of Lateral Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hörger, Ines; Velasco, Enrique; Rivas, Germán; Vélez, Marisela; Tarazona, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    A recent theoretical article provided a mechanical explanation for the formation of cytoskeletal rings and helices in bacteria assuming that these shapes arise, at least in part, from the interaction of the inherent mechanical properties of the protein polymers and the constraints imposed by the curved cell membrane (Andrews, S., and A. P. Arkin. 2007. Biophys. J. 93:1872–1884). Due to the lack of experimental data regarding the bending rigidity and preferential bond angles of bacterial polymers, the authors explored their model over wide ranges of preferred curvature values. In this letter, we present the shape diagram of the FtsZ bacterial polymer on a curved surface but now including recent experimental data on the in vitro formed FtsZ polymers. The lateral interactions between filaments observed experimentally change qualitatively the shape diagram and indicate that the formation of rings over spirals is more energetically favored than estimated in the above-mentioned article. PMID:18359798

  13. Identification of Escherichia coli ZapC (YcbW) as a Component of the Division Apparatus That Binds and Bundles FtsZ Polymers▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Cynthia A.; Shiomi, Daisuke; Liu, Bing; Bernhardt, Thomas G.; Margolin, William; Niki, Hironori; de Boer, Piet A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Assembly of the cell division apparatus in bacteria starts with formation of the Z ring on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. This process involves the accumulation of FtsZ polymers at midcell and their interaction with several FtsZ-binding proteins that collectively organize the polymers into a membrane-associated ring-like configuration. Three such proteins, FtsA, ZipA, and ZapA, have previously been identified in Escherichia coli. FtsA and ZipA are essential membrane-associated division proteins that help connect FtsZ polymers with the inner membrane. ZapA is a cytoplasmic protein that is not required for the fission process per se but contributes to its efficiency, likely by promoting lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. We report the identification of YcbW (ZapC) as a fourth FtsZ-binding component of the Z ring in E. coli. Binding of ZapC promotes lateral interactions between FtsZ polymers and suppresses FtsZ GTPase activity. This and additional evidence indicate that, like ZapA, ZapC is a nonessential Z-ring component that contributes to the efficiency of the division process by stabilizing the polymeric form of FtsZ. PMID:21216997

  14. Central domain of DivIB caps the C-terminal regions of the FtsL/DivIC coiled-coil rod.

    PubMed

    Masson, Soizic; Kern, Thomas; Le Gouëllec, Audrey; Giustini, Cécile; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Callow, Philip; Vernet, Thierry; Gabel, Frank; Zapun, André

    2009-10-02

    DivIB(FtsQ), FtsL, and DivIC(FtsB) are enigmatic membrane proteins that are central to the process of bacterial cell division. DivIB(FtsQ) is dispensable in specific conditions in some species, and appears to be absent in other bacterial species. The presence of FtsL and DivIC(FtsB) appears to be conserved despite very low sequence conservation. The three proteins form a complex at the division site, FtsL and DivIC(FtsB) being associated through their extracellular coiled-coil region. We report here structural investigations by NMR, small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering, and interaction studies by surface plasmon resonance, of the complex of DivIB, FtsL, and DivIC from Streptococcus pneumoniae, using soluble truncated forms of the proteins. We found that one side of the "bean"-shaped central beta-domain of DivIB interacts with the C-terminal regions of the dimer of FtsL and DivIC. This finding is corroborated by sequence comparisons across bacterial genomes. Indeed, DivIB is absent from species with shorter FtsL and DivIC proteins that have an extracellular domain consisting only of the coiled-coil segment without C-terminal conserved regions (Campylobacterales). We propose that the main role of the interaction of DivIB with FtsL and DivIC is to help the formation, or to stabilize, the coiled-coil of the latter proteins. The coiled-coil of FtsL and DivIC, itself or with transmembrane regions, could be free to interact with other partners.

  15. New and Improved Infrared Spectroscopy of Halogen-Containing Species for ACE-FTS Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2014-06-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), onboard the SCISAT-1 satellite, is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) instrument covering the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region in solar occultation mode. Launched in August 2003, the ACE-FTS has been taking atmospheric measurements for over ten years. With long atmospheric pathlengths (˜300 km) and the sun as a radiation source, the ACE-FTS provides a low detection threshold for trace species in the atmosphere. In fact, it measures the vertical profiles of more molecules in the atmosphere than any other satellite instrument.

    Fluorine- and chlorine-containing molecules in the atmosphere are very strong greenhouse gases, meaning that even small amounts of these gases contribute significantly to the radiative forcing of climate. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are regulated by the 1987 Montreal Protocol because they deplete the ozone layer. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not deplete the ozone layer and are not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, have been introduced as replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs have global-warming potentials many times greater than carbon dioxide, and are increasing in the atmosphere at a very fast rate. The quantification of the atmospheric abundances of such molecules from measurements taken by the ACE-FTS and other satellite instruments crucially requires accurate quantitative infrared spectroscopy. HITRAN contains absorption cross section datasets for a number of these species, but many of them have minor deficiencies that introduce systematic errors into satellite retrievals. This talk will focus on new and improved laboratory measurements for a number of important halogenated species.

  16. Peptidoglycan precursor pools associated with MraY and FtsW deficiencies or antibiotic treatments.

    PubMed

    Lara, Beatriz; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Ayala, Juan A; van Heijenoort, Jean

    2005-09-15

    Blocking peptidoglycan synthesis in Escherichia coli with moenomycin or vancomycin led to the accumulation of UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide and of its immediate upstream precursors, whereas with cephaloridine or penicillin G the pool of UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide decreased. With MraY and FtsW deficiencies the decrease of UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide was accompanied by an increase of the upstream nucleotide precursors and the appearance of UDP-MurNAc-tetrapeptide.

  17. Demonstration of Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Performance for Planetary and Geostationary Earth Observing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revercomb, Henry E.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Best, Fred A.; LaPorte, Daniel D.

    2001-01-01

    The combination of massively parallel spatial sampling and accurate spectral radiometry offered by imaging FTS makes it extremely attractive for earth and planetary remote sensing. We constructed a breadboard instrument to help assess the potential for planetary applications of small imaging FTS instruments in the 1 - 5 micrometer range. The results also support definition of the NASA Geostationary Imaging FTS (GIFTS) instrument that will make key meteorological and climate observations from geostationary earth orbit. The Planetary Imaging FTS (PIFTS) breadboard is based on a custom miniaturized Bomen interferometer that uses corner cube reflectors, a wishbone pivoting voice-coil delay scan mechanism, and a laser diode metrology system. The interferometer optical output is measured by a commercial infrared camera procured from Santa Barbara Focalplane. It uses an InSb 128x128 detector array that covers the entire FOV of the instrument when coupled with a 25 mm focal length commercial camera lens. With appropriate lenses and cold filters the instrument can be used from the visible to 5 micrometers. The delay scan is continuous, but slow, covering the maximum range of +/- 0.4 cm in 37.56 sec at a rate of 500 image frames per second. Image exposures are timed to be centered around predicted zero crossings. The design allows for prediction algorithms that account for the most recent fringe rate so that timing jitter produced by scan speed variations can be minimized. Response to a fixed source is linear with exposure time nearly to the point of saturation. Linearity with respect to input variations was demonstrated to within 0.16% using a 3-point blackbody calibration. Imaging of external complex scenes was carried out at low and high spectral resolution. These require full complex calibration to remove background contributions that vary dramatically over the instrument FOV. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the precise radiometric accuracy and noise characteristics.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FTS high resolution of CoIII (Smillie+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smillie, D. G.; Pickering, J. C.; Nave, G.; Smith, P. L.

    2016-04-01

    The spectrum of Co III was measured in the wavenumber region 33000-66000cm-1 (3030-1515Å) using the NIST vacuum ultraviolet region (VUV) FTS (Spectrum number 6, taken on 1999 August 30). The Co III spectrum was also observed in the region 234-2550Å with the 10.7m NIST normal incidence vacuum spectrograph (NIVS; two spectra named x872 and x875, recorded on 2005 May 26, and June 8, respectively). (5 data files).

  19. Mechanism of regulation of prokaryotic tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ by membrane protein EzrA.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuei-Min; Hsu, Hsin-Hsien; Yeh, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Ban-Yang

    2007-05-18

    At initiation of cell division, FtsZ, a tubulin-like GTPase, assembles into a so-called Z-ring structure at the site of division. The formation of Z ring is negatively regulated by EzrA, which ensures only one ring at the midcell per cell cycle. The mechanism leading to the negative regulation of Z-ring formation by EzrA has been analyzed. Our data reveal that the interaction between EzrA and FtsZ not only reduces the GTP-binding ability of FtsZ but also accelerates the rate of GTP hydrolysis, both of which are unfavorable for the polymerization of FtsZ. Moreover, the acceleration in rate of GTP hydrolysis by EzrA is attributed to stabilization of the transition state for GTP hydrolysis and reduction in the affinity of GDP for FtsZ. Clearly, EzrA is able to modify the GTP hydrolysis cycle of FtsZ. On the basis of these results, a model for how EzrA acts to negatively regulate Z-ring formation is proposed.

  20. Fully efficient chromosome dimer resolution in Escherichia coli cells lacking the integral membrane domain of FtsK

    PubMed Central

    Dubarry, Nelly; Barre, François-Xavier

    2010-01-01

    In bacteria, septum formation frequently initiates before the last steps of chromosome segregation. This is notably the case when chromosome dimers are formed by homologous recombination. Chromosome segregation then requires the activity of a double-stranded DNA transporter anchored at the septum by an integral membrane domain, FtsK. It was proposed that the transmembrane segments of proteins of the FtsK family form pores across lipid bilayers for the transport of DNA. Here, we show that truncated Escherichia coli FtsK proteins lacking all of the FtsK transmembrane segments allow for the efficient resolution of chromosome dimers if they are connected to a septal targeting peptide through a sufficiently long linker. These results indicate that FtsK does not need to transport DNA through a pore formed by its integral membrane domain. We propose therefore that FtsK transports DNA before membrane fusion, at a time when there is still an opening in the constricted septum. PMID:20033058

  1. An analysis of FtsZ assembly using small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuchibhatla, Anuradha; Abdul Rasheed, A S; Narayanan, Janaky; Bellare, Jayesh; Panda, Dulal

    2009-04-09

    Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used for the first time to study the self-assembly of the bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ, with three different additives: calcium chloride, monosodium glutamate and DEAE-dextran hydrochloride in solution. The SAXS data were analyzed assuming a model form factor and also by a model-independent analysis using the pair distance distribution function. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for direct observation of the FtsZ filaments. By sectioning and negative staining with glow discharged grids, very high bundling as well as low bundling polymers were observed under different assembly conditions. FtsZ polymers formed different structures in the presence of different additives and these additives were found to increase the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments by different mechanisms. The combined use of SAXS and TEM provided us a significant insight of the assembly of FtsZ and microstructures of the assembled FtsZ polymers.

  2. The bacterial tubulin FtsZ requires its intrinsically disordered linker to direct robust cell wall construction

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Kousik; Miguel, Amanda; Desmarais, Samantha M.; Meier, Elizabeth L.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Goley, Erin D.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial GTPase FtsZ forms a cytokinetic ring at midcell, recruits the division machinery, and orchestrates membrane and peptidoglycan cell wall invagination. However, the mechanism for FtsZ regulation of peptidoglycan metabolism is unknown. The FtsZ GTPase domain is separated from its membrane-anchoring C-terminal conserved (CTC) peptide by a disordered C-terminal linker (CTL). Here, we investigate CTL function in Caulobacter crescentus. Strikingly, production of FtsZ lacking the CTL (ΔCTL) is lethal: cells become filamentous, form envelope bulges, and lyse, resembling treatment with β-lactam antibiotics. This phenotype is produced by FtsZ polymers bearing the CTC and a CTL shorter than 14 residues. Peptidoglycan synthesis still occurs downstream of ΔCTL, however cells expressing ΔCTL exhibit reduced peptidoglycan crosslinking and longer glycan strands than wildtype. Importantly, midcell proteins are still recruited to sites of ΔCTL assembly. We propose that FtsZ regulates peptidoglycan metabolism through a CTL-dependent mechanism that extends beyond simple protein recruitment. PMID:26099469

  3. Short FtsZ filaments can drive asymmetric cell envelope constriction at the onset of bacterial cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qing; Jewett, Andrew I; Chang, Yi-Wei; Oikonomou, Catherine M; Beeby, Morgan; Iancu, Cristina V; Briegel, Ariane; Ghosal, Debnath; Jensen, Grant J

    2017-06-01

    FtsZ, the bacterial homologue of eukaryotic tubulin, plays a central role in cell division in nearly all bacteria and many archaea. It forms filaments under the cytoplasmic membrane at the division site where, together with other proteins it recruits, it drives peptidoglycan synthesis and constricts the cell. Despite extensive study, the arrangement of FtsZ filaments and their role in division continue to be debated. Here, we apply electron cryotomography to image the native structure of intact dividing cells and show that constriction in a variety of Gram-negative bacterial cells, including Proteus mirabilis and Caulobacter crescentus, initiates asymmetrically, accompanied by asymmetric peptidoglycan incorporation and short FtsZ-like filament formation. These results show that a complete ring of FtsZ is not required for constriction and lead us to propose a model for FtsZ-driven division in which short dynamic FtsZ filaments can drive initial peptidoglycan synthesis and envelope constriction at the onset of cytokinesis, later increasing in length and number to encircle the division plane and complete constriction. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Estimating the bending modulus of a FtsZ bacterial-division protein filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cytrynbaum, Eric N.; Li, Yongnan Devin; Allard, Jun F.; Mehrabian, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ, a cytoskeletal protein homologous to tubulin, is the principle constituent of the division ring in bacterial cells. It is known to have force-generating capacity in vitro and has been conjectured to be the source of the constriction force in vivo. Several models have been proposed to explain the generation of force by the Z ring. Here we re-examine data from in vitro experiments in which Z rings formed and constricted inside tubular liposomes, and we carry out image analysis on previously published data with which to better estimate important model parameters that have proven difficult to measure by direct means. We introduce a membrane-energy-based model for the dynamics of multiple Z rings moving and colliding inside a tubular liposome and a fluid model for the drag of a Z ring as it moves through the tube. Using this model, we estimate an effective membrane bending modulus of 500-700 pNnm. If we assume that FtsZ force generation is driven by hydrolysis into a highly curved conformation, we estimate the FtsZ filament bending modulus to be 310-390 pNnm2. If we assume instead that force is generated by the non-hydrolysis-dependent intermediate curvature conformation, we find that Bf>1400pNnm2. The former value sits at the lower end of the range of previously estimated values and, if correct, may raise challenges for models that rely on filament bending to generate force.

  5. The structural basis of FtsY recruitment and GTPase activation by SRP RNA

    PubMed Central

    Voigts-Hoffmann, Felix; Schmitz, Nikolaus; Shen, Kuang; Shan, Shu-ou; Ataide, Sandro F.; Ban, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Summary The universally conserved Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) system mediates the targeting of membrane proteins to the translocon in a multistep process controlled by GTP hydrolysis. Here we present the 2.6Å crystal structure of the GTPase domains of the E. coli SRP protein (Ffh) and its receptor (FtsY) in complex with the tetraloop and the distal region of SRP-RNA, trapped in the activated state. The structure reveals the atomic details of FtsY recruitment and, together with biochemical experiments, pinpoints G83 as the key RNA residue that stimulates GTP hydrolysis. Insertion of G83 into the FtsY active site orients a single glutamate residue provided by Ffh (E277) triggering GTP hydrolysis and complex disassembly at the end of the targeting cycle. The complete conservation of the key residues of the SRP-RNA and the SRP protein implies that the suggested chemical mechanism of GTPase activation is applicable across all kingdoms. PMID:24211265

  6. Is ftsH the key to plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Jan; Habicht, Jörn; Woehle, Christian; Huang, Changjie; Christa, Gregor; Wägele, Heike; Nickelsen, Jörg; Martin, William F; Gould, Sven B

    2013-01-01

    Plastids sequestered by sacoglossan sea slugs have long been a puzzle. Some sacoglossans feed on siphonaceous algae and can retain the plastids in the cytosol of their digestive gland cells. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) can remain photosynthetically active in some cases for months. Kleptoplast longevity itself challenges current paradigms concerning photosystem turnover, because kleptoplast photosystems remain active in the absence of nuclear algal genes. In higher plants, nuclear genes are essential for plastid maintenance, in particular, for the constant repair of the D1 protein of photosystem II. Lateral gene transfer was long suspected to underpin slug kleptoplast longevity, but recent transcriptomic and genomic analyses show that no algal nuclear genes are expressed from the slug nucleus. Kleptoplast genomes themselves, however, appear expressed in the sequestered state. Here we present sequence data for the chloroplast genome of Acetabularia acetabulum, the food source of the sacoglossan Elysia timida, which can maintain Acetabularia kleptoplasts in an active state for months. The data reveal what might be the key to sacoglossan kleptoplast longevity: plastids that remain photosynthetically active within slugs for periods of months share the property of encoding ftsH, a D1 quality control protease that is essential for photosystem II repair. In land plants, ftsH is always nuclear encoded, it was transferred to the nucleus from the plastid genome when Charophyta and Embryophyta split. A replenishable supply of ftsH could, in principle, rescue kleptoplasts from D1 photodamage, thereby influencing plastid longevity in sacoglossan slugs.

  7. Improved ground-based FTS measurement for column abundance CO2 retrievals(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    The National Institute of Meteorological Sciences has operated a ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Anmyeondo, Korea since December 2012. Anmyeondo FTS site is a designated operational station of Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and belongs to regional Global Atmosphere Watch observatory. A Bruker IFS-125HR model, which has a significantly high spectral resolution by 0.02 cm-1, is employed and instrument specification is almost same as the TCCON configuration. such as a spectrum range of 3,800 16,000 cm-1, a resolution of 1 cm-1, InGaAs and Si-Diode detectors and CaF2 beam splitter. It is found that measured spectra have a good agreement with simulated spectra. In order to improve the spectral accuracy and stability, The Operational Automatic System for Intensity of Sunray (OASIS) has been developed. The OASIS can provide consistent photon energy optimized to detector range by controlling the diameter of solar beam reflected from the mirror of suntracker. As a result, monthly modulation efficiency (ME), which indicates the spectral accuracy of FTS measurement, has been recorded the vicinity of 99.9% since Feb 2015. The ME of 98% is regarded as the error of 0.1% in the ground-based in-situ CO2 measurement. Total column abundances of CO2 and CH4 during 2015 are estimated by using GGG v14 and compared with ground-based in-situ CO2 and CH4 measurements at the height of 86 m above sea level. The seasonality of CO2 is well captured by both FTS and in-situ measurements while there is considerable difference on the amplitude of CO2 seasonal variation due to the insensitivity of column CO2 to the surface carbon cycle dynamics in nature as well as anthropogenic sources. Total column CO2 and CH4 approximately vary from 395 ppm to 405 ppm and from 1.82 ppm to 1.88 ppm, respectively. It should be noted that few measurements obtained in July to August because of a lot of cloud and fog. It is found that enhancement of CH4 from the FTS at Anmyeondo

  8. Proteolysis-Dependent Remodeling of the Tubulin Homolog FtsZ at the Division Septum in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Marissa G.; LaBreck, Christopher J.; Conti, Joseph; Camberg, Jodi L.

    2017-01-01

    During bacterial cell division a dynamic protein structure called the Z-ring assembles at the septum. The major protein in the Z-ring in Escherichia coli is FtsZ, a tubulin homolog that polymerizes with GTP. FtsZ is degraded by the two-component ATP-dependent protease ClpXP. Two regions of FtsZ, located outside of the polymerization domain in the unstructured linker and at the C-terminus, are important for specific recognition and degradation by ClpXP. We engineered a synthetic substrate containing green fluorescent protein (Gfp) fused to an extended FtsZ C-terminal tail (residues 317–383), including the unstructured linker and the C-terminal conserved region, but not the polymerization domain, and showed that it is sufficient to target a non-native substrate for degradation in vitro. To determine if FtsZ degradation regulates Z-ring assembly during division, we expressed a full length Gfp-FtsZ fusion protein in wild type and clp deficient strains and monitored fluorescent Z-rings. In cells deleted for clpX or clpP, or cells expressing protease-defective mutant protein ClpP(S97A), Z-rings appear normal; however, after photobleaching a region of the Z-ring, fluorescence recovers ~70% more slowly in cells without functional ClpXP than in wild type cells. Gfp-FtsZ(R379E), which is defective for degradation by ClpXP, also assembles into Z-rings that recover fluorescence ~2-fold more slowly than Z-rings containing Gfp-FtsZ. In vitro, ClpXP cooperatively degrades and disassembles FtsZ polymers. These results demonstrate that ClpXP is a regulator of Z-ring dynamics and that the regulation is proteolysis-dependent. Our results further show that FtsZ-interacting proteins in E. coli fine-tune Z-ring dynamics. PMID:28114338

  9. Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) teststand and the results of an experimental program designed to evaluate the potential of the technology as a water purification process. In the experimental program the technology is evaluated based upon product water purity, water recovery rate, and power consumption. The experimental work demonstrates that the technology produces high purity product water and attains high water recovery rates at a relatively high specific power consumption. The experimental program was conducted in 3 phases. In phase I an Igepon(TM) soap and water mixture was used to evaluate the performance of an innovative Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk evaporator and associated demister. In phase II a phenol-water solution was used to evaluate the performance of the high temperature catalytic oxidation reactor. In phase III a urine analog was used to evaluate the performance of the combined distillation/oxidation functions of the processor.

  10. Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) teststand and the results of an experimental program designed to evaluate the potential of the technology as a water purification process. In the experimental program the technology is evaluated based upon product water purity, water recovery rate, and power consumption. The experimental work demonstrates that the technology produces high purity product water and attains high water recovery rates at a relatively high specific power consumption. The experimental program was conducted in 3 phases. In phase I an Igepon(TM) soap and water mixture was used to evaluate the performance of an innovative Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk evaporator and associated demister. In phase II a phenol-water solution was used to evaluate the performance of the high temperature catalytic oxidation reactor. In phase III a urine analog was used to evaluate the performance of the combined distillation/oxidation functions of the processor.

  11. Evaluation of an EMITEC resistively heated metal monolith catalytic converter on two M100 neat methanol-fueled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Gregory K.; Schaefer, Ronald M.

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the evaluation of a resistively heated catalyst system on two different methanol fueled vehicles. The EMITEC catalyst consisted of a compact resistively heated metal monolith in front of a larger conventional main converter. The EMITEC catalyst was evaluated on two neat methanol-fueled vehicles, a 1981 Volkswagen Rabbit and a 1988 Toyota Corolla. Emission testing was conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) CVS-75 test cycle. The emissions of primary interest were cold start methanol (unburned fuel), carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde.

  12. Site-directed Fluorescence Labeling Reveals a Revised N-terminal Membrane Topology and Functional Periplasmic Residues in the Escherichia coli Cell Division Protein FtsK*

    PubMed Central

    Berezuk, Alison M.; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M.

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process. PMID:25002583

  13. Site-directed fluorescence labeling reveals a revised N-terminal membrane topology and functional periplasmic residues in the Escherichia coli cell division protein FtsK.

    PubMed

    Berezuk, Alison M; Goodyear, Mara; Khursigara, Cezar M

    2014-08-22

    In Escherichia coli, FtsK is a large integral membrane protein that coordinates chromosome segregation and cell division. The N-terminal domain of FtsK (FtsKN) is essential for division, and the C terminus (FtsKC) is a well characterized DNA translocase. Although the function of FtsKN is unknown, it is suggested that FtsK acts as a checkpoint to ensure DNA is properly segregated before septation. This may occur through modulation of protein interactions between FtsKN and other division proteins in both the periplasm and cytoplasm; thus, a clear understanding of how FtsKN is positioned in the membrane is required to characterize these interactions. The membrane topology of FtsKN was initially determined using site-directed reporter fusions; however, questions regarding this topology persist. Here, we report a revised membrane topology generated by site-directed fluorescence labeling. The revised topology confirms the presence of four transmembrane segments and reveals a newly identified periplasmic loop between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Within this loop, four residues were identified that, when mutated, resulted in the appearance of cellular voids. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of these voids showed asymmetric division of the cytoplasm in the absence of outer membrane invagination or visible cell wall ingrowth. This uncoupling reveals a novel role for FtsK in linking cell envelope septation events and yields further evidence for FtsK as a critical checkpoint of cell division. The revised topology of FtsKN also provides an important platform for future studies on essential interactions required for this process.

  14. Combinatorial synthesis of substituted 3-(2-indolyl)piperidines and 2-phenyl indoles as inhibitors of ZipA-FtsZ interaction.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lee D; Foreman, Kenneth W; Rush, Thomas S; Tsao, Desiree H H; Mosyak, Lidia; Kincaid, Scott L; Sukhdeo, Mohani N; Sutherland, Alan G; Ding, Weidong; Kenny, Cynthia Hess; Sabus, Chantel L; Liu, Hanlan; Dushin, Elizabeth G; Moghazeh, Soraya L; Labthavikul, Pornpen; Petersen, Peter J; Tuckman, Margareta; Haney, Steven A; Ruzin, Alexey V

    2004-10-01

    The ZipA-FtsZ protein-protein interaction is a potential target for antibacterial therapy. The design and parallel synthesis of a combinatorial library of small molecules, which target the FtsZ binding area on ZipA are described. Compounds were demonstrated to bind to the FtsZ binding domain of ZipA by HSQC NMR and to inhibit cell division in a cell elongation assay.

  15. Quantification of strong emissions of methane in the Arctic using spectral measurements from TANSO-FTS and IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourakkadi, Zakia; Payan, Sébastien; Bureau, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after the carbon dioxide but it is 25 times more effective in contributing to the radiative forcing than the carbon dioxide(1). Since the pre-industrial times global methane concentration have more than doubled in the atmosphere. This increase is generally caused by anthropogenic activities like the massif use and extraction of fossil fuel, rice paddy agriculture, emissions from landfills... In recent years, several studies show that climate warming and thawing of permafrost act on the mobilization of old stored carbon in Arctic causing a sustained release of methane to the atmosphere(2),(3),(4). The methane emissions from thawing permafrost and methane hydrates in the northern circumpolar region will become potentially important in the end of the 21st centry because they could increase dramatically due to the rapid climate warming of the Artic and the large carbon pools stored there. The objective of this study is to evaluate and quantify methane strong emissions in this region of the globe using spectral measurements from the Thermal And Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). We use also the LMDZ-PYVAR model to simulate methane fluxes and to estimate how they could be observed by Infrared Sounders from space. To select spectra with high values of methane we developed a statistical approach based on the singular value decomposition. Using this approach we can identify spectra over the important emission sources of methane and we can by this way reduce the number of spectra to retrieve by an line-by-line radiative transfer model in order to focus on those which contain high amount of methane. In order to estimate the capacity of TANSO-FTS and IASI to detect peaks of methane emission with short duration at quasi-real time, we used data from MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) simulations

  16. A 4 K FTS demonstrator for future cooled space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, David; Veenendaal, Ian; Gom, Brad; Ade, Peter

    2016-07-01

    A commercial Fourier transform spectrometer scanning mechanism has been modified for operation at cryogenic temperatures. When installed in a 4 K cryostat with a multiple component blackbody calibration source and sensitive sub-Kelvin detector, the spectrometer will allow the evaluation of different scanning methods, metrology options and data compression techniques. It will also enable the study of the performance of critical optical components such as beam splitters and filters at their intended operating temperatures.

  17. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  18. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  19. Variations in the binding pocket of an inhibitor of the bacterial division protein FtsZ across genotypes and species.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Amanda; Hsin, Jen; Liu, Tianyun; Tang, Grace; Altman, Russ B; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2015-03-01

    The recent increase in antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria calls for new approaches to drug-target selection and drug development. Targeting the mechanisms of action of proteins involved in bacterial cell division bypasses problems associated with increasingly ineffective variants of older antibiotics; to this end, the essential bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ is a promising target. Recent work on its allosteric inhibitor, PC190723, revealed in vitro activity on Staphylococcus aureus FtsZ and in vivo antimicrobial activities. However, the mechanism of drug action and its effect on FtsZ in other bacterial species are unclear. Here, we examine the structural environment of the PC190723 binding pocket using PocketFEATURE, a statistical method that scores the similarity between pairs of small-molecule binding sites based on 3D structure information about the local microenvironment, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We observed that species and nucleotide-binding state have significant impacts on the structural properties of the binding site, with substantially disparate microenvironments for bacterial species not from the Staphylococcus genus. Based on PocketFEATURE analysis of MD simulations of S. aureus FtsZ bound to GTP or with mutations that are known to confer PC190723 resistance, we predict that PC190723 strongly prefers to bind Staphylococcus FtsZ in the nucleotide-bound state. Furthermore, MD simulations of an FtsZ dimer indicated that polymerization may enhance PC190723 binding. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a drug-binding pocket can vary significantly across species, genetic perturbations, and in different polymerization states, yielding important information for the further development of FtsZ inhibitors.

  20. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  1. Dependency of Escherichia coli cell-division size, and independency of nucleoid segregation on the mode and level of ftsZ expression.

    PubMed

    Palacios, P; Vicente, M; Sánchez, M

    1996-06-01

    Expression of ftsZ in strain VIP205 is dissociated from its natural promoters, and is under the control of an inducible tac promoter. This abolishes the oscillation in ftsZ transcription observed in the wild type, allowing different levels of ftsZ expression. We demonstrate that this construction does not affect the expression of other genes, and has no effects on replication or nucleoid segregation. A shift in IPTG from 30 microM, that supports division at wild-type sizes, to lower (6 microM) or higher (100 microM) concentrations, indicates that VIP205 cells can divide within a broad range of FtsZ concentrations. Analysis of the morphological parameters during the transition from one IPTG concentration to another suggests that the correct timing of ftsZ expression, and the correct FtsZ concentration, are required for division to occur at normal cell sizes. After a transient division delay during the transition to lower IPTG concentrations, cells in which ftsZ is expressed continuously (yielding 80% of the wild-type FtsZ levels) divide with the same division time as the wild type, but at the expense of becoming 1.5 times larger. A precise control of ftsZ expression is required for normal division, but the existence of additional regulators to maintain the correct timing during the cell cycle cannot be ruled out.

  2. GTP hydrolysis of cell division protein FtsZ: evidence that the active site is formed by the association of monomers.

    PubMed

    Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; de Wit, Janny G; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2002-01-15

    The essential prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ is a tubulin homologue that forms a ring at the division site. FtsZ forms polymers in a GTP-dependent manner. Recent biochemical evidence has shown that FtsZ forms multimeric structures in vitro and in vivo and functions as a self-activating GTPase. Structural analysis of FtsZ points to an important role for the highly conserved tubulin-like loop 7 (T7-loop) in the self-activation of GTP hydrolysis. The T7-loop was postulated to form the active site together with the nucleotide-binding site on an adjacent FtsZ monomer. To characterize the role of the T7-loop of Escherichia coli FtsZ, we have mutagenized residues M206, N207, D209, D212, and R214. All the mutant proteins, except the R214 mutant, are severely affected in polymerization and GTP hydrolysis. Charged residues D209 and D212 cannot be substituted with a glutamate residue. All mutants interact with wild-type FtsZ in vitro, indicating that the T7-loop mutations do not abolish FtsZ self-association. Strikingly, in mixtures of wild-type and mutant proteins, most mutants are capable of inhibiting wild-type GTP hydrolysis. We conclude that the T7-loop is part of the active site for GTP hydrolysis, formed by the association of two FtsZ monomers.

  3. The bacterial cell-division protein ZipA and its interaction with an FtsZ fragment revealed by X-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Mosyak, Lidia; Zhang, Yan; Glasfeld, Elizabeth; Haney, Steve; Stahl, Mark; Seehra, Jasbir; Somers, William S.

    2000-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, FtsZ, a homologue of eukaryotic tubulins, and ZipA, a membrane-anchored protein that binds to FtsZ, are two essential components of the septal ring structure that mediates cell division. Recent data indicate that ZipA is involved in the assembly of the ring by linking FtsZ to the cytoplasmic membrane and that the ZipA–FtsZ interaction is mediated by their C-terminal domains. We present the X-ray crystal structures of the C-terminal FtsZ-binding domain of ZipA and a complex between this domain and a C-terminal fragment of FtsZ. The ZipA domain is a six-stranded β-sheet packed against three α-helices and contains the split β–α–β motif found in many RNA-binding proteins. The uncovered side of the sheet incorporates a shallow hydrophobic cavity exposed to solvent. In the complex, the 17-residue FtsZ fragment occupies this entire cavity of ZipA and binds as an extended β-strand followed by α-helix. An alanine-scanning mutagenesis analysis of the FtsZ fragment was also performed, which shows that only a small cluster of the buried FtsZ side chains is critical in binding to ZipA. PMID:10880432

  4. In vivo organization of the FtsZ-ring by ZapA and ZapB revealed by quantitative super-resolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Huang, Tao; Pohlmeyer, Chris; Wang, Shih-Chin; Hatem, Christine; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Summary In most bacterial cells, cell division is dependent on the polymerization of the FtsZ protein to form a ring-like structure (Z-ring) at the midcell. Despite its essential role, the molecular architecture of the Z-ring remains elusive. In this work we examine the roles of two FtsZ-associated proteins, ZapA and ZapB, in the assembly dynamics and structure of the Z-ring in E. coli cells. In cells deleted of zapA or zapB, we observed abnormal septa and highly dynamic FtsZ structures. While details of these FtsZ structures are difficult to discern under conventional fluorescence microscopy, single-molecule based superresolution imaging method Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) reveals that these FtsZ structures arise from disordered arrangements of FtsZ clusters. Quantitative analysis finds these clusters are larger and comprise more molecules than a single FtsZ protofilament, and likely represent a distinct polymeric species that is inherent to the assembly pathway of the Z-ring. Furthermore, we find these clusters are not due to the loss of ZapB-MatP interaction in ΔzapA and ΔzapB cells. Our results suggest that the main function of ZapA and ZapB in vivo may not be to promote the association of individual protofilaments but to align FtsZ clusters that consist of multiple FtsZ protofilaments. PMID:23859153

  5. Switchable catalytic DNA catenanes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianzhe; Lu, Chun-Hua; Willner, Itamar

    2015-03-11

    Two-ring interlocked DNA catenanes are synthesized and characterized. The supramolecular catenanes show switchable cyclic catalytic properties. In one system, the catenane structure is switched between a hemin/G-quadruplex catalytic structure and a catalytically inactive state. In the second catenane structure the catenane is switched between a catalytically active Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzyme-containing catenane and an inactive catenane state. In the third system, the interlocked catenane structure is switched between two distinct catalytic structures that include the Mg(2+)- and the Zn(2+)-dependent DNAzymes.

  6. Production of versatile peroxidase from Pleurotus eryngii by solid-state fermentation using agricultural residues and evaluation of its catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Palma, C; Lloret, L; Sepúlveda, L; Contreras, E

    2016-01-01

    Interest in production of ligninolytic enzymes has been growing over recent years for their use in various applications such as recalcitrant pollutants bioremediation; specifically, versatile peroxidase (VP) presents a great potential due to its catalytic versatility. The proper selection of the fermentation mode and the culture medium should be an imperative to ensure a successful production by an economic and available medium that favors the process viability. VP was produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Pleurotus eryngii, using the agricultural residue banana peel as growth medium; an enzymatic activity of 10,800 U L(-1) (36 U g(-1) of substrate) was detected after 18 days, whereas only 1800 U L(-1) was reached by conventional submerged fermentation (SF) with glucose-based medium. The kinetic parameters were determined by evaluating the H2O2 and Mn(2+) concentration effects on the Mn(3+)-tartrate complex formation. The results indicated that although the H2O2 inhibitory effect was observed for the enzyme produced by both media, the reaction rates for VP obtained by SSF were less impacted. This outcome suggests the presence of substances released from banana peel during the fermentation, which might exhibit a protective effect resulting in an improved kinetic behavior of the enzyme.

  7. New palladium–oxazoline complexes: Synthesis and evaluation of the optical properties and the catalytic power during the oxidation of textile dyes

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Rym; Jabli, Mahjoub; Kacem, Yakdhane; Marrot, Jérôme; Prim, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Summary The present paper describes the synthesis of new palladium–oxazoline complexes in one step with good to high yields (68–95%). The oxazolines were prepared from enantiomerically pure α-aminoalcohols. The structures of the synthesized palladium complexes were confirmed by NMR, FTIR, TOFMS, UV–visible spectroscopic analysis and X–ray diffraction. The optical properties of the complexes were evaluated by the determination of the gap energy values (E g) ranging between 2.34 and 3.21 eV. Their catalytic activities were tested for the degradation of Eriochrome Blue Black B (a model of azo dyes) in the presence of an ecological oxidant (H2O2). The efficiency of the decolorization has been confirmed via UV–visible spectroscopic analysis and the factors affecting the degradation phenomenon have been studied. The removal of the Eriochrome reached high yields. We have found that the complex 9 promoted 84% of color elimination within 5 min (C 0 = 30 mg/L, T = 22 °C, pH 7, H2O2 = 0.5 mL) and the energetic parameters have been also determined. PMID:26425176

  8. New palladium-oxazoline complexes: Synthesis and evaluation of the optical properties and the catalytic power during the oxidation of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Rym; Jabli, Mahjoub; Kacem, Yakdhane; Marrot, Jérôme; Prim, Damien; Ben Hassine, Béchir

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis of new palladium-oxazoline complexes in one step with good to high yields (68-95%). The oxazolines were prepared from enantiomerically pure α-aminoalcohols. The structures of the synthesized palladium complexes were confirmed by NMR, FTIR, TOFMS, UV-visible spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of the complexes were evaluated by the determination of the gap energy values (E g) ranging between 2.34 and 3.21 eV. Their catalytic activities were tested for the degradation of Eriochrome Blue Black B (a model of azo dyes) in the presence of an ecological oxidant (H2O2). The efficiency of the decolorization has been confirmed via UV-visible spectroscopic analysis and the factors affecting the degradation phenomenon have been studied. The removal of the Eriochrome reached high yields. We have found that the complex 9 promoted 84% of color elimination within 5 min (C 0 = 30 mg/L, T = 22 °C, pH 7, H2O2 = 0.5 mL) and the energetic parameters have been also determined.

  9. A Multi-layered Protein Network Stabilizes the Escherichia coli FtsZ-ring and Modulates Constriction Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Shtengel, Gleb; Yang, Xinxing; Hess, Harald; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, forms a ring-like structure (FtsZ-ring) at midcell. The FtsZ-ring establishes the division plane and enables the assembly of the macromolecular division machinery (divisome). Although many molecular components of the divisome have been identified and their interactions extensively characterized, the spatial organization of these proteins within the divisome is unclear. Consequently, the physical mechanisms that drive divisome assembly, maintenance, and constriction remain elusive. Here we applied single-molecule based superresolution imaging, combined with genetic and biophysical investigations, to reveal the spatial organization of cellular structures formed by four important divisome proteins in E. coli: FtsZ, ZapA, ZapB and MatP. We show that these interacting proteins are arranged into a multi-layered protein network extending from the cell membrane to the chromosome, each with unique structural and dynamic properties. Further, we find that this protein network stabilizes the FtsZ-ring, and unexpectedly, slows down cell constriction, suggesting a new, unrecognized role for this network in bacterial cell division. Our results provide new insight into the structure and function of the divisome, and highlight the importance of coordinated cell constriction and chromosome segregation. PMID:25848771

  10. Simple modeling of FtsZ polymers on flat and curved surfaces: correlation with experimental in vitro observations

    PubMed Central

    Paez, Alfonso; Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Hörger, Ines; Mingorance, Jesús; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel; Vélez, Marisela; Tarazona, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    FtsZ is a GTPase that assembles at midcell into a dynamic ring that constricts the membrane to induce cell division in the majority of bacteria, in many archea and several organelles. In vitro, FtsZ polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner forming a variety of filamentous flexible structures. Based on data derived from the measurement of the in vitro polymerization of Escherichia coli FtsZ cell division protein we have formulated a model in which the fine balance between curvature, flexibility and lateral interactions accounts for structural and dynamic properties of the FtsZ polymers observed with AFM. The experimental results have been used by the model to calibrate the interaction energies and the values obtained indicate that the filaments are very plastic. The extension of the model to explore filament behavior on a cylindrical surface has shown that the FtsZ condensates promoted by lateral interactions can easily form ring structures through minor modulations of either filament curvature or longitudinal bond energies. The condensation of short, monomer exchanging filaments into rings is shown to produce enough force to induce membrane deformations. PACS codes: 87.15.ak, 87.16.ka, 87.17.Ee PMID:19849848

  11. SAR Studies on Trisubstituted Benzimidazoles as Inhibitors of Mtb FtsZ for the Development of Novel Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Divya; Kumar, Kunal; Knudson, Susan E.; Slayden, Richard A.; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    FtsZ, an essential protein for bacterial cell division, is a highly promising therapeutic target, especially for the discovery and development of new-generation anti-TB agents. Following up the identification of two lead 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles, 1 and 2, targeting Mtb-FtsZ in our previous study, an extensive SAR study for optimization of these lead compounds was performed through systematic modification of the 5 and 6 positions. This study has successfully led to the discovery of a highly potent advanced lead 5f (MIC 0.06 µg/mL) and several other compounds with comparable potencies. These advanced lead compounds possess a dimethylamino group at the 6 position. The functional groups at the 5 position exhibit substantial effects on the antibacterial activity as well. In vitro experiments such as the FtsZ polymerization inhibitory assay and TEM analysis of Mtb-FtsZ treated with 5f and others indicate that Mtb-FtsZ is the molecular target for their antibacterial activity. PMID:24266862

  12. Studies on the Dissociation and Urea-Induced Unfolding of FtsZ Support the Dimer Nucleus Polymerization Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Montecinos-Franjola, Felipe; Ross, Justin A.; Sánchez, Susana A.; Brunet, Juan E.; Lagos, Rosalba; Jameson, David M.; Monasterio, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ is a major protein in bacterial cytokinesis that polymerizes into single filaments. A dimer has been proposed to be the nucleating species in FtsZ polymerization. To investigate the influence of the self-assembly of FtsZ on its unfolding pathway, we characterized its oligomerization and unfolding thermodynamics. We studied the assembly using size-exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy, and the unfolding using circular dichroism and two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The chromatographic analysis demonstrated the presence of monomers, dimers, and tetramers with populations dependent on protein concentration. Dilution experiments using fluorescent conjugates revealed dimer-to-monomer and tetramer-to-dimer dissociation constants in the micromolar range. Measurements of fluorescence lifetimes and rotational correlation times of the conjugates supported the presence of tetramers at high protein concentrations and monomers at low protein concentrations. The unfolding study demonstrated that the three-state unfolding of FtsZ was due to the mainly dimeric state of the protein, and that the monomer unfolds through a two-state mechanism. The monomer-to-dimer equilibrium characterized here (Kd = 9 μM) indicates a significant fraction (∼10%) of stable dimers at the critical concentration for polymerization, supporting a role of the dimeric species in the first steps of FtsZ polymerization. PMID:22824282

  13. Microenvironments created by liquid-liquid phase transition control the dynamic distribution of bacterial division FtsZ protein

    PubMed Central

    Monterroso, Begoña; Zorrilla, Silvia; Sobrinos-Sanguino, Marta; Keating, Christine D.; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    The influence of membrane-free microcompartments resulting from crowding-induced liquid/liquid phase separation (LLPS) on the dynamic spatial organization of FtsZ, the main component of the bacterial division machinery, has been studied using several LLPS systems. The GTP-dependent assembly cycle of FtsZ is thought to be crucial for the formation of the septal ring, which is highly regulated in time and space. We found that FtsZ accumulates in one of the phases and/or at the interface, depending on the system composition and on the oligomerization state of the protein. These results were observed both in bulk LLPS and in lipid-stabilized, phase-separated aqueous microdroplets. The visualization of the droplets revealed that both the location and structural arrangement of FtsZ filaments is determined by the nature of the LLPS. Relocation upon depolymerization of the dynamic filaments suggests the protein may shift among microenvironments in response to changes in its association state. The existence of these dynamic compartments driven by phase transitions can alter the local composition and reactivity of FtsZ during its life cycle acting as a nonspecific modulating factor of cell function. PMID:27725777

  14. The Escherichia coli cell division protein ZipA forms homodimers prior to association with FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Karl; Daley, Daniel O

    2012-02-21

    ZipA is an essential component of the cell division machinery in E. coli and other closely related bacteria. It is an integral membrane protein that binds to FtsZ, tethering it to the inner membrane. ZipA also induces bundling of FtsZ protofilaments and may play a role in regulating FtsA activity; however, the molecular details behind these observations are not clear. In this study we have analyzed the oligomeric state of ZipA in vivo, by chemical cross-linking, and in vitro, by native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). Our data indicate that ZipA can self-associate as a homodimer and that this self-interaction is not dependent on the FtsZ-binding domain. This observation rules out the possibility that FtsZ polymers mediate the ZipA self-interaction. Given this observation, it is possible that a certain population of ZipA is recruited to the division septum in a homodimeric form.

  15. Tubulin secondary structure analysis, limited proteolysis sites, and homology to FtsZ.

    PubMed

    de Pereda, J M; Leynadier, D; Evangelio, J A; Chacón, P; Andreu, J M

    1996-11-12

    The far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrum of the alpha beta-tubulin dimer analyzed by six different methods indicates an average content of approximately 33% alpha helix, 21% beta sheet, and 45% other secondary structure. Deconvolution of Fourier transform infrared spectra indicates 24% sheet, 37% (maximum) helix, and 38% (minimum) other structure. Separate alignments of 75 alpha-tubulin, 106 beta-tubulin, and 14 gamma-tubulin sequences and 12 sequences of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ have been employed to predict their secondary structures with the multiple-sequence method PHD [Rost, B., & Sander, C. (1993a) J. Mol. Biol. 232, 584-599]. The predicted secondary structures average of 33% alpha helix, 24% beta sheet, and 43% loop for the alpha beta dimer. The predictions have been compared with sites of limited proteolysis by 12 proteases at the surfaces of the heterodimer and taxol-induced microtubules [de Pereda, J. M., & Andreu, J. M. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 14184-14202]. From 24 experimentally determined nicking sites, 18 are at predicted loops or at the extremes of secondary structure elements. Proteolysis zone A (including acetylable Lys40 and probably Lys60 in alpha-tubulin and Gly93 in beta-tubulin) and proteolysis zone B (extending between residues 167 and 183 in both chains) are accessible in microtubules. Proteolysis zone C, between residues 278 and 295, becomes partially occluded in microtubules. The alpha-tubulin nicking site Arg339-Ser340 is at a loop following a predicted alpha helix in proteolysis zone D. This site is protected in taxol microtubules; however, a new tryptic site appears which is probably located at the N-terminal end of the same helix. Zone D also contains beta-tubulin Cys354, which is accessible in microtubules. Proteolysis zone E includes the C-terminal hypervariable loops (10-20 residues) of each tubulin chain. These follow the two larger predicted helical zones (residues 372-395 and 405-432 in beta-tubulin), which

  16. Multispectral analysis of Cygnus Loop and IC 443 with iFTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarie, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Cygnus Loop and IC 443 are supernova remnants (SNRs) recognized as excellent laboratories to study the interaction between the SNR and the surrounding interstellar medium. The overall complex morphologies and large dimensions of those SNRs have always represented an observational challenge. This is especially true for optical observations for which the data available are very scarce. In order to palliate this scarcity in the optical regime, we are using two wide field-imaging Fourier transform spectrometers (iFTS): SpIOMM, attached to the Mont Megantic 1.6-m telescope and SITELLE recently installed at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Both instruments are capable of obtaining the spatially resolved visible spectrum of every source of light in an 11 arc minute field of view, in selected bandpasses. Using those iFTS on extended object such as Cygnus Loop and IC 443, we have obtained millions of spectra covering all major emission lines. Due to the large projected surface of Cygnus Loop and IC 443, we started a survey and the latest dataset will be presented. The extended 2D mappings of several emission lines ([O II] 3727, [O III] 4363, Hb, [O III] 4959, 5007, Ha, [N II] 6548, 6583 and [S II] 6716, 6731) allowed the creation of numerous ratios maps useful for shock diagnostics: shock velocity, electronic and temperature densities, location of incomplete shocks and extinction maps. These maps are then used to determine key parameters needed to compare the observations with theoretical shock models. Using the shock modeling code MAPPINGS, we can create abundances maps of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur for an appreciable fraction of the observed regions. Furthermore, using the radial velocity as well as the spectro-imagery capability of the iFTS, we can have a glimpse of the three-dimensional structure of the remnants. All those data allow us to forge a coherent analysis of the complex interaction between the SNRs and their surrounding environment.

  17. FtsZ Filament Dynamics at Steady State: Subunit Exchange with and without Nucleotide Hydrolysis†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaodong; Erickson, Harold P.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured three aspects of FtsZ filament dynamics at steady state: rates of GTP hydrolysis, subunit exchange between protofilaments, and disassembly induced by dilution or excess GDP. All three reactions were slowed with an increase in the potassium concentration from 100 to 500 mM, via replacement of potassium with rubidium, or with an increase in the magnesium concentration from 5 to 20 mM. Electron microscopy showed that the polymers assembled under the conditions of fastest assembly were predominantly short, one-stranded protofilaments, whereas under conditions of slower dynamics, the protofilaments tended to associate into long, thin bundles. We suggest that exchange of subunits between protofilaments at steady state involves two separate mechanisms: (1) fragmentation or dissociation of subunits from protofilament ends following GTP hydrolysis and (2) reversible association and dissociation of subunits from protofilament ends independent of hydrolysis. Exchange of nucleotides on these recycling subunits could give the appearance of exchange directly into the polymer. Several of our observations suggest that exchange of nucleotide can take place on these recycling subunits, but not directly into the FtsZ polymer. Annealing of protofilaments was demonstrated for the L68W mutant in EDTA buffer but not in Mg buffer, where rapid cycling of subunits may obscure the effect of annealing. We also reinvestigated the nucleotide composition of FtsZ polymers at steady state. We found that the GDP:GTP ratio was 50:50 for concentrations of GTP > 100 μM, significantly higher than the 20:80 ratio previously reported at 20 μM GTP. PMID:19527070

  18. The flight telerobotic servicer (FTS): A focus for automation and robotics on the space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkal, S. W.; Andary, J. F.; Watzin, J. G.; Provost, D. E.

    NASA has committed to the design and implementation of a robotic device to assist the astronauts in assembly, maintenance, servicing and inspection tasks in the unpressurized environment of the Space Station, substantially reducing the time required for crew extra vehicular activity (EVA). This system introduces into the Space Station program a "telerobot" adaptable to a variety of tasks and worksites. The term "telerobot" is used to indicate the combined attributes of an autonomous robot and a teleoperated manipulator. Design requirements for the telerobot are driven by a detailed analysis of the tasks which are required on the Space Station and its associated free-flying platforms. The Space Station will have several kilometers of truss structure to which are attached numerous scientific payloads, as well as functional elements and utilities of the Space Station itself. Scientific payloads require servicing of different levels of complexity. Free-flying spacecraft will be brought into the hangar-like servicing facility for repair. There will be maintenance and inspection tasks of the Space Station elements, as well as initial Space Station assembly tasks. A step-by-step analysis of candidate tasks has led to a design envelope for the telerobot. Since the telerobot is an extension or telepresence of the astronaut at the remote worksite, design of the workstation in the pressurized module has to give careful consideration to the man/machine interface, as well as the constrained volume in the pressurized modules. The flight telerobotic servicer (FTS) is designed for future growth toward more autonomy. By a careful selection of the functional architecture, and a modular approach to the hardware and software design, the FTS can accept developments in artificial intelligence and newer, more advanced sensors, such as machine vision and collision avoidance. The FTS is a focus for automation and robotics on the Space Station, as well as a baseline from which visionary

  19. Estimating the bending modulus of a FtsZ bacterial-division protein filament.

    PubMed

    Cytrynbaum, Eric N; Li, Yongnan Devin; Allard, Jun F; Mehrabian, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ, a cytoskeletal protein homologous to tubulin, is the principle constituent of the division ring in bacterial cells. It is known to have force-generating capacity in vitro and has been conjectured to be the source of the constriction force in vivo. Several models have been proposed to explain the generation of force by the Z ring. Here we re-examine data from in vitro experiments in which Z rings formed and constricted inside tubular liposomes, and we carry out image analysis on previously published data with which to better estimate important model parameters that have proven difficult to measure by direct means. We introduce a membrane-energy-based model for the dynamics of multiple Z rings moving and colliding inside a tubular liposome and a fluid model for the drag of a Z ring as it moves through the tube. Using this model, we estimate an effective membrane bending modulus of 500-700 pN nm. If we assume that FtsZ force generation is driven by hydrolysis into a highly curved conformation, we estimate the FtsZ filament bending modulus to be 310-390 pN nm(2). If we assume instead that force is generated by the non-hydrolysis-dependent intermediate curvature conformation, we find that B(f)>1400 pN nm(2). The former value sits at the lower end of the range of previously estimated values and, if correct, may raise challenges for models that rely on filament bending to generate force. © 2012 American Physical Society

  20. Preparation of the GOSAT-2 FTS-2 SWIR products and its preliminary sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Kamei, A.; Morino, I.; Saito, M.; Noda, H.; Matsunaga, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched in January 2009 and observed global distribution of the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane (XCO2 and XCH4) for about seven years. As a successor mission to the GOSAT, GOSAT-2 is planned to be launched in early 2018, and its critical design review (CDR) was completed. GOSAT-2 also has a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) like GOSAT to obtain short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) light reflected from the earth's surface and thermal infrared (TIR) radiation emitted from the ground and atmosphere. According to the current design of the FTS-2 (FTS onboard the GOSAT-2), its SNR is higher than or almost equal to that onboard the GOSAT, and it covers the 2.3 μm carbon monoxide (CO) band as well as the 1.6 and 2.0 μm CO2 bands and 1.67 μm CH4 band. The SWIR Level 2 retrieval algorithm for GOSAT-2 is developing based on the latest full-physics based retrieval algorithm for GOSAT. Our preliminary sensitivity test shows that the SNR improvement in SWIR bands reduces the retrieval random error (precision) about 15% for XCO2 and 35% for XCH4 than those of GOSAT. In addition to the full-physics based XCO2, XCH4, XH2O, and XCO products, we are planning to provide the proxy-based XCH4 products as well as solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence products.

  1. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of photo-catalytically treated petroleum refinery wastewater using an array of bioassays.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar; Nisar, Jan; Adil, Muhammad; Abbas, Mazhar; Riaz, Muhammad; Tahir, M Asif; Younus, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    Degradation and detoxification of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) was carried out by advanced oxidation processes (UV/TiO2/H2O2 and gamma radiation/H2O2). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the independent variables. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using Allium cepa, brime shrimp and haemolytic assays; whereas mutagenicity was tested by Ames tests (TA98 and TA100 strains). Maximum reductions in COD and BOD were recorded as 78% and 87% for UV/TiO2/H2O2 and 77% and 86% for gamma ray/H2O2, respectively. Treatments with both methods at optimized conditions reduced the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of PRW, however, UV/TiO2/H2O2 system was found slightly efficient as compared to gamma ray/H2O2. From the results, it can be concluded that AOP's can successfully be utilized for the degradation of toxic pollutants in petroleum refinery wastewater. Moreover, the bioassays used in this study offered a good reliability for checking the detoxification of treated and un-treated PRW wastewater.

  2. Transcription of the Escherichia coli dcw cluster: evidence for distal upstream transcripts being involved in the expression of the downstream ftsZ gene.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, A; Palacios, P; Vicente, M

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains VIP596 and VIP597 have been constructed to compare the amount of transcription of the ftsZ gene derived from proximal promoters in the ddlB-ftsZ region with that originating in the upstream regions of the dcw cluster. Both strains have in common a beta-galactosidase reporter fusion located at the ddlB locus, but differ in that VIP597 has a transcription terminator Omega interposon located downstream from lacZ. In addition, these strains have the ddlB, ftsQ, ftsA and ftsZ genes under the control of the IPTG-inducible promoter P(tac), allowing to control artificially ftsZ expression for normal cell division to take place. When beta-galactosidase activity was measured in VIP596 and VIP597 and compared to the levels measured in strain VIP407, in which the lacZ reporter fusion is located in the ftsZ gene, they were found to account for nearly 66% of the total transcription entering into ftsZ. This result indicates that the reduction in ftsZ transcription observed when the promoters in the ddlB-ftsA region are disconnected from the upstream sequences of the dcw cluster (as observed by Flärdh et al., Mol. Microbiol. 30 (1998) 305-316) in strain VIP490) is the direct consequence of the interruption in the transcription originated upstream and not due to the effect of such sequences on the promoters proximal to ftsZ.

  3. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen/oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.; Zurawski, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a unique monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant inlet temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of a catalytic igniter. The test results showed that the gaseous hydrogen/oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using both the granular and monolithic catalysts are presented. The capabilities of a facility constructed to conduct the igniter testing and the advantages of a catalytic igniter over other ignition systems for gaseous hydrogen and oxygen are also discussed.

  4. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Green, James M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellants. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of the catalytic igniter. The test results show that the gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. A cyclic life of nearly 2000, 2 sec pulses at nominal operating conditions was demonstrated with the catalytic igniter. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using the Shell 405 catalyst are presented.

  5. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Green, James M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellants. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of the catalytic igniter. The test results show that the gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. A cyclic life of nearly 2000, 2 sec pulses at nominal operating conditions was demonstrated with the catalytic igniter. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using the Shell 405 catalysts are presented.

  6. Catalytic ignition of hydrogen and oxygen propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Green, James M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the catalytic ignition of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellants. Shell 405 granular catalyst and a monolithic sponge catalyst were tested. Mixture ratio, mass flow rate, propellant temperature, and back pressure were varied parametrically in testing to determine the operational limits of the catalytic igniter. The test results show that the gaseous hydrogen and oxygen propellant combination can be ignited catalytically using Shell 405 catalyst over a wide range of mixture ratios, mass flow rates, and propellant injection temperatures. These operating conditions must be optimized to ensure reliable ignition for an extended period of time. A cyclic life of nearly 2000, 2 sec pulses at nominal operating conditions was demonstrated with the catalytic igniter. The results of the experimental program and the established operational limits for a catalytic igniter using the Shell 405 catalysts are presented.

  7. Visualization of plastids in pollen grains: involvement of FtsZ1 in pollen plastid division.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lay Yin; Nagata, Noriko; Matsushima, Ryo; Chen, Yuling; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2009-04-01

    Visualizing organelles in living cells is a powerful method to analyze their intrinsic mechanisms. Easy observation of chlorophyll facilitates the study of the underlying mechanisms in chloroplasts, but not in other plastid types. Here, we constructed a transgenic plant enabling visualization of plastids in pollen grains. Combination of a plastid-targeted fluorescent protein with a pollen-specific promoter allowed us to observe the precise number, size and morphology of plastids in pollen grains of the wild type and the ftsZ1 mutant, whose responsible gene plays a central role in chloroplast division. The transgenic material presented in this work is useful for studying the division mechanism of pollen plastids.

  8. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light catalytic cracked naphtha distillate in rats.

    PubMed

    Lapin, C; Bui, Q; Breglia, R; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; Lapadula, E; Roth, R; Schreiner, C; White, R; Clark, C; Mandella, R; Hoffman, G

    2001-01-01

    A 15-week, whole-body inhalation study of the vapors of a distillate (LCCN-D) of light catalytic cracked naphtha (CAS no. 64741-55-5, LCCN) was conducted with Sprague-Dawley rats. Target exposure concentrations were 0, 750, 2500, and 7500 ppm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week. Over the course of the study, animals received at least 65 exposures. For a portion of the control and 7500-ppm groups, a 4-week postexposure period was included in the study. Subchronic toxicity was evaluated using standard parameters. During life, neurotoxicity was evaluated by motor activity assessment and a functional observational battery. Selected tissues from animals in all exposure groups were examined microscopically. Neuropathologic examination of selected neuronal tissues from animals in the control and high-exposure groups was also conducted. No compound-related effects were seen on survival, clinical chemistry, food consumption, or physical signs. No evidence of neurotoxicity was seen at any exposure level. Slight decreases in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations were seen in male rats at the end of exposure to 7500 ppm LCCN-D. However, values were within normal physiological ranges and recovery occurred. Slight decreases in mean body weights and body weight gain were observed in high-exposure females during the first 7 weeks of exposure, but this decrease was not seen during the second half of the study. Male rat nephropathy involving hyaline droplet formation and alpha-2micro-globulin accumulation was seen in mid- and high-exposure males, an effect not relevant to humans. The incidence and severity of goblet cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia and respiratory epithelium hyperplasia in nasoturbinal tissues were greater in high-exposure animals, but recovery occurred. None of the effects observed were considered toxicologically significant. The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for subchronic and neurotoxicity of LCCN-D was > or = 7500 ppm.

  9. Multiscale Evaluation of Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors on Ni- and Ga-Modified ZSM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Matthew M.; Stanton, Alexander R.; Iisa, Kristiina; French, Richard J.; Orton, Kellene A.; Magrini, Kimberly A.

    2016-10-07

    Metal-impregnated (Ni or Ga) ZSM-5 catalysts were studied for biomass pyrolysis vapor upgrading to produce hydrocarbons using three reactors constituting a 100 000x change in the amount of catalyst used in experiments. Catalysts were screened for pyrolysis vapor phase upgrading activity in two small-scale reactors: (i) a Pyroprobe with a 10 mg catalyst in a fixed bed and (ii) a fixed-bed reactor with 500 mg of catalyst. The best performing catalysts were then validated with a larger scale fluidized-bed reactor (using ~1 kg of catalyst) that produced measurable quantities of bio-oil for analysis and evaluation of mass balances. Despite some inherent differences across the reactor systems (such as residence time, reactor type, analytical techniques, mode of catalyst and biomass feed) there was good agreement of reaction results for production of aromatic hydrocarbons, light gases, and coke deposition. Relative to ZSM-5, Ni or Ga addition to ZSM-5 increased production of fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons and light gases. In the fluidized bed reactor, Ga/ZSM-5 slightly enhanced carbon efficiency to condensed oil, which includes oxygenates in addition to aromatic hydrocarbons, and reduced oil oxygen content compared to ZSM-5. Ni/ZSM-5, while giving the highest yield of fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons, gave lower overall carbon efficiency to oil but with the lowest oxygen content. Reaction product analysis coupled with fresh and spent catalyst characterization indicated that the improved performance of Ni/ZSM-5 is related to decreasing deactivation by coking, which keeps the active acid sites accessible for the deoxygenation and aromatization reactions that produce fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons. The addition of Ga enhances the dehydrogenation activity of the catalyst, which leads to enhanced olefin formation and higher fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbon yields compared to unmodified ZSM-5. Catalyst characterization by ammonia temperature

  10. Multiscale Evaluation of Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors on Ni- and Ga-Modified ZSM-5

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Matthew M.; Stanton, Alexander R.; Iisa, Kristiina; French, Richard J.; Orton, Kellene A.; Magrini, Kimberly A.

    2016-10-07

    Metal-impregnated (Ni or Ga) ZSM-5 catalysts were studied for biomass pyrolysis vapor upgrading to produce hydrocarbons using three reactors constituting a 100 000x change in the amount of catalyst used in experiments. Catalysts were screened for pyrolysis vapor phase upgrading activity in two small-scale reactors: (i) a Pyroprobe with a 10 mg catalyst in a fixed bed and (ii) a fixed-bed reactor with 500 mg of catalyst. The best performing catalysts were then validated with a larger scale fluidized-bed reactor (using ~1 kg of catalyst) that produced measurable quantities of bio-oil for analysis and evaluation of mass balances. Despite some inherent differences across the reactor systems (such as residence time, reactor type, analytical techniques, mode of catalyst and biomass feed) there was good agreement of reaction results for production of aromatic hydrocarbons, light gases, and coke deposition. Relative to ZSM-5, Ni or Ga addition to ZSM-5 increased production of fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons and light gases. In the fluidized bed reactor, Ga/ZSM-5 slightly enhanced carbon efficiency to condensed oil, which includes oxygenates in addition to aromatic hydrocarbons, and reduced oil oxygen content compared to ZSM-5. Ni/ZSM-5, while giving the highest yield of fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons, gave lower overall carbon efficiency to oil but with the lowest oxygen content. Reaction product analysis coupled with fresh and spent catalyst characterization indicated that the improved performance of Ni/ZSM-5 is related to decreasing deactivation by coking, which keeps the active acid sites accessible for the deoxygenation and aromatization reactions that produce fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons. The addition of Ga enhances the dehydrogenation activity of the catalyst, which leads to enhanced olefin formation and higher fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbon yields compared to unmodified ZSM-5. Catalyst characterization by ammonia temperature

  11. Multiscale Evaluation of Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors on Ni- and Ga-Modified ZSM-5

    DOE PAGES

    Yung, Matthew M.; Stanton, Alexander R.; Iisa, Kristiina; ...

    2016-10-07

    Metal-impregnated (Ni or Ga) ZSM-5 catalysts were studied for biomass pyrolysis vapor upgrading to produce hydrocarbons using three reactors constituting a 100 000x change in the amount of catalyst used in experiments. Catalysts were screened for pyrolysis vapor phase upgrading activity in two small-scale reactors: (i) a Pyroprobe with a 10 mg catalyst in a fixed bed and (ii) a fixed-bed reactor with 500 mg of catalyst. The best performing catalysts were then validated with a larger scale fluidized-bed reactor (using ~1 kg of catalyst) that produced measurable quantities of bio-oil for analysis and evaluation of mass balances. Despite somemore » inherent differences across the reactor systems (such as residence time, reactor type, analytical techniques, mode of catalyst and biomass feed) there was good agreement of reaction results for production of aromatic hydrocarbons, light gases, and coke deposition. Relative to ZSM-5, Ni or Ga addition to ZSM-5 increased production of fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons and light gases. In the fluidized bed reactor, Ga/ZSM-5 slightly enhanced carbon efficiency to condensed oil, which includes oxygenates in addition to aromatic hydrocarbons, and reduced oil oxygen content compared to ZSM-5. Ni/ZSM-5, while giving the highest yield of fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons, gave lower overall carbon efficiency to oil but with the lowest oxygen content. Reaction product analysis coupled with fresh and spent catalyst characterization indicated that the improved performance of Ni/ZSM-5 is related to decreasing deactivation by coking, which keeps the active acid sites accessible for the deoxygenation and aromatization reactions that produce fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons. The addition of Ga enhances the dehydrogenation activity of the catalyst, which leads to enhanced olefin formation and higher fully deoxygenated aromatic hydrocarbon yields compared to unmodified ZSM-5. Catalyst characterization by ammonia

  12. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of substituted oxazole-benzamide antibacterial inhibitors of FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Neil R; Baker, Nicola; Bennett, James M; Chauhan, Pramod K; Collins, Ian; Davies, David T; Gavade, Maruti; Kumar, Dushyant; Lancett, Paul; Macdonald, Rebecca; Macleod, Leanne; Mahajan, Anu; Mitchell, Jeffrey P; Nayal, Narendra; Nayal, Yashodanand Nandan; Pitt, Gary R W; Singh, Mahipal; Yadav, Anju; Srivastava, Anil; Czaplewski, Lloyd G; Haydon, David J

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of oxazole-benzamide inhibitors of the essential bacterial cell division protein FtsZ are described. Compounds had potent anti-staphylococcal activity and inhibited the cytokinesis of the clinically-significant bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Selected analogues possessing a 5-halo oxazole also inhibited a strain of S. aureus harbouring the glycine-to-alanine amino acid substitution at residue 196 of FtsZ which conferred resistance to previously reported inhibitors in the series. Substitutions to the pseudo-benzylic carbon of the scaffold improved the pharmacokinetic properties by increasing metabolic stability and provided a mechanism for creating pro-drugs. Combining multiple substitutions based on the findings reported in this study has provided small-molecule inhibitors of FtsZ with enhanced in vitro and in vivo antibacterial efficacy.

  13. Advances in the discovery of novel antimicrobials targeting the assembly of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Ma, Shutao

    2015-05-05

    Currently, wide-spread antimicrobials resistance among bacterial pathogens continues being a dramatically increasing and serious threat to public health, and thus there is a pressing need to develop new antimicrobials to keep pace with the bacterial resistance. Filamentous temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), a prokaryotic cytoskeleton protein, plays an important role in bacterial cell division. It as a very new and promising target, garners special attention in the antibacterial research in the recent years. This review describes not only the function and dynamic behaviors of FtsZ, but also the known natural and synthetic inhibitors of FtsZ. In particular, the small molecules recently developed and the future directions of ideal candidates are highlighted.

  14. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) induces bundling of Escherichia coli FtsZ polymers inhibiting the GTPase activity.

    PubMed

    Nova, Esteban; Montecinos, Felipe; Brunet, Juan E; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio

    2007-09-15

    FtsZ (Filamentous temperature sensitivity Z) cell division protein from Escherichia coli binds the fluorescence probe DAPI. Bundling of FtsZ was facilitated in the presence of DAPI, and the polymers in solution remained polymerized longer time than the protofilaments formed in the absence of DAPI. DAPI decreased both the maximal velocity of the GTPase activity and the Michaelis-Menten constant for GTP, indicating that behaves like an uncompetitive inhibitor of the GTPase activity favoring the GTP form of FtsZ in the polymers. The results presented in this work support a cooperative polymerization mechanism in which the binding of DAPI favors protofilament lateral interactions and the stability of the resulting polymers.

  15. Hosting a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on CubeSat Spacecraft Platforms for Global Measurements of Three-Dimensional Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. K.; Neilsen, T. L.; Weston, C.; Frazier, C.; Smith, T.; Shumway, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global measurements of vertically-resolved atmospheric wind profiles offer the potential for improved weather forecasts and superior predictions of atmospheric wind patterns. A small-satellite constellation that uses a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instrument onboard 12U CubeSats can provide measurements of global tropospheric wind profiles from space at a very low cost. These small satellites are called FTS CubeSats. This presentation will describe a spacecraft concept that provides a stable, robust platform to host the FTS payload. Of importance to the payload are power, data, station keeping, thermal, and accommodations that enable high spectral measurements to be made from a LEO orbit. The spacecraft concept draws on Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) heritage and the recent success of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) and HyperAngular Rainbow Polarimeter (HARP) missions. Working with team members, SDL built a prototype observatory (spacecraft and payload) for testing and proof of concept.

  16. The plastid metalloprotease FtsH6 and small heat shock protein HSP21 jointly regulate thermomemory in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghatmehr, Mastoureh; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Acquired tolerance to heat stress is an increased resistance to elevated temperature following a prior exposure to heat. The maintenance of acquired thermotolerance in the absence of intervening stress is called ‘thermomemory' but the mechanistic basis for this memory is not well defined. Here we show that Arabidopsis HSP21, a plastidial small heat shock protein that rapidly accumulates after heat stress and remains abundant during the thermomemory phase, is a crucial component of thermomemory. Sustained memory requires that HSP21 levels remain high. Through pharmacological interrogation and transcriptome profiling, we show that the plastid-localized metalloprotease FtsH6 regulates HSP21 abundance. Lack of a functional FtsH6 protein promotes HSP21 accumulation during the later stages of thermomemory and increases thermomemory capacity. Our results thus reveal the presence of a plastidial FtsH6–HSP21 control module for thermomemory in plants. PMID:27561243

  17. [Effect of cinnamon and lavender oils on FtsZ gene expression in the Staphylococus aureus ATCC 29213].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of lavender and cinnamon oils on FtsZ gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. The cinnamon and lavender oils at least partially results from the inhibition of FtsZ transcription and disruption of cell division process at the level of the septum synthesis, what is similar to mechanisms of drug action used in anti-staphylococcal therapies. The presented results could be an important background for the further detailed research, which is needed to clarify the effect of essential oils on FtsZ synthesis at the posttranscriptional level and other stages of cell division process of S. aureus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, S. P.; Beer, R.; Blavier, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Eldering, A.; Rider, D.; Toon, G. C.; Traub, W. A.; Worden, J.

    2010-12-01

    The NRC decadal survey of earth science from space proposed the GEO-CAPE and GACM missions to study changes in atmospheric composition, global climate and the coastal oceans. To properly address air quality, the decadal survey highlighted the need for vertical profile measurements with sensitivity into the atmospheric boundary layer. The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS), a new project within the NASA Instrument Incubator Program, will measure all of the trace species called out in the decadal survey for GEO-CAPE and GACM. With continuous sensitivity from 0.26 to 15 micron and high spectral resolution, PanFTS combines the functionality of separate UV, visible and IR instruments in a single package. This presentation will discuss the design approach and technology development challenges for PanFTS including high speed, high resolution focal plane arrays, and wide spectral coverage optical design.

  19. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light catalytic reformed naphtha distillate in rats.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, C; Bui, Q; Breglia, R; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Lapadula, E; Podhasky, P; White, R

    2000-08-11

    A 13-wk whole-body inhalation study was conducted with Sprague-Dawley CD rats (16/sex/group) exposed to a light catalytic reformed naphtha distillate (LCRN-D, CAS number 64741-63-5) at target concentrations of 0, 750, 2500, and 7500 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk. Sixteen rats per sex in the control and high-dose groups were maintained after final exposure for a 4-wk recovery period. The highest exposure concentration was 75% of the lower explosive limit. Standard parameters of subchronic toxicity were measured throughout the study; at necropsy, organs were weighed and tissues processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurotoxicity evaluations consisted of motor activity (MA) and a functional operational battery (FOB) measured pretest, throughout exposure and after the recovery period. Neuropathology was evaluated at termination. No test-related mortality or effects on physical signs, body weight, food consumption, or clinical chemistry were observed. In males exposed to 7500-ppm LCRN-D, a statistically significant decrease in white blood cell counts and lymphocyte counts was observed at the termination of exposure that was not present in animals after the 4-wk recovery period. However, mean corpuscular volume was slightly decreased in high-dose males after the recovery period. Statistically significant increases in kidney weights relative to body weights in 7500-ppm male rats correlated with microscopically observed hyaline droplet formation and renal tubule dilation, indicative of light hydrocarbon nephropathy, a condition in male rats that is not toxicologically significant for humans. Statistically significant decrease in absolute and relative spleen weights in 7500-ppm male rats correlated with decreases in hematologic parameters but had no microscopic correlate and was not observed in animals after 4 wk of recovery. This mild, reversible effect in white blood cell populations may relate to the presence of aromatics in the distillate. The only effect of LCRN-D on

  20. The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) FTS: Results From the 2012/13 Alaska Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, Thomas P.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Stephen J.

    2014-05-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is an aircraft-based Earth Venture 1 mission to study the carbon balance of the Alaskan Arctic ecosystem, with a particular focus on carbon release from melting permafrost. Operating from its base in Fairbanks, AK, the CARVE aircraft covers a range of principle flight paths in the Alaskan interior, the Yukon River valley, and the northern Alaska coast around Barrow and Dead Horse. Flight paths are chosen to maximize ecosystem variability and cover burn-recovery/regrowth sequences. CARVE observations cover the Arctic Spring/Summer/Fall seasons, with multiple flights per season and principle flight path. Science operations started in May 2012 and are currently envisaged to continue until 2015. The CARVE suite of instruments includes flask measurements, in situ gas analyzers for CO2, CH4 and CO observations, and a three-band polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for column measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, their interfering species (e.g., H2O), and O2. The FTS covers the spectral regions of 4,200-4,900 cm-1, 5,800-6,400 cm-1, and 12,900-13,200 cm-1, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. Aircraft-based FTS science observations in Alaska have been performed since 23-05-2012. First-version data products from all CARVE instruments derived from observations during the 2012 campaign were publicly released earlier in 2013. The FTS has performed well during flight conditions, particularly with respect to vibration damping. Outstanding challenges include the need for improved spectral and radiometric calibration, as well as compensating for low signal-to-noise spectra acquired under Alaskan flight conditions. We present results from FTS column observations of CO2, CH4, and CO, observed during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns, including preliminary comparisons of CARVE FTS measurements with satellite observations of CO2 from TANSO/GOSAT and CO from MOPITT.

  1. Kinetic modeling of the assembly, dynamic steady state, and contraction of the FtsZ ring in prokaryotic cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Surovtsev, Ivan V; Morgan, Jeffrey J; Lindahl, Paul A

    2008-07-04

    Cytokinesis in prokaryotes involves the assembly of a polymeric ring composed of FtsZ protein monomeric units. The Z ring forms at the division plane and is attached to the membrane. After assembly, it maintains a stable yet dynamic steady state. Once induced, the ring contracts and the membrane constricts. In this work, we present a computational deterministic biochemical model exhibiting this behavior. The model is based on biochemical features of FtsZ known from in vitro studies, and it quantitatively reproduces relevant in vitro data. An essential part of the model is a consideration of interfacial reactions involving the cytosol volume, where monomeric FtsZ is dispersed, and the membrane surface in the cell's mid-zone where the ring is assembled. This approach allows the same chemical model to simulate either in vitro or in vivo conditions by adjusting only two geometrical parameters. The model includes minimal reactions, components, and assumptions, yet is able to reproduce sought-after in vivo behavior, including the rapid assembly of the ring via FtsZ-polymerization, the formation of a dynamic steady state in which GTP hydrolysis leads to the exchange of monomeric subunits between cytoplasm and the ring, and finally the induced contraction of the ring. The model gives a quantitative estimate for coupling between the rate of GTP hydrolysis and of FtsZ subunit turnover between the assembled ring and the cytoplasmic pool as observed. Membrane constriction is chemically driven by the strong tendency of GTP-bound FtsZ to self-assembly. The model suggests a possible mechanism of membrane contraction without a motor protein. The portion of the free energy of GTP hydrolysis released in cyclization is indirectly used in this energetically unfavorable process. The model provides a limit to the mechanistic complexity required to mimic ring behavior, and it highlights the importance of parallel in vitro and in vivo modeling.

  2. Role of an FtsK-Like Protein in Genetic Stability in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Yanfei; He, Xinyi; Zhou, Xiufen; Deng, Zixin; Chater, Keith F.; Tao, Meifeng

    2007-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) does not have a canonical cell division cycle during most of its complex life cycle, yet it contains a gene (ftsKSC) encoding a protein similar to FtsK, which couples the completion of cell division and chromosome segregation in unicellular bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we show that various constructed ftsKSC mutants all grew apparently normally and sporulated but upon restreaking gave rise to many aberrant colonies and to high frequencies of chloramphenicol-sensitive mutants, a phenotype previously associated with large terminal deletions from the linear chromosome. Indeed, most of the aberrant colonies had lost large fragments near one or both chromosomal termini, as if chromosome ends had failed to reach their prespore destination before the closure of sporulation septa. A constructed FtsKSC-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein was particularly abundant in aerial hyphae, forming distinctive complexes before localizing to each sporulation septum, suggesting a role for FtsKSC in chromosome segregation during sporulation. Use of a fluorescent reporter showed that when ftsKSC was deleted, several spore compartments in most spore chains failed to express the late-sporulation-specific sigma factor gene sigF, even though they contained chromosomal DNA. This suggested that sigF expression is autonomously activated in each spore compartment in response to completion of chromosome transfer, which would be a previously unknown checkpoint for late-sporulation-specific gene expression. These results provide new insight into the genetic instability prevalent among streptomycetes, including those used in the industrial production of antibiotics. PMID:17209017

  3. Rich catalytic injection

    SciTech Connect

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  4. An Essential Component in Chloroplast Development and Maintenance at Moderate High Temperature in Higher Plants: Chloroplast-targeted FtsH11 Proteases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Among the 12 predicted FtsH proteases in Arabidopsis, AtFtsH11 is the only metalloprotease targeting to both chloroplast and mitochondria and the only one essential for Arabidopsis plant to survive at moderate heat stress at all developmental stages. Under optimal conditions, atftsh11 mutants were...

  5. Two stage catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

  6. [Docking of low-molecular ligands on the plant FtsZ-protein with application of CUDA-accelerated calculations].

    PubMed

    Demchuk, O N; Karpov, P A; Blium, Ia B

    2012-01-01

    This article provides review and analysis of opportunities for application of the CUDA technology for acceleration of computations in structural biology and bioinformatics. On the example of work with the Hex 6.1 program, comparative analysis of increase in the speed and quality of results of hard-docking of a number of low-molecular compounds on the surface of the FtsZ protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was performed. Several potential benzimidazole--plant FtsZ protein binding sites were identified.

  7. Functional Analysis of the Cell Division Protein FtsW of Escherichia coli†

    PubMed Central

    Pastoret, Soumya; Fraipont, Claudine; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Wolf, Benoît; Aarsman, Mirjam E. G.; Piette, André; Thomas, Annick; Brasseur, Robert; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine

    2004-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis experiments combined with fluorescence microscopy shed light on the role of Escherichia coli FtsW, a membrane protein belonging to the SEDS family that is involved in peptidoglycan assembly during cell elongation, division, and sporulation. This essential cell division protein has 10 transmembrane segments (TMSs). It is a late recruit to the division site and is required for subsequent recruitment of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) catalyzing peptide cross-linking. The results allow identification of several domains of the protein with distinct functions. The localization of PBP3 to the septum was found to be dependent on the periplasmic loop located between TMSs 9 and 10. The E240-A249 amphiphilic peptide in the periplasmic loop between TMSs 7 and 8 appears to be a key element in the functioning of FtsW in the septal peptidoglycan assembly machineries. The intracellular loop (containing the R166-F178 amphiphilic peptide) between TMSs 4 and 5 and Gly 311 in TMS 8 are important components of the amino acid sequence-folding information. PMID:15576787

  8. Testing of FTS fingers and interface using a passive compliant robot manipulator. [flight telerobot servicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with testing of a pair of robot fingers designed for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) to grasp a cylinder type of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) interface. The report first describes the objectives of the study and then the testbed consisting of a Stewart Platform-based manipulator equipped with a passive compliant platform which also serves as a force/torque sensor. Kinematic analysis is then performed to provide a closed-form solution for the force inverse kinematics and iterative solution for the force forward kinematics using the Newton's Raphson Method. Mathematical expressions are then derived to compute force/torques applied to the FTS fingers during the mating/demating with the interface. The report then presents the three parts of the experimental study on the feasibility and characteristics of the fingers. The first part obtains data of forces applied by the fingers to the interface under various misalignments, the second part determines the maximum allowable capture angles for mating, and the third part processes and interprets the obtained force/torque data.

  9. Differential Regulation of ftsZ Transcription during Septation of Streptomyces griseus

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jangyul; Dharmatilake, Amitha J.; Jiang, Hao; Kendrick, Kathleen E.

    2001-01-01

    Streptomyces has been known to form two types of septa. The data in this research demonstrated that Streptomyces griseus forms another type of septum near the base of sporogenic hyphae (basal septum). To understand the regulation of the septation machinery in S. griseus, we investigated the expression of the ftsZ gene. S1 nuclease protection assays revealed that four ftsZ transcripts were differentially expressed during morphological differentiation. The vegetative transcript (emanating from Pveg) is present at a moderate level during vegetative growth, but is switched off within the first 2 h of sporulation. Two sporulation-specific transcripts predominantly accumulated, and the levels increased by approximately fivefold together shortly before sporulation septa begin to form. Consistently, the sporulation-specific transcripts were expressed much earlier and more abundantly in a group of nonsporulating mutants that form their sporulation septa prematurely. Promoter-probe studies with two different reporter systems confirmed the activities of the putative promoters identified from the 5′ end point of the transcripts. The levels and expression timing of promoter activities were consistent with the results of nuclease protection assays. The aseptate phenotype of the Pspo mutant indicated that the increased transcription from Pspo is required for sporulation septation, but not for vegetative or basal septum formation. PMID:11489862

  10. A canonical FtsZ protein in Verrucomicrobium spinosum, a member of the Bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia that also includes tubulin-producing Prosthecobacter species

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Benjamin; Lafi, Feras F; Oakley, Brian; Staley, James T; Fuerst, John A

    2007-01-01

    Background The origin and evolution of the homologous GTP-binding cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ typical of Bacteria and tubulin characteristic of eukaryotes is a major question in molecular evolutionary biology. Both FtsZ and tubulin are central to key cell biology processes – bacterial septation and cell division in the case of FtsZ and in the case of tubulins the function of microtubules necessary for mitosis and other key cytoskeleton-dependent processes in eukaryotes. The origin of tubulin in particular is of significance to models for eukaryote origins. Most members of domain Bacteria possess FtsZ, but bacteria in genus Prosthecobacter of the phylum Verrucomicrobia form a key exception, possessing tubulin homologs BtubA and BtubB. It is therefore of interest to know whether other members of phylum Verrucomicrobia possess FtsZ or tubulin as their FtsZ-tubulin gene family representative. Results Verrucomicrobium spinosum, a member of Phylum Verrucomicrobia of domain Bacteria, has been found to possess a gene for a protein homologous to the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ. The deduced amino acid sequence has sequence signatures and predicted secondary structure characteristic for FtsZ rather than tubulin, but phylogenetic trees and sequence analysis indicate that it is divergent from all other known FtsZ sequences in members of domain Bacteria. The FtsZ gene of V. spinosum is located within a dcw gene cluster exhibiting gene order conservation known to contribute to the divisome in other Bacteria and comparable to these clusters in other Bacteria, suggesting a similar functional role. Conclusion Verrucomicrobium spinosum has been found to possess a gene for a protein homologous to the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ. The results suggest the functional as well as structural homology of the V. spinosum FtsZ to the FtsZs of other Bacteria implying its involvement in cell septum formation during division. Thus, both bacteria-like FtsZ and eukaryote-like tubulin cytoskeletal

  11. Assessment of Malawi's success in child mortality reduction through the lens of the Catalytic Initiative Integrated Health Systems Strengthening programme: Retrospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Tanya; Zembe, Wanga; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Kinney, Mary; Manda, Samuel; Besada, Donela; Jackson, Debra; Daniels, Karen; Rohde, Sarah; van Damme, Wim; Kerber, Kate; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Rudan, Igor; Muniz, Maria; Oliphant, Nicholas P; Zamasiya, Texas; Rohde, Jon; Sanders, David

    2015-12-01

    Malawi is estimated to have achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target. This paper explores factors influencing progress in child survival in Malawi including coverage of interventions and the role of key national policies. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the Catalytic Initiative (CI) programme of support (2007-2013). We developed estimates of child mortality using four population household surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2010. We recalculated coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions and documented child health programmes and policies. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate child lives saved in 2013. The mortality rate in children under 5 years decreased rapidly in the 10 CI districts from 219 deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval (CI) 189 to 249) in the period 1991-1995 to 119 deaths (95% CI 105 to 132) in the period 2006-2010. Coverage for all indicators except vitamin A supplementation increased in the 10 CI districts across the time period 2000 to 2013. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 10 800 child deaths averted in the 10 CI districts in 2013, primarily attributable to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (24%) and increased household coverage of insecticide-treated bednets (19%). These improvements have taken place within a context of investment in child health policies and scale up of integrated community case management of childhood illnesses. Malawi provides a strong example for countries in sub-Saharan Africa of how high impact child health interventions implemented within a decentralised health system with an established community-based delivery platform, can lead to significant reductions in child mortality.

  12. Synthesis, structural characterization and evaluation of catalytic and antimicrobial properties of new mononuclear Ag(I), Mn(II), Cu(II) and Pt(IV) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Omyma A. M.; Abd El-Wahab, Zeinab H.; Ismail, Basmh A.

    2017-07-01

    New mononuclear complexes of composition [AgL(H2O)2]NO3·H2O, [MnL2Cl(H2O)]Cl.3½H2O, [CuL2Cl2].½H2O and [PtLCl3(H2O)]Cl·2H2O {where L was 1-(2-furylmethylene)-N-(3-phenylallylidene) methanamine} were synthesized and characterized by different techniques. From the analytical data, the stoichiometry of the complexes were 1:1 for Ag(I) and Pt(IV) complexes and 1:2 (M:L) for Mn(II) and Cu(II) complexes. Conductance data indicated that all complexes are electrolytic in nature while, Cu(II) complex was non-electrolyte. Spectroscopic data suggested that the ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand towards the central metal ion with azomethine nitrogen and furan oxygen atoms as coordination sites. Tetrahedral structure has been proposed for Ag(I) complex, whereas the other complexes possess six coordinated octahedral geometry. TG-DTG study was done to track the thermal behavior of the complexes and the thermodynamic parameters were computed from the thermal data using Coats - Redfern method. The catalytic activity of the metal complexes was evaluated in the decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide at 313-333 K temperature range. The data reveal that metal complexes are effective in catalyzing the hydrogen peroxide decomposition and the decomposition percentage increased with temperature. The agar well diffusion technique was used to test the growth inhibition of the ligand and its complexes against different species of bacteria and fungi. The metal complexes are more potent in inhibiting the growth of microorganisms than the ligand and in some cases, the complexes were closed to and more active than the standard species.

  13. Assessment of Malawi’s success in child mortality reduction through the lens of the Catalytic Initiative Integrated Health Systems Strengthening programme: Retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Tanya; Zembe, Wanga; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Kinney, Mary; Manda, Samuel; Besada, Donela; Jackson, Debra; Daniels, Karen; Rohde, Sarah; van Damme, Wim; Kerber, Kate; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Rudan, Igor; Muniz, Maria; Oliphant, Nicholas P; Zamasiya, Texas; Rohde, Jon; Sanders, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Malawi is estimated to have achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target. This paper explores factors influencing progress in child survival in Malawi including coverage of interventions and the role of key national policies. Methods We performed a retrospective evaluation of the Catalytic Initiative (CI) programme of support (2007–2013). We developed estimates of child mortality using four population household surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2010. We recalculated coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions and documented child health programmes and policies. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate child lives saved in 2013. Results The mortality rate in children under 5 years decreased rapidly in the 10 CI districts from 219 deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval (CI) 189 to 249) in the period 1991–1995 to 119 deaths (95% CI 105 to 132) in the period 2006–2010. Coverage for all indicators except vitamin A supplementation increased in the 10 CI districts across the time period 2000 to 2013. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 10 800 child deaths averted in the 10 CI districts in 2013, primarily attributable to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (24%) and increased household coverage of insecticide–treated bednets (19%). These improvements have taken place within a context of investment in child health policies and scale up of integrated community case management of childhood illnesses. Conclusions Malawi provides a strong example for countries in sub–Saharan Africa of how high impact child health interventions implemented within a decentralised health system with an established community–based delivery platform, can lead to significant reductions in child mortality. PMID:26649176

  14. Characterization of the FtsZ C-Terminal Variable (CTV) Region in Z-Ring Assembly and Interaction with the Z-Ring Stabilizer ZapD in E. coli Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Mychack, Aaron; Tchorzewski, Lukasz; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization of a ring-like cytoskeletal structure, the Z-ring, at midcell is a highly conserved feature in virtually all bacteria. The Z-ring is composed of short protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ, randomly arranged and held together through lateral interactions. In vitro, lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments are stabilized by crowding agents, high concentrations of divalent cations, or in some cases, low pH. In vivo, the last 4–10 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of FtsZ (the C-terminal variable region, CTV) have been implicated in mediating lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments through charge shielding. Multiple Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps), also promote lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments to stabilize the FtsZ ring in vivo. Here we characterize the complementary role/s of the CTV of E. coli FtsZ and the FtsZ-ring stabilizing protein ZapD, in FtsZ assembly. We show that the net charge of the FtsZ CTV not only affects FtsZ protofilament bundling, confirming earlier observations, but likely also the length of the FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. The CTV residues also have important consequences for Z-ring assembly and interaction with ZapD in the cell. ZapD requires the FtsZ CTV region for interaction with FtsZ in vitro and for localization to midcell in vivo. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the CTV residues, particularly K380, facilitate a conformation for the conserved carboxy-terminal residues in FtsZ, that lie immediately N-terminal to the CTV, to enable optimal contact with ZapD. Further, phylogenetic analyses suggest a correlation between the nature of FtsZ CTV residues and the presence of ZapD in the β- γ-proteobacterial species. PMID:27088231

  15. Characterization of the FtsZ C-Terminal Variable (CTV) Region in Z-Ring Assembly and Interaction with the Z-Ring Stabilizer ZapD in E. coli Cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Hsiang; Mychack, Aaron; Tchorzewski, Lukasz; Janakiraman, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization of a ring-like cytoskeletal structure, the Z-ring, at midcell is a highly conserved feature in virtually all bacteria. The Z-ring is composed of short protofilaments of the tubulin homolog FtsZ, randomly arranged and held together through lateral interactions. In vitro, lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments are stabilized by crowding agents, high concentrations of divalent cations, or in some cases, low pH. In vivo, the last 4-10 amino acid residues at the C-terminus of FtsZ (the C-terminal variable region, CTV) have been implicated in mediating lateral associations between FtsZ protofilaments through charge shielding. Multiple Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps), also promote lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments to stabilize the FtsZ ring in vivo. Here we characterize the complementary role/s of the CTV of E. coli FtsZ and the FtsZ-ring stabilizing protein ZapD, in FtsZ assembly. We show that the net charge of the FtsZ CTV not only affects FtsZ protofilament bundling, confirming earlier observations, but likely also the length of the FtsZ protofilaments in vitro. The CTV residues also have important consequences for Z-ring assembly and interaction with ZapD in the cell. ZapD requires the FtsZ CTV region for interaction with FtsZ in vitro and for localization to midcell in vivo. Our data suggest a mechanism in which the CTV residues, particularly K380, facilitate a conformation for the conserved carboxy-terminal residues in FtsZ, that lie immediately N-terminal to the CTV, to enable optimal contact with ZapD. Further, phylogenetic analyses suggest a correlation between the nature of FtsZ CTV residues and the presence of ZapD in the β- γ-proteobacterial species.

  16. Algorithm update of the GOSAT/TANSO-FTS thermal infrared CO2 product (version 1) and validation of the UTLS CO2 data using CONTRAIL measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Naoko; Kimoto, Shuhei; Sugimura, Ryo; Imasu, Ryoichi; Kawakami, Shuji; Shiomi, Kei; Kuze, Akihiko; Machida, Toshinobu; Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu

    2016-05-01

    The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been observing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in several atmospheric layers in the thermal infrared (TIR) band since its launch. This study compared TANSO-FTS TIR version 1 (V1) CO2 data and CO2 data obtained in the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) project in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), where the TIR band of TANSO-FTS is most sensitive to CO2 concentrations, to validate the quality of the TIR V1 UTLS CO2 data from 287 to 162 hPa. We first evaluated the impact of considering TIR CO2 averaging kernel functions on CO2 concentrations using CO2 profile data obtained by the CONTRAIL Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME), and found that the impact at around the CME level flight altitudes (˜ 11 km) was on average less than 0.5 ppm at low latitudes and less than 1 ppm at middle and high latitudes. From a comparison made during flights between Tokyo and Sydney, the averages of the TIR upper-atmospheric CO2 data were within 0.1 % of the averages of the CONTRAIL CME CO2 data with and without TIR CO2 averaging kernels for all seasons in the Southern Hemisphere. The results of comparisons for all of the eight airline routes showed that the agreements of TIR and CME CO2 data were worse in spring and summer than in fall and winter in the Northern Hemisphere in the upper troposphere. While the differences between TIR and CME CO2 data were on average within 1 ppm in fall and winter, TIR CO2 data had a negative bias up to 2.4 ppm against CME CO2 data with TIR CO2 averaging kernels at the northern low and middle latitudes in spring and summer. The negative bias at the northern middle latitudes resulted in the maximum of TIR CO2 concentrations being lower than that of CME CO2 concentrations, which led to an underestimate of the amplitude of CO2

  17. Promoting assembly and bundling of FtsZ as a strategy to inhibit bacterial cell division: a new approach for developing novel antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Beuria, Tushar K; Singh, Parminder; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2009-09-14

    FtsZ plays an essential role in bacterial cell division. We have used the assembly of FtsZ as a screen to find antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. The effects of 81 compounds of 29 different structural scaffolds on FtsZ assembly in vitro were examined using a sedimentation assay. Out of these 81 compounds, OTBA (3-{5-[4-oxo-2-thioxo-3-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-thiazolidin-5-ylidenemethyl]-furan-2-yl}-benzoic acid) was found to promote FtsZ assembly in vitro. OTBA increased the assembly of FtsZ, caused bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, prevented dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ protofilaments and decreased the GTPase activity in vitro. It bound to FtsZ with an apparent dissociation constant of 15+/-1.5 microM. Furthermore, OTBA inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 cells with an MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of 2 microM, whereas it exerted minimal effects on mammalian cell proliferation, indicating that it might have a potential use as an antibacterial drug. In the effective proliferation inhibitory concentration range, OTBA induced filamentation in bacteria and also perturbed the formation of the cytokinetic Z-rings in bacteria. However, the agent neither perturbed the membrane structures nor affected the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis cells. The results suggested that the OTBA inhibited bacterial cytokinesis by perturbing the formation and functioning of the Z-ring via altering FtsZ assembly dynamics. The antibacterial mechanism of action of OTBA is similar to that of the widely used anticancer drug paclitaxel, which inhibits cancer cell proliferation by promoting the assembly of tubulin, a eukaryotic homologue of FtsZ.

  18. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  19. Constitutive expression of ftsZ overrides the whi developmental genes to initiate sporulation of Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Joost; Mommaas, A Mieke; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2012-03-01

    The filamentous soil bacteria Streptomyces undergo a highly complex developmental programme. Before streptomycetes commit themselves to sporulation, distinct morphological checkpoints are passed in the aerial hyphae that are subject to multi-level control by the whi sporulation genes. Here we show that whi-independent expression of FtsZ restores sporulation to the early sporulation mutants whiA, whiB, whiG, whiH, whiI and whiJ. Viability, stress resistance and high-resolution electron microscopy underlined that viable spores were formed. However, spores from sporulation-restored whiA and whiG mutants showed defects in DNA segregation/condensation, while spores from the complemented whiB mutant had increased stress sensitivity, perhaps as a result of changes in the spore sheath. In contrast to the whi mutants, normal sporulation of ssgB null mutants-which fail to properly localise FtsZ-could not be restored by enhancing FtsZ protein levels, forming spore-like bodies that lack spore walls. Our data strongly suggest that the whi genes control a decisive event towards sporulation of streptomycetes, namely the correct timing of developmental ftsZ transcription. The biological significance may be to ensure that sporulation-specific cell division will only start once sufficient aerial mycelium biomass has been generated. Our data shed new light on the longstanding question as to how whi genes control sporulation, which has intrigued scientists for four decades.

  20. Atmospheric pseudo-retrievals for averaging kernel and total uncertainty characterization for ACE-FTS level 2 (PRAKTICAL) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick; Walker, Kaley; Boone, Chris

    2016-04-01

    For over the past decade, the ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on the Canadian SciSat satellite has been observing the Earth's limb via solar occultation in the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region with 0.02 cm-1 spectral resolution. The most recent version of the level 2 data, version 3.5 (v3.5), which starts in February of 2004 and is currently ongoing, is comprised of volume mixing ratio profiles of over 30 atmospheric trace species and over 20 subsidiary isotopologues. This study will use ACE-FTS level 1 spectra and the v3.5 forward model in pseudo-retrievals that use a Levenberg-Marquardt optimal estimation technique in order to produce representative ACE-FTS averaging kernels and to characterize the systematic and random uncertainties inherent in the level 2 profiles. In order to ensure that the derived error statistics are consistent with the v3.5 data, the results will be compared to random and systematic uncertainties propagated through the standard v3.5 retrieval algorithm. The ACE-FTS uncertainties will also be compared to the reported uncertainties of data sets from other atmospheric limb sounders.

  1. Activation of Xer-recombination at dif: structural basis of the FtsKγ–XerD interaction

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Andrew N.; Xin, Yue; Boer, Stephanie; Reinhardt, Jonathan; Baker, Rachel; Arciszewska, Lidia K.; Lewis, Peter J.; Sherratt, David J.; Löwe, Jan; Grainge, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are most often circular DNA molecules. This can produce a topological problem; a genetic crossover from homologous recombination results in dimerization of the chromosome. A chromosome dimer is lethal unless resolved. A site-specific recombination system catalyses this dimer-resolution reaction at the chromosomal site dif. In Escherichia coli, two tyrosine-family recombinases, XerC and XerD, bind to dif and carry out two pairs of sequential strand exchange reactions. However, what makes the reaction unique among site-specific recombination reactions is that the first step, XerD-mediated strand exchange, relies on interaction with the very C-terminus of the FtsK DNA translocase. FtsK is a powerful molecular motor that functions in cell division, co-ordinating division with clearing chromosomal DNA from the site of septation and also acts to position the dif sites for recombination. This is a model system for unlinking, separating and segregating large DNA molecules. Here we describe the molecular detail of the interaction between XerD and FtsK that leads to activation of recombination as deduced from a co-crystal structure, biochemical and in vivo experiments. FtsKγ interacts with the C-terminal domain of XerD, above a cleft where XerC is thought to bind. We present a model for activation of recombination based on structural data. PMID:27708355

  2. The C-terminal end of LpxC is required for degradation by the FtsH protease.

    PubMed

    Führer, Frank; Langklotz, Sina; Narberhaus, Franz

    2006-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis is essential in Gram negative bacteria. LpxC, the key enzyme in LPS formation, catalyses the limiting reaction and controls the ratio between LPS and phospholipids. As overproduction of LPS is toxic, the cellular amount of LpxC must be regulated carefully. The membrane-bound protease FtsH controls the level of LpxC via proteolysis making FtsH the only essential protease of Escherichia coli. We found that the chaperones DnaK and DnaJ co-purified with LpxC. However, degradation of LpxC was DnaK/J-independent in contrast to turnover of the heat shock sigma factor sigma32 (RpoH). The stability of LpxC in a bacterial one-hybrid system suggested that a terminus of LpxC might be important for degradation. Different LpxC truncations and extensions were constructed. Removal of at least five amino acids from the C-terminus abolished degradation by FtsH in vivo. While addition of two aspartic acids to LpxC did not alter its half-life, the exchange of the last two residues against aspartic acids resulted in stabilization. All stable LpxC enzymes were active in vivo as assayed by their high toxicity. Our data demonstrate that the C-terminus of LpxC contains a signal sequence necessary for FtsH-dependent degradation.

  3. Catalytic evaluation of promoted CeO2-ZrO2 by transition, alkali, and alkaline-earth metal oxides for diesel soot oxidation.

    PubMed

    Alinezhadchamazketi, Ali; Khodadadi, Abas Ali; Mortazavi, Yadollah; Nemati, Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Series of mixed metal oxides were synthesized by gel-combustion method and their catalytic activities for soot oxidation were investigated. The catalysts were M-Ce-Zr (M = Mn, Cu, Fe, K, Ba, Sr), and xK-20Mn-Ce-Zr (x = 0, 5, 10, 20), they were characterized by XRD, SEM, TPR and BET surface area techniques. The results of soot temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) in an O2 oxidizing atmosphere indicate that K-Ce-Zr has the highest catalytic activity for soot oxidation under loose contact condition, due to enhancement of the soot and catalyst contacts. On the other hand, under a tight contact condition, Mn-Ce-Zr and Cu-Ce-Zr nano-composites have high activities for soot oxidation and lower the soot TPO peak temperatures by about 280 and 270 degrees C, respectively, as compared to non-catalytic soot oxidation. Furthermore, the addition of up to 10 wt.% potassium oxides into Mn-Ce-Zr increases its catalytic activity and further reduces the soot TPO peak temperature by about 40 degrees C under loose contact condition.

  4. Multi-layer Retrievals of Greenhouse Gases from a Combined Use of GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR and TIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, N.; Kuze, A.; Kataoka, F.; Shiomi, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Suto, H.; Knuteson, R. O.; Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Gore, W.; Tanaka, T.; Yokota, T.

    2016-12-01

    The TANSO-FTS sensor onboard GOSAT has three frequency bands in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and the fourth band in the thermal infrared (TIR). Observations of high-resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the SWIR are extensively utilized to retrieve column-averaged concentrations of the major greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4). Although global XCO2 and XCH4 distribution retrieved from SWIR data can reduce the uncertainty in the current knowledge about sources and sinks of these gases, information on the vertical profiles would be more useful to constrain the surface flux and also to identify the local emission sources. Based on the degrees of freedom for signal, Kulawik et al. (2016, IWGGMS-12 presentation) shows that 2-layer information on the concentration of CO2 can be extracted from TANSO-FTS SWIR measurements, and the retrieval error is predicted to be about 5 ppm in the lower troposphere. In this study, we present multi-layer retrievals of CO2 and CH4 from a combined use of measurements of TANSO-FTS SWIR and TIR. We selected GOSAT observations at Railroad Valley Playa in Nevada, USA, which is a vicarious calibration site for TANSO-FTS, as we have various ancillary data including atmospheric temperature and humidity taken by a radiosonde, surface temperature, and surface emissivity with a ground based FTS. All of these data are useful especially for retrievals using TIR spectra. Currently, we use the 700-800 cm-1 and 1200-1300 cm-1 TIR windows for CO2 and CH4 retrievals, respectively, in addition to the SWIR bands. We found that by adding TIR windows, 3-layer information can be extracted, and the predicted retrieval error in the CO2 concentration was reduced about 1 ppm in the lower troposphere. We expect that the retrieval error could be further reduced by optimizing TIR windows and by reducing systematic forward model errors.

  5. 1H, 13C, 15N resonance assignments of the extracellular loop 1 domain (ECL1) of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 FtsX, an essential cell division protein

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yue; Bruce, Kevin E.; Rued, Britta; Winkler, Malcolm E.; Giedroc, David P.

    2015-01-01

    FtsX is an integral membrane protein from Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) that harbors an extracellular loop 1 domain (FtsXECL1Spn) that interacts with PcsB, an peptidoglycan hydrolase that is essential for cell growth and division. Here, we report nearly complete backbone and side chain resonance assignments and a secondary structural analysis of FtsXECL1Spn (residues 47–168 of FtsX) as first steps toward structure determination of FtsXECL1Spn. PMID:26370567

  6. Interspecies transfer of the penicillin-binding protein 3-encoding gene ftsI between Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus can confer reduced susceptibility to β-lactam antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Annette; Witherden, Elizabeth A; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Tristram, Stephen G

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in ftsI, encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, can cause decreased β-lactam susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae. Sequencing of ftsI from clinical strains has indicated interspecies recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. This study documented apparently unrestricted homologous recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus in vitro. Transfer of ftsI from resistant isolates conferred similar but not identical increases in the MICs of susceptible strains of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus.

  7. Relation between 183 GHz Water Vapor Line and Water Continuum Absorption Measured with FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, S.; Matsuo, H.

    ve carried out Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (100-1500 GHz or 3 mm - 200 micron) atmospheric opacity at Pampa la Bola, 4800 m above sea level in northern Chile on September 1997 and June 1998. Correlations between 220 GHz opacities and those of the center of submillimeter-wave windows were obtained using the entire data set, and good correlations were obtained except for the periods affected by the liquid water opacity component. We succeeded to separate the total opacity to water vapor and liquid water opacity components. The separated water vapor opacity component shows good correlation with the 183 GHz pure water vapor line opacity, which is also covered in the measured spectra, but the liquid water opacity component shows no correlation. Since the submillimeter-wave opacity is merely affected by the liquid water component, it may be better to use the submillimeter-wave opacity for the phase correction.

  8. Determination of Jupiter's N/H ratio from FTS observations at 5 micron.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, T.; Lellouch, E.; Maillard, J.-P.; Bezard, B.; Cottaz, C.; Kleiner, I.

    2000-10-01

    In december 1995, the Galileo Probe fell into Jupiter's atmosphere. From the analysis of its radio signal, Folkner et al (1998) determined a Jovian N/H ratio equal to 4 times solar. This measurement has shaken the commonly accepted value of a solar N/H ratio. Since the N/H ratio plays an important role in the formation scenarios of Jupiter, we wanted to confirm or infirm the Galileo findings. To do so, we observed Jupiter in the 5-μ m hot spots, that gave an opportunity to probe deep in the jovian atmosphere (7 bar). We used the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) mounted on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), providing high spectral resolution Δ ν =0.1 cm-1. Between 25-28 September 1999, we observed 3 different hot spots between 1800 and 2200 cm-1. The terrestrial gaseous absorptions were removed by fitting a synthetic spectrum to the observed spectrum, and then dividing the observations by the synthetic spectrum. To analyse the jovian spectrum we used the NH3 line positions and intensities newly predicted by Cottaz et al (2000). The wavenumber range covered by the FTS allowed us to determine three points on the ammonia vertical distribution at approximately 2, 4 and 7 bar. We found that the NH3 mixing ratio strongly increases between 2 and 4 bar, and moderatly increases between 4 and 7 bar, as was found by the Galileo Probe. At 7 bar, our prefered N/H value lies between 3 and 5 times solar.

  9. A gLite FTS based solution for managing user output in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquilli, M.; Riahi, H.; Spiga, D.; Grandi, C.; Mancinelli, V.; Mascheroni, M.; Pepe, F.; Vaandering, E.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS distributed data analysis workflow assumes that jobs run in a different location from where their results are finally stored. Typically the user output must be transferred across the network from one site to another, possibly on a different continent or over links not necessarily validated for high bandwidth/high reliability transfer. This step is named stage-out and in CMS was originally implemented as a synchronous step of the analysis job execution. However, our experience showed the weakness of this approach both in terms of low total job execution efficiency and failure rates, wasting precious CPU resources. The nature of analysis data makes it inappropriate to use PhEDEx, the core data placement system for CMS. As part of the new generation of CMS Workload Management tools, the Asynchronous Stage-Out system (AsyncStageOut) has been developed to enable third party copy of the user output. The AsyncStageOut component manages glite FTS transfers of data from the temporary store at the site where the job ran to the final location of the data on behalf of that data owner. The tool uses python daemons, built using the WMCore framework, and CouchDB, to manage the queue of work and FTS transfers. CouchDB also provides the platform for a dedicated operations monitoring system. In this paper, we present the motivations of the asynchronous stage-out system. We give an insight into the design and the implementation of key features, describing how it is coupled with the CMS workload management system. Finally, we show the results and the commissioning experience.

  10. GOSAT field experiments with a new portable mid-IR FTS in the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Kikuchi, N.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Kawakami, S.; Hashimoto, M.; Kataoka, F.; Kasai, K.; Arai, T.; Hedelius, J.; Viatte, C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Roehl, C. M.; Leifer, I.; Yates, E. L.; Marrero, J. E.; Iraci, L. T.; Bruegge, C. J.; Schwandner, F. M.; Crisp, D.

    2016-12-01

    The column-average dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2), methane (XCH4) and carbon monoxide (XCO) were measured from the surface using direct sunlight at near-IR wavelengths. Simultaneous detection of CO is helpful to characterize CO2 source type. We measured XCO along with XCO2 and XCH4 using a new portable Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), EM27/SUN mid-IR,in western US field experiments at 1) Caltech, in Pasadena, a northern Los Angeles suburb, 2) Chino, a dairy farming region east of Los Angeles, and 3) Railroad Valley (RRV), a desert playa in Nevada. These measurements were conducted during the GOSAT/OCO-2 joint campaign for vicarious calibration and validation (cal/val) and its preparatory experiments in the early summer of 2016. Before the campaign, measurements from the JAXA EM27/SUN mid-IR were compared with those from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) station at Caltech. Then, we observed a diurnal cycle at the Chino dairy site, an area of concentrated animal husbandry, producing a CH4 point source. Finally, we conducted the cal/val campaign at RRV coincident with GOSAT and OCO-2 overpass observations. Over RRV, in-situ vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as a part of the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX). We will compare experimental results from the cal/val campaign for XCO2 and XCH4 with the portable FTS.

  11. In vivo organization of the FtsZ-ring by ZapA and ZapB revealed by quantitative super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Huang, Tao; Pohlmeyer, Chris; Wang, Shih-Chin; Hatem, Christine; Xiao, Jie

    2013-09-01

    In most bacterial cells, cell division is dependent on the polymerization of the FtsZ protein to form a ring-like structure (Z-ring) at the midcell. Despite its essential role, the molecular architecture of the Z-ring remains elusive. In this work we examine the roles of two FtsZ-associated proteins, ZapA and ZapB, in the assembly dynamics and structure of the Z-ring in Escherichia coli cells. In cells deleted of zapA or zapB, we observed abnormal septa and highly dynamic FtsZ structures. While details of these FtsZ structures are difficult to discern under conventional fluorescence microscopy, single-molecule-based super-resolution imaging method Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) reveals that these FtsZ structures arise from disordered arrangements of FtsZ clusters. Quantitative analysis finds these clusters are larger and comprise more molecules than a single FtsZ protofilament, and likely represent a distinct polymeric species that is inherent to the assembly pathway of the Z-ring. Furthermore, we find these clusters are not due to the loss of ZapB-MatP interaction in ΔzapA and ΔzapB cells. Our results suggest that the main function of ZapA and ZapB in vivo may not be to promote the association of individual protofilaments but to align FtsZ clusters that consist of multiple FtsZ protofilaments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Design and synthesis of indolo[2,3-a]quinolizin-7-one inhibitors of the ZipA-FtsZ interaction.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lee D; Foreman, Ken W; Rush, Thomas S; Tsao, Desiree H H; Mosyak, Lidia; Li, Yuanhong; Sukhdeo, Mohani N; Ding, Weidong; Dushin, Elizabeth G; Kenny, Cynthia Hess; Moghazeh, Soraya L; Petersen, Peter J; Ruzin, Alexey V; Tuckman, Margareta; Sutherland, Alan G

    2004-03-22

    The binding of FtsZ to ZipA is a potential target for antibacterial therapy. Based on a small molecule inhibitor of the ZipA-FtsZ interaction, a parallel synthesis of small molecules was initiated which targeted a key region of ZipA involved in FtsZ binding. The X-ray crystal structure of one of these molecules complexed with ZipA was solved. The structure revealed an unexpected binding mode, facilitated by desolvation of a loosely bound surface water.

  13. Evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    An RNA-based evolution system was constructed in the laboratory and used to develop RNA enzymes with novel catalytic function. By controlling the nature of the catalytic task that the molecules must perform in order to survive, it is possible to direct the evolving population toward the expression of some desired catalytic behavior. More recently, this system has been coupled to an in vitro translation procedure, raising the possibility of evolving protein enzymes in the laboratory to produce novel proteins with desired catalytic properties. The aim of this line of research is to reduce darwinian evolution, the fundamental process of biology, to a laboratory procedure that can be made to operate in the service of organic synthesis.

  14. Evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G. F.

    1993-01-01

    An RNA-based evolution system was constructed in the laboratory and used to develop RNA enzymes with novel catalytic function. By controlling the nature of the catalytic task that the molecules must perform in order to survive, it is possible to direct the evolving population toward the expression of some desired catalytic behavior. More recently, this system has been coupled to an in vitro translation procedure, raising the possibility of evolving protein enzymes in the laboratory to produce novel proteins with desired catalytic properties. The aim of this line of research is to reduce darwinian evolution, the fundamental process of biology, to a laboratory procedure that can be made to operate in the service of organic synthesis.

  15. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  16. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  17. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  18. Spectrophotometric evaluation of surface morphology dependent catalytic activity of biosynthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using UV-vis spectra: A comparative kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Kamble, Vaishali; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Santra, Chittaranjan

    2016-03-01

    The development of eco-friendly and cost-effective synthetic protocol for the preparation of nanomaterials, especially metal nanoparticles is an emerging area of research in nanotechnology. These metal nanoparticles, especially silver can play a crucial role in various catalytic reactions. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles described here was very stable up to 6 months and can be further exploited as an effective catalyst in the chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. The silver nanoparticles were utilized as an efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate using Rhodamine 6G as Raman probe molecule. We have also carried out systematic comparative studies on the catalytic efficiency of both silver and gold nanoparticles using UV-vis spectra to monitor the above reaction spectrophotometrically. We find that the reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and the catalytic activity can be explained by a simple model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism for heterogeneous catalysis. We also find that silver nanoparticles are more efficient as a catalyst compare to gold nanoparticles in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, which can be explained by the morphology of the nanoparticles as determined by transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Encapsulation of Bimetallic Metal Nanoparticles into Robust Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks: Evaluation of the Catalytic Potential for Size-Selective Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Rösler, Christoph; Dissegna, Stefano; Rechac, Victor L; Kauer, Max; Guo, Penghu; Turner, Stuart; Ollegott, Kevin; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Peeters, Daniel; Wang, Yuemin; Matsumura, Syo; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Muhler, Martin; Llabrés I Xamena, Francesc X; Fischer, Roland A

    2017-03-13

    The realization of metal nanoparticles (NPs) with bimetallic character and distinct composition for specific catalytic applications is an intensively studied field. Due to the synergy between metals, most bimetallic particles exhibit unique properties that are hardly provided by the individual monometallic counterparts. However, as small-sized NPs possess high surface energy, agglomeration during catalytic reactions is favored. Sufficient stabilization can be achieved by confinement of NPs in porous support materials. In this sense, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in particular have gained a lot of attention during the last years; however, encapsulation of bimetallic species remains challenging. Herein, the exclusive embedding of preformed core-shell PdPt and RuPt NPs into chemically robust Zr-based MOFs is presented. Microstructural characterization manifests partial retention of the core-shell systems after successful encapsulation without harming the crystallinity of the microporous support. The resulting chemically robust NP@UiO-66 materials exhibit enhanced catalytic activity towards the liquid-phase hydrogenation of nitrobenzene, competitive with commercially used Pt on activated carbon, but with superior size-selectivity for sterically varied substrates. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. In-vitro evaluation of copper nanoparticles cytotoxicity on prostate cancer cell lines and their antioxidant, sensing and catalytic activity: One-pot green approach.

    PubMed

    Prasad, P Reddy; Kanchi, S; Naidoo, E B

    2016-08-01

    In this study, Broccoli green extract was reported as a green and environmental friendly precursor for the one-pot biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, TEM, DLS, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The TEM and DLS results showed that the NPs are in spherical and monodispersed with an average particle size of ~4.8nm. The FTIR results confirmed the occurrence of bioactive functional groups that are responsible for reducing cupric sulphate to copper ions. The UV-vis spectrophotometry was used for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol and its dynamic reaction in Britton-Robinson buffer solution. This catalytic activity was further supported with methylene blue and methyl red dyes degradation. The nanocatalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture and reused many times with none vital loss of catalytic activity. The Broccoli green extract modified copper nanoparticles coated on screen printing electrode laid a new sensing platform and has an excellent electrocatalytic activity. Furthermore, surface modified CuNPs with Broccoli green extract exhibited no cytotoxicity at the concentration ranging from 0.5 to 1.5μM on the prostate cancer (PC-3) cell lines. The maximum scavenging % of Broccoli green extract modified CuNPs was found to be >70.50% at the concentration of 0.25mM against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.

  1. The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) FTS: Results From the 2012/13 Alaska Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kurosu, T. P.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is an aircraft-based Earth Venture 1 mission to study the carbon balance of the Alaskan Arctic ecosystem, with a particular focus on carbon release from melting permafrost. Operating from its base in Fairbanks, AK, the CARVE aircraft covers a range of principle flight paths in the Alaskan interior, the Yukon River valley, and northern Alaska coast around Barrow and Dead Horse. Flight paths are chosen to maximize ecosystem variability and and cover burn-recovery/regrowth sequences. CARVE observations cover the Arctic Spring/Summer/Fall seasons, with multiple flights per season and principle flight paths. Science operations started in 05/2012 and are currently envisaged to continue until 2015. The CARVE suite of instruments includes flask measurements and in situ gas analyzers for CO2, CH4 and CO observations, an active/passive L-band radar for surface conditions (freeze/thaw state), and a three-band polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for column measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, and interfering species (e.g., H2O). The FTS covers the spectral regions of 4,200-4,900 cm-1 (CH4, CO), 5,800-6,400 cm-1 (CO2), and 12,900-13,200 cm-1 (O2), with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. Aircraft-based FTS science observations in Alaska have been performed since 23-05-2012. First-version data products from all CARVE instruments derived from observations during the 2012 campaign were publicly released earlier in 2013. The FTS has performed well during flight conditions, particularly with respect to vibration damping. Outstanding challenges include the need for improved spectral and radiometric calibration, as well as compensating for low signal-to-noise spectra acquired under Alaskan flight conditions. We present results from FTS column observations of CO2, CH4, and CO, observed during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns, including preliminary comparisons of CARVE FTS measurements with satellite observations of CO2

  2. Synthesis of Antimicrobial Natural Products Targeting FtsZ: (±)-Dichamanetin and (±)-2″′-Hydroxy-5″-benzylisouvarinol-B

    PubMed Central

    Urgaonkar, Sameer; La Pierre, Henry S.; Meir, Israel; Lund, Henrik; RayChaudhuri, Debabrata; Shaw, Jared T.

    2008-01-01

    Two natural products have been synthesized using a ZnCl2-mediated benzylic coupling reaction. Both are potent inhibitors of the GTPase activity of FtsZ, a protein that is essential for bacterial cytokinesis. PMID:16321003

  3. Assessment of water vapor isotopologue measurements by ACE-FTS and Odin-SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Ralf; Sheese, Patrick; Walker, Kaley; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter; Manney, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Knowing the isotopic composition of trace gases can improve our understanding of processes in the Earth's atmosphere causing isotopic fractionation. In many studies, isotopologue (molecules of identical chemical but different isotopic composition) amounts are primarily discussed as δ values, which are defined relative to a standard, e.g.: ( ) 18 (VM RH182 O /VM RH162 O ) δ O (o) = (V-M-R-18-/V-M-R-16-)VSMOW-- 1 * 1000 H2 O H2 O with VSMOW as Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. This study targets the water vapor isotopologues H218O and H217O in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere using δ18O and δ17O for the comparison. Over the past decades, H218O and H217O profiles have been measured with balloon-borne (e.g. FIRS-2, Mk IV) and space-borne (e.g. ATMOS/SL3) instruments. The satellite instruments ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) on the Canadian satellite SCISAT and SMR (Sub-Millimetre Radiometer) on the Swedish satellite Odin provide a significantly larger number of individual profiles with global coverage. Both instruments are still operational and provide data products for more than 10 years. Assessing their data quality is of key importance before conclusions can be drawn from these results. ACE-FTS on SCISAT is an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a high spectral resolution of 0.02 cm-1 and a spectral range from 750 to 4400 cm-1. It measures using solar occultation viewing geometry. SCISAT is in a high inclination orbit at an altitude of 650 km. It was launched in August 2003 and has been performing routine measurements since February 2004. SMR on Odin measures millimetre wave emissions from the atmosphere with a 1.1 m telescope in the 486 to 581 GHz range with four tunable radiometers. Odin was launched in February 2001 into a quasi-polar sun-synchronous orbit at about 600 km altitude. Spectral regions for the target trace gases are selected for SMR using different measurement modes and thus not all

  4. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  5. Transient catalytic combustor model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    A quasi-steady gas phase and thermally thin substrate model is used to analyze the transient behavior of catalytic monolith combustors in fuel lean operation. The combustor response delay is due to the substrate thermal inertia. Fast response is favored by thin substrate, short catalytic bed length, high combustor inlet and final temperatures, and small gas channel diameters. The calculated gas and substrate temperature time history at different axial positions provides an understanding of how the catalytic combustor responds to an upstream condition change. The computed results also suggest that the gas residence times in the catalytic bed in the after bed space are correlatable with the nondimensional combustor response time. The model also performs steady state combustion calculations; and the computed steady state emission characteristics show agreement with available experimental data in the range of parameters covered. A catalytic combustor design for automotive gas turbine engine which has reasonably fast response ( 1 second) and can satisfy the emission goals in an acceptable total combustor length is possible.

  6. Transient catalytic combustor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    A quasi-steady gas phase and thermally thin substrate model is used to analyze the transient behavior of catalytic monolith combustors in fuel lean operation. The combustor response delay is due to the substrate thermal inertia. Fast response is favored by thin substrate, short catalytic bed length, high combustor inlet and final temperatures, and small gas channel diameters. The calculated gas and substrate temperature time history at different axial positions provides an understanding of how the catalytic combustor responds to an upstream condition change. The computed results also suggest that the gas residence times in the catalytic bed in the after bed space are correlatable with the nondimensional combustor response time. The model also performs steady state combustion calculations; and the computed steady state emission characteristics show agreement with available experimental data in the range of parameters covered. A catalytic combustor design for automotive gas turbine engine which has reasonably fast response ( 1 second) and can satisfy the emission goals in an acceptable total combustor length is possible.

  7. Roles of Arabidopsis PARC6 in Coordination of the Chloroplast Division Complex and Negative Regulation of FtsZ Assembly1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Froehlich, John E.; TerBush, Allan D.

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast division is driven by the simultaneous constriction of the inner FtsZ ring (Z ring) and the outer DRP5B ring. The assembly and constriction of these rings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are coordinated partly through the inner envelope membrane protein ACCUMULATION AND REPLICATION OF CHLOROPLASTS6 (ARC6). Previously, we showed that PARC6 (PARALOG OF ARC6), also in the inner envelope membrane, negatively regulates FtsZ assembly and acts downstream of ARC6 to position the outer envelope membrane protein PLASTID DIVISION1 (PDV1), which functions together with its paralog PDV2 to recruit DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 5B (DRP5B) from a cytosolic pool to the outer envelope membrane. However, whether PARC6, like ARC6, also functions in coordination of the chloroplast division contractile complexes was unknown. Here, we report a detailed topological analysis of Arabidopsis PARC6, which shows that PARC6 has a single transmembrane domain and a topology resembling that of ARC6. The newly identified stromal region of PARC6 interacts not only with ARC3, a direct inhibitor of Z-ring assembly, but also with the Z-ring protein FtsZ2. Overexpression of PARC6 inhibits FtsZ assembly in Arabidopsis but not in a heterologous yeast system (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), suggesting that the negative regulation of FtsZ assembly by PARC6 is a consequence of its interaction with ARC3. A conserved carboxyl-terminal peptide in FtsZ2 mediates FtsZ2 interaction with both PARC6 and ARC6. Consistent with its role in the positioning of PDV1, the intermembrane space regions of PARC6 and PDV1 interact. These findings provide new insights into the functions of PARC6 and suggest that PARC6 coordinates the inner Z ring and outer DRP5B ring through interaction with FtsZ2 and PDV1 during chloroplast division. PMID:26527658

  8. Structural and Biochemical Studies Reveal a Putative FtsZ Recognition Site on the Z-ring Stabilizer ZapD

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hwajung; Min, Kyungjin; Mikami, Bunzo; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2016-01-01

    FtsZ, a tubulin homologue, is an essential protein of the Z-ring assembly in bacterial cell division. It consists of two domains, the N-terminal and C-terminal core domains, and has a conserved C-terminal tail region. Lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments and several Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps) are necessary for modulating Z-ring formation. ZapD, one of the positive regulators of Z-ring assembly, directly binds to the C-terminal tail of FtsZ and promotes stable Z-ring formation during cytokinesis. To gain structural and functional insights into how ZapD interacts with the C-terminal tail of FtsZ, we solved two crystal structures of ZapD proteins from Salmonella typhimurium (StZapD) and Escherichia coli (EcZapD) at a 2.6 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively. Several conserved residues are clustered on the concave sides of the StZapD and EcZapD dimers, the suggested FtsZ binding site. Modeled structures of EcZapD-EcFtsZ and subsequent binding studies using bio-layer interferometry also identified the EcFtsZ binding site on EcZapD. The structural insights and the results of bio-layer interferometry assays suggest that the two FtsZ binding sites of ZapD dimer might be responsible for the binding of ZapD dimer to two protofilaments to hold them together. PMID:27871169

  9. FtsZ inhibition and redox modulation with one chemical scaffold: Potential use of dihydroquinolines against mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, Sridevi; Napoleon, John Victor; Nankar, Rakesh P; Senu Adeeba, V; Manheri, Muraleedharan K; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-11-10

    The dual effect of FtsZ inhibition and oxidative stress by a group of 1,2-dihydroquinolines that culminate in bactericidal effect on mycobacterium strains is demonstrated. They inhibited the non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 with MIC as low as 0.9 μg/mL and induced filamentation. Detailed studies revealed their ability to inhibit polymerization and GTPase activity of MtbFtsZ (Mycobacterial filamentous temperature sensitive Z) with an IC50 value of ∼40 μM. In addition to such target specific effects, these compounds exerted a global cellular effect by causing redox-imbalance that was evident from overproduction of ROS in treated cells. Such multi-targeting effect with one chemical scaffold has considerable significance in this era of emerging drug resistance and could offer promise in the development of new therapeutic agents against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. FTS atlas of the Sun's spectrally resolved center-to-limb variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2015-01-01

    The Sun's spectrum varies with center-to-limb distance, which is usually parameterized by μ = cosθ, where θ is the heliocentric angle. This variation is governed by the underlying temperature-density structure of the solar atmosphere. While the center-to-limb variation (CLV) of the continuous spectrum is well known and has been widely used for atmospheric modeling, there has been no systematic exploration of the spectrally resolved CLV. Here we make use of two spectral atlases recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the McMath-Pierce facility at Kitt Peak. One spectral atlas obtained 10 arcsec inside the solar limb was recorded in 1978-79 as part of the first survey of the Second Solar Spectrum, while the other atlas is the well used reference NSO/Kitt Peak FTS atlas for the disk center. Both atlases represent fully resolved spectra without any spectral stray light. We then construct an atlas of the limb/disk-center ratio between the two spectra over the wavelength range 4084-9950 Å. This ratio spectrum, which expresses the CLV amplitude relative to the continuum, is as richly structured as the intensity spectrum itself, but the line profiles differ greatly in both shape and amplitude. It is as if we are dealing with a new, unfamiliar spectrum of the Sun, distinctly different from both the intensity spectrum (which we here refer to with the acronym SS1) and the linear polarization of the Second Solar Spectrum (for which we use acronym SS2). In analogy we refer to the new ratio spectrum as SS3. While there is hardly any resemblance between SS3 and SS2, we are able to identify a non-linear mapping that can translate SS1 to SS3 in the case of weak to medium-strong spectral lines that are mainly formed in LTE (being directly coupled to the local temperature-density structure). This non-linear mapping is successfully modeled in terms of two free parameters that are found to vary approximately linearly over the entire wavelength range covered. These

  11. The FTS atomic spectrum tool (FAST) for rapid analysis of line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, M. P.

    2013-07-01

    The FTS Atomic Spectrum Tool (FAST) is an interactive graphical program designed to simplify the analysis of atomic emission line spectra obtained from Fourier transform spectrometers. Calculated, predicted and/or known experimental line parameters are loaded alongside experimentally observed spectral line profiles for easy comparison between new experimental data and existing results. Many such line profiles, which could span numerous spectra, may be viewed simultaneously to help the user detect problems from line blending or self-absorption. Once the user has determined that their experimental line profile fits are good, a key feature of FAST is the ability to calculate atomic branching fractions, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths-and their uncertainties-which is not provided by existing analysis packages. Program SummaryProgram title: FAST: The FTS Atomic Spectrum Tool Catalogue identifier: AEOW_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 293058 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13809509 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Intel x86-based systems. Operating system: Linux/Unix/Windows. RAM: 8 MB minimum. About 50-200 MB for a typical analysis. Classification: 2.2, 2.3, 21.2. Nature of problem: Visualisation of atomic line spectra including the comparison of theoretical line parameters with experimental atomic line profiles. Accurate intensity calibration of experimental spectra, and the determination of observed relative line intensities that are needed for calculating atomic branching fractions and oscillator strengths. Solution method: FAST is centred around a graphical interface, where a user may view sets of experimental line profiles and compare

  12. Domain folding and flexibility of Escherichia coli FtsZ determined by tryptophan site-directed mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Espinoza, Rodrigo; Garcés, Andrea P.; Arbildua, José J.; Montecinos, Felipe; Brunet, Juan E.; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio

    2007-01-01

    FtsZ has two domains, the amino GTPase domain with a Rossmann fold, and the carboxyl domain that resembles the chorismate mutase fold. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the interdomain interaction is stronger than the interaction of the protofilament longitudinal interfaces. Crystal B factor analysis of FtsZ and detected conformational changes suggest a connection between these domains. The unfolding/folding characteristics of each domain of FtsZ were tested by introducing tryptophans into the flexible region of the amino (F135W) and the carboxyl (F275W and I294W) domains. As a control, the mutation F40W was introduced in a more rigid part of the amino domain. These mutants showed a native-like structure with denaturation and renaturation curves similar to wild type. However, the I294W mutant showed a strong loss of functionality, both in vivo and in vitro when compared to the other mutants. The functionality was recovered with the double mutant I294W/F275A, which showed full in vivo complementation with a slight increment of in vitro GTPase activity with respect to the single mutant. The formation of a stabilizing aromatic interaction involving a stacking between the tryptophan introduced at position 294 and phenylalanine 275 could account for these results. Folding/unfolding of these mutants induced by guanidinium chloride was compatible with a mechanism in which both domains within the protein show the same stability during FtsZ denaturation and renaturation, probably because of strong interface interactions. PMID:17656575

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel SPIRE/FTS 194-671um survey of GOALS LIRGs (Lu+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Isaak, K. G.; Mazzarella, J. M.; van der Werf, P. P.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S.; Petric, A. O.; Privon, G. C.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we presented a Herschel SPIRE/FTS 194-671um spectroscopic survey of 121 galaxies belonging to a complete, flux-limited sample of 123 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) down to a total IR flux of 6.5x10-13W/m2, selected from the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS; Armus+ 2009PASP..121..559A). All 123 observed targets are listed in Table 1. (3 data files).

  14. Comparison of small molecule inhibitors of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ and identification of a reliable cross-species inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David E; Kim, Michelle B; Moore, Jared T; O'Brien, Terrence E; Sorto, Nohemy A; Grove, Charles I; Lackner, Laura L; Ames, James B; Shaw, Jared T

    2012-11-16

    FtsZ is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that mediates cytokinesis in bacteria. FtsZ is homologous in structure to eukaryotic tubulin and polymerizes in a similar head-to-tail fashion. The study of tubulin's function in eukaryotic cells has benefited greatly from specific and potent small molecule inhibitors, including colchicine and taxol. Although many small molecule inhibitors of FtsZ have been reported, none has emerged as a generally useful probe for modulating bacterial cell division. With the goal of establishing a useful and reliable small molecule inhibitor of FtsZ, a broad biochemical cross-comparison of reported FtsZ inhibitors was undertaken. Several of these molecules, including phenolic natural products, are unselective inhibitors that seem to derive their activity from the formation of microscopic colloids or aggregates. Other compounds, including the natural product viriditoxin and the drug development candidate PC190723, exhibit no inhibition of GTPase activity using protocols in this work or under published conditions. Of the compounds studied, only zantrin Z3 exhibits good levels of inhibition, maintains activity under conditions that disrupt small molecule aggregates, and provides a platform for exploration of structure-activity relationships (SAR). Preliminary SAR studies have identified slight modifications to the two side chains of this structure that modulate the inhibitory activity of zantrin Z3. Collectively, these studies will help focus future investigations toward the establishment of probes for FtsZ that fill the roles of colchicine and taxol in studies of tubulin.

  15. Function of the Borrelia burgdorferi FtsH Homolog Is Essential for Viability both In Vitro and In Vivo and Independent of HflK/C

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chen-Yi; Bestor, Aaron; Hansen, Bryan; Lin, Tao; Gao, Lihui; Rosa, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In many bacteria, the FtsH protease and its modulators, HflK and HflC, form a large protein complex that contributes to both membrane protein quality control and regulation of the cellular response to environmental stress. Both activities are crucial to the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, which depends on membrane functions, such as motility, protein transport, and cell signaling, to respond to rapid changes in its environment. Using an inducible system, we demonstrate that FtsH production is essential for both mouse and tick infectivity and for in vitro growth of B. burgdorferi. FtsH depletion in B. burgdorferi cells resulted in membrane deformation and cell death. Overproduction of the protease did not have any detectable adverse effects on B. burgdorferi growth in vitro, suggesting that excess FtsH does not proteolytically overwhelm its substrates. In contrast, we did not observe any phenotype for cells lacking the protease modulators HflK and HflC (ΔHflK/C), although we examined morphology, growth rate, growth under stress conditions, and the complete mouse-tick infectious cycle. Our results demonstrate that FtsH provides an essential function in the life cycle of the obligate pathogen B. burgdorferi but that HflK and HflC do not detectably affect FtsH function. PMID:27094329

  16. Catalytic surface effects experiment on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. A.; Rakich, J. V.; Lanfranco, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    A Space Shuttle experiment planned to measure the surface catalytic efficiency of the baseline high-temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) during earth entry is described. A spray-on overcoat, with high catalytic efficiency, will be used as a comparative basis for determining the HRSI surface catalytic efficiency through surface temperature measurement. Catalytic efficiency, as well as aerothermal response of the overcoat, was evaluated, using various models made of HRSI material in arc-plasma flow environments. Agreement is obtained between the measured and computed heating rise of the coated surfaces. Computed predictions for the flight case are presented.

  17. Catalytic membranes beckon

    SciTech Connect

    Caruana, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Chemical engineers here and abroad are finding that the marriage of catalysts and membranes holds promise for faster and more specific reactions, although commercialization of this technology is several years away. Catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) combine a heterogeneous catalyst and a permselective membrane. Reactions performed by CMRs provide higher yields--sometimes as much as 50% higher--because of better reaction selectivity--as opposed to separation selectivity. CMRs also can work at very high temperatures, using ceramic materials that would not be possible with organic membranes. Although the use of CMRs is not widespread presently, the development of new membranes--particularly porous ceramic and zeolite membranes--will increase the potential to improve yields of many catalytic processes. The paper discusses ongoing studies, metal and advanced materials for membranes, the need for continued research, hydrogen recovery from coal-derived gases, catalytic oxidation of sulfides, CMRs for water purification, and oxidative coupling of methane.

  18. Catalytic hydrotreating process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence; McCaskill, Kenneth B.

    1978-01-01

    Carbonaceous liquids boiling above about 300.degree. C such as tars, petroleum residuals, shale oils and coal-derived liquids are catalytically hydrotreated by introducing the carbonaceous liquid into a reaction zone at a temperature in the range of 300.degree. to 450.degree. C and a pressure in the range of 300 to 4000 psig for effecting contact between the carbonaceous liquid and a catalytic transition metal sulfide in the reaction zone as a layer on a hydrogen permeable transition metal substrate and then introducing hydrogen into the reaction zone by diffusing the hydrogen through the substrate to effect the hydrogenation of the carbonaceous liquid in the presence of the catalytic sulfide layer.

  19. Validation and Drift Analysis for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) Trace Gas Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, K. A.; Sheese, P.; Zou, J.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    To progress from monitoring atmospheric composition to investigating and quantifying atmospheric changes, well-characterized measurements over many years are required. The long lifetime of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) has provided more than a decade of composition measurements that contribute to our understanding of ozone recovery, climate change and pollutant emissions. The primary ACE instrument on SCISAT is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) operating between 750 and 4400 cm-1. The ACE-FTS data set provides profiles of temperature, pressure, and volume mixing ratios of more than 30 atmospheric trace gas species, as well as 20 subsidiary isotopologues of the most abundant trace atmospheric constituents. The profiles from this Canadian scientific satellite mission provide altitude-resolved data that are necessary for understanding processes that occur at specific altitudes or over limited vertical length scales. This paper will describe current validation results for the ACE-FTS version 3.5 data set and describe the drift analyses that are being undertaken to characterize these data to enable the generation of climate data records.

  20. Identification of FtsW as a transporter of lipid-linked cell wall precursors across the membrane.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; van Dam, Vincent; Sijbrandi, Robert; Vernet, Thierry; Zapun, André; Bouhss, Ahmed; Diepeveen-de Bruin, Marlies; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2011-04-20

    Bacterial cell growth necessitates synthesis of peptidoglycan. Assembly of this major constituent of the bacterial cell wall is a multistep process starting in the cytoplasm and ending in the exterior cell surface. The intracellular part of the pathway results in the production of the membrane-anchored cell wall precursor, Lipid II. After synthesis this lipid intermediate is translocated across the cell membrane. The translocation (flipping) step of Lipid II was demonstrated to require a specific protein (flippase). Here, we show that the integral membrane protein FtsW, an essential protein of the bacterial division machinery, is a transporter of the lipid-linked peptidoglycan precursors across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using Escherichia coli membrane vesicles we found that transport of Lipid II requires the presence of FtsW, and purified FtsW induced the transbilayer movement of Lipid II in model membranes. This study provides the first biochemical evidence for the involvement of an essential protein in the transport of lipid-linked cell wall precursors across biogenic membranes.

  1. Mutations on FtsZ lateral helix H3 that disrupt cell viability hamper reorganization of polymers on lipid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Ileana F; Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Shin, Jae Yen; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio; Vélez, Marisela

    2017-10-01

    FtsZ filaments localize at the middle of the bacterial cell and participate in the formation of a contractile ring responsible for cell division. Previous studies demonstrated that the highly conserved negative charge of glutamate 83 and the positive charge of arginine 85 located in the lateral helix H3 bend of Escherichia coli FtsZ are required for in vivo cell division. In order to understand how these lateral mutations impair the formation of a contractile ring,we extend previous in vitro characterization of these mutants in solution to study their behavior on lipid modified surfaces. We study their interaction with ZipAand look at their reorganization on the surface. We found that the dynamic bundling capacity of the mutant proteins is deficient, and this impairment increases the more the composition and spatial arrangement of the reconstituted system resembles the situation inside the cell: mutant proteins completely fail to reorganize to form higher order aggregates when bound to an E.coli lipid surface through oriented ZipA.We conclude that these surface lateral point mutations affect the dynamic reorganization of FtsZ filaments into bundles on the cell membrane, suggesting that this event is relevant for generating force and completing bacterial division. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of FtsW as a transporter of lipid-linked cell wall precursors across the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; van Dam, Vincent; Sijbrandi, Robert; Vernet, Thierry; Zapun, André; Bouhss, Ahmed; Diepeveen-de Bruin, Marlies; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cell growth necessitates synthesis of peptidoglycan. Assembly of this major constituent of the bacterial cell wall is a multistep process starting in the cytoplasm and ending in the exterior cell surface. The intracellular part of the pathway results in the production of the membrane-anchored cell wall precursor, Lipid II. After synthesis this lipid intermediate is translocated across the cell membrane. The translocation (flipping) step of Lipid II was demonstrated to require a specific protein (flippase). Here, we show that the integral membrane protein FtsW, an essential protein of the bacterial division machinery, is a transporter of the lipid-linked peptidoglycan precursors across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using Escherichia coli membrane vesicles we found that transport of Lipid II requires the presence of FtsW, and purified FtsW induced the transbilayer movement of Lipid II in model membranes. This study provides the first biochemical evidence for the involvement of an essential protein in the transport of lipid-linked cell wall precursors across biogenic membranes. PMID:21386816

  3. Validation of first chemistry mode retrieval results from new limb-imaging FTS GLORIA with correlative MIPAS-STR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Oelhaf, H.; Höpfner, M.; Belyaev, G. V.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Grooß, J.-U.; Gulde, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Kleinert, A.; Krämer, M.; Kretschmer, E.; Kulessa, T.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Piesch, C.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.; Rongen, H.; Sartorius, C.; Schardt, G.; Schönfeld, A.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Sha, M. K.; Stroh, F.; Ungermann, J.; Volk, C. M.; Orphal, J.

    2014-12-01

    We report first chemistry mode retrieval results from the new airborne limb-imaging infrared FTS (Fourier transform spectrometer) GLORIA and comparisons with observations by the conventional airborne limb-scanning infrared FTS MIPAS-STR. For GLORIA, the flights aboard the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica during the ESSenCe campaign (ESa Sounder Campaign 2011) were the very first in field deployment after several years of development. The simultaneous observations of GLORIA and MIPAS-STR during the flight on 16 December 2011 inside the polar vortex and under the conditions of optically partially transparent polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) provided us the unique opportunity to compare the observations by two different infrared FTS generations directly. The retrieval results of temperature, HNO3, O3, H2O, CFC-11 and CFC-12 show reasonable agreement of GLORIA with MIPAS-STR and collocated in-situ observations. For the horizontally binned hyperspectral limb-images, the GLORIA sampling outnumbered the horizontal cross-track sampling of MIPAS-STR by up to one order of magnitude. Depending on the target parameter, typical vertical resolutions of 0.5 to 2.0 km were obtained for GLORIA and are typically by factors of 2 to 4 better compared to MIPAS-STR. While the improvement of the performance, characterisation and data processing of GLORIA are subject of ongoing work, the presented first results already demonstrate the considerable gain in sampling and vertical resolution achieved with GLORIA.

  4. Metal-dependent SpoIIE oligomerization stabilizes FtsZ during asymmetric division in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Król, Ewa; de Sousa Borges, Anabela; Kopacz, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    SpoIIE is a bifunctional protein involved in asymmetric septum formation and in activation of the forespore compartment-specific transcription factor σF through dephosphorylation of SpoIIAA-P. The phosphatase activity of SpoIIE requires Mn2+ as a metal cofactor. Here, we show that the presence of a metal cofactor also influences SpoIIE oligomerization and asymmetric septum formation. Absence of Mn2+ from sporulation medium results in a delay of the formation of polar FtsZ-rings, similar to a spoIIE null mutant. We purified the entire cytoplasmic part of the SpoIIE protein, and show that the protein copurifies with bound metals. Metal binding both stimulates SpoIIE oligomerization, and results in the formation of larger oligomeric structures. The presence of SpoIIE oligomers reduces FtsZ GTP hydrolysis activity and stabilizes FtsZ polymers in a light scattering assay. Combined, these results indicate that metal binding is not just required for SpoIIE phosphatase activity but also is important for SpoIIE's role in asymmetric septum formation. PMID:28358838

  5. Catalytic evaluation on liquid phase oxidation of vanillyl alcohol using air and H2O2 over mesoporous Cu-Ti composite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Subrata; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Ali, Tammar Hussein

    2017-02-01

    A mesoporous, highly crystalline Cu-Ti composite oxide catalyst was prepared via facile, simple and modified solution method varying Cu and Ti ratio for selective liquid phase oxidation of vanillyl alcohol. Various spectroscopic procedures were employed to systematically characterize the catalyst structural and physicochemical properties. The defect chemistry of the catalyst was confirmed from the presence of surface defects revealed through HRTEM imagery between the TiO2 (101) and Cu3TiO4 (012) planes, complemented by the XRD profiling. Further, presence of oxygen vacancy evidenced by O 1s XPS spectra were observed on the catalyst surface. Moreover, the stoichiometry of Cu and Ti in the catalyst synthesis protocol was notably found to be the vital determinant to alter the redox properties of Cu-Ti composite oxide catalyst supported by H2-TPR. O2-TPD analysis. Moreover, a rational investigation was done using different oxidants such as air and H2O2 with variables reaction conditions. The catalyst was active for liquid phase oxidation of vanillyl alcohol to vanillin with performance of 66% conversion and 71% selectivity using H2O2 in base free condition. And also, catalytic activity was significantly improved by 94% conversion with 86% selectivity to vanillin in liquid phase aerobic oxidation at the optimum reaction conditions. To expand the superiority of the catalyst, three times reusability study was also examined with appreciable catalytic activity.

  6. Quantification and evaluation of kinetic bio-catalytic pathway of horseradish peroxidase in an electron mediated reaction system and its applications in plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Honnur; Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Chamaraja, Nelligere A.; Aradhana, Narayan

    2013-02-01

    The intermolecular coupling of 2,5-dimethoxyaniline (DMA) as mediated electron transfer reaction in presence of H2O2 and peroxidase in acetate buffer of pH 4.2 resulting green colored product having maximum absorption at λmax = 740 nm was investigated by spectrophotometer. Under optimum conditions, linearity range for the quantification of H2O2 was 2.0-288.0 μM and for peroxidase were 0.59-9.46 and 0.443-9.46 nM by kinetic and fixed-time method, respectively. The catalytic efficiency and catalytic power were KeffD = 2.354 × 105 M-1 min-1 and KpowD = 4.59 × 10-4 min-1, respectively. From the plot of d(1/Do) vs d(1/Vo) and d(1/Ho) vs d(1/Vo), Michaelis-Menten constants for DMA and H2O2were found that KmD = 1458 μM and KmHO = 301 μM. Applicability of the method was tested for peroxidase activity in some plant extracts and compared with guaiacol/peroxidase system. Regarding superiority of the method, it is suggested that DMA/peroxidase system can be a better hydrogen donor for HRP assay than guaiacol system as evident from kinetic data.

  7. Quantification and evaluation of kinetic bio-catalytic pathway of horseradish peroxidase in an electron mediated reaction system and its applications in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Honnur; Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Chamaraja, Nelligere A; Aradhana, Narayan

    2013-02-01

    The intermolecular coupling of 2,5-dimethoxyaniline (DMA) as mediated electron transfer reaction in presence of H(2)O(2) and peroxidase in acetate buffer of pH 4.2 resulting green colored product having maximum absorption at λ(max)=740 nm was investigated by spectrophotometer. Under optimum conditions, linearity range for the quantification of H(2)O(2) was 2.0-288.0 μM and for peroxidase were 0.59-9.46 and 0.443-9.46 nM by kinetic and fixed-time method, respectively. The catalytic efficiency and catalytic power were K(eff)(D)=2.354 × 10(5)M(-1)min(-1) and K(pow)(D)=4.59 × 10(-4)min(-1), respectively. From the plot of d(1/D(o)) vs d(1/V(o)) and d(1/H(o)) vs d(1/V(o)), Michaelis-Menten constants for DMA and H(2)O(2)were found that K(m)(D)=1,458 μM and [Formula: see text] =301 μM. Applicability of the method was tested for peroxidase activity in some plant extracts and compared with guaiacol/peroxidase system. Regarding superiority of the method, it is suggested that DMA/peroxidase system can be a better hydrogen donor for HRP assay than guaiacol system as evident from kinetic data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  9. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  10. Nanocarbons for Catalytic Desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qingqing; Lin, Yangming; Heumann, Saskia; Su, Dangsheng

    2017-08-24

    Nanocarbon catalysts are green and sustainable alternatives to the metal-based catalysts for numerous catalytic transformations. The application of nanocarbons for environmental catalysis is an emerging research discipline and has undergone rapid development in recent years. In this focus review, we provide a critical analysis on the state-of-the-art nanocarbon catalysts for three different catalytic desulfurization processes. And the focus is on the advantage and limitation as well as the reaction mechanism of the nanocarbon catalysts at molecular level. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Aufdembrink, B.A.; Degnan, T.F.; Kresge, C.T.

    1990-01-23

    This patent describes a process for catalytically cracking a petroleum fraction to lighter hydrocarbons. The process comprises providing a feedstock containing a petroleum fraction and then contacting the feedstock with a catalyst under catalytic cracking conditions. The catalyst composition includes a titanometallate layered metal oxide material comprising a layered metal oxide material comprising a layered metal oxide and pillars of a chalcogenide of at least one element selected from Groups IB, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IVB, VA, VB, VIA, VIIA and VIIIA of the Periodic Table of Elements separating the layers of the metal oxides.

  12. Drug discovery targeting cell division proteins, microtubules and FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Iwao; Kumar, Kunal; Awasthi, Divya; Vineberg, Jacob G

    2014-09-15

    Eukaryotic cell division or cytokinesis has been a major target for anticancer drug discovery. After the huge success of paclitaxel and docetaxel, microtubule-stabilizing agents (MSAs) appear to have gained a premier status in the discovery of next-generation anticancer agents. However, the drug resistance caused by MDR, point mutations, and overexpression of tubulin subtypes, etc., is a serious issue associated with these agents. Accordingly, the discovery and development of new-generation MSAs that can obviate various drug resistances has a significant meaning. In sharp contrast, prokaryotic cell division has been largely unexploited for the discovery and development of antibacterial drugs. However, recent studies on the mechanism of bacterial cytokinesis revealed that the most abundant and highly conserved cell division protein, FtsZ, would be an excellent new target for the drug discovery of next-generation antibacterial agents that can circumvent drug-resistances to the commonly used drugs for tuberculosis, MRSA and other infections. This review describes an account of our research on these two fronts in drug discovery, targeting eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic cell division.

  13. Phytochemicals as inhibitors of bacterial cell division protein FtsZ: coumarins are promising candidates.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, Sridevi; Nankar, Rakesh P; Rajendran, Selvakumar; Doble, Mukesh

    2014-09-01

    Naturally occurring phytochemicals with reported antibacterial activity were screened for their ability to inhibit the bacterial cell division protein Escherichia coli FtsZ. Among the representative compounds, coumarins inhibit the GTPase and polymerization activities of this protein effectively. Further screening with ten coumarin analogs we identified two promising candidates, scopoletin and daphnetin. The former is found to inhibit the GTPase activity of the protein in a noncompetitive manner. Docking of these coumarins with the modeled protein indicate that they bind to T7 loop, which is different from the GTP-binding site (active site), thereby supporting the experimental data. Lowest binding energy is obtained with scopoletin. 3D QSAR indicates the need for groups such as hydroxyl, diethyl, or dimethyl amino in the 7th carbon for enhanced activity. None of the coumarins exhibited cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 and human embryonic kidney cell lines. The length of Bacillus subtilis increases in the presence of these compounds probably due to the lack of septum formation. Results of this study indicate the role of coumarins in halting the first step of bacterial cell division process.

  14. FTS Spectra from the Mayall 4-m Telescope, 1975-1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Young, Michael; Dennis, Harold; Gopu, Arvind; Henschel, Robert; Hayashi, Soichi

    2017-01-01

    The complete archive of spectra obtained with the Fourier Transform Spectrometers in use at the Mayall 4m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory from 1975 through 1995 is now available to the community. The archive is hosted at Indiana University Bloomington, and includes nearly 10,000 individual spectra of more than 800 different astronomical sources. The FTS produced spectra in the wavelength regime from roughly 0.9 to 5 microns (11,000 to 2000 cm-1), mostly at relatively high spectral resolution. The archive can be searched to identify specific spectra of interest, and the spectra can be viewed online and downloaded in FITS format for analysis. Once a spectrum of interest has been identified, all spectra taken on the same date are provided to allow users to identify appropriate hot star spectra for telluric line division.The archive can be accessed on the web at https://sparc.sca.iu.edu.

  15. Depolymerization dynamics of individual filaments of bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Paez, Alfonso; Hörger, Ines; Rivas, Germán; Vicente, Miguel; Tarazona, Pedro; Vélez, Marisela

    2012-01-01

    We report observation and analysis of the depolymerization filaments of the bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ (filament temperature-sensitive Z) formed on a mica surface. At low concentration, proteins adsorbed on the surface polymerize forming curved filaments that close into rings that remain stable for some time before opening irreversibly and fully depolymerizing. The distribution of ring lifetimes (T) as a function of length (N), shows that the rate of ring aperture correlates with filament length. If this ring lifetime is expressed as a bond survival time, (Tb ≡ NT), this correlation is abolished, indicating that these rupture events occur randomly and independently at each monomer interface. After rings open irreversibly, depolymerization of the remaining filaments is fast, but can be slowed down and followed using a nonhydrolyzing GTP analogue. The histogram of depolymerization velocities of individual filaments has an asymmetric distribution that can be fit with a computer model that assumes two rupture rates, a slow one similar to the one observed for ring aperture, affecting monomers in the central part of the filaments, and a faster one affecting monomers closer to the open ends. From the quantitative analysis, we conclude that the depolymerization rate is affected both by nucleotide hydrolysis rate and by its exchange along the filament, that all monomer interfaces are equally competent for hydrolysis, although depolymerization is faster at the open ends than in central filament regions, and that all monomer–monomer interactions, regardless of the nucleotide present, can adopt a curved configuration. PMID:22566654

  16. Calibration of a TCCON FTS at Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) Using Multiple Airborne Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillyard, P. W.; Iraci, L. T.; Podolske, J. R.; Tanaka, T.; Yates, E. L.; Roehl, C. M.; Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Albertson, R. T.; Blake, D. R.; Meinardi, S.; Marrero, J. E.; Yang, M. M.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Pittman, J. V.; Daube, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite missions including GOSAT, OCO-2 and ASCENDS measure column abundances of greenhouse gases. It is crucial to have calibrated ground-based measurements to which these satellite measurements can compare and refine their retrieval algorithms. To this end, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer has been deployed to the Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in Edwards, CA as a member of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). This location was selected due to its proximity to a highly reflective lakebed. Such surfaces have proven to be difficult for accurate satellite retrievals. This facility has been in operation since July 2013. The data collected to date at this site will be presented. In order to ensure the validity of the measurements made at this site, multiple vertical profiles have been performed using the Alpha jet, DC-8, and ER-2 as part of the AJAX (ongoing), SEAC4RS (August 2013), and SARP (July 2014) field campaigns. The integrated in-situ vertical profiles for CO2 and CH4 have been analyzed and compared with the TCCON FTS measurements, where good agreement between TCCON data and vertically-integrated aircraft in-situ data has been found.

  17. High Accuracy Characterization of an Astro-comb with an FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenday, Alex; Li, Chih-Hao; Phillips, David; Korzennik, Sylvain; Noah Chang, Guoqing; Chen, Li-Jin; Benedick, Andrew; Kaertner, Franz; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald

    2011-06-01

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar lines are approaching Earth-like planet sensitivity. To find a 1-Earth-mass planet in an Earth-like orbit, an order of magnitude improvement in state-of-the-art radial velocity spectroscopy is necessary. An astro-comb, the combination of an ocatve-spanning laser frequency comb with a Fabry-Perot cavity, producing evenly spaced frequency markers with the potential for large wavelength coverage is a promising avenue towards improved wavelength calibration. Key to achieving high accuracy and long-term stability of the astro-comb is high-quality suppression of undesired comb laser lines by the Fabry-Perot filter cavity. Here we present a characterization of a green astro-comb produced by broadening a Ti:Sapphire laser using photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and filtered through zero group delay dispersion mirror sets optimized for the green. The characterization is performed using a high-resolution FTS constructed in our laboratory.

  18. Atmospheric composition and thermodynamic retrievals from the ARIES airborne FTS system - Part 1: Technical aspects and simulated capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, S. M.; Allen, G.; Newman, S.; Vance, A.; Marenco, F.; Harlow, R. C.; Taylor, J.; Moore, D. P.; Remedios, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the retrieval capability of the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES); an airborne remote sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operated on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) aircraft. Simulated optimally-estimated-retrievals of partial column trace gas concentrations, and thermodynamic vertical profiles throughout the troposphere and planetary boundary layer have been performed here for simulated infrared spectra representative of the ARIES system. We also describe the operational and technical aspects of the pre-processing necessary for routine retrieval from the FAAM platform and the selection and construction of a priori information. As exemplars of the capability of the ARIES retrieval system, simulated retrievals of temperature, water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4), and their corresponding sources of error and potential vertical sensitivity, are discussed for ARIES scenes across typical global environments. The maximum Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DOFS) for the retrievals, assuming a flight altitude of 7 km, were: 3.99, 2.97, 0.85, 0.96, and 1.45 for temperature, H2O, CO, O3, and CH4, respectively for the a priori constraints specified. Retrievals of temperature display significant vertical sensitivity (DOFS in the range 2.6 to 4.0 across the altitude range) as well as excellent simulated accuracy, with the vertical sensitivity for H2O also extending to lower altitudes (DOFS ranging from 1.6 to 3.0). It was found that the maximum sensitivity for CO, O3, and CH4 was approximately 1-2 km below the simulated altitudes in all scenarios. Comparisons of retrieved and simulated-truth partial atmospheric columns are used to assess the capability of the ARIES measurement system. Maximum mean biases (and bias standard deviations) in partial columns (i.e. below aircraft total columns) were found to be: +0.06 (±0.02 at 1σ) %, +3.95 (±3

  19. Atmospheric composition and thermodynamic retrievals from the ARIES airborne FTS system - Part 1: Technical aspects and simulated capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, S. M.; Allen, G.; Newman, S.; Vance, A.; Marenco, F.; Harlow, R. C.; Taylor, J.; Moore, D. P.; Remedios, J. J.

    2014-04-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the retrieval capability of the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES): an airborne remote-sensing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) operated on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) aircraft. Simulated maximum a posteriori retrievals of partial column trace gas concentrations, and thermodynamic vertical profiles throughout the troposphere and planetary boundary layer have been performed here for simulated infrared spectra representative of the ARIES system operating in the nadir-viewing geometry. We also describe the operational and technical aspects of the pre-processing necessary for routine retrieval from the FAAM platform and the selection and construction of a priori information. As exemplars of the capability of the ARIES retrieval system, simulated retrievals of temperature, water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4), and their corresponding sources of error and potential vertical sensitivity, are discussed for ARIES scenes across typical global environments. The maximum Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DOFS) for the retrievals, assuming a flight altitude of 7 km, were 3.99, 2.97, 0.85, 0.96, and 1.45 for temperature, H2O, CO, O3, and CH4, respectively, for the a priori constraints specified. Retrievals of temperature display significant vertical sensitivity (DOFS in the range 2.6 to 4.0 across the altitude range) as well as excellent simulated accuracy, with the vertical sensitivity for H2O also extending to lower altitudes (DOFS ranging from 1.6 to 3.0). It was found that the maximum sensitivity for CO, O3, and CH4 was approximately 1-2 km below the simulated altitudes in all scenarios. Comparisons of retrieved and simulated-truth partial atmospheric columns are used to assess the capability of the ARIES measurement system. Maximum mean biases (and bias standard deviations) in partial columns (i.e. below aircraft total columns) were found to

  20. PSC and cirrus cloud detection over the high latitudes using thermal infrared spectra observed by TANSO-FTS/GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Yu; Imasu, Ryoichi; Shiomi, Kei; Saito, Naoko; Ota, Yoshifumi

    2013-04-01

    Greenhouse gases observation SATellite (GOSAT) was launched in 2009 and has been operating normally. However, the areas where the greenhouse gases can be retrieved are still limited in low and mid-latitudes. That is mainly because Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) onboard GOSAT, which is used for cloud screening, covers only reflected sun light ranged from ultraviolet to near infrared, and has relatively low sensitivity to optically thin clouds such as cirrus clouds. On the other hand, Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) which is the main sensor of GOSAT has a thermal infrared band and expected to have ability to detect optically thin clouds. However, the cloud detection in high latitudes is not easy even thermal infrared band data are combined to CAI images because of lower surface and atmospheric temperature in this region. Furthermore, the situation is more complicated if the stratospheric clouds (PSCs), whose optical thickness is thinner than cirrus clouds, exist in lower stratosphere. In this study, we modified CO2 slicing method to detect optically thin clouds more stably by optimizing the pseudo-spectral channels which are defined as sets of actual spectral channels which have weighting function peaks in a same height range. This optimization is based on simulation studies using a multi-scattering radiative transfer code, Polarized radiance System for Transfer of Atmospheric Radiation (Pstar), for six types of atmospheric model profiles, i.e. tropical, mid-latitude summer, mid-latitude winter, high latitude summer, high latitude winter and Antarctic winter. The spectral range used are from 710cm-1 through 750cm-1, and cloud height, geometric thickness, optical thickness assumed in the simulations are 6-24km, 1km, 0.01-5.0, respectively. As a consequence, we found the best combination of pseudo-channels for each atmospheric condition, and the score on the cloud detection exceeds 90 % for all

  1. SOFC system with integrated catalytic fuel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnerty, Caine; Tompsett, Geoff. A.; Kendall, Kevin; Ormerod, R. Mark

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of solid oxide fuel cell technology operating directly on hydrocarbon fuels. The development of a catalytic fuel processing system, which is integrated with the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power source is outlined here. The catalytic device utilises a novel three-way catalytic system consisting of an in situ pre-reformer catalyst, the fuel cell anode catalyst and a platinum-based combustion catalyst. The three individual catalytic stages have been tested in a model catalytic microreactor. Both temperature-programmed and isothermal reaction techniques have been applied. Results from these experiments were used to design the demonstration SOFC unit. The apparatus used for catalytic characterisation can also perform in situ electrochemical measurements as described in previous papers [C.M. Finnerty, R.H. Cunningham, K. Kendall, R.M. Ormerod, Chem. Commun. (1998) 915-916; C.M. Finnerty, N.J. Coe, R.H. Cunningham, R.M. Ormerod, Catal. Today 46 (1998) 137-145]. This enabled the performance of the SOFC to be determined at a range of temperatures and reaction conditions, with current output of 290 mA cm -2 at 0.5 V, being recorded. Methane and butane have been evaluated as fuels. Thus, optimisation of the in situ partial oxidation pre-reforming catalyst was essential, with catalysts producing high H 2/CO ratios at reaction temperatures between 873 K and 1173 K being chosen. These included Ru and Ni/Mo-based catalysts. Hydrocarbon fuels were directly injected into the catalytic SOFC system. Microreactor measurements revealed the reaction mechanisms as the fuel was transported through the three-catalyst device. The demonstration system showed that the fuel processing could be successfully integrated with the SOFC stack.

  2. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  3. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Sunder, Swaminathan

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  4. Evaluation of the catalytic properties of Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on non-commercial matrices to be used in biodiesel synthesis from different feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Da Rós, Patricia C M; Silva, Guilherme A M; Mendes, Adriano A; Santos, Julio C; de Castro, Heizir F

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to produce an immobilized form of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia (lipase PS) with advantageous catalytic properties and stability to be used in the ethanolysis of different feedstocks, mainly babassu oil and tallow beef. For this purpose lipase PS was immobilized on two different non-commercial matrices, such as inorganic matrix (niobium oxide, Nb(2)O(5)) and a hybrid matrix (polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol, SiO(2)-PVA) by covalent binding. The properties of free and immobilized enzymes were searched and compared. The best performance regarding all the analyzed parameters (biochemical properties, kinetic constants and thermal stability) were obtained when the lipase was immobilized on SiO(2)-PVA. The superiority of this immobilized system was also confirmed in the transesterification of both feedstocks, attained higher yields and productivities.

  5. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

    2006-03-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  6. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  7. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 – Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  8. Mitsunobu Reactions Catalytic in Phosphine and a Fully Catalytic System

    PubMed Central

    Buonomo, Joseph A; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2015-01-01

    The Mitsunobu reaction is renowned for its mild reaction conditions and broad substrate tolerance, but has limited utility in process chemistry and industrial applications due to poor atom economy and the generation of stoichiometric phosphine oxide and hydrazine by-products that complicate purification. A catalytic Mitsunobu reaction using innocuous reagents to recycle these by-products would overcome both of these shortcomings. Herein we report a protocol that is catalytic in phosphine (1-phenylphospholane) employing phenylsilane to recycle the catalyst. Integration of this phosphine catalytic cycle with Taniguchi’s azocarboxylate catalytic system provided the first fully catalytic Mitsunobu reaction. PMID:26347115

  9. Influence of FtsZ GTPase activity and concentration on nanoscale Z-ring structure in vivo revealed by three-dimensional Superresolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhixin; Coltharp, Carla; Yang, Xinxing; Xiao, Jie

    2016-10-01

    FtsZ is an essential bacterial cytoskeletal protein that assembles into a ring-like structure (Z-ring) at midcell to carry out cytokinesis. In vitro, FtsZ exhibits polymorphism in polymerizing into different forms of filaments based on its GTPase activity, concentration, and buffer condition. In vivo, the Z-ring appeared to be punctate and heterogeneously organized, although continuous, homogenous Z-ring structures have also been observed. Understanding how the Z-ring is organized in vivo is important because it provides a structural basis for the functional role of the Z-ring in cytokinesis. Here, we assess the effects of both GTPase activity and FtsZ concentration on the organization of the Z-ring in vivo using three-dimensional (3D) superresolution microscopy. We found that the Z-ring became more homogenous when assembled in the presence of a GTPase-deficient mutant, and upon overexpression of either wt or mutant FtsZ. These results suggest that the in vivo organization of the Z-ring is largely dependent on the intrinsic polymerization properties of FtsZ, which are significantly influenced by the GTPase activity and concentration of FtsZ. Our work provides a unifying theme to reconcile previous observations of different Z-ring structures, and supports a model in which the wt Z-ring comprises loosely associated, heterogeneously distributed FtsZ clusters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 725-734, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

  11. High-J CO Intensity Measurements for Galaxies Observed by the Herschel FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Philip; Conley, Alex

    Molecular gas is the raw material for star formation and is commonly traced by the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule. The atmosphere blocks all but the lowest-J transitions of CO for observatories on the ground, but the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory revealed the CO emission of nearby galaxies from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12. Herschel showed that mid- and high-J CO lines in nearby galaxies are emitted from warm gas, accounting for approximately 10% of the molecular mass, but the majority of the CO luminosity. The energy budget of this warm, highly-excited gas is a significant window into the feedback interactions among molecular gas, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Likely, mechanical heating is required to explain the excitation. Such gas has also been observed in star forming regions within our galaxy. We have examined all ~300 spectra of galaxies from the Herschel Fourier Transform Spectrometer and measured line fluxes or upper limits for the CO J = 4-3 to J = 13-12, [CI], and [NII] 205 micron lines in ~200 galaxies, taking systematic effects of the FTS into account. We will present our line fitting method, illustrate trends available so far in this large sample, and preview the full 2-component radiative transfer likelihood modeling of the CO emission using an illustrative sample of 20 galaxies, including comparisons to well-resolved galactic regions. This work is a comprehensive study of mid- and high-J CO emission among a variety of galaxy types, and can be used as a resource for future (sub)millimeter studies of galaxies with ground-based instruments.

  12. Development of a micro-satellite compatible FTS sounder for sun-occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccari, Philippe; Moreau, Louis M.; Giroux, Jacques G.; Soucy, Marc-André

    2009-09-01

    The SciSat/ACE mission provided, and still provides, high quality and high spectral resolution measurements of the atmosphere with a FTS sounder in sun-occultation configuration. Based on the comprehensive results and models of SciSat/ACE it is foreseen that most of the desired information can also be retrieved from lower spectral resolution measurements with higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and appropriate data treatment. With the Canadian Space Agency under the Space Technologies Development Program, ABB Analytical developed a small size sun-occultation sounder compatible with a micro-satellite platform that has identical throughput, spectral bandwidth and vertical resolution as ACE. The spectral resolution is decreased by a factor 25 (0.6 cm-1 instead of 0.024 cm-1 for ACE) whereas the SNR performance is highly increased with an equal factor (target of 2500 instead of 100 for ACE over most of the spectral bandwidth between 750 and 4000 cm-1).A prototype of the sun-occultation sounder was built, tested under various thermal conditions and subjected to vibrations similar to those expected at launch. An outdoor experiment was also conducted to test the instrument in sun-occultation conditions. The good behavior of the instrument indicates interesting opportunities for such small footprint sounder on a low-cost micro-satellite mission and potentially good earth coverage if several of such instruments are used in coordination. Depending on the scientific needs, it is possible to adapt the proposed instrument to increase the vertical resolution and/or to extend the measurements on lower altitudes due to the higher SNR performances.

  13. FTS measurements of submillimeter opacity and other site testing at Pampa la Bola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Akihiro; Pardo, Juan R.

    2000-07-01

    We have carried out Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (150 - 1500 GHz or 2 mm - 200 micrometer) atmospheric opacity at Pampa la Bola, 4800 m above sea level in northern Chile on September 1997 and June 1998. One of the best transmission spectra show up to approximately 67% transmission at well- known submillimeter-wave windows. Supra-terahertz windows (located around 1035 GHz, 1350 GHz, and 1500 GHz) were identified in the same spectrum. The observed spectra can be well modeled by newly developed radiative-transfer calculations. Correlations between 220 GHz opacities and those of the center of submillimeter-wave windows or even those of the supra-terahertz windows are obtained using the entire data set. Good correlations were obtained except for the periods affected by the liquid water opacity component. We succeeded to separate the total opacity in two parts: the water vapor opacity and the liquid water opacity, using two frequencies, one in the millimeter domain and another one in the submillimeter. The separated water vapor opacity component shows good correlation with the 183 GHz pure water vapor line opacity which is also covered in the measured spectra, but the liquid water opacity component shows no correlation. The liquid water opacity component also shows no correlation with the phase fluctuation measured with the 11 GHz radio seeing monitor. Modeling of this component is currently under way. Combined with a statistical study of the 225 GHz opacity data of the Chajnantor site (approximately 7 km apart from Pampa la Bola), it is estimated that submillimeter-wave observations can be done with zenith opacity less than 1.0 (at the most transparent frequency in those windows) for about 50% of the winter season, assuming no presence of liquid water absorption.

  14. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  15. Catalytic, hollow, refractory spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Improved, heterogeneous, refractory catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitable formed of a shell (12) of refractory such as alumina having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be itself catalytic or a catalytically active material coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  16. Catalytic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

    1980-12-09

    An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

  17. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Hryn, John N.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  18. Quenched catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Krambeck, F.J.; Penick, J.E.; Schipper, P.H.

    1990-12-18

    This paper describes improvement in a fluidized catalytic cracking process wherein a fluidizable catalyst cracking catalyst and a hydrocarbon feed are charged to a reactor riser at catalytic riser cracking conditions to form catalytically cracked vapor product and spent catalyst which are discharged into a reactor vessel having a volume via a riser reactor outlet equipped with a separation means to produce a catalyst lean phase. It comprises: a majority of the cracked product, and a catalyst rich phase comprising a majority of the spend catalyst. The the catalyst rich phase is discharged into a dense bed of catalyst maintained below the riser outlet and the catalyst lean phase is discharged into the vessel for a time, and at a temperature, which cause unselective thermal cracking of the cracked product in the reactor volume before product is withdrawn from the vessel via a vessel outlet. The improvement comprises: addition, after riser cracking is completed, and after separation of cracked products from catalyst, of a quenching stream into the vessel above the dense bed of catalyst, via a quench stream addition point which allows the quench stream to contact at least a majority of the volume of the vessel above the dense bed.

  19. A biomimetic synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles derived from aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare seeds and evaluation of their catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-08-01

    A facile biomimetic approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using aqueous extract of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds have been reported in this article. The seeds of F. vulgare are rich in various plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) such as polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and saponins. The phytochemicals of F. vulgare seeds play dual role of reducing and stabilizing agents. The formation of gold nanoparticles was evidenced from the appearance of intense purple color at room temperature with λ max around 550 nm in the UV-Vis absorption spectra. The stable AuNPs were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles were observed to be polydispersed, spherical and ranged from 10 to 30 nm with an average size of 20 ± 2 nm, as obtained from TEM images. The catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles was investigated by studying the reduction of anthropogenic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh-B) with sodium borohydride. Results showed the possible applications of biogenic AuNPs in environment related problems.

  20. Deletion of FtsH11 protease has impact on chloroplast structure and function in Arabidopsis thaliana when grown under continuous light.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Raik; von Sydow, Lotta; Aigner, Harald; Netotea, Sergiu; Brugière, Sabine; Sjögren, Lars; Ferro, Myriam; Clarke, Adrian; Funk, Christiane

    2016-11-01

    The membrane-integrated metalloprotease FtsH11 of Arabidopsis thaliana is proposed to be dual-targeted to mitochondria and chloroplasts. A bleached phenotype was observed in ftsh11 grown at long days or continuous light, pointing to disturbances in the chloroplast. Within the chloroplast, FtsH11 was found to be located exclusively in the envelope. Two chloroplast-located proteins of unknown function (Tic22-like protein and YGGT-A) showed significantly higher abundance in envelope membranes and intact chloroplasts of ftsh11 and therefore qualify as potential substrates for the FtsH11 protease. No proteomic changes were observed in the mitochondria of 6-week-old ftsh11 compared with wild type, and FtsH11 was not immunodetected in these organelles. The abundance of plastidic proteins, especially of photosynthetic proteins, was altered even during standard growth conditions in total leaves of ftsh11. At continuous light, the amount of photosystem I decreased relative to photosystem II, accompanied by a drastic change of the chloroplast morphology and a drop of non-photochemical quenching. FtsH11 is crucial for chloroplast structure and function during growth in prolonged photoperiod.

  1. Direct interaction of FtsZ and MreB is required for septum synthesis and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Andrew K; Gerdes, Kenn

    2013-07-03

    How bacteria coordinate cell growth with division is not well understood. Bacterial cell elongation is controlled by actin-MreB while cell division is governed by tubulin-FtsZ. A ring-like structure containing FtsZ (the Z ring) at mid-cell attracts other cell division proteins to form the divisome, an essential protein assembly required for septum synthesis and cell separation. The Z ring exists at mid-cell during a major part of the cell cycle without contracting. Here, we show that MreB and FtsZ of Escherichia coli interact directly and that this interaction is required for Z ring contraction. We further show that the MreB-FtsZ interaction is required for transfer of cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes from the lateral to the mature divisome, allowing cells to synthesise the septum. Our observations show that bacterial cell division is coupled to cell elongation via a direct and essential interaction between FtsZ and MreB.

  2. In Escherichia coli, MreB and FtsZ direct the synthesis of lateral cell wall via independent pathways that require PBP 2.

    PubMed

    Varma, Archana; Young, Kevin D

    2009-06-01

    In Escherichia coli, the cytoplasmic proteins MreB and FtsZ play crucial roles in ensuring that new muropeptide subunits are inserted into the cell wall in a spatially correct way during elongation and division. In particular, to retain a constant diameter and overall shape, new material must be inserted into the wall uniformly around the cell's perimeter. Current thinking is that MreB accomplishes this feat through intermediary proteins that tether peptidoglycan synthases to the outer face of the inner membrane. We tested this idea in E. coli by using a DD-carboxypeptidase mutant that accumulates pentapeptides in its peptidoglycan, allowing us to visualize new muropeptide incorporation. Surprisingly, inhibiting MreB with the antibiotic A22 did not result in uneven insertion of new wall, although the cells bulged and lost their rod shapes. Instead, uneven (clustered) incorporation occurred only if MreB and FtsZ were inactivated simultaneously, providing the first evidence in E. coli that FtsZ can direct murein incorporation into the lateral cell wall independently of MreB. Inhibiting penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP 2) alone produced the same clustered phenotype, implying that MreB and FtsZ tether peptidoglycan synthases via a common mechanism that includes PBP 2. However, cell shape was determined only by the presence or absence of MreB and not by the even distribution of new wall material as directed by FtsZ.

  3. Expression of Brassica oleracea FtsZ1-1 and MinD alters chloroplast division in Nicotiana tabacum generating macro- and mini-chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Chikkala, Veera R N; Nugent, Gregory D; Stalker, David M; Mouradov, Aidyn; Stevenson, Trevor W

    2012-05-01

    FtsZ1-1 and MinD plastid division-related genes were identified and cloned from Brassica oleracea var. botrytis. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoFtsZ1-1 or BoMinD exhibited cells with either fewer but abnormally large chloroplasts or more but smaller chloroplasts relative to wild-type tobacco plants. An abnormal chloroplast phenotype in guard cells was found in BoMinD transgenic tobacco plants but not in BoFtsZ1-1 transgenic tobacco plants. Transgenic tobacco plants bearing the macro-chloroplast phenotype had 10 to 20-fold increased levels of total FtsZ1-1 or MinD, whilst the transgenic tobacco plants bearing the mini-chloroplast phenotype had lower increased FtsZ1-1 or absence of detectable MinD. We also described for the first time, plastid transformation of macro-chloroplast bearing tobacco shoots with a gene cassette allowing for expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Homoplasmic plastid transformants from normal chloroplast and macro-chloroplast tobacco plants expressing GFP were obtained. Both types of transformants accumulated GFP at ~6% of total soluble protein, thus indicating that cells containing macro-chloroplasts can regenerate shoots in tissue culture and can stably integrate and express a foreign gene to similar levels as plant cells containing a normal chloroplast size and number.

  4. Comparison of nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, and SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Sinnhuber, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Urban, J.; Pérot, K.; Walker, K. A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    We compare the nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (60 to 150 km) from four instruments: the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), and the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR). We use the daily zonal mean data in that altitude range for the years 2004-2010 (ACE-FTS), 2005-2012 (MIPAS), 2008-2012 (SCIAMACHY), and 2003-2012 (SMR). We first compare the data qualitatively with respect to the morphology, focussing on the major features, and then compare the time series directly and quantitatively. In three geographical regions, we compare the vertical density profiles on coincident measurement days. Since none of the instruments delivers continuous daily measurements in this altitude region, we carried out a multi-linear regression analysis. This regression analysis considers annual and semi-annual variability in the form of harmonic terms and inter-annual variability by responding linearly to the solar Lyman-α radiation index and the geomagnetic Kp index. This analysis helps to find similarities and differences in the individual data sets with respect to the inter-annual variations caused by geomagnetic and solar variability. We find that the data sets are consistent and that they only disagree on minor aspects. SMR and ACE-FTS deliver the longest time series in the mesosphere, and they agree with each other remarkably well. The shorter time series from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY also agree with them where they overlap. The data agree within 30 % when the number densities are large, but they can differ by 50 to 100 % in some cases.

  5. Validation of ACE-FTS measurements of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 using ground-based FTIR spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Mahieu, E.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Conway, S. A.; Dan, L.; Griffin, D.; Harrett, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kagawa, A.; Lindenmaier, R.; Strong, K.; Whaley, C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite datasets can be an effective global monitoring tool for long-lived compounds in the atmosphere. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT-1. The primary instrument on SCISAT-1 is a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) which is capable of measuring a range of gases including key chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) species. These families of species are of interest because of their significant contribution to anthropogenic ozone depletion and to global warming. To assess the quality of data derived from satellite measurements, validation using other data sources is essential. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers are particularly useful for this purpose. In this study, five FTIR spectrometers located at four sites around the world are used to validate the CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), and HCFC-22 (CHClF2) retrieved profiles from ACE-FTS measurements. These species are related because HCFC-22 was the primary replacement for CFC-11 and CFC-12 in refrigerant and propellant applications. The FTIR spectrometers used in this study record solar absorption spectra at Eureka (Canada), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), Poker Flat (USA), and Toronto (Canada). The retrieval of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 are not standard products for many of these instruments, and as such, a harmonization of retrieval parameters between the sites has been conducted. The retrievals of these species from the FTIR spectra are sensitive from the surface to approximately 20 km, while the ACE-FTS profiles extend from approximately 6 to 30 km. For each site, partial column comparisons between coincident measurements of the three species and a validation of the observed trends will be discussed.

  6. In Vivo Structure of the E. coli FtsZ-ring Revealed by Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Guo; Huang, Tao; Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Hensel, Zach; Xiao, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The FtsZ protein, a tubulin-like GTPase, plays a pivotal role in prokaryotic cell division. In vivo it localizes to the midcell and assembles into a ring-like structure-the Z-ring. The Z-ring serves as an essential scaffold to recruit all other division proteins and generates contractile force for cytokinesis, but its supramolecular structure remains unknown. Electron microscopy (EM) has been unsuccessful in detecting the Z-ring due to the dense cytoplasm of bacterial cells, and conventional fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) has only provided images with limited spatial resolution (200–300 nm) due to the diffraction of light. Hence, given the small sizes of bacteria cells, identifying the in vivo structure of the Z-ring presents a substantial challenge. Here, we used photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), a single molecule-based super-resolution imaging technique, to characterize the in vivo structure of the Z-ring in E. coli. We achieved a spatial resolution of ∼35 nm and discovered that in addition to the expected ring-like conformation, the Z-ring of E. coli adopts a novel compressed helical conformation with variable helical length and pitch. We measured the thickness of the Z-ring to be ∼110 nm and the packing density of FtsZ molecules inside the Z-ring to be greater than what is expected for a single-layered flat ribbon configuration. Our results strongly suggest that the Z-ring is composed of a loose bundle of FtsZ protofilaments that randomly overlap with each other in both longitudinal and radial directions of the cell. Our results provide significant insight into the spatial organization of the Z-ring and open the door for further investigations of structure-function relationships and cell cycle-dependent regulation of the Z-ring. PMID:20856929

  7. Update on GOSAT TANSO-FTS performance, operations, and data products after more than 6 years in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Tanaka, Makoto; Ueda, Yoko; Deguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Jun; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Kataoka, Fumie; Taylor, Thomas E.; Buijs, Henry L.

    2016-06-01

    A data set containing more than 6 years (February 2009 to present) of radiance spectra for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) observations has been acquired by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, available at http://data.gosat.nies.go.jp/GosatUserInterfaceGateway/guig/GuigPage/open.do), nicknamed "Ibuki", Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). This paper provides updates on the performance of the satellite and TANSO-FTS sensor and describes important changes to the data product, which has recently been made available to users. With these changes the typical accuracy of retrieved column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4, respectively) are 2 ppm or 0.5 % and 13 ppb or 0.7 %, respectively. Three major anomalies of the satellite system affecting TANSO-FTS are reported: a failure of one of the two solar paddles in May 2014, a switch to the secondary pointing system in January 2015, and most recently a cryocooler shutdown and restart in August 2015. The Level 1A (L1A) (raw interferogram) and the Level 1B (L1B) (radiance spectra) of version V201 described here have long-term uniform quality and provide consistent retrieval accuracy even after the satellite system anomalies. In addition, we discuss the unique observation abilities of GOSAT made possible by an agile pointing mechanism, which allows for optimization of global sampling patterns.

  8. Comparison of nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, and SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Sinnhuber, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Urban, J.; Pérot, K.; Walker, K. A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (60 to 150 km) from four instruments: ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, and SMR. We use the daily zonal mean data in that altitude range for the years 2004-2010 (ACE-FTS), 2005-2012 (MIPAS), 2008-2012 (SCIAMACHY), and 2003-2012 (SMR). We first compare the data qualitatively with respect to the morphology, focussing on the major features, and then compare the time series directly and quantitatively. In three geographical regions, we compare the vertical density profiles on coincident measurement days. Since none of the instruments delivers continuous daily measurements in this altitude region, we carried out a multi-linear regression analysis. This regression analysis considers annual and semi-annual variability in form of harmonic terms and inter-annual variability by responding linearly to the solar Lyman-α radiation index and the geomagnetic Kp index. This analysis helps to find similarities and differences in the individual data sets with respect to the inter-annual variations caused by geomagnetic and solar variability. We find that the data sets are consistent and that they only disagree on minor aspects. SMR and ACE-FTS deliver the longest time series in the mesosphere and they both agree remarkably well. The shorter time series from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY also agree with them where they overlap. The data agree within ten to twenty percent when the number densities are large, but they can differ by 50 to 100% in some cases.

  9. Upper troposphere and stratosphere distribution of hydrocarbon species in ACE-FTS measurements and GEOS-Chem simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Walker, Kaley A.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Jones, Ashley; Sheese, Patrick E.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Manney, Gloria L.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of carbon-containing species, referred to herein as "hydrocarbons", are important components needed for describing and understanding the influence of natural and anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric chemistry. Analysis of the global pattern of hydrocarbons contributes to our understanding of the influence of regional and seasonal variation in air pollution and natural fire events. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) has monitored trace gases in the upper troposphere and stratosphere based on solar occultation measurements for more than ten years. In this study, we investigate the global pattern of seven "hydrocarbon" species (CO, C2H6, C2H2, HCN, H2CO, CH3OH, and HCOOH) and OCS using the ACE-FTS version 3.5 dataset from 2004 to 2013. All hydrocarbons show strong seasonal variation and regional differences, but the detailed pattern differs according to the speciation of the hydrocarbons. For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, CO, C2H6, and C2H2 show the highest mixing ratios in winter, but high CH3OH and HCOOH appear in summer. In the Southern hemisphere, H2CO, HCN, and HCOOH show high mixing ratios in springtime. These patterns indicate the impact of different emission sources including fuel combustion, wildfire emission, and chemical production. By calculating correlations with CO, these results can provide useful information to characterize each hydrocarbon emission. The ACE-FTS measurements have also been compared with GEOS-Chem output to examine the model performance and spatiotemporal patterns in the simulations.

  10. In vivo structure of the E. coli FtsZ-ring revealed by photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM).

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo; Huang, Tao; Buss, Jackson; Coltharp, Carla; Hensel, Zach; Xiao, Jie

    2010-09-13

    The FtsZ protein, a tubulin-like GTPase, plays a pivotal role in prokaryotic cell division. In vivo it localizes to the midcell and assembles into a ring-like structure-the Z-ring. The Z-ring serves as an essential scaffold to recruit all other division proteins and generates contractile force for cytokinesis, but its supramolecular structure remains unknown. Electron microscopy (EM) has been unsuccessful in detecting the Z-ring due to the dense cytoplasm of bacterial cells, and conventional fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) has only provided images with limited spatial resolution (200-300 nm) due to the diffraction of light. Hence, given the small sizes of bacteria cells, identifying the in vivo structure of the Z-ring presents a substantial challenge. Here, we used photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), a single molecule-based super-resolution imaging technique, to characterize the in vivo structure of the Z-ring in E. coli. We achieved a spatial resolution of ∼35 nm and discovered that in addition to the expected ring-like conformation, the Z-ring of E. coli adopts a novel compressed helical conformation with variable helical length and pitch. We measured the thickness of the Z-ring to be ∼110 nm and the packing density of FtsZ molecules inside the Z-ring to be greater than what is expected for a single-layered flat ribbon configuration. Our results strongly suggest that the Z-ring is composed of a loose bundle of FtsZ protofilaments that randomly overlap with each other in both longitudinal and radial directions of the cell. Our results provide significant insight into the spatial organization of the Z-ring and open the door for further investigations of structure-function relationships and cell cycle-dependent regulation of the Z-ring.

  11. Characterization and correction of non-linearity effect on oxygen spectra of TANSO-FTS onboard GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, H.; Frankenberg, C.; Crisp, D.; kuze, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) collects high spectral resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the molecular oxygen (O2) A-band near 760 nm, the carbon dioxide (CO2) bands near 1600 and 2060 nm, and the methane (CH4) band near 1660 nm. The O2 measurements are used to estimate the surface pressure and the dry air column, which are used to define the column-averaged CO2 and CH4 dry air mole fractions, XCO2 and XCH4. O2 measurements are ideal for this application because the O2 dry air mole fraction is almost constant and well known. However, systematic errors in the O2 measurements can introduce biases in the XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals from TANSO-FTS. For example, 1% overestimate of the O2 column retrievals introduced a 10 hPa high bias in surface pressure and a 4 hPa low bias in XCO2 in early retrievals. This near-global bias has been traced to uncertainties in the O2 A-band absorption cross sections. Other spatially-varying O2 errors have been traced to uncertainties in the calibration of the TANSO-FTS A-band channel. For example, non-linearity in the A-band channel response introduces errors in the depths of both O2 lines and solar Fraunhofer lines. There are three possible sources of non-linearity: detector, analogue circuit (amplifier and electric filters), and analogue to digital converter (ADC). Observations acquired with the flight instrument and laboratory experiments with TANSO-FTS engineering model (EM) is being used to discriminate and correct these errors. The EM tests have largely vindicated the silicon photo-diode detector, but show that the non-linearity of the analogue circuit and ADC is almost identical to that seen in data acquired by the on-orbit flight model. We have developed and applied a correction to the measured interferograms from the flight instrument and confirmed it validity by showing that the Fraunhofer

  12. Validation of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR UTLS CO2 data (Version 1.0) using CONTRAIL measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, N.; Kimoto, S.; Sugimura, R.; Imasu, R.; Kawakami, S.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsueda, H.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal infrared (TIR) band of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been observing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in several atmospheric layers since its launch. This study compared TANSO-FTS TIR V1.0 CO2 data and CO2 data obtained in the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) project in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), where the TIR band of TANSO-FTS is most sensitive to CO2 concentrations, to validate the quality of the TIR V1.0 UTLS CO2 data from 287 to 162 hPa. From a comparison made during flights between Tokyo and Sydney, the averages of the TIR upper atmospheric CO2 data agreed well with the averages of the data obtained by the CONTRAIL Continuous CO2 Measuring Experiment (CME) within 0.1 % for all of the seasons in the Southern Hemisphere. The results of a comparison for all of the eight airline routes showed that the agreement between the TIR and CONTRAIL CO2 data was within 0.5 % on average in the Northern Hemisphere, which was better than the agreement between a priori and CONTRAIL CO2 data. The quality of TIR lower stratospheric CO2 data depends largely on the information content, and therefore has a seasonal dependence. In high latitudes, TIR V1.0 lower stratospheric CO2 data are only valid in the summer. The magnitude of bias in the TIR upper atmospheric CO2 data did not have a clear longitudinal dependence. The comparison results for flights in northern low and middle latitudes showed that the agreement between TIR and CONTRAIL CO2 data in the upper troposphere was worse in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter. This could be attributed to a larger negative bias in the upper atmospheric a priori CO2 data in the spring and summer and a seasonal dependence of spectral bias in TANSO-FTS TIR Level 1B (L1B) radiance data. The negative bias in northern

  13. ACE-FTS and MIPAS observations of phosgene (COCl2) and comparisons with SLIMCAT chemical transport model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Moore, David; Boone, Christopher; Bernath, Peter; Hossaini, Ryan

    2017-04-01

    The majority of chlorine in the atmosphere has arisen from anthropogenic emissions of 'organic' species such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Due to their long lifetimes, many of these species reach the stratosphere where they break down, liberating chlorine which catalyses the destruction of ozone. The principal degradation products of Cl-containing organic species are carbonyl chloride (phosgene, COCl2), carbonyl chloride fluoride (COClF), and hydrogen chloride (HCl). Of these, phosgene is probably the most notorious, having been used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In the lower stratosphere, where the phosgene mixing ratios peak, the principal sources are the photolysis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and, to a lesser extent, methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3). Smaller contributions arise from very short-lived substances such as CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and C2Cl4. Due to the success of the Montreal Protocol in phasing out the use of CCl4 and CH3CCl3, the abundance of phosgene continues to fall. Observing and understanding phosgene in the stratosphere helps us better understand the chlorine budget, and particularly the atmospheric removal of CCl4, which has attracted particular interest recently on account of the inconsistency between observations of its abundance and estimated sources and sinks. This work presents global distributions and trends of COCl2 using data from two satellite limb instruments: the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). The ACE-FTS instrument, on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22) and CCl4, and the chlorine 'product' gases COCl2

  14. Evaluation of Silica-Supported Metal and Metal Phosphide Nanoparticle Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol Under Ex Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Griffin, Michael B.; Baddour, Frederick G.; Habas, Susan E.; ...

    2015-09-30

    A series of metal and metal phosphide catalysts were investigated for the hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol under ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) conditions (350 °C, 0.5 MPa, 12 H2:1 guaiacol, weight hourly space velocity 5 h$-$1). Ligand-capped Ni, Pt, Rh, Ni2P, and Rh2P nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using solution-phase synthesis techniques and dispersed on a silica support. For the metal phosphide NP-catalysts, a synthetic route that relies on the decomposition of a single molecular precursor was employed. The reactivity of the NP-catalysts was compared to a series of reference materials including Ni/SiO2 and Pt/SiO2 prepared using incipient wetness (IW) impregnationmore » and a commercial (com) Pt/SiO2 catalyst. The NP-Ni/SiO2 catalyst exhibited the largest reduction in the oxygen mol% of the organic phase and outperformed the IW-Ni/SiO2 material. Although it was less active for guaiacol conversion than NP-Ni/SiO2, NP-Rh2P/SiO2 demonstrated the largest production of completely deoxygenated products and the highest selectivity to anisole, benzene, and cyclohexane, suggesting that it is a promising catalyst for deoxygenation of aryl-OH bonds. Finally, the com-Pt/SiO2 and IW-Pt/SiO2 catalyst exhibited the highest normalized rate of guaiacol conversion per m2 and per gram of active phase, respectively, but did not produce any completely deoxygenated products.« less

  15. Evaluation of Silica-Supported Metal and Metal Phosphide Nanoparticle Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol Under Ex Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Michael B.; Baddour, Frederick G.; Habas, Susan E.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Schaidle, Joshua A.

    2015-09-30

    A series of metal and metal phosphide catalysts were investigated for the hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol under ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) conditions (350 °C, 0.5 MPa, 12 H2:1 guaiacol, weight hourly space velocity 5 h$-$1). Ligand-capped Ni, Pt, Rh, Ni2P, and Rh2P nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using solution-phase synthesis techniques and dispersed on a silica support. For the metal phosphide NP-catalysts, a synthetic route that relies on the decomposition of a single molecular precursor was employed. The reactivity of the NP-catalysts was compared to a series of reference materials including Ni/SiO2 and Pt/SiO2 prepared using incipient wetness (IW) impregnation and a commercial (com) Pt/SiO2 catalyst. The NP-Ni/SiO2 catalyst exhibited the largest reduction in the oxygen mol% of the organic phase and outperformed the IW-Ni/SiO2 material. Although it was less active for guaiacol conversion than NP-Ni/SiO2, NP-Rh2P/SiO2 demonstrated the largest production of completely deoxygenated products and the highest selectivity to anisole, benzene, and cyclohexane, suggesting that it is a promising catalyst for deoxygenation of aryl-OH bonds. Finally, the com-Pt/SiO2 and IW-Pt/SiO2 catalyst exhibited the highest normalized rate of guaiacol conversion per m2 and per gram of active phase, respectively, but did not produce any completely deoxygenated products.

  16. N-alkyl functionalised expanded ring N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of rhodium(I) and iridium(I): structural investigations and preliminary catalytic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dunsford, Jay J; Tromp, Dorette S; Cavell, Kingsley J; Elsevier, Cornelis J; Kariuki, Benson M

    2013-05-28

    A series of new N-alkyl functionalised 6- and 7-membered expanded ring N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) pro-ligands 3-6 and their corresponding complexes of rhodium(I) and iridium(I), [M(NHC)(COD)Cl] 7-14 and [M(NHC)(CO)2Cl] 15-22 are described. The complexes have been characterised by (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR, mass spectrometry, IR and X-ray diffraction. It is noted from X-ray diffraction studies that the N-alkyl substituents are found to orientate themselves away from the metal centre due to unfavourable steric interactions resulting in low percent buried volume (%V(bur)) values in the solid state. The heterocycle ring size is also found to dictate the spatial orientation of the N-alkyl substituents in the neopentyl functionalised derivatives 10 and 14. The 7-membered derivative 14 allows for a conformational 'twist' of the heterocycle ring with the N-alkyl substituents adopting a mutually trans configuration with respect to each other, while the more rigid 6-membered system 10 does not allow for this conformational 'twist' and consequently the N-alkyl substituents adopt a mutually cis configuration. The σ-donor function of this new class of expanded ring NHC ligand has also been probed by measured IR stretching frequencies of the [M(NHC)(CO)2Cl] complexes 15-22. A preliminary catalytic survey of the hydrogenation of functionalised alkenes with molecular hydrogen under mild conditions has also been undertaken with complex , affording an insight into the application of large ring NHC ancillary ligands bearing N-alkyl substituents in hydrogenation transformations.

  17. GOSAT/TANSO-FTS Measurement of Volcanic and Geothermal CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    2010-05-01

    volcanic CO2 anomalies using GOSAT and correlation with Aura/OMI, AIRS, and ASTER determined SO2 fluxes and ground based monitoring of CO2 and other geophysical and geochemical parameters. This will provide the ground work for future higher spatial resolution satellite missions. This is a joint effort from two GOSAT-IBUKI data application projects: "Satellite-Borne Quantification of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Volcanoes and Geothermal Areas" (PI Schwandner), and "Application of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS to the Measurement of Volcanic CO2 Emissions" (PI Carn).

  18. 3D-SIM super resolution microscopy reveals a bead-like arrangement for FtsZ and the division machinery: implications for triggering cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Michael P; Liew, Andrew T F; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Monahan, Leigh G; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ is a tubulin-like GTPase that is the major cytoskeletal protein in bacterial cell division. It polymerizes into a ring, called the Z ring, at the division site and acts as a scaffold to recruit other division proteins to this site as well as providing a contractile force for cytokinesis. To understand how FtsZ performs these functions, the in vivo architecture of the Z ring needs to be established, as well as how this structure constricts to enable cytokinesis. Conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy depicts the Z ring as a continuous structure of uniform density. Here we use a form of super resolution microscopy, known as 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM), to examine the architecture of the Z ring in cells of two Gram-positive organisms that have different cell shapes: the rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis and the coccoid Staphylococcus aureus. We show that in both organisms the Z ring is composed of a heterogeneous distribution of FtsZ. In addition, gaps of fluorescence were evident, which suggest that it is a discontinuous structure. Time-lapse studies using an advanced form of fast live 3D-SIM (Blaze) support a model of FtsZ localization within the Z ring that is dynamic and remains distributed in a heterogeneous manner. However, FtsZ dynamics alone do not trigger the constriction of the Z ring to allow cytokinesis. Lastly, we visualize other components of the divisome and show that they also adopt a bead-like localization pattern at the future division site. Our data lead us to propose that FtsZ guides the divisome to adopt a similar localization pattern to ensure Z ring constriction only proceeds following the assembly of a mature divisome.

  19. 3D-SIM Super Resolution Microscopy Reveals a Bead-Like Arrangement for FtsZ and the Division Machinery: Implications for Triggering Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Michael P.; Liew, Andrew T. F.; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Monahan, Leigh G.; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    FtsZ is a tubulin-like GTPase that is the major cytoskeletal protein in bacterial cell division. It polymerizes into a ring, called the Z ring, at the division site and acts as a scaffold to recruit other division proteins to this site as well as providing a contractile force for cytokinesis. To understand how FtsZ performs these functions, the in vivo architecture of the Z ring needs to be established, as well as how this structure constricts to enable cytokinesis. Conventional wide-field fluorescence microscopy depicts the Z ring as a continuous structure of uniform density. Here we use a form of super resolution microscopy, known as 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM), to examine the architecture of the Z ring in cells of two Gram-positive organisms that have different cell shapes: the rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis and the coccoid Staphylococcus aureus. We show that in both organisms the Z ring is composed of a heterogeneous distribution of FtsZ. In addition, gaps of fluorescence were evident, which suggest that it is a discontinuous structure. Time-lapse studies using an advanced form of fast live 3D-SIM (Blaze) support a model of FtsZ localization within the Z ring that is dynamic and remains distributed in a heterogeneous manner. However, FtsZ dynamics alone do not trigger the constriction of the Z ring to allow cytokinesis. Lastly, we visualize other components of the divisome and show that they also adopt a bead-like localization pattern at the future division site. Our data lead us to propose that FtsZ guides the divisome to adopt a similar localization pattern to ensure Z ring constriction only proceeds following the assembly of a mature divisome. PMID:22984350

  20. Three Years of CARVE-FTS Observations of CO2, CH4, and CO in the Alaskan Arctic: Status Quo and Comparison with Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, T. P.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is an aircraft-based Earth Venture 1 mission to study the carbon balance of the Alaskan Arctic ecosystem, with a particular focus on carbon release from melting permafrost. Operating from its base in Fairbanks, AK, the CARVE aircraft covers a range of principle flight paths in the Alaskan interior, the Yukon River valley, and the northern Alaska coast around Barrow and Dead Horse. Flight paths are chosen to maximize ecosystem variability and cover burn-recovery/regrowth sequences. CARVE observations cover the Arctic Spring/Summer/Fall seasons, with multiple flights per season and principle flight path. Science operations started in 05/2012 and are currently envisaged to continue until 2015. The CARVE suite of instruments includes flask measurements, in situ gas analyzers for CO2, CH4 and CO observations, and a three-band polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for column measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, their interfering species (e.g., H2O), and O2. The FTS covers the spectral regions of 4,200-4,900 cm-1 (CH4, CO), 5,800-6,400 cm-1 (CO2), and 12,900-13,200 cm-1 (O2), with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. Aircraft-based FTS science observations in Alaska have been performed since 23-05-2012. First-version data products from all CARVE instruments derived from observations during the 2012 campaign were publicly released earlier in 2013. The FTS has performed well during flight conditions, particularly with respect to vibration damping. We present results from FTS column observations of CO2, CH4, and CO, observed during the 2012, 2013, and 2014 campaigns, including comparisons of CARVE FTS measurements with satellite observations of CO2 from TANSO/GOSAT retrieved by JPL/ACOS, and MOPITT CO.

  1. Control of ftsZ Expression, Cell Division, and Glutamine Metabolism in Luria-Bertani Medium by the Alarmone ppGpp in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Bradford S.; Court, Donald L.

    1998-01-01

    Inactivation of transcription factor ς54, encoded by rpoN (glnF), restores high-temperature growth in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium to strains containing the heat-sensitive cell division mutation ftsZ84. Mutational defects in three other genes involved in general nitrogen control (glnD, glnG, and glnL) also suppress lethal filamentation. Since addition of glutamine to LB medium fully blocks suppression by each mutation, the underlying cause of suppression likely derives from a stringent response to the limitation of glutamine. This model is supported by several observations. The glnL mutation requires RelA-directed synthesis of the nutrient alarmone ppGpp to suppress filamentation. Artificially elevated levels of ppGpp suppress ftsZ84, as do RNA polymerase mutations that reproduce global effects of the ppGpp-induced state. Both the glnF null mutation and an elevated copy number of the relA gene similarly affect transcription from the upstream (pQ) promoters of the ftsQAZ operon, and both of these genetic conditions increase the steady-state level of the FtsZ84 protein. Physiological suppression of ftsZ84 by a high salt concentration was also shown to involve RelA. Additionally, we found that the growth of a glnF or glnD strain on LB medium depends on RelA or supplemental glutamine in the absence of RelA function. These data expand the roles for ppGpp in the regulation of glutamine metabolism and the expression of FtsZ during cell division. PMID:9495742

  2. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Absil, R.P.; Huss, A. Jr.; McHale, W.D.; Partridge, R.D.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a catalytic reforming process which comprises contacting a naphtha range feed with a low acidity extrudate comprising an intermediate and/or a large pore acidic zeolite bound with a low acidity refractory oxide under reforming conditions to provide a reaction product of increased aromatic content, the extrudate having been prepared with at least an extrusion-facilitating amount of a low acidity refractory oxide in colloidal form and containing at least one metal species selected from the platinum group metals.

  3. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOEpatents

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A cataly